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1

India: Gujarat  

article title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake   ... fountaining from the Earth. These effects, referred to as dewatering, can result from intense ground shaking by strong earthquakes in ... with shallow water tables. Scientists initially observed dewatering in parts of the Rann of Kutch (a large salt pan in northern ...

2013-04-16

2

Exploring land surface temperature earthquake precursors: A focus on the Gujarat (India) earthquake of 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many reports of land surface temperature (LST) anomalies appearing prior to large earthquakes. A number of methods have been applied in hindcast mode to identify these anomalies, using infrared datasets collected from Earth-orbiting remote sensing satellites. Here we examine three such methods and apply them to six years (2001-2006) of MODIS LST data collected over the region of the 2001 Gujarat (India) earthquake, which previous studies have identified as a site exhibiting possible pre-seismic and post-seismic thermal anomalies. Methods 1 and 2 use an LST differencing technique, while Method 3, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST), has been developed specifically for the identification of thermal anomalies within spatio-temporal datasets. In relation to the Gujarat Earthquake, results from Methods 1 and 2 (LST differencing) indicate that changes previously reported to be potential precursory thermal ‘anomalies’ appear instead to occur within the range of normal thermal variability. Results obtained with Method 3 (RST) do appear to show significant ‘anomalies’ around the time of the earthquake, but we find these to be related to positive biases caused by the presence of MODIS LST data gaps, attributable to cloud cover and mosaicing of neighboring orbits of data. Currently, therefore, we find no convincing evidence of LST precursors to the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, and urge care in the use of approaches aimed at identifying such seismic thermal anomalies.

Blackett, Matthew; Wooster, Martin J.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2011-08-01

3

Stochastic finite fault modelling of M w 4.8 earthquake in Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modified stochastic finite fault modelling technique based on dynamic corner frequency has been used to simulate the strong ground motions of M w 4.8 earthquake in the Kachchh region of Gujarat, India. The accelerograms have been simulated for 14 strong motion accelerographs sites (11 sites in Kachchh and three sites in Saurashtra) where the earthquake has been recorded. The region-specific source, attenuation and generic site parameters, which are derived from recordings of small to moderate earthquakes, have been used for the simulations. The main characteristics of the simulated accelerograms, comprised of peak ground acceleration (pga), duration, Fourier and response spectra, predominant period, are in general in good agreement with those of observed ones at most of the sites. The rate of decay of simulated pga values with distance is found to be similar with that of observed values. The successful modelling of the empirical accelerograms indicates that the method can be used to prepare wide range of scenarios based on simulation which provide the information useful for evaluating and mitigating the seismic hazard in the region.

Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Dinesh; Choudhury, Pallabee; Yadav, R. B. S.

2012-07-01

4

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

5

Crustal heterogeneities beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake, Gujarat, India source zone: Seismological evidence for neo-tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1st decade of the 21st century, the study area of Talala, Saurashtra of western India witnessed three damaging earthquakes of moderate magnitude, year 2007 [Mw 5.0; Mw 4.8] and in the year 2011 [Mw 5.1] that generated public panic in the region. The last damaging moderate earthquake of the 20th October 2011 in Talala region (21.09°N;70.45°E), located at about 200 km south to the devastating 2001 Bhuj (23.412°N, 70.232°E) mainshock (Mw 7.6), jolted the entire Saurashtra region of Gujarat. A long series of aftershocks followed hereafter, recorded at nine seismograph/accelerograph stations. Hypocenters of aftershocks were relocated accurately using absolute and relative travel time (double-difference) method. In this study, we, for the first time, determined 3-D tomographic images of the upper crust beneath the 2011 Talala earthquake source zone by inverting about 1135 P and 1125 S wave arrival time data. Estimates of seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structures offer a reliable interpretation of crustal heterogeneities and their bearing on geneses of moderate earthquakes and their aftershock sequences beneath the source zone. It is found that the 2011 Talala mainshock hypocenter depth (6 km) is located near the boundary of the low and high velocity (Vp, Vs) and the source zone is associated with low-? anomalies guarded by the prominent high-? anomalies along the active fault zone having strike-slip motion beneath the earthquake source zone. The pattern of distribution of (Vp, Vs, ?) and its association with occurrences of aftershocks provide seismological evidence for the neo-tectonics in the region having left lateral strike-slip motion of the fault.

Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Rastogi, B. K.; Kumar, Santosh

2013-01-01

6

Seismogenesis of the lower crustal intraplate earthquakes occurring in Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large intraplate continental earthquakes like the 1811-12 New Madrid (M w ? 8.0) and the 2001 Bhuj (Mw7.7) were highly destructive because they occurred in strong crust, but the mechanisms underlying their seismogenesis are not understood. Here we show, using local earthquake velocity tomography, and joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocity dispersion that the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of western India is far more complex than hitherto known through previous studies. A new image of the crust and underlying mantle lithosphere indicates the presence of a 18-km thick high velocity (Vp: 7.15-8.11 km/s) differentiated crustal and mantle magmatic layer above a hot and thin lithosphere (only 70 km) in the epicentral region of 2001 Bhuj earthquake. This magmatic layer begins at the depth of 24 km and continues down to 42 km depth. Below this region, brittle-ductile transition reaches as deep as the Moho (˜34 km) due to the possible presence of olivine rich mafic magma. Our 1-D velocity structure envisages an initial phase of plume activity (Deccan plume at 65 m.y. ago) resulting in basaltic magma in the eclogitic layers at sub-lithospheric levels, wherein they were subjected to crystallization under ultra-high pressure conditions. Our study also delineates an updoming of Moho (˜4-7 km) as well as asthenosphere (˜6-10 km) below the Kachchh rift zone relative to surrounding areas, suggesting the presence of a confined body of partial melts below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Restructuring of this warm and thin lithosphere may have been caused due to rifting (at 184 and 88 m.y. ago) and tholeiitic and alkalic volcanism related to the Deccan Traps K/T boundary event (at 65 m.y. ago). Recent study of isotopic ratios proposed that the alkalic basalts found in Kachchh are generated from a CO 2 rich lherzolite partial melts in the asthenosphere that ascended along deep lithospheric rift faults into the lithosphere. It appears that such kind of crust-mantle structure, deepening of brittle-ductile transition and a high input of volatiles containing CO 2 emanating from mantle control the seismogenesis of lower crustal earthquakes in the Kachchh continental rift zone.

Mandal, Prantik; Pandey, O. P.

2011-08-01

7

Crustal shear-wave splitting in the epicentral zone of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here crustal shear-wave anisotropy, ranging from 1% to 10.76% with an average of 2.4% in the aftershock zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, Gujarat, India, from a study of leading shear-wave polarization directions (LPSDs), which vary on average from NNW-SSE to E-W with a delay of 0.07-0.14 s. The delays in the NNW-SSE to NE-SW directions observed at seven stations, near the seismogenic fault, suggest cracks parallel to the direction of the maximum horizontal regional compressional stress prevailing in the region, suggesting a dilatancy-induced anisotropy resulting from approximately stress-aligned parallel vertical micro-cracks. In contrast, the LPSDs at Ramvav, Rapar and Vondh stations, away from the seismogenic fault, are fault parallel, approximately E-W and almost orthogonal to the stress-aligned polarizations inferred elsewhere. The maximum average time delay of 0.14 s is observed at Lodai, where the fast polarization direction is found to be N338°W. This has been observed from anisotropic poro-elastic (APE) modelling and observations that these are 90° flips in shear-wave polarization, resulting from propagation through micro-cracks containing fluids at critically high pore-fluid pressure surrounding the hypocenter of the 2001 mainshock. The presence of high pore-fluid pressure in the seismogenic fault zone could also explain the observed scatter in shear-wave time delays. Further, the coincidence of the N-S trending intrusive bodies (as inferred from tomographic studies in the area) with the N-S direction of regional maximum horizontal compressional stress supports the interpretation of stress-aligned vertical extensive-dilatant anisotropic (EDA) cracks. The depth distribution of the estimated anisotropy (1-10.76%), b-values and stress drop values suggests an increase at 18-30 km depths, which could be attributed to high pore-fluid pressures resulting from a fluid-filled fractured rock matrix or open micro-cracks (characterized by high crack density and high porosity) coinciding with a low velocity zone (at 18-30 km depths) as delineated from tomographic studies in the area.

Mandal, Prantik

2009-05-01

8

Simultaneous Estimation of Earthquake Source Parameters and Site Response from Inversion of Strong Motion Network Data in Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inversion of horizontal components of S-wave spectral data in the frequency range 0.1-10.0 Hz has been carried out to estimate simultaneously the source spectra of 38 aftershocks (Mw 2.93-5.32) of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) and site response at 18 strong motion sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India. The spatial variation of site response (SR) in the region has been studied by averaging the SR values obtained from the inversion in two frequency bands; 0.2-1.8 Hz and 3.0-7.0 Hz, respectively. In 0.2-1.8 Hz frequency band, the high SR values are observed in the southern part of the Kachchh Mainland Fault that had suffered extensively during the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. However, for 3.0-7.0 Hz band, the area of Jurassic and Quaternary Formations show predominantly high SR. The source spectral data obtained from the inversion were used to estimate various source parameters namely, the seismic moment, stress drop, corner frequency and radius of source rupture by using an iterative least squares inversion approach based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. It has been observed that the seismic moment and radius of rupture from 38 aftershocks vary between 3.1x10^{13} to 2.0x10^{17} Nm and 226 to 889 m, respectively. The stress drop values from these aftershocks are found to vary from 0.11 to 7.44 MPa. A significant scatter of stress drop values has been noticed in case of larger aftershocks while for smaller magnitude events, it varies proportionally with the seismic moment. The regression analysis between seismic moment and radius of rupture indicates a break in linear scaling around 10^{15.3} Nm. The seismic moment of these aftershocks found to be proportional to the corner frequency, which is consistent for earthquakes with such short rupture length.

Dutta, U.; Mandal, P.

2010-12-01

9

Attenuation characteristics of coda waves in Mainland Gujarat (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of Mainland Gujarat (India) have been investigated in the present study. The broadband waveforms of 53 local earthquakes (Mw 1.1-3.3) having focal depths in the 6.0-33.6 km range recorded at five stations of Mainland Gujarat region has been used for the analysis. The frequency-dependent relationships (Q = Q0fn) for coda-Q (Qc) and dependency of coda-Q on lapse time windows have been determined for the said region. The average lapse time dependent coda-Q relations estimated for the region are: Qc = (87 ± 13)f(1.01 ± 0.06) (lapse time: 30 s), Qc = (112 ± 20)f(0.94 ± 0.08) (lapse time: 40 s) and Qc = (120 ± 22)f(0.76 ± 0.07) (lapse time: 50 s). The increase in Qc values with lapse time shows the depth dependence of Qc as longer lapse time windows will sample larger area. The observed quality factor is strongly dependent on frequency and lapse time, which indicates that the upper lithosphere, is more heterogeneous and seismotectonically active, while the lower lithosphere is homogeneous and relatively less active. A comparison of the coda-Q estimated for Mainland Gujarat region with those of nearby Kachchh and Saurashtra regions shows that Mainland Gujarat region is more heterogeneous. The rate of decay of attenuation (Q-1) with frequency for the relations obtained here is found to be comparable with those of other regions of the world though the absolute values differ. The obtained relations are expected to be useful for the estimation of source parameters of the earthquakes in the Mainland Gujarat region where no such relations were available earlier. These relations are also important for the simulation of earthquake strong ground motions in the region.

Gupta, Arun K.; Sutar, Anup K.; Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Santosh; Rastogi, B. K.

2012-03-01

10

Relocation of aftershocks of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake: A new insight into seismotectonics of the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of an anomalous crust-mantle structure beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region, double-difference relocations of 1402 aftershocks of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake were determined, using an improved 1D velocity model constructed from 3D velocity tomograms based on data from 10 to 58 three-component seismograph stations. This clearly delineated four major tectonic features: (i) south-dipping north Wagad fault (NWF), (ii and iii) south-dipping south Wagad faults 1 and 2 (SWF 1, SWF 2), and (iv) a northeast dipping transverse fault (ITF), which is a new find. The relocated aftershocks correlate satisfactorily with the geologically mapped and inferred faults in the epicentral region. The relocated focal depths delineate a marked variation to the tune of 12 km in the brittle-ductile transition depths beneath the central aftershock zone that could be attributed to a lateral variation in crustal composition (more or less mafic) or in the level of fracturing across the fault zone. A fault intersection between the NWF and ITF has been clearly mapped in the 10-20 km depth range beneath the central aftershock zone. It is inferred that large intraplate stresses associated with the fault intersection, deepening of the brittle-ductile transition to a depth of 34 km due to the presence of mafic/ultramafic material in the crust-mantle transition zone, and the presence of aqueous fluids (released during the metamorphic process of eclogitisation of lower crustal olivine-rich rocks) and volatile CO 2 at the hypocentral depths, might have resulted in generating the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence covering the entire lower crust.

Mandal, Prantik; Pandey, O. P.

2010-05-01

11

Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areas—Jamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)—have been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5-3.5) recorded at six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband waveforms of 68 earthquakes (Mw 1.6-5) recorded at five stations of the Junagarh area have been used for the analysis. The estimated relations for the Junagarh area are: Q c = (158 ± 5)f(0.99±0.04) (lapse time : 20 s), Q c = (170 ± 4.4)f(0.97±0.02) (lapse time : 30 s) and Q c = (229 ± 6.6)f(0.94±0.03) (lapse time : 40 s) and for the Jamnagar area are: Q c = (178 ± 3)f(0.95±0.05) (lapse time : 20 s), Q c = (224 ± 6)f(0.98±0.06) (lapse time : 30 s) and Q c = (282 ± 7)f(0.91±0.03) (lapse time : 40 s). These are the first estimates for the areas under consideration. The Junagarh area appears to be more attenuative as compared to the Jamnagar area. The increase in Q c values with lapse time found here for both the areas show the depth dependence of Q c as longer lapse time windows will sample larger area. The rate of decay of attenuation ( Q -1) with frequency for the relations obtained here is found to be comparable with those of other regions of the world though the absolute values differ. A comparison of the coda-Q estimated for the Saurashtra region with those of the nearby Kachchh region shows that the Saurashtra region is less heterogeneous. The obtained relations are expected to be useful for the estimation of source parameters of the earthquakes in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat where no such relations were available earlier. These relations are also important for the simulation of earthquake strong ground motions in the region.

Sharma, Babita; Kumar, Dinesh; Teotia, S. S.; Rastogi, B. K.; Gupta, Arun K.; Prajapati, Srichand

2012-01-01

12

Ground-motion Attenuation Relation from Strong-motion Records of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj Earthquake Sequence (2001-2006), Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictive relations are developed for peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the engineering seismoscope (SRR) records of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake and 239 strong-motion records of 32 significant aftershocks of 3.1 ? Mw ? 5.6 at epicentral distances of 1 ? R ? 288 km. We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relation for peak horizontal acceleration in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat. This new analysis uses the Joyner-Boore’s method for a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. The resulting attenuation equation is, eqalign{ ln ({Y}) = -7.9527 + 1.4043 {M}_{{W}} - ln left( {{r}_{{jb}}2 + 19.822} right)^{1/2} - 0.0682 {S} ?{for} 3.1 { < M}_{{W}} le 7.7quad quad {std}. {dev}. left(? right): ± 0.8243, ?} where, Y is peak horizontal acceleration in g, Mw is moment magnitude, rjb is the closest distance to the surface projection of the fault rupture in kilometers, and S is a variable taking the values of 0 and 1 according to the local site geology. S is 0 for a rock site, and, S is 1 for a soil site. The relation differs from previous work in the improved reliability of input parameters and large numbers of strong-motion PGA data recorded at short distances (0-50 km) from the source. The relation is in demonstrable agreement with the recorded strong-ground motion data from earthquakes of Mw 3.5, 4.1, 4.5, 5.6, and 7.7. There are insufficient data from the Kachchh region to adequately judge the relation for the magnitude range 5.7 ? Mw ? 7.7. But, our ground-motion prediction model shows a reasonable correlation with the PGA data of the 29 March, 1999 Chamoli main shock (Mw 6.5), validating our ground-motion attenuation model for an Mw6.5 event. However, our ground-motion prediction shows no correlation with the PGA data of the 10 December, 1967 Koyna main shock (Mw 6.3). Our ground-motion predictions show more scatter in estimated residual for the distance range (0-30 km), which could be due to the amplification/noise at near stations situated in the Kachchh sedimentary basin. We also noticed smaller residuals for the distance range (30-300 km), which could be due to less amplification/noise at sites distant from the Kachchh basin. However, the observed less residuals for the longer distance range (100-300 km) are less reliable due to the lack of available PGA values in the same distance range.

Mandal, Prantik; Kumar, N.; Satyamurthy, C.; Raju, I. P.

2009-03-01

13

Causes of Neonatal Deaths among Tribal Women in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality among neonates has long been largely neglected by research in all developing nations of world including India. This\\u000a study aims to identify the primary and secondary causes of neonatal deaths among the tribes of Gujarat by retrospectively\\u000a analyzing 106 neonatal deaths that occurred during the year 2008 and 2009. The socio-economic, biological and traditional\\u000a newborn care practices impacting newborn

Baiju Dinesh Shah; Laxmi Kant Dwivedi

2011-01-01

14

A possible physical mechanism for the unusually long sequence of seismic activity following the 2001 Bhuj Mw7.7 earthquake, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2001 Bhuj earthquake took place in a region away from the active plate boundaries, which qualifies this earthquake to be a typical intraplate event that claimed a death toll of 20,000 people. The aftershock sequence of this earthquake is still continuing for the last eleven years, which makes this aftershock sequence as a unique intraplate earthquake sequence in the world. This sequence is being monitored by a close digital seismic network consisting of 5-12 three-component broadband seismographs and 10-20 accelerographs that led to a homogeneous earthquake catalog consisting of precise and accurate estimates of hypocentral and source parameters. This catalog enabled us to examine the evolution of this earthquake sequence. Our study reveals a few interconnected regularities in the rate of earthquake occurrence, b-values, fractal dimensions, stress drops, and the mean earthquake depth values. We observe that a slow decrease in background seismic activity and a number of bursts in seismic activity characterize the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence. We also notice that the background seismic activity is associated with a monotonic decrease in the mean earthquake depth values while the bursts in seismic activity are found to be associated with a decrease in fractal dimension, b-value and mean earthquake depth estimates, and an increase in stress drop values. We propose that these bursts in seismic activity are related to the episodes of break in deep fluid circulation in the direction of the Earth's surface. The effective background permeability of the mid-crust in the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region is evaluated to be about k ? 10- 13 m2 based on the estimates of changes in mean earthquake depth. Thus, we infer that seismogenesis of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence is probably connected with active deep fluid circulation underlying the Kachchh seismic zone.

Rodkin, Mikhail V.; Mandal, Prantik

2012-04-01

15

Attenuation of High Frequency P and S Waves in the Gujarat Region, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local earthquake waveforms recorded on broadband seismograph network of Institute of Seismological Research in Gujarat, India have been analyzed to understand the attenuation of high frequency (2-25 Hz) P and S waves in the region. The frequency dependent relationships for quality factors for P ( Q P) and S ( Q S) waves have been obtained using the spectral ratio method for three regions namely, Kachchh, Saurashtra and Mainland Gujarat. The earthquakes recorded at nine stations of Kachchh, five stations of Saurashtra and one station in mainland Gujarat have been used for this analysis. The estimated relations for average Q P and Q S are: Q P = (105 ± 2) f 0.82 ± 0.01, Q S = (74 ± 2) f 1.06 ± 0.01 for Kachchh region; Q P = (148 ± 2) f 0.92 ± 0.01, Q S = (149 ± 14) f 1.43 ± 0.05 for Saurashtra region and Q P = (163 ± 7) f 0.77 ± 0.03, Q S = (118 ± 34) f 0.65 ± 0.14 for mainland Gujarat region. The low Q (<200) and high exponent of f (>0.5) as obtained from present analysis indicate the predominant seismic activities in the region. The lowest Q values obtained for the Kachchh region implies that the area is relatively more attenuative and heterogeneous than other two regions. A comparison between Q S estimated in this study and coda Q ( Qc) previously reported by others for Kachchh region shows that Q C > Q S for the frequency range of interest showing the enrichment of coda waves and the importance of scattering attenuation to the attenuation of S waves in the Kachchh region infested with faults and fractures. The Q S/ Q P ratio is found to be less than 1 for Kachchh and Mainland Gujarat regions and close to unity for Saurashtra region. This reflects the difference in the geological composition of rocks in the regions. The frequency dependent relations developed in this study could be used for the estimation of earthquake source parameters as well as for simulating the strong earthquake ground motions in the region.

Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Dinesh; Rastogi, B. K.

2011-05-01

16

SRTM Radar Image with Color as Height: Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows the area around the January 26, 2001, earthquake in western India, the deadliest in the country's history with some 20,000 fatalities. The epicenter of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake was just to the left of the center of the image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the black area running from the lower left corner towards the center of the image. The city of Bhuj is in the yellow-toned area among the brown hills left of the image center and is the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the shaking of the earthquake. These hills reach up to 500 meters (1,500 feet) elevation. The city of Ahmedabad, capital of Gujarat state, is the radar-bright area next to the right side of the image. Several buildings in Ahmedabad were also destroyed by the earthquake. The dark blue areas around the center of the image and extending to the left side are low-lying salt flats called the Rann of Kachchh with the Little Rann just to the right of the image center. The bumpy area north of the Rann (green and yellow colors) is a large area of sand dunes in Pakistan. A branch of the Indus River used to flow through the area on the left side of this image, but it was diverted by a previous large earthquake that struck this area in 1819.

The annotated version of the image includes a 'beachball' that shows the location and slip direction of the January 26, 2001, earthquake from the Harvard Quick CMT catalog: http://www.seismology.harvard.edu/CMTsearch.html. [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations. This image is a mosaic of four SRTM swaths.

This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington DC.

Size: 450 by 300 kilometers (280 by 190 miles) Location: 23.5 deg. North lat., 70.5 deg. East lon. Orientation: North up Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: four days in February, 2000

2001-01-01

17

Crustal and lithospheric thinning beneath the seismogenic Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat (India): Its implications toward the generation of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution passive seismic experiment in the Kachchh rift zone of the western India has produced an excellent dataset of several thousands teleseismic events. From this network, 500 good teleseismic events recorded at 14 mobile broadband sites are used to estimate receiver functions (for the 30-310° back-azimuth ranges), which show a positive phase at 4.5-6.1 s delay time and a strong negative phase at 8.0-11.0 s. These phases have been modeled by a velocity increase at Moho (i.e. 34-43 km) and a velocity decrease at 62-92 km depth. The estimation of crustal and lithospheric thicknesses using the inversion of stacked radial receiver functions led to the delineation of a marked thinning of 3-7 km in crustal thickness and 6-14 km in lithospheric thickness beneath the central rift zone relative to the surrounding un-rifted parts of the Kachchh rift zone. On an average, the Kachchh region is characterized by a thin lithosphere of 75.9 ± 5.9 km. The marked velocity decrease associated with the lithosphere-asthenoshere boundary (LAB), observed over an area of 120 km × 80 km, and the isotropic study of xenoliths from Kachchh provides evidence for local asthenospheric updoming with pockets of partial melts of CO 2 rich lherzolite beneath the Kachchh seismic zone that might have caused by rifting episode (at 88 Ma) and the associated Deccan thermal-plume interaction (at 65 Ma) episodes. Thus, the coincidence of the area of the major aftershock activity and the Moho as well as asthenospheric upwarping beneath the central Kachchh rift zone suggests that these pockets of CO 2-rich lherzolite partial melts could perhaps provide a high input of volatiles containing CO 2 into the lower crust, which might contribute significantly in the seismo-genesis of continued aftershock activity in the region. It is also inferred that large stresses in the denser and stronger lower crust (at 14-34 km depths) induced by ongoing Banni upliftment, crustal intrusive, marked lateral variation in crustal thickness and related sub-crustal thermal anomaly play a key role in nucleating the lower crustal earthquakes beneath the Kachchh seismic zone.

Mandal, Prantik

2011-01-01

18

Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Petersen, M. D.; Rastogi, B. K.; Schweig, E. S.; Harmsen, S. C.; Gomberg, J. S.

2004-01-01

19

Hematological profile of sickle cell disease from South Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine hematological profile of sickle cell disease (SCD) from Surat, South Gujarat, India. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics and Sickle Cell Anemia Laboratory, Faculty of Pathology, Government Medical College, Surat, India, between July 2009 and December 2010. Patients included in this study were in their steady state for a long period of time without any symptoms related to SCD or other diseases which could affect the hematological parameters. Venous blood of all patients was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and hematological indices were measured. Thirty-three subjects homozygous in all were studied for their hematological parameters for sickle cell anemia. Moderate to severe anemia, low mean cell volume and high foetal hemoglobin dominate the hematological profile of SCD children.

Rao, Sanjeev Shyam; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Raghunath, S.V.; Shah, Vijay B.

2012-01-01

20

Current Neonatal Resuscitation Practices among Paediatricians in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Aim. We assessed neonatal resuscitation practices among paediatricians in Gujarat. Methods. Cross-sectional survey of 23 questions based on guidelines of Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) and Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK) was conducted using web-based tool. Questionnaire was developed and consensually validated by three neonatologists. Results. Total of 142 (21.2%) of 669 paediatricians of Gujarat, India, whose e-mail addresses were available, attempted the survey and, from them, 126 were eligible. Of these, 74 (58.7%) were trained in neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with mechanical ventilation facilities was available for 54% of respondents. Eighty-eight (69.8%) reported correct knowledge and practice regarding effective bag and mask ventilation (BMV) and chest compressions. Knowledge and practice about continuous positive airway pressure use in delivery room were reported in 18.3% and 30.2% reported use of room air for BMV during resuscitation. Suctioning oral cavity before delivery in meconium stained liquor was reported by 27.8% and 38.1% cut the cord after a minute of birth. Paediatricians with NRP training used appropriate method of tracheal suction in cases of nonvigorous newborns than those who were not trained. Conclusions. Contemporary knowledge about neonatal resuscitative practices in paediatricians is lacking and requires improvement. Web-based tools provided low response in this survey.

Bansal, Satvik C.; Nimbalkar, Archana S.; Patel, Dipen V.; Sethi, Ankur R.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M.

2014-01-01

21

Malaria in seasonal migrant population in Southern Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Malaria in migrant workers is always a major problem to control due to their temporary stay in shelters, and other operational constraints. Hence, a study was undertaken in brick kilns in Bharuch district, Gujarat state, India to study the problem of malaria in the work force. Mass blood surveys were carried out in 15 brick kilns. Blood slides were collected from both febrile and afebrile cases. Positive cases were treated as per the national drug policy and were followed up. Mosquito collections were carried out by pyrethrum spray collection in early morning hours. Human blood index and sporozoite rates were determined as per standard procedures. All age groups were found affected with malaria at brick kilns. Prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in ? 14 years of age-group as compared to adults. Post treatment follow up examination of patients revealed high malaria infection due to non-compliance of chloroquine. The appearance of parasitaemia among Plasmodium falciparum treated cases indicate the possibility of chloroquine resistance. The proportion of P. falciparum was >50% in migrant population. In stable population in villages, overall decline in malaria cases was observed in 2008-2010. The sporozoite rate of 4.2% in Anopheles culicifacies indicates active malaria transmission at brick kilns. The investigation demonstrated that suitable microclimatic conditions for malaria transmission exist in these areas during hottest period. The district health department should consider these factors in planning malaria surveillance and control. As current magnitude and diversity of population movements in rural as well as in urban areas are unprecedented, this issue is worthy of attention. PMID:22433894

Srivastava, H C; Chandrashekar, Pant; Kurien, G; Sreehari, U; Yadav, R S

2011-12-01

22

Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

23

Gandhi, Non-Cooperation, and Socio-Civic Education in Gujarat, India: Harnessing the Vernaculars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an interconnected, grounded understanding of how two Gandhian endeavours in the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India, make us rethink the notion of "education" in terms of civic and communal engagement. Drawing on local, vernacular ways of living, learning, being, reasoning, and believing--in this case Gujarati--I show how these…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2006-01-01

24

Ambiguities about English: Ideologies and Critical Practice in Vernacular-Medium College Classrooms in Gujarat, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Situated amid tertiary-level institutions in the city of Ahmedabad, in Gujarat, India, this article explores how particular ideologies countering English inform pedagogic choices made by language teachers teaching in "vernacular-medium" (VM) college classrooms. The ideologies under discussion are two linked "thought structures." The first, the…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2005-01-01

25

Written Textual Production and Consumption (WTPC) in Vernacular and English-Medium Settings in Gujarat, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sketches key facets in the larger socioeducational machinery that shapes the written textual production and consumption (WTPC) of English-medium (EM) and "vernacular-medium" (VM) students in Gujarat, India. Lays out ways in which articulator macro-structures align together to produce and shape conditions that privilege the WTPC of EM students over…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2003-01-01

26

Social Stratification and Mobility in a Rural Community (Mahi) in Gujarat, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing the interaction between factors that are stable and factors that initiate change re: promotion of social mobility or crystalization of existing social stratification, this paper presents a case study of Mahi, a rural village in Gujarat, India. Utilizing data derived from two field studies (1961-1962 and March 1967-June 1967), the stable…

Panchanadikar, K. C.; Panchanadikar, J.

27

Use of Seismotectonic Information for the Seismic Hazard Analysis for Surat City, Gujarat, India: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surat, the financial capital of Gujarat, India, is a mega city with a population exceeding five millions. The city falls under Zone III of the Seismic Zoning Map of India. After the devastating 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7, much attention is paid towards the seismic microzonation activity in the state of Gujarat. In this work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard for Surat City (21.170 N, 72.830 E) based on the probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard analysis. After collecting a catalogue of historical earthquakes in a 350 km radius around the city and after analyzing a database statistically, deterministic analysis has been carried out considering known tectonic sources; a further recurrence relationship for the control region is found out. Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were then carried out for the Surat region considering five seismotectonic sources selected from a deterministic approach. The final results of the present investigations are presented in the form of peak ground acceleration and response spectra at bed rock level considering the local site conditions. Rock level Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values at 0.01 s and 1.0 s corresponding to 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years have been calculated. Further Uniform Hazard Response Spectrum (UHRS) at rock level for 5% damping, and 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, were also developed for the city considering all site classes. These results can be directly used by engineers as basic inputs in earthquake-resistant design of structures in and around the city.

Thaker, T. P.; Rathod, Ganesh W.; Rao, K. S.; Gupta, K. K.

2012-01-01

28

Screening Azadirachta indica tree for enhancing azadirachtin and oil contents in dry areas of Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azadirachta indica seed samples were collected from four different agro-ecological regions (AERs) viz., AER-2, AER-4, AER-5A and AER-5B of Gujarat\\u000a state, India during 2000 to 2002 with an aim to assess variability in azadirachtin, oil and fatty acids content of the seeds\\u000a and assess correlation of these parameters with morphological characters. Azadirachtin, oil and fatty acids content indicated\\u000a significant (p?1

U. K. Tomar; G. Singh; N. Kaushik

2011-01-01

29

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of India's 2008 Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places in Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India’s Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY). A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat.

Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Waters, Hugh R; Arora, Monika; Varghese, Beena; Dave, Paresh; Modi, Bhavesh

2011-01-01

30

MODIS Land Surface Temperature Observations associated with the Gujarat Earthquake of 2001: A Statistical Analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of studies have claimed to have observed thermally manifested precursors to the Gujarat Earthquake of 2001. Many of these, however, have arguably examined insufficient quantities of data from which the "normal" conditions of the surface might be derived, and against which potentially anomalous observations might be compared. This work, in contrast, has analysed six-years of MODIS data to determine "normal" conditions of the surface at two differing spatial scales centred on the earthquake epicentre. These "normal" observations are compared with those of both the period of the earthquake, and those displayed throughout the whole six-year period, using statistically robust methods. This is with the aim of determining whether the observations at the time of the earthquake were, indeed, truly anomalous. Various statistical techniques were applied to the extracted data to assess whether the observations made were truly anomalous. The distribution characteristics of the in-scene datasets were also examined to determine whether there were any unique statistical characteristics in the surface data around the time of the earthquake. In terms of precursory observations, although peaks in LST (and other derived indices) were evident prior to the earthquake event, these were not shown to be statistically significant. In contrast, post-event peaks, particularly at the largest spatial scale of analysis (1500 km x 1501 km), were shown to be statistically anomalous. The cause of this post-event observation was hypothesised as being associated with post-event de-watering - an observation which has been widely associated with the earthquake event itself.

Blackett, M.; Wooster, M.; Malamud, B.

2009-04-01

31

Genome Sequence of Salt-Tolerant Bacillus safensis Strain VK, Isolated from Saline Desert Area of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Bacillus safensis strain VK was isolated from the rhizosphere of a cumin plant growing in the saline desert of Radhanpar, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 3.68-Mb draft genome sequence of B. safensis VK, which might provide information about the salt tolerance and genes encoding enzymes for the strain's plant growth-promoting potential. PMID:24009116

Kothari, V V; Kothari, R K; Kothari, C R; Bhatt, V D; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Vyas, B R M

2013-01-01

32

Trauma Reactions, Suffering, and Healing among Riot-Affected Internally Displaced Children of Gujarat, India: A Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 4,000 families of the Muslim community in the state of Gujarat in India have been facing internal displacement after a communal riot broke out in 2002. Many of them have also been facing bereavement and trauma due to loss of family members and\\/or sexual assault during the riot. Using innovative qualitative methods, this study explored the experiences of

Kumar Ravi Priya

2012-01-01

33

Ethnomedical and biomedical health care and healing practices among the Rathwa adivasi of Kadipani village, Gujarat State, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rathwa of Kadipani village are adivasi (original inhabitants, tribe) residing in a rural part of Gujarat State, India. Primarily farmers, the Rathwa live in an area where development-related projects, such as mineral mining and damming on the Narmada River, are increasingly impacting their livelihood, health status, and quality of life. The local economy is impacted by uncertainty regarding access

Margaret A Karnyski

2009-01-01

34

Study of Blood-transfusion Services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India  

PubMed Central

Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor.

Ramani, K.V.; Govil, Dipti

2009-01-01

35

Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

2014-01-01

36

Lead in paint and soil in Karnataka and Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Blood lead surveys in several areas of India have found very high percentages of children with elevated blood lead levels. Fifty-three percent of children under 12 years of age in a seven-city screening had blood lead levels equal to or greater than 10 microg/dL, the level currently considered elevated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A number of these surveys focused on populations near lead smelters or in areas with high lead levels from combustion of lead-containing gasoline. There is little information available, however, on the levels of lead in paint in India and in soil. Field portable X-ray fluorescence analyzers were used to determine environmental lead levels in paint, dust, air, soil, and other bulk samples near several lead-using industries and in the residential environments of children with very high blood lead levels, at least four times as high as the CDC limit. Soils near industrial operations, such as secondary lead smelters, and battery dismantling units contained levels up to 100,000 ppm of lead. Four of 29 currently available paints from five manufacturers measured 1.0 mg/cm2 or above--the current U.S. definition of lead-based paint in housing-after the application of a single coat; four others measured at least 1.0 after three coats, and three others likely reached this level after the application of an additional one or two coats. In 5 of 10 homes of the elevated blood lead children, three or more locations in or around the home were found to have lead paint levels of 1.0 mg/cm2 or higher. Soil exceeding the U.S. standard for residential areas (400 ppm) was found at only one of the houses. Other sources of lead exposure, including traditional ayurvedic medicine tablets, were also observed. Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries. PMID:15764522

Clark, C S; Thuppil, V; Clark, R; Sinha, S; Menezes, G; D'Souza, H; Nayak, N; Kuruvilla, A; Law, T; Dave, P; Shah, S

2005-01-01

37

Communal violence in Gujarat, India: impact of sexual violence and responsibilities of the health care system.  

PubMed

Situations of chronic conflict across the globe make it imperative to draw attention to its gendered health consequences, particularly the violation of women's reproductive and sexual rights. Since early 2002 in Gujarat, western India, the worst kind of state-sponsored violence against Muslims has been perpetrated, which continues to this day. This paper describes the history of that violence and highlights the mental and physical consequences of sexual and gender-based violence and the issues that need to be addressed by the police, the health care system and civil society. It draws upon several reports, including from the International Initiative for Justice and the Medico Friend Circle, which documented the reproductive, sexual and mental health consequences of the violence in Gujarat, and the lacunae in the responses of the health system. The paper calls for non-discrimination to be demonstrated by health personnel in the context of conflict and social unrest. Their training should include conflict as a public health problem, their roles and responsibilities in prevention, treatment and documentation of this "disease", and focus on relevant medico-legal methodology and principles, the psychological impact of sexual assault on victims, and the legal significance of medical evidence in these cases. PMID:18513616

Khanna, Renu

2008-05-01

38

Molluscan fauna from the Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat, India — Part 3. Gastropods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic description of 25 gastropod species from the Khari Nadi Formation (Aquitanian) and Chhasra Formation (Burdigalian) from the Kachchh District, Gujarat, India is given. A checklist of 116 forms including those reported by earlier researchers, emending taxonomic identifications wherever necessary, is also provided. Vredenburg had referred these two formations together as ‘the Gaj Beds of Kachchh’. He noticed the affinity of molluscs among the Miocene deposits of Kachchh and Kathiawar regions of Gujarat, and Sind province of Pakistan. He also observed that molluscs from his ‘Lower Gaj’ and ‘Upper Gaj’ Formations showed relationship respectively with the Rembang (Aquitanian) and Njalindung (Burdigalian) series of the East Indies. Aquitanian and Burdigalian ages assigned by him were later substantiated by Raju on the basis of foraminifera. Present studies corroborated that the molluscan assemblage from the Miocene rocks of Kachchh is closely related to that from the Gaj Beds of Sind and the Ashapura Clay Member of Kathiawar; besides revealing that the fauna from these three formations taken together is essentially endemic. Discovery of certain species from the Quilon Beds in the Miocene of Kachchh evinces a close affinity between these two formations. The present fauna includes five extant forms, while 29 forms have related species in the Recent fauna.

Kulkarni, Kantimati G.; Kapoor, Satarupa Bhattacharjee; Borkar, Vidyadhar D.

2010-06-01

39

The 2001 Bhuj Earthquake: Interplate, Intraplate, or Moot?  

Microsoft Academic Search

On January 26, 2001, Republic Day in India, a Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Kachchh region, in the state of Gujarat, India. Four red flags were waved almost immediately. First, the earthquake occurred many hundreds of kms away from the nearest plate boundary. Second, the earthquake was felt from Calcutta to Madras to Katmandu, an area 16 times that

M. A. Ellis

2001-01-01

40

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis by Spirulina subsalsa from Gujarat coast of India.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria have many unexploited potential for natural products with a huge variability in structure and biological activity. Their products are species specific and substrate+growth condition specific. Under stress conditions they are reported to produce biopolymers like EPS and PHA, which can be produced extracellularly and intracellularly, respectively. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polymers of biological origin, they are also capable of being completely broken down to water and carbon dioxide by microorganisms found in a wide range of environments, such as soil, water, and sewage. We have studied marine cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa from Veraval coast, Gujarat, India, producing PHA under increased sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (5% enhancement to the ASNIII medium), The biopolymer was chemically characterized through FTIR, NMR, TGA, and DSC. The present study shows increased PHA accumulation in S. subsalsa by twofold increased NaCl concentration in the growth media. PMID:20060853

Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Mishra, Sandhya

2010-03-01

41

Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E), Maniyara Fort (23°28'05?N; 68°37'E) Rakhdi Dam (23°27'26?N; 68°40'10?E) and Waior (23°25'05?N; 68°41'37?E) with a view to highlight the entombed bivalve taxa. Authors have encountered 53 species of which 23 are restricted to the Ramanian Stage.

Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

2012-04-01

42

The Gujarat Earthquake: Mitigations Failures and Lessons learnt for Future Strategies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time and again, the Indian subcontinent has been suffering from diverse natural calamities, ranging from droughts to floods, landslides to earthquakes, and cyclones to spells of famines. Recently, in October 1999, a severe cyclone battered the eastern coast of Orissa affecting millions of people, blowing away homes, damaging buildings, destroying crops and wiping out a huge cattle population. The Gujarat earthquake of January 2001 was another monumental disaster that affected more than 15 million people causing colossal loss of life and property estimated at US 1.30 billion, though actual may be much higher. More than 200 international and domestic voluntary agencies promptly rushed aid to the damaged areas at the shake of the quake-2001. In this crucial rescue phase, teams were scattered across affected villages and urban centers, clueless of precise locations and extent of damage. Problems faced during the relief and rehabilitation were- absence of a comprehensive information system (both spatial and attribute), absence of a nodal agency to disseminate information on the type of relief required, absence of high precision remotely sensed data, appropriate for preparation and implementation of long term reconstruction and rehabilitation plan (Development Plan). Repeated disaster assessments by multiple agencies led to wastage of time and resources. All this led to non-coherence amongst the coordinating agencies, and rescue &relief teams. Spatial and attribute damage assessment could have been easier in the presence of comprehensive geographic and demographic information supported by high precision satellite imageries to compare pre and post disaster situation. Disaster management includes pre-disaster preparedness planning, post- disaster damage assessment, search and rescue, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities. Unlike other disasters, scientific alerts, forecasts and warnings of impending earthquake still require more attention. Disaster Preparedness Plan for speedy rescue and relief operations needs to be in place with improved information system for post disaster recovery. This paper draws upon the shortfalls faced in the management of Gujarat earthquake; a lesson learnt and presents a comprehensive strategy for Systems networking including the role of space programs in disaster management. The proposed structure is a top down approach for cooperation, emerging from bottom level demand. The missing key elements in the post-disaster situation were - effective information system, high resolution remote sensing data (for effective town planning), operational GIS, with support network from some or all of the governmental agencies. An integrated global communication network for wider dissemination of forecasts, warning and monitoring on a global level and sharing of related knowledge and information can play a vital role in disaster reduction. Needless to say, the local, regional and national disaster communication networks must be fully integrated in the global grid. The proposed structure for disaster management has a National Disaster Mitigation Establishment (NDME) as the apex body under the auspices of the central government, which would be networked across nations to similar other NDMEs. Each NDME would handle the coordination and monitoring of its state units which may be called as State Disaster Management Establishments (SDME). The SDMEs with various district or sub-district level units would collate data. The Network would be supported with field staff at its offices and would liaison with respective higher level DMEs where the lowest unit may be a village / town or cluster of villages. This paper emphasizes the need for comprehensive information system with Spatial Decision Support System (DSS) at three different levels for total disaster management.

Katuri, A. K.; Mittal, J.; Kumar, K.

43

Prevalence of hysterectomy among rural and urban women with and without health insurance in Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

This paper presents findings on hysterectomy prevalence from a 2010 cross-sectional household survey of 2,214 rural and 1,641 urban, insured and uninsured women in low-income households in Ahmedabad city and district in Gujarat, India. The study investigated why hysterectomy was a leading reason for use of health insurance by women insured by SEWA, a women's organisation that operates a community-based health insurance scheme. Of insured women, 9.8% of rural women and 5.3% of urban women had had a hysterectomy, compared to 7.2% and 4.0%, respectively, of uninsured women. Approximately one-third of all hysterectomies were in women younger than 35 years of age. Rural women used the private sector more often for hysterectomy, while urban use was almost evenly split between the public and private sectors. SEWA's community health workers suggested that such young women underwent hysterectomies due to difficulties with menstruation and a range of gynaecological morbidities. The extent of these and of unnecessary hysterectomy, as well as providers' attitudes, require further investigation. We recommend the provision of information on hysterectomy as part of community health education for women, and better provision of basic gynaecological care as areas for advocacy and action by SEWA and the public health community in India. PMID:21555085

Desai, Sapna; Sinha, Tara; Mahal, Ajay

2011-05-01

44

Assessment of heavy metal content in suspended particulate matter of coastal industrial town, Mithapur, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal concentrations in suspended particulate matter (SPM) were investigated for their distribution and source in the atmosphere of coastal industrial town, Mithapur, Gujarat, India. SPM, at 10 locations covering three seasons, were trapped on glass fibre filters using high volume samplers and quantification of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) was done using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry employing HNO 3 based wet digestion. Results show relatively low concentrations of SPM (211.3 to 375.2 ?g/m 3) compared to National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), specified By Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB, India), however, they were 2-3 times higher as compared to reference site. Among the heavy metals Cr, Mn and Pb levels were low, while Ni and Cd found to be exceeding the USEPA standards. The metal levels were also compared with those reported for other rural, coastal, industrial and urban parts around the world. Enrichment Factor analysis indicated that Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were highly enriched relative to their crustal ratios (to Fe) and correspond to substantial contribution of anthropogenic source of these metals. The source identification was carried out by principal component analysis by applying a Varimax Rotated Component Matrix.

Basha, Shaik; Jhala, Jayaraj; Thorat, Ravi; Goel, Sangita; Trivedi, Rohit; Shah, Kunal; Menon, Gopalakrishnan; Gaur, Premsingh; Mody, Kalpana H.; Jha, Bhavanath

2010-07-01

45

Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005-2011): comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India  

PubMed Central

Background India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. Methods We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005–2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP) data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Results Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. Conclusions We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others.

Iyer, Veena; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Choudhury, Nandini; Dhruwey, Vidwan Singh; Dacombe, Russell; Upadhyay, Ashish

2014-01-01

46

Understanding CBHI hospitalisation patterns: a comparison of insured and uninsured women in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based health insurance has been associated with increased hospitalisation in low-income settings, but with limited analysis of the illnesses for which claims are submitted. A review of claims submitted to VimoSEWA, an inpatient insurance scheme in Gujarat, India, found that fever, diarrhoea and hysterectomy, the latter at a mean age of 37 years, were the leading reasons for claims by adult women. We compared the morbidity, outpatient treatment-seeking and hospitalisation patterns of VimoSEWA-insured women with uninsured women. Methods We utilised data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,934 insured and uninsured women in Gujarat, India. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of insurance coverage and the association of insurance with hospitalisation. Self-reported data on morbidity, outpatient care and hospitalisation were compared between insured and uninsured women. Results Age, marital status and occupation of adult women were associated with insurance status. Reported recent morbidity, type of illness and outpatient treatment were similar among insured and uninsured women. Multivariable analysis revealed strong evidence of a higher odds of hospitalisation amongst the insured (OR?=?2.7; 95% ci. 1.6, 4.7). The leading reason for hospitalisation for uninsured and insured women was hysterectomy, at a similar mean age of 36, followed by common ailments such as fever and diarrhoea. Insured women appeared to have a higher probability of being hospitalised than uninsured women for all causes, rather than specifically for fever, diarrhoea or hysterectomy. Length of stay was similar while choice of hospital differed between insured and uninsured women. Conclusions Despite similar reported morbidity patterns and initial treatment-seeking behaviour, VimoSEWA members were more likely to be hospitalised. The data did not provide strong evidence that inpatient hospitalisation replaced outpatient treatment for common illnesses or that insurance was the primary inducement for hysterectomy in the population. Rather, it appears that VimoSEWA members behaved differently in deciding if, and where, to be hospitalised for any condition. Further research is required to explore this decision-making process and roles, if any, played by adverse selection and moral hazard. Lastly, these hospitalisation patterns raise concerns regarding population health needs and access to quality preventive and outpatient services.

2014-01-01

47

Development and Implementation of South Asia's First Heat-Health Action Plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India)  

PubMed Central

Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat’s adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan’s development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program’s scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively.

Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J.; Toma, Violeta E.; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

48

Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background India’s health expenditure is met mostly by households through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments at the time of illness. To protect poor families, the Indian government launched a national health insurance scheme (RSBY). Those below the national poverty line (BPL) are eligible to join the RSBY. The premium is heavily subsidised by the government. The enrolled members receive a card and can avail of free hospitalisation care up to a maximum of US$ 600 per family per year. The hospitals are reimbursed by the insurance companies. The objective of our study was to analyse the extent to which RSBY contributes to universal health coverage by protecting families from making OOP payments. Methods A two-stage stratified sampling technique was used to identify eligible BPL families in Patan district of Gujarat, India. Initially, all 517 villages were listed and 78 were selected randomly. From each of these villages, 40 BPL households were randomly selected and a structured questionnaire was administered. Interviews and discussions were also conducted among key stakeholders. Results Our sample contained 2,920 households who had enrolled in the RSBY; most were from the poorer sections of society. The average hospital admission rate for the period 2010–2011 was 40/1,000 enrolled. Women, elderly and those belonging to the lowest caste had a higher hospitalisation rate. Forty four per cent of patients who had enrolled in RSBY and had used the RSBY card still faced OOP payments at the time of hospitalisation. The median OOP payment for the above patients was US$ 80 (interquartile range, $16–$200) and was similar in both government and private hospitals. Patients incurred OOP payments mainly because they were asked to purchase medicines and diagnostics, though the same were included in the benefit package. Conclusions While the RSBY has managed to include the poor under its umbrella, it has provided only partial financial coverage. Nearly 60% of insured and admitted patients made OOP payments. We plea for better monitoring of the scheme and speculate that it is possible to enhance effective financial coverage of the RSBY if the nodal agency at state level would strengthen its stewardship and oversight functions.

2013-01-01

49

Draft Genome Sequence of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PK6, Isolated from the Saurashtra Region of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PK6, a potential petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading soil bacterium, was isolated from a site contaminated by a petroleum hydrocarbon spill from an automobile service station in Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PK6, which has genes encoding enzymes for potential and related metabolic pathways of the strain. PMID:24503980

Patel, P A; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Faldu, P R; Domadia, K K; Rawal, C M; Bhimani, H D; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

2014-01-01

50

Biomonitoring of selected freshwater macrophytes to assess lake trace element contamination: a case study of Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat India  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A biomonitoring study was carried out at Nal Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, a proposed Ramsar site, Gujarat State, India, to ascertain the degree of trace element contamination. The study focused on assessment of trace element contamination in certain aquatic macrophytes to be used as biomonitors, in comparison with the sediments (abiotic monitor) for heavy metal pollution. Good information was provided

J. i. Nirmal Kumar; Hiren Soni; Rita N. Kumar

51

Luminescence chronology of river adjustment and incision of Quaternary sediments in the alluvial plain of the Sabarmati River, north Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

River adjustment and incision in the Sabarmati basin, Gujarat, India have been examined at a site near Mahudi. Towards this, the morphostratigraphy and depositional chronometry of the middle alluvial plains were investigated. The upper fluvial sequence, along with the overlying aeolian sand and riverbed scroll plains, provide clues to the evolution of the present Sabarmati River. Sedimentological analyses of the

Pradeep Srivastava; Navin Juyal; Ashok K Singhvi; Robert J Wasson; Mark D Bateman

2001-01-01

52

Draft Genome Sequence of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PK6, Isolated from the Saurashtra Region of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PK6, a potential petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading soil bacterium, was isolated from a site contaminated by a petroleum hydrocarbon spill from an automobile service station in Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PK6, which has genes encoding enzymes for potential and related metabolic pathways of the strain.

Patel, P. A.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Faldu, P. R.; Domadia, K. K.; Rawal, C. M.; Bhimani, H. D.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2014-01-01

53

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results

Vinay K. Sahay

2011-01-01

54

Comparative Study of LANDSAT MSS, Salyut-7 (TERRA) and Radar (SIR-A) Images for Geological and Geomorphological Applications: A Case Study from Rajasthan and Gujarat, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rajasthan and Gujarat provinces of India were surveyed using the MKF-6 multispectral and KATE-140 stereo space photographs collected during TERRA experiment and SIR-A radar data acquired during the flight of Columbia Space Shuttle on Nov. 12, 1981. A comp...

P. C. Bakliwal

1986-01-01

55

Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes.

Sanneving, Linda; Kulane, Asli; Iyer, Aditi; Ahgren, Bengt

2013-01-01

56

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous\\u000a shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal\\u000a maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite\\u000a mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results

Vinay K. Sahay

57

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous\\u000a shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal\\u000a maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite\\u000a mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results

Vinay K. Sahay

2011-01-01

58

Comparative analysis of enzymatic stability and amino acid sequences of thermostable alkaline proteases from two haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from Coastal region of Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermostable alkaline proteases from two haloalkaliphilic bacteria, Oceanobacillus iheyensis O.M.A18 (EU680961) and Haloalkaliphilic bacterium O.M.E12 (EU680960) were studied for enzymatic properties and amino acid sequences in comparative manner. The bacteria were isolated from salt enriched soil located in Okha, Coastal Gujarat, India. The unique aspect of the study was that alkaline protease from Haloalkaliphilic bacterium O.M.A18 optimally catalyzed the reaction

Megha K. Purohit; Satya P. Singh

2011-01-01

59

Monitoring Earthquake Liquefaction Processes Using MISR\\/Terra Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating Gujarat earthquake which hit the province of Gujarat in India on January 26, 2001, provoked an extensive liquefaction process. This presentation reports on the spatio-temporal distribution of this liquefaction-induced surface phenomenon by analyzing time series measurements collected by the MISR sensor on board the Terra platform. The analysis of MISR measurements in the near-infrared spectral domain reveals the

B. Pinty; N. Gobron; M. M. Verstraete; F. Melin; J. Widlowski; Y. Govaerts; D. J. Diner; E. Fielding; D. L. Nelson; R. Madariaga

2002-01-01

60

Monitoring Earthquake Dewatering Processes Using MISR Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating Gujarat earthquake which hit the province of Gujarat in India on January 26, 2001, provoked an extensive liquefaction process. This presentation reports on the spatio-temporal distribution of this liquefaction-induced surface phenomenon by analyzing time seriesmeasurements collected by the MISR sensor on board the Terra platform.The analysis of MISR measurements in the near-infrared spectral domain reveals the spatial extent

B. Pinty; N. Gobron; M. M. Verstraete; F. Melin; J. Widlowski; Y. Govaerts; D. J. Diner; E. Fielding; D. L. Nelson; R. Madariaga; M. P. Tuttle

2004-01-01

61

Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

62

Habitat preservation is a concern for conserving of Heliotropium rariflorum Stocks. in the forest of North Gujarat Region (NGR), Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the status, distribution and conservation of habitats of Heliotropium rariflorum - a threatened plant in the forest area of North Gujarat Region. It is tall under shrub; the distribution is exclusive to specific habitat and substratum. Survey was conducted from May 2005 to Dec 2006. A probable list of locations of the species in the

Rajendra Kumar S; Joshua J; Sunderraj SFW; Kalavathy S

2011-01-01

63

Community based bioenvironmental control of malaria in Kheda District, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

A study on the bioenvironmental control of malaria was launched in 1983 in Nadiad taluka, Gujarat, with help of village communities. The implementation of strategy resulted in the successful control of larval mosquitoes and reduction in the adult vector populations, and the impact was visible in the curtailment of malaria transmission in large rural areas. When compared with the residual spraying of insecticides under the National Malaria Eradication Programme, the alternate strategy was found feasible, socially acceptable, cost effective and brought about environmental improvement and awareness in the rural areas. PMID:2614400

Sharma, V P; Sharma, R C

1989-12-01

64

Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

Sonar, Mohan A.; Gaikwad, Sharad G.

2013-02-01

65

Neo-deterministic definition of earthquake hazard scenarios: a multiscale application to India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of effective mitigation strategies requires scientifically consistent estimates of seismic ground motion; recent analysis, however, showed that the performances of the classical probabilistic approach to seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) are very unsatisfactory in anticipating ground shaking from future large earthquakes. Moreover, due to their basic heuristic limitations, the standard PSHA estimates are by far unsuitable when dealing with the protection of critical structures (e.g. nuclear power plants) and cultural heritage, where it is necessary to consider extremely long time intervals. Nonetheless, the persistence in resorting to PSHA is often explained by the need to deal with uncertainties related with ground shaking and earthquakes recurrence. We show that current computational resources and physical knowledge of the seismic waves generation and propagation processes, along with the improving quantity and quality of geophysical data, allow nowadays for viable numerical and analytical alternatives to the use of PSHA. The advanced approach considered in this study, namely the NDSHA (neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment), is based on the physically sound definition of a wide set of credible scenario events and accounts for uncertainties and earthquakes recurrence in a substantially different way. The expected ground shaking due to a wide set of potential earthquakes is defined by means of full waveforms modelling, based on the possibility to efficiently compute synthetic seismograms in complex laterally heterogeneous anelastic media. In this way a set of scenarios of ground motion can be defined, either at national and local scale, the latter considering the 2D and 3D heterogeneities of the medium travelled by the seismic waves. The efficiency of the NDSHA computational codes allows for the fast generation of hazard maps at the regional scale even on a modern laptop computer. At the scenario scale, quick parametric studies can be easily performed to understand the influence of the model characteristics on the computed ground shaking scenarios. For massive parametric tests, or for the repeated generation of large scale hazard maps, the methodology can take advantage of more advanced computational platforms, ranging from GRID computing infrastructures to HPC dedicated clusters up to Cloud computing. In such a way, scientists can deal efficiently with the variety and complexity of the potential earthquake sources, and perform parametric studies to characterize the related uncertainties. NDSHA provides realistic time series of expected ground motion readily applicable for seismic engineering analysis and other mitigation actions. The methodology has been successfully applied to strategic buildings, lifelines and cultural heritage sites, and for the purpose of seismic microzoning in several urban areas worldwide. A web application is currently being developed that facilitates the access to the NDSHA methodology and the related outputs by end-users, who are interested in reliable territorial planning and in the design and construction of buildings and infrastructures in seismic areas. At the same, the web application is also shaping up as an advanced educational tool to explore interactively how seismic waves are generated at the source, propagate inside structural models, and build up ground shaking scenarios. We illustrate the preliminary results obtained from a multiscale application of NDSHA approach to the territory of India, zooming from large scale hazard maps of ground shaking at bedrock, to the definition of local scale earthquake scenarios for selected sites in the Gujarat state (NW India). The study aims to provide the community (e.g. authorities and engineers) with advanced information for earthquake risk mitigation, which is particularly relevant to Gujarat in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the region.

Peresan, Antonella; Magrin, Andrea; Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Rastogi, Bal K.; Vaccari, Franco; Cozzini, Stefano; Bisignano, Davide; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.; Ashish, Mr; Mir, Ramees R.

2014-05-01

66

Earthquake precursory studies in India: Scenario and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are the worst natural calamities that strike without any notice and cause immediate loss of life and property. Internationally, serious and scientifically acceptable earthquake prediction studies started in 1970s and short term prediction of the Heicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 in China is a land mark. In India, a successful medium term prediction of August 6, 1988 earthquake, (M 7.5) in northeast Indian region encouraged to intensify such studies in the country. These predictions were based mainly on seismological precursors. Initially, the precursory studies were taken in isolated manner, but after validation of specific geophysical parameters, efforts were made to adopt an integrated approach involving collection, analysis and interpretation of various precursory observations in a comprehensive and coordinated manner. Accordingly, a few Multi-parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGOs) have been established at the selected locations in seismically active areas in the country. This approach led to successful short term prediction of some moderate earthquakes (M ? 4) in Koyna region (famous for Reservoir Triggered Seismicity) in western India. Simultaneously, efforts have been made to generate long term multi-parametric observations from these observatories, as a basic scientific input required for future earthquake prediction related studies. The real-time analysis of these data sets would help to understand the earthquake generation process and attaining the predictive capabilities by developing models for short term earthquake forecasting. To facilitate direct observations and test the hypothesis of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) as well as to understand the earthquake generation processes, it is planned to undertake deep borehole (6-8 km) investigations in Koyna region of western India. The paper highlights the efforts made so far in India in the area of earthquake precursory studies as well as the future road map.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2012-08-01

67

Occurrence and distribution of selected heavy metals and boron in groundwater of the Gulf of Khambhat region, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The concentration of selected heavy metals, like As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn as well as B, was measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in groundwater samples from various locations in the Gulf of Khambhat (GoK), an inlet of the Arabian Sea in the state of Gujarat, India, during post-monsoon, winter, and pre-monsoon seasons in a year. Most heavy elements are characterized by low mobility under slightly alkaline and reducing conditions; concentrations in confined aquifers are smaller than the maximum permissible values for drinking water. The temporal changes indicate that a majority of metals is entering the aquifer during monsoon. Principle component analysis of the heavy metal data suggests that Co, Cu, Cd, and Zn are interrelated with each other and derived significantly from anthropogenic route, while input of Pb and Cr may be due to atmospheric deposition in the study area. Both weathering of rocks and anthropogenic input were found to be main sources of elements in the groundwater. The heavy metal levels in groundwaters of the GoK region in comparison with some of the European and Asian sites were higher; however, these metal levels were found to be comparable with few urban sites in the world. PMID:24293301

Upadhyaya, Devang; Survaiya, Mayur D; Basha, Shaik; Mandal, Subir K; Thorat, R B; Haldar, Soumya; Goel, Sangita; Dave, Himal; Baxi, Krushnakant; Trivedi, Rohit H; Mody, Kalpana H

2014-03-01

68

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

PubMed

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

69

Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus–Brachyphyllum–Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia–Onychiopsis–Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two 'biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

2013-09-01

70

Modelling the impact and cost-effectiveness of the HIV intervention programme amongst commercial sex workers in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background Ahmedabad is an industrial city in Gujarat, India. In 2003, the HIV prevalence among commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Ahmedabad reached 13.0%. In response, the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme for CSWs was initiated, which involves outreach, peer education, condom distribution, and free STD clinics. Two surveys were performed among CSWs in 1999 and 2003. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of the Jyoti Sangh HIV prevention programme. Methods A dynamic mathematical model was used with survey and intervention-specific data from Ahmedabad to estimate the HIV impact of the Jyoti Sangh project for the 51 months between the two CSW surveys. Uncertainty analysis was used to obtain different model fits to the HIV/STI epidemiological data, producing a range for the HIV impact of the project. Financial and economic costs of the intervention were estimated from the provider's perspective for the same time period. The cost per HIV-infection averted was estimated. Results Over 51 months, projections suggest that the intervention averted 624 and 5,131 HIV cases among the CSWs and their clients, respectively. This equates to a 54% and 51% decrease in the HIV infections that would have occurred among the CSWs and clients without the intervention. In the absence of intervention, the model predicts that the HIV prevalence amongst the CSWs in 2003 would have been 26%, almost twice that with the intervention. Cost per HIV infection averted, excluding and including peer educator economic costs, was USD 59 and USD 98 respectively. Conclusion This study demonstrated that targeted CSW interventions in India can be cost-effective, and highlights the importance of replicating this effort in other similar settings.

Fung, Isaac C-H; Guinness, Lorna; Vickerman, Peter; Watts, Charlotte; Vannela, Gangadhar; Vadhvana, Jagdish; Foss, Anna M; Malodia, Laxman; Gandhi, Meena; Jani, Gaurang

2007-01-01

71

Geochemical study of laterites of the Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India: Implications on parent rock, mineralogy and tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laterite deposits occur in a linear stretch along the northern Arabian Sea coast in the Jamnagar and Porbandar districts of, Gujarat state, India. These deposits are characterised by presence of gibbsite, kaoline, calcite, quartz, anatase, natroalunite, goethite and hematite, and relicts of mafic minerals and plagioclase. On the basis of petro-mineralogy and geochemistry, these deposits are grouped as aluminous laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 1.45-3.84%, Av. 3.13, Al 2O 3 - 39.31-57.24, Av. 45.80) and laterites (Fe 2O 3 - 9.84-32.21, Av. 25.13%, Al 2O 3 - 34.74-49.59, Av. 41.27). The major, trace and REE characteristics of laterites indicate that these were formed in situ by the alteration of parent rocks of trachytic/andesitic composition, and the process of bauxitisation followed the path of destruction of kaolinite and deferruginisation. The correlation patterns of several trace and rare earth elements and their preferential enrichment have indicated that there is an influence of precursor rock on the distribution of trace elements. The Jamnagar laterite deposits occur as capping over the Deccan Trap basaltic lava flows and pyroclasic deposits. Lateritisation prevailed during Palaeocene age when India was separated from the Seychelles and passing over the equator. During this time climate, morphology and drainage conditions were favourable for lateritisation that result in the formation of Jamnagar and other laterite deposits within the Deccan Province. Flood basaltic provinces of Deccan, Columbia, North Australia and Hawaii appear good location for hosting laterite deposits due to their wide areal extent, small geological time span and uniform chemical composition. However, comparison of the major flood basaltic provinces of the world has indicated that their palaeopositions along with palaeoclimate, morphology and drainage are equally important factors for facilitating lateritisation.

Meshram, R. R.; Randive, K. R.

2011-11-01

72

Strong positive growth responses to salinity by Ceriops tagal, a commonly occurring mangrove of the Gujarat coast of India  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Mangroves of Western Gujarat (India) are subject to die-back. Salinity intolerance is one possible cause, especially in young plants. We therefore quantified the extent to which young plants of one widely occurring mangrove species (Ceriops tagal) tolerate high salt in terms of establishment, growth, water status, proline content and mineral accumulation. Methodology In a greenhouse study, juvenile plants were established from mature propagules over 40 days in soil containing added NaCl, raising soil water salinity to 0.2, 2.5, 5.1, 7.7, 10.3, 12.6, 15.4, 17.9, 20.5 and 23.0 ppt (w/v). Growth and physiological characteristics were monitored over the subsequent 6 months. Principal results Despite a negative relationship between the percentage of young plant establishment and salt concentration (50 % loss at 22.3 ppt), the remaining plants proved highly tolerant. Growth, in dry weight, was significantly promoted by low salinity, which is optimal at 12.6 ppt. Water content, leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation in tissues followed a similar optimum curve with leaf area being doubled at 12.6 ppt NaCl. Salinity >12.6 and <23 ppt inhibited plant growth, but never to below control levels. Root:shoot dry weight ratios were slightly reduced by salinity (maximum 19 %), but the water potential of roots, leaves and stems became more negative as salinity increases while proline increases in all tissues. The concentration of Na increased, whereas concentrations of K, Ca, N and P decreased and that of Mg remained stable. Conclusions Ceriops tagal has a remarkably high degree of salinity tolerance, and shows an optimal growth when soil water salinity is 12.6 ppt. Salinity tolerance is linked to an adaptive regulation of hydration and ionic content. The cause of localized die-back along the coastal region of Gujarat is thus unlikely to be a primary outcome of salinity stress although amendments with Ca and K, and perhaps proline, may help protect against extreme salinity.

Patel, Neha T.; Gupta, Ajit; Pandey, Amar Nath

2010-01-01

73

Shillong plateau earthquakes in northeast India region: complex tectonic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex tectonic model of the Shillong plateau (SP), the source area of the 1897 great earthquake in the northeast India region, is examined using the high precision data of a 20-station digital seismic network that is in operation in the SP since 2001. The dominating thrust\\/strike-slip faulting earthquakes in the western plateau although could be explained by the 'pop-up'

J. R. Kayal; S. S. Arefiev; S. Barua; D. Hazarika; N. Gogoi; A. Kumar; S. N. Chowdhury; S. Kalita

2006-01-01

74

Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Affluent Adolescent in Surat City, South Gujarat region, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design: Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting: Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants: The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection: Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement: Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age <85th and <95th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age <95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year). Result: The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%). Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion: The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

Goyal, Jagdish P; Kumar, Nagendra; Parmar, Indira; Shah, Vijay B; Patel, Bharat

2011-01-01

75

Comparative studies on the extraction of metagenomic DNA from the saline habitats of Coastal Gujarat and Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan (India) in prospect of molecular diversity and search for novel biocatalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of total DNA from a given habitat assumes significance in metagenomics, due to the requirement of inhibitor free and high quality metagenome in good quantity for applications in molecular biology. DNA extraction and its quality assessment for PCR applications from saline soils of Coastal Gujarat and Sambhar Soda Lake, Rajasthan in India is described in a comparative manner. The

P. K. Siddhapura; S. Vanparia; M. K. Purohit; S. P. Singh

2010-01-01

76

Business strategies of micro enterprises in disaster affected areas of Gujarat, India 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Workers of the informal, unorganized sector constitute more than 90% of India's labour force. A majority of these run micro enterprises producing goods or rendering services. Micro enterprises are characterized by financial constraints, lack of access to credit and professional advice, dependence on personal networks and susceptibility to external shocks and disasters. Micro enterprises must constantly adapt their business

Nadezhda Sliwa

77

Lithofacies and depositional dynamics of golden Oolite (Bathonian), Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Golden Oolite Member of the Patcham Formation consisting of 84 m thick alternate sequence of limestones and mudstone are well exposed in the Jhura Dome, Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat. Petrographic study of limestones reveals four types of microfacies: oolitic fossiliferous grainstone (A 1); fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone (A 2); sandy fossiliferous grainstone (A 3); and pebbly fossiliferous grainstone (A 4). The microfacies normally form microfacies assemblages with calcareous mudstone (B 1) and are stacked vertically in ascending order as A 1-A 3, A 1-B 1, A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1. The assemblage (A 1-A 3) is characterised by interbedding of moderately to thickly bedded, hard and compact, golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone and sandy fossiliferous grainstone exhibiting small scale low angle planar cross beddings. It contains well preserved bioclast. Assemlage (A 1-B 1) is distinguished by rhythmic alternations of earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to very thickly bedded golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone showing ripple bedding, abundant bioclast and reworked intraclasts, whereas assemblage (A 4-B 1) exhibits rhythmic alternations of bioturbated, earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to thickly bedded pebbly fossiliferous grainstone. Assemblage (A 2-B 1) is characterised by earthy,bioturbated,calcareous mudstone containing thin uneven beds of fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone having micritic intraclast and microfossils. The study of lithofacies suggests two main depositional processes for the formation of golden oolite: (1) The high energy physical sedimentation from current flows during transgression characterized by irregular to sharp nature of basal contact of each cycle, abundance of well preserved bioclasts and reworked intraclasts and large scale ripple bedding; (2) Settling of fines from suspension during fair-weather period as distinguished by homogenous fine grained interbeds of mudstone in the sequence. The transition of facies from A 1-A 3 to A 2-B 1 marks deepening upward event during Bathonian period from shallow inner shelf to calcareous mud dominated outer shelf. The energy condition was very high during deposition of the lower and middle part (A 1-A 3 and A 1-B 1 assemblage) whereas low to very low as revealed by abundance of bioturbated calcareous mudstone (B 1) with episodic interruption of moderate to high energy storm event depositing A 4 (pebbly fossiliferous grainstone) microfacies during the upper part (A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1 assemblage) of the sequence.

Mishra, Diwakar; Tiwari, R. N.

2006-04-01

78

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs.\\u000a Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor\\u000a infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A\\u000a needs assessment was conducted to provide information

Rajesh Mehta; Dileep V Mavalankar; KV Ramani; Sheetal Sharma; Julia Hussein

2011-01-01

79

Carbonate-Dissolving Bacteria from 'Miliolite', a Bioclastic Limestone, from Gopnath, Gujarat, Western India  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation, the abundance and molecular phylogeny of part of the culturable bacterial population involved in the dissolution of “miliolite”, a bioclastic limestone, from Gopnath, India, was studied. Carbonate-dissolving bacteria were isolated, enumerated and screened for their ability to dissolve miliolite. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) indicated 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to be distributed in 5 different clades at a similarity coefficient of 0.85. Then, 16S rRNA sequence analysis helped to decipher that the majority of carbonate-dissolving bacteria were affiliated to phyla Firmicutes (Families Bacillaceae and Staphylococcaceae) and Actinobacteria (Family Promicromonosporaceae) indicating their role in miliolite weathering.

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Vaghela, Ravi; Bhatt, Nilesh Pinakinprasad; Archana, Gattupalli

2012-01-01

80

Observing earthquake-related dewatering using MISR\\/Terra satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 26 January 2001, at 8:46 am, the Gujarat province of India (see Figure 1A) was hit by destructive earthquake.This earthquake, considered one of the two most damaging seismic events in Indian recorded history, caused the death of about 20,000 people and affected 16 million individuals. Both local residents and post-earthquake survey teams reported the fountaining of water and sediments

Bernard Pinty; Nadine Gobron; Michel M. Verstraete; Frédéric Mélin; Jean-Luc Widlowski; Yves Govaerts; David J. Diner; Eric Fielding; David L. Nelson; Raul Madariaga; Martitia P. Tuttle

2003-01-01

81

Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj city and moderate in the Mainland Gujarat, i.e. cities of Surat and Ahmedabad. The seismic ground motion level in the Saurashtra is moderate but marginally differs from that as presently specified in IS:1893-Part I (2002). Based on the present study, the recommended PGA values for the cities studied are 0.13 g, 0.15 g, 0.64 g, 0.14 g and 0.2 g for Ahmedabad city, Surat City, Bhuj City, Jamnagar City and Junagadh city, respectively. The prepared spectra can be further used for seismic resistant design of structures within the above major city boundaries of Gujarat to quantify seismic loading on structures.

Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.

2012-06-01

82

Estimation of Maximum Earthquakes in Northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to estimate possible maximum earthquakes in the northeast Indian region for four seismic source zones, namely EHZ, MBZ, EBZ, and SHZ, which encapsulates the various seismogenic structures of the region and also for combined source zones taken as a single seismic source regime. The latter case exhibits a high maximum earthquake estimate of MW 9.4 (±0.85) through Bayesian interpretation of frequency magnitude distribution with Gamma function implicating a moderate deviation from the standard Gutenberg Richter model at the higher magnitudes. However, tapering Gutenberg Richter models with corner magnitudes at MW 8.01, 8.7 and 9.1, respectively indicated maximum values corresponding to MW 8.4, 9.0, and 9.3. The former approach was applied to each of the source zones wherein the data are presented in parts according to the data completeness, thereof. EHZ, MBZ, EBZ and SHZ are seen with maximum earthquakes of MW 8.35 (±0.59), 8.79 (±0.31), 8.20 (±0.50), and 8.73 (±0.70), respectively. The maximum possible earthquakes estimated for each individual zone are seen to be lower than that estimated for the single regime. However, the pertaining return periods estimated for the combined zone are far less than those estimated for the demarcated ones.

Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Nath, S. K.

2008-05-01

83

Earthquake Recurrence and Rupture Dynamics of Himalayan Frontal Thrust, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Mango fault is a structural discontinuity that transforms motion between two segments of the active Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in northwestern India. The Black Mango fault displays evidence of two large surface rupture earthquakes during the past 650 years, subsequent to 1294 A.D. and 1423 A.D., and possibly another rupture at about 260 A.D. Displacement during the last

Senthil Kumar; Steven G. Wesnousky; Thomas K. Rockwell; Daniel Ragona; Vikram C. Thakur; Gordon G. Seitz

2001-01-01

84

Radon measurements for earthquake prediction in northern India  

SciTech Connect

Earthquake prediction is based on the observation of precursory phenomena, and radon has emerged as a useful precursor in recent years. In India, where 55% of the land area is in active seismic zones, considerable destruction was caused by the earthquakes of Kutch (1819), Shillong (1897), Kangra (1905), Bihar-Nepal (1934), Assam (1956), Koyna (1967), Bihar-Nepal (1988), and Uttarkashi (1991). Radon ([sup 222]Rn) is produced by the decay of radium ([sup 226]Ra) in the uranium decay series and is present in trace amounts almost everywhere on the earth, being distributed in soil, groundwater, and lower levels of atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to find the value in radon monitoring for earthquake prediction.

Singh, B.; Virk, H.S. (Guru Nanak Dev Univ., Amritsar (India))

1992-01-01

85

Rare combination of bilateral putaminal necrosis, optic neuritis, and polyneuropathy in a case of acute methanol intoxication among patients met with hooch tragedy in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Methanol poisoning is a rare but extremely hazardous form of intoxication, generally occurring after suicidal or accidental events. Methanol is a cheap and potent adulterant of illicit liquors. In India, we have witnessed number of mass emergencies due to adulterated alcohol consumption. Although Gujarat State had banned alcohol consumption since 1961, worse hooch tragedies have often taken place. The most severe consequences of methanol intoxication are blindness, a profound metabolic acidosis and various forms of neurological impairment; which occur characteristically after a latent period of several hours or days after ingestion. We present a unique case of acute methanol intoxication presented with, apart from metabolic acidosis and optic neuritis, involvement of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. He had bilateral optic neuritis, delayed onset polyneuropathy with axonopathy, and radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with bilateral putaminal necrosis.

Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja; Divetia, Ruchir; Thakkar, Gurudutta

2012-01-01

86

A very large dew and rain ridge collector in the Kutch area (Gujarat, India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe world's largest dew and rain collecting system, comprised of ridge-and-trough modules, was constructed in March 2006 at Panandhro in the semi-arid area of Kutch (NW India). The main goals were (i) to collect dew on a scale that could be beneficial to the local population (ii) to determine the efficiency of this new module shape, (iii) to determine whether results obtained from small measurement condensers can be projected to large condensers, (iv) to apply a computational fluid dynamic simulation to improve the condenser set-up. Preliminary studies performed with four standard plane condensers of 1 m 2 surface area, inclined 30° from horizontal, identified Panandhro as a promising site. The cumulated dew water during 192 days was 12.6 mm with a maximum of 0.556 mm/night. A large dew condenser (850 m 2 net total surface) was designed with 10 ridge-and-trough modules. The ridges are trapezoidal, 33 m long, 0.5 m wide at the top, 2.2 m wide at the base and sloping 30° from horizontal. The depth of the troughs between the ridges is 0.5 m. A 2.5 cm thick polystyrene foam rests on the surface as insulation with a radiative foil on top (similar to that developed by OPUR, see www.opur.fr). Numerical simulations using the computational fluid dynamic software PHOENICS were performed. The most profitable orientation was with the condenser oriented back to the wind direction, a configuration that lowers the wind velocity near the foil due to the combination of free convection and wind recirculation flows. A comparison of water yields over one year of measurements between four 1 m 2 plane condensers and a 850 m 2 ridge condenser showed a 42% lower yield on the large condenser. The difference is attributed mainly to folds in the plastic foil allowing water to fill the central ridge, thus decreasing radiative cooling. The output for 2007 was 6545 L, corresponding to 7.7 mm/day on average. The largest event was 251.4 L/night (0.3 mm). Such a condenser can also collect rain (and, to a lesser extent, fog). Chemical and biological analyses showed that dew water, once filtered and bottled, could be used for drinking after a light treatment to increase the pH. The price of this water could be lowered to reach 30% (dew only) or even 3% (dew plus rain) of the market prize.

Sharan, G.; Clus, O.; Singh, S.; Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.

2011-07-01

87

Estimation of Strong Ground Motions for 2001 Bhuj ( M w 7.6), India Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong ground motions for the 2001 Bhuj ( M w 7.6) India earthquake have been estimated on hard rock and B/C boundary (NEHRP) levels using a recently modified version of stochastic finite fault modeling based on dynamic corner frequency (M otazedian and A tkinson in Bull Seismol Soc Am 95, 995-1010 2005). Incorporation of dynamic corner frequency removes the limitations of earlier stochastic methods. Simulations were carried out at 13 sites in Gujarat where structural response recorder (SRR) recordings are available. In addition, accelerograms were simulated at the B/C boundary at a large number of points distributed on a grid. The corresponding response spectra have also been estimated. The values of peak ground accelerations and spectral accelerations at three periods (0.4, 0.75 and 1.25 s) are presented in the form of contour maps. The maximum value of peak ground acceleration (PGA) in the center of meizoseismal zone is 550 cm/s2. The response spectral acceleration in same zone is 900 cm/s2 ( T = 0.4 s), 600 cm/s2 ( T = 0.75 s) and 300 cm/s2 ( T = 1.25 s). The innermost PGA contour is on the fault plane. A comparison of the PGA values obtained at 13 sites in this study with those obtained in earlier studies on the same sites, but employing different methods, show that the present PGA values are comparable at most of the sites. The rate of decay of PGA values is fast at short distances as compared to that at longer distances. The PGA values obtained here put some constraints on the expected values from a similar earthquake in the region. A synthetic intensity map has been prepared from the estimated values of PGA using an empirical relation. A comparison with the reported intensity map of the earthquake shows the synthetic MMI values, as expected, are lower by 1 unit compared to reported intensity map. The contour map of PGA along with the contour maps of spectral acceleration at various periods permit the assessment of damage potential to various categories of houses and other structures. Such information will be quite important in planning of mitigation and disaster management programs in the region.

Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Dinesh; Rastogi, Bal Krishna

2010-11-01

88

The 2007 Talala, Saurashtra, western India earthquake sequence: Tectonic implications and seismicity triggering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A damaging and widely felt moderate ( M w 5.0) earthquake occurred in the Talala region of Saurashtra, Gujarat (western India) on November 6, 2007. The highly productive sequence comprised about 1300 micro earthquakes ( M > 0.5) out of which 325 of M ? 1.5 that occurred during November 6, 2007-January 10, 2008 were precisely located. The spatial aftershock distribution revealed a NE-SW striking fault in accordance with the centroid moment tensor solution, which in turn implies left-lateral motion. The orientation and sense of shear are consistent with similarly orientated geological fault identified in the area from satellite imagery and field investigation. The aftershocks temporal decay, b-value of frequency-magnitude distribution, spatial fractal dimension, D, and slip ratio (ratio of the slip occurred on the primary fault to the total slip) were examined with the purpose to identify the properties of the sequence. The high b-value (1.18 ± 0.01) may be attributed to the paucity of the larger ( M ? 4.0) aftershocks and reveals crustal heterogeneity and low stress regime. The high p-value (1.10 ± 0.39), implying fast decay rate of aftershocks, evidences high surface heat flux. A value of the spatial fractal dimension ( D) equal to 2.21 ± 0.02 indicates random spatial distribution and source in a two-dimensional plane that is being filled-up by fractures. A slip ratio of 0.42 reveals that more slip occurred on secondary fault systems. The static Coulomb stress changes due to the coseismic slip of the main shock, enhanced off fault aftershock occurrence. The occurrence of a moderate earthquake ( M w 4.3) on October 5, 2008 inside a region of positive Coulomb stress changes supports the postulation on aftershock triggering. When the stress changes were resolved on a cross section including the stronger ( M4.8) foreshock plane that is positioned adjacent to the main fault, it became evident that the activity continued there due to stress transfer from the main rupture.

Yadav, R. B. S.; Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Shanker, D.; Rastogi, B. K.; Chopra, S.; Singh, A. P.; Kumar, Santosh

2011-01-01

89

Probabilistic assessment of earthquake recurrence in the January 26, 2001 earthquake region of Gujrat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kutch region of Gujrat is one of the most seismic prone regions of India. Recently, it has been rocked by a large earthquake ( M w = 7.7) on January 26, 2001. The probabilities of occurrence of large earthquake ( M?6.0 and M?5.0) in a specified interval of time for different elapsed times have been estimated on the basis of observed time-intervals between the large earthquakes ( M?6.0 and M?5.0) using three probabilistic models, namely, Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal. The earthquakes of magnitude ?5.0 covering about 180 years have been used for this analysis. However, the method of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) has been applied for computation of earthquake hazard parameters. The mean interval of occurrence of earthquakes and standard deviation are estimated as 20.18 and 8.40 years for M?5.0 and 36.32 and 12.49 years, for M?6.0, respectively, for this region. For the earthquakes M?5.0, the estimated cumulative probability reaches 0.8 after about 27 years for Lognormal and Gamma models and about 28 years for Weibull model while it reaches 0.9 after about 32 years for all the models. However, for the earthquakes M?6.0, the estimated cumulative probability reaches 0.8 after about 47 years for all the models while it reaches 0.9 after about 53, 54 and 55 years for Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal model, respectively. The conditional probability also reaches about 0.8 to 0.9 for the time period of 28 to 40 years and 50 to 60 years for M?5.0 and M?6.0, respectively, for all the models. The probability of occurrence of an earthquake is very high between 28 to 42 years for the magnitudes ?5.0 and between 47 to 55 years for the magnitudes ?6.0, respectively, past from the last earthquake (2001).

Tripathi, Jayant Nath

2006-01-01

90

Comparative analysis of enzymatic stability and amino acid sequences of thermostable alkaline proteases from two haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from Coastal region of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Thermostable alkaline proteases from two haloalkaliphilic bacteria, Oceanobacillus iheyensis O.M.A(1)8 (EU680961) and Haloalkaliphilic bacterium O.M.E(1)2 (EU680960) were studied for enzymatic properties and amino acid sequences in comparative manner. The bacteria were isolated from salt enriched soil located in Okha, Coastal Gujarat, India. The unique aspect of the study was that alkaline protease from Haloalkaliphilic bacterium O.M.A(1)8 optimally catalyzed the reaction over a wide range of temperature, 50-90°C, with a half-life of 36 h at 90°C. The molecular weights of O.M.A(1)8 and O.M.E(1)2 were 35 kDa and 25 kDa, respectively. The enzyme secretion was over the broader range of pH 8-11, with an optimum at 11. The alkaline proteases from the two haloalkaliphilic strains isolated from the same site reflected quite different characteristics features. To the best of our knowledge, we have not come across with any such report on the thermal stability of alkaline proteases from haloalkaliphiles. Amino acid sequences for both enzymes were deduced from the nucleotide sequences of their corresponding genes followed by the analysis of physico-chemical properties of the enzymes. PMID:21510974

Purohit, Megha K; Singh, Satya P

2011-07-01

91

GIS-based colour composites and overlays to delineate heavy metal contamination zones in the shallow alluvial aquifers, Ankaleshwar industrial estate, south Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an attempt to delineate heavy metal contamination precincts and to evaluate the extent and degree of toxic levels, besides their possible sources, 38 water samples from Ankaleshwar Industrial Estate, south Gujarat, India were analyzed. By clutching geochemical analyses and GIS-based colour composites areas depicting anomalously high concentration of heavy metals (Mo, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, etc.) in the groundwater were revealed. The multicomponent overlays in grey-scale facilitated in identifying situates of heavy metal ‘hot spots’, and lateral protuberances of the contamination plume around defile stretch of the main stream Amla Khadi flowing through the area. The multiple pollution plumes emerging from other parts of the area further coincide with effluent laden streams and small channels indicating industrial establishments as major sources of groundwater contamination. Influent nature of the streams, accelerated infiltration process, high mass influx and shallow groundwater table are the factors conducive for easy access of heavy metals to the phreatic aquifers affecting over 20 km2 area. On the basis of P/ U ratios (concentration of metals in polluted water to unpolluted water), geogenic and anthropogenic sources have been identified. Very high levels of technogenic elements present in the ground water raise concerns about possible migration into food crops, as the area is an important horticultural locale and is highly cultivated.

Kumar, Suyash; Shirke, K. D.; Pawar, N. J.

2008-03-01

92

Study of various clinical and laboratory parameters among 178 patients affected by hooch tragedy in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India): A single center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Purpose: The outbreak of methanol poisoning described in this paper occurred in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India in July 2009. Our intention is to share the experience of clinical features, laboratory investigations and their relation during this tragedy. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective study of clinical features and laboratory parameters of 178 cases of methanol toxicity treated at tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: Maximum patients (39.8%, n = 45) were received in 48 h; Mean age of presentation was 41.9 ± 10.2 years. Most of them were men (175 out of 178). On presentation, 83% patients had gastro-intestinal symptoms, 46% had neurological symptoms, 73% had visual symptoms and 32% had dyspnoea. 62% had blurred vision, 10.5% had blindness. Patients with visual symptoms had high mean level of methanol (120.12 ± 23.12 vs. 55.43 ± 29.24, P = 0.014). On fundus examination 52.8% (n = 62) had bilateral hyperaemia of discs, 8.4% (n = 12) had bilateral disc pallor and 4.5% had papilledema (n = 5). Patients with hyperaemia of discs, discs pallor or papilledema, had higher mean methanol level (121.1 ± 32.2 mg% v/s 70.1 ± 23.2 mg%, P = 0.032). Mean of pH values was 7.17 ± 0.22 and bicarbonate was 12.3 ± 7.3 mmol/L. Both pH and bicarbonate levels correlated well with mortality and serum methanol level. Mean serum methanol level was 87.1 mg/dL, and correlated significantly with the mortality (53.1 ± 41 mg/dL v/s 121 ± 92 mg/dL, P value < 0.05). Conclusion: GI symptoms, neurological symptoms and breathlessness are important clue to ED physician for diagnose methanol poisoning. Visual symptoms and fundus findings correlate well with the methanol level. Arterial Blood Gas derived pH and bicarbonate levels correlate significantly with the methanol level and mortality.

Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja D; Sachdev, Sachin

2013-01-01

93

Earthquake recurrence and rupture dynamics of Himalayan Frontal Thrust, India.  

PubMed

The Black Mango fault is a structural discontinuity that transforms motion between two segments of the active Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in northwestern India. The Black Mango fault displays evidence of two large surface rupture earthquakes during the past 650 years, subsequent to 1294 A.D. and 1423 A.D., and possibly another rupture at about 260 A.D. Displacement during the last two earthquakes was at minimum 4.6 meters and 2.4 to 4.0 meters, respectively, and possibly larger for the 260 A.D. event. Abandoned terraces of the adjacent Markanda River record uplift due to slip on the underlying HFT of 4.8 +/- 0.9 millimeters per year or greater since the mid-Holocene. The uplift rate is equivalent to rates of fault slip and crustal shortening of 9.6(-3.5)(+7.0) millimeters per year and 8.4(-3.6)(+7.3) millimeters per year, respectively, when it is assumed that the HFT dips 30 degrees +/- 10 degrees. PMID:11729266

Kumar, S; Wesnousky, S G; Rockwell, T K; Ragona, D; Thakur, V C; Seitz, G G

2001-12-14

94

Early gestation screening of pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency in urban centre in Vadodara, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Pregnancy is a special condition where many metabolic changes may occur because of increased requirement of essential micronutrients such as iron and iodine. Foetal thyroid starts producing its own thyroid hormones after 12 weeks of gestation. Therefore, the first trimester is very crucial for meeting thyroid hormone requirements of the mother and foetus. Iodine deficiency and iron deficiency may affect mental and physical growth of the foetus. Hence, it is very important to establish a programme on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid dysfunction tests along with established iron status assessment. Thus, the study was aimed to screen the pregnant women for iodine deficiency disorders and iron deficiency during early gestation, situational analysis on thyroid insufficiency and iron deficiency in pregnant women (gestational age <15 weeks) in urban Vadodara, Gujarat. n = 256 healthy pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were selected. The thyroid hormone was estimated by RIA, UIE using simple microplate technique and haemoglobin (Hb) concentration by acid hematin method. Median thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4) and UIE concentrations were 1.88 ?IU/ml, 0.83 ng/dl, 10.24 ?g/dl and 297.14 mcg/l, respectively. There was a significant correlation between TSH, FT4 and month of gestation. Mean Hb concentration was 9.27 ± 1.09 g/dl. The prevalence of iodine insufficiency (based on UI) was 16.79% and iron deficiency was 91%. Screening programme for iodine deficiency during early gestation should be implemented along with the existing programme of haemoglobin estimation at first prenatal visit. This would help prevent damage to the developing brain and growth of the foetus and also to trace at-risk pregnant women. PMID:24847692

Joshi, K; Nair, S; Khade, C; Rajan, M G R

2014-02-01

95

Early Warning of Coastal Earthquakes Using Land, Ocean and Atmospheric Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three Indian coastal earthquakes (Gujarat, Pondicherry and Andaman) have occurred near the western and eastern coasts of India. These earthquakes are known as intraplate earthquakes which occurred far from the plate boundaries. The physics of such earthquakes are still a mystery to the scientific community. These earthquakes at times have proved to be disastrous e.g. 20000 people were killed in the Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001. In the present paper, detailed analysis of remote sensing data has been carried out of various land, ocean and atmospheric parameters prior and after the earthquake. The IRS P4 OCM data have shown significant changes in chlorophyll concentration. The MODIS data from these earthquakes have shown significant changes of the land infrared thermal temperature. The surface latent heat flux retrieved from the NOAA satellites over the epicentral region of these earthquakes show anomalous increase prior to the main earthquake. Various parameters deduced from various satellites data have been analysed statistically and also using signal - noise decomposition of time series using the continuous wavelet transform. The detailed analysis of these parameters shows strong interaction between land-ocean-atmosphere prior to the earthquake. Such interaction shows anomalous behavior of land, ocean and atmospheric parameters that can be used in the early warning of impending coastal earthquakes.

Singh, R. P.; Dey, S.; Sarkar, S.; Kafatos, M.

2003-12-01

96

A new insight into crustal heterogeneity beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Northwest India and its implications for rupture initiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic characteristics of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) has been examined from the proxy indicators, relative size distribution (3D b-value mapping) and seismic tomography using a new data set to understand the role of crustal heterogeneities in rupture initiations of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of the Gujarat (India), one of the disastrous Indian earthquakes of the new millennium. The aftershocks sequence recorded by 22 seismograph stations of Gujarat Seismic Network (GSNet) during the period from 2006 to 2009, encompassing approximately 80 km × 70 km rupture area had revealed clustering of aftershocks at depth of 5-35 km, which is seismogenic layer responsible for the occurrence of continued aftershocks activity in the study region. The 3D b-value mapping estimated from a total of 3850 precisely located aftershocks with magnitude of completeness Mc ? 2.7 shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched within the main shock hypocenter at the depth of 20-25 km and low b-value region above and below of the 2001 Bhuj main shock hypocenter. Estimates of 3-D seismic velocity (Vp; Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structure beneath the region demonstrated a very close correspondence with the b-value mapping that supports the similar physicochemical processes of retaining fluids within the fractured rock matrix beneath the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter. The overall b-value is estimated close to 1.0 which reveals that seismogenesis is related to crustal heterogeneity, which, in turn also supported by low-Vs and high-? structures. The high b-value and high-? anomaly at the depth of 20-25 km indicate the presence of highly fractured heterogeneous rock matrix with fluid intrusions into it at deeper depth beneath the main shock hypocenter region. Low b-value and high-Vp in the region is observed towards the north-east and north-west of the main shock that might be an indication of the existence of relatively competent rock masses with negligible volume of cracks that may have contained over-pressurized fluids without molten rocks.

Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Kumar, Dinesh

2012-04-01

97

Real Time Inventory Management: Visual Survey of Interior Architecture Elements and Space Making Crafts of Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India, most of the inventories and documentations conducted for built heritage have been very nominal in nature and completely overlook the rich and opulent characters of the built form. This creates an imperative need of identifying and creating a detailed inventory of Interior Architecture (I.A.) Elements together with the SMCs and SSCs. This paper presents the process and the technique developed and termed as Real Time Visual Mapping (RTVM). RTVM is a procedure that incorporates the tablet survey, developed using open source tools, and is the first of its kind visual survey technique in India. The procedure comprises of an interactive form for mapping and helps manage the inventory generated from semi-urban and urban areas. The technique allows the user to transfer the mapped data in real time from the field, which can be produced through an interactive catalogue and map application. The recorded inputs reveal data ranging from type of elements to materials used, along with the various levels of traditional building crafts and expressions involved.

Routh, R.; Singh, N.; Shah, P.

2013-07-01

98

Source parameters of earthquakes in northeast India from spectra of Rayleigh waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative description of eight earthquakes in northeast India, in terms of seismic moment, dislocation, apparent stress and apparent average strain is sought. The analysis is based on the theory of radiation pattern of surface waves from buried seismic sources proposed by Ben-Menahem and Harkrider (1964). Further, it makes use of the amplitude spectra of digitally recorded Rayleigh waves at the Central Seismological Observatory in Erlangen (GRF), F.R. Germany. The amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves are corrected for instrument response, path propagation effects and effects of the radiation pattern. Published results on attenuation and focal mechanism solutions are utilized to arrive at reasonable estimates of the quantities under investigation. Comparison of the calculated values is also made with the estimates based on body-wave spectra. It is concluded that the earthquakes in northeast India are of low moment type. The faulting process is supposed to be non-homogeneous, which results in low estimates of seismic source parameters and a characteristic source time function (Upadhyay and Duda, 1980). Comparison of source parameter values with known estimates for intraplate earthquake is made. For equal-magnitude earthquakes, intraplate earthquakes are characterized by higher seismic moment. Two of the earthquakes ( Ms = 6.3) considered here are compared with the Koyna earthquake of Dec. 10, 1967. Emphasis is laid on development of theoretical models to account for the strain build-up rates in inter- and intraplate earthquakes.

Upadhyay, S. K.; Ahuja, V. K.

1981-06-01

99

The State-Led Large Scale Public Private Partnership 'Chiranjeevi Program' to Increase Access to Institutional Delivery among Poor Women in Gujarat, India: How Has It Done? What Can We Learn?  

PubMed Central

Background Many low-middle income countries have focused on improving access to and quality of obstetric care, as part of promoting a facility based intra-partum care strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The state of Gujarat in India, implements a facility based intra-partum care program through its large for-profit private obstetric sector, under a state-led public-private-partnership, the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY), under which the state pays accredited private obstetricians to perform deliveries for poor/tribal women. We examine CY performance, its contribution to overall trends in institutional deliveries in Gujarat over the last decade and its effect on private and public sector deliveries there. Methods District level institutional delivery data (public, private, CY), national surveys, poverty estimates, census data were used. Institutional delivery trends in Gujarat 2000–2010 are presented; including contributions of different sectors and CY. Piece-wise regression was used to study the influence of the CY program on public and private sector institutional delivery. Results Institutional delivery rose from 40.7% (2001) to 89.3% (2010), driven by sharp increases in private sector deliveries. Public sector and CY contributed 25–29% and 13–16% respectively of all deliveries each year. In 2007, 860 of 2000 private obstetricians participated in CY. Since 2007, >600,000 CY deliveries occurred i.e. one-third of births in the target population. Caesareans under CY were 6%, higher than the 2% reported among poor women by the DLHS survey just before CY. CY did not influence the already rising proportion of private sector deliveries in Gujarat. Conclusion This paper reports a state-led, fully state-funded, large-scale public-private partnership to improve poor women’s access to institutional delivery - there have been >600,000 beneficiaries. While caesarean proportions are higher under CY than before, it is uncertain if all beneficiaries who require sections receive these. Other issues to explore include quality of care, provider attrition and the relatively low coverage.

De Costa, Ayesha; Vora, Kranti S.; Ryan, Kayleigh; Sankara Raman, Parvathy; Santacatterina, Michele; Mavalankar, Dileep

2014-01-01

100

New discovery of coral rubbings in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India — GIS based evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Kachchh in western India, with its arid climate, large semi-diurnal tidal amplitudes, negative water balance and near-pristine water quality, is being extensively developed as oil importing bases for economic reasons in connection with its proximity to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Besides, new coral rubbings were sighted in Jakhau, north-western Gulf of Kachchh. Dredging in Mandvi of the north Gulf covering 3.5 km2 revealed a similar assortment of live corals with their associated flora and fauna. These pioneering observations demonstrate that there exist live corals of young polyps-colony of Favia sp. belonging to the family Faviidae in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh. The environmental parameters there were carefully recorded as: surface water temperature (°C) varying from 29 to 31.8, salinity (ppt), pH, dissolved oxygen (mgL-1) and total suspended solids (mgL-1) in the ranges of 37-43.5, 7.7-8.45, 5.4-6.8 and 11-31, respectively.

Sesh Serebiah, J.; Rajkumar, M.; Sun, Jun; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thivakaran, G. A.

2011-06-01

101

Triggered and tectonic driven earthquakes in the Koyna-Warna region, western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two strong M > 5.0 earthquakes within a span of six months occurred in a triggered seismicity environment in the Koyna-Warna region in western India in 2000. The region is experiencing continued seismicity since the last five decades indicating that this region is close to critical stresses and minor perturbations in the stresses due to reservoir loading and unloading can trigger earthquakes. In the present study we applied the technique developed for identification of prognostic anomalies for tectonic earthquakes to the Koyna-Warna catalogue prior to these two earthquakes with an aim to study the process of source preparation for triggered earthquakes. In case of tectonic earthquakes, unstable conditions in a source zone develop gradually leading to a metastable zone which shows variations in certain seismicity parameters known as prognostic anomalies. Our results indicate that the variations in seismicity parameters before the two strong earthquakes in the Koyna region have a pattern of prognostic anomalies typical of tectonic earthquakes. We conclude that initiation of failure in a metastable zone can be caused both, by external impacts, reservoir loading and unloading in our case, and internal processes of avalanche-like failure development.

Smirnov, V.; Chadha, R. K.; Ponomarev, A.; Srinagesh, D.; Potanina, M.

2014-07-01

102

Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

Hough, S. E.; Pande, P.

2007-01-01

103

Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India Biju John National Institute of Rock Mechanics b_johnp@yahoo.co.in Peninsular India was for long considered as seismically stable. But the recent earthquake sequence of Latur (1993), Jabalpur (1997), Bhuj (2001) suggests this region is among one of the active Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) of the world, where the recurrence intervals is of the order of tens of thousands of years. In such areas, earthquake may happen at unexpected locations, devoid of any previous seismicity or dramatic geomorphic features. Even moderate earthquakes will lead to heavy loss of life and property in the present scenario. So it is imperative to map suspected areas to identify active faults and evaluate its activities, which will be a vital input to seismic hazard assessment of SCR area. The region around Wadakkanchery, Kerala, South India has been experiencing micro seismic activities since 1989. Subsequent studies, by the author, identified a 30 km long WNW-ESE trending reverse fault, dipping south (45°), that influenced the drainage system of the area. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of the fault rocks from the exposures near Desamangalam show an episodic nature of faulting. Dislocations of pegmatitic veins across the fault indicate a cumulative dip displacement of 2.1m in the reverse direction. A minimum of four episodes of faulting were identified in this fault based on the cross cutting relations of different structural elements and from the mineralogic changes of different generations of gouge zones. This suggests that an average displacement of 52cm per event might have occurred for each event. A cyclic nature of faulting is identified in this fault zone in which the inter-seismic period is characterized by gouge induration and fracture sealing aided by the prevailing fluids. Available empirical relations connecting magnitude with displacement and rupture length show that each event might have produced an earthquake of magnitude ? 6.0, which could be a damaging one to an area like peninsular India. Electron Spin Resonance dating of fault gouge indicates a major event around 430ka. In the present stress regime this fault can be considered as seismically active, because the orientation of the fault is favorable for reactivation.

John, B.

2009-04-01

104

A re-assessment of focal depth distributions in southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India: do earthquakes really occur in the continental mantle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the depth distribution of earthquakes within the continental lithosphere of southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India by using synthetic seismograms to analyse P and SH body waveforms. In the Zagros mountains of southern Iran, earthquakes are apparently restricted to the upper crust (depths of <20km), whereas in the Tien Shan and northern India they occur throughout

A. Maggi; J. A. Jackson; K. Priestley; C. Baker

2000-01-01

105

The 1993 Killari (Latur), central India, earthquake: An example of fault reactivation in the Precambrian crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The September 30, 1993, Killari event in central India is a rare incidence of an earthquake occurring within a Precambrian craton. A pertinent question concerning seismicity in such regions is whether a preexisting fault exists and, if so, what is its reactivation interval? Our studies in the 1993 rupture zone suggest that the Killari earthquake occurred in a region of previous seismic activity. Older thrust sheets and fault gouge, presumably formed during previous episodes, were exposed in a deep trench. The studies also indicated an obsequent fault-line scarp, aligned with the current rupture zone. The morphological features in the area suggest mass removal of the upper part of the hanging wall on the southwestern side of the rupture. Existence of a prominent northwest-striking structure passing through the epicentral zone is revealed in the digital Landsat data. These data, together with the spatial trend of historic earthquakes along the northwest-striking structure, reinforce the argument that the earthquake at Killari is related to the reactivation of a preexisting fault.

Rajendran, C. P.; Rajendran, Kusala; John, Biju

1996-07-01

106

Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November 2002. Earthquakes with magnitude range from 3.8 to 4.9 have been taken into account. The time domain coda decay method of a single back scattering model is used to calculate frequency dependent values of Coda Q (Qc) where as, the source parameters like seismic moment(Mo), stress drop, source radius(r), radiant energy(Wo),and strain drop are estimated using displacement amplitude spectrum of body wave using Brune's model. The earthquakes with magnitude range 3.8 to 4.9 have been used for estimation Qc at six central frequencies 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, and 18.0 Hz. In the present work, the Qc value of local earthquakes are estimated to understand the attenuation characteristic, source parameters and tectonic activity of the region. Based on a criteria of homogeneity in the geological characteristics and the constrains imposed by the distribution of available events the study region has been classified into three zones such as the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ), Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ), Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ). It follows the power law Qc= Qo (f/fo)n where, Qo is the quality factor at the reference frequency (1Hz) fo and n is the frequency parameter which varies from region to region. The mean values of Qc reveals a dependence on frequency, varying from 292.9 at 1.5 Hz to 4880.1 at 18 Hz. Average frequency dependent relationship Qc values obtained of the Northeastern India is 198 f 1.035, while this relationship varies from the region to region such as, Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ): Qc= 226 f 1.11, Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) : Qc= 301 f 0.87, Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc=126 fo 0.85. It indicates Northeastern India is seismically active but comparing of all zones in the study region the Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc= 126 f 0.85 is seismically most active. Where as the Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) are less active and out of three the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)is intermediate active. This study may be useful for the seismic hazard assessment. The estimated seismic moments (Mo), range from 5.98×1020 to 3.88×1023 dyne-cm. The source radii(r) are confined between 152 to 1750 meter, the stress drop ranges between 0.0003×103 bar to 1.04×103 bar, the average radiant energy is 82.57×1018 ergs and the strain drop for the earthquake ranges from 0.00602×10-9 to 2.48×10-9 respectively. The estimated stress drop values for NE India depicts scattered nature of the larger seismic moment value whereas, they show a more systematic nature for smaller seismic moment values. The estimated source parameters are in agreement to previous works in this type of tectonic set up. Key words: Coda wave, Seismic source parameters, Lapse time, single back scattering model, Brune's model, Stress drop and North East India.

Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

2010-12-01

107

Cowpea golden mosaic disease in Gujarat is caused by a Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus isolate with a DNA B variant  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been assumed that cowpea golden mosaic disease (CGMD) in southern Asia is caused by a begomovirus distinct from\\u000a those causing disease in other legumes. The components of a begomovirus causing CGMD in western India were isolated, cloned\\u000a and sequenced. Analysis of the sequences shows the virus to be an isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus, but

P. John; P. N. Sivalingam; Q. M. I. Haq; N. Kumar; A. Mishra; R. W. Briddon; V. G. Malathi

2008-01-01

108

Source-mechanism of the burma—india border earthquake of october 17, 1969  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focal mechanism for the Burma—India Border earthquake of October 17, 1969 has been determined using the P-wave first motions, S-wave polarization angles and surface wave spectral data. A combination of thrust and strike-slip faulting is obtained along a plane with a strike N 34° W, dip 26° SW and slip angle 141°. The direction of rupture propagation is southward. This earthquake, which occurred at latitude 23°N, indicates north-south compression and change in the thrusting direction which is in general eastwest in the Burma region. This earthquake mechanism may suggest southward underthrusting of the Burmese block or contortion of the lithospheric block of the Indian plate. The source-parameters have been estimated for this event using the body and surface wave spectra. From the surface waves, calculated values of the magnitude, radiated energy, moment and apparent stress are 5.7, 0.21 × 10 21ergs, 0.32 × 10 26 dyne-cm and 2 bar, respectively. From P-waves the seismic moment, fault length, stress drop and dislocation are determined to be 0.9 × 10 26 dyne-cm, 51 km, 2.4 bar and 15 cm, respectively.

Singh, D. D.; Rastogi, B. K.

1980-08-01

109

Ethnomedical information and in vitro screening for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition of plants utilized as traditional medicines in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Kerala (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants utilized as traditional medicines in India have been investigated for their ability to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). In total, 75 species belonging to 42 families have been investigated and new ethnomedical information has been obtained for 41 species. Four species were found to possess a high ACE inhibiting ability and were low in their tannin content.

U Nyman; P Joshi; L. B Madsen; T. B Pedersen; M Pinstrup; S Rajasekharan; V George; P Pushpangadan

1998-01-01

110

2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

Cramer, C. H.; Kumar, A.

2003-01-01

111

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline of basic information on earthquakes starts with an explanation of an earthquake, including the forces acting on rock, (tension, compression, and shear) and plastic and elastic deformation of rock. Next, the principle of the seismograph, seismometer, and seismogram along with the three types of seismic waves are discussed. Information is then presented to help the student distinguish between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, describe the world-wide distribution pattern of earthquake activity, and explain the earthquake magnitude (Richter) scale and the Modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity. This site also includes an explanation of how the epicenter of an earthquake can be located. There is a discussion of some past earthquakes along with a description of the effects of earthquake activity.

Gore, Pamela

112

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will participate in a virtual earthquake lab where they will locate an epicenter and measure Richter Scale magnitude. They will also plot the positions of earthquakes that occurred that day. 1) Go to Virtual Earthquake website and follow instructions to complete the online lab assignment. 2) Go to the USGS earthquake site. Take a few minutes to explore the earthquakes displayed on the world map. Click on \\"M2.5/4+ Earthquake List\\". Use the world map provided by your teacher to plot the locations ...

Hemedinger, Mrs.

2007-11-26

113

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

... for Pet Owners Frequently Asked Questions Additional Information Tornadoes Preparing for a Tornado (Part 1 of 2) ... Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Earthquakes Language: English ...

114

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the causes of earthquakes and their impact on the geology of an area and on human societies. They begin by looking at the role tectonic plates play in creating the forces that cause earthquakes, to help them understand why earthquakes occur when and where they do. Hands-on activities illustrate how rocks can withstand a certain amount of stress, but that every material has its breaking point. When rocks break underground, an earthquake occurs. In the last section, students explore the impact earthquakes have on humans and look at the efforts scientists are making to better understand and predict these sometimes deadly events.

2006-01-01

115

Pollution monitoring of coastal and estuarine areas: I. Bacterial indicators along the south Gujarat coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to assess the validity of enteric and supplemental bacterial indicators along the 115-km length of the south Gujarat region (India). Enteric organisms like Proteus and Klebsiella , Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Shigella were detected in 74, 25, 4 and 2 % respectively of the 47 samples. Supplemental indicators such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae like

C. Mohandass; Shanta Nair; C. T. Achuthankutty; P. A. Loka

116

To Study the Prevalence of Various Enteric Parasitic Infections Among HIV Infected Individuals in the P.D.U. Medical College and Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV infected individuals. The present study was undertaken to detect the enteric parasites in HIV infected patients with diarrhoea, who were at different levels of immunity. Methods: This study was carried out in the P.D.U Medical College and Civil Hospital, Rajkot, India. during the period from June 2009 to June 2010. A total of 100 stool samples from HIV seropositive patients were examined for opportunistic, gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The samples were classified according to the age groups, sex, and occupation, a history of diarrhoea and different categories of the CD4 cell count. The stool samples were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy and by special staining methods. The CD4 cell counts were estimated by using the FACS count system. Results: The intestinal parasitic pathogens were detected in 28% patients. Among all, Isospora appeared to have the highest prevalence (18%), followed by Giardia lamblia (5%), Strongyloides stercoralies (3%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (2%). In the HIV infected patients with a CD4 count of < 200 cells/?l, Isospora was the most commonly observed (56%) pathogen. The proportion of the opportunistic pathogens in the patients with CD4 counts of <200 cells/?l was significantly higher as compared to those in the other two groups of patients with CD4 counts of >200 respectively. Interpretation and conclusions: Parasitic infections were detected in 28% of the HIV infected patients and a low CD4 count was significantly associated with an opportunistic infection. The detection of the aetiologic pathogens might help the clinicians in deciding the appropriate management strategies.

Mehta, Krunal Dineshbhai; Vacchani, Avani; Mistry, Madhulika M.; Kavathia, Ghanshyam U.; Goswami, Yogesh S.

2013-01-01

117

January 26, 2001 Gujrat, India Earthquake - A Report of Preliminary Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnitude Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred during the morning hours of India's Republic Day celebration on January 26, 2001 near the margin of the Indian sub-continent in the Kachchh region. The revised hypocentral location for this event by the USGS has an estimated depth of 17 km. Its seismic moment is estimated at 6.2x1028 dyne-cm. The teleseismic P waves are sharp at all stations indicating an abrupt large slip on the fault plane. Within 3-4 minutes Bhuj, Anjar, Bachau, Gandhidham, Kukuma, Ratnar, Lodai, Kottar and many other nearby villages were in ruins. Isolated collapses of mid-size buildings occurred in Ahmedabad located about 240 km away and Surat located at about 360 km. The transverse and longitudinal ground motions recorded at the ground floor of a mid-rise building show motions were as high as 0.11g and lasted for about 30s. These motions are relatively large. There is, however, a suspicion about the performance of the recording station. Using the empirical attenuation relations of Abrahamson and Silva for western North America, we expect about 0.0262g and 0.035g for rock and soil sites, respectively in Ahmedabad. The city itself is located at the bank of Sabarmati River and is built on sediments whose thickness varies between about 2 to 4 km. It is quite likely that the ground motion was amplified by the basin structure. So far, the primary source of waveform data from the mainshock is from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) in Seattle, Washington, and includes stations located at upper-mantle and teleseismic distances. Using the teleseismic P-wave seismograms, Yagi and Kikuchi developed initial slip models for the two possible fault planes of this earthquake using a source depth of 10 km. Both of these slip models indicate a westward rupture and 6- 8 meters of displacement at the centroid. We have also inverted the teleseismic P waves independently using a source depth of 18 km to be consistent with the USGS and Harvard hypocentral locations. Based on our inverted slip model, we predict a co- seismic deformation of about 2 m at the bedrock for the south dipping fault. These ground displacements are large enough to have caused the liquefaction phenomena observed by various investigating groups. During our visit to the epicentral region, we were in several location where lateral spreading in sediment was extensively observed. We are at present analyzing regional seismograms recorded from this earthquake.

Saikia, C. K.; Somerville, P. G.; Ichinose, G.; Thio, H.

2001-05-01

118

India: Kachchh  

... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

2013-04-16

119

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake: Global lessons for earthquake hazard in intra-plate regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh District of the State of Gujarat, India on 26 January 2001, and was one of the most damaging intraplate earthquakes ever recorded. This earthquake is in many ways similar to the three great New Madrid earthquakes that occurred in the central United States in 1811-1812, An Indo-US team is studying the similarities and differences of these sequences in order to learn lessons for earthquake hazard in intraplate regions. Herein we present some preliminary conclusions from that study. Both the Kutch and New Madrid regions have rift type geotectonic setting. In both regions the strain rates are of the order of 10-9/yr and attenuation of seismic waves as inferred from observations of intensity and liquefaction are low. These strain rates predict recurrence intervals for Bhuj or New Madrid sized earthquakes of several thousand years or more. In contrast, intervals estimated from paleoseismic studies and from other independent data are significantly shorter, probably hundreds of years. All these observations together may suggest that earthquakes relax high ambient stresses that are locally concentrated by rheologic heterogeneities, rather than loading by plate-tectonic forces. The latter model generally underlies basic assumptions made in earthquake hazard assessment, that the long-term average rate of energy released by earthquakes is determined by the tectonic loading rate, which thus implies an inherent average periodicity of earthquake occurrence. Interpreting the observations in terms of the former model therefore may require re-examining the basic assumptions of hazard assessment.

Schweig, E.; Gomberg, J.; Petersen, M.; Ellis, M.; Bodin, P.; Mayrose, L.; Rastogi, B. K.

2003-01-01

120

Magnetotelluric studies in the Central India Tectonic Zone: Implications for intraplate stress regimes and generation of shallow earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central India Tectonic Zone (CITZ) dissects the Indian Peninsula into the northern and southern crustal blocks. The CITZ has been a seismically active region since the Precambrian. Whereas the relatively deep crustal earthquakes near the Narmada faults in the eastern part of the CITZ have been well-investigated, the mechanisms for the shallow earthquakes in the western part remain unknown. Here we present results from a new magnetotelluric study to derive the crustal structure and to understand its implications. Our data show a thick and highly resistive (>500 ohm m) crust in the south of Tapti River, as against a less resistive one in the north. These results in conjunction with heat flow values indicate that the crust below the southern part has stable continental cratonic signatures. On the northern side of the Tapti River, we infer the ascent of basaltic magmas from the mantle into the shallow crust and crystallization into layered intrusions. These mafic-ultramafic bodies could be a potential cause for the shallow earthquakes in the western part of the CITZ. The mafic-ultramafic bodies below the crust of CITZ would locally modify the intraplate stresses, which in turn would facilitate the occurrence of earthquakes due to reactivation of pre-existing faults. Thus, the large accumulation of strain energy in the deep crust beneath the region can be attributed to the presence of high stress bodies emplaced at depth during the Deccan Volcanic activity.

Naganjaneyulu, K.; Aggarwal, Lavika; Santosh, M.

2013-12-01

121

Earthquake!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

Hernandez, Hildo

2000-01-01

122

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

... earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking of the earth, caused by the breaking and shifting of subterranean ... the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the earth, as the huge plates that form the earth’s ...

123

Earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature is a severe earthquake and its terrible aftereffects. An earthquake is a sudden movement of the Earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years, the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the Earth as the huge plates that form the Earth's surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. Sometimes the movement is gradual. At other times, the plates are locked together, unable to release the accumulating energy. When the accumulated energy grows strong enough, the plates break free. If the earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause many deaths and injuries and extensive property damage. Today we are challenging the assumption that earthquakes must present an uncontrollable and unpredictable hazard to life and property. Scientists have begun to estimate the locations and likelihoods of future damaging earthquakes. Sites of greatest hazard are being identified, and definite progress is being made in designing structures that will withstand the effects of earthquakes.

Shedlock, Kaye M.; Pakiser, Louis Charles

1998-01-01

124

Post-Seismic surface deformation studies between India and Burma and the Indian plate kinematics by GPS-Geodesy due to recurrent earthquakes off the coast of Sumatra.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recurring earthquakes off the Sumatra coast even after the devastating earthquake of December 26, 2004, the studies on the influence of these earthquakes on the deformation between India and Burma and the Indian plate kinematics assume a greater urgency. The earlier studies that have been independently carried out using GPS -Geodesy and in a global network solution requires reevaluation. After the December 26, 2004 earthquake, the global network that was formed earlier consisting of 15 IGS GPS stations in and around India encompassing all the plates surrounding India, and having HYDE and IISC in the central India as the core stations are being reassessed now after the September 12 2007 earthquake. Earlier 18 days of GPS data including before and after the earthquake were used in the global network analysis using Bernese software version 4.2 in ITRF-2000 Reference Frame. The baseline lengths from Hyderabad to other chosen sites and the rate of changes were also estimated. Our results show a significant shift of 7.3 mm for HYDE and 7.9 mm for IISC respectively, the stations, which are of primary importance as far as Indian plate kinematic studies are concerned. These two sites which are located in the southern hemisphere of India and around the Northern Indian Ocean show an increasing trend of convergence towards NE and specifically towards the Burmese plate that's corroborated by Vigney C. et al., Nature, July 2005. All these already estimated results are being reprocessed in ITRF-2005 Reference Frame by including a larger data set from 1995 to till date. Our earlier estimation also showed that the stations in Eurasia remain almost constant with time and in essence the whole Indian peninsula has moved by about 7.3mm towards east longitude and Burmese plate, which are also being reevaluated.

Ec, M.; Narayana Babu, R.

2007-12-01

125

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online lesson that can be transferred into a classroom instructional activity by the teacher. This lesson simplifies the concepts while pushing the the higher order thinking concepts with scaffolding all concepts of the layers of the earth, plate tectonics, P and S waves, creating a model of an earthquake. Students enjoy this lesson and have been able to improve on assessment after completing the Earthquake lesson. Teachers will enjoy the online printable worksheets that correlate to the lesson/data sheets and the variety of choices while using the interactive tool for whole group instruction. There are many choices for formative assessment as well as summamtive assessment.

U.S. Geological Survey Joy Lopez, M.A., teacher Scott Hassler, Ph.D. Geologist

2011-10-14

126

Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

I HAVE observed, in several recent numbers of NATURE, various notices of earthquakes, so frequent as to suggest the idea to me (perhaps incorrect) that for several months past they have been more numerous than usual. Since my arrival in West Java I have experienced several severe shocks. On March 28, between 7 and 8 P.M., I was startled by

Henry O. Forbes

1879-01-01

127

The 2001 Bhuj Earthquake: Interplate, Intraplate, or Moot?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On January 26, 2001, Republic Day in India, a Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Kachchh region, in the state of Gujarat, India. Four red flags were waved almost immediately. First, the earthquake occurred many hundreds of kms away from the nearest plate boundary. Second, the earthquake was felt from Calcutta to Madras to Katmandu, an area 16 times that of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Third, the Bhuj earthquake occurred in a failed rift that is in part seismically active, and last but not least, despite the relatively shallow hypocenter and large magnitude, the earthquake appeared to have no surface rupture. Each of these strongly bring to mind the great New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-1812, and so the debate began: was Bhuj an intraplate or interplate earthquake? Or is this a mootish red herring? The debate was fueled by early analyses of aftershock data collected by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) that shows aftershocks (and most likely the main rupture) to densely populate depths of 20 to 37 km. The possibility of coseismic rupture well into the lower crust is particularly relevant to scaling issues and in understanding the origin of seismic moment in the New Madrid earthquakes. Intraplate, interplate, or moot? Certainly, the earthquake did not occur on the well-defined plate boundary between India and Eurasia. (In contrast to the diffuse northern boundary, the southern boundary is relatively well-defined, and the proposition that the setting is similar to that of the western USA is nonsense.) The closest plate boundary runs through Karachi, about 500 km to the northeast, and the orientation there of active structures and by inference, principal compression, is essentially orthogonal to those in the Bhuj region and to the probable E-W rupture plane. On the other hand, the principal compression of the Bhuj earthquake is essentially parallel to the relative motion of India with respect to Euasia and so the connection to India-Euasia convergence is not absent. There is probably sufficient compliance in the Indian subcontinent to yield an earthquake of Bhuj-magnitude at any particular longitude every thousand years or so. The fact that a similar earthquake occurred in 1819 essentially next door to Bhuj (in the Rann of Kachchh) probably reflects the relative weakness of the failed rift region and possibly the slow transfer of appropriately oriented deviatoric stresses to the Bhuj area. Regardless of its label, the Bhuj earthquake carries enormous potential for understanding the effects of earthquakes that occur away from established (high-strain rate) plate boundaries and for understanding how ruptures may propagate into the lower crust. An open question is, can a Bhuj-type earthquake be generated within a bona fide and unequivocal plate boundary or are the appropriate conditions available only in very low strain-rate regions?

Ellis, M. A.

2001-12-01

128

Paleoseismological evidence of surface faulting along the northeastern Himalayan front, India: Timing, size, and spatial extent of great earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ˜2500 km long Himalayan arc has experienced three large to great earthquakes of Mw 7.8 to 8.4 during the past century, but none produced surface rupture. Paleoseismic studies have been conducted during the last decade to begin understanding the timing, size, rupture extent, return period, and mechanics of the faulting associated with the occurrence of large surface rupturing earthquakes along the ˜2500 km long Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) system of India and Nepal. The previous studies have been limited to about nine sites along the western two-thirds of the HFT extending through northwest India and along the southern border of Nepal. We present here the results of paleoseismic investigations at three additional sites further to the northeast along the HFT within the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. The three sites reside between the meizoseismal areas of the 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam earthquakes. The two westernmost of the sites, near the village of Chalsa and near the Nameri Tiger Preserve, show that offsets during the last surface rupture event were at minimum of about 14 m and 12 m, respectively. Limits on the ages of surface rupture at Chalsa (site A) and Nameri (site B), though broad, allow the possibility that the two sites record the same great historical rupture reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. The correlation between the two sites is supported by the observation that the large displacements as recorded at Chalsa and Nameri would most likely be associated with rupture lengths of hundreds of kilometers or more and are on the same order as reported for a surface rupture earthquake reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. Assuming the offsets observed at Chalsa and Nameri occurred synchronously with reported offsets in Nepal, the rupture length of the event would approach 700 to 800 km. The easternmost site is located within Harmutty Tea Estate (site C) at the edges of the 1950 Assam earthquake meizoseismal area. Here the most recent event offset is relatively much smaller (<2.5 m), and radiocarbon dating shows it to have occurred after A.D. 1100 (after about A.D. 1270). The location of the site near the edge of the meizoseismal region of the 1950 Assam earthquake and the relatively lesser offset allows speculation that the displacement records the 1950 Mw 8.4 Assam earthquake. Scatter in radiocarbon ages on detrital charcoal has not resulted in a firm bracket on the timing of events observed in the trenches. Nonetheless, the observations collected here, when taken together, suggest that the largest of thrust earthquakes along the Himalayan arc have rupture lengths and displacements of similar scale to the largest that have occurred historically along the world's subduction zones.

Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Nakata, T.; Kumahara, Y.; Singh, Vimal

2010-12-01

129

India  

article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

2013-04-16

130

Earthquake.  

PubMed

On January 25, 1 week after the most devastating earthquake in Los Angeles history, the Southern California Hospital Council released the following status report: 928 patients evacuated from damaged hospitals. 805 beds available (136 critical, 669 noncritical). 7,757 patients treated/released from EDs. 1,496 patients treated/admitted to hospitals. 61 dead. 9,309 casualties. Where do we go from here? We are still waiting for the "big one." We'll do our best to be ready when Mother Nature shakes, rattles and rolls. The efforts of Los Angeles City Fire Chief Donald O. Manning cannot be overstated. He maintained department command of this major disaster and is directly responsible for implementing the fire department's Disaster Preparedness Division in 1987. Through the chief's leadership and ability to forecast consequences, the city of Los Angeles was better prepared than ever to cope with this horrendous earthquake. We also pay tribute to the men and women who are out there each day, where "the rubber meets the road." PMID:10133439

Cowen, A R; Denney, J P

1994-04-01

131

Modelling of Strong Ground Motions from 1991 Uttarkashi, India, Earthquake Using a Hybrid Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple and efficient hybrid technique for simulating earthquake strong ground motion. This procedure is the combination of the techniques of envelope function (M idorikawa et al. Tectonophysics 218:287-295, 1993) and composite source model (Z eng et al. Geophys Res Lett 21:725-728, 1994). The first step of the technique is based on the construction of the envelope function of the large earthquake by superposition of envelope functions for smaller earthquakes. The smaller earthquakes (sub-events) of varying sizes are distributed randomly, instead of uniform distribution of same size sub-events, on the fault plane. The accelerogram of large event is then obtained by combining the envelope function with a band-limited white noise. The low-cut frequency of the band-limited white noise is chosen to correspond to the corner frequency for the target earthquake magnitude and the high-cut to the Boore's f max or a desired frequency for the simulation. Below the low-cut frequency, the fall-off slope is 2 in accordance with the ?2 earthquake source model. The technique requires the parameters such as fault area, orientation of the fault, hypocenter, size of the sub-events, stress drop, rupture velocity, duration, source-site distance and attenuation parameter. The fidelity of the technique has been demonstrated by successful modeling of the 1991 Uttarkashi, Himalaya earthquake (Ms 7). The acceptable locations of the sub-events on the fault plane have been determined using a genetic algorithm. The main characteristics of the simulated accelerograms, comprised of the duration of strong ground shaking, peak ground acceleration and Fourier and response spectra, are, in general, in good agreement with those observed at most of the sites. At some of the sites the simulated accelerograms differ from observed ones by a factor of 2-3. The local site geology and topography may cause such a difference, as these effects have not been considered in the present technique. The advantage of the technique lies in the fact that detailed parameters such as velocity-Q structures and empirical Green's functions are not required or the records of the actual time history from the past earthquakes are not available. This method may find its application in preparing a wide range of scenarios based on simulation. This provides information that is complementary to the information available in probabilistic hazard maps.

Kumar, Dinesh; Teotia, S. S.; Sriram, V.

2011-10-01

132

Comparative analysis for detecting areas with building damage from several destructive earthquakes using satellite synthetic aperture radar images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes that have caused large-scale damage in developed areas, such as the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe events, remind us of the importance of making quick damage assessments in order to facilitate the resumption of normal activities and restoration planning. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be used to record physical aspects of the Earth's surface under any weather conditions, making it a powerful tool in the development of an applicable method for assessing damage following natural disasters. Detailed building damage data recorded on the ground following the 1995 Kobe earthquake may provide an invaluable opportunity to investigate the relationship between the backscattering properties and the degree of damage. This paper aims to investigate the differences between the backscattering coefficients and the correlations derived from pre- and post-earthquake SAR intensity images to smoothly detect areas with building damage. This method was then applied to SAR images recorded over the areas affected by the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake in Turkey, the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India, and the 2003 Boumerdes earthquake in Algeria. The accuracy of the proposed method was examined and confirmed by comparing the results of the SAR analyses with the field survey data.

Matsuoka, Masashi; Yamazaki, Fumio

2010-11-01

133

Estimation of ground motion for Bhuj (26 January 2001; Mw 7.6 and for future earthquakes in India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only five moderate and large earthquakes (Mw ???5.7) in India-three in the Indian shield region and two in the Himalayan arc region-have given rise to multiple strong ground-motion recordings. Near-source data are available for only two of these events. The Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6), which occurred in the shield region, gave rise to useful recordings at distances exceeding 550 km. Because of the scarcity of the data, we use the stochastic method to estimate ground motions. We assume that (1) S waves dominate at R < 100 km and Lg waves at R ??? 100 km, (2) Q = 508f0.48 is valid for the Indian shield as well as the Himalayan arc region, (3) the effective duration is given by fc-1 + 0.05R, where fc is the corner frequency, and R is the hypocentral distance in kilometer, and (4) the acceleration spectra are sharply cut off beyond 35 Hz. We use two finite-source stochastic models. One is an approximate model that reduces to the ??2-source model at distances greater that about twice the source dimension. This model has the advantage that the ground motion is controlled by the familiar stress parameter, ????. In the other finite-source model, which is more reliable for near-source ground-motion estimation, the high-frequency radiation is controlled by the strength factor, sfact, a quantity that is physically related to the maximum slip rate on the fault. We estimate ???? needed to fit the observed Amax and Vmax data of each earthquake (which are mostly in the far field). The corresponding sfact is obtained by requiring that the predicted curves from the two models match each other in the far field up to a distance of about 500 km. The results show: (1) The ???? that explains Amax data for shield events may be a function of depth, increasing from ???50 bars at 10 km to ???400 bars at 36 km. The corresponding sfact values range from 1.0-2.0. The ???? values for the two Himalayan arc events are 75 and 150 bars (sfact = 1.0 and 1.4). (2) The ???? required to explain Vmax data is, roughly, half the corresponding value for Amax, while the same sfact explains both sets of data. (3) The available far-field Amax and Vmax data for the Bhuj mainshock are well explained by ???? = 200 and 100 bars, respectively, or, equivalently, by sfact = 1.4. The predicted Amax and Vmax in the epicentral region of this earthquake are 0.80 to 0.95 g and 40 to 55 cm/sec, respectively.

Singh, S. K.; Bansal, B. K.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Pacheco, J. F.; Dattatrayam, R. S.; Ordaz, M.; Suresh, G.; Kamal; Hough, S. E.

2003-01-01

134

As India's Plates Collide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

135

Seismotectonics in Northeast India: a stress analysis of focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes and its kinematic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Northeast India, three major plates interact along two convergent boundaries: the Himalayas and the Indo-Burma Ranges, which meet at the Assam Syntaxis. To clarify this tectonic interaction and the underlying dynamics, we determine the regional seismotectonic stress from the stress inversion of 285 double couple focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes with an average magnitude of 5. We then compare the reconstructed stress regimes with the available information about geodetically determined relative displacements. North-south compression, in a direction consistent with India-Eurasia convergence, prevails in the whole area from the Eastern Himalayas to the Bengal Basin, through the Shillong-Mikir Massif and the Upper Assam Valley. E-W extension in Tibet is related to this N-S India-Eurasia convergence. Not only does the major N-S compression affect the outer segments of the Indo-Burma Ranges, it also extends into the descending slab of Indian lithosphere below these ranges, although stresses at depth are controlled by bending of the slab beneath the Burmese arc. The existence of widespread N-S compression in the Bengal Basin, far away from the Himalayan front, is compatible with the previously proposed convergence between a Shillong-Mikir-Assam Valley block and the Indian craton. E-W compression inside this block supports the hypothesis of a component of eastward extrusion. Stress inversion of focal mechanism solutions in the Indo-Burma Ranges reveals a complex stress pattern. The Burmese arc and its underlying lithosphere experience nearly arc-perpendicular extension with ESE-WNW trends in the northernmost, NE-trending segment and ENE-WSW trends in the main N-S arc segment. Such extensional stress, documented from many arcs, is likely a response to pull from and bending of the subducting plate. At the same time, the Indo-Burma Ranges are under compression as a result of oblique convergence between the Sunda and Indian plates. The maximum compressive stress rotates from NE-SW across the inner and northern arc to E-W near the Bengal Basin. This rotation is consistent with the deformation partitioning reflected in the rotation of relative displacement vectors, from a SSW-directed Sunda-Burma motion to a WSW-directed Burma-India motion. As a consequence of this partitioning, the major belt-parallel fault zones show a variety of movements across the main N-S arc segment, from right-lateral slip in the inner ranges to oblique reverse-dextral slip in the outer ranges and pure thrusting in the westernmost foreland belt.

Angelier, Jacques; Baruah, Saurabh

2009-07-01

136

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

137

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

138

India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

139

Stochastic Finite Fault Modeling of Subduction Zone Earthquakes in Northeastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a stochastic finite fault source model is calibrated to estimate ground motion in northeastern India for intermediate depth events originating in the Indo-Burmese tectonic domain. A total of 47 three-component accelerograms from eight events with magnitudes ranging from M w 4.8-6.4 are used to estimate the input source and site parameters of the finite fault source model. Key seismic parameters such as stress drop (??) and site amplification function are determined from the recorded strong motion data. The obtained stress drop of the eight recorded events lies in between 105 and 165 bars.

Raghu Kanth, S. T. G.; Kavitha, B.

2013-11-01

140

Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation for the National Capital Region, Delhi, India Using Local Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attenuation of seismic waves is very essential for the study of earthquake source parameters and also for ground-motion simulations, and this is important for the seismic hazard estimation of a region. The digital data acquired by 16 short-period seismic stations of the Delhi Telemetric Network for 55 earthquakes of magnitude 1.5 to 4.2, which occurred within an epicentral distance of 100 km in an area around Delhi, have been used to estimate the coda attenuation Q c . Using the Single Backscattering Model, the seismograms have been analyzed at 10 central frequencies. The frequency dependence average attenuation relationship Q c = 142 f 1.04 has been attained. Four Lapse-Time windows from 20 to 50 seconds duration with a difference of 10 seconds have been analyzed to study the lapse time dependence of Q c . The Q c values show that frequency dependence (exponent n) remains similar at all the lapse time window lengths. While the change in Q 0 values is significant, change in Q 0 with larger lapsetime reflects the rate of homogeneity at the depth. The variation of Q c indicates a definitive trend from west to east in accordance with the geology of the region.

Mohanty, William K.; Prakash, Rajesh; Suresh, G.; Shukla, A. K.; Yanger Walling, M.; Srivastava, J. P.

2009-03-01

141

Supervirulent pseudorecombination and asymmetric synergism between genomic components of two distinct species of begomovirus associated with severe tomato leaf curl disease in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolates of two distinct begomovirus species, the severe strain of the species Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-(India:New Delhi:Severe:1992); ToLCNDV-(IN:ND:Svr:92), bipartite) and the Varanasi strain of the species Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus-(India:Varanasi:2001); ToLCGV-(IN:Var:01), mono\\/ bipartite) infect tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and cause severe yield losses in northern India. This

S. Chakraborty; R. Vanitharani; B. Chattopadhyay; C. M. Fauquet

2008-01-01

142

Deformation in Northeast India and Indo-Burmese Arc derived from GPS and Earthquake data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS/acoustic (GPS/A) seafloor geodetic observation is a precise seafloor positioning technique and has made great progress over the last decade. GPS/A observation determines the positions of acoustic mirror-type transponders installed on the seafloor by combining the two techniques of kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging through a ship or a buoy. The original idea was proposed by Prof. Spiess at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1985 and its protocol and hardware were made through research and development of his group by the mid-1990s. In Japan, three research groups, Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University and Nagoya University, began to develop the GPS/A observation system in the 1990s, established GPS/A observation sites mainly on the landward slope of the plate boundaries around Japan, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai trough, and have been carrying out campaign observations since around 2000. The primary purpose of our observation is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where large interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred. By continuous efforts for over a decade, the positioning precision has achieved a few centimeters and seafloor movements such as intraplate deformation and coseismic displacements have been successfully detected. In particular, regarding the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0), which occurred off northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, east-southeastward coseismic displacements of up to 31 m were observed above the focal region, especially close to the epicenter, while those detected by on-land GPS measurements over 100 km away from the epicenter, conducted by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, was up to 5.3 m. Coseismic slip models on the plate boundary estimated from not only GPS data but also GPS/A results indicate that a huge slip of more than 50 m generated close to the trench axis, which was much larger than that estimated from GPS data only. This demonstrates the indispensable roles of seafloor geodesy. After the event, Tohoku University and Nagoya University deployed additional GPS/A sites along the Japan Trench in order to monitor postseismic movements offshore spatially, especially close to the trench axis. In addition, Japan Coast Guard deployed additional GPS/A sites along the Nankai Trough, southwestern Japan, where there are growing concerns about the occurrence of a huge earthquake in the future. This expansion will enable us to detect the spatial change of intraplate velocities along the Nankai Trough, which reflects the difference of the degrees of interplate coupling. We have more than 50 GPS/A sites in total and have been carrying out several campaign observations per site per year. Seafloor geodetic data is an important key to understand the mechanism of the occurrence of interplate earthquakes which occur in the sea area.

Sukumaran, S. P.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.; Reddy, C. D.

2011-12-01

143

Study of Hydrous Sulfates from the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of Kutch, India: Implications for Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) at Gujarat, India is consider as a good analogue for the study of clay and hydrous sulphate minerals.This study can lead in interpreting the environmental conditions on the early Mars.

Bhattacharya, S.; Jain, N.; Parthasarathy, G.; Chauhan, P.; Ajai

2012-03-01

144

A rare case of subconjunctival dirofilariasis by Dirofilaria repens in rural Gujarat.  

PubMed

Dirofilariasis is a worldwide zoonotic filariasis with over 782 cases reported so far from different parts of the world. Human dirofilariasis, caused by Dirofilaria repens, have been reported to occur widely throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. It has not been widely recognized in India, however; several cases have been reported in last few years. There is probably a focus of human infection with D. repens in Kerala. Herein, we present a review of human infections by D. repens, along with a case report of subconjunctival dirofilariasis from rural part of Gujarat. PMID:24088633

Patel, Rupal; Singh, Suman; Bhavsar, Samir

2014-05-01

145

A rare case of subconjunctival dirofilariasis by Dirofilaria repens in rural Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Dirofilariasis is a worldwide zoonotic filariasis with over 782 cases reported so far from different parts of the world. Human dirofilariasis, caused by Dirofilaria repens, have been reported to occur widely throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. It has not been widely recognized in India, however; several cases have been reported in last few years. There is probably a focus of human infection with D. repens in Kerala. Herein, we present a review of human infections by D. repens, along with a case report of subconjunctival dirofilariasis from rural part of Gujarat.

Patel, Rupal; Singh, Suman; Bhavsar, Samir

2014-01-01

146

Anomalous TEC variations associated with the strong Pakistan-Iran border region earthquake of 16 April 2013 at a low latitude station Agra, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing a dual frequency GPS-receiver, ionospheric total electron (TEC) measurements have been in progress at Agra station in India (Geograph. lat. 27.2°N, long. 78°E) since 1 April 2006. In this paper, the TEC data have been analyzed for a period of one month from 1 April-1 May 2013 to examine the effect of multiple earthquakes, some of which occurred on the same day of 16 April 2013, and others occurred in the same month of April, 2013 in India and neighboring countries. We process the data using quartile and epoch analysis based statistical techniques and show that out of all the earthquakes, the one of the largest magnitude (M = 7.8) that occurred on Pakistan-Iran border caused anomalous enhancements and depletions in TEC 1-9 days before the occurrence of main sock. The E × B drift mechanism is suggested for the anomalies to occur in which the seismogenic electric field E is generated in a process suggested by Pulinets (2004).

Pundhir, Devbrat; Singh, Birbal; Singh, O. P.

2014-01-01

147

Late Pleistocene and Holocene large magnitude earthquakes along Himalayan Frontal Thrust in the Central Seismic Gap in NW Himalaya, Kala Amb, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) forms the southernmost active tectonic mountain front of the Himalaya. To understand the ongoing tectonics further, paleoseismological study has been carried out in the vicinity of the HFT system along the Himalayan Front near Kala Amb, India. The trench excavation survey conducted across an explicit surface exposure of the HFT exhibits two distinct faults considered to be associated with the reactivation of the HFT where the Middle Siwalik rocks (Late Miocene) have repeatedly thrust over the Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Presence of large-sized coseismically induced sand-injection feature and its disposition recognized in the trench also suggest occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in this region. An uplifted and upwarped strath terrace, 3 to 5 m thick alluvium, resting over the 15 m high Middle Siwaliks, abruptly truncated by the HFT indicates its latest activity. Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating techniques were employed to constrain the chronology of events. The long term slip rate of the abandoned terraces due to the activity of the HFT is estimated to be 3.4 mm/yr or greater since Late Holocene. The paleoseismological investigations have provided unambiguous evidences of at least two large magnitude earthquakes occurred in this region where an earthquake with 12 m or larger surface displacement and magnitude 7.5 or greater hit this region in the period between 29.3 ka and 17 ka in the Late Pleistocene and another great earthquake recurred with 20-22 m or more surface displacement and magnitude of 7.7 or greater between 5.8 ka and 2 ka in the Holocene. The present study is the first time report of multiple large magnitude paleoearthquakes in the northwestern part of the Frontal Himalaya during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The repeated reactivation of HFT substantiates high seismic potential of the Frontal Himalaya and calls for more extensive study of paleoearthquakes of this vastly populous mountainous region.

Philip, G.; Bhakuni, S. S.; Suresh, N.

2012-12-01

148

Anand Niketan Ashram, Rangpur, India: An Education for Meaningful Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a visit to the Anand Niketan Ashram in the interior of the State of Gujarat India, an internationally known school with a model education for meaningful citizen participation. Explores the program's philosophy activities and describes how the authors came together to have this experience and write this article. (BSR)

Desai, Prakash O.; Haggerson, Nelson L.

1987-01-01

149

"Education for All" and the Rabaris of Kachchh, Western India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a pilot scheme for literacy education for the Rabaris of Gujarat State, India to suggest possible ways to meet the critical literacy needs of Indian nomadic pastoralists. Reviews tensions between the Rabaris' desire to "learn to talk" though sedentary education and the peripatetic teaching program. (SLD)

Dyer, Caroline

2000-01-01

150

Ethnobotany of the Ratan Mahal Hills, Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the plants used by aboriginal tribes of Ratan Mahal and surrounding hills. Some of the important food\\u000a and medicinal plants restricted to these tribes or this region are discussed. Many uses of plants reported here have not been\\u000a recorded earlier.\\u000a \\u000a “What does interest us academically and practically is how to salvage some of the medicobotanical lore

S. J. Bedi

1978-01-01

151

Estimation of Sedimentary Thickness in Kachchh Basin, Gujarat Using SP Converted Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inexpensive method using natural earthquake data is utilized for determining the sedimentary thickness in Kachchh. The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) is operating a network of broadband seismographs and strong motion accelerographs in Gujarat. We used data from 13 broadband seismographs and two strong motion accelerographs in the study. The stations are within 5 to 80 km from the epicenters. In this study the S-to-P converted phase, SP, is used. This phase is generated due to large impedance contrast between sediments and basement. This phase is clear in the vertical component. The difference in the travel times of S and SP phases and velocities of P and S waves is used for determining the sedimentary layer thickness. The thickness of sediments beneath each of these 15 stations was determined covering an area of 23,500 sq km.

Chopra, Sumer; Rao, K. M.; Rastogi, B. K.

2010-10-01

152

Earthquake hazard in Northeast India — A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical\\u000a concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati\\u000a city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds — a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively.\\u000a The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in

Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj

2008-01-01

153

Demographic, epidemiologic and clinical profile of snake bite cases, presented to Emergency Medicine department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Aim: Snake bite is a common medical emergency faced mainly by the rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries with heavy rainfall and humid climate. Although India is a single largest contributor of snake bite cases, reporting is very poor. There is hardly any publication of the same from Gujarat state that is developing at a good pace. Hence, we aimed to study the snake bite cases with particular attention to demography, epidemiology, and clinical profile. Settings and Design: The present descriptive, observational study was carried out at the Emergency Medicine Department of a tertiary care center in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. This department is one if the firsts to get recognized by the Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional single-center study. Cases were entered into the prescribed form, and detailed information regarding demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters was entered. Statistical Method: Data were analyzed using Epi2000. Means and frequencies for each variable were calculated. Results: Majority (67.4%) of the snake bite victims were in the age group between 15 and 45 years. Majority were male victims (74.2%). 71% victims of snake bite lived in rural areas. Farmers and laborers were the main victims. 61.2% incidents took place at night time or early morning (before 6 a.m.). 64% patients had bite mark on the lower limb. 40% victims had seen the snake. Eight patients had snake bite, but were asymptomatic. 52% had neuroparalytic manifestation, 34% were asymptomatic, and 9.6% had hemorrhagic manifestation. 14% cases received treatment within 1 h of the bite and 64.84% within 1-6 h after the bite. First aid given was in the form of application of tourniquet (16.2%), local application of lime, chillies, herbal medicine, etc., (1%). 2.20% cases were sensitive to anti-snake venom. Only three patients died. Conclusion: In this region (Gujarat), neuroparalytic manifestation of snake bite is more prevalent. Cobra and krait are the commonest types of poisonous snakes. The time of seeking treatment has reduced because of awareness about snake bite treatment and better transport and ambulance facility. Mortality is very less in well-equipped hospitals due to early initiation of treatment with anti-snake venom.

Jarwani, Bhavesh; Jadav, Pradeep; Madaiya, Malhar

2013-01-01

154

Simultaneous estimation of earthquake source parameters and crustal Q value from broadband data of selected aftershocks of the 2001 M w 7.7 Bhuj earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the simultaneous estimation of source parameters and crustal Q values for small to moderate-size aftershocks ( M w 2.1-5.1) of the M_{w }7.7 2001 Bhuj earthquake. The horizontal-component S-waves of 144 well located earthquakes (2001-2010) recorded at 3-10 broadband seismograph sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India are analyzed, and their seismic corner frequencies, long-period spectral levels and crustal Q values are simultaneously estimated by inverting the horizontal component of the S-wave displacement spectrum using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear inversion technique, wherein the inversion scheme is formulated based on the ?-square source spectral model. The static stress drops (? ?) are then calculated from the corner frequency and seismic moment. The estimated source parameters suggest that the seismic moment ( M 0) and source radius ( r) of aftershocks are varying from 1.12 × 1012 to 4.00 × 1016 N-m and 132.57 to 513.20 m, respectively. Whereas, estimated stress drops (? ?) and multiplicative factor ( E mo) values range from 0.01 to 20.0 MPa and 1.05 to 3.39, respectively. The corner frequencies are found to be ranging from 2.36 to 8.76 Hz. The crustal S-wave quality factor varies from 256 to 1882 with an average of 840 for the Kachchh region, which agrees well with the crustal Q value of the seismically active New Madrid region, USA. Our estimated stress drop values are quite large compared to the other similar size Indian intraplate earthquakes, which can be attributed to the presence of crustal mafic intrusives and aqueous fluids in the lower crust as revealed by the earlier tomographic study of the region.

Saha, A.; Lijesh, S.; Mandal, P.

2012-12-01

155

Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the reasons for earthquakes which occur in stable crust away from familiar zones at the ends of tectonic plates. Crust stability and the reactivation of old faults are described using examples from India and Australia. (CW)

Johnston, Arch C.; Kanter, Lisa R.

1990-01-01

156

A population genetic study of the Vania Soni in Western India.  

PubMed

A total of 267 blood samples from persons belonging to the Shrimali Vania Soni caste group in Gujarat State, Western India have been analyzed for 6 blood group, 4 serum protein and 19 red cell enzyme systems, for haemoglobin and beta-thalassaemia and for red-green colour blindness. A number of rare genetic variants were detected, including a unique electrophoretically fast variant of superoxide dismutase. Genetic distance comparisons with other caste groups in Gujarat State show that Vania Soni from Surat are a distinctive group clustering with another subdivision of the Vania. The remaining Vania Soni cluster together and are distinct from the other caste groups examined in Gujarat. However, on the basis of individual genetic markers the Vania Soni appear not to be genetically differentiated in any remarkable way from other Hindu populations in western and northern India. PMID:304440

Undevia, J V; Balakrishnan, V; Kirk, R L; Blake, N M; Saha, N; McDermid, E M

1978-01-01

157

Third Angle of RSBY: Service Providers' Perspective to RSBY-operational Issues in Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Context: Government of India in 2008, launched its flagship health insurance scheme for the poor. The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) combines cutting edge technology with an unusual reliance on incentives to provide inpatient insurance coverage. The scheme allows for cashless hospitalization services at any of the empaneled hospitals. Stakeholders in RSBY include members of the community, Insurance Company and the service provider. Aim: The study manuscript is an attempt to get an insight to understand the bottle necks in faced by the service providers with an overall goal to understand issues in complete roll out of RSBY and its successful implementation across country. It was conducted to undertake the stakeholder analysis and understand the service providers’ perspective to RSBY. Setting and Design: The present study was conducted in the Patan district of Gujarat state. Qualitative tool mainly in-depth interview of service providers of RSBY in Patan district of Gujarat state was utilized for the data collection. Results and Conclusion: Service providers opined an ineffective IEC around the utility of the RSBY service in the community. In spite of the claim that scheme relies heavily on technology to ensure paperless cashless services, on field, it was observed in the present study that the claim settlements are done through physical documents. The service providers had a perceived threat of being suspended from the list/de-empanelment of the provider by the insurance company. There is an urgent need for improved and effective IEC for the service and possibilities of an arrangement for to settle the case of grievances around suspensions ao that genuine hospitals can have fair deal as well. There definitely remains a greater and more serious role of government, which ranges from ownership to larger issue of governance.

Trivedi, Mayur; Saxena, Deepak B.

2013-01-01

158

A Population Genetic Study of the Vania Soni in Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 267 blood samples from persons belonging to the Shrimali Vania Soni caste group in Gujarat State, Western India have been analyzed for 6 blood group, 4 serum protein and 19 red cell enzyme systems, for haemoglobin and ?-thalassaemia and for red-green colour blindness. A number of rare genetic variants were detected, including a unique electrophoretically fast variant

J. V. Undevia; V. Balakrishnan; R. L. Kirk; N. M. Blake; N. Saha; E. M. McDermid

1978-01-01

159

Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-01-01

160

Girls' Education and Discursive Spaces for Empowerment: Perspectives from Rural India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a national girls' education program and its role in addressing gender inequality in the Indian state of Gujarat. In 2004, the Ministry of Education, Government of India, enacted the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyala (KGBV) program. As a national program designed to increase educational access for the most marginalized girls, the…

Shah, Payal P.

2011-01-01

161

Marital Ideoscapes in 21st-Century India: Creative Combinations of Love and Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although arranged marriage has survived in India, the custom is increasingly challenged by the current influx of new commodities, media, and ideas. Interviews with 15 male and 15 female unmarried professionals, age 22 to 29, in Vadodara, Gujarat, showed that educated youth have moved beyond the conventional love-versus-arranged marriage dichotomy.…

Netting, Nancy S.

2010-01-01

162

Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR images show the Kachchh region in the Gujarat province of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying buildings, dams, and port facilities. The two upper MISR images are pre- and post-earthquake scenes acquired on January 15 and January 31, 2001, respectively (Terra orbits 5736 and 5969). They are 'true-color' images made by combining the red, green and blue bands from the nadir (vertically down-looking) camera. The two lower views are 'false-color' images made by combining the red bands from three different cameras. Blue is assigned to the camera pointing 70 degrees forward (more sun-facing), green to the nadir camera, and red to the camera pointing 70 degrees aftward. Each of these images is about 275 kilometers wide by 218 kilometers high.

The earthquake epicenter was just below the southern tip of the large, white area on the right-hand side of the images, and about 70 kilometers northeast of the city of Bhuj. The earthquake may have occurred on the Kachchh Mainland Fault, which extends from the region of the epicenter westward along the curved boundary between the darker brown region to the south and the lighter brown area north of it. The compressive stresses responsible for the earthquake are related to the collision of India with Asia and the resulting rise of the Himalayas to the northeast.

That part of the Kachchh region which lies north of the Kachchh Mainland Fault includes the Banni Plains and the Rann of Kachchh. It is a low, flat basin characterized by salt pans and mud flats. The salt forms in the Rann of Kachchh as mineral-laden waters evaporate. The salt flats can be seen in the nadir images as highly reflective, white and gray areas. During the earthquake, strong shaking produced liquefaction in the fine silts and sands below the water table in the Rann of Kachchh. This caused the mineral grains to settle and expel their interstitial water to the surface. Field investigations have found abundant evidence of mud volcanos, sand boils, and fissures from which salty ground water erupted over an area exceeding 10,000 square kilometers. Evidence of the expelled water can also be seen on the MISR images.

Notice the delicate, dendritic pattern of stream channels throughout many of the salt-flats on the post-earthquake image, especially due north of the epicenter. These carried water brought to the surface by liquefaction during the earthquake. Areas where shallow surface water is present are much easier to see on the false-color multi-angle composite images. Wet areas are exhibiting a combination of enhanced forward-scattered light due to the reflection by the water, and enhanced backward scattering due to surface roughness or the presence of sediments. This combination results in blue to purple hues.

The region of sand dunes in the upper right and the Indus River valley and delta in the upper left are inside Pakistan. Near the top of the images, there is an east-west trending linear feature separating the Thar desert of Pakistan from the Rann of Kachchh. This is the Nagar Parkar Fault. On both pre-earthquake images, this feature is evident only from the contrasting brown colors on either side of it. On the post-earthquake images, a narrow ribbon defines the boundary between the two geologic provinces. However, only in the multi-angle composite do we see evidence that this ribbon may be a water-filled channel. Because this area is politically sensitive and fairly inaccessible, no field teams have been able to verify liquefaction effects or the presence of water there.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

163

HYDROPROCESSING OF A NORTH GUJARAT CRUDE OIL BLEND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroprocessing of a North Gujarat Crude oil (of Indian Origin) in a light gas oil solution was carried out over a commercial hydrotreating catalyst at a temperature between 300 to 450°C and a pressure of 6.8 to 20 Mpa in a laboratory reactor. About 30 to 60% of the long residue (365° C + cut) in the solution is converted

Uttam Ray Chaudhuri; T. S. Banerjee; R. N. Ghar; S. Sanyal; S. Datta; Utpal Ray Chaudhuri

2001-01-01

164

Earthquakes Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the earthquake information page of the Natural Resources Canada Geologic Survey. It contains links to reports, maps, and lists of recent earthquakes, information and hazards as well as earthquake research and network and data archives. Links also connect to information on earthquake hazards, products and publications, a site to report earthquakes, and a link to other earthquake resources.

165

A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

Shukla, Anumeha; Guleria, J. S.; Mehrotra, R. C.

2012-02-01

166

What Does "Literate in English" Mean?: Divergent Literacy Practices for Vernacular- vs. English-Medium Students in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a close analysis of how English is presented and taught in state-mandated vernacular- and English-medium textbooks used in Grades K-12 in Gujarat, India. Argues that the divergent English instruction as presented in the textbooks contribute to producing two different cultural models regarding being "literate in English." (Author/VWL)

Ramanathan, Vai

2002-01-01

167

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features links to: an earthquake quiz; a rotating globe showing earthquake locations; famous earthquake accounts by Mark Twain, Jack London, Charles Darwin, and John Muir; a Java animation of the gradual buildup of stress that leads to earthquakes; a three-page history of seismology to 1910; and other educational and earthquake websites.

168

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

169

Use of microsatellite multilocus genotypic data for individual assignment assay in six native cattle breeds from north-western region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, 272 individuals of Tharparkar (THC), Rathi (RAC), Nagori (NAC), Mewati (MEC) cattle breeds from Rajasthan and Gir (GIC), Kankrej (KAC) from Gujarat states of India were evaluated for assignment accuracy of individuals to their respective source population by employing multilocus genotypic data generated using 25 bovine specific microsatellite markers. The high diversity indices and moderate yet

M. Mukesh; M. Sodhi; R. S. Kataria; B. P. Mishra

2009-01-01

170

Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010–2011  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.Principal FindingsSamples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by

Devendra T. Mourya; Pragya D. Yadav; Anita M. Shete; Yogesh K. Gurav; Chandrashekhar G. Raut; Ramesh S. Jadi; Shailesh D. Pawar; Stuart T. Nichol; Akhilesh C. Mishra

2012-01-01

171

Earthquake Myths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

172

Estimation of Strong Ground Motion from a Great Earthquake Mw 8.5 in Central Seismic Gap Region, Himalaya (India) Using Empirical Green's Function Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study ground motions for a Mw 8.5 scenario earthquake are estimated at 13 sites in Kumaun-Garhwal region using the empirical Green's function technique. The recordings of 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake of Mw 6.8 at these sites are used as an element earthquake. A heterogeneous source model consisting of two asperities is considered for simulating the ground motions. The entire central seismic gap (CSG) can expect acceleration in excess of 100 cm/s2 with NW portion in excess of 400 cm/s2 and SE between 100 and 200 cm/s2. The central portion can expect peak ground acceleration (PGA) between 200 and 400 cm/s2. It has been observed from simulation of strong ground motion that sites located near the rupture initiation point can expect accelerations in excess of 1 g. In the present analysis, Bhatwari and Uttarkashi can expect ground accelerations in excess of 1 g. The estimates of the PGA are compared with earlier studies in the same region using different methodologies and it was found that the results are comparable. This has put constrains on the expected PGAs in this region. The obtained PGA values can be used in identifying the vulnerable areas in the central Himalaya, thereby facilitating the planning, design and construction of new structures and strengthening of the existing structures in the region.

Sharma, Babita; Chopra, Sumer; Sutar, Anup Kumar; Bansal, B. K.

2013-12-01

173

Earthquake Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration uses an "earthquake machine" constructed from bricks, sand paper, and a winch, to simulate the buildup of elastic strain energy prior to a seismic event and the release of that energy during an earthquake.

174

Forecasting earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this video there are scenes of damage from the Northridge Earthquake and interviews with Dr. Andrea Donnelan, Geophysics at JPL, and Dr. Jim Dolan, earthquake geologist from Cal. Tech. The interviews discuss earthquake forecasting by tracking changes in the earth's crust using antenna receiving signals from a series of satellites called the Global Positioning System (GPS).

175

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

Novak, Gary

176

Earthquake triggering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, I present an observational study of multiplet earthquakes as a step towards understanding earthquake triggering. Several subsets of different seismicity catalogs are analyzed for earthquake clustering: (i) a global seismicity catalog of large (Msb{s} ? 7.1) earthquakes; (ii) catalogs of large, shallow (depth < 70km) and deep (depth ? 70km) earthquakes; (iii) regional catalogs in the Philippines and Kurils. Different space, time and magnitude criteria are explored to determine the degree of earthquake clustering for each sub-catalog. The observed earthquake clustering is compared against a null hypothesis: the Poisson process. Multiplets are earthquake clusters which cannot be explained by the Poisson process. We interpret multiplet occurrence as evidence for earthquake triggering. We find multiplets in all the sub-catalogs. The spatial distance within multiplets ranges from across the world, to several kilometers apart and the time within multiplets ranges from days to a few years. Moreover, multiplet occurrence is more common in some areas of the world than in others. Overall, across the global catalogs, approximately 10% of all large earthquakes are triggered by previous earthquakes. Detailed investigations of the source time functions of two multiplet sequences, the Kurils and the Philippines subduction zones revealed that earthquakes within multiplet sequences cannot be differentiated from non-multiplet earthquakes based on the properties of their source time function. This suggests that the rupture process of multiplet and non-multiplet earthquakes are the same. Three earthquake triggering mechanisms are explored: (i) earthquake to earthquake triggering; (ii) triggering due to external forces; (iii) triggering due to human activities. Earthquake to earthquake triggering via static and dynamic stress transfer imparts the most significant stress change and indeed, this thesis shows evidence for this mode of earthquake triggering. Each mechanism, however, changes the existing stress state on faults so that it is either brought closer or further from failure. In fact, if the fault is close enough to failure, an increase in stress by a tiny amount may be sufficient to trigger an earthquake.

Nomanbhoy, Nazli Moez

177

A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G. M.

2003-01-01

178

Land -Atmosphere -Ionosphere Coupling Associated with Major Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major earthquakes (greater than 5.5 on Richter scale) have shown pronounced changes on land, ocean, atmosphere and ionosphere. Such changes are being monitored using multi sen-sor satellites which use visible and microwave frequencies. Detailed analysis of multi sensor data (AIRS, MOPITT, AMSER, AURA OMI) have been carried out to study surface, skin and air temperature, relative humidity, water vapor, carbon monoxide and ozone for prior and after the earthquakes and also for longer period. Satellite derived, ground observed and NCEP re-analysis data show one to one correspondence and also surface, atmospheric and meteoro-logical parameters show complementary nature that provide confidence to believe existence of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling in some of the recent earthquakes (Gujarat, Wenchuan, Italy, Peru, Haiti). In some of the earthquakes such coupling is not found to exit. Existence of coupling or no coupling associated with earthquakes will be presented. The pres-ence of such coupling provide complementary nature in surface, atmosphere and ionosphere which can be used as reliable earthquake precursors.

Singh, Ramesh; Mehdi, Waseem

179

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Perry, Mr.

2008-11-18

180

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Kio, Mr.

2008-12-06

181

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Science, Vvs E.

2008-12-03

182

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students gather and plot records of earthquakes. It is designed to be either long or short term, depending on the needs of the instructor. Students will gain practice working with map coordinates while becoming familiar with the frequency of earthquake occurrences, the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the locations of plate boundaries. In addition, this exercise will illustrate the importance of measurements, data storage, analysis and worldwide scientific collaboration.

Rauch, Arden

183

Glacial earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a new class of moderate earthquakes (seismic magnitude around 5) that occur beneath glaciers. The previously unknown glacial earthquakes generate long-period (20--60~sec) seismic surface waves that are well recorded on globally distributed seismic stations, but which have previously gone undetected because they do not generate the high-frequency seismic waves on which traditional earthquake detection and location methodologies

G. Ekström; M. Nettles; G. A. Abers

2003-01-01

184

Earthquake prediction  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the forecasting of earthquakes. Topics considered at the symposium included earthquake precursors, aftershocks, seismicity, changes in gravity in epicenters before earthquakes, rock mechanics, seismology, stress fields due to offsets of inclined faults, computerized simulation, geophysical prediction methods, individual and group response to earthquake prediction, the economics of forecasting, the role of institutions, the communication of predictions and warnings, foreshocks, social impacts, the implementation of seismic safety legislation, political aspects, socio-economic factors, and administrative consequences of prediction.

Not Available

1984-01-01

185

Earthquake prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

Turcotte, Donald L.

1991-01-01

186

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plot daily earthquake locations on a world map. They will understand that earthquakes are not randomly distributed around the Earth, but occur at plate interfaces, and learn to identify the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Basin.

Gilhooly, Brian

2010-10-12

187

Major earthquake shakes northern Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A magnitude 7.6 earthquake that shook the western Himalayas on 8 October killed at least 23,000 in Pakistan and 1,400 in India, injured more than 50,000 people, and left more 2.5 million people homeless across the Kashmir region. The official death toll could exceed 30,000, placing this among most deadly earthquakes to have ever occurred on the Indian subcontinent.Scientists warn that, given the lack of development and poor construction in the area, future earthquakes in more densely populated areas could be devastating. David Simpson, president of the Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology, said the 8 October quake ‘was a terrible disaster, but not to the level of what could happen in the future. This is yet again another warning message of things to come.”

Kumar, Mohi

188

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

189

Deep Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most earthquakes occur in the top 100 miles of the crust of the Earth, but some happen far below that, where the earth is so hot that rocks should simply flow past each other instead of producing the jolts that cause earthquakes. So what causes them? This radio broadcast explains how one geophysicist has performed experiments revealing that rock squeezed under intense pressure contains bits that become soft at different rates. These bits are able to hook up into shear zones that cause the earthquakes. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

190

Community-based malaria control in India.  

PubMed

India launched its National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) in 1958, designed to interrupt transmission with residual insecticide spraying coupled with chemotherapy and anti-larval methods in urban areas. The strategy produced spectacular results. By 1965 malaria was reduced from around 75 million cases annually (with 800 000 deaths) to about 100 000 cases per year. Unfortunately, even under the subsequent maintenance phase, malaria began to resurge in many foci, and in 1976 the NMEP reported 6.4 million parasite positive cases. In this article, V.P. Sharma looks at some of the problems faced by the NMEP strategy, and discusses the alternative community-based approach now being evaluated in the northwestern state of Gujarat. PMID:15462962

Sharma, V P

1987-07-01

191

Earthquake Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... and have smaller magnitudes than earthquakes on the Earth. It appears they are related to the tidal stresses associated with the varying distance between the Earth and Moon. They also occur at great depth, ...

192

Synthesis and characterization of organic bentonite using Gujarat and Rajasthan clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian bentonite collected from two different sources, namely Barmer district, Rajasthan and Cutch district, Gujarat was screened and purified using the well- known Stoke's law of sedimentation by dispersing dif- ferent concentrations of bentonite (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) in deionized water. Chemical composition and cation exchange capacity of raw and purified bentonite (sed i- mented at different amounts

Hasmukh A. Patel; Rajesh S. Somani; Hari C. Bajaj; Raksh V. Jasra

193

The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia, data from Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad  

PubMed Central

Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad presented data of total 840 patients, out of which 775 (90%) were in chronic phase. Complete hematological response (CHR) was seen in 96% of patients and median time to achieve (CHR) was 2 months. Complete cytogenetic response was seen in 36%.

Shah, Sandip A.

2013-01-01

194

Earthquake Location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake location is an interesting and significant aspect of seismology. Locating earthquakes is necessary for compiling useful seismicity information, calculating magnitudes, and study of fault zones, Earth structure and the earthquake process. Methods of earthquake location involve understanding of seismic waves, wave propagation, interpretation of seismograms, Earth velocity structure, triangulation, and the concepts (and mathematics) of inverse problems. Because earthquake location can be approached with relatively simple to very complex methods, it can be included in various levels of educational curricula and for "in-depth" study. Progressively developing a deep understanding of concepts, computational techniques and applications (and the capabilities, limitations and uncertainties of these applications) is a characteristic of science and an opportunity to "learn science by doing science." A number of methods that vary from simple to complex are available for learning about earthquake location. The methods also allow connections to other important concepts in seismology and provide a variety of approaches that address different learning styles and can be used for reinforcement and assessment. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

Braile, Larry

195

Management of Blood Transfusion Services in India: An Illustrative Study of Maharashtra and Gujarat States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood is a vital healthcare resource routinely used in a broad range of hospital procedures. It is also a potential vector for harmful, and sometimes fatal, infectious diseases such as HIV, HBV, and HCV. Morbidity and mortality resulting from the transfusion of infected blood have far-reaching consequences. The economic cost of a failure to control the transmission of infection is

K. V. Ramani; Dileep Mavalankar; Dipti Govil

196

The Indo-Islamic Garden: Conflict, Conservation, and Conciliation in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

I begin with the passage from Rajmohan Gandhi’s Revenge and Reconciliation: Understanding South Asian History that inspires this chapter: “A word, finally, on Delhi, for we started this study by noting Delhi’s djinns, its great load of unrepented cruelty and unshared sorrow.… Can Delhi’s accumulated offences be washed away? Can some atonement\\u000a or penance – or some God-sent blessing or

James L. Wescoat

197

Comparative molecular analysis of chemolithoautotrophic bacterial diversity and community structure from coastal saline soils, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity). We studied the composition and distribution of chemolithoautotrophs by means of functional marker gene cbbL encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and a phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA gene. The cbbL form IA and IC genes associated with carbon fixation were analyzed to gain insight into metabolic potential of chemolithoautotrophs in three soil types of coastal ecosystems which had a very different salt load and sulphur content. Results In cbbL libraries, the cbbL form IA was retrieved only from high saline soil whereas form IC was found in all three soil types. The form IC cbbL was also amplified from bacterial isolates obtained from all soil types. A number of novel monophyletic lineages affiliated with form IA and IC phylogenetic trees were found. These were distantly related to the known cbbL sequences from agroecosystem, volcanic ashes and marine environments. In 16S rRNA clone libraries, the agricultural soil was dominated by chemolithoautotrophs (Betaproteobacteria) whereas photoautotrophic Chloroflexi and sulphide oxidizers dominated saline ecosystems. Environmental specificity was apparently visible at both higher taxonomic levels (phylum) and lower taxonomic levels (genus and species). The differentiation in community structure and diversity in three soil ecosystems was supported by LIBSHUFF (P?=?0.001) and UniFrac. Conclusion This study may provide fundamentally new insights into the role of chemolithoautotrophic and photoautotrophic bacterial diversity in biochemical carbon cycling in barren saline soils. The bacterial communities varied greatly among the three sites, probably because of differences in salinity, carbon and sulphur contents. The cbbL form IA-containing sulphide-oxidizing chemolithotrophs were found only in high saline soil clone library, thus giving the indication of sulphide availability in this soil ecosystem. This is the first comparative study of the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in coastal agricultural and saline barren soils using functional (cbbL) and phylogenetic (16S rDNA) marker genes.

2012-01-01

198

Upper mantle seismic anisotropy in the intra-continental Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave splitting study of 411 SKS/SKKS phases covering backazimuth range of 13 ° to 305 ° recorded by 12 broadband stations in the Kachchh rift has led to estimates of fast axis orientations and splitting times for 118 good measurements. The average vector mean of fast axis orientation (86 ± 14 °) corresponds to the E-W axis of the Kachchh rift and the delay time (~ 1.6 s) is attributed to the ~ 184 km-thick upper mantle layer with 4% anisotropy. The anisotropic character observed for the Kachchh rift (KR) is comparable to other continental rifts and these are related to the high-temperature, lattice-preferred orientation fabric of olivine, inherited from the mantle flows. The source of the rift-axis parallel anisotropy is traced to the rift-parallel flows within the 76 ± 6 km-thick lithosphere. Additionally, the rift-parallel pockets of partial melts also induce anisotropy within the asthenosphere. Both these are inherited from the plume-lithosphere interaction during the Deccan/Reunion plume episode (~ 65 Ma).

Mandal, Prantik

2011-08-01

199

Fishery resources in arid zone mangroves in gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, northwest coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finfish and shellfish resources were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in regard to their abundance in creek waters at three sites within a period of two years, from January 1999 to December 2000, in the western mangrove areas of Kachchh. The catch rate varied from 0.69 to 6.99 kg h-1. It was low during monsoon (July to October), which could be due to the freshwater-flow-induced salinity reduction in all the sites. Among 38 species recorded, 5 were shellfish and 33 were finfish. The spawning period of fishes was found to be during summer and early monsoon period (May to August). Surface water temperatures varied from 17 °C to 37 °C. Salinity values varied from 34 to 44 and the pH ranged between 7 and 8.9. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 mL L-1. The high fishery densities in these semi arid mangrove creek areas were recorded during monsoon and early winter season.

Saravanakumar, A.; Rajkumar, M.; Sesh Serebiah, J.; Thivakaran, G. A.

2009-09-01

200

Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis by Spirulina subsalsa from Gujarat coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria have many unexploited potential for natural products with a huge variability in structure and biological activity. Their products are species specific and substrate+growth condition specific. Under stress conditions they are reported to produce biopolymers like EPS and PHA, which can be produced extracellularly and intracellularly, respectively. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polymers of biological origin, they are also capable of being completely

Anupama Shrivastav; Sanjiv K. Mishra; Sandhya Mishra

2010-01-01

201

Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

2013-10-01

202

Characterization of the complete genome of influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated during the 2006 outbreak in poultry in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in poultry was reported from Nandurbar and Jalgaon districts\\u000a of Maharashtra and adjoining areas of Uchhal in Gujarat and Burhanpur in Madhya Pradesh in India from January to April, 2006.\\u000a In the present study, the full genome of two previously uncharacterized strains of H5N1 viruses isolated at the National Institute

Koninika Ray; Varsha A. Potdar; Sarah S. Cherian; Shailesh D. Pawar; Santosh M. Jadhav; Shamal R. Waregaonkar; Anshu A. Joshi; Akhilesh C. Mishra

2008-01-01

203

Impacts of Groundwater Contamination with Fluoride and ArsenicAffliction Severity, Medical Cost and Wage Loss in Some Villages of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India, high fluoride concentration in groundwater (greater than 1 mg/l) is widespread in the arid to semi-arid western states of Rajasthan and Gujarat and in the southern states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. A field research study conducted at six areas severely affected by fluorosis shows that affordability of safer drinking water is related to higher income

Rajnarayan Indu; Sunderrajan Krishnan; Tushaar Shah

2007-01-01

204

Meeting focuses on catastrophic Asian earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IAS-PEI) and the Asian Seismological Commission met August 1-3, 1996, in Tangshan, China. Twenty years ago, Tangshan was destroyed by the century's worst earthquake, which killed an estimated 243,000 people.It was the first meeting of the Asian Seismological Commission (ASC), a group formed in 1995 by the IASPEI umbrella, to improve understanding of geological processes in Asia and to mitigate earthquake disasters. Because of its widespread seismic activity, the vast, populated territory of Asia has more catastrophic earthquakes than other regions of the world (see Figure 1). During the period from 1892 to 1992, 50 percent of the world's major earthquakes (magnitude greater than 8) occurred in Asia and the Southern Pacific region. Economic losses of more than $100 billion from the most recent major Asian earthquake that occurred in Kobe, Japan, in early 1995, make Kobe the most expensive earthquake in the world. In September 1993, the Latur earthquake in the stable shield region of southern India claimed 10,000 lives, and although of only 6.1 magnitude, was the deadliest stable continental region earthquake.

Gupta, Harsh K.

205

Predicting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five moderate-to-strong earthquakes struck California in June 2005. Could the cluster of quakes be a harbinger of the Big One? Another earthquake-prone area, New Madrid, near Memphis, Tennessee, has had more than its share of impressive quakes and strain is building along its fault lines. This radio broadcast discusses these two seismic zones, the new data based on years of GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements that may give scientists more information, and how the Earth generates the stress which leads to earthquakes. There is also discussion of the danger of tsunamis in the Virgin Islands and the need for a worldwide tsunami warning network. The broadcast is 18 minutes in length.

206

Deep earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

Frohlich, C.

1989-01-01

207

Earthquake Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the structure of the earth and how an earthquake happens. In one activity, students make a model of the earth including all of its layers. In a teacher-led demonstration, students learn about continental drift. In another activity, students create models demonstrating the different types of faults.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

208

Glacial earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have identified a new class of moderate earthquakes (seismic magnitude around 5) that occur beneath glaciers. The previously unknown glacial earthquakes generate long-period (20--60~sec) seismic surface waves that are well recorded on globally distributed seismic stations, but which have previously gone undetected because they do not generate the high-frequency seismic waves on which traditional earthquake detection and location methodologies are based. A glacial earthquake on September 4, 1999, beneath the Dall glacier (Denali range, Alaska) was well recorded by the BEAAR temporary broad-band seismic network. Inverse modeling of the regional long-period seismograms shows that the seismic waves are inconsistent with tectonic faulting beneath the glacier, but instead consistent with sudden and massive glacial sliding. Using the centroid-single-force formalism developed by Kawakatsu (1989) for analysis of landslide-generated seismic waves, we obtain an estimate of the product of sliding mass and sliding distance. The value of this parameter for the Dall glacier event is 1.3 x 1014~kg-m, consistent with the displacement of 10~km3 of ice by 13 meters, though we cannot constrain the mass and distance independently. The duration of sliding was approximately 40 seconds. By analysis of data from the Global Seismographic Network for 1999--2001, we have detected and located forty-two glacial earthquakes of similar magnitude beneath the Greenland ice sheet. Preliminary analysis of the five best-recorded earthquakes indicates that these, too, are consistent with glacial sliding. We speculate that the dynamics of these earthquakes are controlled by stick-slip motion of the glacier along its basal surface, and that the phenomenon involves the displacement of a large mass over a relatively short distance. Microearthquakes occur in association with glaciers, and some have been linked to sliding motion at the base, and in particular to motion on so-called sticky spots. Alternatively, rapid variations in pore pressure at the glacier base or the non-linear weakening of a deforming till may generate conditions for rapid lowering of the effective friction, growth of a slipping patch, and sudden large-scale motion of the glacier.

Ekström, G.; Nettles, M.; Abers, G. A.

2003-12-01

209

Earthquake tectonics  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes release a tremendous amount of energy into the subsurface in the form of seismic waves. The seismic wave energy of the San Francisco 1906 (M = 8.2) earthquake was equivalent to over 8 billion tons of TNT (3.3 {times} 10{sup 19} joules). Four basic wave types are propagated form seismic sources, two non-rotational and two rotational. As opposed to the non-rotational R and SH waves, the rotational compressional (RC) and rotational shear (RS) waves carry the bulk of the energy from a seismic source. RC wavefronts propagate in the subsurface and refract similarly to P waves, but are considerably slower. RC waves are critically refracted beneath the air surface interface at velocities less than the velocity of sound in air because they refract at the velocity of sound in air minus the retrograde particle velocity at the top of the wave. They propagate at tsunami waves in the open ocean, and produce loud sounds on land that are heard by humans and animals during earthquakes. The energy of the RS wave dwarfs that of the P, SH, and even the RC wave. The RS wave is the same as what is currently called the S wave in earthquake seismology, and produces both folding and strike-slip faulting at considerable distances from the epicenter. RC and RS waves, propagated during earthquakes from the Santa Ynez fault and a right-slip fault on trend with the Red Mountain fault, produced the Santa Ynez Mountains in California beginning in the middle Pliocene and continuing until the present.

Steward, R.F. (Computer Ideas and Answers, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

210

Groundwater Recharge In Semi-Arid Regions Of India: An Overview Of Results Obtained Using Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural direct groundwater recharge was measured in the semi-arid/arid regions of India using techniques that employ environmental, geochemical, and artificial tracers. India is a sub-continent and has diverse hydrogeological and hydrometeorological conditions, including monsoon-type rainfall. Various geologic units were investigated, including unconsolidated, semiconsolidated, and consolidated materials and crystalline granitic/gneissic rocks. In the arid sands of Western Rajasthan and the semi-arid alluvial tracts of Gujarat, recharge rate is 3-10 percent (20-50 mm) of local average annual rainfall, whereas in the alluvial tracts of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana, recharge rates are about 12-20 percent (120-200 mm). The coastal semiconsolidated sandstone aquifers of Pondicherry and Neyveli have an average recharge rate of about 15-25 percent (200-300 mm). The consolidated aquifers, consisting of the basaltic and granitic-gneissic complexes, have a natural recharge rate of 3-15 percent (20-100 mm). Low values of recharge in Rajasthan and Gujarat are primarily due to arid conditions. The relatively high values of recharge to coastal aquifers are due to favourable hydrogeologic and climatic conditions. The weathered granitic and gneissic complexes of southern India have neither hydrogeological nor hydrometeorological factors in their favour, which accounts for their small recharge rates. The basaltic regions have intermediate recharge values (8-12 percent). Limited natural rainfall recharge and increased water use throughout the sub-continent calls for conservation as well as augmentation by artificial recharge techniques.

Sukhija, B. S.; Nagabhushanam, P.; Reddy, D. V.

1996-03-01

211

Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-02-01

212

Late Holocene earthquake history of the central Altyn Tagh fault  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The Altyn Tagh fault accommodates,sinistral motion between the Tibetan Plateau and the Tarim block within the India-Eurasia collision zone. We used well-preserved evidence for surface-rupturing earthquakes to reconstruct the earthquake history for the central Altyn Tagh fault. We identified three geometric fault segments bounded by left steps and a bend. Geomorphic offsets indicate that the most recent event had

Z. Washburn; J. R. Arrowsmith; S. L. Forman; E. Cowgill; X. Wang; Y. Zhang; Z. Chen

2001-01-01

213

Darwin's earthquake.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

Lee, Richard V

2010-07-01

214

United States Earthquakes, 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1977. The publication is composed of three major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a chronological list of earthquakes by s...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1979-01-01

215

Earthquake Engineering Research - 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate cha...

1982-01-01

216

United States Earthquakes, 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All earthquakes that occurred in the United States and nearby territories in 1976 are described. The purpose is to provide a continuous history of U.S. earthquakes for studying seismic risk, evaluating nuclear powerplant sites, designing earthquake-resist...

J. L. Coffman C. W. Stover

1978-01-01

217

Defeating Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by our actions. Using these global datasets will help to make the model as uniform as possible. The model must be built by scientists in the affected countries with GEM's support, augmented by their insights and data. The model will launch in 2014; to succeed it must be open, international, independent, and continuously tested. But the mission of GEM is not just the likelihood of ground shaking, but also gaging the economic and social consequences of earthquakes, which greatly amplify the losses. For example, should the municipality of Istanbul retrofit schools, or increase its insurance reserves and recovery capacity? Should a homeowner in a high-risk area move or strengthen her building? This is why GEM is a public-private partnership. GEM's fourteen public sponsors and eight non-governmental organization members are standing for the developing world. To extend GEM into the financial world, we draw upon the expertise of companies. GEM's ten private sponsors have endorsed the acquisition of public knowledge over private gain. In a competitive world, this is a courageous act. GEM is but one link in a chain of preparedness: from earth science and engineering research, through groups like GEM, to mitigation, retrofit or relocate decisions, building codes and insurance, and finally to prepared hospitals, schools, and homes. But it is a link that our community can make strong.

Stein, R. S.

2012-12-01

218

Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

219

Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India.

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

2011-01-01

220

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This page points to information on earthquakes in Northern California, the United States, and the world. Topics include reports on recent large earthquakes, real-time earthquake maps, real-time shaking maps, real-time seismograms, earthquake network reports and updates, recent and significant earthquakes, and earthquake news releases. Users will be able to view maps and click on them. The EHP is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) lead by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

221

Public Earthquake Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Public Earthquake Resource Center at the University of Memphis provides information about the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquake hazards in general. Students and the general public can learn about earthquakes; examine science fair ideas, a reading list, and earthquake images; or explore a career as an earthquake scientist. For educators there are links to teacher's resources, lesson plans, online learning materials, and field trip information. Other features include links to additional information about the New Madrid seismic zone, earthquake preparedness tips, other earthquake-related organizations, and a site where citizens can report earthquakes.

222

National Earthquake Information Center: Earthquake Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site enables the user to access a vast database of earthquakes. Searches may be done using a number of different geographic approaches: a Global or Worldwide search, a Rectangular search by specifying latitudes and longitudes of a rectangular area, and a Circular search by specifying the center latitude and longitude coordinates and a radius. Additional parameters, including dates of events, places of events, magnitude, depth and intensity can be specified before engaging in a search. The results of each search can be viewed in a variety of formats. Users may also view information and data on the following pages: Near Real Time Earthquake List, Current and General Earthquake Information, Seismograph Station Codes, Earthquake Information Sources, Routine U.S. Mining Seismicity, U.S. National Seismograph Networks, Today in Earthquake History, Large Earthquakes in 2001, and Earthquake E-mail Notification. Links to other U.S. Geological Survey earthquake websites are provided.

223

Rapid Earthquake Loss Assessment After Damaging Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes the work done over last decades regarding the development of new approaches and setting up of new\\u000a applications for earthquake rapid response systems that function to estimate earthquake losses in quasi real time after an\\u000a earthquake. After a critical discussion of relevant earthquake loss estimation methodologies, the essential features and the\\u000a characteristics of the available loss estimation

Mustafa Erdik; Karin Sesetyan; M. Betul Demircioglu; Ufuk Hancilar; Can Zulfikar

224

Analytical Conditions for Compact Earthquake Prediction Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns itself with The atmosphere and ionosphere include non-uniform electric charge and current distributions during the earthquake activity. These charges and currents move irregularly when an activity is scheduled for an earthquake at the future. The electromagnetic characteristics of the region over the earth change to domains where irregular transportations of non-uniform electric charges are observed; therefore, the electromagnetism in the plasma, which moves irregularly and contains non-uniform charge distributions, is studied. These cases of charge distributions are called irregular and non-uniform plasmas. It is called the seismo-plasma if irregular and non-uniform plasma defines a real earthquake activity, which will come to truth. Some signals involving the above-mentioned coupling effects generate some analytical conditions giving the predictability of seismic processes [1]-[5]. These conditions will be discussed in this paper. 2 References [1] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes," IUGG Perugia 2007. [2] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for Marmara Sea earthquakes," EGU 2008. [3] T. Sengor, "On the exact interaction mechanism of electromagnetically generated phenomena with significant earthquakes and the observations related the exact predictions before the significant earthquakes at July 1999-May 2000 period," Helsinki Univ. Tech. Electrom. Lab. Rept. 368, May 2001. [4] T. Sengor, "The Observational Findings Before The Great Earthquakes Of December 2004 And The Mechanism Extraction From Associated Electromagnetic Phenomena," Book of XXVIIIth URSI GA 2005, pp. 191, EGH.9 (01443) and Proceedings 2005 CD, New Delhi, India, Oct. 23-29, 2005. [5] T. Sengor, "The interaction mechanism among electromagnetic phenomena and geophysical-seismic-ionospheric phenomena with extraction for exact earthquake prediction genetics," 10th SA of the IAGA 2005, Abst. CD,. GAI, C109, No.: IAGA2005-A-0134, Toulouse, France, July18-29, 2005.

Sengor, T.

2009-04-01

225

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.

226

Listening to Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, users can listen to the 'sounds' produced by earthquakes. Scientists have taken recordings of vibrations that occur during earthquakes and transformed them into sound files by speeding them up. Through listening, people can better understand the shaking that occurs during earthquakes. An interactive listening quiz lets students hear and compare earthquakes that occurred near each other, but from faults of different lengths. There is also a collection of sounds from historical earthquakes, such as the 1992 magnitude 7.3 Landers Earthquake, and a download page where sounds from various earthquakes can be obtained as .wav files.

227

Earthquake occurrence and effects.  

PubMed

Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

Adams, R D

1990-01-01

228

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake is an interactive web-based program designed to introduce the concepts of how an earthquake epicenter is located and how the Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined. Virtual Earthquake shows the recordings of an earthquake's seismic waves detected by instruments far away from the earthquake. The instrument recording the seismic waves is called a seismograph and the recording is a seismogram. The point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus and the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter. You are to locate the epicenter of an earthquake by making simple measurements on three seismograms that are generated by the Virtual Earthquake program. Additionally, you will be required to determine the Richter Magnitude of that quake from the same recordings. Richter Magnitude is an estimate of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.

Novak, Gary

2000-04-25

229

Earthquake Photo Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of earthquake photos, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), contains links to photos for specific earthquakes, as well as links to other USGS image collections and non-USGS collections. Highlights include photos from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the 1994 earthquake in Northridge, California. There is also a link to the USGS photo library (general geologic topics), and links to collections published by universities, museums, other government organizations, and professional organizations.

2011-06-21

230

Micro in vitro assessment of Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to chloroquine and mefloquine in Gujarat.  

PubMed

Micro in vitro tests conducted in 1987 in Surat district of Gujarat on sensitivity status of P. falciparum to chloroquine and mefloquine revealed that the parasite has developed resistance to chloroquine upto 32 pmol. The ED 99 in Hazira, Gothan and Umra areas of the district was found to be 17.3, 18.5 and 8.7 pmol/well for chloroquine and for mefloquine it was 14.5, 4.8 and 6.8 pmol/well respectively. Monitoring of P. falciparum resistance is indicated under National Malaria Eradication Programme. PMID:2200725

Karmakar, P; Dutt, S C; Narasimham, M V; Sharma, R C

1990-03-01

231

India: Bihar  

article title:  MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     ... satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by ...

2013-04-16

232

Changes in wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) habitat conditions in Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat from a remote sensing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rann of Kutch, Gujarat is the only habitat for one of the endangered sub-species of the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) and most of the population survives in the Wild Ass Sanctuary in Little Rann of Kutch. The area is a saline desert with extremely sparse cover of vegetation. In the past, the habitat supported a thriving population

S. N. PRASAD; S. P. GOYAL; P. S. ROY; S. SINGH

1994-01-01

233

Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

Baer, Eric

234

Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquakes tend to claim more human lives and inflict heavier financial losses as they occur where not expected and the local and regional preparedness to mitigate such catastrophes is minimal. Artificial water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), most prominent in SCR, provides an exceptional window to comprehend genesis of such earthquakes. Since the first scientific reporting of the RTS at the Boulder Dam, USA during 1930s, over 100 cases of RTS have been reported globally. Damaging earthquakes exceeding M 6 have occurred at Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba (Zambia -Zimbabwe border), Kremasta (Greece) and Koyna (India). It is debated that the 2008 M 7.8 Sichuan earthquake in China, which claimed over 80,000 human lives was triggered by filling of a nearby reservoir. Located close to the west coast of India, Koyna is a classical site of RTS, where triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment in 1962, including the largest RTS earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967 which claimed over 200 human lives and destroyed Koyna town. Over the past 49 years 22 earthquakes of M ? 5 and several thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred in a restricted area of 20 X 30 sq. km. with no other seismic activity within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. The latest M 5.1 earthquake occurred on December 12, 2009. Although several studies have clearly established the association of continued RTS at Koyna with precipitation driven loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs, the trigger mechanism is little understood. Our knowledge about the physical properties of rocks and fluids in the fault zones and how they affect the build-up of stress for an extended period is limited by the lack of data from the near field region. A deep bore hole of up to 7 km depth at a scientifically and logistically suitable location is under an advance stage of planning. A detailed workshop and field visits involving some 50 scientists from 10 countries were held under the auspices of International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, during March 21 through 26, 2011 to discuss all aspects of the proposed scientific drilling at Koyna. In addition to a pilot bore hole of about 2.5 km, 4 other bore holes penetrating the basalt cover of about 1 km thickness, are proposed to be drilled to conduct a suite of geophysical and hydro-geological experiments and measurements. Results of these investigations would be complementary to SAFOD experiment being conducted on the plate boundary.

Gupta, H. K.

2011-12-01

235

Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

236

Rapid Earthquake Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) provides access to earthquake data from seismograph recording stations around the world. The Earthquake View lets users select an earthquake and see data at various stations. The Station View allows users to see if any ground motion has been recorded at a particular station. Lesson plans are being developed for REV, aimed primarly at the middle school level. The resource provides several techniques to help users contextualize and understand seismic data. REV is related to GEE, the Global Earthquake Explorer, a fully-functional earthquake analysis tool.

237

Tracking Earthquake Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

Jordan, T. H.

2011-12-01

238

Speeding earthquake disaster relief  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

1995-01-01

239

United States Earthquakes, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1978. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. Hake

1980-01-01

240

United States Earthquakes, 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication describes all earthquakes that were reported felt in the United States and nearby territories in 1979. The publication is composed of four major chapters: 'Earthquake Descriptions,' which includes a summary of macroseismic data reported f...

C. W. Stover C. A. von Hake

1981-01-01

241

Earthquakes for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters Photos Publications Share ... for Education FAQ EQ Glossary For Kids Google Earth/KML Files EQ Summary Posters Photos Publications Monitoring ...

242

Earthquakes in Your State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation of where earthquakes occur. Students research past earthquakes to see if any have occurred in their region. This activity has an accompanying page of websites for further research.

243

India Illustrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Gangesâ and "A Corner of Fort St. George.â The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.

244

Earthquake in the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn how engineers construct buildings to withstand damage from earthquakes by building their own structures with toothpicks and marshmallows. Students test how earthquake-proof their buildings are by testing them on an earthquake simulated in a pan of Jell-O®.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

245

Buildings and Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquakes happen when forces in the Earth cause violent shaking of the ground. Earthquakes can be very destructive to buildings and other man-made structures. Design and build various types of buildings, then test your buildings for earthquake resistance using a shake table and a force sensor that measures how hard a force pushes or pulls your building.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-21

246

Earthquake activity in Oklahoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb)

K. V. Luza; J. E. Jr. Lawson

1989-01-01

247

Alaskan Earthquake of 1964  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will describe how a natural event, the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964, affected human activity. They will study a fact sheet with an account of the earthquake, examine maps of the tectonic plates in the vicinity of Alaska, model plate collisions using sponges, and make lists of what might happen during an earthquake in a hypothetical Alaskan city.

Mazzetti, Linda

2010-06-22

248

Earthquake Hazards Program - National Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access a selection of technical information and data about earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world. A current worldwide list of earthquakes is available, as are data on geophysical solutions, a catalog search, an automatic data request function, mining seismicity information, and a registry of seismograph stations.

249

Excitation of T waves in the Indian Ocean between Srilanka and southern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

T phases of three earthquakes from the Indian Ocean region, recorded by a short-period vertical-component seismic station network located in the vicinity of Kanyakumari on the southernmost tip of India, are studied. Two of these earthquakes are located west of 90°E ridge and one in the Nicobar Island region. However, seven other earthquakes which occurred 150 200 km south of Kanyakumari in the ocean did not produce T phases. An analysis of T-waves (tertiary waves) travel time reveals the zone of P-wave to T-wave conversion (i.e., PT phase) region to coincide with the western continental slope of Srilanka. Further, it is observed that the disposition of the bathymetry between Srilanka and southern India strongly favours the downslope propagation mechanism of T-wave travel to the southern coast of India through SOFAR channel. These observations are reported for the first time from India.

Chadha, R. K.

1994-06-01

250

Predicting catastrophic earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an abstract. This article discusses a method based on the magnitude-frequency distribution of previous earthquakes in a region. It is used to examine the probability of a small earthquake growing into a catastrophic one. When a small earthquake is detected in a region where a catastrophic one is expected, early warning systems can be modified to determine the probability that this earthquake will grow in magnitude. It was found that if the observed earthquake magnitude reaches 6.5, the estimated probability that the final magnitude will reach 7.5 is between 25 and 41 percent.

Al., Iwata E.; Agu

251

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

2011-05-05

252

East coast earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shaking from a 23 August magnitude 5.8 earthquake that occurred in the Central Virginia Seismic Zone 135 kilometers southwest of Washington, D. C., was recorded all the way from Georgia to New England, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The earthquake caused property damage near the epicenter and also damage to a number of other structures including the Washington Monument and Washington National Cathedral. There was no damage to the AGU headquarters building in downtown Washington, according to building engineer Matthew Boyd. The strongest earthquake ever recorded in Virginia was a magnitude 5.9 quake in 1897. For more information, see http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/.

Showstack, Randy

2011-08-01

253

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

254

Saint Louis University Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Saint Louis University (SLU) Earthquake Center provides recent Midwest earthquake locations, the history of central U.S. earthquakes, a link for reporting an earthquake, historic earthquake and instrument photographs, and explanations of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. There are earthquake information flyers, links to course websites and course notes, a textbook description, computer tools and earthquake catalogs, and recent theses and dissertations. There are also links to seismic systems and networks as well as SLU network reports.

255

Commensurability of earthquake occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years huge earthquakes frequently occurred and caused surprise attack on many places of the globe. Frequent exceptional strong disasters of earthquakes remind that we must strengthen our research on cause of formation, mechanism, prediction and forecast of earthquakes, and achieve the goal of advancing the development of Earth science and mitigation of seismic disasters. The commensurability of earthquake occurrences has been studied by means of the commensurability revealed by the Titius-Bode law in the paper. The studied results show that the earthquakes basically all occur at the commensurable point of its time axis, respectively. It also shows that occurrence of the earthquakes is not accidental, showing certain patterns and inevitability, and the commensurable value is different for earthquakes occurring in different areas.

Hu, Hui; Han, Yanben; Su, Youjin; Wang, Rui

2013-07-01

256

Benthic macrofaunal assemblage in the arid zone mangroves of gulf of Kachchh-Gujarat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total benthic macrofauna consisting of 62 species in 5 groups, viz. crustaceans (18), gastropods (17), bivalves (16), polychaetes (9) and fishes (2), was recorded in western Kachchh mangroves near Gujarat. The population densities of benthic macrofauna ranged from 424 to 2393 ind.m-2, the diversity ranged from 1.84 to 2.45 bits ind.-1, the richness varied between 0.82 and 0.98, and the evenness varied between 0.64 and 0.81. Two maximum diversity values were recorded during winter and summer. The salinity ranged from 34 to 44, temperature varied between 17 and 37°C, and the acidity ranged from 7 to 8.9.

Saravanakumar, A.; Sesh Serebiah, J.; Thivakaran, G. A.; Rajkumar, M.

2007-07-01

257

Muse India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

258

The Distribution of Earthquakes: An Earthquake Deficit?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use online resources to investigate the occurrence of earthquakes in Southern California to decide if there has been a 'deficit', that is, not enough earthquakes in the area in historical time to release the amount of strain energy that plate tectonics is constantly supplying to the crust. In the first two parts, they must determine the appropriate year to begin their study of historic earthquake records (from 1860-1900), and then they must decide if the energy released by past earthquakes has been equivalent to the amount of energy accumulating through the action of plate tectonics over the same number of years. In part three, they perform an analysis of their findings by answering a set of questions. References are included.

Marquis, John

259

Delhi, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

260

Continuous radon monitoring in soil gas towards earthquake precursory studies in basaltic region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Koyna-Warna region, near the west coast of India, is well known for reservoir-triggered seismicity. The seismic activity in this region greatly increased following the construction of an artificial reservoir across the Koyna River during the 1960s. A destructive earthquake of M 6.3 occurred on December 10, 1967, and further 19 earthquakes of M>5 have been recorded during the preceding

D. V. Reddy; P. Nagabhushanam; B. S. Sukhija; G. Rajender Reddy

2010-01-01

261

Late Holocene earthquake history of the central Altyn Tagh fault, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altyn Tagh fault accommodates sinistral motion between the Tibetan Plateau and the Tarim block within the India-Eurasia collision zone. We used well-preserved evidence for surface-rupturing earthquakes to reconstruct the earthquake history for the central Altyn Tagh fault. We identified three geometric fault segments bounded by left steps and a bend. Geomorphic offsets indicate that the most recent event had

Zachary Washburn; J. Ramón Arrowsmith; Steven L. Forman; Eric Cowgill; Wang Xiaofeng; Zhang Yueqiao; Chen Zhengle

2001-01-01

262

Delta plain coal deposits from the Than Formation of the Early Cretaceous Saurashtra basin, Gujarat, western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Than Formation of the Early Cretaceous Saurashtra basin consists of an interbedded assemblage of sandstone, claystone, carbonaceous shale, and coal facies. Small-scale crossbedded and laminated mudstone/siltstone (Sr/Lm) facies are considered to have formed by down-current migration of small-scale subaqueous bedforms and overbank deposits of distributary channels. The planar and trough crossbedded sandstone lithofacies (Sp, St) formed by migration of sand dunes and transverse bars in distributary channels. Laminated to ripple-laminated siltstone (F1) facies with or without coaly stringers, alternate with fine clastics, are suggestive of flood deposits and abandoned interchannel plain of delta distributaries. The muddy carbonaceous shale (Fm) facies represents deposition largely in low-lying interchannel plains and backswamps. Peat coal (Pc) facies are interpreted as in-situ deposits in quiet-water conditions of sedimentation across a lake. The integrated results of lithofacies, texture, and palaeocurrent analysis suggest that Than strata were deposited in a prograding major delta distributary complex in lower and upper delta plain environments.

Aslam, M.

1992-12-01

263

Modeling the energy content of ship-scraping waste at Alang-Sosiya, Gujarat, India, using multiple regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Alang-Sosiya (Lat 21\\/spl deg\\/5'; 21\\/spl deg\\/29'N, Long 72\\/spl deg\\/5'; 72\\/spl deg\\/15'E) is the largest ship-scraping yard in the world, established in 1982. Every year an average of 365 ships having a mean weight of 2.10\\/spl times\\/106 \\/spl plusmn\\/7.82\\/spl times\\/105 (LDT) being scrapped. This yard generates a huge amount of combustible solid waste in the form of

M. Srinivasa Reddy; Shaik Basha; H. V. Joshi; V. G. Sravan Kumar; B. Jha; G. B. Marg

2003-01-01

264

A Study on High-risk Premarital Sexual Behavior of College Going Male Students in Jamnagar City of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The pre-marital sex and live-in relationship among young people are increasing at an alarming rate. Remote consequences of such high risk behaviors are increase in the incidence of STDs (including HIV), unsafe and illegal abortion, adolescent pregnancy and motherhood, single mother child/abandoned child, juvenile delinquency and many more. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the high-risk sexual behaviors in depth, influenced by various factors including age at sexual debut, type of partners, consistent condom usage, hostel stay, socioeconomic class, etc. among college-going male youth. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Jamnagar among undergraduate (18-24 years) male college students. A total of 450 students were randomly selected from three colleges of Jamnagar. Results: Out of all 450 participants, 49.11% were in the age group of 18-20 years. Among study subjects, 13.78% had one or more pre-marital sexual exposures. In students with positive pre-marital sexual history, the various sex partners were girlfriends (95.16%), commercial sex workers (14.5%), homosexuals (6.45%), and multiple sex partners (33.88%). Among students, 62.9% were using condom consistently. Three-fifth of the ones indulged in premarital sex, were in the age group of 16-20 at the time of sexual debut. Conclusions: Most of the students were quite young (16-18 years) at the time of first pre-marital sexual exposure. Consistent condom usage was not uniform. The students staying at hostels, indulged in premarital sex, were found to have multiple sex partners.

Dave, Viral R; Makwana, Naresh R; Yadav, Babusingh S; Yadav, Sudha

2013-01-01

265

Genetic variability and bottleneck studies in Zalawadi, Gohilwadi and Surti goat breeds of Gujarat (India) using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian goat breeds are recognized as an invaluable component of the world's goat genetic resources. Microsatellite pairs were chosen from the list suggested by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) and amplified in two multiplexes (Set-I: 7 microsatellites and Set-II: 11 microsatellites) for automated fluorescence genotyping to assess bottleneck and analyze genetic variability and genetic distances within and between three

Shadma Fatima; C. D. Bhong; D. N. Rank; C. G. Joshi

2008-01-01

266

Genetic diversity assessment in nine cultivars of Catharanthus roseus from Central Gujarat (India) through RAPD, ISSR and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationship study was carried out among nine different cultivars of Catharanthus roseus using RAPD, ISSR and SSR markers. In RAPD analysis, out of twenty primers, six primers amplified 592 bands out of which 466 were polymorphic while rest was monomorphic. This gave high (78.71%) polymorphism among nine cultivars. In ISSR analysis, 78.94% polymorphism was observed, while in SSR

Sanjay Lal; Kinnari N. Mistry; Smit D. Shah; Riddhi Thaker

2011-01-01

267

Land Cover Mapping in Parts of South Gujarat and Tamil Nadu States of India Using Bhaskara-I TV Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various projects were formulated for the utilisation of the Bhaskara TV data by the user agencies in collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). A number of application are as like land use, snow cover, geology, geomorphology etc., w...

A. R. Dasgupta I. C. Matieda S. D. Naik K. L. Majumdar J. S. Parihar

1982-01-01

268

Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of Amba Dongar and adjacent areas, Deccan Igneous Province, Gujarat, India: 1. Geology, petrography and petrochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Rift-related, late Eocene (˜ 60 Ma) alkaline-carbonatitec intrusions cover ˜ 1200 km2 south of the town of Chhota Udaipur, and form a subprovince within the alkaline magmatism that accompanies the tholeiitic Deccan Traps. They were emplaced temporally between late Deccan Trap flows and late dykes of basalt and picritic basalt. The subprovince comprises five main geographic occurrences (sectors): (1)Amba

L. G. Gwalani; N. M. S. Rock; W.-J. Chang; S. Fernandez; C. J. Allégre; A. Prinzhofer

1993-01-01

269

Serosurveillance for Japanese encephalitis virus infection among equines in India  

PubMed Central

The seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among equines was evaluated from January 2006 to December 2009 in 13 different states of India by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and virus neutralization test (VNT). Antibodies against JEV were detected in 327 out of 3,286 (10%) equines with a maximum prevalence reported in the state of Manipur (91.7%) followed by Gujarat (18.5%), Madhya Pradesh (14.4%), and Uttar Pradesh (11.6%). Evidence of JEV infection was observed in equines in Indore (Madhya Pradesh) where a 4-fold or higher rise in antibody titer was observed in 21 out of 34 horses in November 2007 to October 2006. In March 2008, seven of these horses had a subsequent 4-fold rise in JEV antibody titers while this titer decreased in nine animals. JEV-positive horse sera had a JEV/WNV (West Nile virus) ratio over 2.0 according to the HI and/or VNT. These results indicated that JEV is endemic among equines in India.

Singha, Harisankar; Singh, Birendra K.; Virmani, Nitin; Khurana, Sandip K.; Singh, Raj K.

2011-01-01

270

Earthquake resistant design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After having learned about earthquakes in class, through readings and earlier lab assignments, students (in groups of two) are asked to design and construct (using balsa wood, string, paper and glue) a three-story building designed to minimize the effects of shear-wave vibrations that occur during an earthquake. The students are required to research the design concepts on their own and most of the construction work occurs outside of the regular laboratory period. The structures are tested for strength a week before the earthquake occurs - can they support the required load for each floor? On earthquake day, the buildings a tested for a "design earthquake" and then each group is given the opportunity to see how "large" and earthquake their structure can withstand - both in terms of frequency and amplitude variations. In addition to building the structure, each team has to submit a paper reflecting on why they designed and built the structure the way they did.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

271

Earthquake swarms in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

2014-05-01

272

Earthquakes of the Holocene.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Areas in which significant new data and insights have been obtained are: 1) fault slip rates; 2) earthquake recurrence models; 3) fault segmentation; 4) dating past earthquakes; 5) paleoseismicity in the E and central US; 6) folds and earthquakes, and 7) future earthquake behavior. Summarizes important trends in each of these research areas based on information published between June 1982 and June 1986 and preprints of papers in press. The bibliography for this period contains mainly referred publications in journals and books.-from Author

Schwartz, D. P.

1987-01-01

273

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site aiming to provide useful and educational information in geotechnical earthquake engineering. The site involves topics such as: liquefaction engineering, seismic slope analysis and soil structure interaction.

2008-09-29

274

Earthquakes in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake risk is high in much of the southern half of Alaska, but it is not the same everywhere. This map shows the overall geologic setting in Alaska that produces earthquakes. The Pacific plate (darker blue) is sliding northwestward past southeastern Alaska and then dives beneath the North American plate (light blue, green, and brown) in southern Alaska, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands. Most earthquakes are produced where these two plates come into contact and slide past each other. Major earthquakes also occur throughout much of interior Alaska as a result of collision of a piece of crust with the southern margin.

Haeussler, Peter J.; Plafker, George

1995-01-01

275

Locating Earthquake Epicenters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use data from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake to locate the earthquake and its time of occurrence, and plot data from Central and South America on a map to delineate plate boundaries. Introductory materials explain how earthquakes are caused, describe the types of seismic waves, and explain that the difference in arrival times may be used to calculate distance to the earthquake. Each portion of the exercise includes instructions, datsets, maps, travel-time graphs, study questions, and tables for entering data. A bibliography is also provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

276

Are earthquake magnitudes clustered?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of earthquake predictability is a longstanding and important challenge. Recent results (Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501, 2007; ibid 100, 038501, 2008) have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus, indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are an artifact due to short-term incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

Green, A.; Davidsen, J.

2010-12-01

277

Earthquakes Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This earthquake unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn the location of areas in the United States with the greatest potential for earthquake shaking and the hazards presented by earthquakes. They also learn how geological conditions and building construction affect the amount of destruction during an earthquake. Seismographs and the Richter scale are also covered. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

278

Locating Earthquake Epicenters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use data from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake to locate the earthquake and its time of occurrence, and plot data from Central and South America on a map to delineate plate boundaries. Introductory materials explain how earthquakes are caused, describe the types of seismic waves, and explain that the difference in arrival times may be used to calculate distance to the earthquake. Each portion of the exercise includes instructions, datsets, maps, travel-time graphs, study questions, and tables for entering data. A bibliography is also provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2011-06-15

279

Parkfield, California: Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.

280

DOING BUSINESS IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, India's closed economy opened up and attracted investments from several multinational companies (MNCs) around the world. As a result, people began to seek information about doing business in India, giving rise to a plethora of literature aimed at assisting them. Generally there are two prominent views of India. One is that India is a poor, under-developed country, lacking

RODNEY SEBASTIAN; ASHVIN PARAMESWARAN; FAIZAL YAHYA

2006-01-01

281

AGU Member's Organization Awarded $2.5 Million to Conduct Earthquake Mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A California-based, non-profit organization whose president and founder is an AGU member, announced on 11 November that it had been awarded two U.S. foreign assistance grants totalling $2.54 million to support earthquake safety initiatives in 20 major cities in India, and 3 cities in Central Asia.With these grants, GeoHazards International (GHI) will assess risk, raise awareness, improve school safety, launch self-sustaining mitigation activities, and strengthen the capacity of governments and in-country non-governmental organization (NGOs) to prepare and respond to future earthquakes. The measures should save lives and livelihoods in these earthquake-prone regions.

282

Analysis of glacial earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003, Ekström et al. reported on the detection of a new class of earthquakes that occur in glaciated regions, with the vast majority being in Greenland. The events have a characteristic radiation pattern and lack the high-frequency content typical of tectonic earthquakes. It was proposed that the events correspond to large and sudden sliding motion of glaciers. Here we

Victor C. Tsai; Göran Ekström

2007-01-01

283

Benjamin Franklin and earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benjamin Franklin, the colonial American, maintained a now little-known interest in geological questions for more than sixty years. He began as a follower of English theorists, but soon assimilated some of their ideas with original speculations and discoveries, particularly regarding earthquakes. Though Franklin became famous for his experiments with electricity, he never attempted to explain earthquakes as if they were

Dennis R. Dean

1989-01-01

284

Rethinking Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-examine and summarize what is now possible in predicting earthquakes, what might be accomplished (and hence might be possible in the next few decades) and what types of predictions appear to be inherently impossible based on our understanding of earthquakes as complex phenomena. We take predictions to involve a variety of time scales from seconds to a few decades.

L. R. Sykes; B. E. Shaw; C. H. Scholz

1999-01-01

285

Probabilistic forecasting of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present long-term and short-term forecasts for magnitude 5.8 and larger earthquakes. We discuss a method for optimizing both procedures and testing their forecasting effectiveness using the likelihood function. Our forecasts are expressed as the rate density (that is, the probability per unit area and time) anywhere on the Earth. Our forecasts are for scientific testing only; they are not to be construed as earthquake predictions or warnings, and they carry no official endorsement. For our long-term forecast we assume that the rate density is proportional to a smoothed version of past seismicity (using the Harvard CMT catalogue). This is in some ways antithetical to the seismic gap model, which assumes that recent earthquakes deter future ones. The estimated rate density depends linearly on the magnitude of past earthquakes and approximately on a negative power of the epicentral distance out to a few hundred kilometres. We assume no explicit time dependence, although the estimated rate density will vary slightly from day to day as earthquakes enter the catalogue. The forecast applies to the ensemble of earthquakes during the test period. It is not meant to predict any single earthquake, and no single earthquake or lack of one is adequate to evaluate such a hypothesis. We assume that 1 per cent of all earthquakes are surprises, assumed uniformly likely to occur in those areas with no earthquakes since 1977. We have made specific forecasts for the calendar year 1999 for the Northwest Pacific and Southwest Pacific regions, and we plan to expand the forecast to the whole Earth. We test the forecast against the earthquake catalogue using a likelihood test and present the results. Our short-term forecast, updated daily, makes explicit use of statistical models describing earthquake clustering. Like the long-term forecast, the short-term version is expressed as a rate density in location, magnitude and time. However, the short-term forecasts will change significantly from day to day in response to recent earthquakes. The forecast applies to main shocks, aftershocks, aftershocks of aftershocks, and main shocks preceded by foreshocks. However, there is no need to label each event, and the method is completely automatic. According to the model, nearly 10 per cent of moderately sized earthquakes will be followed by larger ones within a few weeks.

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2000-11-01

286

Earthquake sound perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound is an effect produced by almost all earthquakes. Using a web-based questionnaire on earthquake effects that included questions relating to seismic sound, we collected 77,000 responses for recent shallow Italian earthquakes. An analysis of audibility attenuation indicated that the decrease of the percentage of respondents hearing the sound was proportional to the logarithm of the epicentral distance and linearly dependent on earthquake magnitude, in accordance with the behavior of ground displacement. Even if this result was based on Italian data, qualitative agreement with the results of theoretical displacement, and of a similar study based on French seismicity suggests wider validity. We also found that, given earthquake magnitude, audibility increased together with the observed macroseismic intensity, leading to the possibility of accounting for sound audibility in intensity assessment. Magnitude influenced this behavior, making small events easier to recognize, as suggested by their frequency content.

Tosi, Patrizia; Sbarra, Paola; De Rubeis, Valerio

2012-12-01

287

On numerical earthquake prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can earthquakes be predicted? How should people overcome the difficulties encountered in the study of earthquake prediction? This issue can take inspiration from the experiences of weather forecast. Although weather forecasting took a period of about half a century to advance from empirical to numerical forecast, it has achieved significant success. A consensus has been reached among the Chinese seismological community that earthquake prediction must also develop from empirical forecasting to physical prediction. However, it is seldom mentioned that physical prediction is characterized by quantitatively numerical predictions based on physical laws. This article discusses five key components for numerical earthquake prediction and their current status. We conclude that numerical earthquake prediction should now be put on the planning agenda and its roadmap designed, seismic stations should be deployed and observations made according to the needs of numerical prediction, and theoretical research should be carried out.

Shi, Yaolin; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Siqi; Zhang, Huai

2014-05-01

288

Demand surge following earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

Olsen, Anna H.

2012-01-01

289

Early Eocene lagomorph (Mammalia) from Western India and the early diversification of Lagomorpha  

PubMed Central

We report the oldest known record of Lagomorpha, based on distinctive, small ankle bones (calcaneus and talus) from Early Eocene deposits (Middle Ypresian equivalent, ca 53?Myr ago) of Gujarat, west-central India. The fossils predate the oldest previously known crown lagomorphs by several million years and extend the record of lagomorphs on the Indian subcontinent by 35?Myr. The bones show a mosaic of derived cursorial adaptations found in gracile Leporidae (rabbits and hares) and primitive traits characteristic of extant Ochotonidae (pikas) and more robust leporids. Together with gracile and robust calcanei from the Middle Eocene of Shanghuang, China, also reported here, the Indian fossils suggest that diversification within crown Lagomorpha and possibly divergence of the family Leporidae were already underway in the Early Eocene.

Rose, Kenneth D; DeLeon, Valerie Burke; Missiaen, Pieter; Rana, R.S; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Lachham; Smith, Thierry

2008-01-01

290

Earthquake triggering of mud volcanoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mud volcanoes sometimes erupt within days after nearby earthquakes. The number of such nearly coincident events is larger than would be expected by chance and the eruptions are thus assumed to be triggered by earthquakes. Here we compile observations of the response of mud volcanoes and other geologic systems (earthquakes, volcanoes, liquefaction, ground water, and geysers) to earthquakes. The compilation

Michael Manga; Maria Brumm; Maxwell L. Rudolph

2009-01-01

291

The USGS Earthquake Scenario Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) is producing a comprehensive suite of earthquake scenarios for planning, mitigation, loss estimation, and scientific investigations. The Earthquake Scenario Project (ESP), though lacking clairvoyance, is a forward-looking project, estimating earthquake hazard and loss outcomes as they may occur one day. For each scenario event, fundamental input includes i) the magnitude and

D. J. Wald; M. D. Petersen; L. A. Wald; A. D. Frankel; V. R. Quitoriano; K. Lin; N. Luco; S. Mathias; D. Bausch

2009-01-01

292

The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 9 March 1957 Aleutian earthquake has been estimated as the third largest earthquake this century and has the longest aftershock zone of any earthquake ever recorded—1200 km. However, due to a lack of high-quality seismic data, the actual source parameters for this earthquake have been poorly determined. We have examined all the available waveform data to determine the seismic

Jean M. Johnson; Yuichiro Tanioka; Larry J. Ruff; Kenji Satake; Hiroo Kanamori; Lynn R. Sykes

1994-01-01

293

Self-Care Practices among Diabetic Patients in Anand District of Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background. Diabetes care requires a multipronged approach, wherein the patient has an important role to play. This study was undertaken to explore self-care practices of diabetic patients residing in Anand district of Gujarat. Methods. A cross-sectional study, involving 100 diabetic patients, was conducted in 2009-2010. Self-care practices in seven domains of physical activity, dietary practices, medication taking, monitoring of glucose, problem solving, foot care, and psychosocial adjustment were assessed using scores assigned to participants' responses. Results. The mean age was 60.9 (SD = 12.2) years and 57% were males. Majority (92%) were Hindus and were consulting private medical practitioners (71%). “Medication taking” was the domain with the best performance score (88.1%) and “problem solving” the worst (11.0%). The “psychosocial adjustment” of the participants was satisfactory (82.5%). Overall mean performance percentage score was 54.41%. Males had better performance scores as compared to females in areas of “physical activity,” “dietary practices,” and “problem solving.” Housewives had poorer performance scores. Total mean performance score was similar for patients on treatment from specialists and general practitioners. Conclusion. A self-care education program designed for this region should address the lacunae identified in various domains with a special emphasis on females.

Raithatha, Shyamsundar Jagdish; Shankar, Singh Uday; Dinesh, Kumar

2014-01-01

294

Sun, Moon and Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

Kolvankar, V. G.

2013-12-01

295

Historic Earthquakes in Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a map of southern California with epicenters of earthquakes shown as circles of different sizes and colors. The size and color of each earthquake symbol corresponds to its magnitude, as indicated by a scale on the map. Clicking on an epicenter takes the user to a page of information about that earthquake. Earthquakes dating back to 1812 are shown. Also available on this page are links to fault maps, earthquake animations, and other indexes of seismological information.

2011-04-06

296

Earthquakes: San Francisco  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The prediction of earthquakes may be inexact, but it is vital, especially when large cities such as San Francisco or Los Angeles are threatened. The San Andreas Fault and two other faults, the Heyward and Calaveras faults, all have the potential to deliver a massive earthquake to the San Francisco Bay area. In this video segment, a seismologist explains the historical pattern of seismic activity in the Bay area, and how this information may be used to predict the location and timing of San Francisco's next big earthquake. The segment is three minutes twenty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-05-13

297

Mercalli Earthquake Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an inquiry approach to term and concept introduction. Students will work in a jigsaw format to read through the descriptions of eyewitness accounts from earthquakes and assess a Mercalli value. In the jigsaw groups, they will compare the different Mercalli and Richter values and describe the basic events that occurred during different earthquakes. They will share this information in order to collaboratively assess the strengths and weaknesses of this scale relative to the Richter magnitudes provided. They will also begin to determine what types of hazards result from earthquakes.

Kraft, Kaatje

298

Measuring Earthquakes: Intensity Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of exercises will introduce students to the construction of earthquake intensity maps, familiarize them with the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, and give them the opportunity to build their own maps online in order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. In the first exercise, they will use intensity data from the 1986 North Palm Springs, California earthquake to create an isoseismal map. In the second, they will use a special interactive page of dynamic HTML to plot intensities that they assign based on reports, and attempt to determine the epicenter based on the area of highest intensity.

299

Images of Historical Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Information Service for Earthquake Engineering of the University of California, Berkeley maintains the Images of Historical Earthquakes Web site. The hundreds of illustrations are accessible by an alphabetical table of countries or regions, or by a chronological list beginning in 464 BC and ending in 1932. Each image contains a brief description, a link for more information, and a link to the image itself. The fascinating photographs and other graphics, along with the historical content, make the site a wonderful online resource for anyone interested in history, earthquakes, photography, or related topics.

300

Usage trends for memory and vitality-enhancing medicines: A pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of the Gujarat region  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the trends and rationale of use of memory and vitality-enhancing medicines (MVEM) in the Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: A prospective pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of Gujarat region was carried out in the year 2005. Pharmacists (n = 351) working in general and Ayurvedic medical stores were selected from 12 districts of Gujarat region. The pharmacists were explained about the objective of the study and were given a pretested, validated questionnaire. Outcome Measures: The questionnaire included the questions regarding herbal MVEM used most commonly, percentage sale of herbal MVEM – sold with or without prescriptions – age group of patients and professional groups who used these drugs most commonly. Results: The number of individuals using MVEM was highest in the age group of 11–20 years (17.54%), followed by the 21–40 years group (17.12%), supporting the results that the professional group of students (17.29%) and the persons of business or service class (15.29%) are the highest users of these medicines. Evaluation of various constituents in the marketed polyherbal MVEM revealed that Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), Shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides), Ashwangandha (Withania somnifera), Jatamansi (Nardostychos jatamansi), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were the common ingredients in the polyherbal preparations. Conclusions: This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same.

Shah, Jigna Samir; Goyal, R. K.

2010-01-01

301

1964 Alaska Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video adapted from the Valdez Museum & Historical Archive, explores what happened during the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 through original footage, first-person accounts, and animations illustrating plate tectonics.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-02-25

302

Earthquake Ground Motion Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based design and...

P. Arduino S. L. Kramer S. S. Sideras

2012-01-01

303

To capture an earthquake  

SciTech Connect

An earthquake model based on the theory of plate tectonics is presented. It is assumed that the plates behave elastically in response to slow, steady motions and the strains concentrate within the boundary zone between the plates. When the accumulated stresses exceed the bearing capacity of the rocks, the rocks break, producing an earthquake and releasing the accumulated stresses. As the steady movement of the plates continues, strain begins to reaccumulate. The cycle of strain accumulation and release is modeled using the motion of a block, pulled across a rough surface by a spring. A model earthquake can be predicted by taking into account a precursory event or the peak spring force prior to slip as measured in previous cycles. The model can be applied to faults, e.g., the San Andreas fault, if the past earthquake history of the fault and the rate of strain accumulation are known.

Ellsworth, W.L. (USGS, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

304

Remotely Triggered Earthquakes in Intraplate Regions: Distributed Hazard, Dependent Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central and eastern United States has experienced only 5 historic earthquakes with Mw above 7.0, the 1886 Charleston earthquake and four during the New Madrid sequence of 1811-1812 (three principal mainshocks and the so-called ``dawn aftershock'' following the first mainshock.) Careful consideration of historic accounts yields compelling evidence for a number of remotely triggered earthquakes in both 1812 and 1886, including several events large enough to be potentially damaging. We propose that one of the (alleged) New Madrid mainshocks, on 23 January 1812, may itself be a remotely triggered earthquake, with a location some 200 km north of the New Madrid Seismic Zone. Our proposed source location is near the location of the 1968 southern Illinois earthquake, which occurred on a blind thrust fault at 20-25 km depth. Intensity data for the 1812 event are consistent with expectations for a similarly deep event. Such triggered events presumably do not represent a wholly new source of hazard but rather a potential source of dependent hazard. That is, the common assumption is that the triggering will cause only a ``clock advance,'' rather than causing earthquakes that would not have otherwise occurred. However, in a low strain-rate region, a given dynamic stress change can potentially represent a much larger clock advance than the same change would cause in a high strain-rate region. Moreover, in regions with low seismicity and a short historic record, overlooked remotely triggered historic earthquakes may be important events. It is thus possible that significant events are currently missing from the historic catalogs. Such events--even if large--can be difficult to identify without instrumental data. The (interplate) 1905 Kangra, India earthquake, further illustrates this point. In this case, early seismic records provide corroboration of an early triggered event whose existence is suggested--but difficult to prove--based on detailed macroseismic data. In the central United States, where even moderate earthquakes are uncommon, our results suggest that the largest known historic earthquakes in three states (Kentucky, Illinois, and Mississippi) may have been remotely triggered earthquakes.

Hough, S. E.; Mueller, K.; Bilham, R.; Ambraseys, N.; Martin, S.

2003-12-01

305

Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India.  

PubMed

For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50-52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J; Engel, Michael S; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

2010-10-26

306

Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India  

PubMed Central

For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50–52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today.

Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S.; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Solorzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J.; Engel, Michael S.; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

2010-01-01

307

Connecting Earthquakes and Violins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Violins, earthquakes, and the "singing rod" demonstration all have something in common--stick-slip frictional motion. This article begins with a typical classroom experiment used to understand the transition between sticking and slipping, proceeds to a mechanical earthquake model that is truly "stick-slip" as scientists describe it, and progresses to acoustic examples of the same phenomenon in action. Other interesting cases involving frictional effects are described.

Ringlein, James

2005-11-01

308

Earthquake Probability Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mapping tool allows users to generate Earthquake Probability Maps (EPMs) for a region within 50 kilometers of a location specified by latitude and longitude or by ZIP code. The maps are color-coded; higher earthquake probabilities are indicated by orange and red colors, while lower probabilities are indicated by green or blue. Fault traces are marked in white; rivers are in blue. The maps are also produced in downloadable, printable format (PDF).

309

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive exercise lets students investigate how seismic waves are used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude. They will place virtual seismic stations on an interactive map, trigger a virtual explosion, and measure the difference in arrival times of S- and P-waves generated by the explosion. Using this data, they can determine the distance to each station and use triangulation to determine the epicenter of the earthquake.

310

Earthquake Probability Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mapping tool allows users to generate Earthquake Probability Maps (EPMs) for a region within 50 kilometers of a location specified by latitude and longitude or by ZIP code. The maps are color-coded; higher earthquake probabilities are indicated by orange and red colors, while lower probabilities are indicated by green or blue. Fault traces are marked in white; rivers are in blue. The maps are also produced in downloadable, printable format (PDF).

2010-12-27

311

Earthquakes: The Prehistoric Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologic features altered by earthquakes provide striking evidence of the power of seismic events. This video segment explores the research of Dr. Kerry Sieh, a geologist at the California Institute of Technology, who is dating sediment layers broken and offset by earthquakes in the past to determine the rate at which strain is accumulating towards the next event. The segment is three minutes nineteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

312

Injection-induced earthquakes.  

PubMed

Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

Ellsworth, William L

2013-07-12

313

VILLAGE SIZE IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is predominantly a rural and agrarian society, and 72 percent of India's population lives in villages according to the 2001 census. Village size varies considerably in the country, with some villages having fewer than 50 residents and some having more than 10,000 residents. The study first examines the growth of villages in India using census data. It then establishes

Abhishek Singh; Sandip Chakraborty; Tarun K. Roy

2008-01-01

314

Multifrequency SAR signatures of forest class covering parts of Rajpipla, Gujarat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-frequency SAR observation over forested areas has been the subject of research owing to the frequency dependence on the contribution of radar backscatter from different parts of the vegetation canopy. The multi-frequency SAR data at P-, L-, C- and X-band was acquired over Rajpipla site (Gujarat). All the channels were in quad-pole mode except X-SAR, which was in HH and VV-polarization mode. The study area comprises of the dry and moist deciduous forest. The moist deciduous forest is not evergreen and shed their leaves during March-April. Teak (Tectona grandis) is the dominant species in the moist deciduous forest area. Dry deciduous trees are mainly khakhar (Butea monosperma). Multifrequency SAR data was processed to get geo-referenced images and all the images were co-registered. Images were converted to the backscattering image using the calibration function. For the purpose of ground verification, ground data was obtained at different locations. Ground data consisted of measurements on tree height, diameter at breast height, basal girth, crown diameter etc. for each location; measurements were done in 10m by 10 m area. The analysis of the data was carried out in relation to comparison of backscattering coefficient in different frequencies and polarizations. In general, forest type was better seen in X-band image as compared to other classes. However, X- and C-band could be comparable in terms of forest classes. Further, backscattering coefficient increases with frequency except in P-band. However, P-band showed best correlation with biomass as compared to other channels.

Dasari, Anitha; Mohan, Shiv; Ajai, A.; Patel, Bharat

2006-12-01

315

Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

Tucker, B. E.

2008-12-01

316

Instantaneous deformation and kinematics of the India-Australia Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active intraplate deformation of the India-Australia Plate is now being captured by far-field global positioning system (GPS) measurements as well as measurements on a few islands located within the deforming zone itself. In this paper, we combine global and regional geodetic solutions with focal mechanisms of earthquakes to derive the present-day strain field of the India-Australia Plate. We first compile an updated catalogue of 131 Indian intraplate earthquakes (M > 5) spanning the period between the two Asian mega earthquakes of Assam 1897 and Sumatra 2004. Using Haines and Holt's numerical approach applied to a fully deformable India-Australia Plate, we show that the use of GPS data only or earthquakes data only has severe drawbacks, related, respectively, to the small number of stations and the incompleteness of the earthquakes catalogue. The combined solution avoids underestimation of the strain inherent to the Kostrov summation of seismic moments and provides details that cannot be reached by pure GPS modelling. We further explore the role of heterogeneity of the India-Australia Plate and find that the best model, in terms of geodetic vectors fit, relative distribution of strain, style and direction of principal strain from earthquakes, is obtained using the surface heat-flow as a proxy for rheological weakness of the oceanic lithosphere. The present-day deformation is distributed around the Afanasy Nikitin Chain in the Central Indian Basin (CIB)-where it is almost pure shortening-and within the Wharton Basin (WB) off Sumatra-where it is almost pure lateral strike-slip. The northern portion of NinetyEast ridge (NyR) appears as a major discontinuity for both strain and velocity. The new velocity field gives an India/Australia rotation pole located at 11.3°S, 72.8°E (-0.301°Myr-1) overlapping with previous solutions, with continental India moving eastward at rates ranging from 13 mm yr-1 (southern India) to 26 mm yr-1 (northern India) with respect to Australia. Taking into account the intraplate velocity field in the vicinity of the Sumatra trench, we obtain a convergence rate of 46 mm yr-1 towards N18°E at the epicentre of the 2004 Aceh megaearthquake. The predicted instantaneous shortening in the CIB and WB and extension near Chagos-Laccadive are in good agreement with the finite deformation measured from plate reconstructions and seismic profiles, suggesting a continuum of deformation since the onset of intraplate deformation around 7.5-8 Ma. Since no significant change in India convergence is detected at that time, we suggest that the intraplate deformation started with the trenchward acceleration of Australia detaching from India along a wide left-lateral oceanic shear band activating the NyR line of weakness as well as north-south fracture zones east of it. The predicted total amount of left lateral finite strain along these faults is in the range 110-140 km.

Delescluse, Matthias; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

2007-02-01

317

Nisqually, Washington Intraplate Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 28, 2001, the M6.8 Nisqually earthquake shook the Pacific Northwest. This intraplate event occurred within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia margin. Although the damage was less than observed at most large urban earthquakes, serious damage was found in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma. To better serve Oregon public safety needs, DOGAMI and others surveyed the Puget Sound damage to expand our technical understanding of seismic ground response, building and lifeline behavior, and secondary hazards (landslides and liquefaction). Damage was observed in structures and areas that, for the most part, would be predicted to be vulnerable. These included: old buildings (URMs), old lifelines (4th Ave bridge in Olympia), areas with poor soil conditions (Harbor Island, Seattle; Sunset Lake, Tumwater), and steep slopes (Salmon Beach; Burien). Damage types included: structural, nonstructural, contents, lifelines, landslides, liquefaction, lateral spreading, sand boils, and settlement. In several notable places, seismic-induced ground failures significantly increased the damage. Estimated costs developed from HAZUS evaluations ranged from \\2 billion to \\3.9 billion. Historic intraplate earthquakes in the Puget Sound region, including the 1949 M7.1, 1965 M6.5, and 1999 M5.9, were not accompanied by significant aftershock events or associated with earthquake sequences. However, a recent El Salvador earthquake sequence suggests there may be particular cases of increased seismicity following large intraplate events, with implications for post-earthquake response and mitigation. The January 13, 2001 M7.6 El Salvador intraplate earthquake was followed by a M6.6 crustal event February 13, 2001 and a M5.4 intraplate event February 28, 2001.

Wang, Y.; Hofmeister, R.

2001-05-01

318

Seismicity in the vicinity of the India-Burma border: Evidence for a sinking lithosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vicinity of the India-Burma border region is among a few intracontinental regions in the world where intermediate-focus earthquakes occur. The recent installation of new seismic stations has improved the detection and location capabilities for earthquakes in this region. Three seismic stations belonging to this new array are located over the zone of intermediate-focus earthquakes. Analysis of recently acquired seismic data reveals a well-defined near-vertical zone of earthquake foci extending to 200 km beneath the Arakan-Yoma fold belt. On the basis of seismic, gravity and other geological data, it is suggested that this zone of earthquakes is associated with remnants of the already subducted, but not totally assimilated, Tethys oceanic lithosphere below the Burmese plate.

Gupta, Harsh K.; Bhatia, S. C.

1986-09-01

319

EARTHQUAKE CLUSTERS, SMALL EARTHQUAKES AND THEIR TREATMENT FOR HAZARD ESTIMATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earthquake hazard studies, several arbitrary decisions relating to small, non- damaging earthquakes may significantly affect results. These relate to: • declustering of the earthquake catalogue. • the choice of return period which effects the character of design ground motion and the shape of the response spectrum, particularly in areas of low seismicity. • the choice of the minimum magnitude

Gary Gibson; Amy Brown

320

Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

Buydos, John F., Comp.

321

Earthquake Education Environment (E3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Education Environment (E3) supports high-quality K-12 and undergraduate education by providing up-to-date earthquake information, authoritative technical sources, and educational resources for the classroom.

2007-07-16

322

Evidence for Earthquake Triggering Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earthquake time series are constructed by making counts per unit time of earthquakes with magnitudes greater than a chosen threshold. The time series from widely separated regions show strong correlations with one another, and it is suggested that tectoni...

M. A. Chinnery T. E. Landers

1975-01-01

323

Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows earthquake and volcanic activity corresponds to plate boundaries. This interactive topographical map with the ocean water removed shows the boundaries of major plates and the locations of major volcanic eruptions and earthquakes worldwide.

324

Distribution of similar earthquakes in aftershocks of inland earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional properties control the slip behavior on a fault surface such as seismic slip and aseismic slip. Asperity, as a seismic slip area, is characterized by a strong coupling in the interseismic period and large coseismic slip. On the other hand, steady slip or afterslip occurs in an aseismic slip area around the asperity. If an afterslip area includes small asperities, a repeating rupture of single asperity can generate similar earthquakes due to the stress accumulation caused by the afterslip. We here investigate a detail distribution of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma 6.9) and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mjma 7.3), inland large earthquakes in Japan. We use the data obtained by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake. First, we select pairs of aftershocks whose cross correlation coefficients in 10 s time window of band-pass filtered waveforms of 1~4 Hz are greater than 0.95 at more than 5 stations and divide those into groups by a link of the cross correlation coefficients. Second, we reexamine the arrival times of P and S waves and the maximum amplitude for earthquakes of each group and apply the double-difference method (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate them. As a result of the analysis, we find 24 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and 86 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. Most of them are distributed around or outside the asperity of the main shock. Geodetic studies reported that postseismic deformation was detected for the both earthquakes (Sagiya et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2008). The source area of similar earthquakes seems to correspond to the afterslip area. These features suggest that the similar earthquakes observed here are caused by the stress accumulation due to aseismic slip outside asperity. We consider that a spatial complementary distribution between similar earthquakes in aftershocks and asperity is a characteristic of inland earthquakes. Acknowledgements: We thank the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake, ERI, Univ. of Tokyo, DPRI, Kyoto Univ., JMA, and NIED for providing the waveform data of aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake. We thank the group for the dense aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake for providing the waveform data of aftershocks of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. We are grateful to Takashi Iwata, Haruko Sekiguchi, Haruo Horikawa and Manabu Hashimoto for providing their result.

Hayashi, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Aftershock Observations Of 2007 Noto Hanto, G.

2010-12-01

325

Introduction to Earthquake Seismology Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students will consider various aspects of earthquake seismology methods that include p-wave amplitude, location of an earthquake epicenter, determining the time of occurrence of an earthquake and the relationships between type of plate boundary and earthquake focal depth. Students will be exposed to several types of graphing program and spreadsheets to analyze and illustrate the results. They will also use seismicity maps and the WWW to reinforce the concepts presented both in the lab and in lecture.

Rueger, Bruce

326

Damaging earthquakes: A scientific laboratory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reviews the principal lessons learned from multidisciplinary postearthquake investigations of damaging earthquakes throughout the world during the past 15 years. The unique laboratory provided by a damaging earthquake in culturally different but tectonically similar regions of the world has increased fundamental understanding of earthquake processes, added perishable scientific, technical, and socioeconomic data to the knowledge base, and led to changes in public policies and professional practices for earthquake loss reduction.

Hays, Walter, W.

1996-01-01

327

Earthquake Research Reveals New Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief, three-part report focuses on NSF-sponsored earthquake safety projects. The first section is on the Simmillennium Project, which investigates computer earthquake modeling techniques. The second section concentrates on hospitals, which are particularly difficult to retrofit for earthquake safety because of the sophisticated diagnostic and treatment systems they contain. The report also gives news of a safety engineering project for elementary school students created by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.

2001-01-01

328

Earthquakes and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students compare maps of plate tectonics with population density maps and to analyze what these maps imply about the relationship between population and seismic hazards. Students will read about and discuss the theory of plate tectonics, map the regions of the United States that are most susceptible to earthquakes and those that have volcanoes, and list the states that lie on plate boundaries. In addition, they will look at a population density map to determine if people avoid living in areas at high risk for earthquakes and volcanoes. Students will also research specific volcanoes or earthquake zones and write pretend letters to residents of these areas describing the risks. This site also contains suggestions for assessment and ideas for extending the lesson.

2001-01-01

329

Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

2010-03-30

330

Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months.

Robert Muir-Wood; Geoffrey C. P. King

1993-01-01

331

Land Use Planning after Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study identifies and analyzes factors in post-earthquake land use planning which can effectively reduce further earthquake risk in urban areas. Case studies are evaluated for earthquakes in San Fernando, Santa Rosa, Laguna Beach, and Alaska. A wide va...

G. G. Mader, M. L. Blair, R. L. Meehan, S. W. Bilodeau, W. E. Spangle

1980-01-01

332

Earthquakes! Amplitude and Magnitude Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary learning activity illustrates the differences between the amplitude and magnitude of earthquakes in a mathematical context. Students will express earthquake magnitude as a logarithmic function of amplitude and express earthquake amplitude as an exponential function of magnitude. Worksheets are also included in the document.

2010-12-13

333

Gravitational effects from earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of propagating gravitational effects, from the mass redistribution within the Earth due to a large earthquake, are investigated: (i) the velocity of the change of the Newtonian potential field; and (ii) the gravitational luminosity of the seismic source. The mass redistribution caused by an earthquake and the resulting change in the gravitational potential field is computed through application of geophysical dislocation theory. The global mass redistribution is postulated to be progressive, starting at the instant (and location) of the nucleation of the earthquake fault rupture, and then spreading globally at the velocities of various seismic waves. Information about the changes of the gravitational potential is postulated to travel at the velocity of light. Superconducting gravimeters (SG) can resolve changes of the order of 10 nGal, i.e., (10(-9) cm/s(2)) (1 Gal = 0.001 0197g), sufficient to detect the changes in the potential field. The time difference between observation of the change of the potential field and the arrival of the primary seismic wave from the earthquake would allow a crude estimation of the velocity of the gravitational effect. A preliminary search for the preseismic gravitational signal using an SG has given inconclusive results, primarily due to the limitations of the spline curve fitting methods. Despite this, we suggest that the observation of preseismic gravitational potential changes should be feasible, with the existing array of SGs in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) network, and by detectors designed to observe gravitational radiation (e.g., the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)). We have used published values of the changes in the Earth's inertia tensor due to the Alaska earthquake of 1964 to estimate the magnitude of the metric perturbation of the gravitational wave produced by such an earthquake. The gravitational luminosity is estimated at 1.90 x 10(-10)erg/s (1 erg/s = 10(-7) W D 1 J/s).

Hayes, T. J.; Valluri, S. R.; Mansinha, L.

2004-12-01

334

Geological indicators of a suspected seismic source from Peninsular India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in seismicity in Peninsular India during the last few decades has initiated various studies for identifying seismogenic structures and their behaviour. Even though few earthquakes occurred at well defined structures many of them occurred at unexpected locations where no previous seismicity reported. However, studies subsequent to the 1993 Latur earthquake as well as the studies at different parts of peninsular India, have led to the identification of pre-existing faults that have activated in the past. Studies elsewhere in the cratonic hinderland also show that the damaging earthquakes occur on pre-existing faults with a recurrence period of tens of thousands of year Studies subsequent to 1989 Wadakkancheri earthquake (M=4.3) identified Desamangalam fault which are capable of generating earthquakes. However, it is noted that a number of later events are occurring much south of the Desamangalam fault. We identified a set of NW-SE trending lineaments which are influencing the drainage pattern of the area. A network of paleochannels is also observed in the remote sensing analysis and field studies in this area. Regionally these lineaments meeting one of the major lineaments in central Kerala called Periyar lineament, in the south. Charnockite rocks constitutes the major rock type of the region. These rocks at places developed strong foliation similar to the lineament direction. Detailed field studies identified oblique movement (reverse and strike slip component) along NW-SE trending faults which are dipping south-west. The studies also find NNE-SSW trending vertical faults showing strike-slip movement. The damage zones of each of these faults bears different mineral precipitations and gouge injections of episodic nature. The presence of loose gouge may indicate the faulting is a much later development in the brittle regime. The sense of movement of the observed faults may indicate that the various river/drainage abandonment observed in the area are due to the movement of these faults. The correlation of the ongoing earthquake activity with these faults and their sense of movement akin to the present stress condition of Peninsular India and its episodic nature as well as its influence on the drainage network of the area may indicate that these faults may be adjusting to the present tectonic regime and are capable of producing moderate events. Key words Peninsular India, stress regime, lineaments, brittle deformation

Singh, Yogendra; John, Biju; P, Ganapathy G.; S, Divyalakshmi K.

2014-05-01

335

The Parkfield, California, Earthquake Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report decribes research being carried out in Parkfield, California whose purpose is to better understand the physics of earthquakes: what actually happens on the fault and in the surrounding region before, during and after an earthquake. Ultimately, scientists hope to better understand the earthquake process and, if possible, to provide a scientific basis for earthquake prediction. Topics include the scientific background for the experiment, including the tectonic setting at Parkfield, historical earthquake activity on this section of the San Andreas fault, the monitoring and data collecting activities currently being carried out, and plans for future research. Data are also available to view in real time and to download.

336

Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

Background In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. Principal Findings Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. Conclusions The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India.

Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Gurav, Yogesh K.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Pawar, Shailesh D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

2012-01-01

337

Testing earthquake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical tests of earthquake predictions require a null hypothesis to model occasional chance successes. To define and quantify `chance success' is knotty. Some null hypotheses ascribe chance to the Earth: Seismicity is modeled as random. The null distribution of the number of successful predictions -- or any other test statistic -- is taken to be its distribution when the fixed

Brad Luen; Philip B. Stark

2008-01-01

338

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers adults, teachers, and kids access to basic earthquake information, including Frequently Asked Questions, glossaries, simple exercises with science fair materials, news, short reports, preparedness information, and the Ask-a-Geologist service. Links are provided to selected organizations, professional and nonprofessional.

339

Earthquake Slip Classroom Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the 'stick-slip' mechanism of earthquake generation. They will learn about the concepts of stick-slip sliding, static friction, energy conversion, and the elastic properties of materials. Students work together to develop and test a hypothesis, make measurements, graph and write a short report on the results.

340

Infrasonic observation of earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Infrasound signals generated by earthquakes have been detected at arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Three modes of propagation are possible and all have been observed by the authors. The observations suggest that regions remote from the epicenters are excited and may serve as secondary source regions. A relation is found between the normalized peak amplitudes and the seismic magnitudes.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1998-12-31

341

Infrasound from earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasonic signals have been observed from 31 earthquakes by arrays of microphones operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory between 1983 and 2003. The properties of the signals are presented. Signal amplitudes corrected for propagation and distance show a relation with seismic magnitude. The variance in the relation is understood primarily in terms of the uncertainties or errors in the

J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker

2005-01-01

342

San Franciscso Earthquake Aftermath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of films hosted by Internet Archive that show the aftermath of the earthquake and efforts to rebuild. The films are available in a variety of file formats of varying quality, and are digitized from period silent films of the disaster. Included in the collection is an Edison newsreel from the period, as well as footage of trolley rides through the destruction.

Various; Archive, Internet

343

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the theory of plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes and seismic zones. Materials include an overview of plate tectonics, a description of Earth's crustal plates and their motions, and descriptions of the four types of seismic zones.

344

Fractal dynamics of earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D {approx} 1--1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function of time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth`s crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).

Bak, P.; Chen, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-05-01

345

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

2011-09-06

346

Equatorial ionosphere 'fountain- effect' above imminent earthquake epicenter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existence of lithosphere-ionosphere interaction is known for a long time, but it does not mean that the ionospheric morphology above areas of earthquakes preparation is investigated sufficiently well. It was shown that seismo-precursor variations of the atmosphere electricity cause appropriate electric field at the ionospheric heights, which being added to existing natural field may both increase or decrease its action on the ionospheric plasma characteristics: drifts, aeronomy, plasma chemistry, ion composition etc. Anomalous variations appear inside whole ionosphere volume from the lowest boundary of Earth's plasma shell (100 km) up to 1000km and higher. Under fortunate coincidence seismo-precursor electric field can generate natural ionosphere phenomena, 'fountain- effect', leading to Appleton anomaly in the equatorial ionosphere over future earthquake position. Our basic idea is to take into account dependence of the observable effects on a geographical position of the earthquake epicenter. As for low latitudes it is proved by specificity of formation and dynamics of equatorial ionosphere (seismogenic ""fountain" effect , first of all), and also by features of earth crust structure close to the equator (mainly meridionally alongated tectonic faults). Ionospheric effects of low-latitude earthquakes were not investigated separately so far though rather semo-active zones are located namely at low latitudes: India, Peru, Oceania. We used the data of topside sounding of ALOUETTE-1 and ISS-b satellites, and also data of ground-based vertical sounding stationary stations Kodaikanal, Huancayo, Djibouti etc. and records of the total electron content (TEC).

Ruzhin, Yu.; Depueva, A. H.; Devi, M.

2003-04-01

347

The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

2013-12-01

348

Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation in India: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by various tectonic units viz., Himalayan collision zone in North, Indo-Burmese arc in north-east, failed rift zones in its interior in Peninsular Indian shield and Andaman Sumatra trench in south-east Indian Territory. During the last about 100 years, the country has witnessed four great and several major earthquakes. Soon after the occurrence of the first great earthquake, the Shillong earthquake ( M w: 8.1) in 1897, efforts were started to assess the seismic hazard in the country. The first such attempt was made by Geological Survey of India in 1898 and since then considerable progress has been made. The current seismic zonation map prepared and published by Bureau of Indian Standards, broadly places seismic risk in different parts of the country in four major zones. However, this map is not sufficient for the assessment of area-specific seismic risks, necessitating detailed seismic zoning, that is, microzonation for earthquake disaster mitigation and management. Recently, seismic microzonation studies are being introduced in India, and the first level seismic microzonation has already been completed for selected urban centres including, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmadabad, Dehradun, etc. The maps prepared for these cities are being further refined on larger scales as per the requirements, and a plan has also been firmed up for taking up microzonation of 30 selected cities, which lie in seismic zones V and IV and have a population density of half a million. The paper highlights the efforts made in India so far towards seismic hazard assessment as well as the future road map for such studies.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2013-07-01

349

India's Initiative in Mitigating Tsunami and Storm Surge Hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soon after the occurrence of the most devastating tsunami caused by the 26th December, 2004 Sumatra earthquake, India took the initiative to set up an end to end system to mitigate tsunami and storm surge hazard. The system includes all the necessary elements: networking of seismic stations; deployment of ocean bottom pressure recorders; real time sea level monitoring stations; establishment of radar based monitoring stations for real time measurement of surface currents and waves; modeling for tsunamis and storm surges; generation of coastal inundation and vulnerability maps; operation of a tsunami and storm surges warning centre on 24×7 basis; capacity building and training of all the stakeholders and communication with the global community. This initiative was estimated to have a direct cost of US $30 million and was to be operative by August 2007. This has been achieved. The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information and Services (INCOIS), belonging to the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), located at Hyderabad, is the nodal agency for this program. The system fared well during the occurrence of September 12/13 2007 tsunamigenic earthquakes. One of the problems is delay in estimating the size of large earthquakes. Empirical approaches are being developed to quickly estimate the size of the earthquakes occurring in Sumatra -Andaman zone of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

Gupta, H.

2008-12-01

350

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center,

H. Tsuruoka; N. Hirata; D. Schorlemmer; F. Euchner; T. H. Jordan

2008-01-01

351

Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require some understanding of their sources and the physical properties of the crust, which also vary from place to place and time to time. Anomalies are not necessarily due to stress or earthquake preparation, and separating the extraneous ones is a problem as daunting as understanding earthquake behavior itself. Fourth, the associations presented between anomalies and earthquakes are generally based on selected data. Validating a proposed association requires complete data on the earthquake record and the geophysical measurements over a large area and time, followed by prospective testing which allows no adjustment of parameters, criteria, etc. The Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) is dedicated to providing such prospective testing. Any serious proposal for prediction research should deal with the problems above, and anticipate the huge investment in time required to test hypotheses.

Jackson, D. D.

2008-12-01

352

India: Degree Verification Fees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

Gauthier, Grady

2004-01-01

353

Children's Books in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, discusses the creation and publication of children's books in India, most of which came into being only after India achieved independence. Now both private publishers and government agencies supplement one another in publishing various types of books--fiction, science, biography, adventure,…

Rao, Mohini

354

Energy for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period

Frauke Urban; René M. J. Benders; Henri C. Moll

2009-01-01

355

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

356

The Myths of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

Day, Frederick A.

1988-01-01

357

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

358

Identified EM Earthquake Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

2014-05-01

359

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center, aims to reduce earthquake hazard by defining the locations of future earthquakes, calculating expected ground motions, and conveying this information to the general public. The SCECùs homepage contains access to research and data, including links to databases for strong motion and seismograms, and a searchable and sortable bibliographic database of publications. Also available are GPS data and a network of GPS stations. A link to the Earthquake Information Network provides a searchable list of up-to-date internet earthquakes resources. Note, in order to access the SCEC Publications Database, a username and password are required. Use your own name for the username, and enter -webview as the password. SCEC is a first rate resource for earthquake engineers.

360

Cardiac rehabilitation in India.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death and disability in India. Moreover, mortality following an acute myocardial infarction is high, which may be due to gaps in secondary prevention in general and a lack of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) services in particular. This review discusses the availability of CR in India, its putative role in reducing adverse outcomes over the long-term and suggests a road map for future research to enhance CR in this country. Currently, there is limited evidence, conducted in India, demonstrating CR efficacy. Moreover, there is currently limited availability of outpatient CR programs in India. Even so, there is consensus that CR is effective and essential in the CVD population. Therefore, efforts are needed to continue CR research in India and facilitate clinical implementation. PMID:24607020

Madan, Kushal; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Contractor, Ashish; Sawhney, Jitendra Pal Singh; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gupta, Rajeev

2014-01-01

361

Pain after earthquake  

PubMed Central

Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009). Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%). Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations.

2012-01-01

362

Silent earthquakes in Cascades  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Evidence from GPS and seismometer data indicate that slow faulting has occurred along the plate interface deep beneath the Klamath Mountains nearly every 11 months since at least 1998. Since slow earthquakes occur throughout Cascadia, they may also be prevalent in other subduction zones worldwide. This study provides evidence for the role of fluid migration as the controlling trigger in other slow-slip faults and can be used to refine physics estimates of slow crustal movement.

Al., Szeliga E.; Agu

363

Why Do Earthquakes Happen?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief tutorial and activity will provide younger students with some idea how earthquakes occur. The text explains how strain builds up along a fault until the rock breaks, releasing energy in the form of seismic waves. This concept is reinforced by a simple experiment in which the students break a foam rubber block in half and then try to slide the broken halves past each other.

364

Towards Estimating the Timing, Size and Spatial Extent of Great Earthquakes Along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust With Paleoseismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Towards understanding the relationship of strain accumulations to strain release and the role of this process in the Himalayan mountain building process, we have embarked upon a quest to define the timing, size, and lateral extent of earthquake ruptures along the length of the 2500 km long Himalayan frontal thrust. A dozen trench sites along some ~1800 km of the sytem are beginning to reveal the spatial, temporal, and size characteristics of the most recent earthquakes along the arc. Our most recent work at 3 sites in India located along a 500 km stretch of the thrust extending east from Nepal will be discussed in the context of prior studies of ours and others along the arc. General aspects of our findings are that 1) earthquake displacements observed in trenches point to the past and potential occurrence of earthquake ruptures greater than M8 earthquakes that have occurred on the structure historically, 2) that the locus of strain release represented in these earthquake displacements is well separated from the locus of strain accumulation beneath the Main Central thrust to the north as defined by geodesy, 3) the HFT takes up 10-20 mm/yr of the total ~50 mm/yr convergence across the India-Eurasia plate boundary, and 4) that the eastern Nepal border marks relatively closely the boundary between two of the most recent surface rupture events along the HFT.

Kumar, S.; Wesnousky, S. G.; Jayangodaperumal, R.; Nakata, T.; Kumahara, Y.; Singh, V.

2008-12-01

365

Earthquakes and plate tectonics.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

Spall, H.

1982-01-01

366

Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Foundation (NSF) created the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) to give researchers the tools to learn how earthquakes and tsunami impact the buildings, bridges, utility systems and other critical components of today's society. NEES is a network of 15 large-scale, experimental sites linked to a centralized data pool and earthquake simulation software which allows off-site researchers to interact in real time with any of the networked sites.

367

EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

2014-05-01

368

Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to theory of plate tectonics, Earth is an active planet -- its surface is composed of many individual plates that move and interact, constantly changing and reshaping Earth's outer layer. Volcanoes and earthquakes both result from the movement of tectonic plates. This interactive feature shows the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes and the boundaries of tectonic plates. By clicking on a map, viewers can superimpose the locations of plate boundaries, volcanoes and earthquakes.

369

Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to theory of plate tectonics, Earth is an active planet -- its surface is composed of many individual plates that move and interact, constantly changing and reshaping Earth's outer layer. Volcanoes and earthquakes both result from the movement of tectonic plates. This interactive feature shows the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes and the boundaries of tectonic plates. By clicking on a map, viewers can superimpose the locations of plate boundaries, volcanoes and earthquakes.

2011-05-12

370

Earthquake-Induced Ground Failure Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effects of Three-Dimensional Bedrock Topography on Earthquake Motions in Sedimentary Basins; Predicting Earthquake-Induced Landslide Displacements Using Newmark's Sliding Block Analysis; Estimation of Earthquake-Induced Pile Bending in a Thick P...

1993-01-01

371

Earthquake Engineering Research - 1982: Overview and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate cha...

1982-01-01

372

Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), the federal government supports efforts to assess and monitor earthquake hazards and risk in the United States. Four federal agencies, responsible for long-term earthquake risk reduction, co...

P. Folger

2010-01-01

373

National Earthquake Resilience: Research, Implementation, and Outreach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States will certainly be subject to damaging earthquakes in the future. Some of these earthquakes will occur in highly populated and vulnerable areas. Coping with moderate earthquakes is not a reliable indicator of preparedness for a major eart...

2011-01-01

374

The diversity of the physics of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes exhibit diverse characteristics. Most shallow earthquakes are "brittle" in the sense that they excite seismic waves efficiently. However, some earthquakes are slow, as characterized by tsunami earthquakes and even slower events without any obvious seismic radiation. Also, some earthquakes, like the 1994 Bolivian deep earthquake, involved a large amount of fracture and thermal energy and may be more appropriately called a thermal event, rather than an earthquake. Some earthquakes are caused by processes other than faulting, such as landslides. This diversity can be best understood in terms of the difference in the partition of the released potential energy to radiated, fracture, and thermal energies during an earthquake. This approach requires detailed studies on quantification of earthquakes and estimation of various kinds of energies involved in earthquake processes. This paper reviews the progress in this field from historical and personal points of view and discusses its implications for earthquake damage mitigation.

Kanamori, H.

375

An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability of this population to earthquakes is amplified by poor infrastructure and building codes. The only event in this sequence included in the global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) catalog is a Mw 5.1 strike-slip event 18 km deep. At least 10 events in this sequence have been recorded globally (ISC). Many more events from the sequence have been recorded by a regional array of seismographs we have operated in Bangladesh since 2007. We apply several techniques to these data to explore source parameters and dimensions of seismogenesis in this sequence. We present both double-difference relocations and waveform modeling, which provide constraints on the source characteristics. Using the Mw 5.1 and other regional events as calibration, we obtain source parameters for several other events in the sequence. This sequence is ideal for double-difference relocation techniques because the source-receiver paths of the events in the sequence, recorded regionally, are very similar. The event relocation enables us to obtain accurate estimates of fault dimensions of this source. By combining accurate spatial dimensions of the source, the depth range of seismogenesis for the source zone, and well-constrained source parameters of events within the sequence, it we assess the maximum size of possible ruptures in this source.

Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

2013-12-01

376

A deterministic seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A seismic hazard map of the territory of India and adjacent areas has been prepared using a deterministic approach based on the computation of synthetic seismograms complete with all main phases. The input data set consists of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogues. There are few probabilistic hazard maps available for the Indian subcontinent, however, this is the first study aimed at producing a deterministic seismic hazard map for the Indian region using realistic strong ground motion modelling with the knowledge of the physical process of earthquake generation, the level of seismicity and wave propagation in anelastic media. Synthetic seismograms at a frequency of 1 Hz have been generated at a regular grid of 0.2°× 0.2° by the modal summation technique. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (Dmax), maximum velocity (Vmax), and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid over the studied territory. The estimated values of the peak ground acceleration are compared with the observed data available for the Himalayan region and are found to be in agreement. Many parts of the Himalayan region have DGA values exceeding 0.6 g. The epicentral areas of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 in northeast India represent the maximum hazard with DGA values reaching 1.2-1.3 g. The peak velocity and displacement in the same region is estimated as 120-177 cm s-1 and 60-90 cm, respectively.

Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano F.

2003-11-01

377

Earthquake Hazards Program: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This frequently-asked-questions feature deals with the relationship between earthquakes, faults, and plate tectonics; myths about earthquakes; effects and experiences; preparedness; and many other topics.

378

Earthquakes Forces of Nature: What Causes Earthquakes? (Frame Three)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows the relationship between plate tectonics and earthquakes (click on Tab 3). A world map shows the location of the San Andreas Fault and a cut away close up view of the fault area. Informational text about plate tectonics describes the causes of earthquakes.

379

Detection of HEV RNA in faeces, by RT-PCR during the epidemics of hepatitis E in India (1976-1995).  

PubMed

Out of the 15 hepatitis E (HEV) epidemics that occurred during the years 1976-1995 in the Gujarat and Maharashtra states of India, 45.78% (76/166) stool samples showed the presence of HEV RNA. HEV RNA was found significantly more often in samples that were transported in liquid nitrogen (50.9%) compared with samples that were transported in wet ice (37.0%) (P < 0.05). Stool samples collected within 7 days after the onset of the disease (59.2%) were more often positive for HEV RNA when compared with samples that were collected 7-20 days after the onset of the disease (28.5%) (P < 0.01). It has been observed in experimentally infected Rhesus monkeys that they excrete HEV throughout the incubation period and for a variable length of time after the elevation of serum ALT levels. A similar situation is found in humans. PMID:9097269

Chobe, L P; Chadha, M S; Banerjee, K; Arankalle, V A

1997-03-01

380

Clinical trials in India.  

PubMed

The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India. PMID:17391981

Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

2007-07-01

381

Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

1999

382

Earthquake Education in Prime Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2001, the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has collaborated on several video production projects that feature important topics related to earthquake science, engineering, and preparedness. These projects have also fostered many fruitful and sustained partnerships with a variety of organizations that have a stake in hazard education and preparedness. The Seismic Sleuths educational video first appeared in the spring

R. de Groot; P. Abbott; M. Benthien

2004-01-01

383

Analysis of glacial earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, Ekström et al. reported on the detection of a new class of earthquakes that occur in glaciated regions, with the vast majority being in Greenland. The events have a characteristic radiation pattern and lack the high-frequency content typical of tectonic earthquakes. It was proposed that the events correspond to large and sudden sliding motion of glaciers. Here we present an analysis of all 184 such events detected in Greenland between 1993 and 2005. Fitting the teleseismic long-period surface waves to a landslide model of the source, we obtain improved locations, timing, force amplitudes, and force directions. After relocation, the events cluster into seven regions, all of which correspond to regions of very high ice flow and most of which are named outlet glaciers. These regions are Daugaard Jensen Glacier, Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, Helheim Glacier, the southeast Greenland glaciers, the northwest Greenland glaciers, Rinks Isbrae, and Jakobshavn Isbrae. Event amplitudes range from 0.1 to 2.0 × 1014 kg m. Force directions are consistent with sliding in the direction of glacial flow over a period of about 50 s. Each region has a different temporal distribution of events. All glaciers are more productive in the summer, but have their peak activity in different months. Over the study period, Kangerdlugssuaq has had a constant number of events each year, whereas Jakobshavn had most events in 1998-1999, and the number of events in Helheim and the northwest Greenland glaciers has increased substantially between 1993 and 2005. The size distribution of events in Kangerdlugssuaq is peaked above the detection threshold, suggesting that glacial earthquakes have a characteristic size.

Tsai, Victor C.; EkströM, GöRan

2007-09-01

384

Self-Organized Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-Organized Criticality was proposed by the Per Bak et al. [1] as a means of explaining scaling laws observed in driven natural systems, usually in (slowly) driven threshold systems. The example used by Bak was a simple cellular automaton model of a sandpile, in which grains of sand were slowly dropped (randomly) onto a flat plate. After a period of time, during which the 'critical state' was approached, a series of self-similar avalanches would begin. Scaling exponents for the frequency-area statistics of the sandpile avalanches were found to be approximately 1, a value that characterizes 'flicker noise' in natural systems. SOC is associated with a critical point in the phase diagram of the system, and it was found that the usual 2-scaling field theory applies. A model related to SOC is the Self-Organized Spinodal (SOS), or intermittent criticality model. Here a slow but persistent driving force leads to quasi-periodic approach to, and retreat from, the classical limit of stability, or spinodal. Scaling exponents for this model can be related to Gutenberg-Richter and Omori exponents observed in earthquake systems. In contrast to SOC models, nucleation, both classical and non-classical types, is possible in SOS systems. Tunneling or nucleation rates can be computed from Langer-Klein-Landau-Ginzburg theories for comparison to observations. Nucleating droplets play a role similar to characteristic earthquake events. Simulations of these systems reveals much of the phenomenology associated with earthquakes and other types of "burst" dynamics. Whereas SOC is characterized by the full scaling spectrum of avalanches, SOS is characterized by both system-size events above the nominal frequency-size scaling curve, and scaling of small events. Applications to other systems including integrate-and-fire neural networks and financial crashes will be discussed. [1] P. Bak, C. Tang and K. Weisenfeld, Self-Organized Criticality, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381 (1987).

Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Klein, W.

2011-12-01

385

Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity to assessing the damage to different elements at risk, of the databases on different elements at risk, such as population and building stock distribution, as well critical facilities characteristics, on the reliability of expected loss estimations at regional and global scale.

Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

2013-04-01

386

Dynamics of earthquake faults  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault, discussing the model's behavior in the context of current seismology. The topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the distinction between small and large events and the magnitude vs frequency distribution; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher-dimensional models; and (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

Carlson, J.M. (Department of Physics and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Langer, J.S. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Shaw, B.E. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 (United States))

1994-04-01

387

Earthquakes: Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the San Andreas Fault is the longest and one of the most active fault zones in California, it is not responsible for every earthquake in the state. This video segment describes the geologic setting of the San Andreas fault and a network of other active faults, particularly thrust faults, closer to Los Angeles, and explains why these may present a greater danger to the city than the San Andreas Fault. The segment is five minutes fifteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

388

Identification of novel mutations in HEXA gene in children affected with Tay Sachs disease from India.  

PubMed

Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to ?-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients). Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K), c.964 G>A (p.D322N), c.964 G>T (p.D322Y), c.1178C>G (p.R393P) and c.1385A>T (p.E462V), c.1432 G>A (p.G478R) and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W). The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V. PMID:22723944

Mistri, Mehul; Tamhankar, Parag M; Sheth, Frenny; Sanghavi, Daksha; Kondurkar, Pratima; Patil, Swapnil; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Jayesh

2012-01-01

389

Identification of Novel Mutations in HEXA Gene in Children Affected with Tay Sachs Disease from India  

PubMed Central

Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to ?-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients). Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K), c.964 G>A (p.D322N), c.964 G>T (p.D322Y), c.1178C>G (p.R393P) and c.1385A>T (p.E462V), c.1432 G>A (p.G478R) and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W). The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V.

Sheth, Frenny; Sanghavi, Daksha; Kondurkar, Pratima; Patil, Swapnil; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Jayesh

2012-01-01

390

Earthquake early warning and the physics of earthquake rupture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great debates in seismology today revolves around the question of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow predetermined at the start of the rupture. If earthquakes are self-similar there is theoretically no way to determine the magnitude of an event until the rupture has completely terminated, while if it is deterministic the magnitude should be immediately discernible. Recent advances in Earthquake Early Warning methodologies provide new insight into the fundamental physics of earthquake rupture and highlight the importance of understanding the answer to this question. Observations of the amplitude and frequency content of early P-wave arrivals suggest that some information about the final size of an earthquake is already present within a few seconds of the initiation of rupture, in agreement with a host of other observations that show a degree of scaling between large and small earthquakes. While this suggests that earthquakes are deterministic, there is likewise a large body of work, both observational and model-based, that indicates that this is not true and earthquakes are self-similar. This work documents the process of calibrating and testing the ElarmS Earthquake Early Warning methodology in northern California on the Northern California and Berkeley Digital Seismic Networks. In the process the work adds to the body of observations which show a dependency on event magnitude of P-wave frequency content and amplitude. These observations are corroborated with a new set of independent observations of kinematic slip distributions. These new observations indicate that the early slip on a fault also scales with magnitude and suggest again that earthquakes are not entirely self-similar cascading events. In an effort to assign a physical mechanism to the observations of scaling, both in P-waves and in kinematic slip inversions, a hypothetical model is tested wherein the intensity of the early rupture imparts more or less energy to the rupture front and affects the likelihood of the rupture continuing or dying out in the face of unfavorable conditions further along the fault plane. The results of testing this hypothesis are somewhat equivocal, but they are suggestive of the likely truth, that earthquakes exhibit aspects of both deterministic and cascading rupture to some degree. Understanding the details of the interplay between these two aspects is crucial to the successful application of Earthquake Early Warning systems, especially in rare large earthquakes for which there is little empirical data on the performance of these systems.

Wurman, Gilead

391

Early Earthquakes of the Americas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

Ni, James

2004-11-01

392

Testing an earthquake prediction algorithm  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A test to evaluate earthquake prediction algorithms is being applied to a Russian algorithm known as M8. The M8 algorithm makes intermediate term predictions for earthquakes to occur in a large circle, based on integral counts of transient seismicity in the circle. In a retroactive prediction for the period January 1, 1985 to July 1, 1991 the algorithm as configured for the forward test would have predicted eight of ten strong earthquakes in the test area. A null hypothesis, based on random assignment of predictions, predicts eight earthquakes in 2.87% of the trials. The forward test began July 1, 1991 and will run through December 31, 1997. As of July 1, 1995, the algorithm had forward predicted five out of nine earthquakes in the test area, which success ratio would have been achieved in 53% of random trials with the null hypothesis.

Kossobokov, V. G.; Healy, J. H.; Dewey, J. W.

1997-01-01

393

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A national, nonprofit technical society, the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) was founded in 1949 and aims to "reduce earthquake risk by advancing the science and practice of earthquake engineering." EERI's searchable site contains news, timely information, and documents pertaining to earthquakes and related engineering issues. Highlights include the reconnaissance reports with in-depth coverage of current and past quakes. The Web exclusives section contains photos and testimonies, such as a slide show and text of an accompanying testimony made to the US House of Representatives Committee on Science on lessons learned from the Turkey, Taiwan, and Mexico City earthquakes. On the site's main page, users may browse through the links of highlights, such as the one to the EERI newsletter.

394

Library Legislation in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents a history of library legislation in India and recommends the establishment of library networks by law to ensure an integrated service which will effectively serve all library patrons. (17 references) (SJ)

Srivastava, Shyan Nath

1972-01-01

395

The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.

Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.

2011-08-01

396

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

397

Regional Seismic Amplitude Modeling and Tomography for Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirically explosions have been discriminated from natural earthquakes using regional amplitude ratio techniques such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. We demonstrate that such ratios discriminate nuclear tests from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling. For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East.

Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Sweeney, J.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

2008-12-01

398

Assessment of soil liquefaction incorporating earthquake characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of nature of the earthquake on the assessment of liquefaction potential of a soil deposit during earthquake loading. Here, the nature of the earthquake is included via the parameter V, the ‘pseudo-velocity’, that is the gross area under the acceleration record of the earthquake at any depth below the ground surface. By analysing a number

D. S. Liyanapathirana; H. G. Poulos

2004-01-01

399

Stress triggering and earthquake probability estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress triggering and fault interaction concepts are beginning to be incorporated into quantitative earthquake probability estimates. However, the current methods are limited in their range of compatible earthquake nucleation models. I introduce a new general method for translating stress changes into earthquake probability changes, which can potentially be used with any physical fault model. Given the large uncertainties in earthquake

Jeanne L. Hardebeck

2004-01-01

400

Wheat Marketing and its Efficiency in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study examines the marketing of wheat in India, focusing on the private marketing system, the marketing efficiency and quality. Wheat is now a major food staple in India, crucial to India’s food economy and security. With production reaching 70 to 75 million tons and a large demand, India’s wheat economy is the second largest in the world. The efficiency

Vasant P. Gandhi; Abraham Koshy

2006-01-01

401

Radon and thoron anomalies along Mat fault in Mizoram, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, radon and thoron concentrations in soil gas has been monitored using LR-115(II) solid state nuclear track detectors since 15th July 2011 to February 2012. The study was carried out along Mat fault in Serchip district, Mizoram, India at two different sites - Mat Bridge (23°18'N, 92°48'E) and Tuichang (23°13'N, 92°56'E). The results obtained have been correlated to the seismic events that occurred within 800 km from the measuring sites over the mentioned period of time. Anomalous behaviour in radon concentrations have been observed prior to some earthquakes. Interestingly, some thoron anomalies were also recorded.

Jaishi, Hari Prasad; Singh, Sanjay; Tiwari, Raghavendra Prasad; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

2013-12-01

402

National Resources Canada: National Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Natural Resources Canada comes the National Earthquake Hazards Program Web site. Those interested in earthquakes in general or specifically about physical science topics in Canada will appreciate the many informational offerings on the site. Readers can learn about historical earthquakes in Canada and how frequent they are, find out how earthquake hazards are evaluated, how to survive an earthquake, earthquake research in Canada, and much more. The Products and Publications link contains several interesting downloadable reports including monthly earthquake summaries, among others. All of these culminate in an interesting accumulation of seismic information and facts presented in a straightforward and easily read format.

403

The physics of an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 (Boxing Day 2004) and its tsunami will endure in our memories as one of the worst natural disasters of our time. For geophysicists, the scale of the devastation and the likelihood of another equally destructive earthquake set out a series of challenges of how we might use science not only to understand the earthquake and its aftermath but also to help in planning for future earthquakes in the region. In this article a brief account of these efforts is presented. Earthquake prediction is probably impossible, but earth scientists are now able to identify particularly dangerous places for future events by developing an understanding of the physics of stress interaction. Having identified such a dangerous area, a series of numerical Monte Carlo simulations is described which allow us to get an idea of what the most likely consequences of a future earthquake are by modelling the tsunami generated by lots of possible, individually unpredictable, future events. As this article was being written, another earthquake occurred in the region, which had many expected characteristics but was enigmatic in other ways. This has spawned a series of further theories which will contribute to our understanding of this extremely complex problem.

McCloskey, John

2008-03-01

404

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

405

THE POTENTIAL OF TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG THE MAKRAN SUBDUCTION ZONE IN THE NORTHERN ARABIAN SEA. CASE STUDY: THE EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI OF NOVEMBER 28, 1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although large earthquakes along the Makran Subduction Zone are infrequent, the potential for the generation of destructive tsunamis in the Northern Arabian Sea cannot be overlooked. It is quite possible that historical tsunamis in this region have not been properly reported or documented. Such past tsunamis must have affected Southern Pakistan, India, Iran, Oman, the Maldives and other countries bordering

George Pararas-Carayannis

2006-01-01

406

Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the distribution of waiting times between earthquakes occurring in California obeys a simple unified scaling law valid from tens of seconds to tens of years. The short time clustering, commonly referred to as aftershocks, is nothing but the short time limit of the general hierarchical properties of earthquakes. There is no unique operational way of distinguishing between main shocks and aftershocks. In the unified law, the Gutenberg-Richter b value, the exponent -1 of the Omori law for aftershocks, and the fractal dimension df of earthquakes appear as critical indices.

Bak, Per; Christensen, Kim; Danon, Leon; Scanlon, Tim

2002-04-01

407

The threat of silent earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Not all earthquakes shake the ground. The so-called silent types are forcing scientists to rethink their understanding of the way quake-prone faults behave. In rare instances, silent earthquakes that occur along the flakes of seaside volcanoes may cascade into monstrous landslides that crash into the sea and trigger towering tsunamis. Silent earthquakes that take place within fault zones created by one tectonic plate diving under another may increase the chance of ground-shaking shocks. In other locations, however, silent slip may decrease the likelihood of destructive quakes, because they release stress along faults that might otherwise seem ready to snap.

Cervelli, P.

2004-01-01

408

Earthquake damage to transportation systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

McCullough, Heather

1994-01-01

409

Religion and identity in India’s heritage tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing worth of heritage in the renegotiation and dissemination of identities has intensified conflicts over whose voice dominates heritage tourism representations. Therefore, this study compares the way India’s heritage is represented by the Indian government, by the domestic tourism trade media and by the popular tourism media. The findings reveal that India is consistently represented as an ethnically diverse

Duarte B. Morais; Garry Chick

2008-01-01

410

Outbreak of viral hepatitis B in a rural community in India linked to inadequately sterilized needles and syringes.  

PubMed

In India, virtually all outbreaks of viral hepatitis are considered to be due to faeco-orally transmitted hepatitis E virus. Recently, a cluster of 15 cases of viral hepatitis B was found in three villages in Gujarat State. The cases were epidemiologically linked to the use of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes by a local unqualified medical practitioner. The outbreak evolved slowly over a period of 3 months and was marked by a high case fatality rate (46.7%), probably because of concurrent infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) or sexually transmitted infections. But for the many fatalities within 2-3 weeks of the onset of illness, the outbreak would have gone unnoticed. The findings emphasize the importance of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes in the transmission of viral hepatitis B in India, the need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organize an education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:9615501

Singh, J; Bhatia, R; Gandhi, J C; Kaswekar, A P; Khare, S; Patel, S B; Oza, V B; Jain, D C; Sokhey, J

1998-01-01

411

Outbreak of viral hepatitis B in a rural community in India linked to inadequately sterilized needles and syringes.  

PubMed Central

In India, virtually all outbreaks of viral hepatitis are considered to be due to faeco-orally transmitted hepatitis E virus. Recently, a cluster of 15 cases of viral hepatitis B was found in three villages in Gujarat State. The cases were epidemiologically linked to the use of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes by a local unqualified medical practitioner. The outbreak evolved slowly over a period of 3 months and was marked by a high case fatality rate (46.7%), probably because of concurrent infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) or sexually transmitted infections. But for the many fatalities within 2-3 weeks of the onset of illness, the outbreak would have gone unnoticed. The findings emphasize the importance of inadequately sterilized needles and syringes in the transmission of viral hepatitis B in India, the need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organize an education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection.

Singh, J.; Bhatia, R.; Gandhi, J. C.; Kaswekar, A. P.; Khare, S.; Patel, S. B.; Oza, V. B.; Jain, D. C.; Sokhey, J.

1998-01-01

412

A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.  

PubMed

Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061

Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

2013-06-01

413

Spatial Pattern of Temporal Trend of Crop Phenology Matrices Over India Using Timeseries Gimms Ndvi Data (19826ndash;2006)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA-AVHRR bi-monthly NDVI data of 8×8 km for the period of 1982-2006 were used to analyze the trend of crop phenology matrices over Indian region. Time series principal component analysis of NDVI was performed to produce six calibration zones for fitting equations of temporal NDVI profile. Savitzky-Golay filter with different seasonality parameters, adaptation strengths and window sizes for different calibration zones were use to smoothen the NDVI profile. Three crop phenology matrices i.e. start of the growing season (SGS), Seasonal NDVI amplitude (AMP), Seasonally Integrated NDVI (SiNDVI) were extracted using TIMESAT software. Direction and magnitude of trends of these crop phenology matrices were analyzed at pixel level using Mann-Kendall test. Further the trends was assessed at meteorological subdivisional level using "Field significance test". Significant advancement of SGS was observed over Punjab, Haryana, Marathwada, Vidarbha and Madhya Maharashtra where as delay was found over Rayalaseema, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gangetic West Bengal and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal. North, West and central India covering Punjab, Haryana, West & East Uttar Pradesh, West & East Rajasthan, West & East Madhya Pradesh, Sourastra & Kutch, Rayalaseema, Marathwada, Vidarbha, Bihar and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal showed significant greening trend of kharif season. Most of the southern and eastern part of India covering Tamilnadu, South Interior Karnataka, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Maharashtra, Gujarat region, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Gangetic West Bengal showed significant browning trend during kharif season.

Chakraborty, A.; Das, P. Kumar; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Behera, G.

2011-08-01

414

Prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in India.  

PubMed

The present study describes the prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus (PPRV) antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats carried out during the period 2011 using the serum samples randomly collected from different villages of five states of India. A total of 1,498 serum samples [n = 605 (cattle); n = 432 (buffaloes); n = 173 (sheep); n = 288 (goats)] were collected from 52 districts in five states (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Rajasthan) of India and were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA kit. Analysis of 1,498 samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 21.83 % with 11.07 % in cattle, 16.20 % in buffaloes, 45.66 % in sheep and 38.54 % in goats. This report presents the results of PPRV-specific antibodies in situations where the subclinical, inapparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. The presence of PPRV antibodies demonstrate that bovines are exposed to PPRV infection and it implies the importance of cattle and buffaloes as subclinical hosts for the virus besides widespread presence of the disease in sheep and goats. Further, the study showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibodies in apparently healthy livestock under natural situation, 21.83 % of the animals were protected from PPRV re-infection. This inturn help in the implementation of disease control strategies such as vaccination in that particular geographical area. PMID:24426314

Balamurugan, V; Krishnamoorthy, P; Raju, D S N; Rajak, K K; Bhanuprakash, V; Pandey, A B; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K; Rahman, H

2014-01-01

415

Cascadia Subduction Zone and Related Subduction Systems: Seismic Structure, Intraslab Earthquakes and Processes, and Earthquake Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary and Introduction; Cascadia Subduction System: Setting and Structure; Cascadia Slab Earthquakes; Intraslab Earthquakes in Warm Slab Settings Worldwide; Intraslab and Intraplate Radiated Earthquake Energies Worldwide; Models; Ground Motion...

S. Kirby K. Wang S. Dunlop

2002-01-01

416

Earthquakes - on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information obtained with the Apollo lunar seismic stations is discussed. The four types of natural seismic sources that have been identified are described, viz., thermal moonquakes, deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts, and shallow moonquakes. It is suggested that: (1) the thermal quakes represent the slow cracking and movement of surface rocks; (2) the deep quakes are induced by the tide-generating force of the earth's gravity; (3) the meteoroids responsible for most of the observed impacts are in the mass range from 1 to 100 kg and are clustered in groups near the earth's orbit; and (4) the shallow quakes are similar to intraplate earthquakes and indicate that the moon is as seismically active as the interior regions of the earth's tectonic plates. The structure of the lunar interior as inferred from seismic signals due to both the last three natural sources and 'artificial' impacts of used spacecraft is examined in detail.

Nakamura, Y.

1981-01-01

417

Devastating Earthquake in Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The death toll will pass 10,000 today from Tuesday's earthquake, which measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and shattered a 400-mile stretch from northwestern Turkey to areas near central Ankara. Relief officials have publicly stated that they fear the worst for the estimated 35,000 people who remain trapped beneath rubble, as most will now have been without water for more than 72 hours. In addition to locating and rescuing survivors, the Turkish Government and international aid workers are working feverishly to organize relief efforts, prevent the spread of disease, repair damaged infrastructure, and contain a massive fire at the country's largest oil refinery. The sites listed provide information about this horrible act of nature

De Nie, Michael W.

418

Pharmacy Education in India  

PubMed Central

Pharmacy education in India traditionally has been industry and product oriented. In contrast to the situation in developed nations, graduate pharmacists prefer placements in the pharmaceutical industry. To practice as a pharmacist in India, one needs at least a diploma in pharmacy, which is awarded after only 2 years and 3 months of pharmacy studies. These diploma-trained pharmacists are the mainstay of pharmacy practice. The pharmacy practice curriculum has not received much attention. In India, there has been a surge in the number of institutions offering pharmacy degrees at various levels and a practice-based doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program was started in some private institutions in 2008. However, relatively little information has been published describing the current status of complex pharmacy education of India. In this paper we describe pharmacy education in India and highlight major issues in pharmacy practice including deficiencies in curriculum. The changing face of the profession is discussed, including the establishment of the PharmD program. The information presented in this paper may stimulate discussion and critical analysis and planning, and will be of value in further adaptation of the pharmacy education to desired educational outcomes.

Sathyanarayana, Dondeti

2010-01-01

419

Earthquake Engineering Support, Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is a continuation of earlier research work by the Principal Investigator in support of the Earthquake Engineering Research Program, under the direction of the USAE Waterways Experiment Station at Vicksburg, Mississippi. The program of experim...

R. S. Steedman

1999-01-01

420

Liquefaction of Soils during Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the state of knowledge of the causes and effects of liquefaction of soils during earthquakes, documents the state of the art of analysis for safety from liquefaction, and recommends future directions for liquefaction research. It is bas...

1985-01-01

421

Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an earthquake has occurred, when do we expect the next one? We show that the distribution of waiting times between earthquakes occurring in California obeys a simple unified scaling law valid from tens of seconds to tens of years. The short time clustering, commonly referred to as aftershocks, is nothing but the short time limit of the general hierarchical properties of earthquakes containing the statistics of both main shocks and aftershocks, indicating that they are created by the same mechanism. There is no unique operational way of distinguishing between main shocks and aftershocks. In the unified law, the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the exponent -1 of the Omori law for aftershocks, and the fractal dimension of earthquakes appear as critical indices.

Christensen, K.; Bak, P.; Danon, L.; Scanlon, T.

2003-04-01

422

Big Trouble in Earthquake Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use online earthquake hazard maps and other relevant geological information to assess hazards to life and property associated with hypothetical earthquakes of differing magnitude. Students working in small groups use this information to develop strategies to reduce damage and loss of life in the area near their home or school. This lesson will help students gain an understanding of the effect of earthquakes on natural and man-made systems and afford them a better understanding of the complex consequences of earthquakes for human beings. The background information is structured to cater to both San Franciso area residents and non-residents. Students can be encouraged to work in groups to glean, process, and discuss information pertinent to their particular home or school locations from various public access world-wide-web sites.

423

Rating the Size of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes how the work of K. Wadati, Charles F. Richter, Harry O. Wood, and Beno Gutenberg resulted in a way of rating earthquakes in southern California according to an instrumental analysis of the amount of energy they released in the form of seismic waves. This work resulted in the first use of the term "magnitude" for describing the amount of energy released by an earthquake, and in the development of the now-famous Richter Scale for quantifying earthquake magnitudes. Topics include the original definition of Richter magnitude and a brief synopsis of how Richter used earthquake data from southern California to graphically represent trace amplitude and develop a table of values that could be used to calculate magnitudes.

424

Kobe earthquake: An urban disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The January 17,1995, Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was the most damaging to strike Japan since the great Kanto earthquake destroyed large areas of Tokyo and Yokohama and killed 143,000 people i