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1

Exploring land surface temperature earthquake precursors: A focus on the Gujarat (India) earthquake of 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many reports of land surface temperature (LST) anomalies appearing prior to large earthquakes. A number of methods have been applied in hindcast mode to identify these anomalies, using infrared datasets collected from Earth-orbiting remote sensing satellites. Here we examine three such methods and apply them to six years (2001-2006) of MODIS LST data collected over the region of the 2001 Gujarat (India) earthquake, which previous studies have identified as a site exhibiting possible pre-seismic and post-seismic thermal anomalies. Methods 1 and 2 use an LST differencing technique, while Method 3, the Robust Satellite Technique (RST), has been developed specifically for the identification of thermal anomalies within spatio-temporal datasets. In relation to the Gujarat Earthquake, results from Methods 1 and 2 (LST differencing) indicate that changes previously reported to be potential precursory thermal ‘anomalies’ appear instead to occur within the range of normal thermal variability. Results obtained with Method 3 (RST) do appear to show significant ‘anomalies’ around the time of the earthquake, but we find these to be related to positive biases caused by the presence of MODIS LST data gaps, attributable to cloud cover and mosaicing of neighboring orbits of data. Currently, therefore, we find no convincing evidence of LST precursors to the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, and urge care in the use of approaches aimed at identifying such seismic thermal anomalies.

Blackett, Matthew; Wooster, Martin J.; Malamud, Bruce D.

2011-08-01

2

Probabilistic Assessment of Earthquake Hazard in Gujarat and Adjoining Region of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gujarat and adjoining region falls under all four seismic zones V, IV, III and II of the seismic zoning map of India, and is one of the most seismically prone intracontinental regions of the world. It has experienced two large earthquakes of magnitude M w 7.8 and 7.7 in 1819 and 2001, respectively and several moderate earthquakes during the past two centuries. In the present study, the probability of occurrence of earthquakes of M ? 5.0 has been estimated during a specified time interval for different elapsed times on the basis of observed time intervals between earthquakes using three stochastic models namely, Weibull, Gamma and Lognormal. A complete earthquake catalogue has been used covering the time interval of 1819 to 2006. The whole region has been divided into three major seismic regions (Saurashtra, Mainland Gujarat and Kachchh) on the basis of seismotectonics and geomorphology of the region. The earthquake hazard parameters have been estimated using the method of maximum likelihood. The logarithmic of likelihood function (ln L) is estimated and used to test the suitability of models in three different regions. It was found that the Weibull model fits well with the actual data in Saurashtra and Kachchh regions, whereas Lognormal model fits well in Mainland Gujarat. The mean intervals of occurrence of earthquakes are estimated as 40.455, 20.249 and 13.338 years in the Saurashtra, Mainland Gujarat and Kachchh region, respectively. The estimated cumulative probability (probability that the next earthquake will occur at a time later than some specific time from the last earthquake) for the earthquakes of M ? 5.0 reaches 0.9 after about 64 years from the last earthquake (1993) in Saurashtra, about 49 years from the last earthquake (1969) in Mainland Gujarat and about 29 years from the last earthquake (2006) in the Kachchh region. The conditional probability (probability that the next earthquake will occur during some specific time interval after a certain elapsed time from last earthquake) is also estimated and it reaches about 0.8 to 0.9 during the time interval of about 57 to 66 years from the last earthquake (1993) in Saurashtra region, 31 to 51 years from the last earthquake (1969) in Mainland Gujarat and about 21 to 28 years from the last earthquake (2006) in Kachchh region.

Yadav, Ram Bichar Singh; Tripathi, Jayant Nath; Rastogi, Bal Krishna; Chopra, Sumer

2008-10-01

3

Stochastic finite fault modelling of M w 4.8 earthquake in Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modified stochastic finite fault modelling technique based on dynamic corner frequency has been used to simulate the strong ground motions of M w 4.8 earthquake in the Kachchh region of Gujarat, India. The accelerograms have been simulated for 14 strong motion accelerographs sites (11 sites in Kachchh and three sites in Saurashtra) where the earthquake has been recorded. The region-specific source, attenuation and generic site parameters, which are derived from recordings of small to moderate earthquakes, have been used for the simulations. The main characteristics of the simulated accelerograms, comprised of peak ground acceleration (pga), duration, Fourier and response spectra, predominant period, are in general in good agreement with those of observed ones at most of the sites. The rate of decay of simulated pga values with distance is found to be similar with that of observed values. The successful modelling of the empirical accelerograms indicates that the method can be used to prepare wide range of scenarios based on simulation which provide the information useful for evaluating and mitigating the seismic hazard in the region.

Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Dinesh; Choudhury, Pallabee; Yadav, R. B. S.

2012-07-01

4

Crustal heterogeneities beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake, Gujarat, India source zone: Seismological evidence for neo-tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1st decade of the 21st century, the study area of Talala, Saurashtra of western India witnessed three damaging earthquakes of moderate magnitude, year 2007 [Mw 5.0; Mw 4.8] and in the year 2011 [Mw 5.1] that generated public panic in the region. The last damaging moderate earthquake of the 20th October 2011 in Talala region (21.09°N;70.45°E), located at about 200 km south to the devastating 2001 Bhuj (23.412°N, 70.232°E) mainshock (Mw 7.6), jolted the entire Saurashtra region of Gujarat. A long series of aftershocks followed hereafter, recorded at nine seismograph/accelerograph stations. Hypocenters of aftershocks were relocated accurately using absolute and relative travel time (double-difference) method. In this study, we, for the first time, determined 3-D tomographic images of the upper crust beneath the 2011 Talala earthquake source zone by inverting about 1135 P and 1125 S wave arrival time data. Estimates of seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structures offer a reliable interpretation of crustal heterogeneities and their bearing on geneses of moderate earthquakes and their aftershock sequences beneath the source zone. It is found that the 2011 Talala mainshock hypocenter depth (6 km) is located near the boundary of the low and high velocity (Vp, Vs) and the source zone is associated with low-? anomalies guarded by the prominent high-? anomalies along the active fault zone having strike-slip motion beneath the earthquake source zone. The pattern of distribution of (Vp, Vs, ?) and its association with occurrences of aftershocks provide seismological evidence for the neo-tectonics in the region having left lateral strike-slip motion of the fault.

Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Rastogi, B. K.; Kumar, Santosh

2013-01-01

5

Pediatric surgical emergencies in the setting of a natural disaster: Experiences from the 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: On January 26, 2001, a 7.9 Richter earthquake struck the Indian state of Gujarat. Over the next 6 days, the International Red Cross set up a mobile hospital in the city of Bhuj, near the epicenter. The authors describe all surgeries on children treated there during the first 4 weeks of operation. The evolution of presenting injuries is noted,

Vivek Jain; Rea Noponen; Baird M. Smith

2003-01-01

6

Seismogenesis of the lower crustal intraplate earthquakes occurring in Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large intraplate continental earthquakes like the 1811-12 New Madrid (Mw ? 8.0) and the 2001 Bhuj (Mw7.7) were highly destructive because they occurred in strong crust, but the mechanisms underlying their seismogenesis are not understood. Here we show, using local earthquake velocity tomography, and joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocity dispersion that the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of western India is far more complex than hitherto known through previous studies. A new image of the crust and underlying mantle lithosphere indicates the presence of a 18-km thick high velocity (Vp: 7.15-8.11 km/s) differentiated crustal and mantle magmatic layer above a hot and thin lithosphere (only 70 km) in the epicentral region of 2001 Bhuj earthquake. This magmatic layer begins at the depth of 24 km and continues down to 42 km depth. Below this region, brittle-ductile transition reaches as deep as the Moho (˜34 km) due to the possible presence of olivine rich mafic magma. Our 1-D velocity structure envisages an initial phase of plume activity (Deccan plume at 65 m.y. ago) resulting in basaltic magma in the eclogitic layers at sub-lithospheric levels, wherein they were subjected to crystallization under ultra-high pressure conditions. Our study also delineates an updoming of Moho (˜4-7 km) as well as asthenosphere (˜6-10 km) below the Kachchh rift zone relative to surrounding areas, suggesting the presence of a confined body of partial melts below the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Restructuring of this warm and thin lithosphere may have been caused due to rifting (at 184 and 88 m.y. ago) and tholeiitic and alkalic volcanism related to the Deccan Traps K/T boundary event (at 65 m.y. ago). Recent study of isotopic ratios proposed that the alkalic basalts found in Kachchh are generated from a CO2 rich lherzolite partial melts in the asthenosphere that ascended along deep lithospheric rift faults into the lithosphere. It appears that such kind of crust-mantle structure, deepening of brittle-ductile transition and a high input of volatiles containing CO2 emanating from mantle control the seismogenesis of lower crustal earthquakes in the Kachchh continental rift zone.

Mandal, Prantik; Pandey, O. P.

2011-08-01

7

Simultaneous Estimation of Earthquake Source Parameters and Site Response from Inversion of Strong Motion Network Data in Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inversion of horizontal components of S-wave spectral data in the frequency range 0.1-10.0 Hz has been carried out to estimate simultaneously the source spectra of 38 aftershocks (Mw 2.93-5.32) of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) and site response at 18 strong motion sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India. The spatial variation of site response (SR) in the region has been studied by averaging the SR values obtained from the inversion in two frequency bands; 0.2-1.8 Hz and 3.0-7.0 Hz, respectively. In 0.2-1.8 Hz frequency band, the high SR values are observed in the southern part of the Kachchh Mainland Fault that had suffered extensively during the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. However, for 3.0-7.0 Hz band, the area of Jurassic and Quaternary Formations show predominantly high SR. The source spectral data obtained from the inversion were used to estimate various source parameters namely, the seismic moment, stress drop, corner frequency and radius of source rupture by using an iterative least squares inversion approach based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. It has been observed that the seismic moment and radius of rupture from 38 aftershocks vary between 3.1x10^{13} to 2.0x10^{17} Nm and 226 to 889 m, respectively. The stress drop values from these aftershocks are found to vary from 0.11 to 7.44 MPa. A significant scatter of stress drop values has been noticed in case of larger aftershocks while for smaller magnitude events, it varies proportionally with the seismic moment. The regression analysis between seismic moment and radius of rupture indicates a break in linear scaling around 10^{15.3} Nm. The seismic moment of these aftershocks found to be proportional to the corner frequency, which is consistent for earthquakes with such short rupture length.

Dutta, U.; Mandal, P.

2010-12-01

8

Attenuation characteristics of coda waves in Mainland Gujarat (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of Mainland Gujarat (India) have been investigated in the present study. The broadband waveforms of 53 local earthquakes (Mw 1.1-3.3) having focal depths in the 6.0-33.6 km range recorded at five stations of Mainland Gujarat region has been used for the analysis. The frequency-dependent relationships (Q = Q0fn) for coda-Q (Qc) and dependency of coda-Q on lapse time windows have been determined for the said region. The average lapse time dependent coda-Q relations estimated for the region are: Qc = (87 ± 13)f(1.01 ± 0.06) (lapse time: 30 s), Qc = (112 ± 20)f(0.94 ± 0.08) (lapse time: 40 s) and Qc = (120 ± 22)f(0.76 ± 0.07) (lapse time: 50 s). The increase in Qc values with lapse time shows the depth dependence of Qc as longer lapse time windows will sample larger area. The observed quality factor is strongly dependent on frequency and lapse time, which indicates that the upper lithosphere, is more heterogeneous and seismotectonically active, while the lower lithosphere is homogeneous and relatively less active. A comparison of the coda-Q estimated for Mainland Gujarat region with those of nearby Kachchh and Saurashtra regions shows that Mainland Gujarat region is more heterogeneous. The rate of decay of attenuation (Q-1) with frequency for the relations obtained here is found to be comparable with those of other regions of the world though the absolute values differ. The obtained relations are expected to be useful for the estimation of source parameters of the earthquakes in the Mainland Gujarat region where no such relations were available earlier. These relations are also important for the simulation of earthquake strong ground motions in the region.

Gupta, Arun K.; Sutar, Anup K.; Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Santosh; Rastogi, B. K.

2012-03-01

9

Earth processes in wake of Gujarat earthquake reviewed from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two years after a devastating earthquake in Gujarat, India, scientists from many disciplines met at an international workshop to share the latest knowledge about Earth system processes related to this natural disaster. The meeting particularly focused on the use of spaceborne technology to study the effects of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere interaction prior to and following the earthquake. More than 80 of the participants were affiliated with research and academic institutions in India, and several scientists from the United States, Germany Russia, and China also participated.Soon after the earthquake on 26 January 2001, Indian scientists established a Global Positioning System (GPS) network to monitor crustal motion around the earthquake's epicenter in cooperation with scientists from Japan, Germany, and the United States. Observations made by routine GPS measurements in the past have shown that the Bhuj area has significantly shifted anti-clockwise. The leveling observations made by the Survey of India show that the Santal Pur Bhuj Block was uplifted up to 60 cm, while Bhuj, Bhachau, and Mundra subsided ˜60 cm. The need to establish a dense network of level lines and gravity stations in Kachchh was stressed at the meeting.

Singh, Ramesh P.; Ouzounov, Dimitar

10

3-D seismic structure of the Kachchh, Gujarat, and its implications for the earthquake hazard mitigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several pieces of studies on the January 26, 2001, Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) revealed that the mainshock was triggered on the\\u000a hidden unmapped fault in the western part of Indian stable continental region that caused a huge loss in the entire Kachchh\\u000a rift basin of Gujarat, India. Occurrences of infrequent earthquakes of Mw 7.6 due to existence of hidden and

A. P. SinghO; O. P. Mishra; B. K. Rastogi; Dinesh Kumar

2011-01-01

11

The Formation of a Disaster Community in Cyberspace: The Role of Online News Media after the 2001 Gujarat Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A devastating earthquake struck the Gujarat region of India on 26 January 2001, killing an estimated 20,000 people. Almost immediately, online news media began publishing details of the earthquake along with pleas for donations of money and other aid. In effect, a disaster-response community had formed in cyberspace. This study explores the role of the news media in the formation

Kris Kodrich; Melinda Laituri

2005-01-01

12

Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areas—Jamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)—have been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5-3.5) recorded at six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband waveforms of 68 earthquakes (Mw 1.6-5) recorded at five stations of the Junagarh area have been used for the analysis. The estimated relations for the Junagarh area are: Q c = (158 ± 5)f(0.99±0.04) (lapse time : 20 s), Q c = (170 ± 4.4)f(0.97±0.02) (lapse time : 30 s) and Q c = (229 ± 6.6)f(0.94±0.03) (lapse time : 40 s) and for the Jamnagar area are: Q c = (178 ± 3)f(0.95±0.05) (lapse time : 20 s), Q c = (224 ± 6)f(0.98±0.06) (lapse time : 30 s) and Q c = (282 ± 7)f(0.91±0.03) (lapse time : 40 s). These are the first estimates for the areas under consideration. The Junagarh area appears to be more attenuative as compared to the Jamnagar area. The increase in Q c values with lapse time found here for both the areas show the depth dependence of Q c as longer lapse time windows will sample larger area. The rate of decay of attenuation ( Q -1) with frequency for the relations obtained here is found to be comparable with those of other regions of the world though the absolute values differ. A comparison of the coda-Q estimated for the Saurashtra region with those of the nearby Kachchh region shows that the Saurashtra region is less heterogeneous. The obtained relations are expected to be useful for the estimation of source parameters of the earthquakes in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat where no such relations were available earlier. These relations are also important for the simulation of earthquake strong ground motions in the region.

Sharma, Babita; Kumar, Dinesh; Teotia, S. S.; Rastogi, B. K.; Gupta, Arun K.; Prajapati, Srichand

2012-01-01

13

Utilization of health services among rural women in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of four sets of factors on use of curative health services among rural women living in Gujarat, India. The sets of factors analyzed were as follows: (1) the demographic characteristics of the women; (2) the characteristics of the household in which they lived; (3) the characteristics of the environment in which they lived; and (4)

B Vissandjée; R Barlow; DW Fraser

1997-01-01

14

Ground-motion Attenuation Relation from Strong-motion Records of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj Earthquake Sequence (2001-2006), Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predictive relations are developed for peak ground acceleration (PGA) from the engineering seismoscope (SRR) records of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake and 239 strong-motion records of 32 significant aftershocks of 3.1 ? Mw ? 5.6 at epicentral distances of 1 ? R ? 288 km. We have taken advantage of the recent increase in strong-motion data at close distances to derive new attenuation relation for peak horizontal acceleration in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat. This new analysis uses the Joyner-Boore’s method for a magnitude-independent shape, based on geometrical spreading and anelastic attenuation, for the attenuation curve. The resulting attenuation equation is, eqalign{ ln ({Y}) = -7.9527 + 1.4043 {M}_{{W}} - ln left( {{r}_{{jb}}2 + 19.822} right)^{1/2} - 0.0682 {S} ?{for} 3.1 { < M}_{{W}} le 7.7quad quad {std}. {dev}. left(? right): ± 0.8243, ?} where, Y is peak horizontal acceleration in g, Mw is moment magnitude, rjb is the closest distance to the surface projection of the fault rupture in kilometers, and S is a variable taking the values of 0 and 1 according to the local site geology. S is 0 for a rock site, and, S is 1 for a soil site. The relation differs from previous work in the improved reliability of input parameters and large numbers of strong-motion PGA data recorded at short distances (0-50 km) from the source. The relation is in demonstrable agreement with the recorded strong-ground motion data from earthquakes of Mw 3.5, 4.1, 4.5, 5.6, and 7.7. There are insufficient data from the Kachchh region to adequately judge the relation for the magnitude range 5.7 ? Mw ? 7.7. But, our ground-motion prediction model shows a reasonable correlation with the PGA data of the 29 March, 1999 Chamoli main shock (Mw 6.5), validating our ground-motion attenuation model for an Mw6.5 event. However, our ground-motion prediction shows no correlation with the PGA data of the 10 December, 1967 Koyna main shock (Mw 6.3). Our ground-motion predictions show more scatter in estimated residual for the distance range (0-30 km), which could be due to the amplification/noise at near stations situated in the Kachchh sedimentary basin. We also noticed smaller residuals for the distance range (30-300 km), which could be due to less amplification/noise at sites distant from the Kachchh basin. However, the observed less residuals for the longer distance range (100-300 km) are less reliable due to the lack of available PGA values in the same distance range.

Mandal, Prantik; Kumar, N.; Satyamurthy, C.; Raju, I. P.

2009-03-01

15

Attenuation of High Frequency P and S Waves in the Gujarat Region, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The local earthquake waveforms recorded on broadband seismograph network of Institute of Seismological Research in Gujarat, India have been analyzed to understand the attenuation of high frequency (2-25 Hz) P and S waves in the region. The frequency dependent relationships for quality factors for P ( Q P) and S ( Q S) waves have been obtained using the spectral ratio method for three regions namely, Kachchh, Saurashtra and Mainland Gujarat. The earthquakes recorded at nine stations of Kachchh, five stations of Saurashtra and one station in mainland Gujarat have been used for this analysis. The estimated relations for average Q P and Q S are: Q P = (105 ± 2) f 0.82 ± 0.01, Q S = (74 ± 2) f 1.06 ± 0.01 for Kachchh region; Q P = (148 ± 2) f 0.92 ± 0.01, Q S = (149 ± 14) f 1.43 ± 0.05 for Saurashtra region and Q P = (163 ± 7) f 0.77 ± 0.03, Q S = (118 ± 34) f 0.65 ± 0.14 for mainland Gujarat region. The low Q (<200) and high exponent of f (>0.5) as obtained from present analysis indicate the predominant seismic activities in the region. The lowest Q values obtained for the Kachchh region implies that the area is relatively more attenuative and heterogeneous than other two regions. A comparison between Q S estimated in this study and coda Q ( Qc) previously reported by others for Kachchh region shows that Q C > Q S for the frequency range of interest showing the enrichment of coda waves and the importance of scattering attenuation to the attenuation of S waves in the Kachchh region infested with faults and fractures. The Q S/ Q P ratio is found to be less than 1 for Kachchh and Mainland Gujarat regions and close to unity for Saurashtra region. This reflects the difference in the geological composition of rocks in the regions. The frequency dependent relations developed in this study could be used for the estimation of earthquake source parameters as well as for simulating the strong earthquake ground motions in the region.

Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Dinesh; Rastogi, B. K.

2011-05-01

16

Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Petersen, M. D.; Rastogi, B. K.; Schweig, E. S.; Harmsen, S. C.; Gomberg, J. S.

2004-01-01

17

Hematological profile of sickle cell disease from South Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine hematological profile of sickle cell disease (SCD) from Surat, South Gujarat, India. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics and Sickle Cell Anemia Laboratory, Faculty of Pathology, Government Medical College, Surat, India, between July 2009 and December 2010. Patients included in this study were in their steady state for a long period of time without any symptoms related to SCD or other diseases which could affect the hematological parameters. Venous blood of all patients was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and hematological indices were measured. Thirty-three subjects homozygous in all were studied for their hematological parameters for sickle cell anemia. Moderate to severe anemia, low mean cell volume and high foetal hemoglobin dominate the hematological profile of SCD children.

Rao, Sanjeev Shyam; Goyal, Jagdish Prasad; Raghunath, S.V.; Shah, Vijay B.

2012-01-01

18

The Gujarat Earthquake: Mitigations Failures and Lessons learnt for Future Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time and again, the Indian subcontinent has been suffering from diverse natural calamities, ranging from droughts to floods, landslides to earthquakes, and cyclones to spells of famines. Recently, in October 1999, a severe cyclone battered the eastern coast of Orissa affecting millions of people, blowing away homes, damaging buildings, destroying crops and wiping out a huge cattle population. The Gujarat

A. K. Katuri; J. Mittal; K. Kumar

2002-01-01

19

Use of Seismotectonic Information for the Seismic Hazard Analysis for Surat City, Gujarat, India: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surat, the financial capital of Gujarat, India, is a mega city with a population exceeding five millions. The city falls under Zone III of the Seismic Zoning Map of India. After the devastating 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7, much attention is paid towards the seismic microzonation activity in the state of Gujarat. In this work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard for Surat City (21.170 N, 72.830 E) based on the probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard analysis. After collecting a catalogue of historical earthquakes in a 350 km radius around the city and after analyzing a database statistically, deterministic analysis has been carried out considering known tectonic sources; a further recurrence relationship for the control region is found out. Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were then carried out for the Surat region considering five seismotectonic sources selected from a deterministic approach. The final results of the present investigations are presented in the form of peak ground acceleration and response spectra at bed rock level considering the local site conditions. Rock level Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values at 0.01 s and 1.0 s corresponding to 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years have been calculated. Further Uniform Hazard Response Spectrum (UHRS) at rock level for 5% damping, and 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, were also developed for the city considering all site classes. These results can be directly used by engineers as basic inputs in earthquake-resistant design of structures in and around the city.

Thaker, T. P.; Rathod, Ganesh W.; Rao, K. S.; Gupta, K. K.

2012-01-01

20

Malaria in seasonal migrant population in Southern Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Malaria in migrant workers is always a major problem to control due to their temporary stay in shelters, and other operational constraints. Hence, a study was undertaken in brick kilns in Bharuch district, Gujarat state, India to study the problem of malaria in the work force. Mass blood surveys were carried out in 15 brick kilns. Blood slides were collected from both febrile and afebrile cases. Positive cases were treated as per the national drug policy and were followed up. Mosquito collections were carried out by pyrethrum spray collection in early morning hours. Human blood index and sporozoite rates were determined as per standard procedures. All age groups were found affected with malaria at brick kilns. Prevalence of malaria was significantly higher in ? 14 years of age-group as compared to adults. Post treatment follow up examination of patients revealed high malaria infection due to non-compliance of chloroquine. The appearance of parasitaemia among Plasmodium falciparum treated cases indicate the possibility of chloroquine resistance. The proportion of P. falciparum was >50% in migrant population. In stable population in villages, overall decline in malaria cases was observed in 2008-2010. The sporozoite rate of 4.2% in Anopheles culicifacies indicates active malaria transmission at brick kilns. The investigation demonstrated that suitable microclimatic conditions for malaria transmission exist in these areas during hottest period. The district health department should consider these factors in planning malaria surveillance and control. As current magnitude and diversity of population movements in rural as well as in urban areas are unprecedented, this issue is worthy of attention. PMID:22433894

Srivastava, H C; Chandrashekar, Pant; Kurien, G; Sreehari, U; Yadav, R S

2011-12-01

21

Social Stratification and Mobility in a Rural Community (Mahi) in Gujarat, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing the interaction between factors that are stable and factors that initiate change re: promotion of social mobility or crystalization of existing social stratification, this paper presents a case study of Mahi, a rural village in Gujarat, India. Utilizing data derived from two field studies (1961-1962 and March 1967-June 1967), the stable…

Panchanadikar, K. C.; Panchanadikar, J.

22

Gandhi, Non-Cooperation, and Socio-Civic Education in Gujarat, India: Harnessing the Vernaculars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers an interconnected, grounded understanding of how two Gandhian endeavours in the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India, make us rethink the notion of "education" in terms of civic and communal engagement. Drawing on local, vernacular ways of living, learning, being, reasoning, and believing--in this case Gujarati--I show how these…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2006-01-01

23

Ambiguities about English: Ideologies and Critical Practice in Vernacular-Medium College Classrooms in Gujarat, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Situated amid tertiary-level institutions in the city of Ahmedabad, in Gujarat, India, this article explores how particular ideologies countering English inform pedagogic choices made by language teachers teaching in "vernacular-medium" (VM) college classrooms. The ideologies under discussion are two linked "thought structures." The first, the…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2005-01-01

24

Written Textual Production and Consumption (WTPC) in Vernacular and English-Medium Settings in Gujarat, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sketches key facets in the larger socioeducational machinery that shapes the written textual production and consumption (WTPC) of English-medium (EM) and "vernacular-medium" (VM) students in Gujarat, India. Lays out ways in which articulator macro-structures align together to produce and shape conditions that privilege the WTPC of EM students over…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2003-01-01

25

Communication Behavior of Village Level Workers in Surat and Mehsana Districts, Gujarat State, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated communication patterns, procedures, and background characteristics associated with effectiveness in village level workers (VLWs) in two districts of Gujarat, India. Questionnaire interviews were held with 222 VLWs who had induced farmers to adopt one or more farm practices. An appraisal form was used to measure the…

Patel, Ishwarlal Chaturdas

26

Media Exposure, Gender Stereotype and Contextual Stigma Perceptions about HIV and AIDSEvidences from Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines whether variation in media exposure and gender would yield diverse stigma perceptions on HIV AIDS, and finds the mechanism behind these phenomena. It employs data from 2005–06 NFHS (National Family Health Survey) for Gujarat, a major western state of India, supplemented with some qualitative information. Logistic regressions were undertaken modelling five different stigma perceptions for women and

Satyajeet Nanda; Aparimita Pramanik

2010-01-01

27

Gandhi, Non-Cooperation, and Socio-Civic Education in Gujarat, India: Harnessing the Vernaculars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article offers an interconnected, grounded understanding of how two Gandhian endeavours in the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India, make us rethink the notion of "education" in terms of civic and communal engagement. Drawing on local, vernacular ways of living, learning, being, reasoning, and believing--in this case Gujarati--I show how…

Ramanathan, Vaidehi

2006-01-01

28

The Hindu-Muslim Conflict: A Pilot Study of Peacebuilding in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep within the religious-political context of India is the Hindu-Muslim conflict. This tension continues with ever-increasing violent acts being carried out in the name of religion. As recently as February 2002, violence erupted between Hindus and Muslims in the state of Gujarat. Gujarati citizens remain concerned about the reemergence of such violence. As a result, in this pilot, qualitative study,

Jui Shankar; Lawrence H. Gerstein

2007-01-01

29

Local perceptions of grassland change and priorities for conservation of natural resources of Banni, Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in the Banni region of the Gujarat State, India, which is located in the western-most end of the\\u000a country. The main objective was to investigate the local perceptions of grassland change, regeneration potentiality, socio-economic\\u000a status and factors that cause degradation of the vegetation resources in Banni. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was employed\\u000a to generate the socio-economic

P. N. Joshi; V. Kumar; M. Koladiya; Y. S. Patel; T. Karthik

2009-01-01

30

A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of India's 2008 Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places in Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India’s Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY). A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat.

Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Waters, Hugh R; Arora, Monika; Varghese, Beena; Dave, Paresh; Modi, Bhavesh

2011-01-01

31

MODIS Land Surface Temperature Observations associated with the Gujarat Earthquake of 2001: A Statistical Analysis.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of studies have claimed to have observed thermally manifested precursors to the Gujarat Earthquake of 2001. Many of these, however, have arguably examined insufficient quantities of data from which the "normal" conditions of the surface might be derived, and against which potentially anomalous observations might be compared. This work, in contrast, has analysed six-years of MODIS data to determine "normal" conditions of the surface at two differing spatial scales centred on the earthquake epicentre. These "normal" observations are compared with those of both the period of the earthquake, and those displayed throughout the whole six-year period, using statistically robust methods. This is with the aim of determining whether the observations at the time of the earthquake were, indeed, truly anomalous. Various statistical techniques were applied to the extracted data to assess whether the observations made were truly anomalous. The distribution characteristics of the in-scene datasets were also examined to determine whether there were any unique statistical characteristics in the surface data around the time of the earthquake. In terms of precursory observations, although peaks in LST (and other derived indices) were evident prior to the earthquake event, these were not shown to be statistically significant. In contrast, post-event peaks, particularly at the largest spatial scale of analysis (1500 km x 1501 km), were shown to be statistically anomalous. The cause of this post-event observation was hypothesised as being associated with post-event de-watering - an observation which has been widely associated with the earthquake event itself.

Blackett, M.; Wooster, M.; Malamud, B.

2009-04-01

32

A cost-effectiveness analysis of India's 2008 prohibition of smoking in public places in Gujarat.  

PubMed

Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India's Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY). A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat. PMID:21655118

Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Waters, Hugh R; Arora, Monika; Varghese, Beena; Dave, Paresh; Modi, Bhavesh

2011-04-26

33

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs. Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A needs assessment was conducted to provide information on procedures and practices related to infection control in labour and delivery units in Gujarat state, India. Methods Twenty health care facilities, including private and public primary health centres and referral hospitals, were sampled from two districts in Gujarat state, India. Three pre-tested tools for interviewing and for observation were used. Data collection was based on existing infection control guidelines for clean practices, clean equipment, clean environment and availability of diagnostics and treatment. The study was carried out from April to May 2009. Results Seventy percent of respondents said that standard infection control procedures were followed, but a written procedure was only available in 5% of facilities. Alcohol rubs were not used for hand cleaning and surgical gloves were reused in over 70% of facilities, especially for vaginal examinations in the labour room. Most types of equipment and supplies were available but a third of facilities did not have wash basins with "hands-free" taps. Only 15% of facilities reported that wiping of surfaces was done immediately after each delivery in labour rooms. Blood culture services were available in 25% of facilities and antibiotics are widely given to women after normal delivery. A few facilities had data on infections and reported rates of 3% to 5%. Conclusions This study of current infection control procedures and practices during labour and delivery in health facilities in Gujarat revealed a need for improved information systems, protocols and procedures, and for training and research. Simply incentivizing the behaviour of women to use health facilities for childbirth via government schemes may not guarantee safe delivery.

2011-01-01

34

A unique trend of murder–suicide in the Jamnagar region of Gujarat, India (A retrospective study of 5 years)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jamnagar region, Gujarat state, enjoys a relatively low incidence of homicide in India. In the 5 year period from 2000 to 2004, 8 mothers committed 13 murders involving 3 male and 10 female victims and in every case it was followed by suicide of the assailant mothers. During the study the annual incidence of murder–suicide was about 1.8 cases. All

B. D. Gupta; O. Gambhir Singh

2008-01-01

35

Study of Blood-transfusion Services in Maharashtra and Gujarat States, India  

PubMed Central

Blood-transfusion services are vital to maternal health because haemorrhage and anaemia are major causes of maternal death in South Asia. Unfortunately, due to continued governmental negligence, blood-transfusion services in India are a highly-fragmented mix of competing independent and hospital-based blood-banks, serving the needs of urban populations. This paper aims to understand the existing systems of blood-transfusion services in India focusing on Maharashtra and Gujarat states. A mix of methodologies, including literature review (including government documents), analysis of management information system data, and interviews with key officials was used. Results of analysis showed that there are many managerial challenges in blood-transfusion services, which calls for strengthening the planning and monitoring of these services. Maharashtra provides a good model for improvement. Unless this is done, access to blood in rural areas may remain poor.

Ramani, K.V.; Govil, Dipti

2009-01-01

36

Molluscan fauna from the Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat, India — Part 3. Gastropods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic description of 25 gastropod species from the Khari Nadi Formation (Aquitanian) and Chhasra Formation (Burdigalian) from the Kachchh District, Gujarat, India is given. A checklist of 116 forms including those reported by earlier researchers, emending taxonomic identifications wherever necessary, is also provided. Vredenburg had referred these two formations together as ‘the Gaj Beds of Kachchh’. He noticed the affinity of molluscs among the Miocene deposits of Kachchh and Kathiawar regions of Gujarat, and Sind province of Pakistan. He also observed that molluscs from his ‘Lower Gaj’ and ‘Upper Gaj’ Formations showed relationship respectively with the Rembang (Aquitanian) and Njalindung (Burdigalian) series of the East Indies. Aquitanian and Burdigalian ages assigned by him were later substantiated by Raju on the basis of foraminifera. Present studies corroborated that the molluscan assemblage from the Miocene rocks of Kachchh is closely related to that from the Gaj Beds of Sind and the Ashapura Clay Member of Kathiawar; besides revealing that the fauna from these three formations taken together is essentially endemic. Discovery of certain species from the Quilon Beds in the Miocene of Kachchh evinces a close affinity between these two formations. The present fauna includes five extant forms, while 29 forms have related species in the Recent fauna.

Kulkarni, Kantimati G.; Kapoor, Satarupa Bhattacharjee; Borkar, Vidyadhar D.

2010-06-01

37

Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E), Maniyara Fort (23°28'05?N; 68°37'E) Rakhdi Dam (23°27'26?N; 68°40'10?E) and Waior (23°25'05?N; 68°41'37?E) with a view to highlight the entombed bivalve taxa. Authors have encountered 53 species of which 23 are restricted to the Ramanian Stage.

Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

2012-04-01

38

Distribution of beta-globin haplotypes among the tribes of southern Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out in Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of southern Gujarat (India) to elucidate the allelic and haplotypic content of ?-globin system in individuals with HbAA genotypes. 6 neutral restriction sites of the ?-globin system were analysed and various statistical parameters were estimated to draw meaningful interpretations. All the 6 sites were found to be polymorphic and most were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in the studied group. Haplotypes were constructed using two different combinations of the 6 restriction sites analysed. Analysis of the 5 sites revealed a set of three predominant haplotypes, '+----', '-++-+' and '-+-++'; and haplotypes '+--', '++-' and '+++' were found to be the most frequent when the 3 sites were used to construct the haplotypes. Haplotypic heterozygosity levels (>83%) observed in the present study group were comparable to those observed in African and Afro-American populations and greater than other world populations. All the ancestral haplotypes, +-----, -++-+, -+-++ and ----+ were found in the study group. The distribution pattern of various haplotypes was consistent with the global pattern. The paucity of comparable data from other Indian populations restricted one from making interpretations about the study group's relationships with other Indian populations but the results were indicative of older population histories or experience of gene flow by the study group and their affinities with populations of southern India. PMID:23500448

Aggarwal, Aastha; Khurana, Priyanka; Mitra, Siuli; Raicha, Bhavesh; Saraswathy, K N; Italia, Yazdi M; Kshatriya, Gautam K

2013-03-14

39

Political ecology of groundwater: the contrasting case of water-abundant West Bengal and water-scarce Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three apparently disparate themes (groundwater, farmers and politics) interweave in this account of how groundwater-related policies in India have very little to do with the scarcity, depletion or quality of groundwater, and more to do with rural politics manifested, among other things, in terms of the presence or absence of farmer lobbies. Examples from two states of India, the water-abundant state of West Bengal and water-scarce state of Gujarat, were investigated using readily available data, analysis of the literature, interviews and fieldwork. In the case of West Bengal, although there is no pressing groundwater crisis, the government of West Bengal (GOWB) was able to successfully implement strict groundwater regulations along with a drastic increase in electricity tariff. More importantly, GOWB was able to implement these without any form of visible farmer protest, though these measures negatively affected farmer incomes. On the other hand, in Gujarat, where there is a real and grave groundwater crisis, the government of Gujarat has neither been able to implement strict groundwater regulations, nor has it been able to increase electricity tariff substantially. Thus, through the lens of ‘political ecology’ the contrasting case of these two Indian states is explained.

Mukherji, Aditi

2006-03-01

40

Longitudinal epidemiological study of coronary heart disease in a rural population of Kheda district, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence and related risk factors for coronary heart diseases and hypertension in the rural population of Kheda district, Gujarat (India). The observations from the first five years of this ongoing project (May 1987-May 1992) are described in this paper. Out of an initial sample of 750 individuals in the age group 30-62 years, who were selected by stratified random sampling, 714 persons (males = 429; females = 285) were actually studied, after excluding those suffering from coronary heart diseases (CHD). Initially, all the included subjects were examined clinically and appropriate laboratory investigations were done. A detailed socio-economic history was also obtained. Subsequently all of them were followed up and biannual clinical and laboratory investigations were performed. Cases of CHD were diagnosed according to the recommendations of the New York Heart Association. The overall five-year incidence of CHD was 25.17 per thousand persons. The incidence in males was 3 times higher than in females. More males suffered from myocardial infarction (MI), while in the females the incidence of sudden death was higher (33.3%). The average yearly mortality rate due to CHD was 2.46 per thousand persons. CHD was significantly associated with increased blood pressure (both diastolic and systolic), smoking, and family history of heart disease, and was weakly associated with body weight (p = 0.06). PMID:9008839

Trivedi, D H; Sharma, V; Pandya, H; Arya, R K; Mehta, R; Bansal, R K; Sharma, A; Gandhi, S P

1996-01-01

41

Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in a District of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18±1.59 servings) and rural (1.78±1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas.

Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-01-01

42

Prevalence of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in a District of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18 +/- 1.59 servings) and rural (1.78 +/- 1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas. PMID:23617208

Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-03-01

43

Active tectonics of NE Gujarat (India) by morphometric and morphostructural studies of Vatrak River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape owes its shape to the combination of tectonic and climatic forces. Differential displacement of land by tectonic processes changes the elevation of earth's surface locally and in turn affects the rate of geomorphic processes which are altitude dependent. The tectonic and geomorphic processes are very tightly coupled and their results are intertwined. To extract the tectonic signal, the numerical modelling of the landscape of the Vatrak River basin, part of which falls in the northern part of the Gujarat Alluvial Plains of western India, has been undertaken applying morphometric and morphostructural approach. The study helped in understanding the role of tectonic elements in the evolution of the basin. Demarcation of geomorphic indicators of active tectonics (which include the analyses of asymmetry factor, valley floor ratio, gradient, basin elongation ratio, long profile and related parameters, pseudo hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry), drainage pattern analysis and azimuthal distribution of stream channels have been performed for each drainage network and associated basin. The morphological field evidence of tectonics combined with the results of morphometric analysis has been used to obtain information about the orientation of tectonic elements and the possible reconstruction of their activity in recent times. The analyses indicate eastward tilting of the drainage systems, strong asymmetry in some reaches, pronounced elongation of certain tributaries, long profiles indicating base level lowering, poor organisation of the hydrographic network, and close alignment between lower order streams and active faults. All these analyses point towards the active tectonism in the area. Data obtained through the statistical analysis of preferred stream orientations confirm that the old tectonic directions markedly influenced the drainage network development of the older order streams, whereas, streams of lower order which preferentially follow the N-S and NE-SW directions suggest that these tectonic trends were active until very recent times.

Raj, Rachna

2012-05-01

44

A clinical microbiological study of corneal ulcer patients at western Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Corneal ulcer is a major cause of blindness throughout the world. When the cornea is injured by foreign particles, there are chances of infection by the organism and development of ulcer. Bacterial infection in the cornea is invariably an alteration of the defense mechanism of the outer eye. It is essential to determine the local etiology within a given region when planning a corneal ulcer management strategy. Laboratory evaluation is necessary to establish the diagnosis and to guide the antibiotic therapy. One hundred corneal ulcer patients were studied by collecting their corneal scraping samples and processing at Clinical Microbiology department of Shree Meghaji Petharaj Shah Medical College, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India during a period of 17 months. All clinical microbiology laboratory procedures followed standard protocols described in the literature. 40 (40%) patients from the age group of 20-70 years had been confirmed as - any organism culture positive - within the corneal ulcer patient population. Fungi were isolated from 26 (26%) corneal ulcer patients. The bacterial etiology was confirmed in 14 (14%) corneal ulcer patients. The major risk factors for mycotic keratitis were vegetative injury (16, (62%)), followed by conjunctivitis (4, (15%)), and blunt trauma (3, (11%)). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated bacterium (6, (43%)), followed by Proteus spp. (4, (29%)). Corneal Infections due to bacteria and filamentous fungi are a frequent cause of corneal damage. Microbiological investigation is an essential tool in the diagnosis of these infections. The frequency of fungal keratitis has risen over the past 20 to 30 years. Prognosis of bacterial corneal infection has improved since the introduction of specific antibacterial therapy. PMID:23852845

Somabhai Katara, Rajesh; Dhanjibhai Patel, Nilesh; Sinha, Mala

2013-07-13

45

Comparative Study of LANDSAT MSS, Salyut-7 (TERRA) and Radar (SIR-A) Images for Geological and Geomorphological Applications: A Case Study from Rajasthan and Gujarat, India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rajasthan and Gujarat provinces of India were surveyed using the MKF-6 multispectral and KATE-140 stereo space photographs collected during TERRA experiment and SIR-A radar data acquired during the flight of Columbia Space Shuttle on Nov. 12, 1981. A comp...

P. C. Bakliwal

1986-01-01

46

Quantification of trends in groundwater levels of Gujarat in western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The patterns in groundwater level, rainfall and temperature extremes for the western Indian state of Gujarat were examined using water-table records of 555 monitoring wells and daily rainfall and maximum temperature data sets for the period 1995–2005. The results reveal a large number of declining trends in groundwater levels with notable spatial structures; these are unlikely to be associated with

D. K. Panda; A. Mishra; A. Kumar

2012-01-01

47

The deadliest stable continental region earthquake occurred near Bhuj on 26 January 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large destructive earthquake occurred on 26 January 2001 in the region of Kutch, Gujarat, in Western India, with magnitude Mw 7.7. The earthquake caused very heavy damage and a large number of casualties with more than 20,000 deaths. A preliminary study of ground deformation, damage pattern and aftershock distribution is presented.

B. K. Rastogi; H. K. Gupta; Prantik Mandal; H. V. S. Satyanarayana; M. Kousalya; R. Raghavan; Richa Jain; A. N. S. Sarma; N. Kumar; C. Satyamurty

2001-01-01

48

Earthquake precursory studies in India: Scenario and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are the worst natural calamities that strike without any notice and cause immediate loss of life and property. Internationally, serious and scientifically acceptable earthquake prediction studies started in 1970s and short term prediction of the Heicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 in China is a land mark. In India, a successful medium term prediction of August 6, 1988 earthquake, (M 7.5) in northeast Indian region encouraged to intensify such studies in the country. These predictions were based mainly on seismological precursors. Initially, the precursory studies were taken in isolated manner, but after validation of specific geophysical parameters, efforts were made to adopt an integrated approach involving collection, analysis and interpretation of various precursory observations in a comprehensive and coordinated manner. Accordingly, a few Multi-parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGOs) have been established at the selected locations in seismically active areas in the country. This approach led to successful short term prediction of some moderate earthquakes (M ? 4) in Koyna region (famous for Reservoir Triggered Seismicity) in western India. Simultaneously, efforts have been made to generate long term multi-parametric observations from these observatories, as a basic scientific input required for future earthquake prediction related studies. The real-time analysis of these data sets would help to understand the earthquake generation process and attaining the predictive capabilities by developing models for short term earthquake forecasting. To facilitate direct observations and test the hypothesis of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) as well as to understand the earthquake generation processes, it is planned to undertake deep borehole (6-8 km) investigations in Koyna region of western India.The paper highlights the efforts made so far in India in the area of earthquake precursory studies as well as the future road map.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2012-08-01

49

A robust satellite technique for monitoring seismically active areas: The case of Bhuj–Gujarat earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust satellite data analysis technique (RAT) has been recently proposed as a suitable tool for satellite TIR surveys in seismically active regions and already successfully tested in different cases of earthquakes (both high and medium–low magnitudes).In this paper, the efficiency and the potentialities of the RAT technique have been tested even when it is applied to a wide area

N. Genzano; C. Aliano; C. Filizzola; N. Pergola; V. Tramutoli

2007-01-01

50

Shillong plateau earthquakes in northeast India region: complex tectonic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex tectonic model of the Shillong plateau (SP), the source area of the 1897 great earthquake in the northeast India region, is examined using the high precision data of a 20-station digital seismic network that is in operation in the SP since 2001. The dominating thrust\\/strike-slip faulting earthquakes in the western plateau although could be explained by the 'pop-up'

J. R. Kayal; S. S. Arefiev; S. Barua; D. Hazarika; N. Gogoi; A. Kumar; S. N. Chowdhury; S. Kalita

2006-01-01

51

Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

Sonar, Mohan A.; Gaikwad, Sharad G.

2013-02-01

52

Study of cation-exchange capacity of soil near fluorspar mining with special reference to Kadipani mine (Gujarat, India).  

PubMed

One of the important functions of soil is exchange of cations, whereby essential trace metals are made available to plants as nutrients. Both minerals and organics fractions of soil exchange the cations. Clay minerals exchange cation because of the presence of negatively charged sites on the mineral while organic materials exchange cations by means of their carboxylate groups and other basic functional groups. Cation exchange in soil provides trace metal nutrients to plant. The metal ions are taken up by the roots while H+ is exchanged for the metal ions. Therefore, the measurement of Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of soil is important and this becomes more significant when the mining activity is carried out in the surrounding environment as mining activity may adversely impact the soil texture and organic matter content and sometimes changes the pH which is the main regulator of CEC in soil. The studies related to the assessment of CEC of soil were carried out. 14 soil samples, including one sample of mine site, were collected during summer season from different villages within 10 km radius from the mine site. These samples were then analyzed. The efforts were made to establish the CEC of soil quality of Kadipani, Distt. Vadodara, Gujarat, India. This study is useful for making the decisions regarding the environmental measures required for mining activity. PMID:23505823

Pradhan, Alka; Deshmukh, Jitendra P

2011-10-01

53

Naphthalene degradation by bacterial consortium (DV-AL) developed from Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Naphthalene degrading bacterial consortium (DV-AL) was developed by enrichment culture technique from sediment collected from the Alang-Sosiya ship breaking yard, Gujarat, India. The 16S rRNA gene based molecular analyzes revealed that the bacterial consortium (DV-AL) consisted of four strains namely, Achromobacter sp. BAB239, Pseudomonas sp. DV-AL2, Enterobacter sp. BAB240 and Pseudomonas sp. BAB241. Consortium DV-AL was able to degrade 1000 ppm of naphthalene in Bushnell Haas medium (BHM) containing peptone (0.1%) as co-substrate with an initial pH of 8.0 at 37°C under shaking conditions (150 rpm) within 24h. Maximum growth rate and naphthalene degradation rate were found to be 0.0389 h(-1) and 80 mg h(-1), respectively. Consortium DV-AL was able to utilize other aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, phenol, carbazole, petroleum oil, diesel fuel, and phenanthrene and 2-methyl naphthalene as sole carbon source. Consortium DV-AL was also efficient to degrade naphthalene in the presence of other pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. PMID:22217733

Patel, Vilas; Jain, Siddharth; Madamwar, Datta

2011-12-21

54

Phenanthrene degradation by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated sediment of Amlakhadi canal, Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Amlakhadi canal, flowing through Ankleshwar (Gujarat, India) has been impinged with various xenobiotic compounds, released in industrial discharges, over last many decades. Twenty five bacterial strains capable of phenanthrene degradation were isolated from sediments of Amlakhadi canal. The best strain amongst them was identified as Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selected for further studies. Experiments were carried out for optimization of abiotic parameters for efficient phenanthrene degradation. Strain DMVP2 was able to degrade 300 ppm of phenanthrene completely in minimal medium containing peptone (0.1%, w/v) as nitrogen source with initial pH 8.0 at 37°C under shaking condition (150 rpm) within 120 h. Strain DMVP2 was able to consume 1,600 mg/l of phenanthrene even at high initial concentration (4,000 mg/l) of phenanthrene. Identification of phthalic acid as major metabolite on GC-MS analysis and detection of protocatechuate dioxygenase activity revealed that phenanthrene was metabolized by phthalic acid-protocatechuate acid pathway. Strain DMVP2 was also able to utilize other xenobiotic compounds as sole carbon source and degrade phenanthrene in presence of other petroleum hydrocarbons. Consequently, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. DMVP2 has potential applications in bioremediation strategies. PMID:22169141

Patel, Vilas; Cheturvedula, Sravanthi; Madamwar, Datta

2011-11-22

55

The palaeodelta of the ``Proto'' Vatrak and ``Proto'' Mahi rivers of northeastern Gujarat, India: A remote sensing interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed remote sensing studies carried out in northeastern Gujarat, India, suggest that there has been a major change in the drainage system as evidenced by the presence of a large palaeo-delta system. The area is drained by two major rivers, the Mahi and Vatrak originating from the Aravalli Hills to the east, which discharge into the Gulf of Cambay, in the Indian Ocean. Major lineaments, palaeodrainage patterns and palaeodeltas of the Vatrak and Mahi rivers were delineated. These were large rivers in the past with a high discharge and floodplains which were 5-10 km wide. Most of the palaeodrainage follows the NE-SW Precambrian lineaments/ faults indicating their structural control. Reactivation of these lineaments and differential uplift of the Aravalli Hills resulted in increased transportation of the eroded sediments and deposition of more than 5 km thick sediments into the Tarapur block of the Cambay Basin. The Gulf of Cambay extended up to the Limbasi-Sojitra-Petlad area during the Quaternary. There are implications for petroleum exploration in the sense that the results when integrated with subsurface geological and geophysical data help to delineate the reservoir facies suitable for petroleum exploration along the eastern margin of the Tarapur block.

Agarwal, R. P.; Dotiwala, Sucheta; Mitra, D. S.; Bhoj, R.

1996-02-01

56

A unique trend of murder-suicide in the Jamnagar region of Gujarat, India (a retrospective study of 5 years).  

PubMed

Jamnagar region, Gujarat state, enjoys a relatively low incidence of homicide in India. In the 5 year period from 2000 to 2004, 8 mothers committed 13 murders involving 3 male and 10 female victims and in every case it was followed by suicide of the assailant mothers. During the study the annual incidence of murder-suicide was about 1.8 cases. All the assailants were mothers and the victims were their small children in the age group of 6 months to 7 years. Five incidents took place in rural areas and three in urban areas. It was prevalent only in low socio-economic families. Methods both for killing and suicide were either burning or drowning. All the mothers were legally married and living with the family. Family and family related matters were the main motives for killing. In one case there was history of depression of the mother due to her previous miscarriage. Alcohol consumption or drug abuse was not seen even in a single case. All cases fell in the altruistic category of filicide-suicide. PMID:18423359

Gupta, B D; Gambhir Singh, O

2008-04-11

57

Geochemical study of laterites of the Jamnagar district, Gujarat, India: Implications on parent rock, mineralogy and tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laterite deposits occur in a linear stretch along the northern Arabian Sea coast in the Jamnagar and Porbandar districts of, Gujarat state, India. These deposits are characterised by presence of gibbsite, kaoline, calcite, quartz, anatase, natroalunite, goethite and hematite, and relicts of mafic minerals and plagioclase. On the basis of petro-mineralogy and geochemistry, these deposits are grouped as aluminous laterites (Fe2O3 - 1.45-3.84%, Av. 3.13, Al2O3 - 39.31-57.24, Av. 45.80) and laterites (Fe2O3 - 9.84-32.21, Av. 25.13%, Al2O3 - 34.74-49.59, Av. 41.27). The major, trace and REE characteristics of laterites indicate that these were formed in situ by the alteration of parent rocks of trachytic/andesitic composition, and the process of bauxitisation followed the path of destruction of kaolinite and deferruginisation. The correlation patterns of several trace and rare earth elements and their preferential enrichment have indicated that there is an influence of precursor rock on the distribution of trace elements.The Jamnagar laterite deposits occur as capping over the Deccan Trap basaltic lava flows and pyroclasic deposits. Lateritisation prevailed during Palaeocene age when India was separated from the Seychelles and passing over the equator. During this time climate, morphology and drainage conditions were favourable for lateritisation that result in the formation of Jamnagar and other laterite deposits within the Deccan Province. Flood basaltic provinces of Deccan, Columbia, North Australia and Hawaii appear good location for hosting laterite deposits due to their wide areal extent, small geological time span and uniform chemical composition. However, comparison of the major flood basaltic provinces of the world has indicated that their palaeopositions along with palaeoclimate, morphology and drainage are equally important factors for facilitating lateritisation.

Meshram, R. R.; Randive, K. R.

2011-11-01

58

Strong positive growth responses to salinity by Ceriops tagal, a commonly occurring mangrove of the Gujarat coast of India  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Mangroves of Western Gujarat (India) are subject to die-back. Salinity intolerance is one possible cause, especially in young plants. We therefore quantified the extent to which young plants of one widely occurring mangrove species (Ceriops tagal) tolerate high salt in terms of establishment, growth, water status, proline content and mineral accumulation. Methodology In a greenhouse study, juvenile plants were established from mature propagules over 40 days in soil containing added NaCl, raising soil water salinity to 0.2, 2.5, 5.1, 7.7, 10.3, 12.6, 15.4, 17.9, 20.5 and 23.0 ppt (w/v). Growth and physiological characteristics were monitored over the subsequent 6 months. Principal results Despite a negative relationship between the percentage of young plant establishment and salt concentration (50 % loss at 22.3 ppt), the remaining plants proved highly tolerant. Growth, in dry weight, was significantly promoted by low salinity, which is optimal at 12.6 ppt. Water content, leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation in tissues followed a similar optimum curve with leaf area being doubled at 12.6 ppt NaCl. Salinity >12.6 and <23 ppt inhibited plant growth, but never to below control levels. Root:shoot dry weight ratios were slightly reduced by salinity (maximum 19 %), but the water potential of roots, leaves and stems became more negative as salinity increases while proline increases in all tissues. The concentration of Na increased, whereas concentrations of K, Ca, N and P decreased and that of Mg remained stable. Conclusions Ceriops tagal has a remarkably high degree of salinity tolerance, and shows an optimal growth when soil water salinity is 12.6 ppt. Salinity tolerance is linked to an adaptive regulation of hydration and ionic content. The cause of localized die-back along the coastal region of Gujarat is thus unlikely to be a primary outcome of salinity stress although amendments with Ca and K, and perhaps proline, may help protect against extreme salinity.

Patel, Neha T.; Gupta, Ajit; Pandey, Amar Nath

2010-01-01

59

Short-term diurnal and temporal measurement of methane emission in relation to organic carbon, phosphate and sulphate content of two rice fields of central Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane emission from two rice fields of Lambhvel village, Anand district, Central Gujarat, India, was measured for whole\\u000a cultivation period during pre-summer season. Along with the methane emission, soil chemistry of the two rice fields (Organic\\u000a Carbon, PO4?2 and SO4?2) was determined. The methane emission ranged from 0.10 to 0.56 mg\\/m2 per h, having maximum emission during noon period (11 a.m.

J. I. Nirmal Kumar; Shailendra V. Viyol

2009-01-01

60

Determinants of Overweight and Obesity in Affluent Adolescent in Surat City, South Gujarat region, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Obesity is a major global burden. Low levels of physical activity, TV watching, and dietary pattern are modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in adolescent. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for overweight and obesity among affluent adolescent, in Surat city in south Gujarat. Design: Cross sectional from July 2009 to April 2010. Setting: Two private schools with tuition fees more than Rs. 2000 per month, were selected randomly using a random table. Participants: The participants were adolescents, 12 to 15 years of age. Data collection: Pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to elicit the information about dietary history and physical activity. Measurement: Height and weight was measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obesity were assessed by BMI for age. Student who had BMI for age <85th and <95th percentile of reference population were classified as overweight and BMI for age <95th percentile of reference population were classified as obese (IAP Growth Monitoring Guidelines for Children from Birth to 18 Year). Result: The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 6.55% and 13.9% (boys: 6.7% and 15.1%; girls 6.4% and 13.35%). Final model of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that important determinants of overweight and obesity were low levels of physical activity, watching television or playing computer games, and consuming junk foods, snacks and carbonated drinks. Conclusion: The magnitude of obesity and overweight among affluent adolescent of Surat city was found to be 6.55% and 13.9%, respectively. Low level of physical activity, watching TV or playing computer games, and dietary pattern predisposed the adolescent to overweight/obesity.

Goyal, Jagdish P; Kumar, Nagendra; Parmar, Indira; Shah, Vijay B; Patel, Bharat

2011-01-01

61

Radon measurements for earthquake prediction in northern India  

SciTech Connect

Earthquake prediction is based on the observation of precursory phenomena, and radon has emerged as a useful precursor in recent years. In India, where 55% of the land area is in active seismic zones, considerable destruction was caused by the earthquakes of Kutch (1819), Shillong (1897), Kangra (1905), Bihar-Nepal (1934), Assam (1956), Koyna (1967), Bihar-Nepal (1988), and Uttarkashi (1991). Radon ([sup 222]Rn) is produced by the decay of radium ([sup 226]Ra) in the uranium decay series and is present in trace amounts almost everywhere on the earth, being distributed in soil, groundwater, and lower levels of atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to find the value in radon monitoring for earthquake prediction.

Singh, B.; Virk, H.S. (Guru Nanak Dev Univ., Amritsar (India))

1992-01-01

62

Food habits of the Indian fox ( Vulpes bengalensis) in Kutch, Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the diet of the Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) during the breeding season in a semi-desert region of Western India. Diet was estimated using scat analysis. We used Index of Relative Importance (IRI) to determine the contribution of prey items in the diet of the Indian fox.Indian foxes were observed to feed on a wide variety of prey items.

Chandrima Home; Yadvendradev V. Jhala

2009-01-01

63

The first psychodid (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species from the Lower Eocene amber of Vastan, Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new genus and species, Phlebotoiella eoindianensis, from the Eocene Vastan amber deposits in western India is described and illustrated. This marks the first Psychodidae to be described from Vastan amber. The relationship of this new genus is discussed as well as its biogeographic implications.

MÓNICA M. SOLÓRZANO KRAEMER; RÜDIGER WAGNER

64

Action research in policy making: a case in the dairy industry in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Action research has been extensively used world-wide for decision making related to policy due to its nature of involving the researcher and decision maker in the process. Following independence in India, one of the major revolutions was brought about in the dairy sector with regard to complete management systems. Most innovations and changes occurred in the line function while the

Dhawal Mehta; Jatin Pancholi; Paurav Shukla

2004-01-01

65

Maternal Healthcare Financing: Gujarat’s Chiranjeevi Scheme and Its Beneficiaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal mortality is an important public-health issue in India, specifically in Gujarat. Contributing factors are the Government's inability to operationalize the First Referral Units and to provide an adequate level of skilled birth attendants, especially to the poor. In response, the Gujarat state has developed a unique public-private partnership called the Chiranjeevi Scheme. This scheme focuses on institutional delivery, specifically

Ramesh Bhat; Dileep V. Mavalankar; Prabal V. Singh; Neelu Singh

2009-01-01

66

Infection control in delivery care units, Gujarat state, India: A needs assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Increasingly, women in India attend health facilities for childbirth, partly due to incentives paid under government programs.\\u000a Increased use of health facilities can alleviate the risks of infections contracted in unhygienic home deliveries, but poor\\u000a infection control practices in labour and delivery units also cause puerperal sepsis and other infections of childbirth. A\\u000a needs assessment was conducted to provide information

Rajesh Mehta; Dileep V Mavalankar; KV Ramani; Sheetal Sharma; Julia Hussein

2011-01-01

67

Estimation of Strong Ground Motions for 2001 Bhuj ( M w 7.6), India Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong ground motions for the 2001 Bhuj ( M w 7.6) India earthquake have been estimated on hard rock and B/C boundary (NEHRP) levels using a recently modified version of stochastic finite fault modeling based on dynamic corner frequency (M otazedian and A tkinson in Bull Seismol Soc Am 95, 995-1010 2005). Incorporation of dynamic corner frequency removes the limitations of earlier stochastic methods. Simulations were carried out at 13 sites in Gujarat where structural response recorder (SRR) recordings are available. In addition, accelerograms were simulated at the B/C boundary at a large number of points distributed on a grid. The corresponding response spectra have also been estimated. The values of peak ground accelerations and spectral accelerations at three periods (0.4, 0.75 and 1.25 s) are presented in the form of contour maps. The maximum value of peak ground acceleration (PGA) in the center of meizoseismal zone is 550 cm/s2. The response spectral acceleration in same zone is 900 cm/s2 ( T = 0.4 s), 600 cm/s2 ( T = 0.75 s) and 300 cm/s2 ( T = 1.25 s). The innermost PGA contour is on the fault plane. A comparison of the PGA values obtained at 13 sites in this study with those obtained in earlier studies on the same sites, but employing different methods, show that the present PGA values are comparable at most of the sites. The rate of decay of PGA values is fast at short distances as compared to that at longer distances. The PGA values obtained here put some constraints on the expected values from a similar earthquake in the region. A synthetic intensity map has been prepared from the estimated values of PGA using an empirical relation. A comparison with the reported intensity map of the earthquake shows the synthetic MMI values, as expected, are lower by 1 unit compared to reported intensity map. The contour map of PGA along with the contour maps of spectral acceleration at various periods permit the assessment of damage potential to various categories of houses and other structures. Such information will be quite important in planning of mitigation and disaster management programs in the region.

Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Dinesh; Rastogi, Bal Krishna

2010-11-01

68

Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj city and moderate in the Mainland Gujarat, i.e. cities of Surat and Ahmedabad. The seismic ground motion level in the Saurashtra is moderate but marginally differs from that as presently specified in IS:1893-Part I (2002). Based on the present study, the recommended PGA values for the cities studied are 0.13 g, 0.15 g, 0.64 g, 0.14 g and 0.2 g for Ahmedabad city, Surat City, Bhuj City, Jamnagar City and Junagadh city, respectively. The prepared spectra can be further used for seismic resistant design of structures within the above major city boundaries of Gujarat to quantify seismic loading on structures.

Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.

2012-06-01

69

Late Quaternary sediments from Nal Sarovar, Gujarat, India: Distribution and provenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 54-m long core was raised from the bed of the Nal Sarovar, a large shallow lake located in the middle of the low-lying region\\u000a linking the Gulfs of Kachchh and Khambhat, in western India. A three-layer sequence comprising: Zone-1 (top 3 m), predominantly\\u000a silty-clay\\/clayey; Zone-2 (3–18 m), sandy; and Zone-3 (18–54 m), dominated by sticky silty-clay\\/clayey-silt with occasional\\u000a thin

K. Pandarinath; Sushma Prasad; R. D. Deshpande; S. K. Gupta

1999-01-01

70

Organizing for rural energy development: Improved cookstoves, local organizations, and the state in Gujarat, India  

SciTech Connect

Proponents of the sustainable development of Third World States frequently urge the integration of local non-government organizations (NGOs) into State-sponsored, centrally administered programs of rural-resource development. This study draws on literatures on energy use, biomass technologies, and organization theory, and on interviews, archival research, and organizational surveys of eight Gujarati NGOs conducted in India in 1986 and 1987. It concludes that the conventional wisdom guiding State-NGO collaboration is in important ways flawed. Though driven by political and fiscal imperatives to integrate local NGOs in State programs, national planners are ill-equipped to cope with the uncertainty and vulnerability such collaboration brings. Their understandable response is to structure collaboration in ways inimical to overarching goals of local participation and flexible administration. Simultaneously, at the local level, unmanaged systems of collaboration - organized around a view of local organizations as self-guiding and self-correcting - generates a degradation of capacity. Organizational assumptions driving the sustainable development of India's (and much of the Third World's) rural energy resources must be re-evaluated.

Maniates, M.F.

1990-01-01

71

Rare combination of bilateral putaminal necrosis, optic neuritis, and polyneuropathy in a case of acute methanol intoxication among patients met with hooch tragedy in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Methanol poisoning is a rare but extremely hazardous form of intoxication, generally occurring after suicidal or accidental events. Methanol is a cheap and potent adulterant of illicit liquors. In India, we have witnessed number of mass emergencies due to adulterated alcohol consumption. Although Gujarat State had banned alcohol consumption since 1961, worse hooch tragedies have often taken place. The most severe consequences of methanol intoxication are blindness, a profound metabolic acidosis and various forms of neurological impairment; which occur characteristically after a latent period of several hours or days after ingestion. We present a unique case of acute methanol intoxication presented with, apart from metabolic acidosis and optic neuritis, involvement of central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. He had bilateral optic neuritis, delayed onset polyneuropathy with axonopathy, and radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with bilateral putaminal necrosis.

Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja; Divetia, Ruchir; Thakkar, Gurudutta

2012-01-01

72

Intermediate depth earthquakes beneath the India-Tibet Collision Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on three intermediate depth earthquakes in the India-Tibet collision zone, two under the Himalayan Thrust Belt (HTB) and one beneath the Indus Zangbo suture. The mb magnitudes of these three events are from 4.3 to 4.9, and are too small to be well located by conventional means. However, from modeling their broadband waveforms recorded at near-regional distances on a temporary PASSCAL array, we can confidently confine the sources to be below the crust, between 70 and 80 km deep. The existence of these intermediate depth earthquakes in this area suggests relatively low temperatures in the mantle lithosphere. The two events under the HTB display strike-slip mechanisms with some normal faulting component; this is quite different from the shallow thrust events typical of the same area. The principal P and T axes of all 3 fault plane solutions show roughly NS compression and EW extension, consistent with a regional stress field produced by the indenting of the India continent.

Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.

73

Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Status in Six-Twelve-Year-Old Rural Primary School Children of Bharuch District, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) creates major public health problems in India, including Gujarat. The Bharuch district is a known iodine deficiency endemic area. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of goiter in primary school children; to determine the median urinary iodine concentration; to assess the level of iodine in salt samples at the household and retail shop levels; and to study the profile of salt sold at retail shops. Methods: This study was carried out by using the 30-cluster survey method in the primary schools of the rural areas in Bharuch district. A total of 70 students, including five boys and five girls from the first to seventh classes, who were present in class on the day of the visit were selected randomly for goiter examination from each village. Urine samples were collected from one boy and one girl from each class in each cluster. From each community, a maximum of two boys and two girls from each standard in the same age group were examined and also salt samples were tested from their households. From each village, one retail shop was visited and the salt purchased from those shops was immediately tested for iodine with spot kits. Results: We found a goiter prevalence of 23.2% (grade 1 – 17.4% and grade 2 – 5.8%). As the age increased, the goiter prevalence decreased except in nine-year-olds. The median urinary iodine excretion level was 110 ?g/L. An Iodine level > 15 ppm was found in 93% of the salt samples tested at the household level. Conclusion: The present study showed moderate goiter prevalence in primary school children in the Bharuch district of Gujarat and an inadequate iodine content of salt at some household levels.

Chandwani, Haresh Rameshkumar; Shroff, Bhavesh Dahyabhai

2012-01-01

74

Post-seismic crustal deformation and strain rate in Bhuj region, western India, after the 2001 January 26 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, western India, which occurred on 2001 January 26 was a major intraplate event in the Indian subcontinent. To study the characteristics of transient post-seismic deformation at the earth's surface, to elucidate the distribution of strain accumulation rate and so understand the earthquake recurrence process, five GPS campaigns were conducted at 14 sites, in Bhuj region during 2001-2002. The daily variations in the site position coordinates and the baselines during the early after-shock period (i.e. for 21 d starting from 2001 February 10-March 2) showed no short-term post-seismic crustal deformation. Neither logarithmic nor exponential function could be well fitted to any of the components of the time-series of the position co-coordinates, indicating no discernable contribution from viscoelastic relaxation, poroelastic rebound or afterslip mechanisms. The estimated velocity field in ITRF2000 spanning five epochs during 2001-2002 has an average of 50mm yr-1 in north-northeast direction. To obtain a better perspective of post-seismic deformation in the epicentral track, the residual velocity field has been expressed in an India fixed reference frame. The residual velocity of 11.62mm yr-1 in a north-northwest direction and 5.24mm yr-1 towards the south seen at sites south and north of the epicentre, respectively, indicates localized ongoing convergence in the epicentral region. At sites away from the epicentre no significant deformation took place. The estimated principal strain from the velocity field gives average compression and extension rates of 0.07 and 0.04 micro-strain yr-1, respectively. A zone of maximum compressive strain rate of 0.30 micro-strain yr-1 with azimuth of 11° delineated north of the epicentral region shows good agreement with seismic deformation along the blind fault derived from earthquake focal mechanisms. These results suggest ongoing transpressional deformation across the area with a blocked structure embedded between the North Wagad Fault and South Wagad Fault. This deformation may be related to the present neo-tectonic compressive stress regime of the Indian Plate due to its NNE movement against the collision front in the north and its proximity to the triple junction in the western continental margin of the study area.

Reddy, C. D.; Sunil, P. S.

2008-02-01

75

Earthquake Recurrence and Rupture Dynamics of Himalayan Frontal Thrust, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Black Mango fault is a structural discontinuity that transforms motion between two segments of the active Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) in northwestern India. The Black Mango fault displays evidence of two large surface rupture earthquakes during the past 650 years, subsequent to 1294 A.D. and 1423 A.D., and possibly another rupture at about 260 A.D. Displacement during the last two earthquakes was at minimum 4.6 meters and 2.4 to 4.0 meters, respectively, and possibly larger for the 260 A.D. event. Abandoned terraces of the adjacent Markanda River record uplift due to slip on the underlying HFT of 4.8 +/- 0.9 millimeters per year or greater since the mid-Holocene. The uplift rate is equivalent to rates of fault slip and crustal shortening of 9.6-3.5+7.0 millimeters per year and 8.4-3.6+7.3 millimeters per year, respectively, when it is assumed that the HFT dips 30° +/- 10°.

Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Rockwell, Thomas K.; Ragona, Daniel; Thakur, Vikram C.; Seitz, Gordon G.

2001-12-01

76

Short term diurnal and temporal measurement of methane emission in relation to organic carbon, phosphate and sulphate content of two rice fields of central Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Methane emission from two rice fields of Lambhvel village, Anand district, central Gujarat, India, was measured for whole cultivation period during pre-summer season. Along with the methane emission, soil chemistry of the two rice fields (Organic carbon, PO4(-2) and SO4(-2)) was determined. The methane emission ranged from 105.67 to 720.64 mg m(-2) hr1, having maximum emission during noon period (11 am to 1 pm) of the day at the rice field 1. Besides, at rice field 2, the methane emission ranged between 201.59 to 430.94 mg m(-2) hr1, having maximum peak during same period (11 am to 1 pm) of the day. The results of the current investigation confirm that the methane emission vary substantially between two rice fields, and suggest that soil chemistry and flood water depth might control the methane emission in both the rice fields and suppressed by the phosphate and sulphate concentrations. The greater methane emission was gradually declined from first trip to fourth trip. Correlation analysis, ANOVA and F-test showed that the methane emission from both the sites has positive correlation with organic carbon and negative correlation with sulfate and phosphate content of the soil and the details of these reasons are discussed in this paper. PMID:20121025

Kumar, J I Nirmal; Viyol, Shailendra

2009-03-01

77

Prevalence of dental fluorosis & dental caries in association with high levels of drinking water fluoride content in a district of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Endemic fluorosis resulting from high fluoride concentration in groundwater is a major public health problem in India. This study was carried out to measure and compare the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in the population residing in high and normal level of fluoride in their drinking water in Vadodara district, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Vadodara district, six of the 261 villages with high fluoride level and five of 1490 with normal fluoride level in drinking water were selected. The data collection was made by house-to-house visits twice during the study period. Results: The dental fluorosis prevalence in high fluoride area was 59.31 per cent while in normal fluoride area it was 39.21 per cent. The prevalence of dental caries in high fluoride area was 39.53 per cent and in normal fluoride area was 48.21 per cent with CI 6.16 to 11.18. Dental fluorosis prevalence was more among males as compared to females. Highest prevalence of dental fluorosis was seen in 12-24 yr age group. Interpretation & conclusions: The risk of dental fluorosis was higher in the areas showing more fluoride content in drinking water and to a lesser degree of dental caries in the same area. High fluoride content is a risk factor for dental fluorosis and problem of dental fluorosis increased with passage of time suggesting that the fluoride content in the water has perhaps increased over time. Longitudinal studies should be conducted to confirm the findings.

Kotecha, P.V.; Patel, S.V.; Bhalani, K.D.; Shah, D.; Shah, V.S.; Mehta, K.G.

2012-01-01

78

Study of various clinical and laboratory parameters among 178 patients affected by hooch tragedy in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India): A single center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Purpose: The outbreak of methanol poisoning described in this paper occurred in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India in July 2009. Our intention is to share the experience of clinical features, laboratory investigations and their relation during this tragedy. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective study of clinical features and laboratory parameters of 178 cases of methanol toxicity treated at tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: Maximum patients (39.8%, n = 45) were received in 48 h; Mean age of presentation was 41.9 ± 10.2 years. Most of them were men (175 out of 178). On presentation, 83% patients had gastro-intestinal symptoms, 46% had neurological symptoms, 73% had visual symptoms and 32% had dyspnoea. 62% had blurred vision, 10.5% had blindness. Patients with visual symptoms had high mean level of methanol (120.12 ± 23.12 vs. 55.43 ± 29.24, P = 0.014). On fundus examination 52.8% (n = 62) had bilateral hyperaemia of discs, 8.4% (n = 12) had bilateral disc pallor and 4.5% had papilledema (n = 5). Patients with hyperaemia of discs, discs pallor or papilledema, had higher mean methanol level (121.1 ± 32.2 mg% v/s 70.1 ± 23.2 mg%, P = 0.032). Mean of pH values was 7.17 ± 0.22 and bicarbonate was 12.3 ± 7.3 mmol/L. Both pH and bicarbonate levels correlated well with mortality and serum methanol level. Mean serum methanol level was 87.1 mg/dL, and correlated significantly with the mortality (53.1 ± 41 mg/dL v/s 121 ± 92 mg/dL, P value < 0.05). Conclusion: GI symptoms, neurological symptoms and breathlessness are important clue to ED physician for diagnose methanol poisoning. Visual symptoms and fundus findings correlate well with the methanol level. Arterial Blood Gas derived pH and bicarbonate levels correlate significantly with the methanol level and mortality.

Jarwani, Bhavesh S; Motiani, Puja D; Sachdev, Sachin

2013-01-01

79

Political ecology of groundwater: the contrasting case of water-abundant West Bengal and water-scarce Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three apparently disparate themes (groundwater, farmers and politics) interweave in this account of how groundwater-related policies in India have very little to do with the scarcity, depletion or quality of groundwater, and more to do with rural politics manifested, among other things, in terms of the presence or absence of farmer lobbies. Examples from two states of India, the water-abundant

Aditi Mukherji

2006-01-01

80

A new insight into crustal heterogeneity beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Northwest India and its implications for rupture initiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic characteristics of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) has been examined from the proxy indicators, relative size distribution (3D b-value mapping) and seismic tomography using a new data set to understand the role of crustal heterogeneities in rupture initiations of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of the Gujarat (India), one of the disastrous Indian earthquakes of the new millennium. The aftershocks sequence recorded by 22 seismograph stations of Gujarat Seismic Network (GSNet) during the period from 2006 to 2009, encompassing approximately 80 km × 70 km rupture area had revealed clustering of aftershocks at depth of 5-35 km, which is seismogenic layer responsible for the occurrence of continued aftershocks activity in the study region. The 3D b-value mapping estimated from a total of 3850 precisely located aftershocks with magnitude of completeness Mc ? 2.7 shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched within the main shock hypocenter at the depth of 20-25 km and low b-value region above and below of the 2001 Bhuj main shock hypocenter. Estimates of 3-D seismic velocity (Vp; Vs) and Poisson's ratio (b) structure beneath the region demonstrated a very close correspondence with the b-value mapping that supports the similar physicochemical processes of retaining fluids within the fractured rock matrix beneath the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter. The overall b-value is estimated close to 1.0 which reveals that seismogenesis is related to crustal heterogeneity, which, in turn also supported by low-Vs and high-b structures. The high b-value and high-b anomaly at the depth of 20-25 km indicate the presence of highly fractured heterogeneous rock matrix with fluid intrusions into it at deeper depth beneath the main shock hypocenter region. Low b-value and high-Vp in the region is observed towards the north-east and north-west of the main shock that might be an indication of the existence of relatively competent rock masses with negligible volume of cracks that may have contained over-pressurized fluids without molten rocks.

Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Kumar, Dinesh

2012-04-01

81

The Mw 7.7 India Republic Day Earthquake: A Global Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are nine continent-scale SCRs (stable continental regions) in the world: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, China, Europe, India and North and South America. The smallest is the India shield and craton, which contains only about 3 percent of the total SCR crust or 2 percent of all continental crust. Similar to other continental SCRs, the Indian Precambrian craton contains a number of Mesozoic and younger failed continental rifts, of which the Kutch rift, the host structure of the Republic Day earthquake, is one. Such failed rifts are, worldwide, preferential sites of the rare SCR earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. The Kutch rift is close to the active western plate boundary of India but separated from it by the 200-km-wide Indus sedimentary basin whose deep, undeformed sediments overlie Indian cratonic crust. The India craton is contracting north to south at a strain rate of -1.8x10e-9/yr (Bilham and Gaur, 2000). The cumulative seismic moment release rate (pre-26 Jan 01) was estimated by Johnston (1994) at 1.25x10e25 dyn-cm/yr, resulting in Kostrov seismic strain release of 2.5x10e-10/yr. The Republic Day earthquake released the equivalent of approximately 320 years of accumulated elastic strain in the entire India craton. The India seismic strain rate is the highest of any SCR except North America and would exceed it if the Republic Day earthquake strain release were included or if the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12 in the Central U.S. were excluded. Finally the Republic Day earthquake shares a number of important source scaling characteristics with other SCR events, but extends our data for them to much higher magnitude that previously could be reached only by extrapolation.

Johnston, A. C.

2001-05-01

82

An investigation into the Latur earthquake of September 29, 1993 in southern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating (Mw 6.2) Latur earthquake of September 29, 1993 in South India has claimed an estimated 11.000 human lives. With an Imax of VIII, the earthquake was felt to an average distance of 750 km. More than 125 shocks were reported to have been felt during August 1992–March 1993. Out of these, during October–November 1992, several shocks of M

Harsh K. Gupta; B. K. Rastogi; Indra Mohan; C. V. R. K. Rao; S. V. S. Sarma; R. U. M. Rao

1998-01-01

83

Household Resources and Their Changing Relationships: Case Studies in Gujarat, India. International Agriculture Publications General Series Number 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication contains case studies based on rural life in northern India. The titles include: (1) "Profiles of Two Indian Rural Settings"; (2) "Visitors View a Village"; (3) "Village Households"; (4) "Agriculture"; (5) "Women's Needs: Health and Nutrition"; (6) "Meal Pattern, Nutrient Intake, Intra-Familial Distribution of Foods, Food Habits,…

Magrabi, Frances M., Ed.; Verma, Amita, Ed.

84

New discovery of coral rubbings in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India — GIS based evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of Kachchh in western India, with its arid climate, large semi-diurnal tidal amplitudes, negative water balance and\\u000a near-pristine water quality, is being extensively developed as oil importing bases for economic reasons in connection with\\u000a its proximity to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Besides, new coral rubbings were sighted in Jakhau, north-western\\u000a Gulf of Kachchh. Dredging

J. Sesh Serebiah; M. Rajkumar; Jun Sun; B. A. Venmathi Maran; A. Saravanakumar; G. A. Thivakaran

2011-01-01

85

Earthquake Hazard Assessment for Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, Including a Characteristic Earthquake Recurrence Model for the Himalaya Frontal Fault (HFF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic hazard has been computed for the city of Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. The city lies in the Himalayan foothills between two faults: the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF). The contributions from these two faults have been modelled differently in a probabilistic model. While the MBT has been modelled with a Poissonian earthquake distribution, the HFF has been modelled both with a characteristic earthquake recurrence model and a Poissonian model. The hazard scenarios reveal different patterns depending on the classical approaches and the characteristic models applied, and the obtained results indicate that Dehradun may experience PGA shaking around 2.2 m/s2 for 225 years return period and around 4.6 m/s2 for a 2,500 years return period.

Sharma, M. L.; Lindholm, C.

2012-09-01

86

Ground Motion Scaling in Kachchh: a Preliminary Assessment from Aftershocks of the 2001 Bhuj, India, Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considerable controversy surrounds the issues of how much and how systematically source and propagation characteristics of earthquakes that take place in relatively "stable" continental settings differ from those of earthquakes in more mobile crust. The 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj, India, earthquake may have been the largest such earthquake in more than 100 years. We are analyzing ground motions from aftershocks of the Bhuj earthquake recorded on a temporary network deployed within 100 km of the mainshock epicenter. Our goal is to determine the source and propagation characteristics in the region, taking into account site effects at our network sites, to facilitate comparison with similar studies in other tectonic environments. To date we have used data from about 1100 earthquakes ranging in magnitude from about 2 to about 5 1/2. We model peak amplitudes as a function of source-receiver distance for bandpass-filtered time series and the spectral amplitudes of time-windowed seismograms. Because the earthquakes occurred over a wide depth range, we have analyzed the data in two overlapping depth subsets-shallower than 25 km and deeper than 20 km. We find that propagation is well-modeled by a frequency-dependent quality factor Q = 680f0.48 combined with a rather simple geometric spreading function that varies only slightly between the deep and shallow data subsets. We modeled the source terms with an w2 single corner (Brune) model with a magnitude dependent stress drop. The larger earthquakes had stress drops of about 160 bars. Extrapolating our source and propagation values using Random Vibration Theory to an Mw 7.5 earthquake yields ground motion estimates that coincide closely with similar current estimates for eastern North America (ENA) earthquakes. Our preliminary assessment is that, from a ground motion perspective, the Bhuj earthquake presents an important opportunity to study an earthquake that (a) differs significantly from earthquakes in mobile crust, and (b) resembles in several aspects earthquakes that might be expected in ENA.

Bodin, P.; Malagnini, L.; Akinci, A.

2002-12-01

87

New discovery of coral rubbings in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India — GIS based evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Kachchh in western India, with its arid climate, large semi-diurnal tidal amplitudes, negative water balance and near-pristine water quality, is being extensively developed as oil importing bases for economic reasons in connection with its proximity to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Besides, new coral rubbings were sighted in Jakhau, north-western Gulf of Kachchh. Dredging in Mandvi of the north Gulf covering 3.5 km2 revealed a similar assortment of live corals with their associated flora and fauna. These pioneering observations demonstrate that there exist live corals of young polyps-colony of Favia sp. belonging to the family Faviidae in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh. The environmental parameters there were carefully recorded as: surface water temperature (°C) varying from 29 to 31.8, salinity (ppt), pH, dissolved oxygen (mgL-1) and total suspended solids (mgL-1) in the ranges of 37-43.5, 7.7-8.45, 5.4-6.8 and 11-31, respectively.

Sesh Serebiah, J.; Rajkumar, M.; Sun, Jun; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thivakaran, G. A.

2011-06-01

88

Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

Hough, S. E.; Pande, P.

2007-01-01

89

Radon and Helium as productive tools for earthquake precursory and fault delineation studies in NW Himalayas, India: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the role of radon and helium as a productive tool for fault delineation and earthquake precursory studies, continuous measurements are made in the soil-gas and groundwater in NW Himalayas, India. The area under study is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zones IV and V of the Seismic Map of India. The NW Himalayas are tectonically

B. Bajwa; S. Mahajan; V. Walia; A. Kumar; S. Singh; T. F. Yang

2009-01-01

90

Deep lower crustal earthquakes in central India: inferences from analysis of regional broadband data of the 1997 May 21, Jabalpur earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only instance of a confirmed deep lower crustal earthquake occurrence in the Indian shield region has been that of the 1938 Satpura earthquake (M 6.3) of central India, reportedly at a depth of about 40km. Moment tensor inversion of regional broadband waveform data of the 1997 May 21 Jabalpur earthquake (Mw 5.7) confirms yet another such earthquake at about 35km depth in the central part of the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL) zone. The study is based on a refined velocity model obtained using a traveltime grid search method. A reverse fault mechanism is obtained which, for a palaeo-rift valley zone, indicates the possibility of reactivation of a pre-existing fault under the influence of the ambient stress field due to the India-Eurasia plate collision forces. The occurrence of earthquakes at lower crustal depths, quite unusual for the Indian shield region, indicates a possible causative mechanism related to crust-mantle interaction. Based on the close proximity of the two deep earthquakes and their disposition with respect to the local trend of the central part of the NSL, we suggest a model of stress accumulation due to horizontally elongated or elliptical, possibly serpentinized mafic intrusives in the lower crust, to explain the occurrence of deep earthquakes in the heart of the Indian shield.

Rao, N. Purnachandra; Tsukuda, T.; Kosuga, M.; Bhatia, S. C.; Suresh, G.

2002-01-01

91

Earthquake Recurrence in the Kachchh-Saurashtra Region, Northwest India: Insights from Historical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of two M >7.5 earthquakes in 1819 and 2001, is unexpected in the mid-plate setting of the Kachchh basin, a Mesozoic rift system in northwestern India,. Three issues are recognized as central to the assessment of future seismic hazards in the region. First, the perceived inactivity of surface structures may result from long interseismic intervals. Second, potentially active structures, as exemplified by the Bhuj earthquake (whose rupture terminate below 9 km depth), may lie hidden beneath surface geology. Finally, seismic source zones may be characterized by varying recurrence rates and styles of deformation. The study of past seismicity in the Kachchh region is facilitated by an exceptionally rich >5000 year archaeological and historical database, with paleoseismological data providing additional constraints (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2001). We report here evidence for three earlier earthquakes in 893 AD, c. 30 AD and 2500-2200 BC . Trench investigations indicate that an earthquake sharing similar deformational characteristics as that of the 1819 event occurred in 893 AD (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2002). Evidence for a still older event (30 AD) has been obtained from archaeological excavations near Dwarka, a coastal town 200 km SW of the 1819 and 2001 earthquake sources, suggesting a millennium-long interval between events. In contrast, trenching excavations in the meizoseismal area of the 2001 earthquake, and the pattern of documented damage to historical and ancient monuments, suggest that the 2001 source region may be associated with a much longer recurrence interval. Ancient ruins at Dholavira, a major Harappan city (2600 to 1600 BC) about 60 km from Bhuj epicenter, is the oldest structure in the 2001 epicentral area. Archaeologists attribute repairs undertaken during Stage III of this settlement (2500- 2200 BC) to earthquake related damage (Joshi and Bisht, 1994). Paleoliquefaction features near Ahmedabad, a site located within the Cambay basin, provide additional evidence for the occurrence of an earthquake dated at 2948ñ295 yr BP, its source remaining uncertain (Rajendran et al., 2002). Our study suggests the existence of multiple seismic sources within the Kachchh-Saurashtra rift system that can generate large earthquakes, and these may be characterized by varying recurrence patterns and styles of deformation. A fundamental issue is to understand the driving mechanism for the multiplicity of large earthquakes within a short period of about 5000 years, in an area traditionally classified as a `stable continental region'.

Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.

2002-12-01

92

Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake Hazard Assessment Based on Geological Data: An approach from Crystalline Terrain of Peninsular India Biju John National Institute of Rock Mechanics b_johnp@yahoo.co.in Peninsular India was for long considered as seismically stable. But the recent earthquake sequence of Latur (1993), Jabalpur (1997), Bhuj (2001) suggests this region is among one of the active Stable Continental Regions (SCRs) of the world, where the recurrence intervals is of the order of tens of thousands of years. In such areas, earthquake may happen at unexpected locations, devoid of any previous seismicity or dramatic geomorphic features. Even moderate earthquakes will lead to heavy loss of life and property in the present scenario. So it is imperative to map suspected areas to identify active faults and evaluate its activities, which will be a vital input to seismic hazard assessment of SCR area. The region around Wadakkanchery, Kerala, South India has been experiencing micro seismic activities since 1989. Subsequent studies, by the author, identified a 30 km long WNW-ESE trending reverse fault, dipping south (45°), that influenced the drainage system of the area. The macroscopic and microscopic studies of the fault rocks from the exposures near Desamangalam show an episodic nature of faulting. Dislocations of pegmatitic veins across the fault indicate a cumulative dip displacement of 2.1m in the reverse direction. A minimum of four episodes of faulting were identified in this fault based on the cross cutting relations of different structural elements and from the mineralogic changes of different generations of gouge zones. This suggests that an average displacement of 52cm per event might have occurred for each event. A cyclic nature of faulting is identified in this fault zone in which the inter-seismic period is characterized by gouge induration and fracture sealing aided by the prevailing fluids. Available empirical relations connecting magnitude with displacement and rupture length show that each event might have produced an earthquake of magnitude ? 6.0, which could be a damaging one to an area like peninsular India. Electron Spin Resonance dating of fault gouge indicates a major event around 430ka. In the present stress regime this fault can be considered as seismically active, because the orientation of the fault is favorable for reactivation.

John, B.

2009-04-01

93

A comparative study on the Earthquake Information Management Systems (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran  

PubMed Central

Context: Damages and loss of life sustained during an earthquake results from falling structures and flying glass and objects. To address these and other problems, new information technology and systems as a means can improve crisis management and crisis response. The most important factor for managing the crisis depends on our readiness before disasters by useful data. Aims: This study aimed to determine the Earthquake Information Management System (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran, and describe how we can reduce destruction by EIMS in crisis management. Materials and Methods: This study was an analytical comparison in which data were collected by questionnaire, observation and checklist. The population was EIMS in selected countries. Sources of information were staff in related organizations, scientific documentations and Internet. For data analysis, Criteria Rating Technique, Delphi Technique and descriptive methods were used. Results: Findings showed that EIMS in India (Disaster Information Management System), Afghanistan (Management Information for Natural Disasters) and Iran are decentralized. The Indian state has organized an expert group to inspect issues about disaster decreasing strategy. In Iran, there was no useful and efficient EIMS to evaluate earthquake information. Conclusions: According to outcomes, it is clear that an information system can only influence decisions if it is relevant, reliable and available for the decision-makers in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is necessary to reform and design a model. The model contains responsible organizations and their functions.

Ajami, Sima

2012-01-01

94

A re-assessment of focal depth distributions in southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India: do earthquakes really occur in the continental mantle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the depth distribution of earthquakes within the continental lithosphere of southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India by using synthetic seismograms to analyse P and SH body waveforms. In the Zagros mountains of southern Iran, earthquakes are apparently restricted to the upper crust (depths of <20km), whereas in the Tien Shan and northern India they occur throughout

A. Maggi; J. A. Jackson; K. Priestley; C. Baker

2000-01-01

95

Groundwater markets in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Markets for groundwater have emerged where well owners have surplus water and there is high demand for irrigation water. This has increased the return on groundwater investments and induced investment in mechanisms to reduce conveyance losses. Private sales of water overcome the problem of indivisibility of groundwater investments and have provided non?well owners access to groundwater. Although well owners are

Shashi Kolvalli; David L. Chicoine

1989-01-01

96

Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake

Pakiser, Louis C.

97

Music in Public Space Gujarat—a Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The paper presents a perspective on the role of the arts in cultural dialogue, which reflects on the situation in Gujarat, India, which has been the destination of people of diverse background and cultural practice for centuries. As External Partner of the European Union Project on Diversity, the paper invites us to look at how diversity is managed in

Alaknanda Patel

98

Role of flexure in earthquake triggering along the Western Ghat escarpment, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of earthquakes near reservoirs in the region of the Western Ghat escarpment far exceeds the reported rate in other areas of peninsular India. Reservoir loading and induced pore pressure are generally thought to be triggering earthquakes, but in order to explain the anomalous rates of occurrence in the Western Ghat, we invoke the additional effects of elastic plate flexure. The height of the escarpment is usually considered to be maintained by flexure in the east west direction. Intense erosion and sediment loading further control its evolution. We propose that this promotes failure at shallow depth by a reduction of the normal stress on escarpment-parallel sub-vertical planes in the region. The same mechanism has been proposed to operate globally in several other escarpment regions along passive margins.

Catherine, J. K.; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Gahalaut, V. K.

2007-10-01

99

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

100

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

... time. Before During After More Information Before an Earthquake The following are things you can do to ... most of the destruction during earthquakes. During an Earthquake Drop, cover and Hold On. Minimize your movements ...

101

Evaluating the seismic hazard to the National Capital (Delhi) Region, India, from moderate earthquakes using simulated accelerograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Capital Region (NCR) of India is exposed to high seismic hazard and risk due to a great earthquake in the central\\u000a seismic gap of Himalaya and\\/or due to moderate-size earthquake within NCR. The high population density, rapid growth of infrastructure,\\u000a and old engineering structures in the region make it more vulnerable to the human as well as economic

Dinesh Kumar; Irene Sarkar; V. Sriram; S. S. Teotia

102

Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November 2002. Earthquakes with magnitude range from 3.8 to 4.9 have been taken into account. The time domain coda decay method of a single back scattering model is used to calculate frequency dependent values of Coda Q (Qc) where as, the source parameters like seismic moment(Mo), stress drop, source radius(r), radiant energy(Wo),and strain drop are estimated using displacement amplitude spectrum of body wave using Brune's model. The earthquakes with magnitude range 3.8 to 4.9 have been used for estimation Qc at six central frequencies 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, and 18.0 Hz. In the present work, the Qc value of local earthquakes are estimated to understand the attenuation characteristic, source parameters and tectonic activity of the region. Based on a criteria of homogeneity in the geological characteristics and the constrains imposed by the distribution of available events the study region has been classified into three zones such as the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ), Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ), Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ). It follows the power law Qc= Qo (f/fo)n where, Qo is the quality factor at the reference frequency (1Hz) fo and n is the frequency parameter which varies from region to region. The mean values of Qc reveals a dependence on frequency, varying from 292.9 at 1.5 Hz to 4880.1 at 18 Hz. Average frequency dependent relationship Qc values obtained of the Northeastern India is 198 f 1.035, while this relationship varies from the region to region such as, Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ): Qc= 226 f 1.11, Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) : Qc= 301 f 0.87, Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc=126 fo 0.85. It indicates Northeastern India is seismically active but comparing of all zones in the study region the Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc= 126 f 0.85 is seismically most active. Where as the Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) are less active and out of three the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)is intermediate active. This study may be useful for the seismic hazard assessment. The estimated seismic moments (Mo), range from 5.98×1020 to 3.88×1023 dyne-cm. The source radii(r) are confined between 152 to 1750 meter, the stress drop ranges between 0.0003×103 bar to 1.04×103 bar, the average radiant energy is 82.57×1018 ergs and the strain drop for the earthquake ranges from 0.00602×10-9 to 2.48×10-9 respectively. The estimated stress drop values for NE India depicts scattered nature of the larger seismic moment value whereas, they show a more systematic nature for smaller seismic moment values. The estimated source parameters are in agreement to previous works in this type of tectonic set up. Key words: Coda wave, Seismic source parameters, Lapse time, single back scattering model, Brune's model, Stress drop and North East India.

Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

2010-12-01

103

Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes,…

Pakiser, Louis C.

104

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the British Geological Survey, the Earthquakes Web site contains numerous educational topics for kids. Best suited for junior high school students and older, the site contains information on macroseismology (or the observable effects of earthquakes on people, buildings, and nature); seismic hazards; earthquake monitoring; recent and historical earthquakes; and more. Other links on the site include a Questions and Answers page, earthquake references, and additional educational links culminating in an informative and helpful source of online science learning. [JAB

105

Network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories for earthquake prediction research in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present paper deals with a brief review of the research carried out to develop multi-parametric gas-geochemical monitoring facilities dedicated to earthquake prediction research in India by installing a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories at different regions of the country. In an attempt to detect earthquake precursors, the concentrations of helium, argon, nitrogen, methane, radon-222 (222Rn), polonium-218 (218Po), and polonium-214 (214Po) emanating from hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously and round the clock at these observatories. In this paper, we make a cross correlation study of a number of geochemical anomalies recorded at these observatories. With the data received from each of the above observatories we attempt to make a time series analysis to relate magnitude and epicentral distance locations through statistical methods, empirical formulations that relate the area of influence to earthquake scale. Application of the linear and nonlinear statistical techniques in the recorded geochemical data sets reveal a clear signature of long-range correlation in the data sets.

Chaudhuri, Hirok; Barman, Chiranjib; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Ghose, Debasis; Sen, Prasanta; Sinha, Bikash

2013-08-01

106

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline of basic information on earthquakes starts with an explanation of an earthquake, including the forces acting on rock, (tension, compression, and shear) and plastic and elastic deformation of rock. Next, the principle of the seismograph, seismometer, and seismogram along with the three types of seismic waves are discussed. Information is then presented to help the student distinguish between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, describe the world-wide distribution pattern of earthquake activity, and explain the earthquake magnitude (Richter) scale and the Modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity. This site also includes an explanation of how the epicenter of an earthquake can be located. There is a discussion of some past earthquakes along with a description of the effects of earthquake activity.

Gore, Pamela

107

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on earthquakes is based on naturalist John Muir's experiences with two significant earthquakes, the 1872 earthquake on the east side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Students will learn to explain that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and list the major geologic events including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, which are the result of crustal plate motions. A downloadable, printable version (PDF) of the lesson plan is available.

108

Towards an understanding of the carnelian bead trade from Western India to sub-Saharan Africa: the application of UV-LA-ICP-MS to carnelian from Gujarat, India, and West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A trade in carnelian from Gujarat, especially the town of Khambhat, and parts of sub-Saharan Africa is often discussed in the literature. To date, such assertions have been based upon putative visual parallels between African and Indian samples, and upon historical sources. This paper outlines the results of UV-LA-ICP-MS analysis and subsequent principal component analysis undertaken in an attempt to

Timothy Insoll; David A Polya; Kuldeep Bhan; Duncan Irving; Kym Jarvis

2004-01-01

109

General Earthquake Models: A Computational-Statistical Physics Approach to the Problem of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in urban centers are capable of causing enormous damage. Recent events in include the January 26, magnitude 7.9 Gujarat India earthquake, and the February 28, 2001 magnitude 6.8 Seattle, Washington USA event have killed thousands of persons and caused billions of dollars in property losses. The January 16, 1995 Kobe, Japan earthquake was only a magnitude 6.9 event and yet produced an estimated $200 billion loss. Similar scenarios are possible at any time in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and other US urban centers along the Pacific plate boundary. Earthquake physics, a form of strongly correlated, leaky threshold dynamics, operates over a wide range of space and time-scales, and the development of forecast/forewarning/predictive models together with data mining technologies represents a significant challenge in statistical physics and computational science. Due to the critical importance of understanding the physics of earthquake fault systems, and the need for developing any kind of forecast or forewarning methodology, both the US and international communities (ACES collaboration) have recently formed teams to focus on the construction of computational simulations of earthquake fault systems that can function as numerical laboratories to investigate the strongly correlated, multiscale space-time behavior of these driven threshold systems. This talk will summarize the present state of research and discuss several important outstanding problems in the areas of statistical physics, data mining, and computational simulations.

Rundle, John; Donnellan, Andrea

2001-06-01

110

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore the causes of earthquakes and their impact on the geology of an area and on human societies. They begin by looking at the role tectonic plates play in creating the forces that cause earthquakes, to help them understand why earthquakes occur when and where they do. Hands-on activities illustrate how rocks can withstand a certain amount of stress, but that every material has its breaking point. When rocks break underground, an earthquake occurs. In the last section, students explore the impact earthquakes have on humans and look at the efforts scientists are making to better understand and predict these sometimes deadly events.

2006-01-01

111

Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site response, Moho reflections and a triggered earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Re-valuated instrumental magnitudes and intensity distributions for the Mw8.0 Shillong Plateau earthquake of 1897 and the Mw7.8 Kangra earthquake of 1905, combined with newly available geodetic constraints on rupture geometries, allow us to compare observed distributions of intensity with those predicted from theoretical models for shaking produced by each earthquake. The difference between predicted and observed shaking is interpreted in

Susan E. Hough; Roger Bilham; Nicolas Ambraseys; Nicole Feldl

2005-01-01

112

Earthquakes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A strong earthquake struck Istanbul, Turkey on Monday, only weeks after a major quake in the same area claimed more than 15,500 lives. This site, from The Why Files (see the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), offers background information on the science of earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the recent tectonic activity in Turkey.

113

Earthquake!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)|

Hernandez, Hildo

2000-01-01

114

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To understand P and S waves, to observe some videos of earthquakes, and to find out where and when the last earthquake in Utah was. Print out this worksheet for the questions to accompany the following websites. Worksheet Go to The Earth Layers The Earth's Layers and read the information. Answer the following 4 questions on a separate paper. Name the four layers of the Earth in order from the outside to the center of the Earth. What causes ...

Clemons, Mrs.

2010-11-02

115

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake: Global lessons for earthquake hazard in intra-plate regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh District of the State of Gujarat, India on 26 January 2001, and was one of the most damaging intraplate earthquakes ever recorded. This earthquake is in many ways similar to the three great New Madrid earthquakes that occurred in the central United States in 1811-1812, An Indo-US team is studying the similarities and differences of these sequences in order to learn lessons for earthquake hazard in intraplate regions. Herein we present some preliminary conclusions from that study. Both the Kutch and New Madrid regions have rift type geotectonic setting. In both regions the strain rates are of the order of 10-9/yr and attenuation of seismic waves as inferred from observations of intensity and liquefaction are low. These strain rates predict recurrence intervals for Bhuj or New Madrid sized earthquakes of several thousand years or more. In contrast, intervals estimated from paleoseismic studies and from other independent data are significantly shorter, probably hundreds of years. All these observations together may suggest that earthquakes relax high ambient stresses that are locally concentrated by rheologic heterogeneities, rather than loading by plate-tectonic forces. The latter model generally underlies basic assumptions made in earthquake hazard assessment, that the long-term average rate of energy released by earthquakes is determined by the tectonic loading rate, which thus implies an inherent average periodicity of earthquake occurrence. Interpreting the observations in terms of the former model therefore may require re-examining the basic assumptions of hazard assessment.

Schweig, E.; Gomberg, J.; Petersen, M.; Ellis, M.; Bodin, P.; Mayrose, L.; Rastogi, B. K.

2003-01-01

116

Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regression method has been applied to design multidimensional nonlinear statistical model of seismic energy flow release by local earthquakes using the data of integrated geophysical monitoring in the Transcarpathian seismogenic zone, Ukraine, as input. It has been shown that to obtain adequate model it is necessary to utilize temporal series of geophysical parameters that are not less than 730 days

Taras Verbytskyj; Yurij Verbytskyj

1889-01-01

117

Awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention among the nursing staff of a tertiary health institute in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Carcinoma of the cervix is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, while it is the commonest cancer among Indian women. Awareness regarding cervical cancer and its prevention is quite low amongst Indian women. The Pap test is a simple and cost effective technique for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. It is necessary to make nursing staff aware of cervical cancer, so that they can impart knowledge regarding cervical cancer and its prevention to the general public. Aims and objectives: (1) To assess the knowledge level regarding symptoms, risk factors, prevention and screening of cervical carcinoma among nursing staff. (2) To find out the behaviour of respondents regarding prevention and screening of cervical carcinoma. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional interview-based survey regarding knowledge levels about cervical carcinoma was conducted among the nursing staff from one of the tertiary health institutes of Ahmedabad, India. A structured questionnaire with multiple choices was used for data collection. Provision for open-ended responses was also made in the questionnaire. Department-wise stratification was carried out, and thereafter 15% of the total nursing staff from all departments were selected randomly so as to include a total of 100 nurses in the current study. Data entry was done in Microsoft Excel. SPSS statistical software was used to generate statistical parameters like proportion, mean, standard deviation, etc. The Z test was used as a test of significance, and a P value of <0.05 was considered as the level of significance.

Shah, V; Vyas, S; Singh, A; Shrivastava, M

2012-01-01

118

Radon and Helium as productive tools for earthquake precursory and fault delineation studies in NW Himalayas, India: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the role of radon and helium as a productive tool for fault delineation and earthquake precursory studies, continuous measurements are made in the soil-gas and groundwater in NW Himalayas, India. The area under study is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zones IV and V of the Seismic Map of India. The NW Himalayas are tectonically active due to the northward movement of the Indian plate towards Eurasian plate and the frequent occurrence of small magnitude earthquake indicates that the area is under unusually high stress and strain. The temporal variations in the radon concentration in soil-gas and groundwater are continuous monitored, at three different stations viz. Amritsar (Zone IV), Dharamsala (Zone V) and Dalhousie (Zone IV), using Barasol probes (Algade, France) and RAD7 (Durrige, USA) respectively. The radon anomalies, in the data are correlated with micro seismic events recorded along Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Central Thrust (MCT) of NW Himalayas within the grid (28 - 34° North, 72 - 79° East). The anomalous change in the radon concentration before an event suggests that continuous radon monitoring in a grid pattern can serve as a productive tool in earthquake prediction studies. The MCT and MBT are associated with evolution of Himalayan orogeny. Besides the longitudinal lineaments several transverse lineaments occur as faults and fractures trending normally or obliquely to Himalayan trend. Keeping this thing in view, a geochemical soil-gas surveys have been conducted in the NW Himalayas. To carry out the present investigation soil-gas samples were collected in sample bags at depth of about 0.7 - 1.0 m by using hollow steel probe. The collected soil-gas sample bags are analyzed for radon and helium using RTM 2100 and Helium Leak Sniff Detector respectively. The data analysis clearly reveals anomalous values of subsurface gases along the fault and lineaments.

Bajwa, B.; Mahajan, S.; Walia, V.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.; Yang, T. F.

2009-12-01

119

Paleoseismological evidence of surface faulting along the northeastern Himalayan front, India: Timing, size, and spatial extent of great earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ˜2500 km long Himalayan arc has experienced three large to great earthquakes of Mw 7.8 to 8.4 during the past century, but none produced surface rupture. Paleoseismic studies have been conducted during the last decade to begin understanding the timing, size, rupture extent, return period, and mechanics of the faulting associated with the occurrence of large surface rupturing earthquakes along the ˜2500 km long Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) system of India and Nepal. The previous studies have been limited to about nine sites along the western two-thirds of the HFT extending through northwest India and along the southern border of Nepal. We present here the results of paleoseismic investigations at three additional sites further to the northeast along the HFT within the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. The three sites reside between the meizoseismal areas of the 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam earthquakes. The two westernmost of the sites, near the village of Chalsa and near the Nameri Tiger Preserve, show that offsets during the last surface rupture event were at minimum of about 14 m and 12 m, respectively. Limits on the ages of surface rupture at Chalsa (site A) and Nameri (site B), though broad, allow the possibility that the two sites record the same great historical rupture reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. The correlation between the two sites is supported by the observation that the large displacements as recorded at Chalsa and Nameri would most likely be associated with rupture lengths of hundreds of kilometers or more and are on the same order as reported for a surface rupture earthquake reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. Assuming the offsets observed at Chalsa and Nameri occurred synchronously with reported offsets in Nepal, the rupture length of the event would approach 700 to 800 km. The easternmost site is located within Harmutty Tea Estate (site C) at the edges of the 1950 Assam earthquake meizoseismal area. Here the most recent event offset is relatively much smaller (<2.5 m), and radiocarbon dating shows it to have occurred after A.D. 1100 (after about A.D. 1270). The location of the site near the edge of the meizoseismal region of the 1950 Assam earthquake and the relatively lesser offset allows speculation that the displacement records the 1950 Mw 8.4 Assam earthquake. Scatter in radiocarbon ages on detrital charcoal has not resulted in a firm bracket on the timing of events observed in the trenches. Nonetheless, the observations collected here, when taken together, suggest that the largest of thrust earthquakes along the Himalayan arc have rupture lengths and displacements of similar scale to the largest that have occurred historically along the world's subduction zones.

Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Nakata, T.; Kumahara, Y.; Singh, Vimal

2010-12-01

120

Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation for the National Capital Region, Delhi, India Using Local Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation of seismic waves is very essential for the study of earthquake source parameters and also for ground-motion simulations,\\u000a and this is important for the seismic hazard estimation of a region. The digital data acquired by 16 short-period seismic\\u000a stations of the Delhi Telemetric Network for 55 earthquakes of magnitude 1.5 to 4.2, which occurred within an epicentral distance\\u000a of

William K. Mohanty; Rajesh Prakash; G. Suresh; A. K. Shukla; M. Yanger Walling; J. P. Srivastava

2009-01-01

121

Estimation of Coda Wave Attenuation for the National Capital Region, Delhi, India Using Local Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation of seismic waves is very essential for the study of earthquake source parameters and also for ground-motion simulations, and this is important for the seismic hazard estimation of a region. The digital data acquired by 16 short-period seismic stations of the Delhi Telemetric Network for 55 earthquakes of magnitude 1.5 to 4.2, which occurred within an epicentral distance of

William K. Mohanty; Rajesh Prakash; G. Suresh; A. K. Shukla; M. Yanger Walling; J. P. Srivastava

2009-01-01

122

Industrial Relations in Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author describes the various organizational, social economic and political factors which contributed to the emergence and development of trade unionism in the banking industry. The structure of unionism in this industry is examined in the background of the generate trend of the trade union movement in India. The problem of multiplicity of unions and rivalries among them is discussed

Sheth N R

123

Moment Magnitude ( M W) and Local Magnitude ( M L) Relationship for Earthquakes in Northeast India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to examine an empirical relationship between moment magnitude ( M W) and local magnitude ( M L) for the earthquakes in the northeast Indian region. Some 364 earthquakes that were recorded during 1950-2009 are used in this study. Focal mechanism solutions of these earthquakes include 189 Harvard-CMT solutions ( M W ? 4.0) for the period 1976-2009, 61 published solutions and 114 solutions obtained for the local earthquakes (2.0 ? M L ? 5.0) recorded by a 27-station permanent broadband network during 2001-2009 in the region. The M W- M L relationships in seven selected zones of the region are determined by linear regression analysis. A significant variation in the M W- M L relationship and its zone specific dependence are reported here. It is found that M W is equivalent to M L with an average uncertainty of about 0.13 magnitude units. A single relationship is, however, not adequate to scale the entire northeast Indian region because of heterogeneous geologic and geotectonic environments where earthquakes occur due to collisions, subduction and complex intra-plate tectonics.

Baruah, Santanu; Baruah, Saurabh; Bora, P. K.; Duarah, R.; Kalita, Aditya; Biswas, Rajib; Gogoi, N.; Kayal, J. R.

2012-11-01

124

Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ? 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake.

Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

2013-01-01

125

Earthquake safety elements in traditional Koti Banal architecture of Uttarakhand, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Despite being located in earthquake sensitive region and often experiencing seismic tremors the State of Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas exhibits an elaborate tradition of constructing multistoreyed houses. Both the local dialects of the State (Kumaoni and Garhwali) have unique words for identifying four different floors of a building. This is suggestive of a common occurrence of multistoreyed

Piyoosh Rautela; Girish Chandra Joshi

2009-01-01

126

Quantifying the Media Bias in Intensity Surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earth- quake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no in- strumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S.

S. E. Hough; Prabhas Pande

2007-01-01

127

Predicting strong motion parameters for the Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999, Garhwal Himalaya, India, from simplified finite fault model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State of Uttaranchal in the northern part of India in the Garhwal Himalaya was hit by the Chamoli earthquake on 28th March, 1999 (GMT). This earthquake was recorded on a strong motion array installed in this region. The maximum peak ground acceleration of 353 cm/sec2 was recorded at an accelerograph located at the Gopeshwar station at an approximate epicentral distance of 14 km. The simplified method of Midorikawa (1993) has been used to model finite fault responsible for causing the Chamoli earthquake. This method is based on the Empirical Green's Function (EGF) technique of Irikura (1986).Modifications in this method have been made to include layered earth model and transmission effects at each boundary by Joshi (2001). Rupture causing the Chamoli earthquake is placed in two structural models of the earth in this work: one is a homogeneous half space and other is the multi layered earth model. Comparison in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) is made between the simulated and actual strong motion parameters like peak acceleration and duration. It is seen that the introduction of multi layered earth system in this simplified technique is capable of significantly reducing the RMSE in observed and predicted strong motion parameters and defining the attenuation rate for peak ground acceleration of this earthquake.

Joshi, A.

128

On the mechanism and source parameters of the deep crustal Jabalpur earthquake, India, of 1997 May 21: constraints from aftershocks and changes in static stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1997 May 21 Jabalpur earthquake (mb= 6.0) occurred in the lower crust of the ENE-WSW-trending Narmada-Son palaeorift zone in central India known as the Narmada-Son lineament (NSL). We correlate the aftershock distribution of this earthquake with the computed changes in static stress caused by slip on the earthquake rupture in order to constrain some of the source parameters of the main event. We estimate that the downdip edge of the earthquake rupture extended up to a depth of about 38 km and that the majority of the aftershocks occurred due to unclamping in the hangingwall near the downdip edge of the rupture. Considering the intermediate to moderately high heat flow in the region, we suggest that (1) high pore pressure in the lower crust, which developed due to the dehydration of the serpentinite body during previous episodes of thermo-tectonic processes, (2) a lower frictional coefficient possibly arising due to fractured rocks at depth, (3) a higher strain rate, and (4) the favourable influence of N-S compression due to the motion of the Indian plate are responsible for the infrequent earthquakes in the lower crust of the NSL zone.

Gahalaut, V. K.; Rao, V. K.; Tewari, H. C.

2004-02-01

129

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

130

Damage to Structures and Engineered Facilities in the Gujurat, India, Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk surveys damage to constructed facilities. Damage was catastrophic, extensive, and costly. An estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people perished, and direct economic losses amounted to about 5 billion dollars. Entire villages in the epicentral area were decimated, while others nearby remained nearly intact. Particularly-vulnerable buildings in cities located over 250 km from the epicentral region also collapsed, causing significant life loss in these cities despite the low incidence of collapse. The region's building codes, containing modern provisions for earthquake-resistant design, were largely irrelevant because they were not enforced. Furthermore, zoning regulations encourage the construction of vulnerable buildings, having open ground stories. Bridges faired better, with only minor culverts collapsing and others being damaged but remaining mostly functional. Damage to ports reduced their capacity. Damage to water transmission and distribution lines was significant; damage to power transmission lines was localized. About ten percent of the population had insurance; payouts of about 100 million dollars are expected.

Aschheim, M.

2001-05-01

131

Seismic evidence for significant crustal thickening beneath Jabalpur earthquake, 21 May 1997, source region in Narmada-Son lineament, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate crustal properties beneath the deep crustal (~35 km) Jabalpur earthquake of 21 May 1997, Narmada-Son Lineament (NSL), central India, in search of a possible cause of stress accumulation in the region. Teleseismic receiver functions computed at nine digital seismographs along a 250 km long profile suggests Moho downwarp to ~52 km across the width of the lineament, in contrast with an average 40 km depth elsewhere. In addition, the crust beneath the NSL has higher Vp/Vs of 1.84 compared to ~1.73 in the surrounding, suggestive of a high-density mafic mass at depth that compensates the crustal root, also supported by small topographic variation (200 m) across the lineament. Presence of such an anomalous mass in the deep crust may lead to gravitationally induced stresses in the lower crust that contribute to the failure of rock along the pre-existing Narmada-Son fault leading to the earthquake in deep crust.

Rai, S. S.; Vijay Kumar, T.; Jagadeesh, S.

2005-11-01

132

Spatial variation of crustal strain in the Kachchh region, India: Implication on the Bhuj earthquake of 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kachchh province of Western India is a major seismic domain in an intraplate set-up. This seismic zone is located in a rift basin, which was developed during the early Jurassic break-up of the Gondwanaland. The crustal strain determined from the GPS velocity data of post-seismic time period following the 2001 Bhuj earthquake indicates a maximum strain rate of ˜266 × 10-9 per year along N013°. Focal mechanism solutions of the main event of 26 January 2001 and the aftershocks show that the maximum principal stress axis is close to this high strain direction. Maximum shear strain rate determined from the GPS data of the area has similar orientation. The unusually high strain rate is comparable in magnitude to the continental rift systems. The partitioning of the regional NE-SW horizontal stress (SHmax) by the pre-existing EW-striking boundary fault developed the strike-slip components parallel to the regional faults, the normal components perpendicular to the faults, NE-striking conjugate Riedel shear fractures and tension fractures. The partitioned normal component of the stress is considered to be the major cause for compression across the regional EW faults and development of the second-order conjugate shear fractures striking NE-SW and NW-SE. The NE-striking transverse faults parallel to the anti-Riedel shear planes have become critical under these conditions. These anti-Riedel planes are interpreted to be critical for the seismicity of the Kachchh region. The high strain rate in this area of low to moderate surface heat flow is responsible for deeper position of the brittle-ductile transition and development of deep seated seismic events in this intraplate region.

Sinha, Sushmita; Mohanty, S.

2012-10-01

133

India  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental ethical principles that govern the practice of genetic medicine are patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence,\\u000a and justice. In India and other developing countries the application of these principles is influenced by poverty and numerous\\u000a social factors. Table 1 compares the demographic indicators in India with those in Thailand, Japan, US, and UK (UNICEF, 1998). It emphasizes the huge population

I. C. Verma; Kusum Verma

134

Application of the time-predictable model in Peninsular India for future seismic hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been the belief among Earth scientists that the Peninsular Shield is aseismic, as the region attained stability long ago. However, the earthquake at Koyna (10 December 1967), Bhadrachalam (13 April 1969), Broach (23 March 1970), Hyderabad (30 June 1983), Khillari (30 September 1993), Jabalpur (22 May 1997), Gujarat (26 January 2001), and additional ones of smaller magnitudes, altered this concept. This area has experienced many widely distributed shallow earthquakes, some of them having large magnitudes. It is now widely accepted that seismic activity still continues with moderate events. Therefore, a need has arisen to take into consideration recent seismological data to assess the future seismic status of Peninsular India. Earthquake generation model has been studied to develop the statistical relations with surface wave magnitude ( M S ? 4.5). Five seismogenic sources showing clustering of earthquakes and including at least three main shocks of magnitude 4.5 ? M S ? 6.5 giving two repeat times, have been identified. It is mainly based on the so-called “regional time-predictable model”. For the considered region it is observed that the time interval between two consecutive main shocks depends on the preceding main shock magnitude ( M p ) not on the following main shocks magnitude M f suggesting the validity of time predictable model in the region.

Shanker, Daya; Singh, H. N.

2007-09-01

135

Study of Hydrous Sulfates from the Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of Kutch, India: Implications for Aqueous Alteration Processes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) at Gujarat, India is consider as a good analogue for the study of clay and hydrous sulphate minerals.This study can lead in interpreting the environmental conditions on the early Mars.

Bhattacharya, S.; Jain, N.; Parthasarathy, G.; Chauhan, P.; Ajai

2012-03-01

136

Internal Evaluation of National Leprosy Elimination Program in Tribal Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background: The government launched a National Leprosy Eradication program in 1983, to eliminate leprosy from India. A Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign was started with the view to early case detection and treatment. In April 2004, a vertical program of leprosy was merged with the general health services and case detection was conducted by the general health workers in India. Materials and Methods: Internal evaluation of leprosy was done in the Panchmanal district of Gujarat through a rapid survey of the 10 Primary Health Care units in the high and low endemic areas. Active and passive surveillance data and records were verified according to the indicators. Results: Analysis of the data and record verification revealed that there was a decrease in the prevalence rate of leprosy, but it had not reached the elimination status. The MB ratio had decreased, but the child ratio remained consistent for the last five years. The disability ratio had also decreased in five years. Conclusion: The National Leprosy Elimination Program had a favorable impact, but at the same time to reach the elimination status there was a need for more stringent Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) activities to be promoted in the community. Active surveillance should be initiated so that hidden cases are not missed in the community.

Singh, Anjali

2010-01-01

137

Late Pleistocene and Holocene large magnitude earthquakes along Himalayan Frontal Thrust in the Central Seismic Gap in NW Himalaya, Kala Amb, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) forms the southernmost active tectonic mountain front of the Himalaya. To understand the ongoing tectonics further, paleoseismological study has been carried out in the vicinity of the HFT system along the Himalayan Front near Kala Amb, India. The trench excavation survey conducted across an explicit surface exposure of the HFT exhibits two distinct faults considered to be associated with the reactivation of the HFT where the Middle Siwalik rocks (Late Miocene) have repeatedly thrust over the Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Presence of large-sized coseismically induced sand-injection feature and its disposition recognized in the trench also suggest occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in this region. An uplifted and upwarped strath terrace, 3 to 5 m thick alluvium, resting over the 15 m high Middle Siwaliks, abruptly truncated by the HFT indicates its latest activity. Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating techniques were employed to constrain the chronology of events. The long term slip rate of the abandoned terraces due to the activity of the HFT is estimated to be 3.4 mm/yr or greater since Late Holocene. The paleoseismological investigations have provided unambiguous evidences of at least two large magnitude earthquakes occurred in this region where an earthquake with 12 m or larger surface displacement and magnitude 7.5 or greater hit this region in the period between 29.3 ka and 17 ka in the Late Pleistocene and another great earthquake recurred with 20-22 m or more surface displacement and magnitude of 7.7 or greater between 5.8 ka and 2 ka in the Holocene. The present study is the first time report of multiple large magnitude paleoearthquakes in the northwestern part of the Frontal Himalaya during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The repeated reactivation of HFT substantiates high seismic potential of the Frontal Himalaya and calls for more extensive study of paleoearthquakes of this vastly populous mountainous region.

Philip, G.; Bhakuni, S. S.; Suresh, N.

2012-12-01

138

Three-dimensional modeling of intraplate stresses in the epicentral zone of the 21 May 1997 Jabalpur earthquake of Mw 5.8, central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional intraplate stresses induced by topography and crustal density heterogeneities have been modeled for a region in central India (latitude: 21-26°N, longitude: 77-82°E) that was affected by the 1927 Son-valley (Mw 6.4) and the 1997 Jabalpur (Mw 5.8) earthquakes. The modeled stresses show that these two events occurred in the zones of significant increase in gradients of the principal stress difference (?1 - ?3) contours. The highest value of these differential stresses (˜ 90 MPa) is obtained at 5 km depth beneath the epicentral zone of 1927 Son-valley earthquake, whereas, a value of 35 MPa is obtained at the focal depth (˜ 35 km) of the 1997 Jabalpur mainshock. Further, depth sections of estimated differential stresses delineate a south-dipping high stress body penetrating the whole crust (probably a mafic intrusive intruded during the Deccan volcanism episode) beneath a zone (bounded by Narmada north fault in the north and Narmada south fault in the south) within which all aftershocks including mainshocks of the 1997 Jabalpur and the 1927 Son-valley have occurred. The modeled direction of principal stresses, as well as inferred mode of faulting (at 5, 20, 35, and 40 km depths), correlates strongly with the long period (20-50 s) centroid moment tensor solutions for the broadband recordings of the Mw 5.8 Jabalpur mainshock. Results suggest that estimated large intraplate stresses associated with an inferred mafic intrusive in the presence of high pore pressure (resulted from the dehydration of the serpentinite minerals) and deep brittle/ductile transition may contribute to the failure of rock along the pre-existing weak Narmada south fault leading to the earthquakes in the deep crust. It is proposed that the causal association of large intraplate stresses and the pre-existing deep crustal faults would control the future locales of earthquakes in the Narmada-Son lineament.

Mandal, Prantik

2010-04-01

139

PREVALENCE OF ERGOT OF SORGHUM IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On-farm sorghum ergot surveys were conducted in India in 1999, 2000 and 2001. A seven state area was surveyed including 250 fields in Andhra Pradesh, 451 fields in Karnataka, 413 fields in Maharashtra, 127 fields in Tamil Nadu, 3 in Rajasthan, 10 in Uttar Pradesh, and 1 in Gujarat. Ergot incidence ...

140

Strong motion envelope modelling of the source of the Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garhwal Himalaya has been rocked by two major earthquakes in the span of just eight years, viz. Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991 and Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999. Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 was recorded at 11 different stations of a strong motion array installed in the epicentral region. The maximum peak ground acceleration (353 cm/s2) was recorded at an accelerograph located at Gopeshwar. The data from eleven stations has been used for comparison with the simulated acceleration envelopes due to a model of the rupture responsible for this earthquake. For simulation of acceleration envelope the method of Midorikawa (1993) has been modified for its applicability to Himalayan region. This method has earlier been used by Joshi and Patel (1997) and Joshi (1999) for the studyof Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991. The same method has been used for study of Chamoli earthquake. Layered earth crust has been introduced in place of homogeneous one in this method. The model of rupture is placed at a depth of 12 km below the Munsiari thrust for modelling Chamoli earthquake. Peak ground acceleration was calculated from simulated acceleration envelope using layered as well as homogeneous earth crust. For the rupture placed in a layered crust model peak ground acceleration of order 312 cm/s2 was simulated at Gopeshwar which is quite close to actually recorded value. The comparison of peak ground acceleration values in terms of root mean square error at eleven stations suggests that the root mean square error is reduced by inclusion of a layered earth crust in place of homogeneous earth crust.

Joshi, A.

141

Relationship between earthquake swarm, rifting history, magmatism and pore pressure diffusion — an example from South Andaman Sea, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraordinarily strong and persistent earthquake swarm (Andaman swarm 2005) originated in the Andaman back-arc following\\u000a the aftershock sequences of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake. The swarm (n = 651, mbmax= 5.9) came mainly in two phases: January 26–31 and Feb.–Aug. 2005, in an area of size 90 × 40 km2, at the centre of which lies a broad

Basab Mukhopadhyay; Anshuman Acharyya; Manoj Mukhopadhyay; Sujit Dasgupta

2010-01-01

142

Elastic properties of amphibolite and granulite facies mid-crustal basement rocks of the Deccan volcanic covered 1993 Latur-Killari earthquake region, Maharastra (India) and mantle metasomatism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present study provides a new data set of P- and S-wave velocities and density of metasomatized mid-crustal amphibolite and granulite facies basement rocks of the 1993 Latur-Killari earthquake region of Maharashtra (India), which is concealed below a thick suite of Deccan volcanics. This includes laboratory tests, geochemical analysis and petrographic examination on 29 fresh cored samples, selected from the depths between 351.7 m and 616.8 m of the KLR-1 borehole, drilled in the earthquake epicentral zone. These samples show a wide range in SiO2 content from 52.2 to 70.0 wt.%. Majority of these samples are characterized by intermediate composition with a mean density of 2.85 g/cm3 (range, 2.72-3.06 g/cm3) and average P- and S-wave velocities of 6.23 km/s (5.83-6.61 km/s) and 3.56 km/s (3.21-3.96), respectively. They also contain quite high amount of FeOT and CaO with respective means of 9.76 and 6.59 wt.%. Average Poisson's ratio is 0.25, together with respective values of Young's, bulk and rigidity modulus at 90.8 GPa, 62.0 GPa and 36.3 GPa. Inspite of having higher densities, some of the biotite and FeO-rich samples, exhibit unusually low velocities consequent to metasomatic activity. Our study demonstrates that the mantle metasomatic alteration and retrogression of the underlying high-velocity mafic crust under the Latur-Killari earthquake region, accompanied by geodynamic process of uplift and erosion during the geologic past, has led to severe changes in the petrophysical and elastic properties of the studied rocks.

Tripathi, Priyanka; Pandey, O. P.; Rao, M. V. M. S.; Reddy, G. Koti

2012-07-01

143

India.  

PubMed

This discussion of India focuses on the following: the history of the country's demographic situation; the government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. India's government views the population problem in the country as extremely serious particularly in relation to the alleviation of poverty. It was the 1st country to introduce a family planning program at the national level. Development plans have consistently treated the population situation as a priority issue. A relatively comprehensive system of data collection for demographic purposes has existed in India for a long time. The 1st census was conducted in 1872. The government has continually worked to maintain the integration of population concerns within overall development planning. The government regards population growth as an impediment to development and views the slow growth in per capita income as being due largely to the rapid population increase which continues to outpace the increases in the gross national product. The government perceives the current rate of population growth as unsatisfactory because it is too high. Mortality levels have dropped considerably, but the government still considers the situation with regard to mortality as unacceptable. In 1980 the UN estimated the infant mortality rate was 128.9 infant deaths/1000 live births for the 1975-80 period. The total fertility rate, as estimated by the UN, is reported to have dropped from 6.3 births per woman in 1960 to 6.0 in 1970 and 5.0 in 1980. The government has continuously indicated concern with fertility levels, perceiving the situation as unsatisfactory because its levels are too high. The official policy of the government to reduce fertility levels has been in existence since 1951. Since independence the major flow of immigration has been from the neighboring countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh. The government considers the level and trend of immigration to be insignificant and satisfactory. There has continued to be a stream of emigration from the country since the 1950s, but this movement has not been large enough to be considered demographically significant. The government has expressed concern about the distribution of population within the national territory. It is particularly aware of the uneven development and the resultant economic disparities between and within regions. PMID:12264934

1982-10-01

144

An Appraisal of the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (Mw 7.7, India) Source Zone: Fractal Dimension and b Value Mapping of the Aftershock Sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined seismic characteristics, b value and fractal dimension of the aftershock sequence of the January 26, 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) that occurred in the Kutch failed rift basin, western margin of the Stable Continental Region (SCR) of India. A total of about 2,000 events (M ? 2.0) were recorded within two and a half months, immediately after the main shock. Some 795 events were precisely relocated by simultaneous inversion. These relocated events are used for mapping the frequency-magnitude relation ( b value) and fractal correlation dimension (Dc) to understand the seismic characteristics of the aftershocks and the source zone of the main shock. The surface maps of the b value and Dc reveal two distinct tectonic arms or zones of the V-shaped aftershock area, western zone and eastern zone. The b value is relatively higher (~1.6) in the western zone compared to a lower value (~1.4) in the eastern zone. The Dc map also shows a higher value (1.2-1.35) in the western zone compared to a lower Dc (0.80-1.15) in the eastern zone; this implies a positive correlation between Dc and b value. Two cross sections, E-W and N-S, are examined. The E-W sections show similar characteristics, higher b value and higher Dc in the western zone and lower in the eastern zone with depth. The N-S sections across the fault zones, however, show unique features; it imaged both the b and Dc characteristics convincingly to identify two known faults, the Kutch Mainland fault and the South Wagad fault (SWF), one stepping over the other with a seismogenic source zone at depth (20-35 km). The source zone at depth is imaged with a relatively lower b and higher Dc at the `fault end' of the SWF showing a negative correlation. These observations, corroborated with the seismic tomography as well as with the proposed geological/tectonic model, shed a new light to our understanding on seismogenesis of the largest SCR earthquake in India in the recent years.

Kayal, J. R.; Das, Vishal; Ghosh, Uma

2012-12-01

145

Simultaneous estimation of earthquake source parameters and crustal Q value from broadband data of selected aftershocks of the 2001 M w 7.7 Bhuj earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the simultaneous estimation of source parameters and crustal Q values for small to moderate-size aftershocks ( M w 2.1-5.1) of the M_{w }7.7 2001 Bhuj earthquake. The horizontal-component S-waves of 144 well located earthquakes (2001-2010) recorded at 3-10 broadband seismograph sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India are analyzed, and their seismic corner frequencies, long-period spectral levels and crustal Q values are simultaneously estimated by inverting the horizontal component of the S-wave displacement spectrum using the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear inversion technique, wherein the inversion scheme is formulated based on the ?-square source spectral model. The static stress drops (? ?) are then calculated from the corner frequency and seismic moment. The estimated source parameters suggest that the seismic moment ( M 0) and source radius ( r) of aftershocks are varying from 1.12 × 1012 to 4.00 × 1016 N-m and 132.57 to 513.20 m, respectively. Whereas, estimated stress drops (? ?) and multiplicative factor ( E mo) values range from 0.01 to 20.0 MPa and 1.05 to 3.39, respectively. The corner frequencies are found to be ranging from 2.36 to 8.76 Hz. The crustal S-wave quality factor varies from 256 to 1882 with an average of 840 for the Kachchh region, which agrees well with the crustal Q value of the seismically active New Madrid region, USA. Our estimated stress drop values are quite large compared to the other similar size Indian intraplate earthquakes, which can be attributed to the presence of crustal mafic intrusives and aqueous fluids in the lower crust as revealed by the earlier tomographic study of the region.

Saha, A.; Lijesh, S.; Mandal, P.

2012-12-01

146

Anand Niketan Ashram, Rangpur, India: An Education for Meaningful Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a visit to the Anand Niketan Ashram in the interior of the State of Gujarat India, an internationally known school with a model education for meaningful citizen participation. Explores the program's philosophy activities and describes how the authors came together to have this experience and write this article. (BSR)|

Desai, Prakash O.; Haggerson, Nelson L.

1987-01-01

147

"Education for All" and the Rabaris of Kachchh, Western India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a pilot scheme for literacy education for the Rabaris of Gujarat State, India to suggest possible ways to meet the critical literacy needs of Indian nomadic pastoralists. Reviews tensions between the Rabaris' desire to "learn to talk" though sedentary education and the peripatetic teaching program. (SLD)

Dyer, Caroline

2000-01-01

148

Anand Niketan Ashram, Rangpur, India: An Education for Meaningful Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a visit to the Anand Niketan Ashram in the interior of the State of Gujarat India, an internationally known school with a model education for meaningful citizen participation. Explores the program's philosophy activities and describes how the authors came together to have this experience and write this article. (BSR)

Desai, Prakash O.; Haggerson, Nelson L.

1987-01-01

149

Earthquakes and emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

150

Estimation of Sedimentary Thickness in Kachchh Basin, Gujarat Using SP Converted Phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inexpensive method using natural earthquake data is utilized for determining the sedimentary thickness in Kachchh. The Institute of Seismological Research (ISR) is operating a network of broadband seismographs and strong motion accelerographs in Gujarat. We used data from 13 broadband seismographs and two strong motion accelerographs in the study. The stations are within 5 to 80 km from the epicenters. In this study the S-to-P converted phase, SP, is used. This phase is generated due to large impedance contrast between sediments and basement. This phase is clear in the vertical component. The difference in the travel times of S and SP phases and velocities of P and S waves is used for determining the sedimentary layer thickness. The thickness of sediments beneath each of these 15 stations was determined covering an area of 23,500 sq km.

Chopra, Sumer; Rao, K. M.; Rastogi, B. K.

2010-10-01

151

An integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PQuake(TM) is an integrated digital system that facilitates earthquake damage reconnaissance. It combines digital photography, handheld GPS technology and custom software for a PalmRTM handheld computer to provide a user-friendly field data collection system. It mitigates the deficiencies involved with traditional reconnaissance techniques by allowing the rapid collection of consistent quantitative and qualitative damage data for both manmade structures and natural features. At the end of each day of reconnaissance, the reconnaissance personnel can upload their data to a personal computer and in minutes using the GIS-extension, create comprehensive maps of the damage. Consequently, PQuake(TM) facilitates more sophisticated planning of the reconnaissance activities, collecting larger quantities of consistent data, collaboration among researchers, near real-time reporting, analysis, visualization and mapping of the data. Additionally, it utilizes a relational database for managing, storing and archiving damage data as well as linking data to digital photographs and GPS waypoints. Consequently, PQuake facilitates the complete workflow process from data collection through analysis and reporting. The limitations of traditional reconnaissance are illustrated through a case history utilizing reconnaissance data collected in Adapazari, Turkey, following the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999. The damage data was combined with liquefaction analyses performed on geotechnical soundings obtained by PEER months after the event to investigate the building damage associated with local site effects in Adapazari. In particular, this case history demonstrates the necessity and benefits of the PQuake system. The PQuake(TM) system was first field-tested following the Gujarat, India, earthquake in January 2001. Additionally, the system was modified following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Centers to document structural and non structural damage to the surrounding buildings that suffered collateral damage as the towers collapsed. PQuake provides the ability to obtain damage data that is comprehensive and accurate. In order to learn as much as possible from catastrophic events, civil engineers must adopt new technologies and incorporate new reconnaissance protocols. This dissertation presents the development of an integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance that serves as a tool and a means for implementing the reconnaissance procedures.

Deaton, Scott Lowrey

152

Stress Rotation in the Kachchh Rift Zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double difference relocations of the 1402 Kachchh events (2001 2006) clearly delineate two fault zones viz. south-dipping North Wagad fault (NWF) and almost vertical Gedi fault (GF). The relocated focal depths delineate a marked variation of 4 and 7 km in the brittle-ductile transition depths beneath GF and NWF, respectively. The focal mechanism solutions of 464 aftershocks (using 8 12 first motions) show that the focal mechanisms ranged between pure reverse and pure strike-slip except for a few pure dip-slip solutions. The stress inversions performed for five rectangular zones across the Kachchh rift reveal both clockwise and anticlockwise rotation (7 32°) in the ?1 orientation within the rupture zone, favoring a heterogeneous stress regime with an average N-S fault normal compression. This rotation may be attributed to the presence of crustal mafic intrusives (5 35 km depth) in the rupture zone of the 2001 Bhuj main shock. Results suggest a relatively homogeneous stress regime in the GF zone favoring strike-slip motion, with a fault normal N-S compression.

Mandal, Prantik

2008-07-01

153

Ethnobotany of the Ratan Mahal Hills, Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the plants used by aboriginal tribes of Ratan Mahal and surrounding hills. Some of the important food\\u000a and medicinal plants restricted to these tribes or this region are discussed. Many uses of plants reported here have not been\\u000a recorded earlier.\\u000a \\u000a “What does interest us academically and practically is how to salvage some of the medicobotanical lore

S. J. Bedi

1978-01-01

154

Reservoir Management of Heavy Oil Reservoirs of North Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil production from a heavy oil reservoir involves high devel- opment as wells as operating cost and yields low primary recovery, especially if it is associated with an active aquifer. The adverse mobility ratio of water and oil results in low dis- placement efficiency causing water invasion into the oil zone by viscous fingering. It is therefore, necessary to plan

A. K. Bhatia; Daljit Singh

155

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about menarche of adolescent girls in Anand district, Gujarat.  

PubMed

A questionnaire survey of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards menstruation was made in 22 schools in Anand district, Gujarat state. Of 900 schoolgirls aged 11-17 years, only 38.5% felt comfortable about menarche and only 31.0% believed that menstruation was a normal physiological process. Many (37.2%) had not been informed about menarche before its onset and 48.2% felt they were not mentally prepared. The major sources of information were the mother (60.7%) or an elder sister (15.8%); teachers and others relatives played a small role. In this area of India, many families continue the custom of celebrating the first menarche and observing social restrictions. PMID:17037713

Tiwari, H; Oza, U N; Tiwari, R

156

Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission.  

PubMed

The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M>or=2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250km distance from the monitoring stations. PMID:19546007

Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

2009-05-29

157

Low Coda Qc in the Epicentral Region of the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake of Mw 7.7  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 26 January, 2001 (03:46:55,UT) a devastating intraplate earthquake of Mw 7.7 occurred in a region about 5 km NW of Bhachau, Gujarat (23.42°N, 70.23°E). The epicentral distribution of aftershocks defines a marked concentration along an E-W trending and southerly dipping ( 45°) zone covering an area of (60 × 40) km2. The presence of high seismicity including two earthquakes

P. Mandal; Thomas S. Jainendra; S. Joshi; Sudesh Kumar; Rajendra Bhunia; B. K. Rastogi

2004-01-01

158

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource features links to: an earthquake quiz; a rotating globe showing earthquake locations; famous earthquake accounts by Mark Twain, Jack London, Charles Darwin, and John Muir; a Java animation of the gradual buildup of stress that leads to earthquakes; a three-page history of seismology to 1910; and other educational and earthquake websites.

159

Assessing the Environment for Introduction of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from a study conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two states in India: Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The objectives of the study were to: (i) design effective and appropriate HPV vaccine delivery systems for 10- to 14-year-old girls; (ii) design a communication strategy for HPV vaccine delivery; and (iii) devise an HPV vaccine advocacy strategy. The

Martha Jacob; Nita Mawar; Lysander Menezes; Satish Kaipilyawar; Sanjay Gandhi; Irfan Khan; Manoj Patki; Allison Bingham; D. Scott LaMontagne; Rajani Bagul; Tuman Katendra; Neelima Karandikar; Varada Madge; Kishore Chaudhry; Ramesh Paranjape; Anjali Nayyar

2010-01-01

160

Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy…

Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

2012-01-01

161

Girls' Education and Discursive Spaces for Empowerment: Perspectives from Rural India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines a national girls' education program and its role in addressing gender inequality in the Indian state of Gujarat. In 2004, the Ministry of Education, Government of India, enacted the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyala (KGBV) program. As a national program designed to increase educational access for the most marginalized girls,…

Shah, Payal P.

2011-01-01

162

Marital Ideoscapes in 21st-Century India: Creative Combinations of Love and Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although arranged marriage has survived in India, the custom is increasingly challenged by the current influx of new commodities, media, and ideas. Interviews with 15 male and 15 female unmarried professionals, age 22 to 29, in Vadodara, Gujarat, showed that educated youth have moved beyond the conventional love-versus-arranged marriage…

Netting, Nancy S.

2010-01-01

163

Rupture history and seismotectonics of the 1991 Uttarkashi, Himalaya earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 19 October 1991 Uttarkashi, India earthquake occurred in the main thrust zone of the Himalaya. With a moment magnitude of 6.8, this event is characteristic of the present-day motion on the thrust fault system. We examine this earthquake using different sets of data in order to understand better the faulting process of a major earthquake in the Himalayan region.

F. Cotton; M. Campillo; A. Deschamps; B. K. Rastogi

1996-01-01

164

Low Coda Qc in the Epicentral Region of the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake of Mw 7.7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 26 January, 2001 (03:46:55,UT) a devastating intraplate earthquake of Mw 7.7 occurred in a region about 5 km NW of Bhachau, Gujarat (23.42°N, 70.23°E). The epicentral distribution of aftershocks defines a marked concentration along an E-W trending and southerly dipping ( 45°) zone covering an area of (60 × 40) km2. The presence of high seismicity including two earthquakes of magnitudes exceeding 7.7 in the 200 years is presumed to have caused a higher level of shallow crustal heterogeneity in the Kutch area; a site lying in the seismic zone V (zone of the highest seismicity for potentially M8 earthquakes) on the seismic zoning map of India. Attenuation property of the medium around the epicentral area of the Bhuj earthquake covering a circular area of 61,500 km2 with a radius of 140 km is studied by estimating the coda-Qc from 200 local earthquakes of magnitudes varying from 3.0-4.6. The estimated Q0 values at locations in the aftershock zone (high seismicity) are found to be low in comparison to areas at a distance from it. This can be attributed to the fact that seismic waves are highly scattered for paths through the seismically active and fractured zone but they are well behaved outside the aftershock zone. Distribution of Q0 values suggests that the local variation in Q0 values is probably controlled by local geology. The estimated Q0 values at different stations suggest a low value of Q=(102 +/- 0.80)*f(0.98 +/- 0.02) indicating an attenuative crust beneath the entire region. The frequency-dependent relation indicates a relatively low Qc at lower frequencies (1-3 Hz) that can be attributed to the loss of energy due to scattering attenuation associated with heterogeneities and/or intrinsic attenuation due to fluid movement in the fault zone and fluid-filled cracks. The large Qc at higher frequencies may be related to the propagation of backscattered body waves through deeper parts of the lithosphere where less heterogeneity is expected. Based on the attenuation curve estimated for Q0=102, the ground acceleration at 240 km distance is 13% of 1 g i.e., 0.13 g agreeing well with the ground acceleration recorded by an accelerograph at Ahmedabad (0.11 g). Hence, it is inferred that the Q0 value obtained from this study seems to be apt for prediction of ground motion for the region.

Mandal, P.; Jainendra, Thomas S.; Joshi, S.; Kumar, Sudesh; Bhunia, Rajendra; Rastogi, B. K.

165

Making the Child Understand: Socialization of Emotion in Urban India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, this study examined mothers' socialization of child emotion in suburban middle-class families in Gujarat, India. In particular, a community sample of 602 children, 6 to 8 years, was screened for emotional\\/behavioral problems using a parent-report measure standardized with this population. Based on the screening, four groups of children were formed: those with

Vaishali V. Raval; Tanya S. Martini

2011-01-01

166

A fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat and its bearing on palaeoclimatic interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new fossil fruit wing of Shorea Roxb. belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae is described from the Early Miocene sediments of Kachchh, Gujarat. It resembles best the extant species Shorea macroptera Dyer, which is a prominent member of the tropical evergreen forests of the Malayan Peninsula. The present finding, along with the other megafossil records described from the same area, indicates a typical tropical vegetation with a warm and humid climate at the time of deposition in contrast to the present day xeric vegetation in the area. As the family Dipterocarpaceae no longer exists in western India, it is essential to discuss the time of its extinction and possible causes, which may include drastic changes in the climate of the region. The present finding also supports the theory of a Malaysian origin for the family in contrast to the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin.

Shukla, Anumeha; Guleria, J. S.; Mehrotra, R. C.

2012-02-01

167

What Does "Literate in English" Mean?: Divergent Literacy Practices for Vernacular- vs. English-Medium Students in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a close analysis of how English is presented and taught in state-mandated vernacular- and English-medium textbooks used in Grades K-12 in Gujarat, India. Argues that the divergent English instruction as presented in the textbooks contribute to producing two different cultural models regarding being "literate in English." (Author/VWL)

Ramanathan, Vai

2002-01-01

168

A game of hide and seek: gendered ethnographies of the everyday state after communal violence in Ahmedabad, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the gendered experience of the state for the Muslim survivors of violence in Gujarat in 2002. Most of the scholarship on the working of the state after communal violence in post-independence India concentrates on the anxiety to re-instate the ‘myth of the state’, through policies that establish its respectability after violence. The emphasis is on understanding the

Rubina Jasani

2011-01-01

169

MATCHING LIVELIHOOD NEEDS TO TREE SELECTION IN HIGH POTENTIAL FARMING SYSTEMS: LESSONS FROM PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH IN NEPAL AND INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A participatory crop improvement project in Gujarat, India and the Terai, Nepal, funded by the Department for International Development and co-ordinated by the Centre for Arid Zone Studies, University of Wales, is improving crop production and tree use in areas where people have low incomes, but where the production potential is high. Surveys conducted by the project suggest that the

M Warner; PG Bezkorowajnyj; RB Rana

170

Earthquake Myths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

171

Landslide Studies in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

STATUS OF NATURAL HAZARDS India is vulnerable to different natural hazards due to its proximity to geodynamically active locales and unique climatic pattern. Both these factors in different combinations lead to the occurrence of disasters resulting from natural hazards like floods, earthquakes, draught, cyclones and landslides in different parts of the country at frequent intervals. It is estimated that about

Y. P. SHARDA

172

Earthquake prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake prediction research programmes in a number of countries are reviewed together with achievements in various disciplines involved in earthquake prediction research, i.e., geodetic work, tide gauge observation, continuous observation of crustal movement, seismic activity and seismological method, seismic wave velocity, geotectonic work, geomagnetic and geoelectric work and laboratory work and its application in the field. Present-day development of earthquake

Tsuneji Rikitake

1968-01-01

173

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

Novak, Gary

174

Maternal Health Financing – Issues and Options: A Study of Chiranjeevi Yojana in Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government of Gujarat announced a “Chiranjeevi Yojana” in April 2005. The objective of this scheme is to encourage private medical practitioners to provide maternity health services in remote areas which record the highest infant and maternal mortality and thereby improve the institutional delivery rate in Gujarat. The scheme was finally launched as a one year pilot project in December 2005

Bhat Ramesh; Amarjit Singh; Sunil Kumar Maheshwari; Saha Somen

175

Damned if They Flee, Doomed if They Don’t: Narratives of Runaway Adolescent Females from Rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the cultural context of rural India that emphasizes familial roles for women, this qualitative study explored the experiences\\u000a of adolescent females who run away from their family homes. Ten adolescent females from rural areas or small towns of Gujarat,\\u000a India were individually interviewed while they temporarily resided in an institution, along with six members of the institution\\u000a staff. Throughout

Vaishali V. Raval; Pratiksha H. Raval; Stacey P. Raj

2010-01-01

176

Understanding Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a brief description of the recent earthquakes in Pakistan and Sumatra and continues with an investigation of earthquakes and their causes. Topics include the relationship of earthquakes to plate tectonics and the structure of the Earth, especially faults; factors that contribute to the strength (magnitude) of earthquakes; and the uncertainties of earthquake prediction. There is also an overview of a research project to drill into the San Andreas fault, and a history of the development of the theory of plate tectonics. A bibliography and links to additional information are also provided.

Tenenbaum, David

1999-09-02

177

Estimation of Strong Ground Motion from a Great Earthquake Mw 8.5 in Central Seismic Gap Region, Himalaya (India) Using Empirical Green's Function Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study ground motions for a Mw 8.5 scenario earthquake are estimated at 13 sites in Kumaun-Garhwal region using the empirical Green's function technique. The recordings of 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake of Mw 6.8 at these sites are used as an element earthquake. A heterogeneous source model consisting of two asperities is considered for simulating the ground motions. The entire central seismic gap (CSG) can expect acceleration in excess of 100 cm/s2 with NW portion in excess of 400 cm/s2 and SE between 100 and 200 cm/s2. The central portion can expect peak ground acceleration (PGA) between 200 and 400 cm/s2. It has been observed from simulation of strong ground motion that sites located near the rupture initiation point can expect accelerations in excess of 1g. In the present analysis, Bhatwari and Uttarkashi can expect ground accelerations in excess of 1g. The estimates of the PGA are compared with earlier studies in the same region using different methodologies and it was found that the results are comparable. This has put constrains on the expected PGAs in this region. The obtained PGA values can be used in identifying the vulnerable areas in the central Himalaya, thereby facilitating the planning, design and construction of new structures and strengthening of the existing structures in the region.

Sharma, Babita; Chopra, Sumer; Sutar, Anup Kumar; Bansal, B. K.

2013-02-01

178

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Perry, Mr.

2008-11-18

179

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Science, Vvs E.

2008-12-03

180

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

Kio, Mr.

2008-12-06

181

Earthquake Plotting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students gather and plot records of earthquakes. It is designed to be either long or short term, depending on the needs of the instructor. Students will gain practice working with map coordinates while becoming familiar with the frequency of earthquake occurrences, the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the locations of plate boundaries. In addition, this exercise will illustrate the importance of measurements, data storage, analysis and worldwide scientific collaboration.

Rauch, Arden

182

Land -Atmosphere -Ionosphere Coupling Associated with Major Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major earthquakes (greater than 5.5 on Richter scale) have shown pronounced changes on land, ocean, atmosphere and ionosphere. Such changes are being monitored using multi sen-sor satellites which use visible and microwave frequencies. Detailed analysis of multi sensor data (AIRS, MOPITT, AMSER, AURA OMI) have been carried out to study surface, skin and air temperature, relative humidity, water vapor, carbon monoxide and ozone for prior and after the earthquakes and also for longer period. Satellite derived, ground observed and NCEP re-analysis data show one to one correspondence and also surface, atmospheric and meteoro-logical parameters show complementary nature that provide confidence to believe existence of lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling in some of the recent earthquakes (Gujarat, Wenchuan, Italy, Peru, Haiti). In some of the earthquakes such coupling is not found to exit. Existence of coupling or no coupling associated with earthquakes will be presented. The pres-ence of such coupling provide complementary nature in surface, atmosphere and ionosphere which can be used as reliable earthquake precursors.

Singh, Ramesh; Mehdi, Waseem

183

Hidden earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

1989-06-01

184

Izmit Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab allows students to look at variety of data from the North Anatolian fault in Turkey. Specifically, students have the oportunity to: interpret seismograms from the Izmit earthquake in 1999 (while accessing some seismograph station information from IRIS) make and interpret an earthquake focal mechanism solution based on these seismograms locate the earthquake epicenter calculate the moment magnitude of the earthquake using published data showing epicenter locations and displacement measurements intepret historical data from the North Anatolian fault and tectonic-scale plate motion information to see what patterns occur in the regional seismicity.

Titus, Sarah

185

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how to plot earthquakes on a map by exploring recent earthquake activity in California and Nevada. Within this activity, learners also practice using latitudinal and longitudinal lines and make predictions. This detailed lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, background information for educators, extension ideas, and resources.

Sciences, California A.

2012-06-26

186

Earthquake response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loma Prieta earthquake in northern California gave geophysicists an unexpected chance to mobilize a team to take portable seismographs to an earthquake region. The magnitude-7.1 earthquake occurred Tuesday, October 17 at 5:04 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time. Less than 48 hours after the main shock, IRIS consortium seismologists from Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., were setting up new, portable equipment around San Francisco.The ability to move quickly to the earthquake area was an unanticipated bonus of two National Science Foundation programs: IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology in Arlington, Va., and NCEER, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research in Buffalo, N.Y.

Simpson, David; Hough, Susan; Lerner-Lam, Arthur; Phinney, Robert

187

Crustal structure beneath the Sub-Himalayan fold-thrust belt, Kangra recess, northwest India, from seismic reflection profiling: Implications for Late Paleoproterozoic orogenesis and modern earthquake hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most compressional orogens include salients and recesses along their strike, the age and origin of which can be hard to ascertain. In the Kangra recess in the trace of the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT), the largest such recess within the active Himalayan orogen, the Sub-Himalayan sedimentary fold-thrust belt increases in width to as much as 90 km (the Kangra Basin), but narrows to as little as 10 km in the adjoining Nahan salient of the MBT (the Subathu Basin) to the southeast. New seismic reflection profiling places the Himalayan décollement at 6-8 km depth above thin but reflective Meso- to Neoproterozoic Vindhyan (Lesser Himalayan Series-equivalent) strata. These data show that the Vindhyan sedimentary rocks are thinner in the Kangra recess than further southeast, allowing the hypothesis that the width of the Lesser Himalayan thrust belt, and the existence of the Kangra recess, could be related to the pre-deformation basin thickness. This hypothesis obviates the need for control of the Kangra recess by a lateral ramp in the Main Himalayan Thrust, so making it more likely that the Kangra segment could rupture as part of an earthquake far larger than the devastating 1905 M = 7.8 Kangra earthquake. Below the Proterozoic sedimentary rocks, our reflection data show a west-southwest-dipping reflective fabric spanning a 30 km-crustal thickness, which we infer corresponds to a widespread "Ulleri-Wangtu" orogenic event at c. 1850 Ma affecting a pre-Tethyan Indian continental margin, thickening the basement by c. 20%. The deepest 10 km of this ~ 50 km-thick crust shows a more horizontal, arguably younger, reflectivity, though the Moho is not clearly marked by strong reflectors.

Rajendra Prasad, B.; Klemperer, Simon L.; Vijaya Rao, V.; Tewari, H. C.; Khare, Prakash

2011-08-01

188

Focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focal mechanism data provide information on the relative magnitudes of the principal stresses, so that a tectonic regime can be assigned. Especially such information is useful for the study of intraplate seismic active regions. A study of earthquake focal mechanisms in the territory of Mongolia as landlocked and intraplate region was conducted. We present map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes with M4.5 which occurred in Mongolia and neighboring regions. Focal mechanisms solutions were constrained by the first motion solutions, as well as by waveform modeling, particularly CMT solutions. Four earthquakes have been recorded in Mongolia in XX century with magnitude more than 8, the 1905 M7.9 Tsetserleg and M8.4 Bolnai earthquakes, the 1931 M8.0 Fu Yun earthquake, the 1957 M8.1 Gobi-Altai earthquake. However the map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia allows seeing all seismic active structures: Gobi Altay, Mongolian Altay, active fringe of Hangay dome, Hentii range etc. Earthquakes in the most of Mongolian territory and neighboring China regions are characterized by strike-slip and reverse movements. Strike-slip movements also are typical for earthquakes in Altay Range in Russia. The north of Mongolia and south part of the Baikal area is a region where have been occurred earthquakes with different focal mechanisms. This region is a zone of the transition between compressive regime associated to India-Eurasian collision and extensive structures localized in north of the country as Huvsgul area and Baykal rift. Earthquakes in the Baikal basin itself are characterized by normal movements. Earthquakes in Trans-Baikal zone and NW of Mongolia are characterized dominantly by strike-slip movements. Analysis of stress-axis orientations, the tectonic stress tensor is presented. The map of focal mechanisms of earthquakes in Mongolia could be useful tool for researchers in their study on Geodynamics of Central Asia, particularly of Mongolian and Baikal regions.

Sodnomsambuu, D.; Natalia, R.; Gangaadorj, B.; Munkhuu, U.; Davaasuren, G.; Danzansan, E.; Yan, R.; Valentina, M.; Battsetseg, B.

2011-12-01

189

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

190

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

191

Economics and Efficiency of Organic Farming vis-Ã -vis Conventional Farming in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper focuses mainly on the issues like economics and efficiency of organic farming visà - vis conventional farming in India. Four states namely Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and U.P were purposively selected for the present study. Similarly, four major crops i.e., cotton, sugarcane, paddy and wheat were chosen for comparison. A model based nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was

D. Kumara Charyulu; Subho Biswas

2010-01-01

192

Farmers’ perceptions, knowledge and management of aflatoxins in groundnuts ( Arachis hypogaea L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxins, produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries and Aspergillus parasiticus Speare, are the major toxins affecting the quality of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) meant for human consumption. Groundnuts can be infected with aflatoxin-producing fungi pre-harvest, at harvest and post-harvest. This survey was conducted in Gujarat province in India in order to assess farmers’ and other stakeholders’ (extension

G. D. S. Kumar; M. N. Popat

2010-01-01

193

Long range correlation in earthquake precursory signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on earthquake prediction has drawn serious attention of the geophysicist, geologist and investigators in different fields of science across the globe for many decades. Researchers around the world are actively working on recording pre-earthquake changes in non-seismic parameters through a variety of methods that include anomalous changes in geochemical parameters of the Earth's crust, geophysical properties of the lithosphere as well as ionosphere etc. Several works also have been done in India to detect earthquake precursor signals using geochemical and geophysical methods. However, very few works have been done so far in India in this field through the application of nonlinear techniques to the recorded geophysical and geochemical precursory signals for earthquakes. The present paper deals with a short review of the early works on geochemical precursors that have been carried out in India as yet. With a view to detect earthquake precursory signals by means of gas-geochemical method we developed a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories in India in hot springs and mud volcano crater. In the last few years we detected several geochemical anomalies and those were observed prior to some major earthquakes that occurred within a radius of 1500 km from the test sites. In the present paper we have applied nonlinear techniques to the long term, real-time and natural data sets of radon-222 and associated gamma originated out of the terrestrial degassing process of the earth. The results reveal a clear signature of the long range correlation present in the geochemical time series. This approach appears to be a potential tool to explore intrinsic information hidden within the earthquake precursory signals.

Chaudhuri, H.; Barman, C.; Iyengar, A. N. S.; Ghose, D.; Sen, P.; Sinha, B.

2013-07-01

194

Deep Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most earthquakes occur in the top 100 miles of the crust of the Earth, but some happen far below that, where the earth is so hot that rocks should simply flow past each other instead of producing the jolts that cause earthquakes. So what causes them? This radio broadcast explains how one geophysicist has performed experiments revealing that rock squeezed under intense pressure contains bits that become soft at different rates. These bits are able to hook up into shear zones that cause the earthquakes. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

195

Earthquake Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect earthquake data from on-line databases. The parameters can be changed so that data for earthquakes occurring at any time or part of the world can be accessed. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to find the epicenter and hypocenter (focus), determine the number of earthquakes in a given area or region, determine magnitude, and make inferences why ground shaking does not always decrease with increasing distance from the epicenter.

Hopson, R.

196

UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE  

SciTech Connect

What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non-unitary site response. This indicates that often the actual behavior of a rock outcrop is far from that of an ideal, reference site.

Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

2005-05-04

197

Stable continental regions are more vulnerable to earthquakes than once thought  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic events at shield areas throughout the world suggest that the stable continental regions (SCR) are much more vulnerable to earthquakes than was once thought. Earthquakes have struck SCRs at a number of locations, including the New Madrid Zone, United States; Tennant Creek, Australia; Ungava, Canada; and Kachchh, Koyna, Latur, and Jabalpur, India. In several developing countries, such as India, the problems caused by SCR earthquakes have become very serious because of high population density and the proliferation of structures not built to withstand earthquake damage.A recent Chapman Conference on SCR earthquakes attracted 90 researchers from 12 countries. Eighty papers were presented. Globally, the stable continental region earthquakes account for about 0.5% of total seismic energy released. The largest SCR earthquakes occurred in the New Madrid zone from 1811 to 1812, when three earthquakes of Mw 7.8-8.1 occurred within just 53 days.

Gupta, Harsh K.; Johnston, Arch C.

198

Earthquake Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Indicates the importance of the development of students' measurement and estimation skills. Analyzes earthquake data recorded at seismograph stations and explains how to read and modify the graphs. Presents an activity for student evaluation. (YDS)|

Espinoza, Fernando

2000-01-01

199

Earthquake Light.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on manifestations of earthquake light that appear to be of electromagnetic origin: general atmospheric luminosity; light flashes; and auroral effects. Explanations of near-ground phenomena are offered in terms of acceleration of free el...

W. G. McMillan

1985-01-01

200

Bibliography of Earthquake Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography of earthquake engineering literature is comprised of published articles up to the year 1971. Main topic areas include: (1) earthquakes; (2) ground vibrations; (3) ground; (4) structures; (5) earthquake damage; (6) earthquake resistant st...

K. Kanai

1977-01-01

201

National Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a very extensive site about earthquakes. It is the USGS (United States Geological Survey) National Earthquake Information site. The site provides access to near real time earthquake data from around the world, as well as data for recent earthquakes (last 3 weeks). The site can also be searched for information on specific earthquakes by time or location. There is a General Earthquake Information section with extensive earthquake education materials as well as information on seismicity, earthquake magnitude, preparedness, predictions, and locations.

202

Meeting focuses on catastrophic Asian earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IAS-PEI) and the Asian Seismological Commission met August 1-3, 1996, in Tangshan, China. Twenty years ago, Tangshan was destroyed by the century's worst earthquake, which killed an estimated 243,000 people.It was the first meeting of the Asian Seismological Commission (ASC), a group formed in 1995 by the IASPEI umbrella, to improve understanding of geological processes in Asia and to mitigate earthquake disasters. Because of its widespread seismic activity, the vast, populated territory of Asia has more catastrophic earthquakes than other regions of the world (see Figure 1). During the period from 1892 to 1992, 50 percent of the world's major earthquakes (magnitude greater than 8) occurred in Asia and the Southern Pacific region. Economic losses of more than $100 billion from the most recent major Asian earthquake that occurred in Kobe, Japan, in early 1995, make Kobe the most expensive earthquake in the world. In September 1993, the Latur earthquake in the stable shield region of southern India claimed 10,000 lives, and although of only 6.1 magnitude, was the deadliest stable continental region earthquake.

Gupta, Harsh K.

203

Earthquake Location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration of earthquake location uses triangulation on a globe. It requires seismograms and travel-time curves (the site explains where to obtain these), string, and a globe. Since P waves travel faster than S waves, the time difference between the arrival of the P wave and the arrival of the S wave depends on the distance the waves traveled from the source (earthquake) to the station (seismograph). Students will measure the time difference between the P and S wave arrival using a seismogram. Then they will use the travel-time curves to find the distance that corresponds to this time difference. Next, students will measure this distance on the globe using the string and locate the earthquake using the distances from three stations.

Barker, Jeffrey

204

Earthquake Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a demonstration of the principle of elastic rebound for the cause and recurrence of earthquakes. Under the Elastic Rebound Theory, the continuous motion of plates on Earth causes stress to build up at the boundaries between the plates, where friction keeps the boundaries locked. Stress is continually building up, and earthquakes act to relieve that stress. In the demonstration, the two sides of a fault are represented by sandpaper-covered blocks resting on a sandpaper-covered board. A weight rests on the block to apply a chosen amount of pressure on the sandpaper (defining the frictional strength of the fault). A spring is attached to the block and to a string, on which a constant pull is maintained. This apparatus is used to discover when the stress causes the blocks to move. Conclusions on earthquake recurrence (seismicity) may then be drawn.

Barker, Jeffrey

205

Deep earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes are often recorded at depths as great as 650 kilometers or more. These deep events mark regions where plates of the earth's surface are consumed in the mantle. But the earthquakes themselves present a conundrum: the high pressures and temperatures at such depths should keep rock from fracturing suddenly and generating a tremor. This paper reviews the research on this problem. Almost all deep earthquakes conform to the pattern described by Wadati, namely, they generally occur at the edge of a deep ocean and define an inclined zone extending from near the surface to a depth of 600 kilometers of more, known as the Wadati-Benioff zone. Several scenarios are described that were proposed to explain the fracturing and slipping of rocks at this depth.

Frohlich, C.

1989-01-01

206

Heavy Metal Content of Suspended Particulate Matter at World’s Largest ShipBreaking Yard, Alang-Sosiya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study vividly presents results from a seasonal particulate matter measurement campaign conducted at world’s largest ship-breaking\\u000a yard i.e., Alang-Sosiya (Gujarat, India) at six locations and a reference station at Gopnath which is 30 km south of this\\u000a ship-breaking yard. The collected suspended particulate matter (SPM) 24-h samples were critically analyzed for heavy metals\\u000a (Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, Mn, Fe,

Shaik Basha; Premsingh Mansingh Gaur; Ravikumar Bhagwan Thorat; Rohitkumar Harikrishna Trivedi; Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay; Nisha Anand; Shalin Hemantbhai Desai; Kalpana Haresh Mody; Bhavnath Jha

2007-01-01

207

The Darbar, the British, and the Runaway Maharaja: Religion and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Vallabha Sampradaya or Pus.t.i Marga Hindu devo- tional community was founded in the sixteenth century by the Vais.n . avite philosopher, Vallabha. His successors, known as maharajas, continued to spread the teachings of the Pus.t.i Marga and enjoyed much success in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Political and economic patronage by elites of Western India soon transformed these maharajas into wealthy

Shandip Saha

2007-01-01

208

Earthquake Quiz!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains questions about earthquakes from students just like you! Mr. John Lahr from U.S. Geological Survey answered the questions and the information has been put up for you to read! If you hit the "back" button on this page, you can also play a word-search, a crossword puzzle, and try your hand at scrambled definitions.

Lahr, John

2002-01-01

209

Earthquake Seismology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elastic waves radiating from earthquakes are of several different types; their paths explore all regions of the earth; and the separate quakes, each one a highly localized wave source for a brief interval of time, occur in nearly all geographic areas....

M. A. Tuve I. S. Sacks L. T. Aldrich J. Frez F. G. Saa

1964-01-01

210

Earthquake Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science students are expected to master the travel-time curves of the seismic waves generated at the focus of an earthquake and recorded at seismograph stations. Commonly, students are required to calculate the distance to the epicenter and the time

Espinoza, Fernando

2000-04-01

211

Earthquake Occurrence in Bangladesh and Surrounding Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The collision of the northward moving Indian plate with the Eurasian plate is the cause of frequent earthquakes in the region comprising Bangladesh and neighbouring India, Nepal and Myanmar. Historical records indicate that Bangladesh has been affected by five major earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 (Richter scale) during 1869 to 1930. This paper presents some statistical observations of earthquake occurrence in fulfilment of a basic groundwork for seismic hazard assessment of this region. An up to date catalogue covering earthquake information in the region bounded within 17°-30°N and 84°-97°E for the period of historical period to 2010 is derived from various reputed international sources including ISC, IRIS, Indian sources and available publications. Careful scrutiny is done to remove duplicate or uncertain earthquake events. Earthquake magnitudes in the range of 1.8 to 8.1 have been obtained and relationships between different magnitude scales have been studied. Aftershocks are removed from the catalogue using magnitude dependent space window and time window. The main shock data are then analyzed to obtain completeness period for different magnitudes evaluating their temporal homogeneity. Spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, magnitude-depth histograms and other statistical analysis are performed to understand the distribution of seismic activity in this region.

Al-Hussaini, T. M.; Al-Noman, M.

2011-12-01

212

Seismotectonics of the Koyna-Warna Area, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

-Reservoir-induced seismicity has been observed near Koyna Dam, India since the early 1960s. In order to understand the seismotectonics of the region we analyzed available seismicity data from 1963 to 1995. Over 300 earthquakes with M >= 3.0 were relocated using revised location parameters (station locations, velocity model, station delays and Vp \\/Vs ratio). The spatial pattern of earthquakes was

PRADEEP TALWANI

1997-01-01

213

Earthquake Impact Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the

D. J. Wald; K. S. Jaiswal; K. D. Marano; D. Bausch

2011-01-01

214

Darwin's earthquake.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

Lee, Richard V

2010-07-01

215

Testing of Traditional Methods of Weather Forecasting in Gujarat Using the Participatory Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saurashtra, located in the western part of the state of Gujarat, is predominantly a dry land farming area. Since the early seventies, it has been identified as a drought prone area. The farmers of this region place a lot of importance on the prediction of the onset of the monsoon since the choice of cropping pattern depends on it. Early

P. R. Kanani

216

An Economic Evaluation of Investment on Aonla (Emblica officinalis G.) in Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic viability of aonla plantation in Gujarat has been studied through a sample of 120 aonla growers spread over 12 selected villages of the Kheda and Anand districts for the agricultural year 2003-04. It has been found that establishment of aonla orchard involves high investment, but the annual net returns are also quite high, after the third year of

V. K. Gondalia; G. N. Patel

2007-01-01

217

Primary Health Care under Panchayati Raj: Perceptions of Officials from Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution has raised hoped for improving many services in rural areas by handling them over to Panchayat. Gujarat was one of the first states to implement the Panchayati Raj system in 1963 and here primary healthcare was handed over to District Panchayats. This paper reviews the experience of PHC under panchayat system. The

Patel V M; Dileep Mavalankar

218

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Current Earthquakes Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) provides this Website for current earthquake maps (for a related USGS site of geologic hazards, see the September 18, 1998 Scout Report). Taken from the NEIC's Near-Real Time Earthquake Bulletin, maps of the world, hemispheres, continents, and sub-continents provide location and phase data for the most recent seismic events. More detailed maps and charts can be accessed by clicking on earthquake locations on the larger maps.

219

Ancient Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over a period of 50 years around 1200 B.C., all the great Bronze Age civilizations came to an end. A number of ideas have been advanced to explain why these civilizations ended almost simultaneously, but no one is quite sure why. This radio broadcast explains how a physicist at Stanford University has come up with a new idea- a series of earthquakes, sweeping over southern Itlay to central Turkey over 50 years, may have caused the destruction of these civilzations. The clip is 2 minutes in length.

220

Epidemic Investigation of the Jaundice Outbreak in Girdharnagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India, 2008  

PubMed Central

Background: Since 1976, seven outbreaks of hepatitis E occurred in Ahmedabad. Clusters of jaundice cases were reported on June 19, 2008, by a civic center, Girdharnagar ward, Ahmedabad. Objectives: The objectives were as follows: (1) to identify the etiological agent, source of outbreak, and mode of transmission; (2) to propose a control measure based on the outbreak investigation. Materials and Methods: We defined a case as an acute illness with (a) a discrete onset of symptoms and (b) jaundice or elevated serum aminotransferase levels, from March to September 2008 in the households of the Girdharnagar ward. We collected data through a door-to-door survey and hospital records. We described the outbreak in terms of time, place, and person. We collected laboratory investigation reports of case patients admitted to the civil hospital. To test our hypothesis we conducted a retrospective cohort study to find out the relative risk for hepatitis. We conducted environment investigation to find out the source of contamination of water supply. Results: A total 233 case patients of hepatitis were identified with the attack rate of 10.9/1000 population. Cases were reported in all the age groups with a higher attack rate in the age group of 20-29 years (18.5/1000). Out of 17 case patients, 16 were positive for the hepatitis E IgM antibody. The attack rate was two times more among those who were exposed to the leaking pipeline than the non-exposed (RR=2.3, 95% CI 1.76, 2.98). Environmental investigation also confirmed the sewage contamination of drinking water in the distribution system. Conclusion: The outbreak was due to hepatitis E virus. We recommended a temporary alternative water supply, repair of the leakages, and water quality surveillance.

Chauhan, Naresh T; Prajapati, Prakash; Trivedi, Atul V; Bhagyalaxmi, A

2010-01-01

221

Upper mantle seismic anisotropy in the intra-continental Kachchh rift zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave splitting study of 411 SKS/SKKS phases covering backazimuth range of 13° to 305° recorded by 12 broadband stations in the Kachchh rift has led to estimates of fast axis orientations and splitting times for 118 good measurements. The average vector mean of fast axis orientation (86 ± 14°) corresponds to the E-W axis of the Kachchh rift and the delay time (~ 1.6 s) is attributed to the ~ 184 km-thick upper mantle layer with 4% anisotropy. The anisotropic character observed for the Kachchh rift (KR) is comparable to other continental rifts and these are related to the high-temperature, lattice-preferred orientation fabric of olivine, inherited from the mantle flows. The source of the rift-axis parallel anisotropy is traced to the rift-parallel flows within the 76 ± 6 km-thick lithosphere. Additionally, the rift-parallel pockets of partial melts also induce anisotropy within the asthenosphere. Both these are inherited from the plume-lithosphere interaction during the Deccan/Reunion plume episode (~ 65 Ma).

Mandal, Prantik

2011-08-01

222

Fishery resources in arid zone mangroves in gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, northwest coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finfish and shellfish resources were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively in regard to their abundance in creek waters at three sites within a period of two years, from January 1999 to December 2000, in the western mangrove areas of Kachchh. The catch rate varied from 0.69 to 6.99 kg h-1. It was low during monsoon (July to October), which could be due to the freshwater-flow-induced salinity reduction in all the sites. Among 38 species recorded, 5 were shellfish and 33 were finfish. The spawning period of fishes was found to be during summer and early monsoon period (May to August). Surface water temperatures varied from 17 °C to 37 °C. Salinity values varied from 34 to 44 and the pH ranged between 7 and 8.9. Variation in dissolved oxygen content was from 3.42 to 5.85 mL L-1. The high fishery densities in these semi arid mangrove creek areas were recorded during monsoon and early winter season.

Saravanakumar, A.; Rajkumar, M.; Sesh Serebiah, J.; Thivakaran, G. A.

2009-09-01

223

Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

2009-01-01

224

A very large dew and rain ridge collector in the Kutch area (Gujarat, India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first report of a water plant based on dew collection. The price of bottled dew water is one third of the local market price. Computational Fluid Dynamics is used to determine the best functioning of a dew plant.

Sharan, G.; Clus, O.; Singh, S.; Muselli, M.; Beysens, D.

2011-07-01

225

The guilt and pleasure of masturbation: A study of college girls in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a general paucity of data on the sexual behaviour of adolescent girls in Indian society as also about their knowledge concerning sexual matters. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of masturbation among first year college girls, and to assess the role of various demographic and sociocultural factors like parental education; socioeconomic background, etc. on their masturbational

Vinit Sharma; Anuragini Sharma

1998-01-01

226

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.

227

Internet Geography: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on earthquakes and how they occur. Topics covered include the effects of earthquakes, measuring earthquakes, and case studies about specific recent earthquakes.

228

Earthquake Photo Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of earthquake photos, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), contains links to photos for specific earthquakes, as well as links to other USGS image collections and non-USGS collections. Highlights include photos from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the 1994 earthquake in Northridge, California. There is also a link to the USGS photo library (general geologic topics), and links to collections published by universities, museums, other government organizations, and professional organizations.

2011-06-21

229

Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

Baer, Eric

230

Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

231

The Quality of Care in Sterilization Camps: Evidence from Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterilization is the most popular method of contraception in India. The 1992-93 National Family Health Survey found that of the 36.2 percent of eligible couples using any modem method, most (30.7 per cent) had been sterilized and only 5.5 percent were using temporary methods (IIPS 1995, p. 143). Sterilization is thus six times more common than all the other modem

DILEEP MAVALANKAR; BHARTI SHARMA

232

Tracking Earthquake Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

Jordan, T. H.

2011-12-01

233

Earthquakes Around the World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Certain parts of the world are more susceptible to earthquake activity and volcanic eruptions than others. In this activity you will use a computer model to investigate the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that have occurred around the world since 1960.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

234

Earthquake History of California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes major earthquakes that have occurred in California since the colonial era, beginning with a 1769 earthquake experienced by a Spanish expedition near what is now Los Angeles, and ending with the July 1952 earthquake in Kern County. Each account provides observer's reports of injuries, fatalities, property damage, and ground effects (cracking, subsidence). More recent earthquake accounts include an estimated or measured magnitude.

235

School Safety and Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

1997-01-01

236

Earthquakes and friction laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes have long been recognized as resulting from a stick–slip frictional instability. The development of a full constitutive law for rock friction now shows that the gamut of earthquake phenomena—seismogenesis and seismic coupling, pre- and post-seismic phenomena, and the insensitivity of earthquakes to stress transients—all appear as manifestations of the richness of this friction law.

Christopher H. Scholz

1998-01-01

237

Buildings and Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquakes happen when forces in the Earth cause violent shaking of the ground. Earthquakes can be very destructive to buildings and other man-made structures. Design and build various types of buildings, then test your buildings for earthquake resistance using a shake table and a force sensor that measures how hard a force pushes or pulls your building.

Consortium, The C.

2012-05-21

238

Forecasting Earthquakes Using Paleoseismology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article, from Earth: Inside and Out, takes a look at how paleoseismologists study the sediment around faults to help predict future earthquakes. It covers the role faults play in earthquakes and how sediment evidence is used to reconstruct a site's earthquake history.

239

Earthquake Prediction and Forecasting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prospects for earthquake prediction and forecasting, and even their definitions, are actively debated. Here, "forecasting" means estimating the future earthquake rate as a function of location, time, and magnitude. Forecasting becomes "prediction" when we identify special conditions that make the immediate probability much higher than usual and high enough to justify exceptional action. Proposed precursors run from aeronomy to zoology, but no identified phenomenon consistently precedes earthquakes. The reported prediction of the 1975 Haicheng, China earthquake is often proclaimed as the most successful, but the success is questionable. An earthquake predicted to occur near Parkfield, California in 1988±5 years has not happened. Why is prediction so hard? Earthquakes start in a tiny volume deep within an opaque medium; we do not know their boundary conditions, initial conditions, or material properties well; and earthquake precursors, if any, hide amongst unrelated anomalies. Earthquakes cluster in space and time, and following a quake earthquake probability spikes. Aftershocks illustrate this clustering, and later earthquakes may even surpass earlier ones in size. However, the main shock in a cluster usually comes first and causes the most damage. Specific models help reveal the physics and allow intelligent disaster response. Modeling stresses from past earthquakes may improve forecasts, but this approach has not yet been validated prospectively. Reliable prediction of individual quakes is not realistic in the foreseeable future, but probabilistic forecasting provides valuable information for reducing risk. Recent studies are also leading to exciting discoveries about earthquakes.

Jackson, David D.

240

Real Earthquakes, Real Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

Schomburg, Aaron

2003-01-01

241

Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of…

Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

2008-01-01

242

Spatial mapping of earthquake hazard parameters in the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya and adjacent regions: Implication for future seismic hazard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial mapping of annual and 100-years mode of earthquake magnitude in NW Himalaya.High hazard is observed in the Hindukush-Pamir Himalaya with Caucasus belt.Also high hazard in Kangra-Himanchal Pradesh and Kashmir of India of NW Himalaya.The spatial maps provide a brief atlas of the earthquake hazard in the region.

Yadav, R. B. S.; Tsapanos, T. M.; Koravos, G. Ch.; Bayrak, Yusuf; Devlioti, Kiriaki D.

2013-07-01

243

Saint Louis University Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Saint Louis University (SLU) Earthquake Center provides recent Midwest earthquake locations, the history of central U.S. earthquakes, a link for reporting an earthquake, historic earthquake and instrument photographs, and explanations of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. There are earthquake information flyers, links to course websites and course notes, a textbook description, computer tools and earthquake catalogs, and recent theses and dissertations. There are also links to seismic systems and networks as well as SLU network reports.

244

Importance of small earthquakes for stress transfers and earthquake triggering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate the relative importance of small and large earthquakes for static stress changes and for earthquake triggering, assuming that earthquakes are triggered by static stress changes and that earthquakes are located on a fractal network of dimension D. This model predicts that both the number of events triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m and the stress change induced

Agnès Helmstetter; Yan Y. Kagan; David D. Jackson

2005-01-01

245

Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquakes tend to claim more human lives and inflict heavier financial losses as they occur where not expected and the local and regional preparedness to mitigate such catastrophes is minimal. Artificial water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), most prominent in SCR, provides an exceptional window to comprehend genesis of such earthquakes. Since the first scientific reporting of the RTS at the Boulder Dam, USA during 1930s, over 100 cases of RTS have been reported globally. Damaging earthquakes exceeding M 6 have occurred at Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba (Zambia -Zimbabwe border), Kremasta (Greece) and Koyna (India). It is debated that the 2008 M 7.8 Sichuan earthquake in China, which claimed over 80,000 human lives was triggered by filling of a nearby reservoir. Located close to the west coast of India, Koyna is a classical site of RTS, where triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment in 1962, including the largest RTS earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967 which claimed over 200 human lives and destroyed Koyna town. Over the past 49 years 22 earthquakes of M ? 5 and several thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred in a restricted area of 20 X 30 sq. km. with no other seismic activity within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. The latest M 5.1 earthquake occurred on December 12, 2009. Although several studies have clearly established the association of continued RTS at Koyna with precipitation driven loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs, the trigger mechanism is little understood. Our knowledge about the physical properties of rocks and fluids in the fault zones and how they affect the build-up of stress for an extended period is limited by the lack of data from the near field region. A deep bore hole of up to 7 km depth at a scientifically and logistically suitable location is under an advance stage of planning. A detailed workshop and field visits involving some 50 scientists from 10 countries were held under the auspices of International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, during March 21 through 26, 2011 to discuss all aspects of the proposed scientific drilling at Koyna. In addition to a pilot bore hole of about 2.5 km, 4 other bore holes penetrating the basalt cover of about 1 km thickness, are proposed to be drilled to conduct a suite of geophysical and hydro-geological experiments and measurements. Results of these investigations would be complementary to SAFOD experiment being conducted on the plate boundary.

Gupta, H. K.

2011-12-01

246

Investigating Earthquakes through Regional Seismicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, sudents will use online interactive materials to investigate the nature of earthquakes. The module consists of three major sections, "What is an Earthquake?", "The Distribution of Earthquakes", and "Measuring Earthquakes". Each section presents online material for background and interactive learning activities which help them to understand such characteristics of earthquakes as their associated faults, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and geographic distribution.

Marquis, John; Hafner, Katrin; Hauksson, Egill

247

Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the

B. F. Atwater; M. Cisternas; I. Salgado; G. Machuca; M. Lagos; A. Eipert; M. Shishikura

2003-01-01

248

The Distribution of Earthquakes: An Earthquake Deficit?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use online resources to investigate the occurrence of earthquakes in Southern California to decide if there has been a 'deficit', that is, not enough earthquakes in the area in historical time to release the amount of strain energy that plate tectonics is constantly supplying to the crust. In the first two parts, they must determine the appropriate year to begin their study of historic earthquake records (from 1860-1900), and then they must decide if the energy released by past earthquakes has been equivalent to the amount of energy accumulating through the action of plate tectonics over the same number of years. In part three, they perform an analysis of their findings by answering a set of questions. References are included.

Marquis, John

249

United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the research activities of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The activities include: borehole geophysics and rock mechanics, crustal deformation, earthquake information, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, hazards, seismology and earth structure, and strong motion seismology, site response, and ground motion. Other links include: earthquake activity, earthquake facts and education, earthquake products, hazards and preparedness, regional websites, and seismic networks.

250

Earthquake resistant design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After having learned about earthquakes in class, through readings and earlier lab assignments, students (in groups of two) are asked to design and construct (using balsa wood, string, paper and glue) a three-story building designed to minimize the effects of shear-wave vibrations that occur during an earthquake. The students are required to research the design concepts on their own and most of the construction work occurs outside of the regular laboratory period. The structures are tested for strength a week before the earthquake occurs - can they support the required load for each floor? On earthquake day, the buildings a tested for a "design earthquake" and then each group is given the opportunity to see how "large" and earthquake their structure can withstand - both in terms of frequency and amplitude variations. In addition to building the structure, each team has to submit a paper reflecting on why they designed and built the structure the way they did.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

251

Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

252

Plate Tectonics: Earthquake Epicenter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of destructive earthquakes and their connection to tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. It includes a discussion of some especially destructive historic earthquakes, and a brief introduction to contintental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. There is also discussion of basic seismology (types of waves) and measures of the magnitude of an earthquake (the Richter Scale). The lesson inlcudes an activity in which students use an online simulator to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using readings from three different seismograph stations. After they have completed the simulation, they attempt to locate the epicenter of a real earthquake using data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) earthquake website.

Pratte, John

253

Eye in the Sky: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a general introduction to earthquakes, including sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects. It includes an animation of how earthquakes form, and footage of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near San Francisco.

254

Toward petascale earthquake simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes are among the most complex terrestrial phenomena, and modeling of earthquake dynamics is one of the most challenging\\u000a computational problems in science. Computational capabilities have advanced to a state where we can perform wavefield simulations\\u000a for realistic three-dimensional earth models, and gain more insights into the earthquakes that threaten California and many\\u000a areas of the world. The Southern California

Yifeng Cui; Reagan Moore; Kim Olsen; Amit Chourasia; Philip Maechling; Bernard Minster; Steven Day; Yuanfang Hu; Jing Zhu; Thomas Jordan

2009-01-01

255

Earthquakes in Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will gain a better understanding of how earthquakes and volcanoes are formed and how they have contributed to the geology of Utah. This web-based lesson will help guide you through a number of websites that will help you gain a better understanding of earthquakes and volcanoes especially happening in Utah. Follow the instructions for each and enjoy. You will need your headphones on for the videos. Site #1 .Watch video on earthquake ...

Ribera, Mr.

2009-02-25

256

Reluctant India  

Microsoft Academic Search

What role will human rights and democracy play in India’s foreign policy? On the level of principle and ideology, at least, there is a potential for India to become a beacon for democracy, but to what extent will democracy and human rights actually become high-level items on India’s foreign-policy agenda? The likelihood is that India will continue to display a

Pratap Bhanu Mehta

2011-01-01

257

Reluctant India  

Microsoft Academic Search

: What role will human rights and democracy play in India’s foreign policy? On the level of principle and ideology, at least, there is a potential for India to become a beacon for democracy, but to what extent will democracy and human rights actually become high-level items on India’s foreign-policy agenda? The likelihood is that India will continue to display

Pratap Bhanu Mehta

2011-01-01

258

Greater India  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Greater India” is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India–Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and\\/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924)

Jason R. Ali; Jonathan C. Aitchison

2005-01-01

259

Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?  

SciTech Connect

The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2011-03-11

260

Earthquake Engineering Abstracts (EERC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of California Berkeley's well known Earthquake Engineering Research Center has recently added a searchable-only version of Earthquake Engineering Abstracts, a database that currently contains over 55,000 citations. Users can search by author, title, subject and year. The search engine supports Boolean operators, as well as stem and phrase searching. For authors, phonetic searching is also available. EEA joins EqIIS (Earthquake Image Information System), the giant searchable image base of the Karl V. Steinbrugge Collection of "slides and photographs of historical earthquake damage," as major resources of the EERC.

261

Learning About Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about earthquakes? Did you even know that Utah actually has earthquakes and that it has a large fault line that is overdue for a major earthquake? The purpose of this activity is to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that they are usually earthquake zones. Students will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard 2 for 5th grade science: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. If your friend were moving to Utah from another state, where would you advise them the safest place to buy or build a house would be? Teacher Instruction Put students into groups of 4 or 5 and create a KWL chart about earthquakes. Instruct the groups that they are going to learn about earthquakes in ...

Wallace, Mrs.

2012-02-07

262

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the Real World Learning Objects Resource Library, allows students to use first-hand data analysis to "determine if there is any pattern to earthquake events and speculate on the causes of earthquakes." Intended to be an introductory activity for a unit of study on earthquakes, this 60-minute activity is complete with learning goals, step-by-step classroom procedures, materials, assessment activities, and resources for further information. The "Content Materials" section contains directions for students and graphics to help students understand earthquakes and plate tectonics. This is an excellent resource for geology and earth science instructors that is ready to use for the classroom.

2007-10-04

263

Parkfield, California: Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.

264

Earthquakes Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This earthquake unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn the location of areas in the United States with the greatest potential for earthquake shaking and the hazards presented by earthquakes. They also learn how geological conditions and building construction affect the amount of destruction during an earthquake. Seismographs and the Richter scale are also covered. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

265

The Predictability of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific predictability of earthquakes is a hard unsolved problem in the earth sciences. It is a principal function of science. The prediction of the place, magnitude and time of an individual earthquake, on short to long term scale, with a desired high accuracy is today impossible, although many predictions are made, mostly for large and great shallow earthquakes. Only a few successful scientific predictions with variable accuracy were made. The prediction of the time is the most difficult and in reality not good. An important problem is then if the earthquakes are predictable (Purcaru, 2007). We found that the prediction of an individual earthquake must be based on the existence of stable underlying laws, since scientific observations show that the nature has universally the physical (causal) property and also structures that allow the repeat of events, phenomena and patterns, etc. It is this repeat that gives the ontological basis of the true prediction-laws (causal and phenomenological laws). These laws provide the necessary foundation that earthquakes are predictable. The laws, however, are not sufficient, e.g. due to changes of the initial conditions, etc. that can influence and change the instantiation of these laws. We present some successes, failures, and false alarms for large earthquakes, and an unpredictable earthquake. G. Purcaru, Are the earthquakes predictable?. 6th Congress of Romanian Mathematicians, June 28-July4, Bucharest, p.133, 2007.

Purcaru, G.

2009-04-01

266

OMG Earthquake! Can Twitter improve earthquake response?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public, text messages, can augment its earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. The goal is to gather near real-time, earthquake-related messages (tweets) and provide geo-located earthquake detections and rough maps of the corresponding felt areas. Twitter and other social Internet technologies are providing the general public with anecdotal earthquake hazard information before scientific information has been published from authoritative sources. People local to an event often publish information within seconds via these technologies. In contrast, depending on the location of the earthquake, scientific alerts take between 2 to 20 minutes. Examining the tweets following the March 30, 2009, M4.3 Morgan Hill earthquake shows it is possible (in some cases) to rapidly detect and map the felt area of an earthquake using Twitter responses. Within a minute of the earthquake, the frequency of “earthquake” tweets rose above the background level of less than 1 per hour to about 150 per minute. Using the tweets submitted in the first minute, a rough map of the felt area can be obtained by plotting the tweet locations. Mapping the tweets from the first six minutes shows observations extending from Monterey to Sacramento, similar to the perceived shaking region mapped by the USGS “Did You Feel It” system. The tweets submitted after the earthquake also provided (very) short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking. Accurately assessing the potential and robustness of a Twitter-based system is difficult because only tweets spanning the previous seven days can be searched, making a historical study impossible. We have, however, been archiving tweets for several months, and it is clear that significant limitations do exist. The main drawback is the lack of quantitative information such as epicenter, magnitude, and strong-motion recordings. Without quantitative data, prioritization of response measures, including building and infrastructure inspection, are not possible. The main advantage of Twitter is speed, especially in sparsely instrumented areas. A Twitter based system potentially could provide a quick notification that there was a possible event and that seismographically derived information will follow. If you are interested in learning more, follow @USGSted on Twitter.

Earle, P. S.; Guy, M.; Ostrum, C.; Horvath, S.; Buckmaster, R. A.

2009-12-01

267

Deterministic seismic scenarios for North East India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, ground motion during six past devastating earthquakes and one possible future event in the northeastern part\\u000a of India is estimated by seismological approaches. Considering uncertainty in the input source parameters, a series of ground\\u000a motions have been simulated. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectra at important cities and towns in the\\u000a epicentral regions of these

S. T. G. Raghu Kanth; Sujit Kumar Dash

2010-01-01

268

Recent seismicity in Northeast India and its adjoining region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent seismicity in the northeast India and its adjoining region exhibits different earthquake mechanisms - predominantly thrust faulting on the eastern boundary, normal faulting in the upper Himalaya, and strike slip in the remaining areas. A homogenized catalogue in moment magnitude, M W, covering a period from 1906 to 2006 is derived from International Seismological Center (ISC) catalogue, and Global

Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Sankar Kumar Nath; Abhimanyu Yadav; Abhishek Raj; M. Yanger Walling; William Kumar Mohanty

2008-01-01

269

Investigation of ULF magnetic anomaly before moderate earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic anomalies covering a wide range of frequencies from ultra low frequency (ULF), very low frequency (VLF) up to very high frequency (VHF) have been observed before earthquakes. However, the ULF range emissions provide a greater source of information regarding the earthquake precursor. One of the main techniques of investigating such a precursor is by using a magnetic sensor. In this paper, we have carried out a study of spectral density (magnetic field intensity) and polarization ratio methods to extract earthquake precursory signatures of the ULF data for moderate earthquakes (magnitude Mb=3.7-4.8), using a three-component induction coil magnetometer installed at Shivaji University, Kolhapur (16.40°N, 74.15°E), India. We have applied a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) procedure to calculate the spectral density of the ULF time series. We have found enhancement in ULF magnetic field intensity 3 to 5 days before the main shock and this specific enhancement appeared +/-3h around the main shock time in the 1-5Hz frequency range. We have examined ULF variations with polarization values and Kp index data. Magnetic field intensity of ULF data can give important information about earthquake preparation processes and it can be involved in the development of earthquake prediction methodology.

Sharma, Ashok K.; Patil, Amol V.; Haridas, Rangnath N.

2012-01-01

270

Children's Beliefs about Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the results of three related studies whose overall purpose was to determine elementary students' conceptions about earthquakes at two widely separated locations in the United States. Certain topics, such as the cause of earthquakes, seemed to cause difficulty for students. New definitional responses emerged in the studies that took…

Ross, Katharyn E. K.; Shuell, Thomas J.

1993-01-01

271

Earthquakes and Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts global distribution of earthquakes. A world map shows the location of large earthquakes that occurred from 1975-1995. A slider at the bottom left of the map allows the user to change the map to reveal the location of major plates or to select both views layered on top of one another.

272

Identification of Deep Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project is to identify and apply seismic event discriminants that will reliably separate small crustal earthquakes (magnitudes less than about 4 and depths less than about 40 to 50 km) from small, deep earthquakes (depths between abo...

G. E. Randall H. E. Hartse

2010-01-01

273

Rethinking Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-examine and summarize what is now possible in predicting earthquakes, what might be accomplished (and hence might be possible in the next few decades) and what types of predictions appear to be inherently impossible based on our understanding of earthquakes as complex phenomena. We take predictions to involve a variety of time scales from seconds to a few decades.

L. R. Sykes; B. E. Shaw; C. H. Scholz

1999-01-01

274

Nisqually, Washington Intraplate Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 28, 2001, the M6.8 Nisqually earthquake shook the Pacific Northwest. This intraplate event occurred within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia margin. Although the damage was less than observed at most large urban earthquakes, serious damage was found in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma. To better serve Oregon public safety needs, DOGAMI and others surveyed the

Y. Wang; R. Hofmeister

2001-01-01

275

Earthquakes for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources include sections on the latest quakes, science project ideas, puzzles and games, online activities, a glossary, and cool earthquake facts. In addition, there is an Ask A Geologist section, and earthquake FAQs. One link leads to a teacher page with grade level topics and educational materials.

2002-12-13

276

Tohoku Earthquake: a Surprise?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) Why was the magnitude limit for the Tohoku region so badly underestimated, and how can we estimate realistic limits for subduction zones in general? (2) How frequently can such large events occur off Tohoku? (3) Could short-term forecasts have offered effective guidance for emergency preparation? Two methods can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size in any region: statistical analysis of available earthquake records, and the moment conservation principle -- how earthquakes release tectonic deformation. We have developed both methods since 1991. For subduction zones, the seismic record is usually insufficient, and failed badly for Tohoku, because the largest earthquakes are so rare. However, the moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates for all subduction zones. Various measurements imply maximum moment magnitudes of the order 9.0--9.7. Comparison of inter-earthquake secular strain accumulation and its release by coseismic slip implies a similar maximum earthquake size estimate. Since 1977 we have developed statistical short- and long-term earthquake forecasts (earthquake rate per unit area, time, and magnitude). Beginning in 1999 we have made such forecasts for the northwest Pacific, including Japan, based on the GCMT catalog. We have posted them on the web and included expected focal mechanisms as well. Long-term forecasts indicate that the average frequency for magnitude 9 earthquakes in the Tohoku area is about 1/400 years. This rate is consistent with that of moderate earthquakes recorded in the GCMT catalog. We have archived several forecasts made before and after the Tohoku earthquake. As expected, the Tohoku mega-earthquake changed the forecasted long-term rate by just a few percent. However, the magnitude 7.5 foreshock increased the short term rate to more than 100 times the long-term rate, and the magnitude 9 event increased it briefly to more than 1000 times the long-term rate. These results could well justify development of an operational earthquake forecasting plan.

Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

2011-12-01

277

Earthquakes and Fault Lines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is for students to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that fault lines are often earthquake zones. They will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard for fifth grade science: Standard 2: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1,c: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. Situation You are from Montana, and your dad just got a new job in Northern Utah. Your family will have to move there. Your parents have heard that Utah has the potential for major earthquakes, and don?t know where to build your new house. They ...

Bennington, Miss

2010-04-26

278

Earthquakes: San Francisco  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The prediction of earthquakes may be inexact, but it is vital, especially when large cities such as San Francisco or Los Angeles are threatened. The San Andreas Fault and two other faults, the Heyward and Calaveras faults, all have the potential to deliver a massive earthquake to the San Francisco Bay area. In this video segment, a seismologist explains the historical pattern of seismic activity in the Bay area, and how this information may be used to predict the location and timing of San Francisco's next big earthquake. The segment is three minutes twenty-eight seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

279

Are earthquake magnitudes clustered?  

PubMed

The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event. PMID:21469840

Davidsen, Jörn; Green, Adam

2011-03-10

280

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center reports and provides information on seismic activity in Alaska. While its southern Pacific coast colleague, California, gets a lot more attention when it comes to earthquakes, Alaska experienced a magnitude 6.7 earthquake already this summer and was rocked by a 7.9 in 2002. The site offers links to general information about the center, general earthquake information, research activities at the center, education and outreach materials (including information on seismology education projects), and much more. The site is well populated with materials and should provide a great resources for those interested in North American seismic events.

281

1964 Alaska Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video adapted from the Valdez Museum & Historical Archive, explores what happened during the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 through original footage, first-person accounts, and animations illustrating plate tectonics.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-02-25

282

Nonlinear processes in earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three-dimensional, elastic-wave-propagation calculations were performed to define the effects of near-source geologic structure on the degree to which seismic signals produced by earthquakes resemble {open_quotes}non-double-couple{close_quotes} sources. Signals from sources embedded in a subducting slab showed significant phase and amplitude differences compared with a {open_quotes}no-slab{close_quotes} case. Modifications to the LANL elastic-wave propagation code enabled improved simulations of path effects on earthquake and explosion signals. These simulations demonstrate that near-source, shallow, low-velocity basins can introduce earthquake-like features into explosion signatures through conversion of compressive (P-wave) energy to shear (S- and R-wave) modes. Earthquake sources simulated to date do not show significant modifications.

Jones, E.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Frohlich, C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Institute of Geophysics

1998-12-31

283

To capture an earthquake  

SciTech Connect

An earthquake model based on the theory of plate tectonics is presented. It is assumed that the plates behave elastically in response to slow, steady motions and the strains concentrate within the boundary zone between the plates. When the accumulated stresses exceed the bearing capacity of the rocks, the rocks break, producing an earthquake and releasing the accumulated stresses. As the steady movement of the plates continues, strain begins to reaccumulate. The cycle of strain accumulation and release is modeled using the motion of a block, pulled across a rough surface by a spring. A model earthquake can be predicted by taking into account a precursory event or the peak spring force prior to slip as measured in previous cycles. The model can be applied to faults, e.g., the San Andreas fault, if the past earthquake history of the fault and the rate of strain accumulation are known.

Ellsworth, W.L. (USGS, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

284

Earthquakes: The Prehistoric Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Geologic features altered by earthquakes provide striking evidence of the power of seismic events. This video segment explores the research of Dr. Kerry Sieh, a geologist at the California Institute of Technology, who is dating sediment layers broken and offset by earthquakes in the past to determine the rate at which strain is accumulating towards the next event. The segment is three minutes nineteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-05-13

285

Commensurability of earthquake occurrence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commensurability brought by Titius–Bode law is objective distributing law of the matter in a space region.The expanding commensurable theory reveals the time law of the occurrence of events in a specified space region.The studied results show that the earthquakes basically all occur at the commensurable point of its time axis, respectively.The commensurability can provide a scientific basis for the prediction of earthquakes.

Hu, Hui; Han, Yanben; Su, Youjin; Wang, Rui

2013-07-01

286

Tectonics, Earthquakes, Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do background reading on plate tectonics and associated geologic hazards. In the first part of this exercise, students use on-line courseware from California State University, Los Angeles (Virtual Earthquake) to investigate seismograph records and use these records to determine earthquake epicenters and magnitudes. In the second part, they complete a crossword puzzle designed to help them master new vocabulary related to plate tectonics.

Holmgren, Camille

287

Connecting Earthquakes and Violins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Violins, earthquakes, and the "singing rod" demonstration all have something in common--stick-slip frictional motion. This article begins with a typical classroom experiment used to understand the transition between sticking and slipping, proceeds to a mechanical earthquake model that is truly "stick-slip" as scientists describe it, and progresses to acoustic examples of the same phenomenon in action. Other interesting cases involving frictional effects are described.

Ringlein, James

2005-11-01

288

Earthquake Probability Mapping  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This mapping tool allows users to generate Earthquake Probability Maps (EPMs) for a region within 50 kilometers of a location specified by latitude and longitude or by ZIP code. The maps are color-coded; higher earthquake probabilities are indicated by orange and red colors, while lower probabilities are indicated by green or blue. Fault traces are marked in white; rivers are in blue. The maps are also produced in downloadable, printable format (PDF).

2010-12-27

289

Earthquake prediction, societal implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"If I were a brilliant scientist, I would be working on earthquake prediction." This is a statement from a Los Angeles radio talk show I heard just after the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. Five weeks later, at a monthly meeting of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), where more than two hundred scientists and engineers gathered to exchange notes on the earthquake, a distinguished French geologist who works on earthquake faults in China envied me for working now in southern California. This place is like northeastern China 20 years ago, when high seismicity and research activities led to the successful prediction of the Haicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 with magnitude 7.3. A difficult question still haunting us [Aki, 1989] is whether the Haicheng prediction was founded on the physical reality of precursory phenomena or on the wishful thinking of observers subjected to the political pressure which encouraged precursor reporting. It is, however, true that a successful life-saving prediction like the Haicheng prediction can only be carried out by the coordinated efforts of decision makers and physical scientists.

Aki, Keiiti

1995-07-01

290

Predicting Earthquake Effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in the earth sciences and information technology have lead to dramatic improvements in our ability to respond to, as well as anticipate and mitigate, earthquake effects in our communities. The development of Geographic Information System (GIS) based tools such as ShakeMap and HAZUS have ushered in a new era of risk and emergency management. Real-time maps of strong ground motion, coupled with engineering-based descriptions of building and infrastructure inventory and vulnerability enable more accurate determinations of the location and severity of earthquake damage and the socio-economic consequences for emergency managers and officials following significant earthquakes. The ability to map the distribution and growth of seismic risk in the United States has long-term benefits for public policy as well. Long-term forecasts of seismic risk based on varying mitigation strategies can provide guidance for developing national and local earthquake policy. The successful performance of the Trans-Alaska pipeline during the 2002 Denali earthquake illustrates the dependence of performance-based engineering on the ability to predict earthquake effects (e.g., levels of strong ground motion, amounts of fault displacement or ground deformation). Being able to reduce the uncertainty in predicting these parameters has significant economic consequences and enables decision makers to more efficiently prioritize risk management strategies.

Nishenko, S.

2005-12-01

291

Cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices in the agate industry, Khambhat (Gujarat)  

PubMed Central

It is well known that an exposure to crystalline silica gives rise to silicosis and silico-tuberculosis (TB). In the agate industry of Khambhat (Gujarat) not only workers but also people staying in the vicinity of the agate-grinding facilities are exposed to crystalline silica. To reduce their dust exposure, dust control devices were developed. There are approximately 500 grinding machines located in Khambhat. A cost–benefit analysis of installing dust control devices on all agate-grinding machines was carried out by adding all positive factors and benefits and subtracting the negatives and costs. It was concluded that by installing dust control devices not only could the prevalence of silicosis and TB be reduced but also, in the long run, there could be financial benefits.

Bhagia, Lakho J.; Sadhu, H. G.

2008-01-01

292

Discharge estimation from planform characters of the Shedhi River, Gujarat alluvial plain: Present and past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of long-term hydrologic and streamflow records an understanding of river morphology (present and past) can help delineate changes in magnitudes of water and sediment discharges. The relict drainage system of Gujarat alluvial plain provides an opportunity to reconstruct the palaeochannel morphology-related discharge estimations. In this paper, based on the geomorphological evidence and channel geometry, an attempt has been made to reconstruct the palaeohydrological condition in the Shedhi River during the Holocene. A comparison of the present day channel of the Shedhi River with that of its palaeo counterpart reveals that the former was carrying much higher bankfull discharge (˜5500m3 s-1) as compared to the present (˜200m3 s-1). This is attributed to a larger drainage area and enhanced precipitation in the Shedhi River basin.

Sridhar, Alpa

2007-08-01

293

Benthic macrofaunal assemblage in the arid zone mangroves of gulf of Kachchh-Gujarat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total benthic macrofauna consisting of 62 species in 5 groups, viz. crustaceans (18), gastropods (17), bivalves (16), polychaetes (9) and fishes (2), was recorded in western Kachchh mangroves near Gujarat. The population densities of benthic macrofauna ranged from 424 to 2393 ind.m-2, the diversity ranged from 1.84 to 2.45 bits ind.-1, the richness varied between 0.82 and 0.98, and the evenness varied between 0.64 and 0.81. Two maximum diversity values were recorded during winter and summer. The salinity ranged from 34 to 44, temperature varied between 17 and 37°C, and the acidity ranged from 7 to 8.9.

Saravanakumar, A.; Sesh Serebiah, J.; Thivakaran, G. A.; Rajkumar, M.

2007-07-01

294

An overview of post exposure prophylaxis for HIV in health care personals: Gujarat scenario  

PubMed Central

Average risk of acquiring HIV infection after a percutaneous exposure to HIV infected blood is 0.3%. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV refers to a set of comprehensive services to prevent HIV infection in exposed individuals where the exposure can be occupational/ non occupational and a provision of short term (28 days) antiretroviral drugs are given depending on the risk assessment. It also includes counselling and relevant laboratory investigations after taking informed consent of the exposed person and source. PEP inhibits the replication of the initial inoculum of virus and thereby prevents establishment of chronic HIV infection, and is best effective when initiated within 2 hours but certainly within 72 hours. Present communication deals with the registry of 278 cases of PEP from Gujarat in terms of various determinants, their status and the outcome in terms of HIV sero positivity.

Shevkani, Manoj; Kavina, B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Purohit, H.; Nihalani, U.; Shah, Asha

2011-01-01

295

Commonly used earthquake source models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several important earthquake source models that have been extensively used in seismological research and earthquake prediction are presented and discussed. A new fault source model is used to explain the earthquake focal mechanism solution and tectonic stress field, which play a crucial role in earthquake initiation and preparation. The elastodynamic-dislocation theory is demonstrated which provides the theoretical background of most earthquake source models. Important earthquake source models reviewed here include the double-force-couple point-source model, the circular-shear dislocation model, the finite moving-source model, the Brune model, and the spherical explosive source model.

Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Yucheng

2012-11-01

296

Muse India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started and run by a group of writers, Muse India is an online bimonthly journal which seeks to showcase Indian writings in both English and in English translation. Begun in early 2005, the journal has produced a number of thematic issues over the past several years, including those that have focused on Punjabi literature, modern Tamil poetry, and Indian aesthetics. Each issue contains a blend of literary commentaries, fiction pieces, book reviews, and poems. Visitors can read these pieces, and also search through the archive via a search engine. For those that are so inspired, they can also contact the editor about the possibility of having their own work included in a forthcoming issue of Muse India.

297

India Plate Motion, Intraplate deformation and Plate Boundary Processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use GPS-measured velocities to geodetically constrain India plate motion, intraplate strain, and examine plate boundary deformation and plate interactions around the India plate. Our solution includes 15 GPS velocities from continuously recording stations from within the stable India plate interior that are used to estimate angular velocity of the India plate with respect to its neighbors. We test a two-plate India system divided along the topographically prominent Narmada Son Lineament and find this scenario to be significant only to 89%. Dense station coverage along the Himalayan range front allows us to rigorously test boundary parameterizations and develop a preferred plate boundary model. In our preferred model the Himalayan Range Front accumulates ~50% of the India-Eurasia convergence with as much as 18 mm/yr of slip accumulation along some segments. We compare earthquake slip vector orientations with predicted divergence directions from our preferred model along the India-Somalia plate boundary. We see good agreement between predicted plate directions from our preferred model and the seismological data. Deviations between our model and the slip vectors highlight areas of diffuse oceanic deformation along the plate boundary. We estimate convergence vectors for the relative plate pairs along the Sumatra subduction zone. We test for the transition between Australian plate convergence and India plate convergence along the Sumatra subduction zone and refine the estimated motion of the Burman sliver plate.

Apel, E. V.; Burgmann, R.; Banerjee, P.

2010-12-01

298

Nisqually, Washington Intraplate Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On February 28, 2001, the M6.8 Nisqually earthquake shook the Pacific Northwest. This intraplate event occurred within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia margin. Although the damage was less than observed at most large urban earthquakes, serious damage was found in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma. To better serve Oregon public safety needs, DOGAMI and others surveyed the Puget Sound damage to expand our technical understanding of seismic ground response, building and lifeline behavior, and secondary hazards (landslides and liquefaction). Damage was observed in structures and areas that, for the most part, would be predicted to be vulnerable. These included: old buildings (URMs), old lifelines (4th Ave bridge in Olympia), areas with poor soil conditions (Harbor Island, Seattle; Sunset Lake, Tumwater), and steep slopes (Salmon Beach; Burien). Damage types included: structural, nonstructural, contents, lifelines, landslides, liquefaction, lateral spreading, sand boils, and settlement. In several notable places, seismic-induced ground failures significantly increased the damage. Estimated costs developed from HAZUS evaluations ranged from \\2 billion to \\3.9 billion. Historic intraplate earthquakes in the Puget Sound region, including the 1949 M7.1, 1965 M6.5, and 1999 M5.9, were not accompanied by significant aftershock events or associated with earthquake sequences. However, a recent El Salvador earthquake sequence suggests there may be particular cases of increased seismicity following large intraplate events, with implications for post-earthquake response and mitigation. The January 13, 2001 M7.6 El Salvador intraplate earthquake was followed by a M6.6 crustal event February 13, 2001 and a M5.4 intraplate event February 28, 2001.

Wang, Y.; Hofmeister, R.

2001-05-01

299

Earthquakes and Earthquake Engineering. LC Science Tracer Bullet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An earthquake is a shaking of the ground resulting from a disturbance in the earth's interior. Seismology is the (1) study of earthquakes; (2) origin, propagation, and energy of seismic phenomena; (3) prediction of these phenomena; and (4) investigation of the structure of the earth. Earthquake engineering or engineering seismology includes the…

Buydos, John F., Comp.

300

Earthquake Education Environment (E3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Education Environment (E3) supports high-quality K-12 and undergraduate education by providing up-to-date earthquake information, authoritative technical sources, and educational resources for the classroom.

2007-07-16

301

Land Cover Mapping in Parts of South Gujarat and Tamil Nadu States of India Using Bhaskara-I TV Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various projects were formulated for the utilisation of the Bhaskara TV data by the user agencies in collaboration with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). A number of application are as like land use, snow cover, geology, geomorphology etc., w...

A. R. Dasgupta I. C. Matieda S. D. Naik K. L. Majumdar J. S. Parihar

1982-01-01

302

Antibiotic sensitivity profile of bacterial pathogens in postoperative wound infections at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find out the most common bacterial pathogens responsible for post-operative wound infection and their antibiotic sensitivity profile. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study was carried out in patients of postoperative wound infection. Samples from wound discharge were collected using a sterile swab and studied for identification of isolates by Gram stains and culture growth followed by in vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing performed by disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar. Results: Out of 183 organisms, 126 (68.85%) isolated organisms were gram negative. Staphylococcus aureus, 48 (26.23%), was the predominant organism. S. aureus was sensitive to rifampicin (89.58%), levofloxacin (60.42%), and vancomycin (54.17%). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (83.78%), gatifloxacin (51.35%), and meropenem (51.35%). Escherichia coli was sensitive to levofloxacin (72.41%) and ciprofloxacin (62.07%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (63.16%), levofloxacin (63.16%), gatifloxacin (63.16%), and linezolid (56.52%). Proteus mirabilis was sensitive to ciprofloxacin (75%) and linezolid (62.50). Proteus vulgaris was sensitive to ampicillin+sulbactam (57.14%) followed by levofloxacin (50%). Conclusions: There is an alarming increase of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly in the emergence of VRSA/VISA, meropenem, and third generation cephalosporin resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Linezolid showing sensitivity against Gram negative bacteria.

Goswami, Nutanbala N.; Trivedi, Hiren R.; Goswami, Alpesh Puri P.; Patel, Tejas K.; Tripathi, C. B.

2011-01-01

303

Distribution of similar earthquakes in aftershocks of inland earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frictional properties control the slip behavior on a fault surface such as seismic slip and aseismic slip. Asperity, as a seismic slip area, is characterized by a strong coupling in the interseismic period and large coseismic slip. On the other hand, steady slip or afterslip occurs in an aseismic slip area around the asperity. If an afterslip area includes small asperities, a repeating rupture of single asperity can generate similar earthquakes due to the stress accumulation caused by the afterslip. We here investigate a detail distribution of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake (Mjma 6.9) and the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake (Mjma 7.3), inland large earthquakes in Japan. We use the data obtained by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and by the group for the aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori earthquake. First, we select pairs of aftershocks whose cross correlation coefficients in 10 s time window of band-pass filtered waveforms of 1~4 Hz are greater than 0.95 at more than 5 stations and divide those into groups by a link of the cross correlation coefficients. Second, we reexamine the arrival times of P and S waves and the maximum amplitude for earthquakes of each group and apply the double-difference method (Waldhouser and Ellsworth, 2000) to relocate them. As a result of the analysis, we find 24 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake and 86 groups of similar earthquakes in the aftershocks on the source fault of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. Most of them are distributed around or outside the asperity of the main shock. Geodetic studies reported that postseismic deformation was detected for the both earthquakes (Sagiya et al., 2002; Hashimoto et al., 2008). The source area of similar earthquakes seems to correspond to the afterslip area. These features suggest that the similar earthquakes observed here are caused by the stress accumulation due to aseismic slip outside asperity. We consider that a spatial complementary distribution between similar earthquakes in aftershocks and asperity is a characteristic of inland earthquakes. Acknowledgements: We thank the group for the aftershock observations of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake, ERI, Univ. of Tokyo, DPRI, Kyoto Univ., JMA, and NIED for providing the waveform data of aftershocks of the 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake. We thank the group for the dense aftershock observations of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake for providing the waveform data of aftershocks of the 2000 Western Tottori Earthquake. We are grateful to Takashi Iwata, Haruko Sekiguchi, Haruo Horikawa and Manabu Hashimoto for providing their result.

Hayashi, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Aftershock Observations Of 2007 Noto Hanto, G.

2010-12-01

304

Introduction to Earthquake Seismology Methods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students will consider various aspects of earthquake seismology methods that include p-wave amplitude, location of an earthquake epicenter, determining the time of occurrence of an earthquake and the relationships between type of plate boundary and earthquake focal depth. Students will be exposed to several types of graphing program and spreadsheets to analyze and illustrate the results. They will also use seismicity maps and the WWW to reinforce the concepts presented both in the lab and in lecture.

Rueger, Bruce

305

Parkfield, California, earthquake prediction experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five moderate (magnitude 6) earthquakes with similar features have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault in central California since 1857. The next moderate Parkfield earthquake is expected to occur before 1993. The Parkfield prediction experiment is designed to monitor the details of the final stages of the earthquake preparation process; observations and reports of seismicity and

W. H. Bakun; A. G. Lindh

1985-01-01

306

Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons.  

PubMed

The first reports on a slow earthquake were for an event in the Izu peninsula, Japan, on an intraplate, seismically active fault. Since then, many slow earthquakes have been detected. It has been suggested that the slow events may trigger ordinary earthquakes (in a context supported by numerical modelling), but their broader significance in terms of earthquake occurrence remains unclear. Triggering of earthquakes has received much attention: strain diffusion from large regional earthquakes has been shown to influence large earthquake activity, and earthquakes may be triggered during the passage of teleseismic waves, a phenomenon now recognized as being common. Here we show that, in eastern Taiwan, slow earthquakes can be triggered by typhoons. We model the largest of these earthquakes as repeated episodes of slow slip on a reverse fault just under land and dipping to the west; the characteristics of all events are sufficiently similar that they can be modelled with minor variations of the model parameters. Lower pressure results in a very small unclamping of the fault that must be close to the failure condition for the typhoon to act as a trigger. This area experiences very high compressional deformation but has a paucity of large earthquakes; repeating slow events may be segmenting the stressed area and thus inhibiting large earthquakes, which require a long, continuous seismic rupture. PMID:19516339

Liu, ChiChing; Linde, Alan T; Sacks, I Selwyn

2009-06-11

307

Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months.

Robert Muir-Wood; Geoffrey C. P. King

1993-01-01

308

Sand boils without earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

Holzer, T. L.; Clark, M. M.

1993-01-01

309

Forecasters of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time Soviet scientists have set up a bioseismological proving ground which will stage a systematic extensive experiment of using birds, ants, mountain rodents including marmots, which can dig holes in the Earth's interior to a depth of 50 meters, for the purpose of earthquake forecasting. Biologists have accumulated extensive experimental data on the impact of various electromagnetic fields, including fields of weak intensity, on living organisms. As far as mammals are concerned, electromagnetic waves with frequencies close to the brain's biorhythms have the strongest effect. How these observations can be used to forecast earthquakes is discussed.

Maximova, Lyudmila

1987-07-01

310

Earthquake Hazards Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning module from the GeoTech Center provides a link to a zip file including a number of documents on earthquake hazards. The unit "focuses on ArcGIS Explorer, a free software tool that works on Microsoft operating systems. The software facilitates exploration and visualization of a broad range of geoscience datasets. ArcGIS Explorer incorporates a rich content of information for physical geography, geology, plate tectonics, earthquakes, volcanoes, bathymetry, and other subjects." Two lessons are included, each of which requires approximately one to two hours of class time. The activities will give students valuable practice using ArcGIS Explorer.

2013-07-03

311

Earthquake prediction comes of age  

SciTech Connect

In the last decade, scientists have begun to estimate the long-term probability of major earthquakes along the San Andreas fault. In 1985, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issued the first official U.S. government earthquake prediction, based on research along a heavily instrumented 25-kilometer section of the fault in sparsely populated central California. Known as the Parkfield segment, this section of the Sand Andreas had experienced its last big earthquake, a magnitude 6, in 1966. Estimated probabilities of major quakes along the entire San Andreas by a working group of California earthquake experts, using new geologic data and careful analysis of past earthquakes, are reported.

Lindth, A. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA). Office of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Engineering)

1990-02-01

312

Early Eocene lagomorph (Mammalia) from Western India and the early diversification of Lagomorpha  

PubMed Central

We report the oldest known record of Lagomorpha, based on distinctive, small ankle bones (calcaneus and talus) from Early Eocene deposits (Middle Ypresian equivalent, ca 53?Myr ago) of Gujarat, west-central India. The fossils predate the oldest previously known crown lagomorphs by several million years and extend the record of lagomorphs on the Indian subcontinent by 35?Myr. The bones show a mosaic of derived cursorial adaptations found in gracile Leporidae (rabbits and hares) and primitive traits characteristic of extant Ochotonidae (pikas) and more robust leporids. Together with gracile and robust calcanei from the Middle Eocene of Shanghuang, China, also reported here, the Indian fossils suggest that diversification within crown Lagomorpha and possibly divergence of the family Leporidae were already underway in the Early Eocene.

Rose, Kenneth D; DeLeon, Valerie Burke; Missiaen, Pieter; Rana, R.S; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Lachham; Smith, Thierry

2008-01-01

313

The 2004 Parkfield, CA Earthquake: A Teachable Moment for Exploring Earthquake Processes, Probability, and Earthquake Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake provided a unique "teachable moment" for students in our science course for teacher education majors. The course uses seismology as a medium for teaching a wide variety of science topics appropriate for future teachers. The 2004 Parkfield earthquake occurred just 15 minutes after our students completed a lab on earthquake processes and earthquake prediction. That lab included a discussion of the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment as a motivation for the exercises they were working on that day. Furthermore, this earthquake was recorded on an AS1 seismograph right in their lab, just minutes after the students left. About an hour after we recorded the earthquake, the students were able to see their own seismogram of the event in the lecture part of the course, which provided an excellent teachable moment for a lecture/discussion on how the occurrence of the 2004 Parkfield earthquake might affect seismologists' ideas about earthquake prediction. The specific lab exercise that the students were working on just before we recorded this earthquake was a "sliding block" experiment that simulates earthquakes in the classroom. The experimental apparatus includes a flat board on top of which are blocks of wood attached to a bungee cord and a string wrapped around a hand crank. Plate motion is modeled by slowly turning the crank, and earthquakes are modeled as events in which the block slips ("blockquakes"). We scaled the earthquake data and the blockquake data (using how much the string moved as a proxy for time) so that we could compare blockquakes and earthquakes. This provided an opportunity to use interevent-time histograms to teach about earthquake processes, probability, and earthquake prediction, and to compare earthquake sequences with blockquake sequences. We were able to show the students, using data obtained directly from their own lab, how global earthquake data fit a Poisson exponential distribution better than do the blockquake and Parkfield data. This provided opportunities for discussing the difference between Poisson and normal distributions, how those differences affect our estimation of future earthquake probabilities, the importance of both the mean and the standard deviation in predicting future behavior from a sequence of events, and how conditional probability is used to help seismologists predict future earthquakes given a known or theoretical distribution of past earthquakes.

Kafka, A.; Barnett, M.; Ebel, J.; Bellegarde, H.; Campbell, L.

2004-12-01

314

WGCEP Historical California Earthquake Catalog  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This appendix provides an earthquake catalog for California and the surrounding area. Our goal is to provide a listing for all known M > 5.5 earthquakes that occurred from 1850-1932 and all known M > 4.0 earthquakes that occurred from 1932-2006 within the region of 31.0 to 43.0 degrees North and -126.0 to -114.0 degrees West. Some pre-1932 earthquakes 4 5, before the Northern California network was online. Some earthquakes from 1900-1932, and particularly from 1910-1932 are also based on instrumental readings, but the quality of the instrumental record and the resulting analysis are much less precise than for later listings. A partial exception is for some of the largest earthquakes, such as the San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, for which global teleseismic records (Wald et al. 1993) and geodetic measurements (Thatcher et al. 1906) have been used to help determine magnitudes.

Felzer, Karen R.; Cao, Tianqing

2008-01-01

315

The VAN earthquake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the proposed VAN method for predicting earthquakes in Greece remains inconclusive. Authors who have attempted to evaluate the method have had to make their own subjective decisions about some features of the hypothesis, and to propose their own algorithms for testing against a null hypothesis. Different treatments of the inhomogeneity in space and time have lead to widely

D. A. Rhoades; F. F. Evison

1996-01-01

316

Fractal dynamics of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D (approx) 1-1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function of time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth's crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).

Bak, P.; Chen, K.

1995-03-01

317

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

318

Earthquakes Within Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page offers an model for explaining earthquakes that occur within continents, namely, the New Madrid seismic zone. The model, known as the Booby Trap, is an example of a complex system. A link to a video depicting the model is also provided.

Stein, Seth

319

Earthquakes and Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

Ozsvath, David

2011-09-06

320

Earthquake in North Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT may be of interest to you to note that on Wednesday, February 16, at about 1.35 p.m., a sharp shock of earthquake was felt here. Houses were shaken, dishes rattled and tumbled, and much alarm was created, though no damage was done. At the time mentioned there was a loud report, as if of a heavy shot fired underground:

James M'cubbin

1898-01-01

321

Earthquake Slip Classroom Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the 'stick-slip' mechanism of earthquake generation. They will learn about the concepts of stick-slip sliding, static friction, energy conversion, and the elastic properties of materials. Students work together to develop and test a hypothesis, make measurements, graph and write a short report on the results.

322

An Earthquake Invention  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHILE on a visit to the Melbourne Observatory I saw NATURE of July 2 containing two letters from Prof. Piazzi Smyth, intended to expose a piratical attempt on the part of a ``B.A. man'' to adopt an idea of Mr. David Stevenson with regard to the construction of houses to withstand earthquake motion. The publication of the first of these

John Milne

1885-01-01

323

Infrasound from earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrasonic signals have been observed from 31 earthquakes by arrays of microphones operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory between 1983 and 2003. The properties of the signals are presented. Signal amplitudes corrected for propagation and distance show a relation with seismic magnitude. The variance in the relation is understood primarily in terms of the uncertainties or errors in the

J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker

2005-01-01

324

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the theory of plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes and seismic zones. Materials include an overview of plate tectonics, a description of Earth's crustal plates and their motions, and descriptions of the four types of seismic zones.

325

Infrasonic observation of earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Infrasound signals generated by earthquakes have been detected at arrays operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Three modes of propagation are possible and all have been observed by the authors. The observations suggest that regions remote from the epicenters are excited and may serve as secondary source regions. A relation is found between the normalized peak amplitudes and the seismic magnitudes.

Mutschlecner, J.P.; Whitaker, R.W.

1998-12-31

326

Charles Darwin's earthquake reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked,

Shamil Galiev

2010-01-01

327

Earthquake Machine Lite: Activity 2 of 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity continues and compliments the previous Earthquake Machine activity by pointing out the advantages and limitations of the Earthquake Machine model, explaining the causes of earthquakes and extending students' understanding about earthquake generation, occurrence, and prediction through the collection and interpretation of data. It addresses the following questions: How frequently do earthquakes occur?; Are all earthquakes large events?; How frequently do large events occur?; Can earthquakes be predicted?; How does the Earthquake Machine model compare to global data?; and How do scientists strive for objectivity in their results? It uses the Earthquake Machine models and slide presentation from the previous activity and includes homework exercises, teacher background materials, standards alignments, and references.

Hubenthal, Michael

328

CSEP Earthquake Forecast Testing Center for Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

One major focus of the next Japanese earthquake prediction research plan 2009-2013 are testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose, the Earthquake Research Institute joined the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and installed in an international collaboration a prototype testing center for rigorous evaluation of earthquake forecast models. We report on the implementation of this testing center,

H. Tsuruoka; N. Hirata; D. Schorlemmer; F. Euchner; T. H. Jordan

2008-01-01

329

Toward earthquake early warning in northern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake early warning systems are an approach to earthquake hazard mitigation which takes advantage of the rapid availability of earthquake information to quantify the hazard associated with an earthquake and issue a prediction of impending ground motion prior to its arrival in populated or otherwise sensitive areas. One such method, Earthquake Alarm Systems (ElarmS) has been under development in southern

Gilead Wurman; Richard M. Allen; Peter Lombard

2007-01-01

330

Recent seismicity in Northeast India and its adjoining region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent seismicity in the northeast India and its adjoining region exhibits different earthquake mechanisms – predominantly\\u000a thrust faulting on the eastern boundary, normal faulting in the upper Himalaya, and strike slip in the remaining areas. A\\u000a homogenized catalogue in moment magnitude, M\\u000a W, covering a period from 1906 to 2006 is derived from International Seismological Center (ISC) catalogue, and Global

Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Sankar Kumar Nath; Abhimanyu Yadav; Abhishek Raj; M. Yanger Walling; William Kumar Mohanty

2008-01-01

331

Relationship between malaria and sociocultural aspects in villages along the river Mahi in central Gujarat.  

PubMed

The sociocultural practices of the people differ between communities and play an important role in malaria control operations. The present study was carried out with the aim to understand the association of malaria with sociocultural determinants in malaria prone riverine villages of Kheda district in central Gujarat. Blood smears of persons with fever or having history of fever were collected and examined under microscope for malarial parasite. A structured questionnaire was used to record age, sex, social groups, education, sleeping habits and other sociocultural aspects of each patient. Data obtained was pooled and analysed statistically by applying Chi-square test. A total of 1781 patients with fever were screened for malaria (slide positivity rate -14.8% and Plasmodium falciparum -53.9%). Sociocultural practices of 1650 cases among which 259 had malaria were analysed. There was variable degree of malaria in different groups. A significant relation was noticed between malaria and social groups, profession, economic status and personal protection of the respondents. Malaria incidence was relatively high in scheduled castes, dependents (mainly kids and old aged people), farmers and in low-income group. The treatment seeking behaviour of the people did not show significant association with malaria although 63.4% patients took treatment after three days of the onset of fever. These observations indicate significant relationship between malaria morbidity and sociocultural practices. The findings would be helpful in better planning and implementation of malaria control strategies in the study area. PMID:18232174

Srivastava, H C; Kant, Rajni; Sharma, S K

2007-06-01

332

Landslides, Earthquakes, and Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we quantify the role of landslides in erosion and in particular, the role of earthquakes to landslides to erosion. A landslide event consists of single to tens of thousands of landslides associated with a trigger, such as an earthquake, sudden snowmelt, or extended precipitation. We have previously introduced a general landslide distribution for landslide events and also a corresponding landslide-event magnitude scale, ML = log(NLT), with NLT the total number of landslides associated with the landslide event. The magnitude mL can be determined from both substantially `complete' inventories and partial inventories of the largest landslides in the event. Equivalent magnitude values can also be obtained for historical landslide inventories, which represent the sum of many landslide events over periods of one to many thousands of years or more. We believe that our landslide distribution does a rough quantification of the total area (and volume) of landslides that occur for landslide events of different magnitudes, and use this distribution to relate our landslide magnitude to total landslide volume. Using estimated recurrence intervals for three landslide event inventories, we have inferred regional erosion rates due to landslides for the Northridge earthquake-triggered, Umbria (Italy) snowmelt-triggered, and Guatemala heavy-rain triggered events, as 0.1, 0.4, and 2.5 mm yr-1, respectively. Comparing historical inventories to our general landslide event distribution, we have made extrapolations and estimated total landslide volumes associated with two historical inventories in Italy and Japan. Using estimates for time intervals over which these historical landslides accumulated, the associated long-term erosion rates were found to be 1.0 mm yr-1 in Umbria, Italy and 2.2 mm yr-1 in Japan. We then use an empirical relationship between total landslide volume and earthquake magnitude to determine analytic relationships between earthquake magnitude and the associated landslide event magnitude, area and volume of the largest landslide triggered, and total area of all landslides triggered. Using the Gutenberg--Richter frequency-magnitude relation for regional seismicity, we analytically relate the seismically-induced erosion rate to the regional seismic intensity and the moment magnitude of the largest regional earthquake. We find that typical seismically-induced erosion rates in very active subduction zones is ? 0.2--2 mm yr-1 and adjacent to plate boundary strike-slip zones ? 0.01--0.2 mm yr-1.

Malamud, B. D.; Turcotte, D. L.; Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.

2003-12-01

333

Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India  

PubMed Central

For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50–52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today.

Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S.; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Solorzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J.; Engel, Michael S.; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

2010-01-01

334

Earthquake Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of earthquake physics, and the resulting unpredictability of exact rupture behavior makes accurate prediction of earthquakes difficult. However, once the rupture occurs and seismic waves are generated, the behavior is controlled by elastic properties of the earth, and becomes more predictable. If the ground motion information detected near the source is transmitted immediately as an early warning for ground motion to sites at some distance away before the ground motion begins there, the information could be utilized for various damage mitigation measures. An early warning system has been used in practice in Japan, Mexico, and Taiwan. Two approaches are possible: (1) Regional warning, and (2) Site-specific warning. In (1), the traditional seismological method is used to locate an earthquake, determine the magnitude, and estimate the ground motion at other sites. In (2), the beginning of the ground motion (mainly P wave) observed at a site is used to predict the ensuing ground motion (mainly by S and surface waves) at the same site; no attempt is made to locate the event and estimate the magnitude. The first approach is more reliable, but takes a longer time and cannot be used for the sites at short distances. In contrast, the second approach is less reliable, but very fast, and could provide useful early warning to sites even at very short distances where an early warning is most needed. The first approach has been already used in Japan, Mexico, and Taiwan. Here, we investigate the second approach in some detail from the point of view of rupture physics, and practical applications. The basic principle is that P wave carries the information of the source, but not much energy. S wave and surface waves carry most of the energy and cause the damage. Thus, if we can extract critical information regarding the size of an earthquake from the first few seconds of P waves, the information can be used to predict the severity of ground motion at the site. In general, if P wave is small, the event is either small or large but at large distances, and no warning is warranted. However, a large P wave does not necessarily warrant a warning, because the event can be a nearby small earthquake with short duration of slip motion. Thus, it is important to determine whether the event's slip motion has stopped or keeps growing. To determine whether the event is growing or not, the parameter ? used by Nakamura provides a good diagnostics. ? can be interpreted as a spectrally- weighted period during the first few sec (3 sec in this study). Using simulated records computed for an earthquake rupture model, we have verified that ? is a good measure of the lower-bound of the size of an earthquake. We have determined ? for events with MW=3 to 7.6 (1999 Chi-Chi earthquake), and the results are consistent with the simulation results. If ? <1 sec, the event has already ended or is not likely to grow. If ? > 1 sec, it is likely to grow, but how large it will eventually become cannot be determined. In this sense, this method provides a threshold warning. Thus, a combination of the amplitude and ? from the first 3 sec can provide a useful site-specific early warning. A use of multiple sites is desirable to increase the reliability. This approach can provide a very rapid warning that strong ground motions are imminent, but does not provide the ground-motion time history. For the next step of early warning applications, it is desirable to develop a method to estimate the time history which can be incorporated in predictive structural control in engineering practice.

Kanamori, H.; Allen, R. M.

2003-12-01

335

Charleston Earthquake 1886  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Major earthquakes may not be that common in the Southeast, but on August 31, 1886, just such a cataclysmic event shook Charleston and the surrounding area. While the entire event lasted less than a minute, it caused many deaths and injuries, along with tremendous property damage. On hand during the aftermath was George LaGrange Cook a prominent local photographer who created the series "Cook's Earthquake Views of Charleston and Vicinity". This collection featured 200 photographs that could be purchased as souvenirs. Visitors to this digital collection can view some of the items from this volume, which documents the destruction wrought by this event. Also, it is worth noting that visitors can also search for specific items of interest and browse around by subject heading.

336

Land Use\\/Land Cover Change Mapping In Mahi Canal Command Area, Gujarat, Using Multi-temporal Satellite Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal changes (1988-89 to 1997) in land-use\\/land cover were studied using multi-temporal satellite data in Mahi Right\\u000a Bank Canal (MRBC) command area in Kheda district of Gujarat state. The canal command area is affected by waterlogging and\\u000a salinity. The land-use\\/land cover change is maximum in a distributary (Lambhvel) situated in highly urbanised zone around\\u000a Anand city, where built-up area

V. S. Brahmabhatt; G. B. Dalwadi; S. B. Chhabra; S. S. Ray; V. K. Dadhwal

2000-01-01

337

Earthquake-Induced Ground Failure Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Effects of Three-Dimensional Bedrock Topography on Earthquake Motions in Sedimentary Basins; Predicting Earthquake-Induced Landslide Displacements Using Newmark's Sliding Block Analysis; Estimation of Earthquake-Induced Pile Bending in a Thick P...

1993-01-01

338

Global earthquake forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed daily worldwide long- and short-term earthquake forecasts. These forecasts specify the earthquake rate per unit area, time and magnitude on a 0.5 degree grid for a global zone region between 75N and 75S latitude (301 by 720 grid cells). We use both the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters (PDE) catalogues. Like our previous forecasts, the new forecasts are based largely on smoothed maps of past seismicity and assume spatial and temporal clustering. The forecast based on the GCMT catalogue, with the magnitude completeness threshold 5.8, includes an estimate of focal mechanisms of future earthquakes and of the mechanism uncertainty. The forecasted tensor focal mechanism makes it possible in principle to calculate an ensemble of seismograms for each point of interest on the Earth's surface. We also introduce a new approach that circumvents the need for focal mechanisms. This permits the use of the PDE catalogue that reliably documents many smaller quakes with a higher location accuracy. The result is a forecast at a higher spatial resolution and down to a magnitude threshold below 5.0. Such new forecasts can be prospectively tested within a relatively short time, such as a few years, because smaller events occur with greater frequency. The forecast's efficiency can be measured by its average probability gains per earthquake compared to the spatially or temporally uniform Poisson distribution. For the short-term forecast the gain is about 2.0 for the GCMT catalogue and 3.7 for the PDE catalogue relative to a temporally random but spatially localized null hypothesis. Preliminary tests indicate that for the long-term global spatial forecast the gain is of the order 20-25 compared to the uniform event distribution over the Earth's surface. We can also prospectively test the long-term forecast to check whether it can be improved.

Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

2011-02-01

339

Pain after earthquake  

PubMed Central

Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009). Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%). Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations.

2012-01-01

340

Disaster Response in India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India is prone to natural and man-made disasters. The number has been increasing every year because of the mixture of various factors such as adverse weather, population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. How the Republic of India organizes for ...

J. G. Turbiville P. Singh W. W. Mendel

2000-01-01

341

Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to theory of plate tectonics, Earth is an active planet -- its surface is composed of many individual plates that move and interact, constantly changing and reshaping Earth's outer layer. Volcanoes and earthquakes both result from the movement of tectonic plates. This interactive feature shows the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes and the boundaries of tectonic plates. By clicking on a map, viewers can superimpose the locations of plate boundaries, volcanoes and earthquakes.

2011-05-12

342

Infrasound from earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrasonic signals have been observed from 31 earthquakes by arrays of microphones operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory between 1983 and 2003. The properties of the signals are presented. Signal amplitudes corrected for propagation and distance show a relation with seismic magnitude. The variance in the relation is understood primarily in terms of the uncertainties or errors in the ground motion, deduced from an independent data set, and the stratospheric winds, which strongly influence signal propagation. Signal durations can extend over many minutes. A relation is found between signal duration and magnitude. To understand this, we propose a model in which regions distant from the epicenter are excited by seismic surface waves. The surface motion of these regions, in turn, produces signals which precede or follow the signals from the epicenter. Analysis failed to detect signals from 56 earthquakes during the observation period. Predicted signal-to-noise ratios for these earthquakes indicated that the signals would have been too weak for detection.

Mutschlecner, J. Paul; Whitaker, Rodney W.

2005-01-01

343

Earthquake Source Mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past 2 decades have seen substantial progress in our understanding of the nature of the earthquake faulting process, but increasingly, the subject has become an interdisciplinary one. Thus, although the observation of radiated seismic waves remains the primary tool for studying earthquakes (and has been increasingly focused on extracting the physical processes occurring in the “source”), geological studies have also begun to play a more important role in understanding the faulting process. Additionally, defining the physical underpinning for these phenomena has come to be an important subject in experimental and theoretical rock mechanics.In recognition of this, a Maurice Ewing Symposium was held at Arden House, Harriman, N.Y. (the former home of the great American statesman Averill Harriman), May 20-23, 1985. The purpose of the meeting was to bring together the international community of experimentalists, theoreticians, and observationalists who are engaged in the study of various aspects of earthquake source mechanics. The conference was attended by more than 60 scientists from nine countries (France, Italy, Japan, Poland, China, the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and the Federal Republic of Germany).

344

Ground motion parameters in the Shillong–Mikir plateau, northeastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground motion parameters for the Shillong–Mikir plateau, northeastern India are examined. Empirical relations are obtained for ground motions as a function of earthquake magnitude, fault type, source depth, velocity characterization of medium and distance. A correlation between ground motion parameters and characteristics of seismogenic zones is established. Simultaneously, new empirical relations are derived for the attenuation of ground motion amplitudes.

Saurabh Baruah; Santanu Baruah; Aditya Kalita; J. R. Kayal

2011-01-01

345

Rupture history and seismotectonics of the 1991 Uttarkashi, Himalaya earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 19 October 1991 Uttarkashi, India earthquake occurred in the main thrust zone of the Himalaya. With a moment magnitude of 6.8, this event is characteristic of the present-day motion on the thrust fault system. We examine this earthquake using different sets of data in order to understand better the faulting process of a major earthquake in the Himalayan region. Firstly, the modeling of the teleseismic records indicates that the mechanism is similar to the published CMT and indicates a shallow (between 10 and 15 km depth) low-angle thrust event. In the vicinity of the source, the earthquake was recorded by a network of accelerometers run by the University of Roorkee. Six three-component accelerometers were triggered within a radius of 60 km. Two of them were very close to the surface projection of the fault. Forward modeling of those records shows that the rupture propagated toward the west. This forward modeling gives us the possibility to confirm the epicenter location and to evaluate the timing of the accelerograms. The accelerogram records are inverted to obtain the distribution of slip on the fault plane. The results show a complex rupture process. The slip maxima (1.5 m) occurred 10 km west and 15 km southwest of the hypocenter. The slip source function obtained with near-field data is similar to the function obtained from teleseismic records and shows a low moment release at the beginning of the rupture and a maximum rate of moment release 4 seconds after. The relation between the slip distribution obtained by inversion, isoseimals, mapped faults and the aftershocks location is then discussed and we finally propose a seismotectonic interpretation of this earthquake. The Uttarkashi earthquake probably occurred along the detachment surface which coincides with the upper surface of the subducting Indian lithosphere. This detachment surface is gently dipping under the Lesser Himalaya and south of the Vaikrita thrust. The Vaikrita thrust marks the line separating the very shallow-dipping detachment (along which big earthquakes like the Uttarkashi earthquake could occur) from the steeper-dipping, aseismic basement thrust. This observation is important for correctly estimating the seismic hazard in the Uttarkashi region.

Cotton, F.; Campillo, M.; Deschamps, A.; Rastogi, B. K.

1996-06-01

346

Earthquake Hazards Program: Visual Glossary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This glossary of earthquake terms features illustrations which accompany the definitions, where possible, to provide examples and additional reinforcement. Links to related terms are embedded in the text.

347

Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123years (refs 4, 5),

Marco Cisternas; Brian F. Atwater; Fernando Torrejón; Yuki Sawai; Gonzalo Machuca; Marcelo Lagos; Annaliese Eipert; Cristián Youlton; Ignacio Salgado; Takanobu Kamataki; Masanobu Shishikura; C. P. Rajendran; Javed K. Malik; Yan Rizal; Muhammad Husni

2005-01-01

348

Meet India's Urban Teenagers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to be a culminating activity after seventh grade social studies students have studied India, this week-long lesson features autobiographical sketches of six teenagers from India. The lesson has three objectives: (1) to provide actual life stories of teenagers as a springboard for further research about the customs and culture of India;…

Scott, Gail

349

The India Connection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

2012-01-01

350

Earthquake Hazards Program: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This frequently-asked-questions feature deals with the relationship between earthquakes, faults, and plate tectonics; myths about earthquakes; effects and experiences; preparedness; and many other topics.

351

India transformed: parsing India's “new” foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the end of the Cold War, the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and the collapse of the old economic order in India a dozen years ago, the outmoded methods New Delhi had employed for four decades to engage the world were no longer tenable. C. Raja Mohan, one of India's leading strategic thinkers, has traced the remarkable transformation in

Robert Hathaway

2003-01-01

352

Structural interpretation of the coseismic faults of the Wenchuan earthquake: Three-dimensional modeling of the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake is a result of ongoing India-Tibet collision and reflects the growth of the Longmen Shan fold-and-thrust belt. In this paper, we construct a 3-D structural model of the geometry of the coseismic faults and related structures of the Wenchuan earthquake by integrating geological investigations, relocated aftershocks, and seismic reflection profiles. In the 3-D structural

Yiquan Li; Dong Jia; John H. Shaw; Judith Hubbard; Aiming Lin; Maomao Wang; Liang Luo; Haibing Li; Long Wu

2010-01-01

353

The Distribution of Earthquakes: Where Do Large Earthquakes Occur?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the distribution of large earthquakes (magnitude greater than 6) in Southern California. Using online maps of earthquake epicenters in Southern California and the Los Angeles Basin, they will compare these distributions with historic distributions (1932-1996), and with respect to the locations of major fault traces.

Marquis, John

354

Geochemical Challenge to Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of geochemical and groundwater observations for earthquake prediction in Japan is described. The development of the observations is discussed in relation to the progress of the earthquake prediction program in Japan. Three major findings obtained from our recent studies are outlined. (i) Long-term radon observation data over 18 years at the SKE (Suikoen) well indicate that the

Hiroshi Wakita

1996-01-01

355

How Buildings Respond to Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, produced by MCEER, provides an explanation of how buildings typically respond to earthquakes. The article discusses physics concepts such as Newtonâs Laws, inertial forces, and the frequency and period of buildings. Material properties including stiffness, ductility, and damping are also discussed in terms of their influence on building responses to earthquakes.

2007-05-23

356

Fault heterogeneity and earthquake scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an on-going debate in the seismological community as to whether stress drop is independent of earthquake size and this has important implications for earthquake physics. Here we investigate this question in a simple 2D cellular automaton that includes heterogeneity. We find that when the range of heterogeneity is low, the scaling approaches that of constant stress drop. However,

Alison Hetherington; Sandy Steacy

2007-01-01

357

Earthquake hazard in Marmara region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake hazard in the Marmara region has been investigated using Deterministic (scenario earthquake based), Time-independent probabilistic (simple Poissonian) and Time-dependent probabilistic (renewal) models. Based on recent findings it is possible to provide a fault segmentation model for the Marmara Sea region. For the main Marmara Fault this model essentially identifies fault segments for different structural, tectonic and geometrical features and

M. Erdik; M. Demircioglu; K. Sesetyan; E. Durukal; B. Siyahi

2003-01-01

358

Possible mechanisms for glacial earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large glacial earthquakes reported on by Ekström et al. (2003, 2006) and Tsai and Ekström (2007) have previously been evaluated in terms of their seismic characteristics. In this paper we attempt to take constraints such as known glacial ice properties, outlet glacier size, calving style, and meltwater variability to construct a self-consistent physical model of the glacial earthquake process.

Victor C. Tsai; James R. Rice; Mark Fahnestock

2008-01-01

359

BBC News: Italy's Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BBC News article lists the long line of earthquake history in Italy from the year 1693 to 1997. The article describes the intensity and also the damages caused by each earthquake. Images and links for further information are included as well.

2009-04-14

360

Earthquake Safety Guide for Homeowners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earthquakes, especially major ones, are dangerous, inevitable, and a fact of life in some parts of the United States. Sooner or later another big one will occur. Earthquakes: Occur without warning; Can be deadly and extremely destructive; Can occur at any...

2005-01-01

361

History of earthquakes in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of earthquake disasters in Colombia, South America is discussed in detail to promote scientific investigations, and to call attention to engineers, architects, contractors, insurance companies and building owners as to the conditions that must be included in the construction of earthquake resistant structures for the protection of city dwellers.

J. E. Ramirez

1969-01-01

362

Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

Bailey, Nancy E.

2010-01-01

363

Self-Organized Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-Organized Criticality was proposed by the Per Bak et al. [1] as a means of explaining scaling laws observed in driven natural systems, usually in (slowly) driven threshold systems. The example used by Bak was a simple cellular automaton model of a sandpile, in which grains of sand were slowly dropped (randomly) onto a flat plate. After a period of time, during which the 'critical state' was approached, a series of self-similar avalanches would begin. Scaling exponents for the frequency-area statistics of the sandpile avalanches were found to be approximately 1, a value that characterizes 'flicker noise' in natural systems. SOC is associated with a critical point in the phase diagram of the system, and it was found that the usual 2-scaling field theory applies. A model related to SOC is the Self-Organized Spinodal (SOS), or intermittent criticality model. Here a slow but persistent driving force leads to quasi-periodic approach to, and retreat from, the classical limit of stability, or spinodal. Scaling exponents for this model can be related to Gutenberg-Richter and Omori exponents observed in earthquake systems. In contrast to SOC models, nucleation, both classical and non-classical types, is possible in SOS systems. Tunneling or nucleation rates can be computed from Langer-Klein-Landau-Ginzburg theories for comparison to observations. Nucleating droplets play a role similar to characteristic earthquake events. Simulations of these systems reveals much of the phenomenology associated with earthquakes and other types of "burst" dynamics. Whereas SOC is characterized by the full scaling spectrum of avalanches, SOS is characterized by both system-size events above the nominal frequency-size scaling curve, and scaling of small events. Applications to other systems including integrate-and-fire neural networks and financial crashes will be discussed. [1] P. Bak, C. Tang and K. Weisenfeld, Self-Organized Criticality, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381 (1987).

Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Klein, W.

2011-12-01

364

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A national, nonprofit technical society, the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) was founded in 1949 and aims to "reduce earthquake risk by advancing the science and practice of earthquake engineering." EERI's searchable site contains news, timely information, and documents pertaining to earthquakes and related engineering issues. Highlights include the reconnaissance reports with in-depth coverage of current and past quakes. The Web exclusives section contains photos and testimonies, such as a slide show and text of an accompanying testimony made to the US House of Representatives Committee on Science on lessons learned from the Turkey, Taiwan, and Mexico City earthquakes. On the site's main page, users may browse through the links of highlights, such as the one to the EERI newsletter.

365

Dynamics of earthquake faults  

SciTech Connect

The authors present an overview of ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault, discussing the model's behavior in the context of current seismology. The topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the distinction between small and large events and the magnitude vs frequency distribution; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher-dimensional models; and (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

Carlson, J.M. (Department of Physics and Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Langer, J.S. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)); Shaw, B.E. (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States) Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964 (United States))

1994-04-01

366

Earthquakes: Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the San Andreas Fault is the longest and one of the most active fault zones in California, it is not responsible for every earthquake in the state. This video segment describes the geologic setting of the San Andreas fault and a network of other active faults, particularly thrust faults, closer to Los Angeles, and explains why these may present a greater danger to the city than the San Andreas Fault. The segment is five minutes fifteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included. Running time for the video is 5:15.

2012-08-28

367

Earthquakes: Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the San Andreas Fault is the longest and one of the most active fault zones in California, it is not responsible for every earthquake in the state. This video segment describes the geologic setting of the San Andreas fault and a network of other active faults, particularly thrust faults, closer to Los Angeles, and explains why these may present a greater danger to the city than the San Andreas Fault. The segment is five minutes fifteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

368

India's security partnership with Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, India and Singapore have developed a strong bilateral security and economic partnership that has assumed a central position in India's strategic engagement in Southeast Asia. Having sought strategic engagement with India for many decades, Singapore has now successfully positioned itself as India's leading political partner and economic gateway to the region. At the same time, India and

David Brewster

2009-01-01

369

Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation in India: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by various tectonic units viz., Himalayan collision zone in North, Indo-Burmese arc in north-east, failed rift zones in its interior in Peninsular Indian shield and Andaman Sumatra trench in south-east Indian Territory. During the last about 100 years, the country has witnessed four great and several major earthquakes. Soon after the occurrence of the first great earthquake, the Shillong earthquake (M w: 8.1) in 1897, efforts were started to assess the seismic hazard in the country. The first such attempt was made by Geological Survey of India in 1898 and since then considerable progress has been made. The current seismic zonation map prepared and published by Bureau of Indian Standards, broadly places seismic risk in different parts of the country in four major zones. However, this map is not sufficient for the assessment of area-specific seismic risks, necessitating detailed seismic zoning, that is, microzonation for earthquake disaster mitigation and management. Recently, seismic microzonation studies are being introduced in India, and the first level seismic microzonation has already been completed for selected urban centres including, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmadabad, Dehradun, etc. The maps prepared for these cities are being further refined on larger scales as per the requirements, and a plan has also been firmed up for taking up microzonation of 30 selected cities, which lie in seismic zones V and IV and have a population density of half a million. The paper highlights the efforts made in India so far towards seismic hazard assessment as well as the future road map for such studies.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2013-03-01

370

Deterministic seismic hazard macrozonation of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are known to have occurred in Indian subcontinent from ancient times. This paper presents the results of seismic hazard analysis of India (6°-38°N and 68°-98°E) based on the deterministic approach using latest seismicity data (up to 2010). The hazard analysis was done using two different source models (linear sources and point sources) and 12 well recognized attenuation relations considering varied tectonic provinces in the region. The earthquake data obtained from different sources were homogenized and declustered and a total of 27,146 earthquakes of moment magnitude 4 and above were listed in the study area. The sesismotectonic map of the study area was prepared by considering the faults, lineaments and the shear zones which are associated with earthquakes of magnitude 4 and above. A new program was developed in MATLAB for smoothing of the point sources. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area was divided into small grids of size 0.1° × 0.1° (approximately 10 × 10 km), and the hazard parameters were calculated at the center of each of these grid cells by considering all the seismic sources within a radius of 300 to 400 km. Rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) and spectral accelerations for periods 0.1 and 1 s have been calculated for all the grid points with a deterministic approach using a code written in MATLAB. Epistemic uncertainty in hazard definition has been tackled within a logic-tree framework considering two types of sources and three attenuation models for each grid point. The hazard evaluation without logic tree approach also has been done for comparison of the results. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of hazard values are presented in the paper.

Kolathayar, Sreevalsa; Sitharam, T. G.; Vipin, K. S.

2012-10-01

371

Recent Earthquake Prediction Research in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan has experienced many major earthquake disasters in the past. Early in this century research began that was aimed at predicting the occurrence of earthquakes, and in 1965 an earthquake prediction program was started as a national project. In 1978 a program for constant monitoring and assessment was formally inaugurated with the goal of forecasting the major earthquake that is

Kiyoo Mogi

1986-01-01

372

Assessment of soil liquefaction incorporating earthquake characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effect of nature of the earthquake on the assessment of liquefaction potential of a soil deposit during earthquake loading. Here, the nature of the earthquake is included via the parameter V, the ‘pseudo-velocity’, that is the gross area under the acceleration record of the earthquake at any depth below the ground surface. By analysing a number

D. S. Liyanapathirana; H. G. Poulos

2004-01-01

373

Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

Stations, University O.

374

Earthquake-dammed lakes in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven small lakes were formed by landslides caused by the 1929 Buller earthquake; four others were formed by other historic earthquakes in New Zealand. At least nine other New Zealand lakes are also dammed by landslides and were probably formed by prehistoric earthquakes. When recognized by morphology, synchronous age, and areal distribution, earthquake-dammed lakes could provide an estimate of paleoseismicity

John Adams

1981-01-01

375

New evidence for paleobiogeographic intercontinental Gondwana relationships based on Late Cretaceous-earliest Paleocene coastal faunas from peninsular India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of localities for freshwater microvertebrate assemblages of Late Cretaceous-early Paleocene age fringing the Deccan Basalt outcrops of Peninsular India have been studied during the last 4 years. The diversified vertebrate assemblages recovered by bulk wet screening at the localities of Rahioli (Gujarat), Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh), Nagpur, Umrer, Pisdura (Maharashtra), and Asifabad (Andhra Pradesh) clearly suggest lack of faunal endemism for the drifting Indian island subcontinent. On the contrary, at the generic level, the fauna from the peninsular Indian localities is cosmopolitan in nature. The presence of a number of Laurasiatic elements, such as pelobatid frogs, suggests that a dispersal corridor was maintained with Laurasia throughout the drifting phase of India. The coastal plain faunas contain a mixed assemblage of freshwater and marine forms represented by 62 genera and 79 species. There is a striking similarity at the generic level between the fish and turtle faunas of the Upper Cretaceous of Peninsular India and those of Niger. Similarly, the few data now available from south central Bolivia, South America, also suggest interesting similarities to the corresponding faunas of Peninsular India. The lack of faunal endemism in India during the temporal span of India's northward drift as an island subcontinent can be attributed to a land contact maintained with Madagascar and the east African region by such aseismic elements as the Mascarene plateau and the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge. A more northerly contact with Laurasia may have been established by an island arc system represented at present by the Dras volcanics of Kashmir. The proximity of the Iran-Afghan plate to the drifting Indian landmass may have further contributed as a corridor for the dispersal of Laurasiatic elements into the subcontinent. By the middle Eocene, with the establishment of a firm dispersal corridor with central and east Asia, faunal affinities changed from Gondwanic to Holarctic, a condition which still persists today.

Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Prasad, G. V. R.

376

The 2004 Parkfield Earthquake and the Parkfield Earthquake Prediction Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On September 28, 2004, a M6.0 earthquake on the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California, highlighted the success of a two-decade scientific experiment designed to record the anticipated event. With extensive instrumentation poised to capture precursory, coseismic, and postseismic signals, a wealth of information has been collected. Studies have examined detailed geologic, seismic, electromagnetic, and geodetic observations and demonstrate a range of scientific progress. Although some of the detailed findings are specific to the behavior of the San Andreas in the Parkfield region, many of the results are applicable to understanding of earthquake physics and effects for strike-slip earthquakes and transform fault settings worldwide. Among the findings (also see Harris and Arrowsmith, BSSA, 2006): 1) Predicting the general timing and size of moderate and large earthquakes is difficult. 2) Magnitude 6 earthquakes can occur without detectable short-term precursors. 3) Ground motion variability is substantial in the near-field, and source, path, and site effects all play important roles in the variability. 4) Large ground motions, liquefaction, and slumping may result from a shallow earthquake even when there is minimal surface slip. 5) Earthquake rupture extent may be affected by fault rheology, but earthquake rupture direction may not be predictable on the basis of classic observables, such as material contrasts near faults. 6) Even with numerous types of observations, it may be difficult to reconcile a single highly-detailed deep-slip model for an earthquake, however a general picture can emerge that shows distinct slip features consistent with all of the observations. 7) The locations of subsequent smaller earthquakes (aftershocks) may not be predictable on the sole basis of stress changes due to the mainshock. For Parkfield, fault rheology also appears to play a key role in determining where small aftershocks and continuous microseismicity occur. 8) The San Andreas fault appears to be segmented in the Parkfield area such that the 2004 and prior events were contained in the expected fault region. 9) The postseismic moment release for the 2004 Parkfield earthquake was similar to that released coseismically. 10) Despite the complex details of Parkfield earthquakes and the San Andreas fault zone, the long-term (million year) evolution of the San Andreas near Parkfield can be understood by modeling the basic interaction between the creeping and locked portions of the fault.

Harris, R. A.; Langbein, J.; Arrowsmith, J. R.

2006-12-01

377

Ground observation of electromagnetic emissions related to clusters of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ULF-VLF data obtained from three ground based experiments working at Agra station (geograph. Lat. 27.20N, Long. 780E) in India namely measurement of ultra low frequency (ULF) magnetic field emissions using a 3-component search coil magnetometer, vertical component of very low frequency (VLF) electric field emissions with a borehole antenna, and phase and amplitude of fixed frequency VLF transmitter signals using AbsPAL receiver are analysed in search of possible precursors of two major seismic activities that occurred in Sumatra (Indonesia) during post-tsunami period between January and April, 2005. These two major seismic events occurred as clusters of earthquakes during 27-29 January and 28-30 March, 2005. The results show that barring borehole all the experiments showed precursors due to these clusters of earthquakes. Such precursors were not seen in the case of isolated large magnitude earthquakes. Further, the precursory duration was influenced by the magnetic storm which occurred about a week before the clusters. The mechanism of ULF propagation to long distances between Sumatra and Agra, and perturbations in the ionosphere before the clusters are discussed.

Singh, Vikram; Singh, Birbal

2010-05-01

378

GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004, however, the two plates moved by a distance of several meters, releasing the stress accumulated over hundreds of years. The result was a devastating tsunami that hit coastlines across the Indian Ocean, killing about 300,000 people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Somalia, and other countries (Guardian, 29 January 2005, http://www.guardian.co.uk/tsunami/story/0,15671,1380895,00.html).

Khan, S. A.; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

2005-03-01

379

Plateau 'pop-up' in the great 1897 Assam earthquake.  

PubMed

The great Assam earthquake of 12 June 1897 reduced to rubble all masonry buildings within a region of northeastern India roughly the size of England, and was felt over an area exceeding that of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Hitherto it was believed that rupture occurred on a north-dipping Himalayan thrust fault propagating south of Bhutan. But here we show that the northern edge of the Shillong plateau rose violently by at least 11 m during the Assam earthquake, and that this was due to the rupture of a buried reverse fault approximately 110 km in length and dipping steeply away from the Himalaya. The stress drop implied by the rupture geometry and the prodigious fault slip of 18 +/- 7 m explains epicentral accelerations observed to exceed 1g vertically and surface velocities exceeding 3 m s-1 (ref. 1). This quantitative observation of active deformation of a 'pop-up' structure confirms that faults bounding such structures can penetrate the whole crust. Plateau uplift in the past 2-5 million years has caused the Indian plate to contract locally by 4 +/- 2 mm yr-1, reducing seismic risk in Bhutan but increasing the risk in northern Bangladesh. PMID:11298446

Bilham, R; England, P

2001-04-12

380

Management Capacity Assessment for National Health Programs: A study of RCH Program in Gujarat State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India administers a large number of national health programs such as Malaria control program, Blindness control program, National AIDS control program, Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Program and so on. However, effective management of these programs has always come under scrutiny, as these programs consume a large amount of resources. As

K. V. Ramani; Dileep V. Mavalankar

381

Accessing Current, Recent and Historical Earthquake Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explains the many Internet tools that are currently available for accessing earthquake data. Students discover that by using these tools one can obtain information (such as location, origin time and magnitude) about the most recent earthquakes; search historical earthquake catalogs for earthquakes in a given region over a selected time period; and view, download or make maps of recent or historical earthquake activity of the world or of a selected region. They also learn that the tools support education and research activities related to earthquakes such as: maintaining a classroom map of significant earthquakes; calculating earthquake magnitude from educational seismograph records and comparing with official magnitude estimates; obtaining historical earthquake data for a specific area to relate a recent event to the background seismicity; and analyzing sequences of earthquake activity. There is a link to information about obtaining and using seismograms.

Braile, Larry

382

The physics of an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 (Boxing Day 2004) and its tsunami will endure in our memories as one of the worst natural disasters of our time. For geophysicists, the scale of the devastation and the likelihood of another equally destructive earthquake set out a series of challenges of how we might use science not only to understand the earthquake and its aftermath but also to help in planning for future earthquakes in the region. In this article a brief account of these efforts is presented. Earthquake prediction is probably impossible, but earth scientists are now able to identify particularly dangerous places for future events by developing an understanding of the physics of stress interaction. Having identified such a dangerous area, a series of numerical Monte Carlo simulations is described which allow us to get an idea of what the most likely consequences of a future earthquake are by modelling the tsunami generated by lots of possible, individually unpredictable, future events. As this article was being written, another earthquake occurred in the region, which had many expected characteristics but was enigmatic in other ways. This has spawned a series of further theories which will contribute to our understanding of this extremely complex problem.

McCloskey, John

2008-03-01

383

Stochastic synthesis of earthquake catalogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model of earthquake occurrence is proposed that is based on results of statistical studies of earthquake catalogs. We assume that each earthquake generates additional a probability that depends on time as t-(1+?). This assumption together with one regarding the independence of branching events on adjacent branches of the event `tree,' is sufficient to permit the generation of complete catalogs of earthquakes that have the same time-magnitude statistical properties as real earthquake catalogs. If ? is about 0.5, the process generates sequences that have statistical properties similar to those for shallow earthquakes: many well-known relations are reproduced including the magnitude-frequency law, Omori's law of the rate of aftershock and foreshock occurrence, the duration of a recorded seismic event versus its magnitude, the self-similarity or lack of scale of rate of earthquake occurrence in different magnitude ranges, etc. A value of ? closer to 0.8 or 0.9 seems to simulate the statistical properties of intermediate and deep shocks. A formula for seismic risk prediction is proposed,and the implications of the model for risk evaluation are outlined. The possibilities of the determination of long-term risk from real or synthetic catalogs that have the property of self-similarity are dim.

Kagan, Y. Y.; Knopoff, L.

1981-04-01

384

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

385

India’s middlemen: connecting by corrupting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of India’s corruption involves middlemen: go-betweens who bring citizens’ cases to the attention of state officials,\\u000a producing results – for a price. Citizens pay bribes, often for benefits for which they already qualify, and much (but not\\u000a all) of that money is passed on to officials by the middleman. On its face such arrangements would seem to benefit no

Jyoti Khanna; Michael Johnston

2007-01-01

386

Can India’s “literate” read?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper takes a close look at India’s literacy rate by exploring whether the officially “literate” can read and at what\\u000a level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was\\u000a the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which

Brij Kothari; Tathagata Bandyopadhyay

2010-01-01

387

Gravity drives Great Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most violent of Great Earthquakes are driven by ruptures on giant megathrusts adjacent to actively forming mountain belts. Current theory suggests that the seismic rupture harvests (and thus releases) elastic energy that has been previously stored in locked segments of the megathrust. The general belief, however, is that this energy was accumulated as the result of relative motion of the adjacent stiff elastic tectonic plates. This mechanism fails to explain many first order aspects of large earthquakes, however. The energy source for strain accumulation must also include gravitational collapse of orogenic crust and/or in the foundering (or roll-back) of an adjacent subducting lithospheric slab. Therefore we have conducted an analysis of the geometry of aftershocks, and report that this allows distinction of two types of failure on giant megathrusts. Mode I failure involves horizontal shortening, and is consistent with the classic view that megathrusts fail in compression, with motion analogous to that expected if accretion takes place against a rigid (or elastic) backstop. Mode II failure involves horizontal extension, and requires the over-riding plate to stretch during an earthquake. This process is likely to continue during the subsequent period of afterslip, and therefore will again be evident in aftershock patterns. Mode I behaviour may well have applied to the southern segment of the Sumatran megathrust, from whence emanated the rupture that drove the 2004 Great Earthquake. Mode II behaviour appears to apply to the northern segment of the same rupture, however. The geometry of aftershocks beneath the Andaman Sea suggest that the crust above the initial rupture failed in an extensional mode. The edge of the Indian plate is foundering, with slab-hinge roll-back in a direction orthogonal to its motion vector. The only possible cause for this extension therefore is westward roll-back of the subducting Indian plate, and the consequent gravity-driven movement of the over-riding crust and mantle. This is possible for the crust and mantle above major subduction zones is mechanically weakened by the flux of heat and water associated with subduction zone processes. In consequence the lithosphere of the over-riding orogens can act more like a fluid than a rigid plate. Such fluid-like behaviour has been noted for the Himalaya and for the crust of the uplifted adjacent Tibetan Plateau, which appear to be collapsing. Similar conclusions as to the fluid-like behaviour of an orogen can also be reached for the crust and mantle of Myanmar and Indonesia, since here again, there is evidence for arc-normal motion adjacent to rolling-back subduction zones. Prior to the Great Sumatran Earthquake of 2004 we had postulated such movements on geological time-scales, describing them as ‘surges‘ driven by the gravitational potential energy of the adjacent orogen. But we considered time-scales that were very different to those that apply in the lead up, or during and subsequent to a catastrophic seismic event. The Great Sumatran Earthquake taught us quite differently. Data from satellites support the hypothesis that extension took place in a discrete increment, which we interpret to be the result of a gravitationally driven surge of the Indonesian crust westward over the weakened rupture during and after the earthquake. Mode II megathrusts are tsunamigenic for one very simple reason: the crust has been attenuated as the result of ongoing extension, so they can be overlain by large tracts of water, and they have a long rupture run time, allowing a succession of stress accumulations to be harvested. The after-slip beneath the Andaman Sea was also significant (in terms of moment) although non-seismogenic in its character. Operation of a Mode II megathrust prior to catastrophic failure may involve relatively quiescent motion with a mixture of normal faults and reverse faults, much like south of Java today. Ductile yield may produce steadily increasing (and accelerating) subsidence (on decadal time scales) as roll-back deepens the trench an

Lister, Gordon; Forster, Marnie

2010-05-01

388

Cascadia Subduction Zone and Related Subduction Systems: Seismic Structure, Intraslab Earthquakes and Processes, and Earthquake Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary and Introduction; Cascadia Subduction System: Setting and Structure; Cascadia Slab Earthquakes; Intraslab Earthquakes in Warm Slab Settings Worldwide; Intraslab and Intraplate Radiated Earthquake Energies Worldwide; Models; Ground Motion...

S. Kirby K. Wang S. Dunlop

2002-01-01

389

Policing terrorism in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policing terrorism in India is fraught with difficulty. India is a large, heterogeneous democracy that is surrounded by countries\\u000a experiencing their own intense problems with terrorism. The legal structure, inherited from the colonial past, is struggling\\u000a to cope with the demands placed upon it by a country of 1.1 billion. India is a federation and this also complicates the structures

Sandy Gordon

2008-01-01

390

Flood Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flood problems in India, regional variabilityof the problem, present status of the ongoing management measures, their effectiveness and futureneeds in flood management are covered. Flood problems in India are presented by four zonesof flooding, viz. (a) Brahmaputra River Basin, (b) Ganga River Basin, (c) North-WestRivers Basin, and (d) Central India and Deccan Rivers Basin. Some special problems,related

P. K. Mohapatra; R. D. Singh

2003-01-01

391

Twitter earthquake detection: Earthquake monitoring in a social world  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is investigating how the social networking site Twitter, a popular service for sending and receiving short, public text messages, can augment USGS earthquake response products and the delivery of hazard information. Rapid detection and qualitative assessment of shaking events are possible because people begin sending public Twitter messages (tweets) with in tens of seconds after feeling shaking. Here we present and evaluate an earthquake detection procedure that relies solely on Twitter data. A tweet-frequency time series constructed from tweets containing the word "earthquake" clearly shows large peaks correlated with the origin times of widely felt events. To identify possible earthquakes, we use a short-term-average, long-term-average algorithm. When tuned to a moderate sensitivity, the detector finds 48 globally-distributed earthquakes with only two false triggers in five months of data. The number of detections is small compared to the 5,175 earthquakes in the USGS global earthquake catalog for the same five-month time period, and no accurate location or magnitude can be assigned based on tweet data alone. However, Twitter earthquake detections are not without merit. The detections are generally caused by widely felt events that are of more immediate interest than those with no human impact. The detections are also fast; about 75% occur within two minutes of the origin time. This is considerably faster than seismographic detections in poorly instrumented regions of the world. The tweets triggering the detections also provided very short first-impression narratives from people who experienced the shaking.

Earle, Paul S.; Bowden, Daniel C.; Guy, Michelle

2011-01-01

392

Understanding India's Climate Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's total GHG emissions was 1,866 MtCO2e compared with China's total emissions at 7,234 MtCO2e; India's per-capita GHG emissions was 1.7 MtCO2e compared with China's per-capita emissions at 5.5 MtCO2e. 3 Furthermore, India has declared that its per capita emissions will never exceed those of the developed countries. 4 This paper discusses four key factors that help explain India's current

Noriko Fujiwara; Christian Egenhofer

2010-01-01

393

Visualizing Global Earthquakes â Where and Why do Earthquakes Occur?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This screenshot from this visualization shows a map of tectonic plate boundaries. The visualization transitions between global earthquake distribution to a map of plate boundaries, to clearly illustrate how they are related. This visualization also includes an overview of the distribution and magnitude of earthquakes at different types of plate boundaries. Click the image to enlarge or view the MP4 movie ( 31.1MB Jul27 11). The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to the distribution of earthquakes at and below the surface of earth and how their distribution is related to the geometry and type of plate boundaries. Because the depth of earthquakes can be difficult for students to visualize in 2D representations, this activity allows students to visualize the 3D distribution of earthquakes within Earth's surface, which is essential for understanding how different types of earthquakes occur in different tectonic settings. Talking points and questions are included to use this visualization as part of an interactive lecture. In addition to playing back the visualization, instructors can also download the visualization software and data set and explore it themselves.

Harwood, Cara

394

Earthquakes - on the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information obtained with the Apollo lunar seismic stations is discussed. The four types of natural seismic sources that have been identified are described, viz., thermal moonquakes, deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts, and shallow moonquakes. It is suggested that: (1) the thermal quakes represent the slow cracking and movement of surface rocks; (2) the deep quakes are induced by the tide-generating force of the earth's gravity; (3) the meteoroids responsible for most of the observed impacts are in the mass range from 1 to 100 kg and are clustered in groups near the earth's orbit; and (4) the shallow quakes are similar to intraplate earthquakes and indicate that the moon is as seismically active as the interior regions of the earth's tectonic plates. The structure of the lunar interior as inferred from seismic signals due to both the last three natural sources and 'artificial' impacts of used spacecraft is examined in detail.

Nakamura, Y.

395

Devastating Earthquake in Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The death toll will pass 10,000 today from Tuesday's earthquake, which measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and shattered a 400-mile stretch from northwestern Turkey to areas near central Ankara. Relief officials have publicly stated that they fear the worst for the estimated 35,000 people who remain trapped beneath rubble, as most will now have been without water for more than 72 hours. In addition to locating and rescuing survivors, the Turkish Government and international aid workers are working feverishly to organize relief efforts, prevent the spread of disease, repair damaged infrastructure, and contain a massive fire at the country's largest oil refinery. The sites listed provide information about this horrible act of nature

De Nie, Michael W.

396

The Different Faces and Common Drivers of Groundwater Depletion in India - Challenges of Measurement, Modeling and Policy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite widespread acknowledgment of the emerging groundwater crisis facing India, quantitative estimates of the magnitude and rate of depletion have been made difficult by the lack of reliable and systematic hydrological data. In this regard, the recent estimates of groundwater mass loss made using NASA Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellites (Rodel et al 2009, Tiwari et al 2009) are a great step forward. The relatively low spatial resolution of these estimates, however, can hide extreme instances of local depletion and significantly underestimate the severity of the crisis. We illustrate using real piezometric data from observation wells in three regions of India that capture the different faces of groundwater over-depletion: Mehsana, Gujarat, in west India, where water tables have plummeted by about 90 meters over the last three decades, risking irreversible saline intrusion; Telangana, which overlies a shallow hard rock region and where over-extraction does not necessarily involve long-term groundwater loss; and the North West. While the latter region is the focus of the recent GRACE estimates, the first two hot spots are completely missed in that method. We discuss some of the common socio-economic drivers of over-depletion, particularly skewed incentives of crop choice and energy use, and a novel proposal for corrective policy reforms.

Fishman, R.; Lall, U.; Siegfried, T. U.; Narula, K.; Modi, V.

2009-12-01

397

The next new Madrid earthquake  

SciTech Connect

Scientists who specialize in the study of Mississippi Valley earthquakes say that the region is overdue for a powerful tremor that will cause major damage and undoubtedly some casualties. The inevitability of a future quake and the lack of preparation by both individuals and communities provided the impetus for this book. It brings together applicable information from many disciplines: history, geology and seismology, engineering, zoology, politics and community planning, economics, environmental science, sociology, and psychology and mental health to provide a perspective of the myriad impacts of a major earthquake on the Mississippi Valley. The author addresses such basic questions as What, actually, are earthquakes How do they occur Can they be predicted, perhaps even prevented He also addresses those steps that individuals can take to improve their chances for survival both during and after an earthquake.

Atkinson, W.

1988-01-01

398

Liquefaction of Soils during Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the state of knowledge of the causes and effects of liquefaction of soils during earthquakes, documents the state of the art of analysis for safety from liquefaction, and recommends future directions for liquefaction research. It is bas...

1985-01-01

399

Big Trouble in Earthquake Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use online earthquake hazard maps and other relevant geological information to assess hazards to life and property associated with hypothetical earthquakes of differing magnitude. Students working in small groups use this information to develop strategies to reduce damage and loss of life in the area near their home or school. This lesson will help students gain an understanding of the effect of earthquakes on natural and man-made systems and afford them a better understanding of the complex consequences of earthquakes for human beings. The background information is structured to cater to both San Franciso area residents and non-residents. Students can be encouraged to work in groups to glean, process, and discuss information pertinent to their particular home or school locations from various public access world-wide-web sites.

400

1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

2010-03-30

401

A History of British Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ON two or three occasions you have allowed me to ask the readers of NATURE for aid in studying recent British earthquakes, and I have gratefully to acknowledge the valuable assistance which I have thus obtained.

Charles Davison

1895-01-01

402

Intermediate-Term Earthquake Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earthquake of magnitude M and linear source dimension L(M) is preceded within a few years by certain patterns of seismicity in the magnitude range down to about (M - 3) in an area of linear dimension about 5L-10L. Prediction algorithms based on such patterns may allow one to predict ≈ 80% of strong earthquakes with alarms occupying altogether 20-30%

V. I. Keilis-Borok

1996-01-01

403

Testing an earthquake prediction algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test to evaluate earthquake prediction algorithms is being applied to a Russian algorithm known asM8 TheM8 algorithm makes intermediate term predictions for earthquakes to occur in a large circle, based on integral counts of transient seismicity in the circle. In a retroactive prediction for the period January 1, 1985 to July 1, 1991 the algorithm as configured for the

Vladimir G. Kossobokov; John H. Healy; James W. Dewey

1997-01-01

404

EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE OF SUSPENSION BRIDGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension bridges represent critical nodes of major transportation systems. Bridge failure during strong earthquakes poses\\u000a not only a threat of fatalities but causes a substantial interruption of emergency efforts. Although wind induced vibrations\\u000a have historically been the primary concern in the design of suspension bridges, earthquake effects have also gained importance\\u000a in recent decades. This study involves ambient vibration testing

Mustafa Erdik; Nurdan Apayd?n

405

Magma shakes up earthquake locations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Numerical models were employed to examine the relationships between the orientation of volcanotectonic faults and magma movement. It was found that the direction of movement on strike-slip faults should be opposite to that predicted on the basis of regional stresses. The results do not explain the location of some volcanotectonic earthquakes and that the locations of preexisting faults may be more important in influencing the location of these earthquakes.

Roman, Diana; Agu

406

Ground motion parameters in Shillong and Mikir Plateau supplemented by mapping of amplification factors in Guwahati City, Northeastern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground motion parameters for Shillong–Mikir Plateau of Northeastern India are examined. Empirical relations are obtained for ground motions as a function of earthquake magnitude, fault type, source depth, velocity characterization of medium and distance. Correlation between ground motion parameters and characteristics of seismogenic zones are established. Simultaneously, new empirical relations are derived for attenuation of ground motion amplitudes. Correlation coefficients

Saurabh Baruah; Santanu Baruah; Aditya Kalita; J. R. Kayal

2011-01-01

407

Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain  

SciTech Connect

The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months. In contrast, hydrological changes accompanying pure reverse fault earthquakes are either undetected or indicate lowering of well levels and spring flows. Strike-slip and oblique-slip fault movements are associated with a mixture of responses but appear to release no more than 10% of the water volume of the same sized normal fault event. For two major normal fault earthquakes in the western United States (those of Hebgen Lake on August 17, 1959, and Borah Peak on October 28, 1983), there is sufficient river flow information to allow the magnitude and extent of the postseismic discharge to be quantified. The discharge has been converted to a rainfall equivalent, which is found to exceed 100 mm close to the fault and to remain above 10 mm at distances greater than 50 km. Results suggest that water-filled craks are ubiquitous throughout the brittle continental crust and that these cracks open and close throughout the earthquake cycle. The existence of tectonically induced fluid flows on the scale that we demonstrate has major implications for our understanding of the mechanical and chemical behavior of crustal rocks.

Muir-Wood, R.; King, G.C.P. [EQE International, Clapton (United Kingdom)]|[Inst. de Physique du Globe, Strasbourg (France)

1993-12-01

408

Postcards from India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews children and adults living in rural areas in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India regarding education, revealing individuals' hopes and dreams against a backdrop of severe class, caste, and gender stratification. Examines the promise of schooling and literacy in India, the relationship of schooling and literacy to work, and of…

Sahni, Urvashi

1999-01-01

409

Energy for rural India  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period

Frauke Urban; René M. J. Benders; Henri C. Moll

2009-01-01

410

India and Asean  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 29 years of operation, the Association of South?east Asian Nations is the most successful experiment in Third World regionalism. Yet it was only in December 1995 that India became a full dialogue partner of the grouping. Initially ambivalent, India's enthusiasm grew from 1971 onwards but its political stance in the region, particularly over Cambodia, delivered a set?back to the

Kripa Sridharan

1996-01-01

411

Nutrition transition in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this review is to examine the demographic and nutrition transition in India in relation to its contribution to the emerging epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases in this country. Setting: India, the country as a whole and its different states with a population exceeding 1 billion in 2001. Subjects: The review examines demographic changes in the

Prakash S Shetty

2002-01-01

412

Scientific ballooning in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of the scientific ballooning activities in India is presented in this paper. The capabilities of the National Balloon Facility (NBF) at Hyderabad in India which designs, fabricates and launches balloons as well as provides tracking and data acquisition facilities, are described. A summary of the successful balloon flights carried out in last four years for scientific experiments, is

P. C. Agrawal; S. Sreenivasan; J. V. Subba Rao

2002-01-01

413

GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of hybrid seeds in India has doubled the yield of foodgrains. The High Yielding Variety Seed Program (H.V.P.) has contributed to serious interregional disparities in agriculture. Surplus production of foodgrains is not the true measure of success of the Green Revolution; many areas in India remain unaffected by this program, and are still vulnerable to famines.

A. K. CHAKRAVARTI

1973-01-01

414

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

415

Recent Earthquakes in California and Nevada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the US Geological Survey provides information and updates about the recent earthquakes in California and Nevada. Data include magnitude, time, location, coordinates, and depth for each earthquake, and each data page points to additional sources of information for the given earthquake. Users can access information via a clickable map of California or specialty maps of Long Valley, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Alternately, the site allows visitors to select an earthquake from a list of big earthquakes or a list of all earthquakes.

416

Passive margin earthquakes: Reviewing knowledge and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes like the August 2011 magnitude 5.8 Mineral, Va., temblor that occur on “passive” continental margins surprise people because they expect earthquakes to occur only on plate boundaries. But, in fact, large and damaging intraplate earthquakes occur fairly regularly on passive margins around the world. For instance, in North America the magnitude ˜7 Charleston earthquake shook South Carolina in 1886, causing severe damage and about 60 deaths, and the 1929 magnitude 7.2 earthquake on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland caused a tsunami, a large landslide, and 28 fatalities. Although they are fairly common, these earthquakes are not well studied, and their specific geologic settings and causes are unclear.

Balcerak, Ernie

2012-03-01

417

Earthquake Loss Estimation: What Matters?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple earthquake loss model was developed and used to evaluate the relative importance of the different types of Earth science information that are required to estimate losses to single-family residences from earthquake shaking. The evaluation indicates that refining the characterization of the magnitude and frequency of future earthquakes and mapping surficial geology to enable predictions of regional variation of local site amplification are the most important contributions that the Earth sciences can make to improve earthquake loss estimates. The loss model that was used for the evaluation predicts damage to masonry and wood-frame single-family residences. Structural damage was predicted with both the ATC-13 and HAZUS methodologies. The loss model incorporated three aspects of Earth science information: (1) the earthquake source, (2) ground-motion attenuation, and (3) soil type. Properly characterizing the earthquake source has the greatest impact on loss estimation. Whereas large earthquakes are the most costly events, cumulative losses from moderate (M ˜6.5) earthquakes can easily exceed the loss from a single large (M ˜7.5) event. If the damaged properties are covered by typical earthquake insurance policies and deductibility is taken into account, the cumulative impact of moderate earthquakes may be even more severe from the perspective of the insured; much of the cumulative losses may not be covered by insurance because of the high deductible of the typical policy. Geographic variability of local site amplification, which can be inferred from surficial geologic maps, also may have a significant impact. Loss estimates, based on ground-motion amplification factors in the NEHRP site classification, may vary by almost threefold depending on soil type. Future refinements of ground-motion attenuation curves are not likely to substantially improve loss estimation in the western United States. The range of ground motion predicted by published attenuation curves does not produce significantly different estimates of loss. By contrast, the range of ground motion predicted by different attenuations relations proposed for the eastern United States, particularly for one-second spectral accelerations, produces significantly different estimates of loss.

Holzer, T. L.

2003-12-01

418

India’s Interactions with East Asia: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

India’s relations with countries of East Asia reveal its growing profile in the region in economic, technological, diplomatic, political and military spheres. India’s Look East policy, initiated in 1992, is bearing fruit now, as seen in the region becoming the largest trading partner of India, enhanced bilateral and multilateral diplomatic interactions, and long-term commitments in the security (maritime, cyber and

Srikanth Kondapalli

2010-01-01

419

Implications of earthquake triggering and rupture propagation for earthquake prediction based on premonitory phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model of earthquake triggering and rupture propagation, based on concepts of earthquake mechanism commonly accepted, suggests that earthquake prediction (especially prediction of magnitude) might be very difficult, depending on the values of certain stress parameters. The concepts in the model suggest lines of research which may help to judge how successful the earthquake prediction effort might eventually be.

James N. Brune

1979-01-01

420

GIS Mapping of Earthquake-Related Deaths and Hospital Admissions from the 1994 Northridge, California, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Earthquakes pose a persistent but unpredictable health threat. Although knowledge of geologic earthquake hazards for buildings has increased, spatial relations between injuries and seismic activity have not been explained.METHODS: Fatal and hospital-admitted earthquake injuries due to the 1994 Northridge Earthquake were identified. Geographical Information Systems software was used to map all injury locations. Injuries were analyzed with regard to

Corinne Peek-Asa; Marizen R Ramirez; Kim Shoaf; Hope Seligson; Jess F Kraus

2000-01-01

421

Fast and Robust Inversion of Earthquake Source Rupture Process with Applications to Earthquake Emergency Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast and robust technique for inversion of earthquake source rupture process was developed and applied to some of the recent significant earthquakes worldwide. Since May 2008, source rupture processes of about 20 significant earthquakes worldwide were inverted by using the newly developed technique and the inverted results were timely released on the website within 3 to 5 hours after the occurrence of the earthquakes. These earthquakes included the MW7.8 Wenchuan, Sichuan, earthquake of 12 May 2008, the MW 6.3 L’Aquila, Italy, earthquake of 6 April 2009, the MW 7.0 Haiti earthquake of 12 January 2010, the MW 8.8 Chile earthquake of 27 February, 2010, the MW 6.5 Jiaxian, Taiwan, earthquake of 4 March 2010, the MW7.2 Mexico earthquake of 4 April 2010, the MW7.8 Sumatra earthquake of 6 April 2010, and the MW6.9 Yushu, Qinghai, earthquake of 14 April 2010. It is found that in addition to the usual earthquake source parameters, the fast inverted results of the spatial-temporal rupture process of the earthquake sources provided important information such as the possible disastrous areas and the timely release of these results proved very useful to earthquake emergency response and seismic disaster relief efforts.

Chen, Y.; Zhang, Y.

2010-12-01

422

Earthquake prediction uncertainty, and policies for the future: A technology assessment of earthquake prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this summary is to present--for the benefit of public policymakers and administrators, scientists, businessmen, special interest groups, private citizens, and the media--the findings of a recent comprehensive technology assessment of earthquake predictions. This assessment focuses on the following: (1) background on earthquakes; (2) outlook for earthquake prediction; (3) responding to earthquake predictions; (4) public policy issues related

L. W. Weisbecker; W. C. Stoneman; S. E. Ackerman

1977-01-01

423

Temporal change in coda Q before the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 and the Haicheng earthquake of 1975  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new earthquake precursor called ``coda Q'' is demonstrated for the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 and for the Haicheng earthquake of 1975. The precursor is based on the measurement of coda decay rate for small local earthquakes in the general area that is preparing for a major earthquake. During the 3-year period preceding the Tangshan earthquake the coda Q was

Anshu Jin; Keiiti Aki

1986-01-01

424

Highway Focus Toward an Understanding of Earthquakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The treatise was prepared to present basic information such that those engineers unfamiliar with the earthquake phenomena will acquire a better understanding of the causes and distribution of earthquakes. Efforts being undertaken to mitigate the effects o...

W. Podolny J. D. Cooper

1974-01-01

425

West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover  

NSF Publications Database

... Jim Whitcomb (703) 292-8553 jwhitcom@nsf.gov West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover ... earthquake going on right now on the West Coast, yet no one feels it. The temblor, a so-called slow ...

426

Earthquake Engineering Research at Berkeley, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-five papers by faculty participants and research personnel associated with the Earthquake Engineering Research Center of the University of California at Berkeley were presented at the Tenth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering held in Madrid,...

1992-01-01

427

Earthquakes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Earthquakes - Multiple Languages Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Spanish (español) Haitian ... Kreyol) Parent Guidelines for Helping Children After an Earthquake English Konsèy pou paran ka ede timoun yo ...

428

Earthquake Education Materials for Grades K-12.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resources for teachers and administrators desiring to start an earthquake education program or teach a more detailed lesson on earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and plate tectonics are presented in this text. Curricula, software, and supplemental informat...

K. E. K. Ross

1990-01-01

429

Earthquake History of the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a history of the prominent earthquakes in the United States from historical times through 1970. It supersedes all previous editions with the same or similar titles and, in addition to updating earthquake listings through 1970, contains ...

J. L. Coffman C. A. Von Hake

1973-01-01

430

Earthquake Archaeology: a logical approach?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. Within this broad cross-disciplinary tramping ground, earthquake geologists have tended to focus on those aspects of the cultural record that are most familiar to them; the physical effects of seismic deformation on ancient constructions. One of the core difficulties with this 'earthquake archaeology' approach is that recent attempts to isolate structural criteria that are diagnostic or strongly suggestive of a seismic origin are undermined by the recognition that signs of ancient seismicity are generally indistinguishable from non-seismic mechanisms (poor construction, adverse geotechnical conditions). We illustrate the difficulties and inconsistencies in current proposed 'earthquake diagnostic' schemes by reference to two case studies of archaeoseismic damage in central Greece. The first concerns fallen columns at various Classical temple localities in mainland Greece (Nemea, Sounio, Olympia, Bassai) which, on the basis of observed structural criteria, are earthquake-induced but which are alternatively explained by archaeologists as the action of human disturbance. The second re-examines the almost type example of the Kyparissi site in the Atalanti region as a Classical stoa offset across a seismic surface fault, arguing instead for its deformation by ground instability. Finally, in highlighting the inherent ambiguity of archaeoseismic data, we consider the value of a logic-tree approach for quantifying and quantifying our uncertainities for seismic-hazard analysis.

Stewart, I. S.; Buck, V. A.

2001-12-01

431

Revisiting the November 27, 1945 Makran (Mw=8.2) interplate earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) in southern Iran and southwestern Pakistan is a zone of convergence, where the remnant oceanic crust of Arabian plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate with a rate of less than 30 mm/yr. The November 27, 1945 earthquake (Mw=8.2) in eastern section of Makran followed by a tsunami, at some points 15 meters high. More than 4000 victims and widespread devastation along the coastal area of Pakistan, Iran, Oman and India are reported for this earthquake. We have collected the old seismograms of the 1945 earthquake and its largest following earthquake (August 5, 1947, Mw=7.3) from a number of stations around the globe. Using ISS data, we relocated these two events. We used the teleseismic body-waveform inversion code of Kikuchi and Kanamori to determine the slip distribution of these two earthquakes for the first time. The results show that the extent of rupture of the 1945 earthquake is larger than what previously had been approximated in other studies. The slip distribution suggests two distinct sets of asperities with different behavior in the west close to Pasni and in the east close to Ormara. The highest slip was obtained for an area between these two cities which shows geological evidence of rapid uplift. To associate this behavior with the structure of slab interface we studied the TPGA (Trench Parallel Free-air Gravity Anomaly) and TPBA (Trench Parallel Bouguer Anomaly) in MSZ. The results of TPGA does not show the expected phenomenon, which is the correlation of asperities with the area of highly negative TPGA. However, TPBA can make correlation between the observed slip distribution and the structure of slab interface. Using the topography and gravity profiles perpendicular to trench and along the MSZ, we could observe the segmentation in the slab interface. This confirms that we barely expect that the whole interface releases energy in one single megathrust earthquake. Current seismicity in MSZ, although sparse, can fairly good confirm signals of a mature cycle of earthquake to the west of the rupture area of the 1945 event. These evidences include distribution of extensional earthquakes at intermediate depths and compressional events in the overriding plate. Revisiting the 1945 earthquake can provide lessons for understanding the behavior of MSZ and its future large events.

Zarifi, Z.; Raeesi, M.

2012-04-01

432

Earthquake Waves: The Find the Earthquake Team Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in teams to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using the time travel difference between the primary (P) and the secondary (S) waves. Teams work out that the time difference between the wave arrival times depends upon the distance of the monitoring station from the epicenter. To locate the earthquake they draw circles of the appropriate (scaled) radius from the monitoring stations and locate the epicenter where the three circles intersect. This site contains all of the data required for this activity and instructions for the teacher.

433

Earthquake-dammed lakes in New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

Eleven small lakes were formed by landslides caused by the 1929 Buller earthquake; four others were formed by other historic earthquakes in New Zealand. At least nine other New Zealand lakes are also dammed by landslides and were probably formed by prehistoric earthquakes. When recognized by morphology, synchronous age, and areal distribution, earthquake-dammed lakes could provide an estimate of paleoseismicity for the past few hundred or thousand years.

Adams, J.

1981-05-01

434

Efficient testing of earthquake forecasting models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computationally efficient alternatives are proposed to the likelihood-based tests employed by the Collaboratory for the Study\\u000a of Earthquake Predictability for assessing the performance of earthquake likelihood models in the earthquake forecast testing\\u000a centers. For the conditional L-test, which tests the consistency of the earthquake catalogue with a model, an exact test using convolutions of distributions\\u000a is available when the number

David A. Rhoades; Danijel Schorlemmer; Matthew C. Gerstenberger; Annemarie Christophersen; J. Douglas Zechar; Masajiro Imoto

2011-01-01

435

Earthquake-induced landslides: 1980–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of earthquake-induced landslides has been compiled which extends the work of Keefer (Keefer DK. Landslides caused by earthquakes. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America 1984;95:406–421) who covered the period 1811–1980 to 1997. A total of 36 earthquakes world-wide are included, the new database having about the same number of earthquakes as reported by Keefer. Correlations evolving from

C. E Rodr??guez; J. J Bommer; R. J Chandler

1999-01-01

436

St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

2007-01-01

437

Viral hepatitis in India.  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in India, which is hyperendemic for HAV and HEV. Seroprevalence studies reveal that 90%-100% of the population acquires anti-HAV antibody and becomes immune by adolescence. Many epidemics of HEV have been reported from India. HAV related liver disease is uncommon in India and occurs mainly in children. HEV is also the major cause of sporadic adult acute viral hepatitis and ALF. Pregnant women and patients with CLD constitute the high risk groups to contract HEV infection, and HEV-induced mortality among them is substantial, which underlines the need for preventive measures for such groups. Children with HAV and HEV coinfection are prone to develop ALF. India has intermediate HBV endemicity, with a carrier frequency of 2%-4%. HBV is the major cause of CLD and HCC. Chronic HBV infection in India is acquired in childhood, presumably before 5 years of age, through horizontal transmission. Vertical transmission of HBV in India is considered to be infrequent. Inclusion of HBV vaccination in the expanded programme of immunization is essential to reduce the HBV carrier frequency and disease burden. HBV genotypes A and D are prevalent in India, which are similar to the HBV genotypes in the West. HCV infection in India has a population prevalence of around 1%, and occurs predominantly through transfusion and the use of unsterile glass syringes. HCV genotypes 3 and 2 are prevalent in 60%-80% of the population and they respond well to a combination of interferon and ribavirin. About 10%-15% of CLD and HCC are associated with HCV infection in India. HCV infection is also a major cause of post-transfusion hepatitis. HDV infection is infrequent in India and is present about 5%-10% of patients with HBV-related liver disease. HCC appears to be less common in India than would be expected from the prevalence rates of HBV and HCV. The high disease burden of viral hepatitis and related CLD in India, calls for the setting up of a hepatitis registry and formulation of government-supported prevention and control strategies. PMID:17100109

Acharya, S K; Madan, Kaushal; Dattagupta, S; Panda, S K

438

Advancing vaccinology in India.  

PubMed

India's inaugural Advanced Vaccinology Course, hosted by the Child Health Foundation and the International Clinical Epidemiology Network, attracted approximately 55 EPI managers and privately-practicing physicians from across the country. The comprehensive course provided training in epidemiology, disease surveillance, and vaccine safety and regulation. Core lectures highlighted vaccination trends, challenges, and innovations specific to India; 'Breakout Sessions' and the 'State-of-the-Art Lecture Series' complemented core course material. Overall, the course aimed to provide an advanced education in classic and topical areas of vaccinology to ensure that India has the tools and skills required to safely manage and grow its national immunization program. PMID:22149704

O'Brien, Jennifer

2012-01-01

439

Model dissection from earthquake time series: A comparative analysis using modern non-linear forecasting and artificial neural network approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study utilizes two non-linear approaches to characterize model behavior of earthquake dynamics in the crucial tectonic regions of Northeast India (NEI). In particular, we have applied a (i) non-linear forecasting technique to assess the dimensionality of the earthquake-generating mechanism using the monthly frequency earthquake time series (magnitude ?4) obtained from NOAA and USGS catalogues for the period 1960-2003 and (ii) artificial neural network (ANN) methods—based on the back-propagation algorithm (BPA) to construct the neural network model of the same data set for comparing the two. We have constructed a multilayered feed forward ANN model with an optimum input set configuration specially designed to take advantage of more completely on the intrinsic relationships among the input and retrieved variables and arrive at the feasible model for earthquake prediction. The comparative analyses show that the results obtained by the two methods are stable and in good agreement and signify that the optimal embedding dimension obtained from the non-linear forecasting analysis compares well with the optimal number of inputs used for the neural networks. The constructed model suggests that the earthquake dynamics in the NEI region can be characterized by a high-dimensional chaotic plane. Evidence of high-dimensional chaos appears to be associated with "stochastic seasonal" bias in these regions and would provide some useful constraints for testing the model and criteria to assess earthquake hazards on a more rigorous and quantitative basis.

Sri Lakshmi, S.; Tiwari, R. K.

2009-02-01

440

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the âNational Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2013-01-01

441

Preseismic fault slip and earthquake prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that preseismic fault creep may be the underlying process that is responsible for observations of earthquake precursors. The assertion that fault creep precedes earthquakes is supported by evidence from at least some earthquakes and by analogy with detailed laboratory observations. Laboratory observations of stick slip reveal that at least two stages of preseismic slip are an intrinsic

J. H. Dieterich

1978-01-01

442

The earthquake prediction experiment at Parkfield, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1985, a focused earthquake prediction experiment has been in progress along the San Andreas fault near the town of Parkfield in central California. Parkfield has experienced six moderate earthquakes since 1857 at average intervals of 22 years, the most recent a magnitude of 6 event in 1966. The probability of another moderate earthquake soon appears high, but studies assigning

Evelyn Roeloffs; John Langbein

1994-01-01

443

ANSS Recent Earthquakes in the US  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) site from the USGS features an interactive map of the last week's earthquakes in the US. Earthquakes are labeled by occurrence time and magnitude. Additional data is available about each quake, as well as links to an earthquake glossary, shake maps, seismogram displays, animations and data sources.

Program, Earthquake H.; Usgs

444

Terrestrial and space techniques in earthquake research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report is given on an international workshop which was held to discuss recent advances in experimental techniques for the monitoring of crustal dynamics in earthquake zones. Experts from countries throughout the world, who are concerned with earthquakes and earthquakes disaster prevention, participated and discussed various terrestrial as well as space techniques presently applied or most likely to become applicable

A. Vogel

1979-01-01

445

Current Regulatory Earthquake Zoning Map of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of latest version of the regulatory earthquake zoning map of Turkey, which was one of the activities in the National Plan of Turkey for International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) period (1990-2000), was achieved by Earthquake Research Department at General Directorate of Disaster Affairs in cooperation with Earthquake Engineering Research Center at Middle East Technical University. Different from

Nazan Yilmaz; Murat Nurlu; Bekir Tüzel

446

Earthquake Research in NOAA 1971-1972.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Earthquake Research in NOAA 1971-1972 is the 7th annual review of the scientific work of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration related to the occurrence of earthquakes. Earthquake research within NOAA is conducted principally by the Earth Sc...

J. C. Stepp

1973-01-01

447

Building Loss Estimation for Earthquake Insurance Pricing  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the 1999 earthquakes in Turkey several changes in the insurance sector took place. A compulsory earthquake insurance scheme was introduced by the government. The reinsurance companies increased their rates. Some even supended operations in the market. And, most important, the insurance companies realized the importance of portfolio analysis in shaping their future market strategies. The paper describes an earthquake

E. Durukal; M. Erdik; K. Sesetyan; M. B. Demircioglu; Y. Fahjan; B. Siyahi

2005-01-01

448

Jiuzhaigou Tourist Perceptions of Wenchuan Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is designed to explore the relationship between the Wenchuan earthquake and tourist perceptions of it, at Jiuzhaigou valley in China. Data were analyzed from a sample of 196 first-time and repeat visitors to the Jiuzhaigou Valley during National Day, the first Golden Week of tourism after the earthquake. The results indicate that: (1) The influence of this earthquake

Yang Fengmei; Wang Naiang; Xiao Liangang

2010-01-01

449

Revisiting the 1872 Owens Valley, California, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 26 March 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is among the largest his- torical earthquakes in California. The felt area and maximum fault displacements have long been regarded as comparable to, if not greater than, those of the great San Andreas fault earthquakes of 1857 and 1906, but mapped surface ruptures of the latter two events were 2-3 times longer than

S. E. Hough; Kate Hutton

2008-01-01

450

The energy release in great earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional magnitude scale M suffers saturation when the rupture dimension of the earthquake exceeds the wavelength of the seismic waves used for the magnitude determination (usually 5-50 km). This saturation leads to an inaccurate estimate of energy released in great earthquakes. To circumvent this problem the strain energy drop W (difference in strain energy before and after an earthquake)

Hiroo Kanamori

1977-01-01

451

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the âNational Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2010-01-01

452

An Investigation of Southern California Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has directions for a classroom activity in which students plot locations of major Southern California earthquakes on a map. A table listing major earthquakes, when they occurred, their locations and their magnitudes is included. There is also a set of questions for the students to answer once they have plotted the earthquake data on their map. This site is in PDF format.

453

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the âNational Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2009-01-01

454

Relative Earthquake Location Using Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake locations are fundamental parameters necessary for the in situ study of earthquake physics and faulting and are needed to map and to quantify Earth's deformation. Within dense continental seismic networks, earthquakes can be accurately and precisely located. However, for many important tectonic environments, existing catalog data are neither accurate nor precise. In particular, for isolated continental and off-shore areas,

C. J. Ammon

2004-01-01

455

It's an Earthquake: Know What to do  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of activities introduces younger students to the concept of earthquake preparedness. They will prepare their own earthquake kits and explain why they have chosen each item, work out a disaster plan, and write a creative short story about someone who survived an earthquake because they were well prepared.