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1

India: Gujarat  

article title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake   ... fountaining from the Earth. These effects, referred to as dewatering, can result from intense ground shaking by strong earthquakes in ... with shallow water tables. Scientists initially observed dewatering in parts of the Rann of Kutch (a large salt pan in northern ...

2013-04-16

2

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

3

Changes in atmospheric aerosol parameters after Gujarat earthquake of January 26, 2001  

E-print Network

of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India Received 16 October 2002; received in revised form 3 March 2003; accepted 5 is attributed to the emission of dust due to the total destruction of villages during Gujarat earthquake. Ã? 2003

Singh, Ramesh P.

4

Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areas—Jamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)—have\\u000a been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using\\u000a single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5–3.5) recorded at\\u000a six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband

Babita Sharma; Dinesh Kumar; S. S. Teotia; B. K. Rastogi; Arun K. Gupta; Srichand Prajapati

2011-01-01

5

Injury epidemiology after the 2001 Gujarat earthquake in India: a retrospective analysis of injuries treated at a rural hospital in the Kutch district immediately after the disaster  

PubMed Central

Background The number of injured far exceeds those dead and the average injury to mortality ratio in earthquakes stands at 3:1. Immediate effective medical response significantly influences injury outcomes and thus the overall health impact of earthquakes. Inadequate or mismanagement of injuries may lead to disabilities. The lack of precise data from immediate aftermath is seen as a remarkable weak point in disaster epidemiology and warrants evidence generation. Objective To analyze the epidemiology of injuries and the treatment imparted at a secondary rural hospital in the Kutch district, Gujarat, India following the January 26, 2001 earthquake. Design/Methods Discharge reports of patients admitted to the hospital over 10 weeks were analyzed retrospectively for earthquake-related injuries. Results Orthopedic injuries, (particularly fractures of the lower limbs) were predominant and serious injuries like head, chest, abdominal, and crush syndrome were minimal. Wound infections were reported in almost 20% of the admitted cases. Surgical procedures were more common than conservative treatment. The most frequently performed surgical procedures were open reduction with internal fixation and cleaning and debridement of contaminated wounds. Four secondary deaths and 102 transfers to tertiary care due to complications were reported. Conclusion The injury epidemiology reported in this study is in general agreement with most other studies reporting injury epidemiology except higher incidence of distal orthopedic injuries particularly to the lower extremities. We also found that young males were more prone to sustaining injuries. These results warrant further research. Inconsistent data reporting procedures against the backdrop of inherent disaster data incompleteness calls for urgent standardization of reporting earthquake injuries for evidence-based response policy planning. PMID:21799668

Phalkey, Revati; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Marx, Michael

2011-01-01

6

ANOMALOUS CHANGES IN OCEAN PARAMETERS GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE OF JANUARY 26, 2001  

E-print Network

Institute of Technology Kanpur ­ 208016, India ramesh@iitk.ac.in Abstract - An earthquake of magnitude 6.8 occurred in Gujarat province, which is lying in the west coast of India. Detailed analysis of optical of the buildings in numerous villages. The wind pattern derived from Quikscat data found to play an important role

Singh, Ramesh P.

7

Water governance in Gujarat state, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the groundwater and surface water situation in Gujarat State, India. Constant depletion of groundwater and rapid quality deterioration call for legislation to prevent over?exploitation, and adoption of a rational water pricing policy based on a volumetric system. In the case of surface water governance, enhancement of institutional capacity for managing resettlement and rehabilitation problems, a complementary role

Rajiv K. Gupta

2004-01-01

8

Damage assessment after 2001 Gujarat earthquake using Landsat7 satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method of earthquake damage detection by comparing the optical images with panchromatic bands\\u000a for the Gujarat, India earthquake, which occurred on January 26, 2001. The data used in this study are optical remote sensing\\u000a images taken by Landsat-7 satellite on January 8 and February 29, 2001, before and after the earthquake. We have investigated

Yalkun Yusuf; Masashi Matsuoka; Fumio Yamazaki

2001-01-01

9

3-D seismic structure of the Kachchh, Gujarat, and its implications for the earthquake hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several pieces of studies on the January 26, 2001, Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) revealed that the mainshock was triggered on the\\u000a hidden unmapped fault in the western part of Indian stable continental region that caused a huge loss in the entire Kachchh\\u000a rift basin of Gujarat, India. Occurrences of infrequent earthquakes of Mw 7.6 due to existence of hidden and

A. P. SinghO; O. P. Mishra; B. K. Rastogi; Dinesh Kumar

2011-01-01

10

Causes of Neonatal Deaths among Tribal Women in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality among neonates has long been largely neglected by research in all developing nations of world including India. This\\u000a study aims to identify the primary and secondary causes of neonatal deaths among the tribes of Gujarat by retrospectively\\u000a analyzing 106 neonatal deaths that occurred during the year 2008 and 2009. The socio-economic, biological and traditional\\u000a newborn care practices impacting newborn

Baiju Dinesh Shah; Laxmi Kant Dwivedi

2011-01-01

11

Law of the landless : the Dalit bid for land redistribution in Gujarat, India  

E-print Network

This study examines how government's implementation of land reforms in Gujarat, India informs Dalit (i.e., 'Outcaste') activism for land redistribution. It takes as a case study the Navsarjan Trust (or simply Navsarjan), ...

McDougal, Topher L. (Topher Leinberger)

2007-01-01

12

Current Neonatal Resuscitation Practices among Paediatricians in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Aim. We assessed neonatal resuscitation practices among paediatricians in Gujarat. Methods. Cross-sectional survey of 23 questions based on guidelines of Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) and Navjaat Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (NSSK) was conducted using web-based tool. Questionnaire was developed and consensually validated by three neonatologists. Results. Total of 142 (21.2%) of 669 paediatricians of Gujarat, India, whose e-mail addresses were available, attempted the survey and, from them, 126 were eligible. Of these, 74 (58.7%) were trained in neonatal resuscitation. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with mechanical ventilation facilities was available for 54% of respondents. Eighty-eight (69.8%) reported correct knowledge and practice regarding effective bag and mask ventilation (BMV) and chest compressions. Knowledge and practice about continuous positive airway pressure use in delivery room were reported in 18.3% and 30.2% reported use of room air for BMV during resuscitation. Suctioning oral cavity before delivery in meconium stained liquor was reported by 27.8% and 38.1% cut the cord after a minute of birth. Paediatricians with NRP training used appropriate method of tracheal suction in cases of nonvigorous newborns than those who were not trained. Conclusions. Contemporary knowledge about neonatal resuscitative practices in paediatricians is lacking and requires improvement. Web-based tools provided low response in this survey. PMID:24688549

Bansal, Satvik C.; Nimbalkar, Archana S.; Patel, Dipen V.; Sethi, Ankur R.; Phatak, Ajay G.; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M.

2014-01-01

13

Maternal Health in Gujarat, India: A Case Study  

PubMed Central

Gujarat state of India has come a long way in improving the health indicators since independence, but progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and largely unmeasured or documented. This case study identified several challenges for reducing the maternal mortality ratio, including lack of the managerial capacity, shortage of skilled human resources, non-availability of blood in rural areas, and infrastructural and supply bottlenecks. The Gujarat Government has taken several initiatives to improve maternal health services, such as partnership with private obstetricians to provide delivery care to poor women, a relatively-short training of medical officers and nurses to provide emergency obstetric care (EmOC), and an improved emergency transport system. However, several challenges still remain. Recommendations are made for expanding the management capacity for maternal health, operationalization of health facilities, and ensuring EmOC on 24/7 (24 hours a day, seven days a week) basis by posting nurse-midwives and trained medical officers for skilled care, ensuring availability of blood, and improving the registration and auditing of all maternal deaths. However, all these interventions can only take place if there are substantially-increased political will and social awareness. PMID:19489418

Vora, Kranti S.; Ramani, K.V.; Raman, Parvathy; Sharma, Bharati; Upadhyaya, Mudita

2009-01-01

14

Crustal structure of the Gujarat region, India: New constraints from the analysis of teleseismic receiver functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, receiver function analysis is carried out at 32 broadband stations spread all over the Gujarat region, located in the western part of India to image the sedimentary structure and investigate the crustal composition for the entire region. The powerful Genetic Algorithm technique is applied to the receiver functions to derive S-velocity structure beneath each site. A detail image in terms of basement depths and Moho thickness for the entire Gujarat region is obtained for the first time. Gujarat comprises of three distinct regions: Kachchh, Saurashtra and Mainland. In Kachchh region, depth of the basement varies from around 1.5 km in the eastern part to 6 km in the western part and around 2-3 km in the northern part to 4-5 km in the southern part. In the Saurashtra region, there is not much variation in the depth of the basement and is between 3 km and 4 km. In Gujarat mainland part, the basement depth is 5-8 km in the Cambay basin and western edge of Narmada basin. In other parts of the mainland, it is 3-4 km. The depth of Moho beneath each site is obtained using stacking algorithm approach. The Moho is at shallower depth (26-30 km) in the western part of Kachchh region. In the eastern part and epicentral zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, large variation in the Moho depths is noticed (36-46 km). In the Saurashtra region, the crust is more thick in the northern part. It varies from 36-38 km in the southern part to 42-44 km in the northern part. In the mainland region, the crust is more thick (40-44 km) in the northern and southern part and is shallow in Cambay and Narmada basins (32-36 km). The large variations of Poisson's ratio across Gujarat region may be interpreted as heterogeneity in crustal composition. High values of ? (?0.30) at many sites in Kachchh and few sites in Saurashtra and Mainland regions may be related to the existence of high-velocity lower crust with a mafic/ultramafic composition and, locally, to the presence of partial melt. The existing tectono-sedimentary models proposed by various researchers were also examined.

Chopra, Sumer; Chang, Tao-Ming; Saikia, Sowrav; Yadav, R. B. S.; Choudhury, Pallabee; Roy, Ketan Singha

2014-12-01

15

UNCORRECTED 2 Changes in atmospheric aerosol parameters after Gujarat  

E-print Network

Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India 7 Abstract 8 The analysis of Sea to the total destruction of villages during 15 Gujarat earthquake. 16 Ã? 2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd

Singh, Ramesh P.

16

Numerical modeling of seismicity and geodynamics of the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical block-and-fault model of lithosphere dynamics and seismicity (BAFD) is used to understand crustal motion and features of the observed seismicity in the Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, Western India. The block-model allows simulating seismicity and geodynamics simultaneously unlike other modeling approaches for studying seismicity or geodynamics. The model structure of Kachchh rift zone is composed of seven major crustal blocks separated by fault planes. Based on the orientation of boundary crustal block movements, we develop a set of numerical experiments to analyze the spatial distribution of earthquakes, frequency-to-magnitude relationships, earthquake focal mechanisms, velocity field, and fault slip rates in the model. The main results of our modeling suggest that an NNW-SSE trending compression is a principal driving force in the Kachchh rift zone that explains basic features of the regional seismicity, direction of block motions, and the presence of an extensional stress regime associated with the Cambay rift zone. Large synthetic events occur on the fault segments associated with the Allah-Bund fault, Katrol hill fault and north Wagad fault which have been causative faults for the 1819 Mw7.7 Allah-Bund, 1956 Mw6.0 Anjar and 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj earthquakes. The frequency-magnitude distribution for both synthetic seismicity and observed seismicity shows a similar slope. The focal mechanisms of the synthetic events are found to be consistent with those of earthquakes in the region. A special attention has been paid to study long-term and post-seismic deformations. Our results are in a qualitative agreement with the GPS post-seismic observations in the Kachchh rift zone. We infer that the observed seismicity and crustal block motions are a consequence of the dynamics of the entire regional fault and block system rather than that of a single causative fault only.

Vorobieva, Inessa; Mandal, Prantik; Gorshkov, Alexander

2014-11-01

17

Gandhi, Non-Cooperation, and Socio-Civic Education in Gujarat, India: Harnessing the Vernaculars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an interconnected, grounded understanding of how two Gandhian endeavours in the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India, make us rethink the notion of "education" in terms of civic and communal engagement. Drawing on local, vernacular ways of living, learning, being, reasoning, and believing--in this case Gujarati--I show how these…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2006-01-01

18

Media Exposure, Gender Stereotype and Contextual Stigma Perceptions about HIV and AIDSEvidences from Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether variation in media exposure and gender would yield diverse stigma perceptions on HIV AIDS, and finds the mechanism behind these phenomena. It employs data from 2005–06 NFHS (National Family Health Survey) for Gujarat, a major western state of India, supplemented with some qualitative information. Logistic regressions were undertaken modelling five different stigma perceptions for women and

Satyajeet Nanda; Aparimita Pramanik

2010-01-01

19

Analysis of vegetation of Rampara forest in Saurashtra region of Gujarat state of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rampara forest of Saurashtra region of Gujarat state of India was quantitatively ana- lyzed. The total tree basal cover ranged from 180 to 3326 cm2 100 m-2. The composition of tree and shrub layers was markedly similar among various sites. Site 1 supported the largest shrub population, while site 2 was the poorest in this regard. Site 1 on density

N. S. PANCHAL; A. N. PANDEY

20

Prevalence of hysterectomy among rural and urban women with and without health insurance in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings on hysterectomy prevalence from a 2010 cross-sectional household survey of 2,214 rural and 1,641 urban, insured and uninsured women in low-income households in Ahmedabad city and district in Gujarat, India. The study investigated why hysterectomy was a leading reason for use of health insurance by women insured by SEWA, a women's organisation that operates a community-based

Sapna Desai; Tara Sinha; Ajay Mahal

2011-01-01

21

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems, protocols and procedures, and for training and research. Simply incentivizing the behaviour of women to use health facilities for childbirth via government schemes may not guarantee safe delivery. PMID:21599924

2011-01-01

22

Microbial keratitis in Gujarat, Western India: findings from 200 cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study was to study the epidemiological characteristics and the microbiological profile of patients suspected with microbial keratitis in Gujarat. Methods Corneal scraping was collected from 200 consecutive cases of suspected microbial keratitis and was subjected to direct examination and culture. Results Of the 200 ulcers 55% were culture positive, 26.5% were bacterial ulcers of which 47% were due to Staphylococcus spp. Pure fungal growth was seen in 22% while 6% were mixed ulcers. Fusarium spp. (30%) was the most common fungus followed by Aspergillus spp. (21%). Only one case of Acanthamoeba keratitis was encountered. Patients were mainly from rural areas (61.5%) with male preponderance (61.5%). Corneal injury was seen in 78.5% cases of which 53% had injury with vegetative matter. Prior treatment was seen in 58% of which 5% had been treated by village healers. Nineteen patients (9.5%) also used some kind of traditional topical treatment. Increased incidence was seen from August to December. Five case of fugal ulcers lead to perforation of which three were due to Fusarium spp. whereas perforation was seen in only two cases of bacterial ulcers due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion Staphylococcus and Fusarium spp. were the most common etiological agents in our region. Predominant outdoor agricultural activity is the principal causative factor for corneal injury. Corneal ulcers complicated due to treatment by village healers are another important concern. The information regarding regional etiology will help empirical management as many eye clinics do not have microbiological facilities. PMID:22384294

Kumar, Anil; Pandya, Snehal; Kavathia, Ghanshyam; Antala, Sejul; Madan, Molly; Javdekar, Tanuja

2011-01-01

23

Genome Sequence of Salt-Tolerant Bacillus safensis Strain VK, Isolated from Saline Desert Area of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Bacillus safensis strain VK was isolated from the rhizosphere of a cumin plant growing in the saline desert of Radhanpar, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 3.68-Mb draft genome sequence of B. safensis VK, which might provide information about the salt tolerance and genes encoding enzymes for the strain’s plant growth-promoting potential. PMID:24009116

Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, R. K.; Kothari, C. R.; Bhatt, V. D.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2013-01-01

24

Study of Blood-transfusion Services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India  

PubMed Central

Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor. PMID:19489420

Ramani, K.V.; Govil, Dipti

2009-01-01

25

Y Chromosome Haplogroup Distribution in Indo-European Speaking Tribes of Gujarat, Western India  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out in the Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of Southern Gujarat, India to investigate and reconstruct their paternal population structure and population histories. The role of language, ethnicity and geography in determining the observed pattern of Y haplogroup clustering in the study populations was also examined. A set of 48 bi-allelic markers on the non-recombining region of Y chromosome (NRY) were analysed in 284 males; representing nine Indo-European speaking tribal populations. The genetic structure of the populations revealed that none of these groups was overtly admixed or completely isolated. However, elevated haplogroup diversity and FST value point towards greater diversity and differentiation which suggests the possibility of early demographic expansion of the study groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 paternal lineages, of which six haplogroups: C5, H1a*, H2, J2, R1a1* and R2 accounted for a major portion of the Y chromosome diversity. The higher frequency of the six haplogroups and the pattern of clustering in the populations indicated overlapping of haplogroups with West and Central Asian populations. Other analyses undertaken on the population affiliations revealed that the Indo-European speaking populations along with the Dravidian speaking groups of southern India have an influence on the tribal groups of Gujarat. The vital role of geography in determining the distribution of Y lineages was also noticed. This implies that although language plays a vital role in determining the distribution of Y lineages, the present day linguistic affiliation of any population in India for reconstructing the demographic history of the country should be considered with caution. PMID:24614885

Aggarwal, Aastha; Mitra, Siuli; Italia, Yazdi M.; Saraswathy, Kallur N.; Chandrasekar, Adimoolam

2014-01-01

26

Communal violence in Gujarat, India: impact of sexual violence and responsibilities of the health care system.  

PubMed

Situations of chronic conflict across the globe make it imperative to draw attention to its gendered health consequences, particularly the violation of women's reproductive and sexual rights. Since early 2002 in Gujarat, western India, the worst kind of state-sponsored violence against Muslims has been perpetrated, which continues to this day. This paper describes the history of that violence and highlights the mental and physical consequences of sexual and gender-based violence and the issues that need to be addressed by the police, the health care system and civil society. It draws upon several reports, including from the International Initiative for Justice and the Medico Friend Circle, which documented the reproductive, sexual and mental health consequences of the violence in Gujarat, and the lacunae in the responses of the health system. The paper calls for non-discrimination to be demonstrated by health personnel in the context of conflict and social unrest. Their training should include conflict as a public health problem, their roles and responsibilities in prevention, treatment and documentation of this "disease", and focus on relevant medico-legal methodology and principles, the psychological impact of sexual assault on victims, and the legal significance of medical evidence in these cases. PMID:18513616

Khanna, Renu

2008-05-01

27

Knowledge and attitudes toward depression among community members in rural gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat. PMID:25275344

Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L

2014-11-01

28

A hospital-based observational study of type 2 diabetic subjects from Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The aim of this observational study was to describe the profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus from Gujarat, India. The study was performed with newly-diagnosed 622 type 2 diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya), Ahmedabad, during August 2006-January 2009. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, presenting symptoms, risk profile (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and glycaemic status), family history of diabetes, physical activity, and behavioural profile. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), glycosylated haemoglobin levels, and fasting lipid profile were measured. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out using the SPSS software (version 11.5). In total; 622 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases with mean age of 47.7 +/- 10.9 years were studied. Of the 622 subjects, 384 (62%) were male. The majority (68%) of the T2DM subjects were obese, and 67% had a positive family history of diabetes. Renal dysfunctions and vision impairment were, respectively, found in 10% (n=62) and 9% (n=57) of the 622 T2DM subjects. The mean HbAlc level was 9.02 +/- 1.67%, and good glycaemic control (HbAlc level <7%) was achieved only in 7.4% of the T2DM subjects. Results of chi-square analysis showed that higher BMI (> or =25 kg/m2) was significantly associated with hypertension among the T2DM subjects (p < 0.01). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between male and female subjects with respect to mean age, BMI, waist- and hip-circumference, and mean low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level. The results revealed that many factors, such as obesity, family history of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, uncontrolled glycaemic status, sedentary lifestyles, and hypertension were prevalent among the T2DM subjects. The characterization of this risk profile will contribute to designing more effective and specific strategies for screening and controlling T2DM in Gujarat, India. PMID:21766562

Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M; Patel, Yash M; Rathi, Suresh K

2011-06-01

29

Infectious disease burden in Gujarat (2005-2011): comparison of selected infectious disease rates with India  

PubMed Central

Background India is known to be endemic to numerous infectious diseases. The infectious disease profile of India is changing due to increased human environmental interactions, urbanisation and climate change. There are also predictions of explosive growth in infectious and zoonotic diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was implemented in Gujarat in 2004. Methods We analysed IDSP data on seven laboratory confirmed infectious diseases from 2005–2011 on temporal and spatial trends and compared this to the National Health Profile (NHP) data for the same period and with other literature. We chose laboratory cases data for Enteric fever, Cholera, Hepatitis, Dengue, Chikungunya, Measles and Diphtheria in the state since well designed vertical programs do not exist for these diseases. Statistical and GIS analysis was done using appropriate software. Results Our analysis shows that the existing surveillance system in the state is predominantly reporting urban cases. There are wide variations among reported cases within the state with reports of Enteric fever and Measles being less than half of the national average, while Cholera, Viral Hepatitis and Dengue being nearly double. Conclusions We found some limitations in the IDSP system with regard to the number of reporting units and cases in the background of a mixed health system with multiplicity of treatment providers and payment mechanisms. Despite these limitations, IDSP can be strengthened into a comprehensive surveillance system capable of tackling the challenge of reversing the endemicity of these diseases and preventing the emergence of others. PMID:24647088

Iyer, Veena; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Choudhury, Nandini; Dhruwey, Vidwan Singh; Dacombe, Russell; Upadhyay, Ashish

2014-01-01

30

Source Investigation of the Tar Balls Deposited along the Gujarat Coast, India, Using Chemical Fingerprinting and Transport Modeling Techniques.  

PubMed

Deposition of tar balls (TBs) along the south Gujarat coast, situated on the west coast of India (WCI), commonly occurs during the southwest monsoon season. Several offshore oil fields off the Mumbai-Gujarat coast, and refineries along the coast might be sources of oil spills/leakages and lead to the formation of TBs. To identify the sources, we collected 12 TB samples from the beaches of Gujarat (Tithal, Maroli, Umbergam, and Nargol) during 15-17 July 2012 as well as samples of crude oils, namely, Cairn, NIKO, MSC Chitra, and two at Bombay High (BH). These TBs were subject to the following multimarker approach for source identification: Diagnostic Ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentacyclic triterpanes, compound specific isotope analysis, Principle Component Analysis and numerical simulations (hydrodynamic model coupled with particle trajectories). The chemical fingerprint results reveal that the source of the TBs is BH crude oils, and the model results confirm that the source location is BH north oil fields. This is the first study of its kind in India to use fingerprinting and transport modeling techniques for source identification of TBs. PMID:25198506

Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Vinod Kumar, K; Sreenu, L; Samiksha, S V; Tai, Yunus; Sudheesh, K

2014-10-01

31

Understanding CBHI hospitalisation patterns: a comparison of insured and uninsured women in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based health insurance has been associated with increased hospitalisation in low-income settings, but with limited analysis of the illnesses for which claims are submitted. A review of claims submitted to VimoSEWA, an inpatient insurance scheme in Gujarat, India, found that fever, diarrhoea and hysterectomy, the latter at a mean age of 37 years, were the leading reasons for claims by adult women. We compared the morbidity, outpatient treatment-seeking and hospitalisation patterns of VimoSEWA-insured women with uninsured women. Methods We utilised data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,934 insured and uninsured women in Gujarat, India. Multivariable logistic regression identified predictors of insurance coverage and the association of insurance with hospitalisation. Self-reported data on morbidity, outpatient care and hospitalisation were compared between insured and uninsured women. Results Age, marital status and occupation of adult women were associated with insurance status. Reported recent morbidity, type of illness and outpatient treatment were similar among insured and uninsured women. Multivariable analysis revealed strong evidence of a higher odds of hospitalisation amongst the insured (OR?=?2.7; 95% ci. 1.6, 4.7). The leading reason for hospitalisation for uninsured and insured women was hysterectomy, at a similar mean age of 36, followed by common ailments such as fever and diarrhoea. Insured women appeared to have a higher probability of being hospitalised than uninsured women for all causes, rather than specifically for fever, diarrhoea or hysterectomy. Length of stay was similar while choice of hospital differed between insured and uninsured women. Conclusions Despite similar reported morbidity patterns and initial treatment-seeking behaviour, VimoSEWA members were more likely to be hospitalised. The data did not provide strong evidence that inpatient hospitalisation replaced outpatient treatment for common illnesses or that insurance was the primary inducement for hysterectomy in the population. Rather, it appears that VimoSEWA members behaved differently in deciding if, and where, to be hospitalised for any condition. Further research is required to explore this decision-making process and roles, if any, played by adverse selection and moral hazard. Lastly, these hospitalisation patterns raise concerns regarding population health needs and access to quality preventive and outpatient services. PMID:25064209

2014-01-01

32

Towards a Managed Aquifer Recharge strategy for Gujarat, India: An economist’s dialogue with hydro-geologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gujarat state in Western India exemplifies all challenges of an agrarian economy founded on groundwater overexploitation sustained over decades by perverse energy subsidies. Major consequences are: secular decline in groundwater levels, deterioration of groundwater quality, rising energy cost of pumping, soaring carbon footprint of agriculture and growing financial burden of energy subsidies. In 2009, Government of Gujarat asked the present author, an economist, to chair a Taskforce of senior hydro-geologists and civil engineers to develop and recommend a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) strategy for the state. This paper summarizes the recommended strategy and its underlying logic. It also describes the imperfect fusion of socio-economic and hydro-geologic perspectives that occurred in course of the working of the Taskforce and highlights the need for trans-disciplinary perspectives on groundwater governance.

Shah, Tushaar

2014-10-01

33

Development and Implementation of South Asia's First Heat-Health Action Plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India)  

PubMed Central

Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat’s adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan’s development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program’s scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively. PMID:24670386

Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J.; Toma, Violeta E.; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

34

Dominance of cyanobacterial and cryptophytic assemblage correlated to CDOM at heavy metal contamination sites of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Industrial clusters of Gujarat, India, generate high quantity of effluents which are received by aquatic bodies such as estuary and coastal water. In the present study, microalgal assemblage, heavy metals, and physico-chemical variables were studied from different habitats. Principal component analysis revealed that biovolume of cyanobacterial and cryptophytic community positively correlated with the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As, Zn, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Co) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) under hypoxic environment. Green algae and diatoms dominated at comparatively lower nitrate concentration which was positively associated with Pb and Mn. PMID:25412889

Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; George, Basil; Bhattacharya, Sourish; Mishra, Sandhya

2015-01-01

35

Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background India’s health expenditure is met mostly by households through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments at the time of illness. To protect poor families, the Indian government launched a national health insurance scheme (RSBY). Those below the national poverty line (BPL) are eligible to join the RSBY. The premium is heavily subsidised by the government. The enrolled members receive a card and can avail of free hospitalisation care up to a maximum of US$ 600 per family per year. The hospitals are reimbursed by the insurance companies. The objective of our study was to analyse the extent to which RSBY contributes to universal health coverage by protecting families from making OOP payments. Methods A two-stage stratified sampling technique was used to identify eligible BPL families in Patan district of Gujarat, India. Initially, all 517 villages were listed and 78 were selected randomly. From each of these villages, 40 BPL households were randomly selected and a structured questionnaire was administered. Interviews and discussions were also conducted among key stakeholders. Results Our sample contained 2,920 households who had enrolled in the RSBY; most were from the poorer sections of society. The average hospital admission rate for the period 2010–2011 was 40/1,000 enrolled. Women, elderly and those belonging to the lowest caste had a higher hospitalisation rate. Forty four per cent of patients who had enrolled in RSBY and had used the RSBY card still faced OOP payments at the time of hospitalisation. The median OOP payment for the above patients was US$ 80 (interquartile range, $16–$200) and was similar in both government and private hospitals. Patients incurred OOP payments mainly because they were asked to purchase medicines and diagnostics, though the same were included in the benefit package. Conclusions While the RSBY has managed to include the poor under its umbrella, it has provided only partial financial coverage. Nearly 60% of insured and admitted patients made OOP payments. We plea for better monitoring of the scheme and speculate that it is possible to enhance effective financial coverage of the RSBY if the nodal agency at state level would strengthen its stewardship and oversight functions. PMID:23961956

2013-01-01

36

Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in a District of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18±1.59 servings) and rural (1.78±1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas. PMID:23617208

Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-01-01

37

Draft Genome Sequence of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PK6, Isolated from the Saurashtra Region of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PK6, a potential petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading soil bacterium, was isolated from a site contaminated by a petroleum hydrocarbon spill from an automobile service station in Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PK6, which has genes encoding enzymes for potential and related metabolic pathways of the strain. PMID:24503980

Patel, P. A.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Faldu, P. R.; Domadia, K. K.; Rawal, C. M.; Bhimani, H. D.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2014-01-01

38

Economic efficiency and shadow prices of social and biological outputs of village-level organizations of joint forest management in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint forest management (JFM) has been argued as an optimal institutional arrangement for economic, ecological, and social sustainability, and village-level organizations (production units) are responsible for all the productive activities of JFM. A deterministic output distance function characterizing the production structure of JFM production units, in the Gujarat state of India, is calculated using the production data from 50 village-level

Dinesh Misra; Shashi Kant

2005-01-01

39

Draft Genome Sequence of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PK6, Isolated from the Saurashtra Region of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PK6, a potential petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading soil bacterium, was isolated from a site contaminated by a petroleum hydrocarbon spill from an automobile service station in Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PK6, which has genes encoding enzymes for potential and related metabolic pathways of the strain. PMID:24503980

Patel, P A; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Faldu, P R; Domadia, K K; Rawal, C M; Bhimani, H D; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

2014-01-01

40

The impact of sanskritization in a forest?dwelling tribe of Gujarat, India. Ecology, food consumption patterns, nutrient intake, anthropometric, clinical and hematological status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomenon of “Sanskritization,” a process by which a low caste or tribe is able to rise to a higher position in the caste hierarchy by adopting vegetarianism, teetotalism, and rituals of the higher castes, was investigated in two culturally different segments of the forest?dwelling Rathwakoli, Gujarat, India. Sixty?five Bhagat families who had given up meat, alcohol and other tribal

Tara Gopaldas; Anjali Gupta; Kalpna Saxena

1983-01-01

41

The transition of childbirth practices among tribal women in Gujarat, India - a grounded theory approach  

PubMed Central

Background Under the National Rural Health Mission, the current emphasis is on achieving universal institutional births through incentive schemes as part of reforms related to childbirth in India. There has been rapid progress in achieving this goal. To understand the choices made as well as practices and perceptions related to childbirth amongst tribal women in Gujarat and how these have been influenced by modernity in general and modernity brought in through maternal health policies. Method A model depicting the transition in childbirth practices amongst tribal women was constructed using the grounded theory approach with; 8 focus groups of women, 5 in depth interviews with traditional birth attendants, women, and service providers and field notes on informal discussions and observations. Results A transition in childbirth practices across generations was noted, i.e. a shift from home births attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to hospital births. The women and their families both adapted to and shaped this transition through a constant ’trade-off between desirable and essential’- the desirable being a traditional homebirth in secure surroundings and the essential being the survival of mother and baby by going to hospital. This transition was shaped by complex multiple factors: 1) Overall economic growth and access to modern medical care influencing women’s choices, 2) External context in terms of the international maternal health discourses and national policies, especially incentive schemes for promoting institutional deliveries, 3) Socialisation into medical childbirth practices, through exposure to many years of free outreach services for maternal and child health, 4) Loss of self reliance in the community as a consequence of role redefinition and deskilling of the TBAs and 5) Cultural belief that intervention is necessary during childbirth aiding easy acceptance of medical interventions. Conclusion In resource poor settings where choices are limited and mortality is high, hospital births are perceived as increasing the choices for women, saving lives of mothers and babies, though there is a need for region specific strategies. Modern obstetric technology is utilised and given meanings based on socio-cultural conceptualisations of birth, which need to be considered while designing policies for maternal health. PMID:24088383

2013-01-01

42

Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes. PMID:23522352

Sanneving, Linda; Kulane, Asli; Iyer, Aditi; Ahgren, Bengt

2013-01-01

43

Gujarat Energy Research and Management Institute Institute of Seismological Research  

E-print Network

, Raisan Village, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India. M.Sudhakar Advisor, MoES, Government of India will be the Guest of Honor Venue: ISR Auditorium.Kapil Mohan Coordinator-India Coordinator-India Coordinator-Germany Programme Coordinator Convenors PROGRAMME

Harinarayana, T.

44

Capacity of frontline ICDS functionaries to support caregivers on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Improved infant and young child feeding practices have the potential to improve child growth and development outcomes in India. Anganwadi Workers, the frontline government functionaries of the national nutrition supplementation programme in India, play a vital role in promoting infant and young child feeding practices in the community. The present study assessed the Anganwadi Workers' knowledge of infant and young child feeding practices, and their ability to counsel and influence caregivers regarding these practices. Eighty Anganwadi Workers from four districts of Gujarat participated in assessment centres designed to evaluate a range of competencies considered necessary for the successful promotion of infant and young child feeding practices. The results of the evaluation showed the Anganwadi Workers possessing more knowledge about infant and young child feeding practices like initiation of breastfeeding, pre-lacteal feeding and colostrum, age of introduction of complementary foods, portion size and feeding frequency than about domains which appear to have a direct bearing on practices. A huge contrast existed between the Anganwadi Workers' knowledge and their ability to apply this in formal counselling sessions with caregivers. Inability to empathetically engage with caregivers, disregard for taking the feeding history of children, poor active listening skills and inability to provide need-based advice were pervasive during counselling. In conclusion, to ensure enhanced interaction between the Anganwadi Workers and caregivers on infant and young child feeding practices, a paradigm shift in training is required, making communication processes and counselling skills central to the training. PMID:25384724

Chaturvedi, Anuraag; Nakkeeran, N; Doshi, Minal; Patel, Ruchi; Bhagwat, Sadhana

2014-11-01

45

The palaeodelta of the ``Proto'' Vatrak and ``Proto'' Mahi rivers of northeastern Gujarat, India: A remote sensing interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed remote sensing studies carried out in northeastern Gujarat, India, suggest that there has been a major change in the drainage system as evidenced by the presence of a large palaeo-delta system. The area is drained by two major rivers, the Mahi and Vatrak originating from the Aravalli Hills to the east, which discharge into the Gulf of Cambay, in the Indian Ocean. Major lineaments, palaeodrainage patterns and palaeodeltas of the Vatrak and Mahi rivers were delineated. These were large rivers in the past with a high discharge and floodplains which were 5-10 km wide. Most of the palaeodrainage follows the NE-SW Precambrian lineaments/ faults indicating their structural control. Reactivation of these lineaments and differential uplift of the Aravalli Hills resulted in increased transportation of the eroded sediments and deposition of more than 5 km thick sediments into the Tarapur block of the Cambay Basin. The Gulf of Cambay extended up to the Limbasi-Sojitra-Petlad area during the Quaternary. There are implications for petroleum exploration in the sense that the results when integrated with subsurface geological and geophysical data help to delineate the reservoir facies suitable for petroleum exploration along the eastern margin of the Tarapur block.

Agarwal, R. P.; Dotiwala, Sucheta; Mitra, D. S.; Bhoj, R.

1996-02-01

46

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

PubMed

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

47

Phenanthrene degradation by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated sediment of Amlakhadi canal, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Amlakhadi canal, flowing through Ankleshwar (Gujarat, India) has been impinged with various xenobiotic compounds, released in industrial discharges, over last many decades. Twenty five bacterial strains capable of phenanthrene degradation were isolated from sediments of Amlakhadi canal. The best strain amongst them was identified as Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selected for further studies. Experiments were carried out for optimization of abiotic parameters for efficient phenanthrene degradation. Strain DMVP2 was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene completely in minimal medium containing peptone (0.1%, w/v) as nitrogen source with initial pH 8.0 at 37°C under shaking condition (150 rpm) within 120 h. Strain DMVP2 was able to consume 1,600 mg/l of phenanthrene even at high initial concentration (4,000 mg/l) of phenanthrene. Identification of phthalic acid as major metabolite on GC-MS analysis and detection of protocatechuate dioxygenase activity revealed that phenanthrene was metabolized by phthalic acid-protocatechuate acid pathway. Strain DMVP2 was also able to utilize other xenobiotic compounds as sole carbon source and degrade phenanthrene in presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. Consequently, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 has potential applications in bioremediation strategies. PMID:22169141

Patel, Vilas; Cheturvedula, Sravanthi; Madamwar, Datta

2012-01-30

48

Pulmonary function test in healthy school children of 8 to 14 years age in south Gujarat region, India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To obtain reference values for FEV1, FVC, FEV1% and PEFR among children aged 8-14 years in south Gujarat region of India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 655 normal healthy school children (408 boys and 247 girls) of Surat city aged 8 to 14 years studying in V to VII standard during November 2007 to April 2008. Height, weight, body surface area were measured. All included children were tested in a sitting position with the head straight after taking written consent from parents. Spirometry was done using the spirometer “Spirolab II” MIR 010. Spirometer used in the study facilitates the total valuation of lung function including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced expiratory volume ratio in one second (FEV1%) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Results: FVC, FEV1 and PEFR were found to be statistically significant in the study groups. For FVC and FEV1, highest correlation was found with age in girls and height in boys. For FEV1%, significant negative correlation was found with age and height in both sexes, but positive correlation was found with surface area. Similarly, PEFR showed highest correlation with surface area in boys and girls. Conclusion: Variables such as FVC, FEV1 and PEFR show good positive correlation with height, age and body surface area in both sexes. There is a need to have regional values for the prediction of normal spirometric parameters in a country like India with considerable diversity. PMID:20931033

Doctor, Tahera H.; Trivedi, Sangeeta S.; Chudasama, Rajesh K.

2010-01-01

49

Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Affluent Adolescent in Surat City, South Gujarat region, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design: Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting: Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants: The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection: Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement: Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age <85th and <95th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age <95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year). Result: The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%). Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion: The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity. PMID:22279261

Goyal, Jagdish P; Kumar, Nagendra; Parmar, Indira; Shah, Vijay B; Patel, Bharat

2011-01-01

50

Resolving the age of the Mesozoic Kuar Bet Beds (Kachchh, Gujarat, India): A reinvestigation of palaeobotanical and palynological assemblages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Mesozoic sedimentary sequences of India the age of the Kuar Bet Beds in Kachchh (Gujarat Province) has been hotly contested, with faunal evidence suggesting a Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) age, based on ammonite and foraminiferal occurrences, and palaeobotanical evidence suggesting an Early Cretaceous age, based on the presence of the index fossil Onychiopsis sp. cf. psilotoides (Stokes and Webb) Ward. Previously reported palynological evidence has documented numerous angiosperm pollen taxa, lending further support to an Early Cretaceous age. The present paper reinvestigates the palaeobotanical and palynological assemblages of the Kuar Bet Beds, and discounts previous identifications of Onychiopsis, considering these specimens to represent a new species of the genus Coniopteris, Coniopteris kuarbetensis sp. nov. The plant macrofossil assemblage also contains ovulate scales of Araucarites Presl and rooting organs. Palynological preparations revealed a diverse assemblage that includes ? Sphagnumsporites, Cyathidites, Dictyophyllidites, Todisporites, Concavissimisporites, Klukisporites, Densoisporites, Callialasporites (two sp.), Alisporites spp., ? Podocarpidites, Araucariacites and Ginkgocycadophytus, all of which are long-ranging Mesozoic forms that occur in both Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments. Angiosperm pollen has not been observed, and the angiosperm grains reported by Mathur are here regarded as contaminants, introduced during the laboratory treatment of rock samples. Refuting the presence of Onychiopsis and of angiosperm pollen from the Kuar Bet Beds discounts an Early Cretaceous age, with the plant fossils and palynological assemblage being more consistent with a Middle Jurassic age, in general agreement with faunal data. However, the precise position within the Middle Jurassic remains uncertain with palaeobotanical and palynological results being most comparable with a late Middle Jurassic (Bathonian or Callovian) age while faunal evidence supports an early Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) age.

Jana, Brajendra Nath; Hilton, Jason

2007-05-01

51

Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

Faldu, P. R.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Rawal, C. M.; Domadia, K. K.; Patel, P. A.; Bhimani, H. D.; Raval, V. H.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2014-01-01

52

Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

Faldu, P R; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Rawal, C M; Domadia, K K; Patel, P A; Bhimani, H D; Raval, V H; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

2014-01-01

53

Carbonate-Dissolving Bacteria from 'Miliolite', a Bioclastic Limestone, from Gopnath, Gujarat, Western India  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation, the abundance and molecular phylogeny of part of the culturable bacterial population involved in the dissolution of “miliolite”, a bioclastic limestone, from Gopnath, India, was studied. Carbonate-dissolving bacteria were isolated, enumerated and screened for their ability to dissolve miliolite. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) indicated 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to be distributed in 5 different clades at a similarity coefficient of 0.85. Then, 16S rRNA sequence analysis helped to decipher that the majority of carbonate-dissolving bacteria were affiliated to phyla Firmicutes (Families Bacillaceae and Staphylococcaceae) and Actinobacteria (Family Promicromonosporaceae) indicating their role in miliolite weathering. PMID:22446314

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Vaghela, Ravi; Bhatt, Nilesh Pinakinprasad; Archana, Gattupalli

2012-01-01

54

Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj city and moderate in the Mainland Gujarat, i.e. cities of Surat and Ahmedabad. The seismic ground motion level in the Saurashtra is moderate but marginally differs from that as presently specified in IS:1893-Part I (2002). Based on the present study, the recommended PGA values for the cities studied are 0.13 g, 0.15 g, 0.64 g, 0.14 g and 0.2 g for Ahmedabad city, Surat City, Bhuj City, Jamnagar City and Junagadh city, respectively. The prepared spectra can be further used for seismic resistant design of structures within the above major city boundaries of Gujarat to quantify seismic loading on structures.

Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.

2012-06-01

55

Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site Response, Moho reflections and a Triggered Earthquake  

E-print Network

1 Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site Response, Moho reflections and a Triggered Earthquake Susan E. Hough(1), Roger Bilham(2), Nicolas Ambraseys(3), and Nicole distributions for the Mw8.0 Shillong Plateau earthquake of 1897 and the Mw7.8 Kangra earthquake of 1905

Bilham, Roger

56

A very large dew and rain ridge collector in the Kutch area (Gujarat, India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe world's largest dew and rain collecting system, comprised of ridge-and-trough modules, was constructed in March 2006 at Panandhro in the semi-arid area of Kutch (NW India). The main goals were (i) to collect dew on a scale that could be beneficial to the local population (ii) to determine the efficiency of this new module shape, (iii) to determine whether results obtained from small measurement condensers can be projected to large condensers, (iv) to apply a computational fluid dynamic simulation to improve the condenser set-up. Preliminary studies performed with four standard plane condensers of 1 m 2 surface area, inclined 30° from horizontal, identified Panandhro as a promising site. The cumulated dew water during 192 days was 12.6 mm with a maximum of 0.556 mm/night. A large dew condenser (850 m 2 net total surface) was designed with 10 ridge-and-trough modules. The ridges are trapezoidal, 33 m long, 0.5 m wide at the top, 2.2 m wide at the base and sloping 30° from horizontal. The depth of the troughs between the ridges is 0.5 m. A 2.5 cm thick polystyrene foam rests on the surface as insulation with a radiative foil on top (similar to that developed by OPUR, see www.opur.fr). Numerical simulations using the computational fluid dynamic software PHOENICS were performed. The most profitable orientation was with the condenser oriented back to the wind direction, a configuration that lowers the wind velocity near the foil due to the combination of free convection and wind recirculation flows. A comparison of water yields over one year of measurements between four 1 m 2 plane condensers and a 850 m 2 ridge condenser showed a 42% lower yield on the large condenser. The difference is attributed mainly to folds in the plastic foil allowing water to fill the central ridge, thus decreasing radiative cooling. The output for 2007 was 6545 L, corresponding to 7.7 mm/day on average. The largest event was 251.4 L/night (0.3 mm). Such a condenser can also collect rain (and, to a lesser extent, fog). Chemical and biological analyses showed that dew water, once filtered and bottled, could be used for drinking after a light treatment to increase the pH. The price of this water could be lowered to reach 30% (dew only) or even 3% (dew plus rain) of the market prize.

Sharan, G.; Clus, O.; Singh, S.; Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.

2011-07-01

57

Rare combination of bilateral putaminal necrosis, optic neuritis, and polyneuropathy in a case of acute methanol intoxication among patients met with hooch tragedy in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Methanol poisoning is a rare but extremely hazardous form of intoxication, generally occurring after suicidal or accidental events. Methanol is a cheap and potent adulterant of illicit liquors. In India, we have witnessed number of mass emergencies due to adulterated alcohol consumption. Although Gujarat State had banned alcohol consumption since 1961, worse hooch tragedies have often taken place. The most severe consequences of methanol intoxication are blindness, a profound metabolic acidosis and various forms of neurological impairment; which occur characteristically after a latent period of several hours or days after ingestion. We present a unique case of acute methanol intoxication presented with, apart from metabolic acidosis and optic neuritis, involvement of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. He had bilateral optic neuritis, delayed onset polyneuropathy with axonopathy, and radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with bilateral putaminal necrosis. PMID:23248510

Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja; Divetia, Ruchir; Thakkar, Gurudutta

2012-01-01

58

Comparison of the Standard AGID Test and Competitive ELISA for Detecting Bluetongue Virus Antibodies in Camels in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test and the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the detection of serum antibody against bluetongue virus (BTV) in clinically healthy and diseased camels in Gujarat state were compared. Out of 176 sera tested, 22 (12.5%) and 34 (19.3%) were positive for group-specific bluetongue antibodies by AGID and cELISA, respectively. Maximum

B. S. Chandel; H. C. Chauhan; H. N. Kher

2003-01-01

59

Preliminary Observations on the Origin and Effects of the January 26, 2001 Republic Day Earthquake, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The January 26, 2001 Mw 7.6 Republic Day earthquake occurred along a south-dipping reverse fault on the Kachchh peninsula of northwestern India. The principal faults in the region are the east-trending Katrol Hills fault, Katchchh Mainland fault, Island Belt fault and the Allah Bund fault, which was the source of the ~M8 1819 Kathchh earthquake. Aerial and field reconnaissance of stratigraphic, geomorphic and cultural features in the Kachchh region from the Island Belt fault on the north to the Gulf of Kachchh on the south, including the epicentral area of the earthquake, show that no surface rupture or sharp monoclinal folding occurred as a result of the earthquake. The epicenter of the earthquake is located on the north side of the Bhachau anticline along the Kachchh Mainland fault. A zone of ground rupture occurred along the northern margin of this anticline within the alluvial/sabka deposits. The ground ruptures include extensional ground cracking and compressional bulging in a zone over 16 km long and 0.5 km wide, trend east-northeast, and are associated with extensive sand boils. We interpret these ground failures to be related to liquefaction and lateral spreading. Because most of the Kachchh region that experienced liquefaction is nearly horizontal, and significant lateral spreading was rare elsewhere, we speculate that the lateral spreads in alluvial deposits and salt flats north of Bhachau may have occurred as a result of coseismic warping of the north flank of the Bhachau anticline. Major structural features of the Kachchh region include east-west-trending folds and faults that deform Mesozoic clastic deposits and Deccan Trap basalts, Tertiary sedimentary units, and possibly Quaternary terrace and alluvial/intertidal sediments. In particular, folding along the Kachchh Mainland fault extends over 220 km from approximately 23f40'N, 69fE to 23f10'N 71f20'E. This structure may have uplifted Quaternary fluvial terraces on its north flank and formed anticlinal structures and domes in Quaternary (?) sediments that underlie the salt flats in the eastern Little Rann near 23f17'N, 71f14'E. The presence of folds along the Kachcch Mainland and Katrol Hill faults involving possible Quaternary and deposits suggests that an active fold and thrust belt may exist in the southern Kachchh region. The lack of prominent tectonic geomorphology, however, suggests that the rate of crustal shortening is very low, on the order of a few mm/yr or less. In addition, the depth of the earthquake rupture, >17 km, suggests that the causative fault may lie beneath and be unrelated to the overlying fold and thrust belt. The tectonic setting of the Kachchh region is not well understood. The location of the earthquake within 400 km of the active plate margin, near the prominent bend in the plate boundary 67fE 24.5fN), and in a region surrounded by Quaternary active structures and large magnitude historical earthquakes suggests that western Gujarat is in a transitional zone between the stable continental interior of peninsular India and the active plate margin.

Hengesh, J. V.; Lettis, W. R.

2001-05-01

60

Source parameters of some significant earthquakes near Koyna dam, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic moment, stress drop, source radius, and fault dislocation have been determined for nineteen significant earthquakes in the Konya area, India using displacement spectra of shear waves computed from strong-motion accelerograph records. Though the stress-drop shows a definite increasing trend with the seismic moment, its correlations with source radius and corner frequency indicate that a constant stress drop of 170 bars represents a good mean value to describe the source mechanism of the Koyna dam earthquakes. An empirical relationship also has been established between magnitude and seismic moment.

Gupta, I. D.; Rambabu, V.

1993-09-01

61

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 447, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2004, pp. 201-222 WHITHER PERFORMANCE-BASED ENGINEERING IN INDIA?  

E-print Network

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 447, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2004, pp. 201 Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee-247667 ABSTRACT The Kutch Earthquake of January 26, 2001 in Gujarat this earthquake, doubts arose about our professional practices, building by-laws, construction materials, building

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

62

Radon measurements for earthquake prediction in northern India  

SciTech Connect

Earthquake prediction is based on the observation of precursory phenomena, and radon has emerged as a useful precursor in recent years. In India, where 55% of the land area is in active seismic zones, considerable destruction was caused by the earthquakes of Kutch (1819), Shillong (1897), Kangra (1905), Bihar-Nepal (1934), Assam (1956), Koyna (1967), Bihar-Nepal (1988), and Uttarkashi (1991). Radon ([sup 222]Rn) is produced by the decay of radium ([sup 226]Ra) in the uranium decay series and is present in trace amounts almost everywhere on the earth, being distributed in soil, groundwater, and lower levels of atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to find the value in radon monitoring for earthquake prediction.

Singh, B.; Virk, H.S. (Guru Nanak Dev Univ., Amritsar (India))

1992-01-01

63

Earthquake Forecasting in Northeast India using Energy Blocked Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the cumulative seismic energy released by earthquakes (M ? 5) for a period 1897 to 2007 is analyzed for Northeast (NE) India. It is one of the most seismically active regions of the world. The occurrence of three great earthquakes like 1897 Shillong plateau earthquake (Mw= 8.7), 1934 Bihar Nepal earthquake with (Mw= 8.3) and 1950 Upper Assam earthquake (Mw= 8.7) signify the possibility of great earthquakes in future from this region. The regional seismicity map for the study region is prepared by plotting the earthquake data for the period 1897 to 2007 from the source like USGS,ISC catalogs, GCMT database, Indian Meteorological department (IMD). Based on the geology, tectonic and seismicity the study region is classified into three source zones such as Zone 1: Arakan-Yoma zone (AYZ), Zone 2: Himalayan Zone (HZ) and Zone 3: Shillong Plateau zone (SPZ). The Arakan-Yoma Range is characterized by the subduction zone, developed by the junction of the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It shows a dense clustering of earthquake events and the 1908 eastern boundary earthquake. The Himalayan tectonic zone depicts the subduction zone, and the Assam syntaxis. This zone suffered by the great earthquakes like the 1950 Assam, 1934 Bihar and the 1951 Upper Himalayan earthquakes with Mw > 8. The Shillong Plateau zone was affected by major faults like the Dauki fault and exhibits its own style of the prominent tectonic features. The seismicity and hazard potential of Shillong Plateau is distinct from the Himalayan thrust. Using energy blocked model by Tsuboi, the forecasting of major earthquakes for each source zone is estimated. As per the energy blocked model, the supply of energy for potential earthquakes in an area is remarkably uniform with respect to time and the difference between the supply energy and cumulative energy released for a span of time, is a good indicator of energy blocked and can be utilized for the forecasting of major earthquakes. The proposed process provides a more consistent model of gradual accumulation of strain and non-uniform release through large earthquakes and can be applied in the evaluation of seismic risk. The cumulative seismic energy released by major earthquakes throughout the period from 1897 to 2007 of last 110 years in the all the zones are calculated and plotted. The plot gives characteristics curve for each zone. Each curve is irregular, reflecting occasional high activity. The maximum earthquake energy available at a particular time in a given area is given by S. The difference between the theoretical upper limit given by S and the cumulative energy released up to that time is calculated to find out the maximum magnitude of an earthquake which can occur in future. Energy blocked of the three source regions are 1.35*1017 Joules, 4.25*1017 Joules and 0.12*1017 in Joules respectively for source zone 1, 2 and 3, as a supply for potential earthquakes in due course of time. The predicted maximum magnitude (mmax) obtained for each source zone AYZ, HZ, and SPZ are 8.2, 8.6, and 8.4 respectively by this model. This study is also consistent with the previous predicted results by other workers.

Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, D. K.

2009-12-01

64

Prevention of parent to child transmission services and interventions - coverage and utilization: A cohort analysis in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Risk of vertical transmission (largest source of HIV in children) reduces from 33% to 3% with effective prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions. NACP-III has got an objective of testing all pregnant women for earliest linkage with PMTCT. Study was carried out to find out PPTCT service coverage, dropouts, intervention efficacy with other determinants. Materials and Methods: At ICTCs, registered ANCs are counseled and tested for HIV. HIV +ve ANCs are additionally linked to services and followed-up for institutional delivery, sdNVP, nutrition and children testing. HIV +ve ANCs since 2005 subsequently delivered till June 2008 and their exposed children in Gujarat’s category A, B districts constituted study cohort. Results: 259622 pregnant women registered, 72.1% were counseled pre-test, 83.4% of them tested, 74.4% received post-test counseling. 541 ANCs were detected HIV+ve. 45.5% delivered institutionally, 12.8% were unregistered. 12.1% were cesarian section and 66% delivered vaginally. 96.8% were live births, 92.13% mother-baby pair received sdNVP. 35% children could be traced till 18 months, 89% were alive. 90% were tested, 3 were found HIV +ve. Of them, none received MB Pair. Two were delivered vaginally, two received mixed feeding, two children’s mothers were not linked with ART. Conclusions: PMTCT services – counseling and testing should be provided to all ANCs. EDD-based tracking, institutional deliveries, postnatal counseling to be encouraged along with complete MB pair coverage, capacity building of concerned staff regarding delivery of HIV+ve ANCs and exposed children tracking. PMID:21716800

Joshi, Urvish; Kadri, Amimuddin; Bhojiya, Sudeshna

2010-01-01

65

Groundwater Depletion, Irreversible Damages and the Energy-Food-Water Nexus: A Case Study from Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern regions of the Indian state of Gujarat are experiencing perhaps the most dramatic instances of groundwater depletion in the country. Due to unsustainable water use patterns in agriculture, which is central to the state’s economy, there is serious concern that the region may soon face significant water problems with devastating consequences. We show that water tables have already declined over 80 meters in the last 30 years, and future declines could eventually cause irreversible salinization. We argue that the recent stabilization of water tables should not reduce public alarm, as it is likely related to recent abundant rainfall, a part of a multi-decadal cycle. Livelihoods are also negatively affected; we estimate that many farmers are no longer able to generate net incomes that exceed the cost of subsidized electricity supplied to them. In other words, the net economic impact of their farming is negative to the state. Solving the water-use problem will ultimately require a range of solutions, including a restructuring of the supply chain, a shift in cropping patterns, and the creation of incentives for capital investments in devices that improve water-use efficiency. A first step in this direction could be the restructuring of the subsidy program to incorporate an alternate mechanism that compensates farmers for saving energy and water. Such a system would improve the efficiency of water use, give farmers the potential to increase their incomes, and be revenue-neutral for the state. While the situation in Gujarat is more pressing than in other parts of the country, adopting a change such as this also creates an opportunity to provide the state with a first-mover advantage in implementing the types of transformations that will eventually be needed elsewhere.

Narula, K. K.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.; Fishman, R.; Siegfried, T. U.

2009-12-01

66

AUTOMATIC ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE DAMAGED AREA USING SCALE SPACE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster management has got an important facet, viz., disaster mitigation, which in turn depends upon early damage assessment. Remote Sensing is considered as an ideal technique for obtaining early information. This exercise has been carried out for assessing the damaged area, automatically, based on high-resolution post-earthquake images in Gujarat, India and high resolution satellite images of tsunami-affected areas in India

Neeraj Mishra; P. Suresh Kumar; R. Chandrakanth; R. Ramachandran; R. Krishnan

67

The 1897 Shillong earthquake, northeast India: A new perspective on its seismotectonics and earthquake history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1897 Shillong earthquake, northeast India is considered to be one of the largest in modern history. Oldham's memoir on this event widely considered as a classic treatise opened new vistas in observational seismology; many questions on the associated faulting mechanisms however remain unresolved. While most previous studies have suggested that the earthquake originated on a gentle north-dipping thrust that is considered to be associated with the Himalayan tectonics, a recent geodetic model by Bilham and England (2001) invokes a steep, south-dipping reverse fault, close to the northern topographic edge of the Shillong Plateau. This model, derived mostly from extant triangulation records, deviates from the conventional understanding of the faulting mechanism of this earthquake. Here, we interpret the available database on seismotectonics of the region and coseismic deformation associated with the 1897 earthquake, together with independent geomorphologic observations, to further understand the nature of faulting. Our interpretation of the morphologic features and coseismic level changes in the Brahmaputra valley, well logs, Bouguer gravity and earthquake data are consistent with a major, steep south-dipping fault, but it spatially conforms to the extreme northern margin of the Shillong massif, which occasionally outcrops on the northern bank of the Brahmaputra River. Our analysis of historical, archaeological and geological data implies a possible 1000-year-interval between the 1897 earthquake and its predecessor and we identify the northern boundary fault (named here as the Brahmaputra fault) as historically more active among other potential faults in the region. The overall tectonic scenario also indicates the critical role of the Brahmaputra in the progressive denudation of the northern plateau margin compared to its southern part (Dauki fault) and its impact on the seismotectonic processes associated with plateau uplift.

Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.

2003-12-01

68

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), T max and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal industry for coal mine planning, development and exploitation, because of the predictive ability to infer changes in stratigraphy and coal quality.

Sahay, Vinay K.

2011-03-01

69

Household Resources and Their Changing Relationships: Case Studies in Gujarat, India. International Agriculture Publications General Series Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains case studies based on rural life in northern India. The titles include: (1) "Profiles of Two Indian Rural Settings"; (2) "Visitors View a Village"; (3) "Village Households"; (4) "Agriculture"; (5) "Women's Needs: Health and Nutrition"; (6) "Meal Pattern, Nutrient Intake, Intra-Familial Distribution of Foods, Food Habits,…

Magrabi, Frances M., Ed.; Verma, Amita, Ed.

70

The June 2000 Mw 7.9 earthquakes south of Sumatra: Deformation in the IndiaAustralia Plate  

E-print Network

The June 2000 Mw 7.9 earthquakes south of Sumatra: Deformation in the India­Australia Plate Rachel on 4 and 18 June 2000, south of Sumatra, beneath the Indian Ocean. Both earthquakes were predominantly¨m, The June 2000 Mw 7.9 earthquakes south of Sumatra: Deformation in the India­Australia Plate, J. Geophys

Abercrombie, Rachel E.

71

Real Time Inventory Management: Visual Survey of Interior Architecture Elements and Space Making Crafts of Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In India, most of the inventories and documentations conducted for built heritage have been very nominal in nature and completely overlook the rich and opulent characters of the built form. This creates an imperative need of identifying and creating a detailed inventory of Interior Architecture (I.A.) Elements together with the SMCs and SSCs. This paper presents the process and the technique developed and termed as Real Time Visual Mapping (RTVM). RTVM is a procedure that incorporates the tablet survey, developed using open source tools, and is the first of its kind visual survey technique in India. The procedure comprises of an interactive form for mapping and helps manage the inventory generated from semi-urban and urban areas. The technique allows the user to transfer the mapped data in real time from the field, which can be produced through an interactive catalogue and map application. The recorded inputs reveal data ranging from type of elements to materials used, along with the various levels of traditional building crafts and expressions involved.

Routh, R.; Singh, N.; Shah, P.

2013-07-01

72

Unique atmospheric wave: precursor to the 26 January 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique atmospheric wave was recorded by a monostatic sound detection and ranging (sodar) system operating at Vapi, India (20.37° N, 72.90° E), on 25 January 2001 prior to the Bhuj, India, earthquake that jolted India on 26 January 2001. This precursory wave was the largest amplitude (480 m) and lowest frequency wave (70.02 ?Hz) ever recorded at 25 sodar

B. S. Gera; N. Gera; H. N. Dutta

2011-01-01

73

Individual and Interpersonal Characteristics that Influence Male-Dominated Sexual Decision-Making and Inconsistent Condom Use Among Married HIV Serodiscordant Couples in Gujarat, India: Results from the Positive Jeevan Saathi Study.  

PubMed

Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

2014-10-01

74

Preliminary Observations on the Origin and Effects of the January 26, 2001 Republic Day Earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The January 26, 2001 Mw 7.6 Republic Day earthquake occurred along a south-dipping reverse fault on the Kachchh peninsula of northwestern India. The principal faults in the region are the east-trending Katrol Hills fault, Katchchh Mainland fault, Island Belt fault and the Allah Bund fault, which was the source of the ~M8 1819 Kathchh earthquake. Aerial and field reconnaissance of

J. V. Hengesh; W. R. Lettis

2001-01-01

75

SRTM Anaglyph: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 were killed and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this anaglyph, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a medium gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears very dark. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the SRTM and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 13.5 x 20.6 kilometers ( 8.4 x 12.8 miles) Location: 23.3 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Band 3 Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

2001-01-01

76

SRTM Stereo Pair: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 people were killed, and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this image, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears green. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 13.5 x 20.6 kilometers ( 8.4 x 12.8 miles) Location: 23.3 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red, respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

2001-01-01

77

Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

Hough, S. E.; Pande, P.

2007-01-01

78

Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India Biju John National Institute of Rock Mechanics b_johnp@yahoo.co.in Peninsular India was for long considered as seismically stable. But the recent earthquake sequence of Latur (1993), Jabalpur (1997), Bhuj (2001) suggests this region is among one of the active Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) of the world, where the recurrence intervals is of the order of tens of thousands of years. In such areas, earthquake may happen at unexpected locations, devoid of any previous seismicity or dramatic geomorphic features. Even moderate earthquakes will lead to heavy loss of life and property in the present scenario. So it is imperative to map suspected areas to identify active faults and evaluate its activities, which will be a vital input to seismic hazard assessment of SCR area. The region around Wadakkanchery, Kerala, South India has been experiencing micro seismic activities since 1989. Subsequent studies, by the author, identified a 30 km long WNW-ESE trending reverse fault, dipping south (45°), that influenced the drainage system of the area. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of the fault rocks from the exposures near Desamangalam show an episodic nature of faulting. Dislocations of pegmatitic veins across the fault indicate a cumulative dip displacement of 2.1m in the reverse direction. A minimum of four episodes of faulting were identified in this fault based on the cross cutting relations of different structural elements and from the mineralogic changes of different generations of gouge zones. This suggests that an average displacement of 52cm per event might have occurred for each event. A cyclic nature of faulting is identified in this fault zone in which the inter-seismic period is characterized by gouge induration and fracture sealing aided by the prevailing fluids. Available empirical relations connecting magnitude with displacement and rupture length show that each event might have produced an earthquake of magnitude ? 6.0, which could be a damaging one to an area like peninsular India. Electron Spin Resonance dating of fault gouge indicates a major event around 430ka. In the present stress regime this fault can be considered as seismically active, because the orientation of the fault is favorable for reactivation.

John, B.

2009-04-01

79

Earthquake Recurrence in the Kachchh-Saurashtra Region, Northwest India: Insights from Historical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of two M >7.5 earthquakes in 1819 and 2001, is unexpected in the mid-plate setting of the Kachchh basin, a Mesozoic rift system in northwestern India,. Three issues are recognized as central to the assessment of future seismic hazards in the region. First, the perceived inactivity of surface structures may result from long interseismic intervals. Second, potentially active structures, as exemplified by the Bhuj earthquake (whose rupture terminate below 9 km depth), may lie hidden beneath surface geology. Finally, seismic source zones may be characterized by varying recurrence rates and styles of deformation. The study of past seismicity in the Kachchh region is facilitated by an exceptionally rich >5000 year archaeological and historical database, with paleoseismological data providing additional constraints (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2001). We report here evidence for three earlier earthquakes in 893 AD, c. 30 AD and 2500-2200 BC . Trench investigations indicate that an earthquake sharing similar deformational characteristics as that of the 1819 event occurred in 893 AD (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2002). Evidence for a still older event (30 AD) has been obtained from archaeological excavations near Dwarka, a coastal town 200 km SW of the 1819 and 2001 earthquake sources, suggesting a millennium-long interval between events. In contrast, trenching excavations in the meizoseismal area of the 2001 earthquake, and the pattern of documented damage to historical and ancient monuments, suggest that the 2001 source region may be associated with a much longer recurrence interval. Ancient ruins at Dholavira, a major Harappan city (2600 to 1600 BC) about 60 km from Bhuj epicenter, is the oldest structure in the 2001 epicentral area. Archaeologists attribute repairs undertaken during Stage III of this settlement (2500- 2200 BC) to earthquake related damage (Joshi and Bisht, 1994). Paleoliquefaction features near Ahmedabad, a site located within the Cambay basin, provide additional evidence for the occurrence of an earthquake dated at 2948ñ295 yr BP, its source remaining uncertain (Rajendran et al., 2002). Our study suggests the existence of multiple seismic sources within the Kachchh-Saurashtra rift system that can generate large earthquakes, and these may be characterized by varying recurrence patterns and styles of deformation. A fundamental issue is to understand the driving mechanism for the multiplicity of large earthquakes within a short period of about 5000 years, in an area traditionally classified as a `stable continental region'.

Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.

2002-12-01

80

A comparative study on the Earthquake Information Management Systems (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran  

PubMed Central

Context: Damages and loss of life sustained during an earthquake results from falling structures and flying glass and objects. To address these and other problems, new information technology and systems as a means can improve crisis management and crisis response. The most important factor for managing the crisis depends on our readiness before disasters by useful data. Aims: This study aimed to determine the Earthquake Information Management System (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran, and describe how we can reduce destruction by EIMS in crisis management. Materials and Methods: This study was an analytical comparison in which data were collected by questionnaire, observation and checklist. The population was EIMS in selected countries. Sources of information were staff in related organizations, scientific documentations and Internet. For data analysis, Criteria Rating Technique, Delphi Technique and descriptive methods were used. Results: Findings showed that EIMS in India (Disaster Information Management System), Afghanistan (Management Information for Natural Disasters) and Iran are decentralized. The Indian state has organized an expert group to inspect issues about disaster decreasing strategy. In Iran, there was no useful and efficient EIMS to evaluate earthquake information. Conclusions: According to outcomes, it is clear that an information system can only influence decisions if it is relevant, reliable and available for the decision-makers in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is necessary to reform and design a model. The model contains responsible organizations and their functions. PMID:23555130

Ajami, Sima

2012-01-01

81

A re-assessment of focal depth distributions in southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India: do earthquakes really occur in the continental mantle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the depth distribution of earthquakes within the continental lithosphere of southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India by using synthetic seismograms to analyse P and SH body waveforms. In the Zagros mountains of southern Iran, earthquakes are apparently restricted to the upper crust (depths of <20km), whereas in the Tien Shan and northern India they occur throughout

A. Maggi; J. A. Jackson; K. Priestley; C. Baker

2000-01-01

82

Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November 2002. Earthquakes with magnitude range from 3.8 to 4.9 have been taken into account. The time domain coda decay method of a single back scattering model is used to calculate frequency dependent values of Coda Q (Qc) where as, the source parameters like seismic moment(Mo), stress drop, source radius(r), radiant energy(Wo),and strain drop are estimated using displacement amplitude spectrum of body wave using Brune's model. The earthquakes with magnitude range 3.8 to 4.9 have been used for estimation Qc at six central frequencies 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, and 18.0 Hz. In the present work, the Qc value of local earthquakes are estimated to understand the attenuation characteristic, source parameters and tectonic activity of the region. Based on a criteria of homogeneity in the geological characteristics and the constrains imposed by the distribution of available events the study region has been classified into three zones such as the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ), Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ), Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ). It follows the power law Qc= Qo (f/fo)n where, Qo is the quality factor at the reference frequency (1Hz) fo and n is the frequency parameter which varies from region to region. The mean values of Qc reveals a dependence on frequency, varying from 292.9 at 1.5 Hz to 4880.1 at 18 Hz. Average frequency dependent relationship Qc values obtained of the Northeastern India is 198 f 1.035, while this relationship varies from the region to region such as, Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ): Qc= 226 f 1.11, Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) : Qc= 301 f 0.87, Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc=126 fo 0.85. It indicates Northeastern India is seismically active but comparing of all zones in the study region the Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc= 126 f 0.85 is seismically most active. Where as the Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) are less active and out of three the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)is intermediate active. This study may be useful for the seismic hazard assessment. The estimated seismic moments (Mo), range from 5.98×1020 to 3.88×1023 dyne-cm. The source radii(r) are confined between 152 to 1750 meter, the stress drop ranges between 0.0003×103 bar to 1.04×103 bar, the average radiant energy is 82.57×1018 ergs and the strain drop for the earthquake ranges from 0.00602×10-9 to 2.48×10-9 respectively. The estimated stress drop values for NE India depicts scattered nature of the larger seismic moment value whereas, they show a more systematic nature for smaller seismic moment values. The estimated source parameters are in agreement to previous works in this type of tectonic set up. Key words: Coda wave, Seismic source parameters, Lapse time, single back scattering model, Brune's model, Stress drop and North East India.

Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

2010-12-01

83

Validity of the construct of post-traumatic stress disorder in a low-income country: interview study of women in Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The validity of the clinical construct of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been questioned in non-Western cultures. This report describes in-depth interviews exploring the experiences of women who were traumatised by the communal riots in Ahmedabad, India, in March 2002. Three specific narratives are presented which describe experiences that closely resemble re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal. Thus, symptoms described as characteristic features of PTSD in biomedical classifications are clearly expressed by the women in our study, and are attributed by them to trauma and grief. We conclude that PTSD may be a relevant clinical construct in the Indian context. PMID:16319414

Mehta, Khyati; Vankar, Ganpat; Patel, Vikram

2005-12-01

84

The June 2000 Mw 7.9 earthquakes south of Sumatra: Deformation in the India-Australia Plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two large (Mw 7.9) earthquakes occurred on 4 and 18 June 2000, south of Sumatra, beneath the Indian Ocean. Both earthquakes were predominantly left-lateral strike-slip on vertical N-S trending faults that we interpret to be reactivated fracture zones. The 4 June Enggano earthquake occurred at the edge of the rupture area of the 1833 subduction earthquake. The first strike-slip subevent within the subducting plate triggered a thrust subevent on the plate interface, which comprised at least 35% of the total moment and ruptured SE away from the 1833 earthquake. The 18 June earthquake in the Wharton Basin is one of the largest shallow strike-slip faulting earthquakes ever recorded. A small second subevent with reverse slip is required to fit the body waves. The orientation of both subevents in our preferred model is consistent with the current stress field in the region. Both the June 2000 earthquakes are consistent with recent models of distributed deformation in the India-Australia composite plate. The occurrence of the Enggano earthquake implies that the stress field within the Indian plate continues to a depth of 50 km in the subducting slab. The purely strike-slip source model of the Wharton Basin earthquake obtained by [2001] matches the P waves very poorly and fits the S waves no better than our preferred model. The strike-slip subevents of both earthquakes had few aftershocks and higher stress drops than the subduction thrust subevent of the Enggano earthquake. This difference is consistent with previous observations of oceanic and subduction earthquakes.

Abercrombie, Rachel E.; Antolik, Michael; EkströM, GöRan

2003-01-01

85

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

86

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6-8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western India) during the Holocene. The high ratio of fault displacement to length on the alluvial fan offsets implies high stress-drop faulting, as has been observed elsewhere in the peninsula. The along-strike extent of the fan offsets is similar to the thickness of the seismogenic layer, suggesting a roughly equidimensional fault rupture. The subsiding footwall of the fault is likely to have been responsible for altering the continental-scale drainage pattern in central India and creating the large west flowing catchment of the Tapti river. A preexisting sedimentary basin in the uplifting hanging wall implies that the Tapti Fault was active as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and has been reactivated as a thrust, highlighting the role of preexisting structures in determining the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere. The slip sense of faults and earthquakes in India suggests that deformation south of the Ganges foreland basin is driven by the compressive force transmitted between India and the Tibetan Plateau. The along-strike continuation of faulting to the east of the Holocene ruptures we have studied represents a significant seismic hazard in central India.

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R. Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-08-01

87

To Study the Prevalence of Various Enteric Parasitic Infections Among HIV Infected Individuals in the P.D.U. Medical College and Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV infected individuals. The present study was undertaken to detect the enteric parasites in HIV infected patients with diarrhoea, who were at different levels of immunity. Methods: This study was carried out in the P.D.U Medical College and Civil Hospital, Rajkot, India. during the period from June 2009 to June 2010. A total of 100 stool samples from HIV seropositive patients were examined for opportunistic, gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The samples were classified according to the age groups, sex, and occupation, a history of diarrhoea and different categories of the CD4 cell count. The stool samples were collected and examined for enteric parasites by microscopy and by special staining methods. The CD4 cell counts were estimated by using the FACS count system. Results: The intestinal parasitic pathogens were detected in 28% patients. Among all, Isospora appeared to have the highest prevalence (18%), followed by Giardia lamblia (5%), Strongyloides stercoralies (3%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (2%). In the HIV infected patients with a CD4 count of < 200 cells/?l, Isospora was the most commonly observed (56%) pathogen. The proportion of the opportunistic pathogens in the patients with CD4 counts of <200 cells/?l was significantly higher as compared to those in the other two groups of patients with CD4 counts of >200 respectively. Interpretation and conclusions: Parasitic infections were detected in 28% of the HIV infected patients and a low CD4 count was significantly associated with an opportunistic infection. The detection of the aetiologic pathogens might help the clinicians in deciding the appropriate management strategies. PMID:23450260

Mehta, Krunal Dineshbhai; Vacchani, Avani; Mistry, Madhulika M.; Kavathia, Ghanshyam U.; Goswami, Yogesh S.

2013-01-01

88

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the British Geological Survey, the Earthquakes Web site contains numerous educational topics for kids. Best suited for junior high school students and older, the site contains information on macroseismology (or the observable effects of earthquakes on people, buildings, and nature); seismic hazards; earthquake monitoring; recent and historical earthquakes; and more. Other links on the site include a Questions and Answers page, earthquake references, and additional educational links culminating in an informative and helpful source of online science learning. [JAB

89

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on earthquakes is based on naturalist John Muir's experiences with two significant earthquakes, the 1872 earthquake on the east side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Students will learn to explain that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and list the major geologic events including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, which are the result of crustal plate motions. A downloadable, printable version (PDF) of the lesson plan is available.

90

Predicting strong motion parameters for the Chamoli earthquake of 28 th March, 1999, Garhwal Himalaya, India, from simplified finite fault model  

Microsoft Academic Search

State of Uttaranchal in the northern part of India in the Garhwal Himalaya was hit by the Chamoli earthquake on 28th March, 1999 (GMT). This earthquake was recorded on a strong motion array installed in this region. The maximum peak ground acceleration of 353 cm\\/sec2 was recorded at an accelerograph located at the Gopeshwar station at an approximate epicentral distance

A. Joshi

2003-01-01

91

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the causes of earthquakes and their impact on the geology of an area and on human societies. They begin by looking at the role tectonic plates play in creating the forces that cause earthquakes, to help them understand why earthquakes occur when and where they do. Hands-on activities illustrate how rocks can withstand a certain amount of stress, but that every material has its breaking point. When rocks break underground, an earthquake occurs. In the last section, students explore the impact earthquakes have on humans and look at the efforts scientists are making to better understand and predict these sometimes deadly events.

2006-01-01

92

75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ltd. (17) G.K S Business Associates Pvt. Ltd...Gujarat, 360 575, India) (21) Indian Aquatic...longer exists and is now doing business as Calcutta Seafoods...Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results and...

2010-07-19

93

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake: Global lessons for earthquake hazard in intra-plate regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh District of the State of Gujarat, India on 26 January 2001, and was one of the most damaging intraplate earthquakes ever recorded. This earthquake is in many ways similar to the three great New Madrid earthquakes that occurred in the central United States in 1811-1812, An Indo-US team is studying the similarities and differences of these sequences in order to learn lessons for earthquake hazard in intraplate regions. Herein we present some preliminary conclusions from that study. Both the Kutch and New Madrid regions have rift type geotectonic setting. In both regions the strain rates are of the order of 10-9/yr and attenuation of seismic waves as inferred from observations of intensity and liquefaction are low. These strain rates predict recurrence intervals for Bhuj or New Madrid sized earthquakes of several thousand years or more. In contrast, intervals estimated from paleoseismic studies and from other independent data are significantly shorter, probably hundreds of years. All these observations together may suggest that earthquakes relax high ambient stresses that are locally concentrated by rheologic heterogeneities, rather than loading by plate-tectonic forces. The latter model generally underlies basic assumptions made in earthquake hazard assessment, that the long-term average rate of energy released by earthquakes is determined by the tectonic loading rate, which thus implies an inherent average periodicity of earthquake occurrence. Interpreting the observations in terms of the former model therefore may require re-examining the basic assumptions of hazard assessment.

Schweig, E.; Gomberg, J.; Petersen, M.; Ellis, M.; Bodin, P.; Mayrose, L.; Rastogi, B.K.

2003-01-01

94

Earthquakes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A strong earthquake struck Istanbul, Turkey on Monday, only weeks after a major quake in the same area claimed more than 15,500 lives. This site, from The Why Files (see the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), offers background information on the science of earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the recent tectonic activity in Turkey.

95

Estimation of Sedimentary Thickness in Kachchh Basin, Gujarat Using S P Converted Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inexpensive method using natural earthquake data is utilized for determining the sedimentary thickness in Kachchh. The\\u000a Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) is operating a network of broadband seismographs and strong motion accelerographs\\u000a in Gujarat. We used data from 13 broadband seismographs and two strong motion accelerographs in the study. The stations are\\u000a within 5 to 80 km from the epicenters.

Sumer Chopra; K. M. Rao; B. K. Rastogi

2010-01-01

96

Earthquake  

MedlinePLUS

... during an earthquake, even if there is no fire. If You Are Outside When the Shaking Starts... Find a clear spot (away from buildings, power lines, trees, streetlights) and drop to the ground. Stay there ...

97

Magnetotelluric studies in the Central India Tectonic Zone: Implications for intraplate stress regimes and generation of shallow earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central India Tectonic Zone (CITZ) dissects the Indian Peninsula into the northern and southern crustal blocks. The CITZ has been a seismically active region since the Precambrian. Whereas the relatively deep crustal earthquakes near the Narmada faults in the eastern part of the CITZ have been well-investigated, the mechanisms for the shallow earthquakes in the western part remain unknown. Here we present results from a new magnetotelluric study to derive the crustal structure and to understand its implications. Our data show a thick and highly resistive (>500 ohm m) crust in the south of Tapti River, as against a less resistive one in the north. These results in conjunction with heat flow values indicate that the crust below the southern part has stable continental cratonic signatures. On the northern side of the Tapti River, we infer the ascent of basaltic magmas from the mantle into the shallow crust and crystallization into layered intrusions. These mafic-ultramafic bodies could be a potential cause for the shallow earthquakes in the western part of the CITZ. The mafic-ultramafic bodies below the crust of CITZ would locally modify the intraplate stresses, which in turn would facilitate the occurrence of earthquakes due to reactivation of pre-existing faults. Thus, the large accumulation of strain energy in the deep crust beneath the region can be attributed to the presence of high stress bodies emplaced at depth during the Deccan Volcanic activity.

Naganjaneyulu, K.; Aggarwal, Lavika; Santosh, M.

2013-12-01

98

Radon and Helium as productive tools for earthquake precursory and fault delineation studies in NW Himalayas, India: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the role of radon and helium as a productive tool for fault delineation and earthquake precursory studies, continuous measurements are made in the soil-gas and groundwater in NW Himalayas, India. The area under study is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zones IV and V of the Seismic Map of India. The NW Himalayas are tectonically active due to the northward movement of the Indian plate towards Eurasian plate and the frequent occurrence of small magnitude earthquake indicates that the area is under unusually high stress and strain. The temporal variations in the radon concentration in soil-gas and groundwater are continuous monitored, at three different stations viz. Amritsar (Zone IV), Dharamsala (Zone V) and Dalhousie (Zone IV), using Barasol probes (Algade, France) and RAD7 (Durrige, USA) respectively. The radon anomalies, in the data are correlated with micro seismic events recorded along Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Central Thrust (MCT) of NW Himalayas within the grid (28 - 34° North, 72 - 79° East). The anomalous change in the radon concentration before an event suggests that continuous radon monitoring in a grid pattern can serve as a productive tool in earthquake prediction studies. The MCT and MBT are associated with evolution of Himalayan orogeny. Besides the longitudinal lineaments several transverse lineaments occur as faults and fractures trending normally or obliquely to Himalayan trend. Keeping this thing in view, a geochemical soil-gas surveys have been conducted in the NW Himalayas. To carry out the present investigation soil-gas samples were collected in sample bags at depth of about 0.7 - 1.0 m by using hollow steel probe. The collected soil-gas sample bags are analyzed for radon and helium using RTM 2100 and Helium Leak Sniff Detector respectively. The data analysis clearly reveals anomalous values of subsurface gases along the fault and lineaments.

Bajwa, B.; Mahajan, S.; Walia, V.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.; Yang, T. F.

2009-12-01

99

Large and great earthquakes in the Shillong plateau-Assam valley area of Northeast India Region: Pop-up and transverse tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic model of the Shillong plateau and Assam valley in the northeast India region, the source area for the 1897 great earthquake (Ms ~ 8.7) and for the four (1869, 1923, 1930 and 1943) large earthquakes (M. ? 7.0), is examined using the high precision data of a 20-station broadband seismic network. About 300 selected earthquakes M ? 3.0 recorded during 2001-2009 are analysed to study the seismicity and fault plane solutions. The dominating thrust/reverse faulting earthquakes in the western plateau may be explained by the proposed pop-up tectonics between two active boundary faults, the Oldham-Brahmaputra fault to the north and the Dapsi-Dauki thrust to the south, though the northern boundary fault is debated. The more intense normal and strike-slip faulting earthquakes in the eastern plateau (Mikir massif) and in the Assam valley, on the other hand, are well explained by transverse tectonics at the long and deep rooted Kopili fault that cuts across the Himalaya and caused the 2009 Bhutan earthquake (Mw 6.3). It is conjectured that the complex tectonics of the Shillong plateau and transverse tectonics at the Kopili fault make the region vulnerable for impending large earthquake(s).

Kayal, J. R.; Arefiev, S. S.; Baruah, Saurabh; Hazarika, D.; Gogoi, N.; Gautam, J. L.; Baruah, Santanu; Dorbath, C.; Tatevossian, R.

2012-04-01

100

A Comparative Study of Speech and Dialed Input Voice Interfaces in Rural India  

E-print Network

A Comparative Study of Speech and Dialed Input Voice Interfaces in Rural India Neil Patel1 University HCI Group 2 IBM India Research Laboratory Computer Science, Stanford, CA 94025 New Delhi, India School of Information Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Berkeley, CA 94720 pdave68@gmail.com parikh

Parikh, Tapan S.

101

Earthquake scenario in West Bengal with emphasis on seismic hazard microzonation of the city of Kolkata, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic microzonation is a process of estimating site-specific effects due to an earthquake on urban centers for its disaster mitigation and management. The state of West Bengal, located in the western foreland of the Assam-Arakan Orogenic Belt, the Himalayan foothills and Surma Valley, has been struck by several devastating earthquakes in the past, indicating the need for a seismotectonic review of the province, especially in light of probable seismic threat to its capital city of Kolkata, which is a major industrial and commercial hub in the eastern and northeastern region of India. A synoptic probabilistic seismic hazard model of Kolkata is initially generated at engineering bedrock (Vs30 ~ 760 m s-1) considering 33 polygonal seismogenic sources at two hypocentral depth ranges, 0-25 and 25-70 km; 158 tectonic sources; appropriate seismicity modeling; 14 ground motion prediction equations for three seismotectonic provinces, viz. the east-central Himalaya, the Bengal Basin and Northeast India selected through suitability testing; and appropriate weighting in a logic tree framework. Site classification of Kolkata performed following in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations places the city in D1, D2, D3 and E classes. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment at a surface-consistent level - i.e., the local seismic hazard related to site amplification performed by propagating the bedrock ground motion with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years through a 1-D sediment column using an equivalent linear analysis - predicts a peak ground acceleration (PGA) range from 0.176 to 0.253 g in the city. A deterministic liquefaction scenario in terms of spatial distribution of liquefaction potential index corresponding to surface PGA distribution places 50% of the city in the possible liquefiable zone. A multicriteria seismic hazard microzonation framework is proposed for judicious integration of multiple themes, namely PGA at the surface, liquefaction potential index, NEHRP soil site class, sediment class, geomorphology and ground water table in a fuzzy protocol in the geographical information system by adopting an analytical hierarchal process. The resulting high-resolution surface consistent hazard, liquefaction and microzonation maps are expected to play vital roles in earthquake-related disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Maiti, S. K.; Devaraj, N.; Srivastava, N.; Mohapatra, L. D.

2014-09-01

102

Quantifying the Media Bias in Intensity Surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earth- quake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no in- strumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S.

S. E. Hough; Prabhas Pande

2007-01-01

103

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

104

The 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj, India Earthquake and Eastern North American Ground-Motion Attenuation Relations: Seismic Hazard Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that the Mw7.7 2001 Bhuj, India earthquake occurred in a stable continental region with ground-motion attenuation properties similar to eastern North America (ENA). No strong motion recordings for M7 or greater earthquakes have been recorded in ENA, so, if the two regions share similar properties, then observations from the Bhuj earthquake provide important information for hazard assessments in ENA as well as India. This thesis can be tested using seismic data for the Bhuj mainshock. The Indian Meteorological Department recorded accelerograph and broadband seismograph data at distances of 500 to 1800 km. Accelerograph and engineering seismoscope data were recorded at distances of 40 to 1100 km by the Department of Earthquake Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. We have processed the accelerograph and broadband data for response spectral accelerations and corrected them to a common NEHRP site class using Joyner and Boore (2000) site factors. The geologic conditions at each recording site were determined using the geologic map of India and categorized as Quaternary sediments, Tertiary sediments, or hard rock. Comparisons were then made to available ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 1.0 s spectral acceleration (Sa), the geologically-corrected Bhuj data generally fall among the ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. The Bhuj mainshock ground-motion data agree with the collective predictions of the ENA relations given the random uncertainty in ground-motion measurements of a factor of two or more plus the ground-motion attenuation relation modeling uncertainty. From an engineering perspective, this comparison supports the thesis that seismic-wave attenuation in stable continental India is similar to eastern North America.

Cramer, C. H.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Kumar, A.

2002-12-01

105

Internal Evaluation of National Leprosy Elimination Program in Tribal Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background: The government launched a National Leprosy Eradication program in 1983, to eliminate leprosy from India. A Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign was started with the view to early case detection and treatment. In April 2004, a vertical program of leprosy was merged with the general health services and case detection was conducted by the general health workers in India. Materials and Methods: Internal evaluation of leprosy was done in the Panchmanal district of Gujarat through a rapid survey of the 10 Primary Health Care units in the high and low endemic areas. Active and passive surveillance data and records were verified according to the indicators. Results: Analysis of the data and record verification revealed that there was a decrease in the prevalence rate of leprosy, but it had not reached the elimination status. The MB ratio had decreased, but the child ratio remained consistent for the last five years. The disability ratio had also decreased in five years. Conclusion: The National Leprosy Elimination Program had a favorable impact, but at the same time to reach the elimination status there was a need for more stringent Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) activities to be promoted in the community. Active surveillance should be initiated so that hidden cases are not missed in the community. PMID:20606937

Singh, Anjali

2010-01-01

106

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

107

A rare case of subconjunctival dirofilariasis by Dirofilaria repens in rural Gujarat.  

PubMed

Dirofilariasis is a worldwide zoonotic filariasis with over 782 cases reported so far from different parts of the world. Human dirofilariasis, caused by Dirofilaria repens, have been reported to occur widely throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. It has not been widely recognized in India, however; several cases have been reported in last few years. There is probably a focus of human infection with D. repens in Kerala. Herein, we present a review of human infections by D. repens, along with a case report of subconjunctival dirofilariasis from rural part of Gujarat. PMID:24088633

Patel, Rupal; Singh, Suman; Bhavsar, Samir

2014-05-01

108

Predicting strong motion parameters for the Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999, Garhwal Himalaya, India, from simplified finite fault model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State of Uttaranchal in the northern part of India in the Garhwal Himalaya was hit by the Chamoli earthquake on 28th March, 1999 (GMT). This earthquake was recorded on a strong motion array installed in this region. The maximum peak ground acceleration of 353 cm/sec2 was recorded at an accelerograph located at the Gopeshwar station at an approximate epicentral distance of 14 km. The simplified method of Midorikawa (1993) has been used to model finite fault responsible for causing the Chamoli earthquake. This method is based on the Empirical Green's Function (EGF) technique of Irikura (1986).Modifications in this method have been made to include layered earth model and transmission effects at each boundary by Joshi (2001). Rupture causing the Chamoli earthquake is placed in two structural models of the earth in this work: one is a homogeneous half space and other is the multi layered earth model. Comparison in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) is made between the simulated and actual strong motion parameters like peak acceleration and duration. It is seen that the introduction of multi layered earth system in this simplified technique is capable of significantly reducing the RMSE in observed and predicted strong motion parameters and defining the attenuation rate for peak ground acceleration of this earthquake.

Joshi, A.

109

Strong motion envelope modelling of the source of the Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garhwal Himalaya has been rocked by two major earthquakes in the span of just eight years, viz. Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991 and Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999. Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 was recorded at 11 different stations of a strong motion array installed in the epicentral region. The maximum peak ground acceleration (353 cm\\/s2) was

A. Joshi

2001-01-01

110

Spatial variation of crustal strain in the Kachchh region, India: Implication on the Bhuj earthquake of 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kachchh province of Western India is a major seismic domain in an intraplate set-up. This seismic zone is located in a rift basin, which was developed during the early Jurassic break-up of the Gondwanaland. The crustal strain determined from the GPS velocity data of post-seismic time period following the 2001 Bhuj earthquake indicates a maximum strain rate of ˜266 × 10-9 per year along N013°. Focal mechanism solutions of the main event of 26 January 2001 and the aftershocks show that the maximum principal stress axis is close to this high strain direction. Maximum shear strain rate determined from the GPS data of the area has similar orientation. The unusually high strain rate is comparable in magnitude to the continental rift systems. The partitioning of the regional NE-SW horizontal stress (SHmax) by the pre-existing EW-striking boundary fault developed the strike-slip components parallel to the regional faults, the normal components perpendicular to the faults, NE-striking conjugate Riedel shear fractures and tension fractures. The partitioned normal component of the stress is considered to be the major cause for compression across the regional EW faults and development of the second-order conjugate shear fractures striking NE-SW and NW-SE. The NE-striking transverse faults parallel to the anti-Riedel shear planes have become critical under these conditions. These anti-Riedel planes are interpreted to be critical for the seismicity of the Kachchh region. The high strain rate in this area of low to moderate surface heat flow is responsible for deeper position of the brittle-ductile transition and development of deep seated seismic events in this intraplate region.

Sinha, Sushmita; Mohanty, S.

2012-10-01

111

Ground Water Quality of Gandhinagar Taluka, Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present communication deals with study of physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity (TA), calcium hardness (CaH), magnesium hardness (MgH), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl -), fluoride (F -), sodium (Na +), potassium (K +), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sulphate (SO 4 2- ) of

MAYUR C. SHAH; PRATEEK G. SHILPKAR; PRADIP B. ACHARYA

112

Strong motion envelope modelling of the source of the Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garhwal Himalaya has been rocked by two major earthquakes in the span of just eight years, viz. Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991 and Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999. Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 was recorded at 11 different stations of a strong motion array installed in the epicentral region. The maximum peak ground acceleration (353 cm/s2) was recorded at an accelerograph located at Gopeshwar. The data from eleven stations has been used for comparison with the simulated acceleration envelopes due to a model of the rupture responsible for this earthquake. For simulation of acceleration envelope the method of Midorikawa (1993) has been modified for its applicability to Himalayan region. This method has earlier been used by Joshi and Patel (1997) and Joshi (1999) for the studyof Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991. The same method has been used for study of Chamoli earthquake. Layered earth crust has been introduced in place of homogeneous one in this method. The model of rupture is placed at a depth of 12 km below the Munsiari thrust for modelling Chamoli earthquake. Peak ground acceleration was calculated from simulated acceleration envelope using layered as well as homogeneous earth crust. For the rupture placed in a layered crust model peak ground acceleration of order 312 cm/s2 was simulated at Gopeshwar which is quite close to actually recorded value. The comparison of peak ground acceleration values in terms of root mean square error at eleven stations suggests that the root mean square error is reduced by inclusion of a layered earth crust in place of homogeneous earth crust.

Joshi, A.

113

Demographic, epidemiologic and clinical profile of snake bite cases, presented to Emergency Medicine department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Aim: Snake bite is a common medical emergency faced mainly by the rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries with heavy rainfall and humid climate. Although India is a single largest contributor of snake bite cases, reporting is very poor. There is hardly any publication of the same from Gujarat state that is developing at a good pace. Hence, we aimed to study the snake bite cases with particular attention to demography, epidemiology, and clinical profile. Settings and Design: The present descriptive, observational study was carried out at the Emergency Medicine Department of a tertiary care center in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. This department is one if the firsts to get recognized by the Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional single-center study. Cases were entered into the prescribed form, and detailed information regarding demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters was entered. Statistical Method: Data were analyzed using Epi2000. Means and frequencies for each variable were calculated. Results: Majority (67.4%) of the snake bite victims were in the age group between 15 and 45 years. Majority were male victims (74.2%). 71% victims of snake bite lived in rural areas. Farmers and laborers were the main victims. 61.2% incidents took place at night time or early morning (before 6 a.m.). 64% patients had bite mark on the lower limb. 40% victims had seen the snake. Eight patients had snake bite, but were asymptomatic. 52% had neuroparalytic manifestation, 34% were asymptomatic, and 9.6% had hemorrhagic manifestation. 14% cases received treatment within 1 h of the bite and 64.84% within 1-6 h after the bite. First aid given was in the form of application of tourniquet (16.2%), local application of lime, chillies, herbal medicine, etc., (1%). 2.20% cases were sensitive to anti-snake venom. Only three patients died. Conclusion: In this region (Gujarat), neuroparalytic manifestation of snake bite is more prevalent. Cobra and krait are the commonest types of poisonous snakes. The time of seeking treatment has reduced because of awareness about snake bite treatment and better transport and ambulance facility. Mortality is very less in well-equipped hospitals due to early initiation of treatment with anti-snake venom. PMID:23960378

Jarwani, Bhavesh; Jadav, Pradeep; Madaiya, Malhar

2013-01-01

114

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

E-print Network

(Australia,51 1988) [e.g. McCaffrey, 1989], New Madrid (USA, 1811–12) [e.g. Johnston52 and Schweig, 1996], the Rann of Kachchh and Assam (India, 1819 and 1897)53 3 [e.g. Bilham, 1999, Bilham and England, 2001], Ungava (Canada, 1989) [e.g.54 Adams et al., 1991... , 1988) [e.g.,McCaffrey, 1989], New Madrid (USA, 1811–1812) [e.g., Johnston and Schweig, 1996], the Rann of Kachchh and Assam (India, 1819 and 1897) [e.g., Bilham, 1999; Bilham and England, 2001], Ungava (Canada, 1989) [e.g., Adams et al., 1991], Manaus...

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-07-23

115

Simultaneous estimation of earthquake source parameters and crustal Q value from broadband data of selected aftershocks of the 2001 M w 7.7 Bhuj earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the simultaneous estimation of source parameters and crustal Q values for small to moderate-size aftershocks ( M w 2.1-5.1) of the M_{w }7.7 2001 Bhuj earthquake. The horizontal-component S-waves of 144 well located earthquakes (2001-2010) recorded at 3-10 broadband seismograph sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India are analyzed, and their seismic corner frequencies, long-period spectral levels and crustal Q values are simultaneously estimated by inverting the horizontal component of the S-wave displacement spectrum using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear inversion technique, wherein the inversion scheme is formulated based on the ?-square source spectral model. The static stress drops (? ?) are then calculated from the corner frequency and seismic moment. The estimated source parameters suggest that the seismic moment ( M 0) and source radius ( r) of aftershocks are varying from 1.12 × 1012 to 4.00 × 1016 N-m and 132.57 to 513.20 m, respectively. Whereas, estimated stress drops (? ?) and multiplicative factor ( E mo) values range from 0.01 to 20.0 MPa and 1.05 to 3.39, respectively. The corner frequencies are found to be ranging from 2.36 to 8.76 Hz. The crustal S-wave quality factor varies from 256 to 1882 with an average of 840 for the Kachchh region, which agrees well with the crustal Q value of the seismically active New Madrid region, USA. Our estimated stress drop values are quite large compared to the other similar size Indian intraplate earthquakes, which can be attributed to the presence of crustal mafic intrusives and aqueous fluids in the lower crust as revealed by the earlier tomographic study of the region.

Saha, A.; Lijesh, S.; Mandal, P.

2012-12-01

116

Setting Research Priority for Livestock Sector in Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research resource allocation strategy has been worked out for the livestock sector across districts\\/ regions of the Gujarat state by using multi-criteria scoring model. The study has covered all the 19 districts of the state and six livestock species. In the commodity priority, the highest share (83%) has been claimed by milk research, followed by draught power (15%). The research

N. C. Das; K. A. Khunt

2008-01-01

117

An integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PQuake(TM) is an integrated digital system that facilitates earthquake damage reconnaissance. It combines digital photography, handheld GPS technology and custom software for a PalmRTM handheld computer to provide a user-friendly field data collection system. It mitigates the deficiencies involved with traditional reconnaissance techniques by allowing the rapid collection of consistent quantitative and qualitative damage data for both manmade structures and natural features. At the end of each day of reconnaissance, the reconnaissance personnel can upload their data to a personal computer and in minutes using the GIS-extension, create comprehensive maps of the damage. Consequently, PQuake(TM) facilitates more sophisticated planning of the reconnaissance activities, collecting larger quantities of consistent data, collaboration among researchers, near real-time reporting, analysis, visualization and mapping of the data. Additionally, it utilizes a relational database for managing, storing and archiving damage data as well as linking data to digital photographs and GPS waypoints. Consequently, PQuake facilitates the complete workflow process from data collection through analysis and reporting. The limitations of traditional reconnaissance are illustrated through a case history utilizing reconnaissance data collected in Adapazari, Turkey, following the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999. The damage data was combined with liquefaction analyses performed on geotechnical soundings obtained by PEER months after the event to investigate the building damage associated with local site effects in Adapazari. In particular, this case history demonstrates the necessity and benefits of the PQuake system. The PQuake(TM) system was first field-tested following the Gujarat, India, earthquake in January 2001. Additionally, the system was modified following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Centers to document structural and non structural damage to the surrounding buildings that suffered collateral damage as the towers collapsed. PQuake provides the ability to obtain damage data that is comprehensive and accurate. In order to learn as much as possible from catastrophic events, civil engineers must adopt new technologies and incorporate new reconnaissance protocols. This dissertation presents the development of an integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance that serves as a tool and a means for implementing the reconnaissance procedures.

Deaton, Scott Lowrey

118

Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-01-01

119

A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

Shukla, Anumeha; Guleria, J. S.; Mehrotra, R. C.

2012-02-01

120

Earthquakes and emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

121

Maternal Health Financing – Issues and Options: A Study of Chiranjeevi Yojana in Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government of Gujarat announced a “Chiranjeevi Yojana” in April 2005. The objective of this scheme is to encourage private medical practitioners to provide maternity health services in remote areas which record the highest infant and maternal mortality and thereby improve the institutional delivery rate in Gujarat. The scheme was finally launched as a one year pilot project in December 2005

Bhat Ramesh; Amarjit Singh; Sunil Kumar Maheshwari; Saha Somen

122

Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR images show the Kachchh region in the Gujarat province of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying buildings, dams, and port facilities. The two upper MISR images are pre- and post-earthquake scenes acquired on January 15 and January 31, 2001, respectively (Terra orbits 5736 and 5969). They are 'true-color' images made by combining the red, green and blue bands from the nadir (vertically down-looking) camera. The two lower views are 'false-color' images made by combining the red bands from three different cameras. Blue is assigned to the camera pointing 70 degrees forward (more sun-facing), green to the nadir camera, and red to the camera pointing 70 degrees aftward. Each of these images is about 275 kilometers wide by 218 kilometers high.

The earthquake epicenter was just below the southern tip of the large, white area on the right-hand side of the images, and about 70 kilometers northeast of the city of Bhuj. The earthquake may have occurred on the Kachchh Mainland Fault, which extends from the region of the epicenter westward along the curved boundary between the darker brown region to the south and the lighter brown area north of it. The compressive stresses responsible for the earthquake are related to the collision of India with Asia and the resulting rise of the Himalayas to the northeast.

That part of the Kachchh region which lies north of the Kachchh Mainland Fault includes the Banni Plains and the Rann of Kachchh. It is a low, flat basin characterized by salt pans and mud flats. The salt forms in the Rann of Kachchh as mineral-laden waters evaporate. The salt flats can be seen in the nadir images as highly reflective, white and gray areas. During the earthquake, strong shaking produced liquefaction in the fine silts and sands below the water table in the Rann of Kachchh. This caused the mineral grains to settle and expel their interstitial water to the surface. Field investigations have found abundant evidence of mud volcanos, sand boils, and fissures from which salty ground water erupted over an area exceeding 10,000 square kilometers. Evidence of the expelled water can also be seen on the MISR images.

Notice the delicate, dendritic pattern of stream channels throughout many of the salt-flats on the post-earthquake image, especially due north of the epicenter. These carried water brought to the surface by liquefaction during the earthquake. Areas where shallow surface water is present are much easier to see on the false-color multi-angle composite images. Wet areas are exhibiting a combination of enhanced forward-scattered light due to the reflection by the water, and enhanced backward scattering due to surface roughness or the presence of sediments. This combination results in blue to purple hues.

The region of sand dunes in the upper right and the Indus River valley and delta in the upper left are inside Pakistan. Near the top of the images, there is an east-west trending linear feature separating the Thar desert of Pakistan from the Rann of Kachchh. This is the Nagar Parkar Fault. On both pre-earthquake images, this feature is evident only from the contrasting brown colors on either side of it. On the post-earthquake images, a narrow ribbon defines the boundary between the two geologic provinces. However, only in the multi-angle composite do we see evidence that this ribbon may be a water-filled channel. Because this area is politically sensitive and fairly inaccessible, no field teams have been able to verify liquefaction effects or the presence of water there.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

123

A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake  

E-print Network

A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India Survey, Pasadena, California. 2 Nowrosjee Wadia College, Pune, India. 3 University of Colorado, Boulder features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western

Bilham, Roger

124

Damned if They Flee, Doomed if They Don’t: Narratives of Runaway Adolescent Females from Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the cultural context of rural India that emphasizes familial roles for women, this qualitative study explored the experiences\\u000a of adolescent females who run away from their family homes. Ten adolescent females from rural areas or small towns of Gujarat,\\u000a India were individually interviewed while they temporarily resided in an institution, along with six members of the institution\\u000a staff. Throughout

Vaishali V. Raval; Pratiksha H. Raval; Stacey P. Raj

2010-01-01

125

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

126

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features links to: an earthquake quiz; a rotating globe showing earthquake locations; famous earthquake accounts by Mark Twain, Jack London, Charles Darwin, and John Muir; a Java animation of the gradual buildup of stress that leads to earthquakes; a three-page history of seismology to 1910; and other educational and earthquake websites.

127

Landslide Studies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

STATUS OF NATURAL HAZARDS India is vulnerable to different natural hazards due to its proximity to geodynamically active locales and unique climatic pattern. Both these factors in different combinations lead to the occurrence of disasters resulting from natural hazards like floods, earthquakes, draught, cyclones and landslides in different parts of the country at frequent intervals. It is estimated that about

Y. P. SHARDA

128

Upwarped high velocity mafic crust, subsurface tectonics and causes of intraplate Latur-Killari (M 6.2) and Koyna (M 6.3) earthquakes, India - A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique attempt is made to understand the genesis of intraplate seismicity in the Latur-Killari and Koyna seismogenic regions of India, through derived crustal structure by synthesizing active and passive seismic, magnetotelluric, gravity and heat flow data. It has indicated presence of relatively high velocity/density intermediate granulite (and amphibolite) facies rocks underneath the Deccan volcanic cover caused mainly due to a continuous geodynamic process of uplift and erosion since Precambrian times. These findings have been independently confirmed by detailed borehole geological, geochemical and mineralogical investigations. The crystalline basement rock is found to contain 2 wt% of carbon-di-oxide fluid components. The presence of geodynamic process, associated with thermal anomalies at subcrustal depths, is supported by a high mantle heat flow (29-36 mW/m 2) beneath both regions, although some structural and compositional variations may exist as evidenced by P- and S-wave seismic velocities. We suggest that the stress, caused by ongoing uplift and a high mantle heat flow is continuously accumulating in this denser and rheologically stronger mafic crust within which earthquakes tend to nucleate. These stresses appear to dominate over and above those generated by the India-Eurasia collision. The role of fluids in stress generation, as advocated through earlier studies, appears limited.

Pandey, O. P.; Chandrakala, K.; Parthasarathy, G.; Reddy, P. R.; Reddy, G. Koti

2009-05-01

129

Bootlegging, politics and corruption: state violence and the routine practices of public power in Gujarat (1985–2002)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the nature and practice of state power in ordinary times, as it developed in Gujarat from the 1980s, in an attempt to understand how the communal harnessing of the state that manifested in large parts of Gujarat in 2002 was possible. In particular, it examines everyday expressions of public corruption around the politics of bootlegging. In the

Ornit Shani

2010-01-01

130

Predominance of tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus as a monopartite begomovirus: association with tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite.  

PubMed

Tomato leaf curl is a serious malady in the state of Maharashtra, India, causing nearly 100 % yield loss. An extensive survey was done in the affected fields of tomato in the year 2008, and members of three species of begomoviruses were identified as causing the disease. More than 60 % of the samples from diseased plants were infected with tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGuV). Isolates collected from these fields differed from the Varanasi isolate of ToLCGuV in not having a DNA B component. Instead, they were like typical Old World monopartite begomoviruses in that they were associated with only one betasatellite, tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand betasatellite (TYLCTHB). ToLCGuV alone is readily infectious, expressing systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato. Co-inoculation of ToLCGuV with TYLCTHB, increased symptom severity and reduced the incubation time required for symptom expression. ToLCGuV successfully interacted with heterologous DNA B component of ToLCNDV [IN:Pun:JID:08], and co-inoculation of these two resulted in yellow mottling symptoms that were typical of DNA B. PMID:22983111

Jyothsna, P; Rawat, Ramaveer; Malathi, V G

2013-01-01

131

Relocation of aftershocks, focal mechanisms and stress inversion: Implications toward the seismo-tectonics of the causative fault zone of Mw7.6 2001 Bhuj earthquake (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HYPODD relocation of 1172 aftershocks, recorded on 8–17 three-component digital seismographs, delineate a distinct south dipping E–W trending aftershock zone extending up to 35 km depth, which involves a crustal volume of 40 km×60 km×35 km. The relocated focal depths delineate the presence of three fault segments and variation in the brittle–ductile transition depths amongst the individual faults as the earthquake foci in

P. Mandal; S. Horton

2007-01-01

132

Estimation of Strong Ground Motion from a Great Earthquake Mw 8.5 in Central Seismic Gap Region, Himalaya (India) Using Empirical Green's Function Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study ground motions for a Mw 8.5 scenario earthquake are estimated at 13 sites in Kumaun-Garhwal region using the empirical Green's function technique. The recordings of 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake of Mw 6.8 at these sites are used as an element earthquake. A heterogeneous source model consisting of two asperities is considered for simulating the ground motions. The entire central seismic gap (CSG) can expect acceleration in excess of 100 cm/s2 with NW portion in excess of 400 cm/s2 and SE between 100 and 200 cm/s2. The central portion can expect peak ground acceleration (PGA) between 200 and 400 cm/s2. It has been observed from simulation of strong ground motion that sites located near the rupture initiation point can expect accelerations in excess of 1 g. In the present analysis, Bhatwari and Uttarkashi can expect ground accelerations in excess of 1 g. The estimates of the PGA are compared with earlier studies in the same region using different methodologies and it was found that the results are comparable. This has put constrains on the expected PGAs in this region. The obtained PGA values can be used in identifying the vulnerable areas in the central Himalaya, thereby facilitating the planning, design and construction of new structures and strengthening of the existing structures in the region.

Sharma, Babita; Chopra, Sumer; Sutar, Anup Kumar; Bansal, B. K.

2013-12-01

133

Earthquake prediction  

SciTech Connect

Mainland China is situated at the eastern edge of the Eurasian seismic system and is the largest intra-continental region of shallow strong earthquakes in the world. Based on nine earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 7.0 and 7.9, the book provides observational data and discusses successes and failures of earthquake prediction. Derived from individual earthquakes, observations of various phenomena and seismic activities occurring before and after earthquakes, led to the establishment of some general characteristics valid for earthquake prediction.

Ma, Z.; Fu, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, C.; Zhang, G.; Liu, D.

1989-01-01

134

Earthquake Myths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

135

Inside Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will witness the destructive power of earthquakes. You will watch home videos taken during earthquake tremors and you will go inside the Earth for the birth of a quake.

2010-01-01

136

Earthquake Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration uses an "earthquake machine" constructed from bricks, sand paper, and a winch, to simulate the buildup of elastic strain energy prior to a seismic event and the release of that energy during an earthquake.

137

Earthquake prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mainland China is situated at the eastern edge of the Eurasian seismic system and is the largest intra-continental region of shallow strong earthquakes in the world. Based on nine earthquakes with magnitudes ranging between 7.0 and 7.9, the book provides observational data and discusses successes and failures of earthquake prediction. Derived from individual earthquakes, observations of various phenomena and seismic

Z. Ma; Z. Fu; Y. Zhang; C. Wang; G. Zhang; D. Liu

1989-01-01

138

A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the january 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sedimentinduced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Bilham, Roger; Atkinson, Gail M.

2003-09-01

139

A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

2003-01-01

140

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

Novak, Gary

141

Anomalous changes in column water vapor after Gujarat earthquake , S. Sarkar b  

E-print Network

and space, and (5) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), to detect and locate lightning over tropical region and the adjoining land and oceanic regions. The epicenter was located at 70.32°E and 23.33°N (black dot in Fig. 1 and Earth�s Radiant Energy System (CERES), to study the energy exchanged between the sun, Earth�s atmosphere

Singh, Ramesh P.

142

UNCORRECTED 2 Anomalous changes in column water vapor after Gujarat earthquake  

E-print Network

), to detect and locate lightning over tropical region. Advances in Space Research xxx (2003) xxx­xxx www.elsevier.com/locate and the adjoining land and 20 oceanic regions. The epicenter was located at 70.32°E 21 and 23.33°N (black dot in Fig measurements. (4) Cloud and Earth�s 60Radiant Energy System (CERES), to study the energy 61exchanged between

Singh, Ramesh P.

143

Corporate involvement in disaster response and recovery : an analysis of the Gujarat Earthquake  

E-print Network

Disaster vulnerability is a serious issue in developing countries where globalization, development patterns, poverty and environmental degradation are placing more people at risk to natural disasters. Recent appeals for ...

Sayegh, Tracy, 1976-

2004-01-01

144

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a brief description of the recent earthquakes in Pakistan and Sumatra and continues with an investigation of earthquakes and their causes. Topics include the relationship of earthquakes to plate tectonics and the structure of the Earth, especially faults; factors that contribute to the strength (magnitude) of earthquakes; and the uncertainties of earthquake prediction. There is also an overview of a research project to drill into the San Andreas fault, and a history of the development of the theory of plate tectonics. A bibliography and links to additional information are also provided.

Tenenbaum, David

1999-09-02

145

USGS: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Center, from the U.S. Geological Survey, provides information about recent and historic earthquakes throughout the world. Maps and animations of the world and the USA illustrate the locations of earthquakes occurring within the last seven days or the last month. Maps and lists of historic earthquakes are also provided along with scientific data, an earthquake search tool, ShakeMaps, seismogram displays, and more. In addition, a large collection of "learning links" provides interactive tools, lesson plans, and activities for K-12 classrooms.

2007-03-30

146

Glacial earthquakes.  

PubMed

We have detected dozens of previously unknown, moderate earthquakes beneath large glaciers. The seismic radiation from these earthquakes is depleted at high frequencies, explaining their nondetection by traditional methods. Inverse modeling of the long-period seismic waveforms from the best-recorded earthquake, in southern Alaska, shows that the seismic source is well represented by stick-slip, downhill sliding of a glacial ice mass. The duration of sliding in the Alaska earthquake is 30 to 60 seconds, about 15 to 30 times longer than for a regular tectonic earthquake of similar magnitude. PMID:14512505

Ekström, Göran; Nettles, Meredith; Abers, Geoffrey A

2003-10-24

147

The Propagation of a Hindu Sect in India and Nepal: The Krishna-Pra??m?Samprad?y  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Krishna-Pra?m?samprad?y is a Hindu non-caste reformist sect belonging to the bhakti and sant streams. It originated in seventeenth-century Gujarat and rejects life-cycle rituals and sacrificial rites. Its expansion over the last decades in Nepal and Northeast India has been a remarkable phenomenon. This article examines the historical propagation of the congregation. In the past, the influence of charismatic religious

Gérard Toffin

2011-01-01

148

Heavy Metal Content of Suspended Particulate Matter at World’s Largest ShipBreaking Yard, Alang-Sosiya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study vividly presents results from a seasonal particulate matter measurement campaign conducted at world’s largest ship-breaking\\u000a yard i.e., Alang-Sosiya (Gujarat, India) at six locations and a reference station at Gopnath which is 30 km south of this\\u000a ship-breaking yard. The collected suspended particulate matter (SPM) 24-h samples were critically analyzed for heavy metals\\u000a (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe,

Shaik Basha; Premsingh Mansingh Gaur; Ravikumar Bhagwan Thorat; Rohitkumar Harikrishna Trivedi; Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Nisha Anand; Shalin Hemantbhai Desai; Kalpana Haresh Mody; Bhavnath Jha

2007-01-01

149

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students gather and plot records of earthquakes. It is designed to be either long or short term, depending on the needs of the instructor. Students will gain practice working with map coordinates while becoming familiar with the frequency of earthquake occurrences, the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the locations of plate boundaries. In addition, this exercise will illustrate the importance of measurements, data storage, analysis and worldwide scientific collaboration.

Rauch, Arden

150

Izmit Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab allows students to look at variety of data from the North Anatolian fault in Turkey. Specifically, students have the oportunity to: interpret seismograms from the Izmit earthquake in 1999 (while accessing some seismograph station information from IRIS) make and interpret an earthquake focal mechanism solution based on these seismograms locate the earthquake epicenter calculate the moment magnitude of the earthquake using published data showing epicenter locations and displacement measurements intepret historical data from the North Anatolian fault and tectonic-scale plate motion information to see what patterns occur in the regional seismicity.

Titus, Sarah

151

Hidden earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

1989-06-01

152

Comparative molecular analysis of chemolithoautotrophic bacterial diversity and community structure from coastal saline soils, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity). We studied the composition and distribution of chemolithoautotrophs by means of functional marker gene cbbL encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and a phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA gene. The cbbL form IA and IC genes associated with carbon fixation were analyzed to gain insight into metabolic potential of chemolithoautotrophs in three soil types of coastal ecosystems which had a very different salt load and sulphur content. Results In cbbL libraries, the cbbL form IA was retrieved only from high saline soil whereas form IC was found in all three soil types. The form IC cbbL was also amplified from bacterial isolates obtained from all soil types. A number of novel monophyletic lineages affiliated with form IA and IC phylogenetic trees were found. These were distantly related to the known cbbL sequences from agroecosystem, volcanic ashes and marine environments. In 16S rRNA clone libraries, the agricultural soil was dominated by chemolithoautotrophs (Betaproteobacteria) whereas photoautotrophic Chloroflexi and sulphide oxidizers dominated saline ecosystems. Environmental specificity was apparently visible at both higher taxonomic levels (phylum) and lower taxonomic levels (genus and species). The differentiation in community structure and diversity in three soil ecosystems was supported by LIBSHUFF (P?=?0.001) and UniFrac. Conclusion This study may provide fundamentally new insights into the role of chemolithoautotrophic and photoautotrophic bacterial diversity in biochemical carbon cycling in barren saline soils. The bacterial communities varied greatly among the three sites, probably because of differences in salinity, carbon and sulphur contents. The cbbL form IA-containing sulphide-oxidizing chemolithotrophs were found only in high saline soil clone library, thus giving the indication of sulphide availability in this soil ecosystem. This is the first comparative study of the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in coastal agricultural and saline barren soils using functional (cbbL) and phylogenetic (16S rDNA) marker genes. PMID:22834535

2012-01-01

153

Management of Blood Transfusion Services in India: An Illustrative Study of Maharashtra and Gujarat States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood is a vital healthcare resource routinely used in a broad range of hospital procedures. It is also a potential vector for harmful, and sometimes fatal, infectious diseases such as HIV, HBV, and HCV. Morbidity and mortality resulting from the transfusion of infected blood have far-reaching consequences. The economic cost of a failure to control the transmission of infection is

K. V. Ramani; Dileep Mavalankar; Dipti Govil

154

The guilt and pleasure of masturbation: A study of college girls in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general paucity of data on the sexual behaviour of adolescent girls in Indian society as also about their knowledge concerning sexual matters. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of masturbation among first year college girls, and to assess the role of various demographic and sociocultural factors like parental education; socioeconomic background, etc. on their masturbational

Vinit Sharma; Anuragini Sharma

1998-01-01

155

Post-Colonial Feminism in India: Model of Emergent Female Grassroots Leaders in Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative study explored perceptions of poverty alleviation among female grassroots leaders within informal work sectors of Ahmedabad. Post- colonial feminist approaches enabled women to develop and practice their own model of justice. Conclusions include implications for research, scholarship, and practice in the larger context of women's development. Problem and Significance Western and middle-class ideologies hinder empowerment of marginalized females

Meena Razvi

156

Fishery resources in arid zone mangroves in gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, northwest coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finfish and shellfish resources were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in regard to their abundance in creek waters at three sites within a period of two years, from January 1999 to December 2000, in the western mangrove areas of Kachchh. The catch rate varied from 0.69 to 6.99 kg h-1. It was low during monsoon (July to October), which could be due to the freshwater-flow-induced salinity reduction in all the sites. Among 38 species recorded, 5 were shellfish and 33 were finfish. The spawning period of fishes was found to be during summer and early monsoon period (May to August). Surface water temperatures varied from 17 °C to 37 °C. Salinity values varied from 34 to 44 and the pH ranged between 7 and 8.9. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 mL L-1. The high fishery densities in these semi arid mangrove creek areas were recorded during monsoon and early winter season.

Saravanakumar, A.; Rajkumar, M.; Sesh Serebiah, J.; Thivakaran, G. A.

2009-09-01

157

Earthquakes 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn all about earthquakes! You will learn what causes them, how many occur daily, and where they usually happen. The video will also tell you about some of the earthquakes that have occurred in the United States.

2010-01-01

158

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students plot daily earthquake locations on a world map. They will understand that earthquakes are not randomly distributed around the Earth, but occur at plate interfaces, and learn to identify the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Basin.

Gilhooly, Brian

2010-10-12

159

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how to plot earthquakes on a map by exploring recent earthquake activity in California and Nevada. Within this activity, learners also practice using latitudinal and longitudinal lines and make predictions. This detailed lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, background information for educators, extension ideas, and resources.

Sciences, California A.

2012-06-26

160

Flexure of the Indian Plate and Intraplate Earthquakes Roger Bilham, Rebecca Bendick and Kali Wallace  

E-print Network

stress distribution provides a physical basis for earthquake hazard mapping and suggests that areas in fatal earthquakes in India appears to exceed the global average. This recent increase in fatalities from1 Flexure of the Indian Plate and Intraplate Earthquakes Roger Bilham, Rebecca Bendick and Kali

Bilham, Roger

161

Earthquakes Living Lab: Locating Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) real-time, real-world seismic data from around the planet to identify where earthquakes occur and look for trends in earthquake activity. They explore where and why earthquakes occur, learning about faults and how they influence earthquakes. Looking at the interactive maps and the data, students use Microsoft® Excel® to conduct detailed analysis of the most-recent 25 earthquakes; they calculate mean, median, mode of the data set, as well as identify the minimum and maximum magnitudes. Students compare their predictions with the physical data, and look for trends to and patterns in the data. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

162

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

163

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

164

Hemoglobinopathies in South Gujarat population and incidence of anemia in them  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To Screen of South Gujarat population for determination of prevalence of different hemoglobinopathies particularly beta thalassemia trait (BTT) and sickle cell trait (SCT) and find out the incidence of anemia in them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study screened 32,857 samples of students from different school and colleges in South Gujarat. Blood samples were initially tested for solubility test and complete hemogram on hematology analyzer. Samples having MCV (?78), MCH (?28) and/or positive solubility test were investigated for Hb electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membrane (pH 8.6). Hb A2 level ?3.5% was considered as diagnostic for BTT. High performance liquid chromatography on Biorad Hb variant system was done on samples having doubtful results. RESULT: Overall prevalence of BTT and SCT in South Gujarat was 4.4% and 1.3% respectively. Gamit, Vasava, Chaudhary, and Mahyavanshi castes had high prevalence of BTT (15.9%, 13.6%, 12.6%, and 6.9%) as well as SCT (22.2%, 15.2, 22.3, and 4.2%) respectively. Other communities like Lohana (10.8%), Sindhi (10.2%), Prajapati (6.3%), and Ghanchi (6.2%) also showed higher prevalence of BTT. Incidence of mild to moderate anemia was higher in BTT and SCT compared to non-BTT or non-SCT subjects. CONCLUSION Study suggests that BTT is the most prevalent hemoglobinopathy in South Gujarat. ?-thalassemia and Sickle cell anemia are highly prevalent in Mahyavanshi, Chaudhary, Gamit, Vasava and Rohit. Prajapati, Lohana, Leva Patel, and Ghanchi have ?- thalassemia risk. SCT is more frequently detected in Dhodia Patel and Kukanas. PMID:23716936

Patel, Ankur G.; Shah, Avani P.; Sorathiya, Smita M.; Gupte, Snehalata C.

2012-01-01

165

Multifrequency SAR signatures of forest class covering parts of Rajpipla, Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-frequency SAR observation over forested areas has been the subject of research owing to the frequency dependence on the contribution of radar backscatter from different parts of the vegetation canopy. The multi-frequency SAR data at P-, L-, C- and X-band was acquired over Rajpipla site (Gujarat). All the channels were in quad-pole mode except X-SAR, which was in HH and

Anitha Dasari; Shiv Mohan; A. Ajai; Bharat Patel

2006-01-01

166

Locating Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of resources explaining the methods used to determine the location and depth of an earthquake. The resources include the 'Travel Time Information and Calculator', an online tool that lets users choose a seismic station location and a recent earthquake, and see how long it takes different types of seismic waves to travel from the epicenter to their locations. There is also a discussion of how earthquake depths are determined by examining the characteristics of the S- and P-waves, an animation of seismic waveforms, and a selection of activities, slideshows, and other references.

167

Locating Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a variety of resources explaining the methods used to determine the location and depth of an earthquake. The resources include the 'Travel Time Information and Calculator', an online tool that lets users choose a seismic station location and a recent earthquake, and see how long it takes different types of seismic waves to travel from the epicenter to their locations. There is also a discussion of how earthquake depths are determined by examining the characteristics of the S- and P-waves, an animation of seismic waveforms, and a selection of activities, slideshows, and other references.

2012-04-17

168

Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

2013-10-01

169

Earthquake Twitter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twitter messages offer first-hand accounts of earthquakes within minutes. Analyses of their content and geographic distribution can be a useful supplement to instrument-based estimates of quake location and magnitude.

Earle, Paul

2010-04-01

170

Earthquake Location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake location is an interesting and significant aspect of seismology. Locating earthquakes is necessary for compiling useful seismicity information, calculating magnitudes, and study of fault zones, Earth structure and the earthquake process. Methods of earthquake location involve understanding of seismic waves, wave propagation, interpretation of seismograms, Earth velocity structure, triangulation, and the concepts (and mathematics) of inverse problems. Because earthquake location can be approached with relatively simple to very complex methods, it can be included in various levels of educational curricula and for "in-depth" study. Progressively developing a deep understanding of concepts, computational techniques and applications (and the capabilities, limitations and uncertainties of these applications) is a characteristic of science and an opportunity to "learn science by doing science." A number of methods that vary from simple to complex are available for learning about earthquake location. The methods also allow connections to other important concepts in seismology and provide a variety of approaches that address different learning styles and can be used for reinforcement and assessment. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

Braile, Larry

171

Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, 60208-3119, U.S.A.  

E-print Network

with regional or international aid. For example, within the first 30 days of the 2001 Gujarat, India earthquake growth in operations research. 1 Introduction Just days after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the United to these catastrophes, the past decade has seen many other large disasters including the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake

Hazen, Gordon

172

National Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very extensive site about earthquakes. It is the USGS (United States Geological Survey) National Earthquake Information site. The site provides access to near real time earthquake data from around the world, as well as data for recent earthquakes (last 3 weeks). The site can also be searched for information on specific earthquakes by time or location. There is a General Earthquake Information section with extensive earthquake education materials as well as information on seismicity, earthquake magnitude, preparedness, predictions, and locations.

173

Predicting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five moderate-to-strong earthquakes struck California in June 2005. Could the cluster of quakes be a harbinger of the Big One? Another earthquake-prone area, New Madrid, near Memphis, Tennessee, has had more than its share of impressive quakes and strain is building along its fault lines. This radio broadcast discusses these two seismic zones, the new data based on years of GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements that may give scientists more information, and how the Earth generates the stress which leads to earthquakes. There is also discussion of the danger of tsunamis in the Virgin Islands and the need for a worldwide tsunami warning network. The broadcast is 18 minutes in length.

174

Deep earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

Frohlich, C.

1989-01-01

175

Earthquake Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a demonstration of the principle of elastic rebound for the cause and recurrence of earthquakes. Under the Elastic Rebound Theory, the continuous motion of plates on Earth causes stress to build up at the boundaries between the plates, where friction keeps the boundaries locked. Stress is continually building up, and earthquakes act to relieve that stress. In the demonstration, the two sides of a fault are represented by sandpaper-covered blocks resting on a sandpaper-covered board. A weight rests on the block to apply a chosen amount of pressure on the sandpaper (defining the frictional strength of the fault). A spring is attached to the block and to a string, on which a constant pull is maintained. This apparatus is used to discover when the stress causes the blocks to move. Conclusions on earthquake recurrence (seismicity) may then be drawn.

Barker, Jeffrey

176

Santa Barbara Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides eyewitness accounts and historical photographs from notable damaging earthquakes that have occurred in or near Santa Barbara County, California. It also contains a catalog of all earthquakes that have been felt in the greater Santa Barbara region between 1800 and 1960. Major earthquakes covered include the 1812 Santa Barbara Earthquake, the 1857 Fort Tejon Earthquake, the 1902 Los Alamos Earthquakes, the 1925 Santa Barbara Earthquake, the 1927 Lompoc Earthquake, and the 1978 Goleta Earthquake. For each earthquake there is a brief description and a map showing the location. Some have other details and photographs.

177

Relationship between household literacy and educational engagement: Analysis of data from Rajkot district, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels and the household's engagement in the education of its child members. The findings on educational engagement were also compared across households with different wealth and income levels. Uniformly, indicators of household literacy levels were found to be more important in understanding a household's educational engagement than a household's wealth and income levels.

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-02-01

178

Earthquake Vulnerability  

E-print Network

This report is available as an online document at www.nbmg.unr.edu. Please use links on the tables to view summary reports for scenarios involving earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0 for 38 communities in Nevada.

Jonathan G. Price; Gary Johnson; Christine M. Ballard; Heather Armeno; Jonathan G. Price; Gary Johnson; Christine M. Ballard; Heather Armeno; Irene Seeley Linda D. Goar

179

Earthquake Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science students are expected to master the travel-time curves of the seismic waves generated at the focus of an earthquake and recorded at seismograph stations. Commonly, students are required to calculate the distance to the epicenter and the time

Espinoza, Fernando

2000-04-01

180

Earthquake Seismology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elastic waves radiating from earthquakes are of several different types; their paths explore all regions of the earth; and the separate quakes, each one a highly localized wave source for a brief interval of time, occur in nearly all geographic areas....

M. A. Tuve, I. S. Sacks, L. T. Aldrich, J. Frez, F. G. Saa

1964-01-01

181

Is earthquake triggering driven by small earthquakes?  

PubMed

Using a catalog of seismicity for Southern California, we measure how the number of triggered earthquakes increases with the earthquake magnitude. The trade-off between this relation and the distribution of earthquake magnitudes controls the relative role of small compared to large earthquakes. We show that seismicity triggering is driven by the smallest earthquakes, which trigger fewer events than larger earthquakes, but which are much more numerous. We propose that the nontrivial scaling of the number of triggered earthquakes emerges from the fractal spatial distribution of seismicity. PMID:12906641

Helmstetter, Agnès

2003-08-01

182

Earthquake light: 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were eyewitness reports of earthquake light, co-seismic luminous phenomena in the 1995 Kobe earthquake (Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake) in Japan. The Kobe earthquake occurred at 5:46 a.m. (LT) on January 17, 1995 around the Hanshin area in Japan. The M7.2 earthquake strongly attacked Kobe City. On that early morning, two young persons on Mt. Rokko (northeast side of Kobe) saw

Masashi Kamogawa; Hideho Ofuruton; Yoshi-Hiko Ohtsuki

2005-01-01

183

Changes in wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) habitat conditions in Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat from a remote sensing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rann of Kutch, Gujarat is the only habitat for one of the endangered sub-species of the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) and most of the population survives in the Wild Ass Sanctuary in Little Rann of Kutch. The area is a saline desert with extremely sparse cover of vegetation. In the past, the habitat supported a thriving population

S. N. PRASAD; S. P. GOYAL; P. S. ROY; S. SINGH

1994-01-01

184

Government of Gujarat has selected Dr.Harinarayana as an independent Director on the board of Directors of  

E-print Network

­ Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Limited (GSPC). GSPC is a Rs. 5000 crore oil and gas exploration. Harinarayana selection is based on his significant contributions to the oil exploration upstream sector-disciplinary mega-projects related to oil industry. Based on his recommendations, a few blocks have been carved out

Harinarayana, T.

185

CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 106, NO. 5, 10 MARCH 2014 665 What makes Gujarat a hotspot for solar energy investments?  

E-print Network

energy investments? Komalirani Yenneti With over 300 days of sunshine and solar radiation of 5.6­6.0 kWh/m2 /day (refs 1, 2), the state of Gujarat has a potential of generating 750 GW from solar energy3 II, the project is expected to generate about 500 MW of solar energy. All this growth in the solar

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

186

Survey of nature and extent of damage caused by bird pest to pearl millet crop in Patan District (North Gujarat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pearl millet is the main crop of Patan district of Gujarat state. It is grown in two seasons viz. kharif and summer. This research was conducted during 2005 and 2006 at Hansapur village of Patan district. Two varieties viz. Usha-23 and Pioneer of pearl millet were sown for study purpose. During this research work, bird pests were identified, and nature

Patel KB

2011-01-01

187

Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

188

Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

2011-01-01

189

Darwin's earthquake.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

Lee, Richard V

2010-07-01

190

Tsunami: India  

... a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This was the fourth largest earthquake in the world since ... animation of the tsunami's progression from its origin near Sumatra (see  http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/indo_1204.html ). The MISR ...

2013-04-16

191

Defeating Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra earthquake claimed what seemed an unfathomable 228,000 lives, although because of its size, we could at least assure ourselves that it was an extremely rare event. But in the short space of 8 years, the Sumatra quake no longer looks like an anomaly, and it is no longer even the worst disaster of the Century: 80,000 deaths in the 2005 M=7.6 Pakistan quake; 88,000 deaths in the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, China quake; 316,000 deaths in the M=7.0 Haiti, quake. In each case, poor design and construction were unable to withstand the ferocity of the shaken earth. And this was compounded by inadequate rescue, medical care, and shelter. How could the toll continue to mount despite the advances in our understanding of quake risk? The world's population is flowing into megacities, and many of these migration magnets lie astride the plate boundaries. Caught between these opposing demographic and seismic forces are 50 cities of at least 3 million people threatened by large earthquakes, the targets of chance. What we know for certain is that no one will take protective measures unless they are convinced they are at risk. Furnishing that knowledge is the animating principle of the Global Earthquake Model, launched in 2009. At the very least, everyone should be able to learn what his or her risk is. At the very least, our community owes the world an estimate of that risk. So, first and foremost, GEM seeks to raise quake risk awareness. We have no illusions that maps or models raise awareness; instead, earthquakes do. But when a quake strikes, people need a credible place to go to answer the question, how vulnerable am I, and what can I do about it? The Global Earthquake Model is being built with GEM's new open source engine, OpenQuake. GEM is also assembling the global data sets without which we will never improve our understanding of where, how large, and how frequently earthquakes will strike, what impacts they will have, and how those impacts can be lessened by our actions. Using these global datasets will help to make the model as uniform as possible. The model must be built by scientists in the affected countries with GEM's support, augmented by their insights and data. The model will launch in 2014; to succeed it must be open, international, independent, and continuously tested. But the mission of GEM is not just the likelihood of ground shaking, but also gaging the economic and social consequences of earthquakes, which greatly amplify the losses. For example, should the municipality of Istanbul retrofit schools, or increase its insurance reserves and recovery capacity? Should a homeowner in a high-risk area move or strengthen her building? This is why GEM is a public-private partnership. GEM's fourteen public sponsors and eight non-governmental organization members are standing for the developing world. To extend GEM into the financial world, we draw upon the expertise of companies. GEM's ten private sponsors have endorsed the acquisition of public knowledge over private gain. In a competitive world, this is a courageous act. GEM is but one link in a chain of preparedness: from earth science and engineering research, through groups like GEM, to mitigation, retrofit or relocate decisions, building codes and insurance, and finally to prepared hospitals, schools, and homes. But it is a link that our community can make strong.

Stein, R. S.

2012-12-01

192

Predictable earthquakes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summary: A world wide network has been continuously monitoring the secular change of the Earth's physical processes as recorded on the Earth like the geomagnetic field, the Earth's rotation, etc. The database, which has been collected by the observatories, gives us a chance to make a study of the temporal behaviour of the Earth's magnetic field and to understand the features of these and related phenomena. The long-term magnetic field data show a close qualitative relation both to the secular change of climate and to the variation in the sunspot cycle. On the other hand the fluctuations in the Earth's rotation also show a good correlation to the sunspot and climatic phenomena. This is a very important fact because the decade fluctuation in Earth's rotation depends on those streams in the outer core, which produce the long-term variation in the Earth's magnetic field. This result means that it may not be unrealistic to think of a rather strong interaction between the internal and external magnetic fields of the Earth, and the mechanical implications of this interaction. The outer reason(s) of both solar and the mentioned terrestrial physical processes is one of the possible theories, which is able to include and explain these observed facts. The calculated Earth's orbit, perpendicular to the ecliptic plane (so called Z-direction), and rather the 1st derivative in time of this orbital motion (Z-acceleration) is direct relation to the gravitational perturbations of the (primarily giant) planets. Therefore this time series gives us a chance to investigate the dynamical effects of the giant planets on the Earth. We ended up with quite accurate data sets both in the time series of the Earth's rotation (we used the so called dT-time series which is the measure of the cumulative discrepancy of Earth's rotation in time, and length of day [l.o.d.], which is the 1st derivative in time of dT, and the 1st derivative in time of l.o.d., which is related to the rotational acceleration) and global number of earthquake for this period from published literature which give us a great picture about the dynamical geophysical phenomena. Methodology: The computing of linear correlation coefficients gives us a chance to quantitatively characterise the relation among the data series, if we suppose a linear dependence in the first step. The correlation coefficients among the Earth's rotational acceleration and Z-orbit acceleration (perpendicular to the ecliptic plane) and the global number of the earthquakes were compared. The results clearly demonstrate the common feature of both the Earth's rotation and Earth's Z-acceleration around the Sun and also between the Earth's rotational acceleration and the earthquake number. This fact might means a strong relation among these phenomena. The mentioned rather strong correlation (r = 0.75) and the 29 year period (Saturn's synodic period) was clearly shown in the counted cross correlation function, which gives the dynamical characteristic of correlation, of Earth's orbital- (Z-direction) and rotational acceleration. This basic period (29 year) was also obvious in the earthquake number data sets with clear common features in time. Conclusion: The Core, which involves the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, is the only sufficiently mobile part of the Earth with a sufficient mass to modify the rotation which probably effects on the global time distribution of the earthquakes. Therefore it might means that the secular variation of the earthquakes is inseparable from the changes in Earth's magnetic field, i.e. the interior process of the Earth's core belongs to the dynamical state of the solar system. Therefore if the described idea is real the global distribution of the earthquakes in time is predictable.

Martini, D.

2002-12-01

193

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This page points to information on earthquakes in Northern California, the United States, and the world. Topics include reports on recent large earthquakes, real-time earthquake maps, real-time shaking maps, real-time seismograms, earthquake network reports and updates, recent and significant earthquakes, and earthquake news releases. Users will be able to view maps and click on them. The EHP is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) lead by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

194

Public Earthquake Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Public Earthquake Resource Center at the University of Memphis provides information about the New Madrid seismic zone and earthquake hazards in general. Students and the general public can learn about earthquakes; examine science fair ideas, a reading list, and earthquake images; or explore a career as an earthquake scientist. For educators there are links to teacher's resources, lesson plans, online learning materials, and field trip information. Other features include links to additional information about the New Madrid seismic zone, earthquake preparedness tips, other earthquake-related organizations, and a site where citizens can report earthquakes.

195

Rapid Earthquake Loss Assessment After Damaging Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter summarizes the work done over last decades regarding the development of new approaches and setting up of new\\u000a applications for earthquake rapid response systems that function to estimate earthquake losses in quasi real time after an\\u000a earthquake. After a critical discussion of relevant earthquake loss estimation methodologies, the essential features and the\\u000a characteristics of the available loss estimation

Mustafa Erdik; Karin Sesetyan; M. Betul Demircioglu; Ufuk Hancilar; Can Zulfikar

196

Seasonal variations in physico-chemical characteristics of water, sediment and soil texture in arid zone mangroves of Kachchh-Gujarat.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to determine the physicochemical characteristics of water and sediment and the textural aspects of sediments in western mangroves of Kachchh-Gujarat, west coast of India, for a period of two years during 1999-2000. Surface water and sediment temperatures varied from 17 degrees C to 37 degrees C and from 18.4 degrees C to 37 degrees C respectively. Tidal amplitude varied from 0.03 m to 3.78 m. Salinity varied from 34.0 to 44 per thousand and the pH in water and sediment ranged between 7.0 and 8.9 and 6.29 and 8.45 respectively. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 ml l(-1). Concentrations of nutrients viz. nitrate (0.23 to 7.26 microM), nitrite (0.04 to 0.87 microM), phosphate (0.13 to 3.12 microM) and reactive silicate (4.23 to 19.02 microM) also varied independently Total organic carbon varied from 0.29% to 2.56% and the total inorganic phosphorus ranged between 0.12 mg g(-1) and 1.97 mg g(-1). Total nitrogen varied from 0.02 mg g(-1) to 1.95 mg g(-1). Sediment textures ranges in terms of % of sand, clay and silt were: 0.26-19.2; 7.6-47 and 47-87.4 respectively in all the 3 stations. The nature of soil texture is characterized by the abundance of silty loam, silty clay and silty clay loam. PMID:19295072

Saravanakumar, A; Rajkumar, M; Serebiah, J Sesh; Thivakaran, G A

2008-09-01

197

Conferees Examine Deadly 2005 Kashmir Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last major urban earthquake to strike Pakistan prior to 2005 severely damaged the city of Quetta in 1935 and killed 35,000 people. In the last 70 years, although much progress has been made in studying the location of active faults and zones of seismicity in Pakistan, the general public in Pakistan has not yet fully understood or recognized the earthquake hazard. The near-destruction of two towns- Balakot in the North-West Frontier Province, and Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu Kashmir Province-and the deaths of more than 70,000 people caused by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) led the government of Pakistan to request a scientific response and plan of action. Accordingly, the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) organized a recent international conference, which was attended by Pakistani scientists and participants from Austria, France, India, Iran, Japan, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States [Kausar et al., 2006].

Yeats, Robert S.; Kausar, Allah Bakhsh; Nakata, Takashi

2006-03-01

198

int. j. remote sensing, 2002, vol. 23, no. 16, 31233128 Changes observed in land and ocean after Gujarat earthquake of  

E-print Network

in this region killed 19 727 people, injured 166 000, made 600 000 homeless, destroyed 348 000 houses, damaged January 2001 with the epicentres determined by IMD, New Delhi, US Geological Survey (USGS) and ERI, Japan

Singh, Ramesh P.

199

Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the Aleutian islands earthquake of 1946 and the Sanriku earthquake of 1896 is studied on the basis of the data on seismic waves from 5 to 100 s and on tsunamis. These earthquakes generated, despite their relatively small earthquake magnitude, two of the largest and most widespread tsunamis in history. The data obtained at different periods are

Hiroo Kanamori

1972-01-01

200

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.

201

EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES  

E-print Network

EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES By: Christopher E. Kohler (Environmental Health and Safety) and Walter E. Gray (Indiana Geological Survey) Earthquakes occur with little or no warning, and so planning of an earthquake. While most historical earthquakes were minor, Indiana's proximity to two seismic zones

Polly, David

202

2011 TOHOKUCHIHOTAIHEIYOU OKI EARTHQUAKE  

E-print Network

2011 TOHOKUCHIHOTAIHEIYOU OKI EARTHQUAKE M. HORI Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo Seminar on the Honshu Earthquake & Tsunami UCL Institute for Risk & Disaster Reduction March 24, 2011 #12;Earthquake Details · Magnitude in Richter scale 9.0 · Moment Magnitude 9.0 · Location 38.03N, 143.15E · Depth

Guillas, Serge

203

Internet Geography: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on earthquakes and how they occur. Topics covered include the effects of earthquakes, measuring earthquakes, and case studies about specific recent earthquakes.

204

Listening to Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, users can listen to the 'sounds' produced by earthquakes. Scientists have taken recordings of vibrations that occur during earthquakes and transformed them into sound files by speeding them up. Through listening, people can better understand the shaking that occurs during earthquakes. An interactive listening quiz lets students hear and compare earthquakes that occurred near each other, but from faults of different lengths. There is also a collection of sounds from historical earthquakes, such as the 1992 magnitude 7.3 Landers Earthquake, and a download page where sounds from various earthquakes can be obtained as .wav files.

205

Analytical Conditions for Compact Earthquake Prediction Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns itself with The atmosphere and ionosphere include non-uniform electric charge and current distributions during the earthquake activity. These charges and currents move irregularly when an activity is scheduled for an earthquake at the future. The electromagnetic characteristics of the region over the earth change to domains where irregular transportations of non-uniform electric charges are observed; therefore, the electromagnetism in the plasma, which moves irregularly and contains non-uniform charge distributions, is studied. These cases of charge distributions are called irregular and non-uniform plasmas. It is called the seismo-plasma if irregular and non-uniform plasma defines a real earthquake activity, which will come to truth. Some signals involving the above-mentioned coupling effects generate some analytical conditions giving the predictability of seismic processes [1]-[5]. These conditions will be discussed in this paper. 2 References [1] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes," IUGG Perugia 2007. [2] T. Sengor, "The electromagnetic device optimization modeling of seismo-electromagnetic processes for Marmara Sea earthquakes," EGU 2008. [3] T. Sengor, "On the exact interaction mechanism of electromagnetically generated phenomena with significant earthquakes and the observations related the exact predictions before the significant earthquakes at July 1999-May 2000 period," Helsinki Univ. Tech. Electrom. Lab. Rept. 368, May 2001. [4] T. Sengor, "The Observational Findings Before The Great Earthquakes Of December 2004 And The Mechanism Extraction From Associated Electromagnetic Phenomena," Book of XXVIIIth URSI GA 2005, pp. 191, EGH.9 (01443) and Proceedings 2005 CD, New Delhi, India, Oct. 23-29, 2005. [5] T. Sengor, "The interaction mechanism among electromagnetic phenomena and geophysical-seismic-ionospheric phenomena with extraction for exact earthquake prediction genetics," 10th SA of the IAGA 2005, Abst. CD,. GAI, C109, No.: IAGA2005-A-0134, Toulouse, France, July18-29, 2005.

Sengor, T.

2009-04-01

206

Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India.  

PubMed

Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder Afrotheria). Here we report new dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India (~54.5?Myr). These fossils demonstrate that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla, thereby providing insight on the phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of Perissodactyla. The presence of the sister group of perissodactyls in western India near or before the time of collision suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift toward Asia. PMID:25410701

Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

2014-01-01

207

Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

Baer, Eric

208

The Himalayan Frontal Thrust of India is not blind Senthil Kumar1  

E-print Network

of coseismic slip during the last surface rupture earthquake, assuming an average fault dip of 30o . The sites, INDIA ABSTRACT We report evidence of surface rupturing earthquakes at Chandigarh, Kala Amb, Rampur Ganda of the last surface rupture at each site, but Dehradun, during the last ~600 years: Chandigarh (1404 ­ ~1600 A

Bilham, Roger

209

Evaluation of GVI-based indices for drought early warning in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is the major disaster, which occurs in some part of India every year due to monsoon variability. India has established satellite based National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS), at National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space since 1987. NADAMS provides near real time monitoring and early warning of drought conditions at National level using NOAA AVHRR and at regional level using IRS WiFS and AWiFS data. ISRO-NASA-NOAA science cooperation project has been initiated during 2005 for development of satellite based decision support drought monitor system in India. Initially, the evaluation of GVI based indices for drought early warning in India was taken up. The study was carried out over five small regions each covering part of a district and over five large regions each covering few districts in each state of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan states and the result of the study is presented in this paper. The weekly GVI based indices such as Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI) for the period from 1991-2004 over 5 small regions covering part of districts namely Banaskantha district of Gujarat state to represent Bajra crop, Surendra nagar district of Gujarat state to represent Cotton crop, Nasik district of Maharashtra to represent Bajra crop, Bhandara district to represent Rice crop and Akola district of Maharastra to represent Jowar crop was selected. The weekly GVI based indices over 5 large regions with larger database from 1981 to 2004 covering few districts of Rajasthan state to represent winter wheat and few districts of Maharashtra state to represent Jowar, Rice and Cotton crops were selected. The comparison of seasonal average VCI, TCI and VHI with the corresponding crops yield over 5 small regions indicate better regression coefficient for VHI than VCI or TCI. The comparison over 5 large regions covering larger data base from 1982-2004 indicate better regression coefficient for VCI than VHI or TCI. Results of the study suggests over smaller region, the VCI and TCI combined VHI indices relates better with crop yields, whereas over larger region, the VCI itself relates better with crop yields than with TCI or the VCI and TCI combined VHI.

Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Kogan, Felix N.

2006-12-01

210

Earthquakes and the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students discover that earthquakes are among Earth's most spectacular natural phenomena and that in understanding what causes earthquakes we can use earthquake or seismic waves to learn about Earth's interior. Students also learn the other aspects of seismology (the study of earthquakes), which are important parts of any Earth Science program. Students will also learn more about how to use the computer as a research and instruction tool. They will find answers in the websites to some questions about earthquakes related to the Regents curriculum. Once they have answered the questions they will try the "Virtual Earthquake" activity on the computer.

Passow, Michael

211

Combined gravity and magnetic modeling over Pavagadh and Phenaimata igneous complexes, Gujarat, India: Inference on emplacement history of Deccan volcanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of igneous intrusions related to the Deccan magmatism are exposed in the western and central part of the Indian shield. Gravity and magnetic (G-M) surveys over some of these igneous intrusive bodies depict gravity high and bipolar magnetic anomalies as the most characteristic signatures. The present G-M survey was carried out over the Pavagadh and Phenaimata igneous intrusives. Associated with the Phenaimata complex, Bouguer gravity anomaly shows an elliptical shaped relative gravity high of about 40 mGal and bipolar magnetic anomaly varies from South to North between -800 nT and 1200 nT. The joint G-M modeling reveals the presence of a dense mafic body (2.86 g/cm3). This body is characterized by a remanant magnetization; the related inclination (I) = ˜44° and declination (D) = ˜160° may correspond with the 29R polarity chron of Deccan magnetostratigraphy. Remanant magnetization together with age data suggest that the Phenaimata igneous intrusive emplaced during the end of the main magmatism phase of Deccan. Over the Pavagadh, a circular gravity and magnetic lows of about -15 mGal and -500 nT respectively is reported for the first time which is surrounded by a gravity and magnetic high of about 30 mGal and 350 nT, respectively. The joint G-M modeling over the Pavagadh intrusive reveals the presence of a deep-seated cone shaped high-density (?3.0 g/cm3) gabbroic body which might extend up to a great depth. Its top surface reaches up to a depth of about 10.0 km. Overlying this body is a low-density (2.40 g/cm3) rhyolite, which extends up to the surface and is the source for low gravity anomaly. It is surrounded by another high-density (2.89 and 3.02 g/cm3) mafic bodies with reverse remanant magnetization direction (I = ˜38° and D = ˜152°). The modeled direction of remanant magnetization for the rhyolite (I = -32° and D = 336°) and deeper gabbroic (I = -32° and D = 340°) bodies show normal polarity. Measured magnetization direction for the mafic body surrounding the rhyolite relates to the middle reverse polarity (29R) chron. Inferred declination and inclination may then correspond to upper normal (29N), middle reverse (29R) and lower normal (30N) polarity chrons. Therefore, the magma forming the Pavagadh igneous complex was emplaced covering the major span of Deccan eruption. G-M model suggests that the magma chambers developed within the higher crustal levels and rhyolite originated from the underlying mafic magma through assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC).

Singh, Bijendra; Prabhakara Rao, M. R. K.; Prajapati, S. K.; Swarnapriya, Ch.

2014-02-01

212

Characterisation of active faulting and earthquake hazard in the Mongolian Altay Mountains based on previously unknown ancient earthquake surface ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in continental collision zones are typically distributed across a region that may be several thousands of kilometres away from the main collisional margin. This far-field deformation is poorly understood in terms of how strain is distributed onto upper crustal faults, particularly because active faults can be difficult to identify in regions where historical seismicity is sparse. The collision between India and Asia forms the most impressive example of active continental deformation on earth, with several zones of faulting and uplift extending across a region over 2500 km wide. The Altay Mountains, in western Mongolia, are at the northern edge of the India-Asia collision zone. Active dextral strike-slip faults in the Altay have produced M 8 earthquakes (such as the 1931 Fu Yun earthquake), and according to GPS measurements, the region accommodates approximately 7 mm/yr of shortening. Surface ruptures of pre-historic earthquakes are exceptionally preserved due to the cold and arid climate of the Altay. Observed surface ruptures are an effective extension to the historical seismic record, because the size and expression of ruptures may reveal important characteristics of the Altay active faults, such as typical earthquake magnitudes and definitive locations of active faults. We present observations of, previously unknown, surface ruptures and active faulting from the central Altay. The moment magnitudes of the ancient earthquakes are estimated based on the length of the ruptures using classic earthquake scaling laws. The newly discovered ruptures are combined with previously described earthquake ruptures to estimate the combined strike-slip rates of the Altay faults over the past ~1000 years on the basis of total moment release. This strike-slip rate will be discussed in the context of the modern-day estimates of shortening rate and the implications for the earthquake hazard in western Mongolia.

Gregory, L. C.; Walker, R.; Nissen, E.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Gantulga, B.; Amgalan, B.

2012-12-01

213

Earthquakes: Hydrogeochemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

Ingebritsen, S. E.; Manga, M.

2014-10-01

214

Afghanistan Earthquake Hazards Mapped  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of efforts to build capacity within Afghanistan for studying, preparing for, and responding to earthquakes, the U.S. Geological Survey has released a map of potential earthquake hazards within the country.

Zielinski, Sarah

2007-06-01

215

Earthquakes - Discover Our Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Cornell University, describes the origins, effects, measurement, and consequences of earthquakes. The site includes an overview and an exercise section that discusses key points pertaining to earthquakes, followed up with three activities.

Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) Geoscience Information Project; University, Cornell

216

Small earthquakes, tectonic forces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake scaling and frequency-of-occurrence relations require that small earthquakes be just as important as larger ones in redistributing the forces that drive relative displacements across active faults of any dimension, including plate boundaries.

Hanks, T. C.

1992-01-01

217

A slow earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous earthquakes such as creep events, tsunami earthquakes and silent earthquakes have been reported in the recent literature. In this paper we discuss an anomalous ``slow earthquake'' that occurred on June 6, 1960 in southern Chile. Although the surface-wave magnitude of this event is only 6.9, it excited anomalously large long-period multiple surface waves with a seismic moment of 5.6

Hiroo Kanamori; Gordon S. Stewart

1979-01-01

218

India: Kachchh  

... aftward. Each of these images is about 275 kilometers wide by 218 kilometers high. The earthquake epicenter was just below the ... produced liquefaction in the fine silts and sands below the water table in the Rann of Kachchh. This caused the mineral grains to ...

2013-04-16

219

Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

2008-01-01

220

Earthquake Hazards Program - National Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access a selection of technical information and data about earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world. A current worldwide list of earthquakes is available, as are data on geophysical solutions, a catalog search, an automatic data request function, mining seismicity information, and a registry of seismograph stations.

221

Real Earthquakes, Real Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

Schomburg, Aaron

2003-01-01

222

Children's Ideas about Earthquakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

Simsek, Canan Lacin

2007-01-01

223

Forecasting Earthquakes Using Paleoseismology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Earth: Inside and Out, takes a look at how paleoseismologists study the sediment around faults to help predict future earthquakes. It covers the role faults play in earthquakes and how sediment evidence is used to reconstruct a site's earthquake history.

224

Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time?dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground?motion exceedance probabilities as well as short?term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long?term forecasts of probabilistic seismic?hazard analysis (PSHA).

Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

2014-01-01

225

Earthquake Nucleation and Its Relationship to Earthquake Clustering  

E-print Network

Earthquake clustering phenomena such as aftershocks, foreshocks, and pairing of mainshocks are prominent and characteristic features of earthquake occurrence. Because the earthquake nucleation process controls the time and place of occurrence of earthquakes, non-linear dependence of nucleation times on stress changes can strongly affect the spatial and temporal patterns of earthquake occurrence. Earthquake nucleation on faults with rate- and statedependent fault properties has this characteristic, and appears to quantitatively represent the details and broad statistical patterns of earthquake clustering.

James Dieterich Geological; James H. Dieterich

226

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

2011-05-05

227

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

228

Self-Care Practices among Diabetic Patients in Anand District of Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background. Diabetes care requires a multipronged approach, wherein the patient has an important role to play. This study was undertaken to explore self-care practices of diabetic patients residing in Anand district of Gujarat. Methods. A cross-sectional study, involving 100 diabetic patients, was conducted in 2009-2010. Self-care practices in seven domains of physical activity, dietary practices, medication taking, monitoring of glucose, problem solving, foot care, and psychosocial adjustment were assessed using scores assigned to participants' responses. Results. The mean age was 60.9 (SD = 12.2) years and 57% were males. Majority (92%) were Hindus and were consulting private medical practitioners (71%). “Medication taking” was the domain with the best performance score (88.1%) and “problem solving” the worst (11.0%). The “psychosocial adjustment” of the participants was satisfactory (82.5%). Overall mean performance percentage score was 54.41%. Males had better performance scores as compared to females in areas of “physical activity,” “dietary practices,” and “problem solving.” Housewives had poorer performance scores. Total mean performance score was similar for patients on treatment from specialists and general practitioners. Conclusion. A self-care education program designed for this region should address the lacunae identified in various domains with a special emphasis on females. PMID:24967330

Raithatha, Shyamsundar Jagdish; Shankar, Singh Uday; Dinesh, Kumar

2014-01-01

229

Emerging & re-emerging bacterial pathogens in India.  

PubMed

In spite of major successes against infectious diseases in the 20th century, new infectious diseases have emerged and old ones re-emerged in recent decades in different parts of the world. A brief survey of emerging and re-emerging bacterial diseases of public health importance in India is presented in this paper. Plague re-appeared in two outbreaks in Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1994, indicating a breakdown of the public health measures that had prevented its occurrence for several decades. Leptospirosis appears to be on the increase in Kerala, Tamilnadu and the Andamans during the last 2 decades, probably due to increased farming and inadequate rodent control. It is suggested that melioidosis due to the soil organism Burkholderia pseudomallei may be prevalent in many parts of India, but is under-diagnosed and under-reported. Since 1991, a completely new choleragenic Vibrio cholerae, designated 0139 has emerged in southern India and spread to other parts of India and to neighbouring countries, setting in motion the 8th cholera pandemic. Animal anthrax is very common in many parts of India, but human anthrax is recognised in only certain limited locations. In the Chittoor and North Arcot districts, its prevalence had increased in recent years. Since 1990, a multi-drug resistant variety of typhoid fever had been prevalent in many parts of India, caused by Salmonella typhi resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection seems to be widely prevalent in hospitals in many regions in India, and its prevalence seems to be on the rise. These pathogens pose new threats to public health, and call for appropriate responses. Microbiological expertise and epidemiological surveillance are deficient in the health care and public health systems in India; therefore even infections and diseases that have been under control elsewhere remain prevalent in the country, but are also under-diagnosed and under-reported. Without improving microbiological expertise and application as well as epidemiological skills and practices, emerging and re-emerging diseases may not be recognised, identified or intercepted in their early stages. PMID:8926026

John, T J

1996-01-01

230

Tsunami-induced groundwater salinization in southeastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 26 December 2004, a northern Indonesia earthquake generated a tsunami that devastated coastal Indian Ocean regions. The impact of the tsunami on groundwater quality was unexpected as inundation and retreat of the tsunami wave lasted just 5min. We report data showing salinization of the regionally extensive “Dune aquifer” in southeastern India. We present evidence that tsunami inundation resulted in

Sophie Violette; Gilles Boulicot; Steven M. Gorelick

2009-01-01

231

Strong Motion Observations In India-synthesis of Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades strong motion arrays have been installed in the various parts of Himalaya including N-E India through the Department of Science &Technology. Several moderate earthquakes have been recorded by these networks, which have brought out interesting results about the pattern of attenuation of ground acceleration in these regions. The networks are being strengthened further covering the

B. K. Bansal; G. D. Gupta; H. N. Srivastava

2002-01-01

232

Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others has failed to produce similar findings. What exactly are these anomalies? Might they be useful for earthquake prediction? It is the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies can be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant responses occurred prior to the earthquake event. A new set of automatic co-registration procedures was developed for this task to accommodate all properties particular to weather satellite observations taken at night, and it relies on the general condition that the ground cools after sunset. Using these procedures, we can produce a set of temperature-sensitive satellite images for each of five selected earthquakes (Algeria 2003; Bhuj, India 2001; Izmit, Turkey 2001; Kunlun Shan, Tibet 2001; Turkmenistan 2000) and thus more effectively investigate heating trends close to the epicenters a few hours prior to the earthquake events. This study will lay tracks for further work in earthquake prediction and provoke the question of the exact nature of the thermal anomalies.

OConnor, Daniel P.

2005-01-01

233

Technocratic dreams and troublesome beneficiaries : the Sardar Sarovar (Narmada) Project in Gujarat.  

E-print Network

??En fersk doktoravhandling i samfunnsgeografi kaster nytt lys over den kontroversielle damutbyggingen på Narmada-elva i India. Sardar Sarovar-prosjektet var i verdens søkelys gjennom hele 1990-tallet… (more)

Aandahl, Guro

2010-01-01

234

Investigating Earthquakes through Regional Seismicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, sudents will use online interactive materials to investigate the nature of earthquakes. The module consists of three major sections, "What is an Earthquake?", "The Distribution of Earthquakes", and "Measuring Earthquakes". Each section presents online material for background and interactive learning activities which help them to understand such characteristics of earthquakes as their associated faults, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and geographic distribution.

Marquis, John; Hafner, Katrin; Hauksson, Egill

235

The Distribution of Earthquakes: An Earthquake Deficit?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use online resources to investigate the occurrence of earthquakes in Southern California to decide if there has been a 'deficit', that is, not enough earthquakes in the area in historical time to release the amount of strain energy that plate tectonics is constantly supplying to the crust. In the first two parts, they must determine the appropriate year to begin their study of historic earthquake records (from 1860-1900), and then they must decide if the energy released by past earthquakes has been equivalent to the amount of energy accumulating through the action of plate tectonics over the same number of years. In part three, they perform an analysis of their findings by answering a set of questions. References are included.

Marquis, John

236

Earthquake resistant design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After having learned about earthquakes in class, through readings and earlier lab assignments, students (in groups of two) are asked to design and construct (using balsa wood, string, paper and glue) a three-story building designed to minimize the effects of shear-wave vibrations that occur during an earthquake. The students are required to research the design concepts on their own and most of the construction work occurs outside of the regular laboratory period. The structures are tested for strength a week before the earthquake occurs - can they support the required load for each floor? On earthquake day, the buildings a tested for a "design earthquake" and then each group is given the opportunity to see how "large" and earthquake their structure can withstand - both in terms of frequency and amplitude variations. In addition to building the structure, each team has to submit a paper reflecting on why they designed and built the structure the way they did.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

237

Plate Tectonics: Earthquake Epicenter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of destructive earthquakes and their connection to tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. It includes a discussion of some especially destructive historic earthquakes, and a brief introduction to contintental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. There is also discussion of basic seismology (types of waves) and measures of the magnitude of an earthquake (the Richter Scale). The lesson inlcudes an activity in which students use an online simulator to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using readings from three different seismograph stations. After they have completed the simulation, they attempt to locate the epicenter of a real earthquake using data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) earthquake website.

Pratte, John

238

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the research activities of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The activities include: borehole geophysics and rock mechanics, crustal deformation, earthquake information, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, hazards, seismology and earth structure, and strong motion seismology, site response, and ground motion. Other links include: earthquake activity, earthquake facts and education, earthquake products, hazards and preparedness, regional websites, and seismic networks.

239

Earthquakes and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, volcanoes, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

2011-06-27

240

Earthquakes in Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will gain a better understanding of how earthquakes and volcanoes are formed and how they have contributed to the geology of Utah. This web-based lesson will help guide you through a number of websites that will help you gain a better understanding of earthquakes and volcanoes especially happening in Utah. Follow the instructions for each and enjoy. You will need your headphones on for the videos. Site #1 .Watch video on earthquake ...

Ribera, Mr.

2009-02-25

241

Levy Flights and Earthquakes  

E-print Network

Levy flights representation is proposed to describe earthquake characteristics like the distribution of waiting times and position of hypocenters in a seismic region. Over 7500 microearthquakes and earthquakes from 1985 to 1994 were analyzed to test that its spatial and temporal distributions are such that can be described by a Levy flight with anomalous diffusion (in this case in a subdiffusive regime). Earthquake behavior is well described through Levy flights and Levy distribution functions such as results show.

O. Sotolongo-Costa; J. C. Antoranz; A. Posadas; F. Vidal; A. Vazquez

2002-05-27

242

Earthquake swarms in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

2014-05-01

243

Multifrequency SAR signatures of forest class covering parts of Rajpipla, Gujarat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-frequency SAR observation over forested areas has been the subject of research owing to the frequency dependence on the contribution of radar backscatter from different parts of the vegetation canopy. The multi-frequency SAR data at P-, L-, C- and X-band was acquired over Rajpipla site (Gujarat). All the channels were in quad-pole mode except X-SAR, which was in HH and VV-polarization mode. The study area comprises of the dry and moist deciduous forest. The moist deciduous forest is not evergreen and shed their leaves during March-April. Teak (Tectona grandis) is the dominant species in the moist deciduous forest area. Dry deciduous trees are mainly khakhar (Butea monosperma). Multifrequency SAR data was processed to get geo-referenced images and all the images were co-registered. Images were converted to the backscattering image using the calibration function. For the purpose of ground verification, ground data was obtained at different locations. Ground data consisted of measurements on tree height, diameter at breast height, basal girth, crown diameter etc. for each location; measurements were done in 10m by 10 m area. The analysis of the data was carried out in relation to comparison of backscattering coefficient in different frequencies and polarizations. In general, forest type was better seen in X-band image as compared to other classes. However, X- and C-band could be comparable in terms of forest classes. Further, backscattering coefficient increases with frequency except in P-band. However, P-band showed best correlation with biomass as compared to other channels.

Dasari, Anitha; Mohan, Shiv; Ajai, A.; Patel, Bharat

2006-12-01

244

OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information such as epicenter, magnitude, and strong-motion recordings. Without quantitative data, prioritization of response measures, including building and infrastructure inspection, are not possible. The main advantage of Twitter is speed, especially in sparsely instrumented areas. A Twitter based system potentially could provide a quick notification that there was a possible event and that seismographically derived information will follow. If you are interested in learning more, follow @USGSted on Twitter.

Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

2009-12-01

245

2004), Importance of small earthquakes for stress transfers and earthquake  

E-print Network

Abstract. We estimate the relative importance of small and large earthquakes for static stress changes and for earthquake triggering, assuming that earthquakes are triggered by static stress changes and that earthquakes are located on a fractal network of dimension D. This model predicts that both the number of events triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m and the stress change induced by this earthquake at the location of other earthquakes increase with m as ? 10 Dm/2. The stronger the spatial clustering, the larger the influence of small earthquakes on stress changes at the location of a future event as well as earthquake triggering. If earthquake magnitudes follow the Gutenberg-Richter law with b> D/2, small earthquakes collectively dominate stress transfer and earthquake triggering, because their greater frequency overcomes their smaller individual triggering potential. Using a Southern-California catalog, we observe that the rate of seismicity triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m increases with m as 10 ?m, where ? = 1.00 ± 0.05. We also find that the magnitude distribution of triggered earthquakes is independent of the triggering earthquake’s magnitude m. When ? ? b, small earthquakes are roughly as important to earthquake triggering as larger ones. We evaluate the fractal correlation

Agnès Helmstetter; Yan Y. Kagan; David D. Jackson

246

Eye in the Sky: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a general introduction to earthquakes, including sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects. It includes an animation of how earthquakes form, and footage of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near San Francisco.

247

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER  

E-print Network

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER PEER Testbed Study on a Laboratory Building, Berkeley PEER Report 2005/12 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering to "exercise" the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. All projects involved

Adolphs, Ralph

248

Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?  

SciTech Connect

The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2011-03-11

249

Earthquakes Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This earthquake unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn the location of areas in the United States with the greatest potential for earthquake shaking and the hazards presented by earthquakes. They also learn how geological conditions and building construction affect the amount of destruction during an earthquake. Seismographs and the Richter scale are also covered. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

250

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Portal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Site aiming to provide useful and educational information in geotechnical earthquake engineering. The site involves topics such as: liquefaction engineering, seismic slope analysis and soil structure interaction.

2008-09-29

251

Earthquakes for Students & Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS Web site presents educational materials about "earth structure, earthquakes, plate tectonics, and earthquake preparedness." Teachers can search the up-to-date information by topic or by grade level (K-12). The site provides a PowerPoint presentation Earthquakes 101, which incorporates images and drawings to help educators easily explain earthquake processes. Users can take Virtual Field Trips to places such as the Calavaras Fault and the Kentucky River Fault Zone. With so many fun learning activities, teachers will certainly benefit by visiting this site.

252

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the Real World Learning Objects Resource Library, allows students to use first-hand data analysis to "determine if there is any pattern to earthquake events and speculate on the causes of earthquakes." Intended to be an introductory activity for a unit of study on earthquakes, this 60-minute activity is complete with learning goals, step-by-step classroom procedures, materials, assessment activities, and resources for further information. The "Content Materials" section contains directions for students and graphics to help students understand earthquakes and plate tectonics. This is an excellent resource for geology and earth science instructors that is ready to use for the classroom.

2007-10-04

253

Learning About Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about earthquakes? Did you even know that Utah actually has earthquakes and that it has a large fault line that is overdue for a major earthquake? The purpose of this activity is to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that they are usually earthquake zones. Students will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard 2 for 5th grade science: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. If your friend were moving to Utah from another state, where would you advise them the safest place to buy or build a house would be? Teacher Instruction Put students into groups of 4 or 5 and create a KWL chart about earthquakes. Instruct the groups that they are going to learn about earthquakes in ...

Wallace, Mrs.

2012-02-07

254

Earthquakes in Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake risk is high in much of the southern half of Alaska, but it is not the same everywhere. This map shows the overall geologic setting in Alaska that produces earthquakes. The Pacific plate (darker blue) is sliding northwestward past southeastern Alaska and then dives beneath the North American plate (light blue, green, and brown) in southern Alaska, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands. Most earthquakes are produced where these two plates come into contact and slide past each other. Major earthquakes also occur throughout much of interior Alaska as a result of collision of a piece of crust with the southern margin.

Haeussler, Peter J.; Plafker, George

1995-01-01

255

Locating Earthquake Epicenters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students use data from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake to locate the earthquake and its time of occurrence, and plot data from Central and South America on a map to delineate plate boundaries. Introductory materials explain how earthquakes are caused, describe the types of seismic waves, and explain that the difference in arrival times may be used to calculate distance to the earthquake. Each portion of the exercise includes instructions, datsets, maps, travel-time graphs, study questions, and tables for entering data. A bibliography is also provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

256

Parkfield, California: Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.

257

Missing Great Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ? 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw?8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw?8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough (2013) compilation and the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) catalog released in June, 2013. The GEM catalog includes three 19th century earthquakes of M8.5 and three M8.4s, and no 19th century earthquakes larger than 8.5. Cumulative moment release rates are notoriously difficult to estimate, but using the Hough (2013) compilation the 19th century moment release rate appears to be roughly half of the rate during the instrumental era; using the GEM catalog the 19th century rate appears to be roughly ¼ the instrumental rate. Thus, either 1) the global moment release rate varies by a factor of two or more on century time scales, or 2) the best available historical catalogs significantly underestimate great earthquake magnitudes and overall moment release rates. One can also consider whether magnitudes of great earthquakes were systematically underestimated during the first half of the 20th century, prior to the advent of long-period seismometry. We consider whether the 19th century moment release rate can be made consistent with the rate during the instrumental era using individual event magnitudes within the uncertainties estimated by past published studies. Lastly we consider the expected variability in global moment release rate, assuming a linear b-value up to Mmax9.5 and a Poissonian rate.

Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

2013-12-01

258

Anomalous variation in GPS based TEC measurements prior to the 30 September 2009 Sumatra Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the features of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies in the total elec-tron content (TEC) data obtained on the basis of regular GPS observations from the GPS receiver at SVNIT Surat (21.16 N, 72.78 E Geog) located at the northern crest of equatorial anomaly region. The data has been analysed for 5 different earthquakes that occurred during 2009 in India

Sheetal Karia; Kamlesh Pathak

2010-01-01

259

DOING BUSINESS IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, India's closed economy opened up and attracted investments from several multinational companies (MNCs) around the world. As a result, people began to seek information about doing business in India, giving rise to a plethora of literature aimed at assisting them. Generally there are two prominent views of India. One is that India is a poor, under-developed country, lacking

RODNEY SEBASTIAN; ASHVIN PARAMESWARAN; FAIZAL YAHYA

2006-01-01

260

India Plate Motion, Intraplate deformation and Plate Boundary Processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use GPS-measured velocities to geodetically constrain India plate motion, intraplate strain, and examine plate boundary deformation and plate interactions around the India plate. Our solution includes 15 GPS velocities from continuously recording stations from within the stable India plate interior that are used to estimate angular velocity of the India plate with respect to its neighbors. We test a two-plate India system divided along the topographically prominent Narmada Son Lineament and find this scenario to be significant only to 89%. Dense station coverage along the Himalayan range front allows us to rigorously test boundary parameterizations and develop a preferred plate boundary model. In our preferred model the Himalayan Range Front accumulates ~50% of the India-Eurasia convergence with as much as 18 mm/yr of slip accumulation along some segments. We compare earthquake slip vector orientations with predicted divergence directions from our preferred model along the India-Somalia plate boundary. We see good agreement between predicted plate directions from our preferred model and the seismological data. Deviations between our model and the slip vectors highlight areas of diffuse oceanic deformation along the plate boundary. We estimate convergence vectors for the relative plate pairs along the Sumatra subduction zone. We test for the transition between Australian plate convergence and India plate convergence along the Sumatra subduction zone and refine the estimated motion of the Burman sliver plate.

Apel, E. V.; Burgmann, R.; Banerjee, P.

2010-12-01

261

Identification of Deep Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to identify and apply seismic event discriminants that will reliably separate small crustal earthquakes (magnitudes less than about 4 and depths less than about 40 to 50 km) from small, deep earthquakes (depths between abo...

G. E. Randall, H. E. Hartse

2010-01-01

262

Earthquakes and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

263

Earthquakes for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources include sections on the latest quakes, science project ideas, puzzles and games, online activities, a glossary, and cool earthquake facts. In addition, there is an Ask A Geologist section, and earthquake FAQs. One link leads to a teacher page with grade level topics and educational materials.

2002-12-13

264

Earthquakes and Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts global distribution of earthquakes. A world map shows the location of large earthquakes that occurred from 1975-1995. A slider at the bottom left of the map allows the user to change the map to reveal the location of major plates or to select both views layered on top of one another.

265

Seismic gaps and earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCann et al. [1979] published a widely cited ``seismic gap'' model ascribing earthquake potential categories to 125 zones surrounding the Pacific Rim. Nishenko [1991] published an updated and revised version including probability estimates of characteristic earthquakes with specified magnitudes within each zone. These forecasts are now more than 20 and 10 years old, respectively, and sufficient data now exist to

Yufang Rong; David D. Jackson; Yan Y. Kagan

2003-01-01

266

Seismic gaps and earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCann et al. [1979] published a widely cited “seismic gap” model ascribing earthquake potential categories to 125 zones surrounding the Pacific Rim. Nishenko [1991] published an updated and revised version including probability estimates of characteristic earthquakes with specified magnitudes within each zone. These forecasts are now more than 20 and 10 years old, respectively, and sufficient data now exist to

Yufang Rong; David D. Jackson; Yan Y. Kagan

2003-01-01

267

Forecasting southern California earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major desctructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence os such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity

C. B. Raleigh; K. Sieh; L. R. Sykes; D. L. Anderson

1982-01-01

268

Forecasting Southern California Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major destructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence of such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity

C. B. Raleigh; K. Sieh; L. R. Sykes; D. L. Anderson

1982-01-01

269

Earthquakes and Fault Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for students to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that fault lines are often earthquake zones. They will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard for fifth grade science: Standard 2: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1,c: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. Situation You are from Montana, and your dad just got a new job in Northern Utah. Your family will have to move there. Your parents have heard that Utah has the potential for major earthquakes, and don?t know where to build your new house. They ...

Bennington, Miss

2010-04-26

270

Earthquake Notification Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Web site contains the Earthquake Notification Services page and service. Users can subscribe to three email lists that include BIGQUAKE -- which sends a message whenever an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.5 or greater occurs anywhere in the world or a magnitude of 4.5 or greater occurs within the 50 US states -- and QEDPOST -- which sends a daily message of the earthquakes located 7 days prior to the current day -- and MTALL -- which sends a message that contains the estimate of the seismic moment tensor for earthquakes with either a body-wave magnitude or surface wave magnitude of 5.5 or greater. Seismologists and other related professionals will appreciate being able to stay abreast of the latest tectonic activity with this helpful tool.

271

1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake events are well documented by those historic and recent earthquakes was not very high, and it is believed that Korea belongs to a low to moderate seismicity zone. However, after the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, there was a growing concern

Spencer Jr., B.F.

272

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake  

E-print Network

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

273

Identification of earthquake sources responsible for subsurface VLF electric field emissions observed at Agra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing USGS earthquake data for Indian region and very low frequency (VLF, 3 kHz) subsurface electric field data obtained by using a borehole antenna at Agra in India, statistical analysis has been carried out to identify the earthquake sources responsible for VLF data. The correlation coefficient between occurrence number of VLF noise bursts and earthquakes are calculated and level of null hypothesis tested. The results show that seismic activities occurring close to the observing station and the main boundary fault located at the southern base of Himalaya are the main sources of VLF emissions recorded at the station.

Singh, Vikram; Singh, Birbal; Kumar, Manoj; Hayakawa, M.

274

Earthquakes Living Lab: Geology and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the effects of geology on earthquake magnitudes and how engineers anticipate and prepare for these effects. Using information provided through the Earthquakes Living Lab interface, students investigate how geology, specifically soil type, can amplify the magnitude of earthquakes and their consequences. Students look in-depth at the historical 1906 San Francisco earthquake and its destruction thorough photographs and data. They compare the 1906 California earthquake to another historical earthquake in Kobe, Japan, looking at the geological differences and impacts in the two regions, and learning how engineers, geologists and seismologists work to predict earthquakes and minimize calamity. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

275

Can earthquakes be Karen Felzer  

E-print Network

Can earthquakes be predicted? Karen Felzer U.S. Geological Survey #12;Earthquake predictions that most seismologists agree with #12;Long term earthquake probabilities These kinds of predictions to duck and cover! >99% chance that a M 6.7 earthquake will occur in CA within 30 years. 2008 Working

Felzer, Karen

276

Parkfield earthquakes: Characteristic or complementary?  

E-print Network

near-fault strong-motion seismographs recorded the earthquake (near field of the 28 September 2004 Mw 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake: implications for nucleation, fault response, earthquakeEarthquake locations and three-dimensional fault zone structure along the creeping section of the San Andreas fault near

Custodio, Susana; Archuleta, Ralph J.

2007-01-01

277

Staying Safe in Earthquake Country  

E-print Network

the most frequent large earthquakes. In southern California, the most recent earthquake on the San Andreas in earthquake country. Seismic hazards in California are sort of a good news/bad news deal. The bad news! The Bad News When most southern Californians think of earthquakes, their minds leap immediately to the San

de Lijser, Peter

278

The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

Saragoni, G. Rodolfo [Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad of Chile (Chile)

2008-07-08

279

Earthquake Characteristics and Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical seismograms enable the amplitude and waveform of body waves to be incorporated as constraints in an inversion scheme for an earth model or the source time function of an earthquake or explosion. The lower mantle has long been known from travel...

C. Kisslinger, C. B. Archambeau, V. F. Cormier, G. Lundquist, C. Salvado

1977-01-01

280

Triggered Earthquakes Following Parkfield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the M5.0 Arvin earthquake struck approximately 30 hours after the 28 September 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, it seemed likely if not obvious that the latter had triggered the former. The odds of a M5.0 or greater event occurring by random chance in a given 2-day window is low, on the order of 2%. However, previously published results suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes are observed only following much larger mainshocks, typically M7 or above. Moreover, using a standard beta-statistic approach, one finds no pervasive regional increase of seismicity in the weeks following the Parkfield mainshock. (Neither were any moderate events observed at regional distances following the 1934 and 1966 Parkfield earthquakes.) Was Arvin a remotely triggered earthquake? To address this issue further I compare the seismicity rate changes following the Parkfield mainshock with those following 14 previous M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in central and southern California. I show that, on average, seismicity increased to a distance of at least 120 km following these events. For all but the M7.1 Hector Mine mainshock, this is well beyond the radius of what would be considered a traditional aftershock zone. Average seismicity rates also increase, albeit more weakly, to a distance of about 220 km. These results suggest that even moderate mainshocks in central and southern California do trigger seismicity at distances up to 220 km, supporting the inference that Arvin was indeed a remotely triggered earthquake. In general, only weak triggering is expected following moderate (M5.5-6.5) mainshocks. However, as illustrated by Arvin and, in retrospect, the 1986 M5.5 Oceanside earthquake, which struck just 5 days after the M5.9 North Palm Springs earthquake, triggered events can sometimes be large enough to generate public interest, and anxiety.

Hough, S. E.

2004-12-01

281

Sun, Moon and Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

Kolvankar, V. G.

2013-12-01

282

Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India  

PubMed Central

For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50–52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S.; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J.; Engel, Michael S.; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

2010-01-01

283

Measuring Earthquakes: Intensity Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of exercises will introduce students to the construction of earthquake intensity maps, familiarize them with the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, and give them the opportunity to build their own maps online in order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. In the first exercise, they will use intensity data from the 1986 North Palm Springs, California earthquake to create an isoseismal map. In the second, they will use a special interactive page of dynamic HTML to plot intensities that they assign based on reports, and attempt to determine the epicenter based on the area of highest intensity.

284

Mercalli Earthquake Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an inquiry approach to term and concept introduction. Students will work in a jigsaw format to read through the descriptions of eyewitness accounts from earthquakes and assess a Mercalli value. In the jigsaw groups, they will compare the different Mercalli and Richter values and describe the basic events that occurred during different earthquakes. They will share this information in order to collaboratively assess the strengths and weaknesses of this scale relative to the Richter magnitudes provided. They will also begin to determine what types of hazards result from earthquakes.

Kraft, Kaatje

285

Earthquakes: San Francisco  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The prediction of earthquakes may be inexact, but it is vital, especially when large cities such as San Francisco or Los Angeles are threatened. The San Andreas Fault and two other faults, the Heyward and Calaveras faults, all have the potential to deliver a massive earthquake to the San Francisco Bay area. In this video segment, a seismologist explains the historical pattern of seismic activity in the Bay area, and how this information may be used to predict the location and timing of San Francisco's next big earthquake. The segment is three minutes twenty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-05-13

286

AEIC: Arizona Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arizona Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) conducts research and distributes information about Arizona earthquakes in order to increase the knowledge about the causes and hazards of earthquakes. The website provides recent seismographs for many places including the Grand Canyon and Flagstaff along with a map of the fault system. Researchers can find a catalog of Arizona Earthquakes for the period of 1830 to 1998. Users can view an index map of recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West region of Utah as well.

287

Historic Earthquakes in Southern California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains a map of southern California with epicenters of earthquakes shown as circles of different sizes and colors. The size and color of each earthquake symbol corresponds to its magnitude, as indicated by a scale on the map. Clicking on an epicenter takes the user to a page of information about that earthquake. Earthquakes dating back to 1812 are shown. Also available on this page are links to fault maps, earthquake animations, and other indexes of seismological information.

2011-04-06

288

Coseismic secondary surface fractures on southeastward extension of the rupture zone of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, we mapped surface ground fractures in Tangdhar, Uri, Rajouri and Punch sectors and liquefaction features in Jammu area lying close to the eastern side of the Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir, India. The NW trending ground fractures occurred largely in the hanging wall zone of the southeastern extension of the causative fault in Tangdhar

R. Jayangondaperumal; V. C. Thakur

2008-01-01

289

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center reports and provides information on seismic activity in Alaska. While its southern Pacific coast colleague, California, gets a lot more attention when it comes to earthquakes, Alaska experienced a magnitude 6.7 earthquake already this summer and was rocked by a 7.9 in 2002. The site offers links to general information about the center, general earthquake information, research activities at the center, education and outreach materials (including information on seismology education projects), and much more. The site is well populated with materials and should provide a great resources for those interested in North American seismic events.

290

Mammoth Mountain Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Mammoth Mountain. Located in the eastern Sierra Mountains, everyday earthquakes shake the region and there are signs of an imminent volcanic eruption.

2010-01-01

291

Earthquake Ground Motion Selection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based design and...

P. Arduino, S. L. Kramer, S. S. Sideras

2012-01-01

292

Earthquakes: Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, animations are used to show how the hills around Los Angeles were formed by earthquakes at small thrust faults that extend outward from the larger San Andreas fault.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

293

Forecasting southern california earthquakes.  

PubMed

Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major destructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence of such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity is associated with a marked deviation in the pattern of strain accumulation, a correlation that is physically plausible. Although great earthquakes (magnitude greater than 7.5) are too infrequent to have clear associations with any pattern of seismicity that is now observed, the San Andreas fault in southern California has accumulated sufficient potential displacement since the last rupture in 1857 to generate a great earthquake along part or all of its length. PMID:17740956

Raleigh, C B; Sieh, K; Sykes, L R; Anderson, D L

1982-09-17

294

Forecasting southern California earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Since 1978 and 1979, California has had a significantly higher frequency of moderate to large earthquakes than in the preceding 25 years. In the past such periods have also been associated with major desctructive earthquakes, of magnitude 7 or greater, and the annual probability of occurrence os such an event is now 13 percent in California. The increase in seismicity is associated with a marked deviation in the pattern of strain accumulation, a correlation that is physically plausible. Although great earthquakes (magnitude greater than 7.5) are too infrequent to have clear associations with any pattern of seismicity that is now observed, the San Andreas fault in southern California has accumulated sufficient potential displacement since the last rupture in 1857 to generate a great earthquake along part or all of its length.

Raleigh, C.B. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY); Sieh, K.; Sykes, L.R.; Anderson, D.L.

1982-09-17

295

To capture an earthquake  

SciTech Connect

An earthquake model based on the theory of plate tectonics is presented. It is assumed that the plates behave elastically in response to slow, steady motions and the strains concentrate within the boundary zone between the plates. When the accumulated stresses exceed the bearing capacity of the rocks, the rocks break, producing an earthquake and releasing the accumulated stresses. As the steady movement of the plates continues, strain begins to reaccumulate. The cycle of strain accumulation and release is modeled using the motion of a block, pulled across a rough surface by a spring. A model earthquake can be predicted by taking into account a precursory event or the peak spring force prior to slip as measured in previous cycles. The model can be applied to faults, e.g., the San Andreas fault, if the past earthquake history of the fault and the rate of strain accumulation are known.

Ellsworth, W.L. (USGS, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

296

Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students compare the amount of shaking caused by historic earthquakes, and use data from seismograms to determine Richter magnitude. They will also investigate moment magnitude, an alternative to Richter magnitude, and calculate a seismic moment. In the second portion of the exercise, students investigate earthquake intensity and prepare a map of intensity values from the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake, using actual reports of its effects. Introductory materials explain the difference between earthquake magnitude and intensity, point out the logarithmic nature of the Richter scale, and present criteria for assigning modified Mercalli intensity values to a particular location. The exercise includes instructions, maps, data, and study questions. A bibliography is also provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

297

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive exercise lets students investigate how seismic waves are used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude. They will place virtual seismic stations on an interactive map, trigger a virtual explosion, and measure the difference in arrival times of S- and P-waves generated by the explosion. Using this data, they can determine the distance to each station and use triangulation to determine the epicenter of the earthquake.

298

Earthquake Probability Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mapping tool allows users to generate Earthquake Probability Maps (EPMs) for a region within 50 kilometers of a location specified by latitude and longitude or by ZIP code. The maps are color-coded; higher earthquake probabilities are indicated by orange and red colors, while lower probabilities are indicated by green or blue. Fault traces are marked in white; rivers are in blue. The maps are also produced in downloadable, printable format (PDF).

2010-12-27

299

Tectonics, Earthquakes, Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do background reading on plate tectonics and associated geologic hazards. In the first part of this exercise, students use on-line courseware from California State University, Los Angeles (Virtual Earthquake) to investigate seismograph records and use these records to determine earthquake epicenters and magnitudes. In the second part, they complete a crossword puzzle designed to help them master new vocabulary related to plate tectonics.

Holmgren, Camille

300

Connecting Earthquakes and Violins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Violins, earthquakes, and the "singing rod" demonstration all have something in common--stick-slip frictional motion. This article begins with a typical classroom experiment used to understand the transition between sticking and slipping, proceeds to a mechanical earthquake model that is truly "stick-slip" as scientists describe it, and progresses to acoustic examples of the same phenomenon in action. Other interesting cases involving frictional effects are described.

Ringlein, James

2005-11-01

301

Coastal Dynamics during Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of research on some aspects of coastal dynamics during earthquakes, carried out in the Institute of Hydro-Engineering, are summarized. The attention is focused on the liquefaction-related phenomena, like modeling the earthquake-induced generation of pore-pressures and subsequent liquefaction of subsoil, the behavior of liquefied soil, underwater landslides, sinking of structures in a liquefied seabed and large displacements of quay-walls.

Andrzej Sawicki Waldemar

2008-01-01

302

Global earthquake forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed daily worldwide long- and short-term earthquake forecasts. These forecasts specify the earthquake rate per unit area, time and magnitude on a 0.5 degree grid for a global zone region between 75N and 75S latitude (301 by 720 grid cells). We use both the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters (PDE) catalogues. Like our

Yan Y. Kagan; David D. Jackson

2011-01-01

303

Earthquake Probability Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mapping tool allows users to generate Earthquake Probability Maps (EPMs) for a region within 50 kilometers of a location specified by latitude and longitude or by ZIP code. The maps are color-coded; higher earthquake probabilities are indicated by orange and red colors, while lower probabilities are indicated by green or blue. Fault traces are marked in white; rivers are in blue. The maps are also produced in downloadable, printable format (PDF).

304

Predicting Earthquake Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the earth sciences and information technology have lead to dramatic improvements in our ability to respond to, as well as anticipate and mitigate, earthquake effects in our communities. The development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based tools such as ShakeMap and HAZUS have ushered in a new era of risk and emergency management. Real-time maps of strong ground motion, coupled with engineering-based descriptions of building and infrastructure inventory and vulnerability enable more accurate determinations of the location and severity of earthquake damage and the socio-economic consequences for emergency managers and officials following significant earthquakes. The ability to map the distribution and growth of seismic risk in the United States has long-term benefits for public policy as well. Long-term forecasts of seismic risk based on varying mitigation strategies can provide guidance for developing national and local earthquake policy. The successful performance of the Trans-Alaska pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake illustrates the dependence of performance-based engineering on the ability to predict earthquake effects (e.g., levels of strong ground motion, amounts of fault displacement or ground deformation). Being able to reduce the uncertainty in predicting these parameters has significant economic consequences and enables decision makers to more efficiently prioritize risk management strategies.

Nishenko, S.

2005-12-01

305

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

306

Charles Darwin's earthquake reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the problems which began to discuss only during the last time. Earthquakes often precede volcanic eruptions. According to Darwin, the earthquake-induced shock may be a common mechanism of the simultaneous eruptions of the volcanoes separated by long distances. In particular, Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…'. According to Darwin the crust is a system where fractured zones, and zones of seismic and volcanic activities interact. Darwin formulated the task of considering together the processes studied now as seismology and volcanology. However the difficulties are such that the study of interactions between earthquakes and volcanoes began only recently and his works on this had relatively little impact on the development of geosciences. In this report, we discuss how the latest data on seismic and volcanic events support the Darwin's observations and ideas about the 1835 Chilean earthquake. The material from researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474 is used. We show how modern mechanical tests from impact engineering and simple experiments with weakly-cohesive materials also support his observations and ideas. On the other hand, we developed the mathematical theory of the earthquake-induced catastrophic wave phenomena. This theory allow to explain the most important aspects the Darwin's earthquake reports. This is achieved through the simplification of fundamental governing equations of considering problems to strongly-nonlinear wave equations. Solutions of these equations are constructed with the help of analytic and numerical techniques. The solutions can model different strongly-nonlinear wave phenomena which generate in a variety of physical context. A comparison with relevant experimental observations is also presented.

Galiev, Shamil

2010-05-01

307

Earthquake and Geothermal Energy  

E-print Network

The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

Kapoor, Surya Prakash

2013-01-01

308

Earthquake Education Environment (E3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Education Environment (E3) supports high-quality K-12 and undergraduate education by providing up-to-date earthquake information, authoritative technical sources and educational resources for the classroom.

309

USGS Photo Library: Earthquakes Section  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access images from historic earthquakes by choosing the name of the earthquake from an alphabetical listing. The images are available in three resolutions and are accompanied by brief written descriptions.

310

Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010-2011  

PubMed Central

Background In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. Principal Findings Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. Conclusions The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India. PMID:22616022

Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Gurav, Yogesh K.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Pawar, Shailesh D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

2012-01-01

311

Introduction to Earthquake Seismology Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students will consider various aspects of earthquake seismology methods that include p-wave amplitude, location of an earthquake epicenter, determining the time of occurrence of an earthquake and the relationships between type of plate boundary and earthquake focal depth. Students will be exposed to several types of graphing program and spreadsheets to analyze and illustrate the results. They will also use seismicity maps and the WWW to reinforce the concepts presented both in the lab and in lecture.

Rueger, Bruce

312

Earthquakes and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students compare maps of plate tectonics with population density maps and to analyze what these maps imply about the relationship between population and seismic hazards. Students will read about and discuss the theory of plate tectonics, map the regions of the United States that are most susceptible to earthquakes and those that have volcanoes, and list the states that lie on plate boundaries. In addition, they will look at a population density map to determine if people avoid living in areas at high risk for earthquakes and volcanoes. Students will also research specific volcanoes or earthquake zones and write pretend letters to residents of these areas describing the risks. This site also contains suggestions for assessment and ideas for extending the lesson.

2001-01-01

313

Sand boils without earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

Holzer, T. L.; Clark, M. M.

1993-01-01

314

Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

Simsek, Canan Lacin

2007-01-01

315

Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons.  

PubMed

The first reports on a slow earthquake were for an event in the Izu peninsula, Japan, on an intraplate, seismically active fault. Since then, many slow earthquakes have been detected. It has been suggested that the slow events may trigger ordinary earthquakes (in a context supported by numerical modelling), but their broader significance in terms of earthquake occurrence remains unclear. Triggering of earthquakes has received much attention: strain diffusion from large regional earthquakes has been shown to influence large earthquake activity, and earthquakes may be triggered during the passage of teleseismic waves, a phenomenon now recognized as being common. Here we show that, in eastern Taiwan, slow earthquakes can be triggered by typhoons. We model the largest of these earthquakes as repeated episodes of slow slip on a reverse fault just under land and dipping to the west; the characteristics of all events are sufficiently similar that they can be modelled with minor variations of the model parameters. Lower pressure results in a very small unclamping of the fault that must be close to the failure condition for the typhoon to act as a trigger. This area experiences very high compressional deformation but has a paucity of large earthquakes; repeating slow events may be segmenting the stressed area and thus inhibiting large earthquakes, which require a long, continuous seismic rupture. PMID:19516339

Liu, ChiChing; Linde, Alan T; Sacks, I Selwyn

2009-06-11

316

Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

2010-03-30

317

March 13, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake  

E-print Network

March 13, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake I extend my sincere sympathies to the many people affected by the Tohoku earthquake. I pray that those affected are able to return to a peaceful existence as quickly staff have been affected by this earthquake. The situation remains unpredictable, with aftershocks

Miyashita, Yasushi

318

Earthquakes in Afghanistan Nicholas Ambraseys  

E-print Network

1 Earthquakes in Afghanistan Nicholas Ambraseys Dept. of Civil Engineering, Imperial College 80309-0399 We summarize the written history of earthquakes in Afghanistan from 734 AD to the present in the form of a new catalog of more than 1300 earthquakes, and narrative accounts of damage sustained during

Bilham, Roger

319

Earthquakes Living Lab: Geology and Earthquakes in Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students study how geology relates to the frequency of large-magnitude earthquakes in Japan. Using the online resources provided through the Earthquakes Living Lab, students investigate reasons why large earthquakes occur in this region, drawing conclusions from tectonic plate structures and the locations of fault lines. Working in pairs, students explore the 1995 Kobe earthquake, why it happened and the destruction it caused. Students also think like engineers to predict where other earthquakes are likely to occur and what precautions might be taken. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

320

Earthquake Word Searches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding the words in these word searches will help you learn about earthquakes. The words in the puzzles may be hidden horizontally, vertically, diagonally, forward, or backward. To circle a discovered word, mouse-click on one end of the word and mouse-drag to the other end of the word. Once a word is found, it will be taken off the list. There are nine word searches that you can play: famous seismologists, general earthquake terms, magnitude, Mercalli Intensity Scale, plate names, plate tectonics, Richter Magnitude Scale, seismic waves, and tsunamis.

Harshbarger, Eric

2009-10-27

321

Evaluation and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami for Coastal Nuclear Power Plants of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for

Pavan K. Sharma; R. K. Singh; A. K. Ghosh; H. S. Kushwaha

2006-01-01

322

Earthquake prediction comes of age  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade, scientists have begun to estimate the long-term probability of major earthquakes along the San Andreas fault. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issued the first official U.S. government earthquake prediction, based on research along a heavily instrumented 25-kilometer section of the fault in sparsely populated central California. Known as the Parkfield segment, this section of the Sand Andreas had experienced its last big earthquake, a magnitude 6, in 1966. Estimated probabilities of major quakes along the entire San Andreas by a working group of California earthquake experts, using new geologic data and careful analysis of past earthquakes, are reported.

Lindth, A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA). Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering)

1990-02-01

323

The Parkfield, California, Earthquake Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report decribes research being carried out in Parkfield, California whose purpose is to better understand the physics of earthquakes: what actually happens on the fault and in the surrounding region before, during and after an earthquake. Ultimately, scientists hope to better understand the earthquake process and, if possible, to provide a scientific basis for earthquake prediction. Topics include the scientific background for the experiment, including the tectonic setting at Parkfield, historical earthquake activity on this section of the San Andreas fault, the monitoring and data collecting activities currently being carried out, and plans for future research. Data are also available to view in real time and to download.

324

The 2004 Parkfield, CA Earthquake: A Teachable Moment for Exploring Earthquake Processes, Probability, and Earthquake Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake provided a unique "teachable moment" for students in our science course for teacher education majors. The course uses seismology as a medium for teaching a wide variety of science topics appropriate for future teachers. The 2004 Parkfield earthquake occurred just 15 minutes after our students completed a lab on earthquake processes and earthquake prediction. That lab included a discussion of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment as a motivation for the exercises they were working on that day. Furthermore, this earthquake was recorded on an AS1 seismograph right in their lab, just minutes after the students left. About an hour after we recorded the earthquake, the students were able to see their own seismogram of the event in the lecture part of the course, which provided an excellent teachable moment for a lecture/discussion on how the occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake might affect seismologists' ideas about earthquake prediction. The specific lab exercise that the students were working on just before we recorded this earthquake was a "sliding block" experiment that simulates earthquakes in the classroom. The experimental apparatus includes a flat board on top of which are blocks of wood attached to a bungee cord and a string wrapped around a hand crank. Plate motion is modeled by slowly turning the crank, and earthquakes are modeled as events in which the block slips ("blockquakes"). We scaled the earthquake data and the blockquake data (using how much the string moved as a proxy for time) so that we could compare blockquakes and earthquakes. This provided an opportunity to use interevent-time histograms to teach about earthquake processes, probability, and earthquake prediction, and to compare earthquake sequences with blockquake sequences. We were able to show the students, using data obtained directly from their own lab, how global earthquake data fit a Poisson exponential distribution better than do the blockquake and Parkfield data. This provided opportunities for discussing the difference between Poisson and normal distributions, how those differences affect our estimation of future earthquake probabilities, the importance of both the mean and the standard deviation in predicting future behavior from a sequence of events, and how conditional probability is used to help seismologists predict future earthquakes given a known or theoretical distribution of past earthquakes.

Kafka, A.; Barnett, M.; Ebel, J.; Bellegarde, H.; Campbell, L.

2004-12-01

325

Documentary reconstruction of monsoon rainfall variability over western India, 1781-1860  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations into the climatic forcings that affect the long-term variability of the Indian summer monsoon are constrained by a lack of reliable rainfall data prior to the late nineteenth century. Extensive qualitative and quantitative meteorological information for the pre-instrumental period exists within historical documents, although these materials have been largely unexplored. This paper presents the first reconstruction of monsoon variability using documentary sources, focussing on western India for the period 1781-1860. Three separate reconstructions are generated, for (1) Mumbai, (2) Pune and (3) the area of Gujarat bordering the Gulf of Khambat. A composite chronology is then produced from the three reconstructions, termed the Western India Monsoon Rainfall reconstruction (WIMR). The WIMR exhibits four periods of generally deficient monsoon rainfall (1780-1785, 1799-1806, 1830-1838 and 1845-1857) and three of above-normal rainfall (1788-1794, 1813-1828 and 1839-1844). The WIMR shows good correspondence with a dendroclimatic drought reconstruction for Kerala, although agreement with the western Indian portion of the tree-ring derived Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas is less strong. The reconstruction is used to examine the long-term relationship between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and monsoon rainfall over western India. This exhibits peaks and troughs in correlation over time, suggesting a regular long-term fluctuation. This may be an internal oscillation in the ENSO-monsoon system or may be related to volcanic aerosol forcings. Further reconstructions of monsoon rainfall are necessary to validate this. The study highlights uncertainties in existing published rainfall records for 1817-1846 for western India.

Adamson, George C. D.; Nash, David J.

2014-02-01

326

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

327

Fragments, Combustion and Earthquakes  

E-print Network

This paper is devoted to show the advantages of introducing a geometric viewpoint and a non extensive formulation in the description of apparently unrelated phenomena: combustion and earthquakes. Here, it is shown how the introduction of a fragmentation analysis based on that formulation leads to find a common point for description of these phenomena

Oscar Sotolongo-Costa; Antonio Posadas

2005-03-16

328

Earthquakes: Tsunamigenic Middle Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Violent uplift of western Crete in AD 365 generated a Mediterranean-wide tsunami that tossed boats onto house-tops in Alexandria, Egypt. Although a similar earthquake may not recur for 5,000 years, contiguous fault segments could rupture sooner.

Bilham, Roger

2008-04-01

329

Earthquake damage to schools  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These unusual slides show earthquake damage to school and university buildings around the world. They graphically illustrate the potential danger to our schools, and to the welfare of our children, that results from major earthquakes. The slides range from Algeria, where a collapsed school roof is held up only by students' desks; to Anchorage, Alaska, where an elementary school structure has split in half; to California and other areas, where school buildings have sustained damage to walls, roofs, and chimneys. Interestingly, all the United States earthquakes depicted in this set of slides occurred either on a holiday or before or after school hours, except the 1935 tremor in Helena, Montana, which occurred at 11:35 am. It undoubtedly would have caused casualties had the schools not been closed days earlier by Helena city officials because of a damaging foreshock. Students in Algeria, the People's Republic of China, Armenia, and other stricken countries were not so fortunate. This set of slides represents 17 destructive earthquakes that occurred in 9 countries, and covers more than a century--from 1886 to 1988. Two of the tremors, both of which occurred in the United States, were magnitude 8+ on the Richter Scale, and four were magnitude 7-7.9. The events represented by the slides (see table below) claimed more than a quarter of a million lives.

McCullough, Heather

1994-01-01

330

Earthquake Prediction is Coming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes (1) several methods used in earthquake research, including P:S ratio velocity studies, dilatancy models; and (2) techniques for gathering base-line data for prediction using seismographs, tiltmeters, laser beams, magnetic field changes, folklore, animal behavior. The mysterious Palmdale (California) bulge is discussed. (CS)

MOSAIC, 1977

1977-01-01

331

Homogeneous catalogs of earthquakes.  

PubMed

The usual bias in earthquake catalogs against shocks of small magnitudes can be removed by testing the randomness of the magnitudes of successive shocks. The southern California catalog, 1933-1967, is found to be unbiased in the sense of the test at magnitude 4 or above; the cutoff is improved to M = 3 for the subcatalog 1953-1967. PMID:16578700

Knopoff, L; Gardner, J K

1969-08-01

332

Testing earthquake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical tests of earthquake predictions require a null hypothesis to model occasional chance successes. To define and quantify `chance success' is knotty. Some null hypotheses ascribe chance to the Earth: Seismicity is modeled as random. The null distribution of the number of successful predictions -- or any other test statistic -- is taken to be its distribution when the fixed

Brad Luen; Philip B. Stark

2008-01-01

333

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the theory of plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes and seismic zones. Materials include an overview of plate tectonics, a description of Earth's crustal plates and their motions, and descriptions of the four types of seismic zones.

334

Charles Darwin's earthquake reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked,

Shamil Galiev

2010-01-01

335

Earthquakes Within Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers an model for explaining earthquakes that occur within continents, namely, the New Madrid seismic zone. The model, known as the Booby Trap, is an example of a complex system. A link to a video depicting the model is also provided.

Stein, Seth

336

The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

2013-12-01

337

Geological indicators of a suspected seismic source from Peninsular India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in seismicity in Peninsular India during the last few decades has initiated various studies for identifying seismogenic structures and their behaviour. Even though few earthquakes occurred at well defined structures many of them occurred at unexpected locations where no previous seismicity reported. However, studies subsequent to the 1993 Latur earthquake as well as the studies at different parts of peninsular India, have led to the identification of pre-existing faults that have activated in the past. Studies elsewhere in the cratonic hinderland also show that the damaging earthquakes occur on pre-existing faults with a recurrence period of tens of thousands of year Studies subsequent to 1989 Wadakkancheri earthquake (M=4.3) identified Desamangalam fault which are capable of generating earthquakes. However, it is noted that a number of later events are occurring much south of the Desamangalam fault. We identified a set of NW-SE trending lineaments which are influencing the drainage pattern of the area. A network of paleochannels is also observed in the remote sensing analysis and field studies in this area. Regionally these lineaments meeting one of the major lineaments in central Kerala called Periyar lineament, in the south. Charnockite rocks constitutes the major rock type of the region. These rocks at places developed strong foliation similar to the lineament direction. Detailed field studies identified oblique movement (reverse and strike slip component) along NW-SE trending faults which are dipping south-west. The studies also find NNE-SSW trending vertical faults showing strike-slip movement. The damage zones of each of these faults bears different mineral precipitations and gouge injections of episodic nature. The presence of loose gouge may indicate the faulting is a much later development in the brittle regime. The sense of movement of the observed faults may indicate that the various river/drainage abandonment observed in the area are due to the movement of these faults. The correlation of the ongoing earthquake activity with these faults and their sense of movement akin to the present stress condition of Peninsular India and its episodic nature as well as its influence on the drainage network of the area may indicate that these faults may be adjusting to the present tectonic regime and are capable of producing moderate events. Key words Peninsular India, stress regime, lineaments, brittle deformation

Singh, Yogendra; John, Biju; P, Ganapathy G.; S, Divyalakshmi K.

2014-05-01

338

The 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance: A Case Study - Using an Earthquake Anniversary to Promote Earthquake Preparedness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last October 21st marked the 140th anniversary of the M6.8 1868 Hayward Earthquake, the last damaging earthquake on the southern Hayward Fault. This anniversary was used to help publicize the seismic hazards associated with the fault because: (1) the past five such earthquakes on the Hayward Fault occurred about 140 years apart on average, and (2) the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system is the most likely (with a 31 percent probability) fault in the Bay Area to produce a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the next 30 years. To promote earthquake awareness and preparedness, over 140 public and private agencies and companies and many individual joined the public-private nonprofit 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance (1868alliance.org). The Alliance sponsored many activities including a public commemoration at Mission San Jose in Fremont, which survived the 1868 earthquake. This event was followed by an earthquake drill at Bay Area schools involving more than 70,000 students. The anniversary prompted the Silver Sentinel, an earthquake response exercise based on the scenario of an earthquake on the Hayward Fault conducted by Bay Area County Offices of Emergency Services. 60 other public and private agencies also participated in this exercise. The California Seismic Safety Commission and KPIX (CBS affiliate) produced professional videos designed forschool classrooms promoting Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Starting in October 2007, the Alliance and the U.S. Geological Survey held a sequence of press conferences to announce the release of new research on the Hayward Fault as well as new loss estimates for a Hayward Fault earthquake. These included: (1) a ShakeMap for the 1868 Hayward earthquake, (2) a report by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasting the number of employees, employers, and wages predicted to be within areas most strongly shaken by a Hayward Fault earthquake, (3) new estimates of the losses associated with a Hayward Fault earthquake, (4) new ground motion simulations of a Hayward Fault earthquake, (5) a new USGS Fact Sheet about the earthquake and the Hayward Fault, (6) a virtual tour of the 1868 earthquake, and (7) a new online field trip guide to the Hayward Fault using locations accessible by car and public transit. Finally, the California Geological Survey and many other Alliance members sponsored the Third Conference on Earthquake Hazards in the East Bay at CSU East Bay in Hayward for the three days following the 140th anniversary. The 1868 Alliance hopes to commemorate the anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake every year to maintain and increase public awareness of this fault, the hazards it and other East Bay Faults pose, and the ongoing need for earthquake preparedness and mitigation.

Brocher, T. M.; Garcia, S.; Aagaard, B. T.; Boatwright, J. J.; Dawson, T.; Hellweg, M.; Knudsen, K. L.; Perkins, J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Stoffer, P. W.; Zoback, M.

2008-12-01

339

Archaeological Survey of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees IndiaâÂÂs ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring IndiaâÂÂs methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.

340

Association between earthquake and equatorial waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation over South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, efforts has been made to correlate the equatorial planetary waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and to seismic activities in South East Asian region. The OLR data has been obtained from NOAA Climate Prediction Centre web site. The earthquake information has been obtained from USGS earthquake information centre. This paper present observations for the two earthquakes, i.e., 26 January 2001, Bhuj, India and 26 December 2004, Sumatra, Indonesia. The normal days OLR has been compared to the OLR recorded during the seismic events. It has been observed that there is significant enhancement in OLR, few days before the earthquake event. The Morlet 6.6 wavelet analysis shows the presence of planetary waves in equatorial OLR for period about 6 days, during and about 80 days before the earthquake. The OLR data were analysed in such a way that the other possible effects are minimized. The anomalous increase and presence of planetary waves before 80 days of seismic event shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake. It should be noted that planetary waves is generated only in the equatorial region irrespective of strong/severe earthquake location.

Yadav, Manohar Lal

341

Thrusting of the Hindu Kush over the Southeastern Tadjik Basin, Afghanistan: Evidence from two large earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We infer from the mechanisms and depths of two large earthquakes that the Hindu Kush is actively thrusting northwest over the Tadjik basin and that the basin is closing rather than being displaced to the west. Teleseismic body waves were used to determine focal mechanisms and depths for the two largest shallow earthquakes on the southern edge of the basin. The two earthquakes, on June 24, 1972 (mb=6.0), and December 16, 1982 (mb=6.2), have seismic moments of 2 × 1018 N-m and 6 × 1018 N-m, respectively. Focal mechanisms of both events indicate almost pure thrust faulting with nodal planes striking northeast-southwest. The inferred fault planes dip southeast, at 20° for the first event and 50° for the second. The P axes for both events are oblique to the direction of relative motion between India and Asia, suggesting that the Pamir is overthrusting the basin to the west. Depths for both earthquakes are between 20 and 25 km and place them well below the Tadjik basin sediments. The depths and steep fault planes suggest that these earthquakes represent a downdip extension within the basement of shallow folding and thrusting seen in the sediments northwest of the events. Thus convergence in Afghanistan between India and Eurasia is taken up along southeast dipping thrust faults north of the Hindu Kush as well as by northward subduction under the southern part of the range.

Abers, Geoffrey; Bryan, Carol; Roecker, Steven; McCaffrey, Robert

1988-02-01

342

Earthquake Machine Lite: Activity 2 of 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity continues and compliments the previous Earthquake Machine activity by pointing out the advantages and limitations of the Earthquake Machine model, explaining the causes of earthquakes and extending students' understanding about earthquake generation, occurrence, and prediction through the collection and interpretation of data. It addresses the following questions: How frequently do earthquakes occur?; Are all earthquakes large events?; How frequently do large events occur?; Can earthquakes be predicted?; How does the Earthquake Machine model compare to global data?; and How do scientists strive for objectivity in their results? It uses the Earthquake Machine models and slide presentation from the previous activity and includes homework exercises, teacher background materials, standards alignments, and references.

Hubenthal, Michael

343

Turkish Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (TCIP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a World Bank project a government-sponsored Turkish Catastrophic Insurance Pool (TCIP) is created in 2000 with the essential aim of transferring the government's financial burden of replacing earthquake-damaged housing to international reinsurance and capital markets. Providing coverage to about 2.9 Million homeowners TCIP is the largest insurance program in the country with about 0.5 Billion USD in its own reserves and about 2.3 Billion USD in total claims paying capacity. The total payment for earthquake damage since 2000 (mostly small, 226 earthquakes) amounts to about 13 Million USD. The country-wide penetration rate is about 22%, highest in the Marmara region (30%) and lowest in the south-east Turkey (9%). TCIP is the sole-source provider of earthquake loss coverage up to 90,000 USD per house. The annual premium, categorized on the basis of earthquake zones type of structure, is about US90 for a 100 square meter reinforced concrete building in the most hazardous zone with 2% deductible. The earthquake engineering related shortcomings of the TCIP is exemplified by fact that the average rate of 0.13% (for reinforced concrete buildings) with only 2% deductible is rather low compared to countries with similar earthquake exposure. From an earthquake engineering point of view the risk underwriting (Typification of housing units to be insured, earthquake intensity zonation and the sum insured) of the TCIP needs to be overhauled. Especially for large cities, models can be developed where its expected earthquake performance (and consequently the insurance premium) can be can be assessed on the basis of the location of the unit (microzoned earthquake hazard) and basic structural attributes (earthquake vulnerability relationships). With such an approach, in the future the TCIP can contribute to the control of construction through differentiation of premia on the basis of earthquake vulnerability.

Erdik, M.; Durukal, E.; Sesetyan, K.

2009-04-01

344

Real time earthquake forecasting in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have applied an earthquake clustering epidemic model to real time data at the Italian Earthquake Data Center operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for short-term forecasting of moderate and large earthquakes in Italy. In this epidemic-type model every earthquake is regarded, at the same time, as being triggered by previous events and triggering following earthquakes.

M. Murru; R. Console; G. Falcone

2009-01-01

345

Deterministic seismic hazard macrozonation of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are known to have occurred in Indian subcontinent from ancient times. This paper presents the results of seismic hazard analysis of India (6°-38°N and 68°-98°E) based on the deterministic approach using latest seismicity data (up to 2010). The hazard analysis was done using two different source models (linear sources and point sources) and 12 well recognized attenuation relations considering varied tectonic provinces in the region. The earthquake data obtained from different sources were homogenized and declustered and a total of 27,146 earthquakes of moment magnitude 4 and above were listed in the study area. The sesismotectonic map of the study area was prepared by considering the faults, lineaments and the shear zones which are associated with earthquakes of magnitude 4 and above. A new program was developed in MATLAB for smoothing of the point sources. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area was divided into small grids of size 0.1° × 0.1° (approximately 10 × 10 km), and the hazard parameters were calculated at the center of each of these grid cells by considering all the seismic sources within a radius of 300 to 400 km. Rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) and spectral accelerations for periods 0.1 and 1 s have been calculated for all the grid points with a deterministic approach using a code written in MATLAB. Epistemic uncertainty in hazard definition has been tackled within a logic-tree framework considering two types of sources and three attenuation models for each grid point. The hazard evaluation without logic tree approach also has been done for comparison of the results. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of hazard values are presented in the paper.

Kolathayar, Sreevalsa; Sitharam, T. G.; Vipin, K. S.

2012-10-01

346

Tidal Triggering Effect on Earthquake Occurrence Precursory to Large Thrust Earthquakes in Subduction Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed a clear tidal triggering effect on earthquake occurrence precursory to large thrust earthquakes associated with the subduction of oceanic plates. We measured the correlation between the Earth tide and earthquake occurrence using shallow reverse-fault type earthquakes with Mw >= 5.0 in and around the focal regions of eleven interplate earthquakes with Mw >= 7.5. For each earthquake, we

S. Tanaka; M. Ohtake; H. Sato

2004-01-01

347

Earthquake Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in a jigsaw format, they start in an expert group analyzing one particular aspect of the earthquake that occurred (e.g., tsunami, geologic maps, damage assessment). After analyzing the data/information provided, students get into their new groups, which are a "consulting team" to make recommendations to key governmental officials about the earthquake they studied and implications for future development. These are presented in a poster session style event, which then leads to individual papers that are written about the same topic, which are peer reviewed and revised. Students are asked to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses in the process and to consider changes for future opportunities, as well as connect the curriculum to the overall process of science.

Kraft, Kaatje

348

Identified EM Earthquake Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

2014-05-01

349

The Earthquake That Tweeted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in mobile technology and social networking are enabling new behaviors that were not possible even a few short years ago. When people experience a tiny earthquake, it's more likely they're going to reach for their phones and tell their friends about it than actually take cover under a desk. With 175 million Twitter accounts, 750 million Facebook users and more than five billion mobile phones in the world today, people are generating terrific amounts of data simply by going about their everyday lives. Given the right tools and guidance these connected individuals can act as the world's largest sensor network, doing everything from reporting on earthquakes to anticipating global crises. Drawing on the author's experience as a user researcher and experience designer, this presentation will discuss these trends in crowdsourcing the collection and analysis of data, and consider their implications for how the public encounters the earth sciences in their everyday lives.

Petersen, D.

2011-12-01

350

The Myths of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

Day, Frederick A.

1988-01-01

351

Victoria India Doctoral Scholarships  

E-print Network

the opportunity to work with top researchers and supervisors, use cutting- edge research infrastructure.studymelbourne.vic.gov.au/hindi/scholarships The Australia India Institute is managing theVictoria India Doctoral Scholarships with funding from the, medicine, the social sciences and humanities, business studies, education and the arts. Victoria

Liley, David

352

Competitiveness and trade potential of India’s dairy industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has become the world’s largest milk producer but its dairy industry lacks market access. This paper determines how world dairy policy reforms would affect dairy production and trade in India and the competitiveness of its dairy industry. We measure nominal protection coefficient for India’s dairy products to determine level and change in competitiveness between 1975 and 2001. We estimate

Manitra Rakotoarisoa; Ashok Gulati

2006-01-01

353

The Kashmir Earthquake Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 8, 2005, a major earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale struck the Himalayan region of Kashmir. Around 90,000\\u000a people died in the mass disaster. The Bone and Joint Hospital in Kashmir found itself in a relatively unique situation of\\u000a having to deal with the orthopedic morbidity generated by this quake. The hospital received 468 patients over a

Shabir A. Dhar; Manzoor A. Halwai; Mohammed R. Mir; Zaid A. Wani; M. F. Butt; Masood I. Bhat; Arshiya Hamid

2007-01-01

354

Silent earthquakes in Cascades  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Evidence from GPS and seismometer data indicate that slow faulting has occurred along the plate interface deep beneath the Klamath Mountains nearly every 11 months since at least 1998. Since slow earthquakes occur throughout Cascadia, they may also be prevalent in other subduction zones worldwide. This study provides evidence for the role of fluid migration as the controlling trigger in other slow-slip faults and can be used to refine physics estimates of slow crustal movement.

Al., Szeliga E.; Agu

355

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center, aims to reduce earthquake hazard by defining the locations of future earthquakes, calculating expected ground motions, and conveying this information to the general public. The SCECùs homepage contains access to research and data, including links to databases for strong motion and seismograms, and a searchable and sortable bibliographic database of publications. Also available are GPS data and a network of GPS stations. A link to the Earthquake Information Network provides a searchable list of up-to-date internet earthquakes resources. Note, in order to access the SCEC Publications Database, a username and password are required. Use your own name for the username, and enter -webview as the password. SCEC is a first rate resource for earthquake engineers.

356

Housing Damage Following Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

1989-01-01

357

EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

2014-05-01

358

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2014-01-01

359

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2010-01-01

360

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2013-01-01

361

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2012-01-01

362

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2011-01-01

363

Assessment of Interplate and Intraplate Earthquakes  

E-print Network

of earthquakes are observed in the surface plates, interplate and intraplate earthquakes, which are classified, based on the location of the origin of an earthquake either between two plates or within the plate respectively. Limited work has been completed...

Bellam, Srigiri Shankar

2012-10-19

364

Earthquake forecasting: Statistics and Information  

E-print Network

We present an axiomatic approach to earthquake forecasting in terms of multi-component random fields on a lattice. This approach provides a method for constructing point estimates and confidence intervals for conditional probabilities of strong earthquakes under conditions on the levels of precursors. Also, it provides an approach for setting multilevel alarm system and hypothesis testing for binary alarms. We use a method of comparison for different earthquake forecasts in terms of the increase of Shannon information. 'Forecasting' and 'prediction' of earthquakes are equivalent in this approach.

Gertsik, V; Krichevets, A

2013-01-01

365

Earthquake Hazards Program: Visual Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary of earthquake terms features illustrations which accompany the definitions, where possible, to provide examples and additional reinforcement. Links to related terms are embedded in the text.

366

An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability of this population to earthquakes is amplified by poor infrastructure and building codes. The only event in this sequence included in the global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) catalog is a Mw 5.1 strike-slip event 18 km deep. At least 10 events in this sequence have been recorded globally (ISC). Many more events from the sequence have been recorded by a regional array of seismographs we have operated in Bangladesh since 2007. We apply several techniques to these data to explore source parameters and dimensions of seismogenesis in this sequence. We present both double-difference relocations and waveform modeling, which provide constraints on the source characteristics. Using the Mw 5.1 and other regional events as calibration, we obtain source parameters for several other events in the sequence. This sequence is ideal for double-difference relocation techniques because the source-receiver paths of the events in the sequence, recorded regionally, are very similar. The event relocation enables us to obtain accurate estimates of fault dimensions of this source. By combining accurate spatial dimensions of the source, the depth range of seismogenesis for the source zone, and well-constrained source parameters of events within the sequence, it we assess the maximum size of possible ruptures in this source.

Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

2013-12-01

367

The Distribution of Earthquakes: Where Do Large Earthquakes Occur?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the distribution of large earthquakes (magnitude greater than 6) in Southern California. Using online maps of earthquake epicenters in Southern California and the Los Angeles Basin, they will compare these distributions with historic distributions (1932-1996), and with respect to the locations of major fault traces.

Marquis, John

368

Earthquakes Forces of Nature: What Causes Earthquakes? (Frame Three)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows the relationship between plate tectonics and earthquakes (click on Tab 3). A world map shows the location of the San Andreas Fault and a cut away close up view of the fault area. Informational text about plate tectonics describes the causes of earthquakes.

369

West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover  

NSF Publications Database

... the first scientists to use GPS (global positioning system) technology to study earthquakes. An ... instrumentation," Miller says. "Until we had GPS geodesy, we regarded earthquake deformation in two ...

370

Characterization and evaluation of hydrological processes responsible for spatiotemporal variation of surface water quality at Narmada estuarine region in Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is an effort to trace the spatiotemporal variation in water at Narmada estuarine region through solute concentration. A total of 72 water samples were collected and analyzed from three sampling points along with in situ measurement of tidal height at monthly basis for 2 years. Result shows that spatiotemporal variation of water quality occurs because of the following main mechanisms, i.e., carbonate weathering, dilution and seawater-freshwater mixing. Firstly, points situated toward inland showing the simple dilution effect on receiving high amount of monsoonal precipitation. Secondly, tidal fluctuation pattern has a strong influence on the water quality taken from the point located in near proximity to the coast. Finally, it can be concluded that water quality shows a different response, in accordance with the different tidal phase and the distance from the sea.

Kumar, Nirmal; Kumar, Pankaj; Basil, George; Kumar, Rita N.; Kharrazi, Ali; Avtar, Ram

2014-04-01

371

Serogroups, Atypical Biochemical Characters, Colicinogeny and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Diarrhoeic Calves in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts • Escherichia coli (E. coli) from neonatal diarrhoea in calves carry genes and have biochemical properties (urease production) responsible for human disease and thus may be an important source of infection to humans as they are present in the faeces of the calves. • Different E. coli serogroups showed multiple antibiotic resistance so that the indiscriminate use of antibiotics

G. Arya; A. Roy; V. Choudhary; M. M. Yadav; C. G. Joshi

372

Seismic hazard evaluation of the Oman India pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Oman India pipeline will traverse approximately 1,135 km of the northern Arabian Sea floor and adjacent continental shelves at depths of over 3 km on its route from Ra`s al Jifan, Oman, to Rapar Gadhwali, India. The western part of the route crosses active faults that form the transform boundary between the Arabian and Indian tectonic plates. The eastern terminus of the route lies in the vicinity of the great (M {approximately} 8) 1829 Kutch, India earthquake. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis was used to estimate the values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with return periods of 200, 500 and 1,000 years at selected locations along the pipeline route and the submarine Indus Canyon -- a possible source of large turbidity flows. The results defined the ground-shaking hazard along the pipeline route and Indus Canyon for evaluation of risks to the pipeline from potential earthquake-induced geologic hazards such as liquefaction, slope instability, and turbidity flows. 44 refs.

Campbell, K.W.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Mullee, J.E.; Preston, R.

1996-12-31

373

Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

Savasci, Funda

2011-01-01

374

Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

Bailey, Nancy E.

2010-01-01

375

Magnitude and Energy of Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a paper presented at a meeting of the Seismological Society of America on April 29, 19551, we have revised previous work2 on the relation of earthquake magnitude M to energy E (in ergs). Methods formerly used to extend the magnitude scale for local earthquakes to teleseisms lead to inconsistencies, so that in effect three different magnitude scales are in

B. Gutenberg; C. F. Richter

1955-01-01

376

BBC News: Italy's Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BBC News article lists the long line of earthquake history in Italy from the year 1693 to 1997. The article describes the intensity and also the damages caused by each earthquake. Images and links for further information are included as well.

2009-04-14

377

Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1?MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10?MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

2014-01-01

378

How Buildings Respond to Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, produced by MCEER, provides an explanation of how buildings typically respond to earthquakes. The article discusses physics concepts such as Newtonâs Laws, inertial forces, and the frequency and period of buildings. Material properties including stiffness, ductility, and damping are also discussed in terms of their influence on building responses to earthquakes.

2007-05-23

379

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER  

E-print Network

of the intensity measures is also shown to be useful for characterizing the effect of near-fault ground motionsPACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER Vector-Valued Ground Motion Intensity Measures University PEER Report 2006/08 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering

Baker, Jack W.

380

Earthquake swarms in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We searched for earthquake swarms in South America between 1973 and 2009 using the global Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) catalogue. Seismicity rates vary greatly over the South American continent, so we employ a manual search approach that aims to be insensitive to spatial and temporal scales or to the number of earthquakes in a potential swarm. We identify 29

S. G. Holtkamp; M. E. Pritchard; R. B. Lohman

2011-01-01

381

GEM - The Global Earthquake Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 500,000 people died in the last decade due to earthquakes and tsunamis, mostly in the developing world, where the risk is increasing due to rapid population growth. In many seismic regions, no hazard and risk models exist, and even where models do exist, they are intelligible only by experts, or available only for commercial purposes. The Global Earthquake Model

A. Smolka

2009-01-01

382

Earthquakes: Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the San Andreas Fault is the longest and one of the most active fault zones in California, it is not responsible for every earthquake in the state. This video segment describes the geologic setting of the San Andreas fault and a network of other active faults, particularly thrust faults, closer to Los Angeles, and explains why these may present a greater danger to the city than the San Andreas Fault. The segment is five minutes fifteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included. Running time for the video is 5:15.

2012-08-28

383

Earthquake Information System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IAEMIS (Integrated Automated Emergency Management Information System) is the principal tool of an earthquake preparedness program developed by Martin Marietta and the Mid-America Remote Sensing Center (MARC). It is a two-component set of software, data and procedures to provide information enabling management personnel to make informed decisions in disaster situations. The NASA-developed program ELAS, originally used to analyze Landsat data, provides MARC with a spatially-oriented information management system. Additional MARC projects include land resources management, and development of socioeconomic data.

1991-01-01

384

Dynamics of earthquake faults  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault, discussing the model's behavior in the context of current seismology. The topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the distinction between small and large events and the magnitude vs frequency distribution; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher-dimensional models; and (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

Carlson, J.M. (Department of Physics and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Langer, J.S. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Shaw, B.E. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 (United States))

1994-04-01

385

Heat-Related Mortality in India: Excess All-Cause Mortality Associated with the 2010 Ahmedabad Heat Wave  

PubMed Central

Introduction In the recent past, spells of extreme heat associated with appreciable mortality have been documented in developed countries, including North America and Europe. However, far fewer research reports are available from developing countries or specific cities in South Asia. In May 2010, Ahmedabad, India, faced a heat wave where the temperatures reached a high of 46.8°C with an apparent increase in mortality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the heat wave impact and assess the associated excess mortality. Methods We conducted an analysis of all-cause mortality associated with a May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, to determine whether extreme heat leads to excess mortality. Counts of all-cause deaths from May 1–31, 2010 were compared with the mean of counts from temporally matched periods in May 2009 and 2011 to calculate excess mortality. Other analyses included a 7-day moving average, mortality rate ratio analysis, and relationship between daily maximum temperature and daily all-cause death counts over the entire year of 2010, using month-wise correlations. Results The May 2010 heat wave was associated with significant excess all-cause mortality. 4,462 all-cause deaths occurred, comprising an excess of 1,344 all-cause deaths, an estimated 43.1% increase when compared to the reference period (3,118 deaths). In monthly pair-wise comparisons for 2010, we found high correlations between mortality and daily maximum temperature during the locally hottest “summer” months of April (r?=?0.69, p<0.001), May (r?=?0.77, p<0.001), and June (r?=?0.39, p<0.05). During a period of more intense heat (May 19–25, 2010), mortality rate ratios were 1.76 [95% CI 1.67–1.83, p<0.001] and 2.12 [95% CI 2.03–2.21] applying reference periods (May 12–18, 2010) from various years. Conclusion The May 2010 heat wave in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India had a substantial effect on all-cause excess mortality, even in this city where hot temperatures prevail through much of April-June. PMID:24633076

Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Knowlton, Kim; Hess, Jeremy J.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Deol, Bhaskar; Bhaskar, Priya Shekhar; Hess, Jeremy; Jaiswal, Anjali; Khosla, Radhika; Knowlton, Kim; Mavalankar, Mavalankar; Rajiva, Ajit; Sarma, Amruta; Sheffield, Perry

2014-01-01

386

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A national, nonprofit technical society, the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) was founded in 1949 and aims to "reduce earthquake risk by advancing the science and practice of earthquake engineering." EERI's searchable site contains news, timely information, and documents pertaining to earthquakes and related engineering issues. Highlights include the reconnaissance reports with in-depth coverage of current and past quakes. The Web exclusives section contains photos and testimonies, such as a slide show and text of an accompanying testimony made to the US House of Representatives Committee on Science on lessons learned from the Turkey, Taiwan, and Mexico City earthquakes. On the site's main page, users may browse through the links of highlights, such as the one to the EERI newsletter.

387

Early Earthquakes of the Americas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

Ni, James

2004-11-01

388

Arsenic in India's Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In "humanity's biggest mass poisoning," millions of residents of South Asia, including India's West Bengal, live with arsenic-contaminated water -- and the response to the problem has been a sluggish one.

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (AAAS;); Dimascio Jen (AAAS;)

2007-03-23

389

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

390

Translating Terror in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's ambiguous position in relation to U.S. hegemony is reflected in the Indian media's response to the 9-11 attacks and the U.S. bombing of Afghanistan. Historically, not only has India been one of the most vocal third world critics of U.S. economic and political influence, it has also played a strategic military and economic role among the world's democra- cies.

Paula Chakravartty

2002-01-01

391

Looking ahead in India.  

PubMed

India and China contain more than 40% of the world's population, yet in India it is painfully clear that the political commitment necessary to tackle India's greatest problem is not there in full measure. India's present per capita income is less than $300, and nearly 65% of the people live below the poverty line. The average Indian woman produces 5 children; even if the Indian government's efforts to reduce family size to 2 children is successful by the year 2040, India will have a population of 2.5 billion. The possibility that India will succeed in reducing average family size to 2 children appears remote. 30 years ago, India became the 1st developing country to formally make family planning a matter of national policy. In the early years of the national family planning programs, practitioners had access mostly to sterilization and condoms. Over the years, theIndian government persuaded the US and other western donors to give $2 billion to population control programs. Still, the population continues to grow annually at the rate of 2.1%. Government statistics reflect the ups and downs of national population control policies; thenumber of new family planning users increased from 4.3 million in 1974-1975 to 12.5 million in 1976-1977, due largely to a dramatic increase in vasectomies. Tge number of new contraceptive users fell to 4.5 million after the "emergency" was lifted in 1977. The present Indian generation is far more receptive culturally as well as sociologically to the concept of population control than most other developing countries. What is needed now is renewed political committment by the Gandhi adminiostration. India cannot afford to replicate the Chinese way of tackling overpopulation without inflicting human abuses and without undermining its painstakingly cultivated democratic system. PMID:12340887

Gupte, P

1986-03-01

392

Model of earthquake mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic mechanism outlined in an earlier study was investigated using a laboratory model simulating discrete wave movement of a layer of a deformable body under the influence of a traveling deformation wave and periodic displacements of parts of a body when there are elastic couplings to a support. The earlier study gave what appeared to be a clear picture of the fundamental physical aspects of the mechanism of accumulation and release of shearing stresses and discrete movements of crustal blocks. For example, the model simulates the genesis of horizontal movements of a layer of an elastic body, the gradual accumulation of elastic energy, the process of periodic displacements (jumps) of elastic layers coupled by mechanical cohesion and frictional forces to a supporting surface, the influence of the physico-mechanical properties of rock movements during their cohesion with the underlying surface, and the magnitude of rock movements during earthquakes. It becomes clear that an earthquake is a jumplike process of return of terrestrial rocks to their normal state after a prolonged period of stresses.

Dobrolyubov, A. I.

1984-12-01

393

Possible earthquake rupture speeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though mode II shear fractures (primarily strike slip earthquakes) can not only exceed the shear wave speed of the medium, but can even reach the compressional wave speed, steady-state calculations showed that speeds between the Rayleigh and shear wave speeds were not possible, thus defining a forbidden zone. For more than 30 years it was believed that this result in which the rupture jumps over the forbidden zone, also holds for 3-D ruptures, in which mode II and mode III (mainly dip-slip faulting) are mixed. Using unprecedentedly fine spatial and temporal grids, we show that even in the simple configuration of homogeneous fault properties and linear slip-weakening friction law, a realistic 3-D rupture which start from rest and accelerates to some higher velocity, actually does pass smoothly through this forbidden zone, but very fast. The energy flux from the rupture tip is always positive, even within the so-called forbidden zone, contrary to the 2-D case. Finally, our results show that the width of the cohesive zone initially decreases, then increases as the rupture exceeds the shear wave speed and finally again decreases as the rupture accelerates to a speed of ~90% of the compressional wave speed. Several movies illustrating the development of the ruptures will be shown. A. Bizzari and S. Das (2012). Possible earthquake rupture speeds, EPSL, submitted.

Das, S.; Bizzarri, A.

2012-12-01

394

A Cross-Sectional, Randomized Cluster Sample Survey of Household Vulnerability to Extreme Heat among Slum Dwellers in Ahmedabad, India  

PubMed Central

Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061

Tran, Kathy V.; Azhar, Gulrez S.; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

2013-01-01

395

A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.  

PubMed

Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061

Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

2013-06-01

396

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture Gilead Wurman  

E-print Network

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture By Gilead Wurman 2010 #12; #12; 1 Abstract Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow

Allen, Richard M.

397

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering  

E-print Network

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July EARTHQUAKE CHARACTERISTICS WITH TWEETS L. Burks1 *, M. Miller1 *, and R. Zadeh2 ABSTRACT Here we demonstrate a model that combines Tweets following significant earthquakes with basic site and earthquake

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

398

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering  

E-print Network

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July earthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodologies for simulated ground

Baker, Jack W.

399

Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

Stations, University O.

400

Lab 6 : Earthquakes --II: Magnitude & Intensity Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Lab 6 : Earthquakes -- II: Magnitude & Intensity Introduction Humans, and scientists to earthquakes as well. There are two ways to measure earthquakes. One way is to measure the energy released by the seismic event. Scales derived to rank earthquakes based on their energy are termed magnitude scales

Chen, Po

401

Lesson 4: Earthquakes Introduc4on  

E-print Network

Lesson 4: Earthquakes #12;Introduc4on · Earthquakes have had devasta4ng effects of history. · Socie4es at risk of earthquakes have responded to them in a number in regions of seismic ac4vity, earthquakes will exact a toll in both lives

Chen, Po

402

Introduction Earthquake prediction research is based on  

E-print Network

126 Introduction Earthquake prediction research is based on understanding the long-term behaviour a fault is showing a series of earthquakes at regular time intervals and similar in size. These are called characteristic earthquakes and are studied in detail. One example of a characteristic earthquake sequence

Haak, Hein

403

Recent earthquakes in northern New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Massena, New York area located along the St. Lawrence River in northern New York has been the site of significant earthquake activity including the largest earthquake in New York (m = 6.0) on September 5, 1944. Historic earthquake data indicates the Cornwall-Massena area is a region of relatively high seismic activity, and the earthquake activity has been persistent for

F. A. Revetta; C. Bockus; B. OBrian

1993-01-01

404

Real-Time Earthquake Forecasting in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply an earthquake clustering epidemic model to real-time data of the Italian Earthquake Data Center operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia since January 2006 for short-term moderate and large earthquakes forecasting in Italy based on smoothed seismicity. The forecast uses earthquake data only, with no explicit use of tectonic, geologic, or geodetic information. In this model

M. Murru; R. Console; G. Falcone

2006-01-01

405

Regional Seismic Amplitude Modeling and Tomography for Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirically explosions have been discriminated from natural earthquakes using regional amplitude ratio techniques such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. We demonstrate that such ratios discriminate nuclear tests from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling. For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East.

Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Sweeney, J.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

2008-12-01

406

Prediction of earthquake damages and reliability analysis using fuzzy sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis of randomness of earthquake occurrence and fuzziness of earthquake intensity, a method is obtained by treating the earthquake damage prediction as fuzzy-random event. The prediction results expressed by the fuzzy probabilistic subset wholly estimated the earthquake damage assessment. In addition, considering the fuzziness of earthquake intensity, the fuzzy earthquake intensity and crisp earthquake intensity are defined.

Zhong Zhihuan; Yu Junjing

1990-01-01

407

Accessing Current, Recent and Historical Earthquake Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the many Internet tools that are currently available for accessing earthquake data. Students discover that by using these tools one can obtain information (such as location, origin time and magnitude) about the most recent earthquakes; search historical earthquake catalogs for earthquakes in a given region over a selected time period; and view, download or make maps of recent or historical earthquake activity of the world or of a selected region. They also learn that the tools support education and research activities related to earthquakes such as: maintaining a classroom map of significant earthquakes; calculating earthquake magnitude from educational seismograph records and comparing with official magnitude estimates; obtaining historical earthquake data for a specific area to relate a recent event to the background seismicity; and analyzing sequences of earthquake activity. There is a link to information about obtaining and using seismograms.

Braile, Larry

408

The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 9 March 1957 Aleutian earthquake has been estimated as the third largest earthquake this century and has the longest aftershock zone of any earthquake ever recorded—1200 km. However, due to a lack of high-quality seismic data, the actual source parameters for this earthquake have been poorly determined. We have examined all the available waveform data to determine the seismic moment, rupture area, and slip distribution. These data include body, surface and tsunami waves. Using body waves, we have estimated the duration of significant moment release as 4 min. From surface wave analysis, we have determined that significant moment release occurred only in the western half of the aftershock zone and that the best estimate for the seismic moment is 50 100×1020 Nm. Using the tsunami waveforms, we estimated the source area of the 1957 tsunami by backward propagation. The tsunami source area is smaller than the aftershock zone and is about 850 km long. This does not include the Unalaska Island area in the eastern end of the aftershock zone, making this area a possible seismic gap and a possible site of a future large or great earthquake. We also inverted the tsunami waveforms for the slip distribution. Slip on the 1957 rupture zone was highest in the western half near the epicenter. Little slip occurred in the eastern half. The moment is estimated as 88×1020 Nm, or M w =8.6, making it the seventh largest earthquake during the period 1900 to 1993. We also compare the 1957 earthquake to the 1986 Andreanof Islands earthquake, which occurred within a segment of the 1957 rupture area. The 1986 earthquake represents a rerupturing of the major 1957 asperity.

Johnson, Jean M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Ruff, Larry J.; Satake, Kenji; Kanamori, Hiroo; Sykes, Lynn R.

1994-03-01

409

Les violences entre hindous et musulmans au Gujarat (Inde) en 2002 : émeutes d'état, pogromes et réaction antijihadiste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riots between Hindus and Moslems increasingly hinge on political determinants. The violence of 2002 in Gujarati is however unique, due to the level of implication of political actors and to the government of that particular State. Such a political instrumentation has been facilitated by Islamic attacks organised in India since december 2001, thus fuelling a desire for reprisals within the

Christophe Jaffrelot

2003-01-01

410

The threat of silent earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Not all earthquakes shake the ground. The so-called silent types are forcing scientists to rethink their understanding of the way quake-prone faults behave. In rare instances, silent earthquakes that occur along the flakes of seaside volcanoes may cascade into monstrous landslides that crash into the sea and trigger towering tsunamis. Silent earthquakes that take place within fault zones created by one tectonic plate diving under another may increase the chance of ground-shaking shocks. In other locations, however, silent slip may decrease the likelihood of destructive quakes, because they release stress along faults that might otherwise seem ready to snap.

Cervelli, P.

2004-01-01

411

Importance of small earthquakes for stress transfers and earthquake triggering  

E-print Network

if we know the focal mechanism, to calculate stress for dis-stress change calculations have been used to predict the locations, focal mechanismsstress change with magnitude is difficult, because the accuracy of earthquake locations and focal mechanisms

Helmstetter, Agnes; Kagan, Yan Y; Jackson, David D

2005-01-01

412

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

413

Devastating Earthquake in Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The death toll will pass 10,000 today from Tuesday's earthquake, which measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and shattered a 400-mile stretch from northwestern Turkey to areas near central Ankara. Relief officials have publicly stated that they fear the worst for the estimated 35,000 people who remain trapped beneath rubble, as most will now have been without water for more than 72 hours. In addition to locating and rescuing survivors, the Turkish Government and international aid workers are working feverishly to organize relief efforts, prevent the spread of disease, repair damaged infrastructure, and contain a massive fire at the country's largest oil refinery. The sites listed provide information about this horrible act of nature

De Nie, Michael W.

414

Earthquake Breccias (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault breccias are one of the fundamental classes of fault rocks and are observed in many exhumed faults. Some breccias have long been assumed to form co-seismically, but textural or mechanistic evidence for the association with earthquakes has never been documented. For example, at dilational jogs in brittle faults, it is common to find small bodies of chaotic breccia in lenticular or rhombohedral voids bounded by main slip surfaces and linking segments. Sibson interpreted these 'implosion breccias' as evidence of wall rock fracturing during sudden unloading when the dilational jogs open during earthquake slip (Sibson 1985, PAGEOPH v. 124, n. 1, 159-175). However, the role of dynamic fracturing in forming these breccias has not been tested. Moreover, the criteria for identifying implosion breccia have not been defined - do all breccias in dilational jogs or step-overs represent earthquake slip? We are building a database of breccia and microbreccia textures to develop a strictly observational set of criteria for distinction of breccia texture classes. Here, we present observations from the right-lateral Pofadder Shear Zone, South Africa, and use our textural criteria to identify the relative roles of dynamic and quasi-static fracture patterns, comminution/grinding and attrition, hydrothermal alteration, dissolution, and cementation. Nearly 100% exposure in the hyper-arid region south of the Orange River allowed very detailed mapping of frictional fault traces associated with rupture events, containing one or more right-steps in each rupture trace. Fracture patterns characteristic of on- and off-fault damage associated with propagation of dynamic rupture are observed along straight segments of the faults. The wall rock fractures are regularly spaced, begin at the fault trace and propagate at a high angle to the fault, and locally branch into subsidiary fractures before terminating a few cm away. This pattern of fractures has been previously linked to dynamic fracture tip propagation in both field studies and analog experiments. In dilational jogs, these fractures interact and intersect the wall rock foliation to cut the wall rock into distinctive clast shapes and sizes, giving the breccia a characteristic texture that can be defined quantitatively by image analysis. Breccia clast morphology, size distribution and angularity are markers for dynamic fracture patterns. Older microbreccias are cemented, and interfingering grain boundaries between quartz in clasts and quartz in cement show that crystal plastic deformation of quartz has occurred after breccia cementation. These deformed breccias are cut by younger breccias, establishing cyclicity of brittle and ductile slip on the Pofadder Shear Zone. Our results distinguish between fault breccias that could have formed quasi-statically, and those that are the result of dynamic processes and therefore define a new tool for recognizing earthquakes in the rock record.

Rowe, C. D.; Melosh, B. L.; Lamothe, K.; Schnitzer, V.; Bate, C.

2013-12-01

415

INDIA’S ENERGY SECURITY AND THE NUCLEAR OPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security is one of the key challenges confronting the nation. Even though India is the eleventh largest producer of energy in the world, the gap between production and consumption is huge and growing. Most of the deficit in the energy front is due to the fact that India is a net importer of oil. India continues to depend heavily

Dhandapani Alagiri

2007-01-01

416

Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

2013-01-31

417

Visualizing Global Earthquakes â Where and Why do Earthquakes Occur?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This screenshot from this visualization shows a map of tectonic plate boundaries. The visualization transitions between global earthquake distribution to a map of plate boundaries, to clearly illustrate how they are related. This visualization also includes an overview of the distribution and magnitude of earthquakes at different types of plate boundaries. Click the image to enlarge or view the MP4 movie ( 31.1MB Jul27 11). The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to the distribution of earthquakes at and below the surface of earth and how their distribution is related to the geometry and type of plate boundaries. Because the depth of earthquakes can be difficult for students to visualize in 2D representations, this activity allows students to visualize the 3D distribution of earthquakes within Earth's surface, which is essential for understanding how different types of earthquakes occur in different tectonic settings. Talking points and questions are included to use this visualization as part of an interactive lecture. In addition to playing back the visualization, instructors can also download the visualization software and data set and explore it themselves.

Harwood, Cara

418

India: Why Fiscal Adjustment Now  

Microsoft Academic Search

India?s growth performance has been impressive over the past two decades. But its sustainability has been in question, first with the 1991 fiscal balance-of-payments crisis, and then again after 1997?98, when fiscal deficits returned to the 10 percent of GDP range and government debt grew further. Pinto and Zahir analyze the deterioration in India?s public finances and present evidence suggesting

Brian Pinto; Farah Zahir

2004-01-01

419

Geochemical challenge to earthquake prediction.  

PubMed

The current status of geochemical and groundwater observations for earthquake prediction in Japan is described. The development of the observations is discussed in relation to the progress of the earthquake prediction program in Japan. Three major findings obtained from our recent studies are outlined. (i) Long-term radon observation data over 18 years at the SKE (Suikoen) well indicate that the anomalous radon change before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake can with high probability be attributed to precursory changes. (ii) It is proposed that certain sensitive wells exist which have the potential to detect precursory changes. (iii) The appearance and nonappearance of coseismic radon drops at the KSM (Kashima) well reflect changes in the regional stress state of an observation area. In addition, some preliminary results of chemical changes of groundwater prior to the 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken nanbu) earthquake are presented. PMID:11607665

Wakita, H

1996-04-30

420

Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts  

E-print Network

Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

Kagan, Yan Y

2013-01-01

421

1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

2010-03-30

422

Electrostatics in sandstorms and earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new data demonstrating (1) that electrostatic charging in sandstorms is a necessary outcome in a class of rapid collisional flows, and (2) that electrostatic precursors to slip events - long reported in earthquakes - can be reproduced in the laboratory.

Shinbrot, Troy; Thyagu, Nirmal; Paehtz, Thomas; Herrmann, Hans

2010-11-01

423

Electrostatics in sandstorms and earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new data demonstrating (1) that electrostatic charging in sandstorms is a necessary outcome in a class of rapid collisional flows, and (2) that electrostatic precursors to slip events - long reported in earthquakes - can be reproduced in the laboratory.

Troy Shinbrot; Nirmal Thyagu; Thomas Paehtz; Hans Herrmann

2010-01-01

424

Rating the Size of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes how the work of K. Wadati, Charles F. Richter, Harry O. Wood, and Beno Gutenberg resulted in a way of rating earthquakes in southern California according to an instrumental analysis of the amount of energy they released in the form of seismic waves. This work resulted in the first use of the term "magnitude" for describing the amount of energy released by an earthquake, and in the development of the now-famous Richter Scale for quantifying earthquake magnitudes. Topics include the original definition of Richter magnitude and a brief synopsis of how Richter used earthquake data from southern California to graphically represent trace amplitude and develop a table of values that could be used to calculate magnitudes.

425

Big Trouble in Earthquake Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use online earthquake hazard maps and other relevant geological information to assess hazards to life and property associated with hypothetical earthquakes of differing magnitude. Students working in small groups use this information to develop strategies to reduce damage and loss of life in the area near their home or school. This lesson will help students gain an understanding of the effect of earthquakes on natural and man-made systems and afford them a better understanding of the complex consequences of earthquakes for human beings. The background information is structured to cater to both San Franciso area residents and non-residents. Students can be encouraged to work in groups to glean, process, and discuss information pertinent to their particular home or school locations from various public access world-wide-web sites.

426

Magma shakes up earthquake locations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numerical models were employed to examine the relationships between the orientation of volcanotectonic faults and magma movement. It was found that the direction of movement on strike-slip faults should be opposite to that predicted on the basis of regional stresses. The results do not explain the location of some volcanotectonic earthquakes and that the locations of preexisting faults may be more important in influencing the location of these earthquakes.

Roman, Diana; Agu

427

Post-earthquake dilatancy recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geodetic measurements of the 1964 Niigata, Japan earthquake and of three other examples are briefly examined. They show exponentially decaying subsidence for a year after the quakes. The observations confirm the dilatancy-fluid diffusion model of earthquake precursors and clarify the extent and properties of the dilatant zone. An analysis using one-dimensional consolidation theory is included which agrees well with this interpretation.

Scholz, C. H.

1974-01-01

428

Earthquake Terms Word Search Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a word search for basic earthquake terms. This site has multiple versions of the word search which can be viewed by refreshing the page, or hitting the restart button. The word search can be completed online or can be printed out. When completed online, the words are links to their definitions. The words used are magnitude, intensity, epicenter, waves, shaking, fault, strike, slip, thrust, landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and earthquake.

429

Managing India's environment  

SciTech Connect

Much has been written about the accident at Bhopal and the inadequacies of the Indian legislation for protecting the public health and safety against industrial hazards. India, however, has problems that loom much larger than those of insufficient legislation. First, the institutional and technological infrastructures required to make legal instruments function more effectively are missing in many parts of this country. Second, the government has neither the funds nor the legal and political authority to remedy serious enforcement gaps in the states. However, at the same time, India's distinctive cultural and political context could offer creative economic, administrative, and judicial strategies for environmental protection. This paper discusses these different factors that are involved in managing India's environment. 34 references, 1 table.

Jasanoff, S.

1986-10-01

430

Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust.

Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony [Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)

2005-11-23

431

Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain  

SciTech Connect

The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months. In contrast, hydrological changes accompanying pure reverse fault earthquakes are either undetected or indicate lowering of well levels and spring flows. Strike-slip and oblique-slip fault movements are associated with a mixture of responses but appear to release no more than 10% of the water volume of the same sized normal fault event. For two major normal fault earthquakes in the western United States (those of Hebgen Lake on August 17, 1959, and Borah Peak on October 28, 1983), there is sufficient river flow information to allow the magnitude and extent of the postseismic discharge to be quantified. The discharge has been converted to a rainfall equivalent, which is found to exceed 100 mm close to the fault and to remain above 10 mm at distances greater than 50 km. Results suggest that water-filled craks are ubiquitous throughout the brittle continental crust and that these cracks open and close throughout the earthquake cycle. The existence of tectonically induced fluid flows on the scale that we demonstrate has major implications for our understanding of the mechanical and chemical behavior of crustal rocks.

Muir-Wood, R.; King, G.C.P. [EQE International, Clapton (United Kingdom)]|[Inst. de Physique du Globe, Strasbourg (France)

1993-12-01

432

PV opportunities in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

1996-01-01

433

Three dimensional surface slip partitioning of the Sichuan earthquake from Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sichuan earthquake, Mw 7.9, struck the Longmen Shan range front, in the western Sichuan province, China, on 12 May 2008. It severely affected an area where little historical seismicity and little or no significant active shortening were reported before the earthquake (e.g. Gu et al., 1989; Chen et al., 1994; Gan et al., 2007). The Longmen Shan thrust system bounds the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and is considered as a transpressive zone since Triassic time that was reactivated during the India-Asia collision (e.g., Tapponnier and Molnar, 1977, Chen and Wilson 1996; Arne et al., 1997, Godard et al., 2009). However, contrasting geological evidences of sparse thrusting and marked dextral strike-slip faulting during the Quaternary along with high topography (Burchfiel et al., 1995; Densmore et al., 2007) have led to models of dynamically driven and sustained topography (Royden et al., 1997) limiting the role of earthquakes in relief building and leaving the mechanism of long term strain distribution in this area as an open question. Here we combine C and L band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) offsets data from ascending and descending paths to retrieve the three dimensional surface slips distribution all along the earthquake ruptures of the Sichuan earthquake. We show a quantitative assessment of the amount of co-seismic slip and its partitioning at the surface.

de Michele, M.; Raucoules, D.; de Sigoyer, J.; Pubellier, M.; Lasserre, C.; Pathier, E.; Klinger, Y.; van der Woerd, J.

2009-12-01

434

Progress in Understanding the Pre-Earthquake Associated Events by Analyzing IR Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present latest result in understanding the potential relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earths crust and atmosphere with an increase in IR flux as a potential signature of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that are related to earthquake activity, either pre-, co- or post seismic. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by the polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) gave an indication of the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients that are associated with the location (epicenter and local tectonic structures) and time of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths less than 50km. We analyzed broad category of associated pre-earthquake events, which provided evidence for changes in surface temperature, surface latent heat flux, chlorophyll concentrations, soil moisture, brightness temperature, emissivity of surface, water vapour in the atmosphere prior to the earthquakes occurred in Algeria, India, Iran, Italy, Mexico and Japan. The cause of such anomalies has been mainly related to the change of near-surface thermal properties due to complex lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmospheric interactions. As final results we present examples from the most recent (2000-2004) worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of EM emission mid-IR anomalies and a methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

Ouzounov, Dimitar; Taylor, Patrick; Bryant, Nevin

2004-01-01

435

Hydrogeologic framework of the Deccan terrain of the Koyna River basin, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The Koyna River basin in India drew the attention of geoscientists after an earthquake (magnitude 7) in 1967. Since then,\\u000a detailed geological, tectonic, and seismic investigations of this river basin have been carried out by several workers. However,\\u000a very little study has been done on its hydrogeological framework. The present work aims at filling this gap. Basalts, laterites,\\u000a alluvium,

Pradeep K. Naik; Arun K. Awasthi; A. Anand; Prakash C. Mohan

2001-01-01

436

Self-Organization in Models Sandpiles, Earthquakes, and Flashing Fireflies.  

E-print Network

Self-Organization in Models of Sandpiles, Earthquakes, and Flashing Fireflies. Kim Christensen.2 The earthquake mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1 #12;2 CONTENTS 4.2.1 Measurements of earthquakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.3 Self-similarities in earthquakes

Christensen, Kim

437

IDEERS: Introducing and Demonstrating Earthquake Engineering Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing and Demonstrating Earthquake Engineering Research in Schools (IDEERS) is a program of the University of Bristol "to communicate the challenge and excitement of earthquake engineering research to young people." Beginning with a detailed explanation of earthquake causes and effects, the Web site provides motivation for designing structurally reinforced buildings. Five recent earthquake disasters are outlined and related to the general impact of earthquakes on society. The material then describes building dynamics, such as vibration and resonance, and various techniques to design earthquake resistant buildings. There are some interesting animations that demonstrate important concepts.

2000-01-01

438

Recent Earthquakes in California and Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the US Geological Survey provides information and updates about the recent earthquakes in California and Nevada. Data include magnitude, time, location, coordinates, and depth for each earthquake, and each data page points to additional sources of information for the given earthquake. Users can access information via a clickable map of California or specialty maps of Long Valley, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Alternately, the site allows visitors to select an earthquake from a list of big earthquakes or a list of all earthquakes.

439

Do earthquakes exhibit self-organized criticality?  

PubMed

If earthquakes are phenomena of self-organized criticality (SOC), statistical characteristics of the earthquake time series should be invariant after the sequence of events in an earthquake catalog are randomly rearranged. In this Letter we argue that earthquakes are unlikely phenomena of SOC because our analysis of the Southern California Earthquake Catalog shows that the first-return-time probability PM(T) is apparently changed after the time series is rearranged. This suggests that the SOC theory should not be used to oppose the efforts of earthquake prediction. PMID:15245263

Yang, Xiaosong; Du, Shuming; Ma, Jin

2004-06-01

440

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at the University of Memphis offers an assortment of educational materials about earthquake causes, impacts, and safety. Educators and students can find science fair ideas, lesson plans, earthquake survivor stories, and much more. Within the technical information link, users can find seismic data, information on recent earthquakes, and materials on the seismic networks. The Public Awareness link furnishes interesting earthquake myths and folklore, facts about the New Madrid Fault System, and tips on how to survive an earthquake. The website also presents the many research projects at CERI.

441

Geomorphic Environments of Tsunami Deposits, Southeastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As paleotsunami research progresses around the Indian Ocean, it is increasingly evident that tsunamis have occurred in this region in the past. The largest of these could have traversed the ocean and reached the southeastern coast of India, which highlights the importance of identifying key preservation sites in this potential repository of catastrophic basin-wide events. However, geologically enduring sites where tsunami deposits dependably survive are not yet well defined in India and other tropical environments. The purpose of this project was to identify the settings conducive to long-term preservation of tsunami deposits in tropical India and develop criteria for distinguishing them in the stratigraphic record. We documented the post- depositional fate of the tsunami deposits from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in various geomorphic environments along the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India from 10.5-13° N. Latitude. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami were mapped, described and surveyed at locations where they had been described immediately after the event, as well as at previously unstudied sites. At many sites, the tsunami deposits were recognizable in the stratigraphic column by characteristic fine mafic laminations, debris and an organic layer at the lower boundary. Field observations and initial grain-size analysis indicated a distinct difference between tsunami deposits and underlying sedimentary layers. For example, at Mamallapuram (12.5° N. Lat.) the mean grain size of the tsunami deposits was 0.25 phi finer than that of the underlying layers. However, only three years after the event, deposits in some locations had already been altered significantly by erosion, bioturbation and incipient weathering and were not readily recognizable in the stratigraphy. Although the 2004 tsunami deposits were thicker and more extensive in the hard-hit southern half of the study area, the degree of bioturbation and weathering was greater there than in the drier northern portion, where some thin tsunami sand layers behind coastal dunes remained unaltered since the original post- tsunami surveys. To date, no conclusive evidence of paleotsunami deposits has been found at the sites included in this study, but the results will guide the search for key settings that best satisfy the balance between sediment volume and preservation.

Johnston, P.; Ely, L.; Achyuthan, H.; Srinivasalu, S.

2008-12-01

442

Computer simulation of earthquakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computer simulation models of earthquakes were studied for the dependence of the pattern of events on the model assumptions and input parameters. Both models represent the seismically active region by mechanical blocks which are connected to one another and to a driving plate. The blocks slide on a friction surface. In the first model elastic forces were employed and time independent friction to simulate main shock events. The size, length, and time and place of event occurrence were influenced strongly by the magnitude and degree of homogeniety in the elastic and friction parameters of the fault region. Periodically reoccurring similar events were frequently observed in simulations with near homogeneous parameters along the fault, whereas, seismic gaps were a common feature of simulations employing large variations in the fault parameters. The second model incorporated viscoelastic forces and time-dependent friction to account for aftershock sequences. The periods between aftershock events increased with time and the aftershock region was confined to that which moved in the main event.

Cohen, S. C.

1976-01-01

443

Earthquake clusters in Corinth Rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clusters commonly occur as main shock-aftershock (MS-AS) sequences but also as earthquake swarms, which are empirically defined as an increase in seismicity rate above the background rate without a clear triggering main shock earthquake. Earthquake swarms occur in a variety of different environments and might have a diversity of origins, characterized by a high b-value in their magnitude distribution. The Corinth Rift, which was selected as our target area, appears to be the most recent extensional structure, with a likely rate of fault slip of about 1cm/yr and opening of 7mm/yr. High seismic activity accommodates the active deformation with frequent strong (M?6.0) events and several seismic excitations without a main shock with clearly discriminative magnitude. Identification of earthquake clusters that occurred in this area in last years and investigation of their spatio-temporal distribution is attempted, with the application of known declustering algorithms, aiming to associate their occurrence with certain patterns in seismicity behavior. The earthquake catalog of the National Hellenic Seismological Network is used, and a certain number of clusters were extracted from the dataset, with the MS-AS sequences being distinguished from earthquake swarms. Spatio-temporal properties of each subset were analyzed in detail, after determining the respective completeness magnitude. This work was supported in part by the THALES Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union in the framework of the project entitled "Integrated understanding of Seismicity, using innovative Methodologies of Fracture mechanics along with Earthquake and non-extensive statistical physics - Application to the geodynamic system of the Hellenic Arc, SEISMO FEAR HELLARC".

Mesimeri, Maria; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Karakostas, Vasilios; Tsaklidis, George

2013-04-01

444

Laboratory Generated M -6 Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider whether mm-scale earthquake-like seismic events generated in laboratory experiments are consistent with our understanding of the physics of larger earthquakes. This work focuses on a population of 48 very small shocks that are foreshocks and aftershocks of stick-slip events occurring on a 2.0 m by 0.4 m simulated strike-slip fault cut through a large granite sample. Unlike the larger stick-slip events that rupture the entirety of the simulated fault, the small foreshocks and aftershocks are contained events whose properties are controlled by the rigidity of the surrounding granite blocks rather than characteristics of the experimental apparatus. The large size of the experimental apparatus, high fidelity sensors, rigorous treatment of wave propagation effects, and in situ system calibration separates this study from traditional acoustic emission analyses and allows these sources to be studied with as much rigor as larger natural earthquakes. The tiny events have short (3-6 ?s) rise times and are well modeled by simple double couple focal mechanisms that are consistent with left-lateral slip occurring on a mm-scale patch of the precut fault surface. The repeatability of the experiments indicates that they are the result of frictional processes on the simulated fault surface rather than grain crushing or fracture of fresh rock. Our waveform analysis shows no significant differences (other than size) between the M -7 to M -5.5 earthquakes reported here and larger natural earthquakes. Their source characteristics such as stress drop (1-10 MPa) appear to be entirely consistent with earthquake scaling laws derived for larger earthquakes.

McLaskey, Gregory C.; Kilgore, Brian D.; Lockner, David A.; Beeler, Nicholas M.

2014-02-01

445

India and Intercultural Aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In combination with the intercultural philosophical orientation developed in India, the concept of an intercultural aesthetics\\u000a prepares the way for well-founded comparison and a new dialogue among different aesthetic traditions of the world. And it\\u000a unmasks the myth of the total purity of a culture.

Ram Adhar Mall

446

The Impact of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

Montessori, Mario M.

1998-01-01

447