Sample records for gujarat india earthquake

  1. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  2. Attenuation of Coda Waves in the Saurashtra Region, Gujarat (India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Babita Sharma; Dinesh Kumar; S. S. Teotia; B. K. Rastogi; Arun K. Gupta; Srichand Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation characteristics based on coda waves of two areas—Jamnagar and Junagarh of Saurashtra, Gujarat (India)—have\\u000a been investigated in the present study. The frequency dependent relationships have been developed for both the areas using\\u000a single back scattering model. The broadband waveforms of the vertical components of 33 earthquakes (Mw 1.5–3.5) recorded at\\u000a six stations of the Jamnagar area, and broadband

  3. Relocation of aftershocks of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake: A new insight into seismotectonics of the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Pandey, O. P.

    2010-05-01

    In view of an anomalous crust-mantle structure beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region, double-difference relocations of 1402 aftershocks of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake were determined, using an improved 1D velocity model constructed from 3D velocity tomograms based on data from 10 to 58 three-component seismograph stations. This clearly delineated four major tectonic features: (i) south-dipping north Wagad fault (NWF), (ii and iii) south-dipping south Wagad faults 1 and 2 (SWF 1, SWF 2), and (iv) a northeast dipping transverse fault (ITF), which is a new find. The relocated aftershocks correlate satisfactorily with the geologically mapped and inferred faults in the epicentral region. The relocated focal depths delineate a marked variation to the tune of 12 km in the brittle-ductile transition depths beneath the central aftershock zone that could be attributed to a lateral variation in crustal composition (more or less mafic) or in the level of fracturing across the fault zone. A fault intersection between the NWF and ITF has been clearly mapped in the 10-20 km depth range beneath the central aftershock zone. It is inferred that large intraplate stresses associated with the fault intersection, deepening of the brittle-ductile transition to a depth of 34 km due to the presence of mafic/ultramafic material in the crust-mantle transition zone, and the presence of aqueous fluids (released during the metamorphic process of eclogitisation of lower crustal olivine-rich rocks) and volatile CO 2 at the hypocentral depths, might have resulted in generating the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence covering the entire lower crust.

  4. SRTM Radar Image with Color as Height: Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the area around the January 26, 2001, earthquake in western India, the deadliest in the country's history with some 20,000 fatalities. The epicenter of the magnitude 7.6 earthquake was just to the left of the center of the image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the black area running from the lower left corner towards the center of the image. The city of Bhuj is in the yellow-toned area among the brown hills left of the image center and is the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the shaking of the earthquake. These hills reach up to 500 meters (1,500 feet) elevation. The city of Ahmedabad, capital of Gujarat state, is the radar-bright area next to the right side of the image. Several buildings in Ahmedabad were also destroyed by the earthquake. The dark blue areas around the center of the image and extending to the left side are low-lying salt flats called the Rann of Kachchh with the Little Rann just to the right of the image center. The bumpy area north of the Rann (green and yellow colors) is a large area of sand dunes in Pakistan. A branch of the Indus River used to flow through the area on the left side of this image, but it was diverted by a previous large earthquake that struck this area in 1819.

    The annotated version of the image includes a 'beachball' that shows the location and slip direction of the January 26, 2001, earthquake from the Harvard Quick CMT catalog: http://www.seismology.harvard.edu/CMTsearch.html. [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to brown and white at the highest elevations. This image is a mosaic of four SRTM swaths.

    This image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington DC.

    Size: 450 by 300 kilometers (280 by 190 miles) Location: 23.5 deg. North lat., 70.5 deg. East lon. Orientation: North up Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: four days in February, 2000

  5. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for the northwestern portion of the state of Gujarat, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Rastogi, B.K.; Schweig, E.S.; Harmsen, S.C.; Gomberg, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    We test the sensitivity of seismic hazard to three fault source models for the northwestern portion of Gujarat, India. The models incorporate different characteristic earthquake magnitudes on three faults with individual recurrence intervals of either 800 or 1600 years. These recurrence intervals imply that large earthquakes occur on one of these faults every 266-533 years, similar to the rate of historic large earthquakes in this region during the past two centuries and for earthquakes in intraplate environments like the New Madrid region in the central United States. If one assumes a recurrence interval of 800 years for large earthquakes on each of three local faults, the peak ground accelerations (PGA; horizontal) and 1-Hz spectral acceleration ground motions (5% damping) are greater than 1 g over a broad region for a 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years' hazard level. These probabilistic PGAs at this hazard level are similar to median deterministic ground motions. The PGAs for 10% in 50 years' hazard level are considerably lower, generally ranging between 0.2 g and 0.7 g across northwestern Gujarat. Ground motions calculated from our models that consider fault interevent times of 800 years are considerably higher than other published models even though they imply similar recurrence intervals. These higher ground motions are mainly caused by the application of intraplate attenuation relations, which account for less severe attenuation of seismic waves when compared to the crustal interplate relations used in these previous studies. For sites in Bhuj and Ahmedabad, magnitude (M) 7 3/4 earthquakes contribute most to the PGA and the 0.2- and 1-s spectral acceleration ground motion maps at the two considered hazard levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ambiguities about English: Ideologies and Critical Practice in Vernacular-Medium College Classrooms in Gujarat, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2005-01-01

    Situated amid tertiary-level institutions in the city of Ahmedabad, in Gujarat, India, this article explores how particular ideologies countering English inform pedagogic choices made by language teachers teaching in "vernacular-medium" (VM) college classrooms. The ideologies under discussion are two linked "thought structures." The first, the…

  7. Written Textual Production and Consumption (WTPC) in Vernacular and English-Medium Settings in Gujarat, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2003-01-01

    Sketches key facets in the larger socioeducational machinery that shapes the written textual production and consumption (WTPC) of English-medium (EM) and "vernacular-medium" (VM) students in Gujarat, India. Lays out ways in which articulator macro-structures align together to produce and shape conditions that privilege the WTPC of EM students over…

  8. Use of Seismotectonic Information for the Seismic Hazard Analysis for Surat City, Gujarat, India: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaker, T. P.; Rathod, Ganesh W.; Rao, K. S.; Gupta, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Surat, the financial capital of Gujarat, India, is a mega city with a population exceeding five millions. The city falls under Zone III of the Seismic Zoning Map of India. After the devastating 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7, much attention is paid towards the seismic microzonation activity in the state of Gujarat. In this work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard for Surat City (21.170 N, 72.830 E) based on the probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard analysis. After collecting a catalogue of historical earthquakes in a 350 km radius around the city and after analyzing a database statistically, deterministic analysis has been carried out considering known tectonic sources; a further recurrence relationship for the control region is found out. Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were then carried out for the Surat region considering five seismotectonic sources selected from a deterministic approach. The final results of the present investigations are presented in the form of peak ground acceleration and response spectra at bed rock level considering the local site conditions. Rock level Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values at 0.01 s and 1.0 s corresponding to 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years have been calculated. Further Uniform Hazard Response Spectrum (UHRS) at rock level for 5% damping, and 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, were also developed for the city considering all site classes. These results can be directly used by engineers as basic inputs in earthquake-resistant design of structures in and around the city.

  9. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of India’s 2008 Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places in Gujarat

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Waters, Hugh R; Arora, Monika; Varghese, Beena; Dave, Paresh; Modi, Bhavesh

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke are associated with disability and premature mortality in low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing India’s Prohibition of Smoking in Public Places Rules in the state of Gujarat, compared to implementation of a complete smoking ban. Using standard cost-effectiveness analysis methods, the cost of implementing the alternatives was evaluated against the years of life saved and cases of acute myocardial infarction averted by reductions in smoking prevalence and secondhand smoke exposure. After one year, it is estimated that a complete smoking ban in Gujarat would avert 17,000 additional heart attacks and gain 438,000 life years (LY). A complete ban is highly cost-effective when key variables including legislation effectiveness were varied in the sensitivity analyses. Without including medical treatment costs averted, the cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $2 to $112 per LY gained and $37 to $386 per acute myocardial infarction averted. Implementing a complete smoking ban would be a cost saving alternative to the current partial legislation in terms of reducing tobacco-attributable disease in Gujarat. PMID:21655118

  10. Microbial keratitis in Gujarat, Western India: findings from 200 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Pandya, Snehal; Kavathia, Ghanshyam; Antala, Sejul; Madan, Molly; Javdekar, Tanuja

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to study the epidemiological characteristics and the microbiological profile of patients suspected with microbial keratitis in Gujarat. Methods Corneal scraping was collected from 200 consecutive cases of suspected microbial keratitis and was subjected to direct examination and culture. Results Of the 200 ulcers 55% were culture positive, 26.5% were bacterial ulcers of which 47% were due to Staphylococcus spp. Pure fungal growth was seen in 22% while 6% were mixed ulcers. Fusarium spp. (30%) was the most common fungus followed by Aspergillus spp. (21%). Only one case of Acanthamoeba keratitis was encountered. Patients were mainly from rural areas (61.5%) with male preponderance (61.5%). Corneal injury was seen in 78.5% cases of which 53% had injury with vegetative matter. Prior treatment was seen in 58% of which 5% had been treated by village healers. Nineteen patients (9.5%) also used some kind of traditional topical treatment. Increased incidence was seen from August to December. Five case of fugal ulcers lead to perforation of which three were due to Fusarium spp. whereas perforation was seen in only two cases of bacterial ulcers due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion Staphylococcus and Fusarium spp. were the most common etiological agents in our region. Predominant outdoor agricultural activity is the principal causative factor for corneal injury. Corneal ulcers complicated due to treatment by village healers are another important concern. The information regarding regional etiology will help empirical management as many eye clinics do not have microbiological facilities. PMID:22384294

  11. Short Term Earthquake Forecasts at Koyna, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K. Gupta; D. Shashidhar; K. Mallika; N. Purnachandra Rao; D. Srinagesh; H. Satyanarayana; S. Saha; R. T. Naik

    2010-01-01

    At the Koyna reservoir in western India, beginning form August 2005, earthquake activity is monitored in real time, and successful short term forecasts have been made of M~ 4 earthquakes. The basis of these forecasts is the observation of nucleation that precedes such earthquakes. Here we report that a total of 29 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 3.5 to

  12. Y chromosome haplogroup distribution in Indo-European speaking tribes of Gujarat, western India.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Priyanka; Aggarwal, Aastha; Mitra, Siuli; Italia, Yazdi M; Saraswathy, Kallur N; Chandrasekar, Adimoolam; Kshatriya, Gautam K

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of Southern Gujarat, India to investigate and reconstruct their paternal population structure and population histories. The role of language, ethnicity and geography in determining the observed pattern of Y haplogroup clustering in the study populations was also examined. A set of 48 bi-allelic markers on the non-recombining region of Y chromosome (NRY) were analysed in 284 males; representing nine Indo-European speaking tribal populations. The genetic structure of the populations revealed that none of these groups was overtly admixed or completely isolated. However, elevated haplogroup diversity and FST value point towards greater diversity and differentiation which suggests the possibility of early demographic expansion of the study groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 paternal lineages, of which six haplogroups: C5, H1a*, H2, J2, R1a1* and R2 accounted for a major portion of the Y chromosome diversity. The higher frequency of the six haplogroups and the pattern of clustering in the populations indicated overlapping of haplogroups with West and Central Asian populations. Other analyses undertaken on the population affiliations revealed that the Indo-European speaking populations along with the Dravidian speaking groups of southern India have an influence on the tribal groups of Gujarat. The vital role of geography in determining the distribution of Y lineages was also noticed. This implies that although language plays a vital role in determining the distribution of Y lineages, the present day linguistic affiliation of any population in India for reconstructing the demographic history of the country should be considered with caution. PMID:24614885

  13. Lower Oligocene bivalves of Ramanian Stage from Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhara, R. P.; Jodhawat, R. L.; Devi, K. Bigyapati

    2012-04-01

    Marine Oligocene sequences in India outcrop only in western part of Kachchh. Earlier researchers have recognized the Oligocene strata under the Nari Series (Nagappa 1959; Chatterji and Mathur 1966). The Nari Series has a type area in Pakistan. It has two subdivisions - the Lower Nari (Lower Oligocene) and the Upper Nari (Upper Oligocene). It seems that there is no valid proof about the age of the Lower Nari due to lack of proper fauna (Eames 1975), and according to Pascoe (1962), the Upper Nari slightly transgress into Aquitanian (Lower Miocene), therefore, one has to be very cautious. Biswas and Raju (1971) reclassified the Oligocene strata of Kachchh and lithostratigraphically clubbed them as the Maniyara Fort Formation with type section along the Bermoti stream. This Formation has four members. The lower three members correspond to the Ramanian Stage (Lower Oligocene, Biswas 1971, 1973) while the uppermost to the Waiorian Stage (Upper Oligocene, Biswas 1965, 1971, 1973). The Ramanian Stage is characterized by large forams especially Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites fichteli intermedius, Lepidocyclina ( Eulepidina) dialata and Operculina sp. Several ostracods are also known to occur. Megafauna include bivalves, gastropods, echinoids, corals, mammals and reptiles. Concerning bivalves earlier researchers have recorded a few taxa namely Trisidos semitorta (Lamarck), Cubitostrea angulata (J de C Sowerby), Pecten ( Amussiopecten) labadyei d'Archiac and Haime, Periglypta puerpera (Linne') var. aglaurae Brongniart, Ostrea fraasi Mayer Eymer and listed Pecten laevicostatus J de C Sowerby, Callista pseudoumbonella Vredenburg and Clementia papyracea (Gray) from Kachchh as against overall 42 forms from the Nari Series as a whole (Vredenburg 1928). This tempted us to make an attempt to collect bivalve fauna systematically which are occurring prolifically in the Ramanian Stage. In the present work, for this purpose, sections are worked out around Lakhpat (23°50'N; 68°47'E), Maniyara Fort (23°28'05?N; 68°37'E) Rakhdi Dam (23°27'26?N; 68°40'10?E) and Waior (23°25'05?N; 68°41'37?E) with a view to highlight the entombed bivalve taxa. Authors have encountered 53 species of which 23 are restricted to the Ramanian Stage.

  14. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis by Spirulina subsalsa from Gujarat coast of India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Mishra, Sandhya

    2010-03-01

    Cyanobacteria have many unexploited potential for natural products with a huge variability in structure and biological activity. Their products are species specific and substrate+growth condition specific. Under stress conditions they are reported to produce biopolymers like EPS and PHA, which can be produced extracellularly and intracellularly, respectively. Polyhydroxyalkanoates are polymers of biological origin, they are also capable of being completely broken down to water and carbon dioxide by microorganisms found in a wide range of environments, such as soil, water, and sewage. We have studied marine cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa from Veraval coast, Gujarat, India, producing PHA under increased sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (5% enhancement to the ASNIII medium), The biopolymer was chemically characterized through FTIR, NMR, TGA, and DSC. The present study shows increased PHA accumulation in S. subsalsa by twofold increased NaCl concentration in the growth media. PMID:20060853

  15. Short term earthquake forecasts at Koyna, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harsh Gupta; D. Shashidhar; K. Mallika; N. Purnachandra Rao; D. Srinagesh; H. V. S. Satyanarayana; Satish Saha; R. T. B. Naik

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake activity is monitored in real time at the Koyna reservoir in western India, beginning from August 2005 and successful\\u000a short term forecasts have been made of M ? 4 earthquakes. The basis of these forecasts is the observation of nucleation that\\u000a precedes such earthquakes. Here we report that a total of 29 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 3.5

  16. Source investigation of the tar balls deposited along the Gujarat coast, India, using chemical fingerprinting and transport modeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Kumar, K Vinod; Sreenu, L; Samiksha, S V; Tai, Yunus; Sudheesh, K

    2014-10-01

    Deposition of tar balls (TBs) along the south Gujarat coast, situated on the west coast of India (WCI), commonly occurs during the southwest monsoon season. Several offshore oil fields off the Mumbai-Gujarat coast, and refineries along the coast might be sources of oil spills/leakages and lead to the formation of TBs. To identify the sources, we collected 12 TB samples from the beaches of Gujarat (Tithal, Maroli, Umbergam, and Nargol) during 15-17 July 2012 as well as samples of crude oils, namely, Cairn, NIKO, MSC Chitra, and two at Bombay High (BH). These TBs were subject to the following multimarker approach for source identification: Diagnostic Ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentacyclic triterpanes, compound specific isotope analysis, Principle Component Analysis and numerical simulations (hydrodynamic model coupled with particle trajectories). The chemical fingerprint results reveal that the source of the TBs is BH crude oils, and the model results confirm that the source location is BH north oil fields. This is the first study of its kind in India to use fingerprinting and transport modeling techniques for source identification of TBs. PMID:25198506

  17. Political ecology of groundwater: the contrasting case of water-abundant West Bengal and water-scarce Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, Aditi

    2006-03-01

    Three apparently disparate themes (groundwater, farmers and politics) interweave in this account of how groundwater-related policies in India have very little to do with the scarcity, depletion or quality of groundwater, and more to do with rural politics manifested, among other things, in terms of the presence or absence of farmer lobbies. Examples from two states of India, the water-abundant state of West Bengal and water-scarce state of Gujarat, were investigated using readily available data, analysis of the literature, interviews and fieldwork. In the case of West Bengal, although there is no pressing groundwater crisis, the government of West Bengal (GOWB) was able to successfully implement strict groundwater regulations along with a drastic increase in electricity tariff. More importantly, GOWB was able to implement these without any form of visible farmer protest, though these measures negatively affected farmer incomes. On the other hand, in Gujarat, where there is a real and grave groundwater crisis, the government of Gujarat has neither been able to implement strict groundwater regulations, nor has it been able to increase electricity tariff substantially. Thus, through the lens of ‘political ecology’ the contrasting case of these two Indian states is explained.

  18. Short Term Earthquake Forecasts at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.; Purnachandra Rao, N.; Srinagesh, D.; Satyanarayana, H.; Saha, S.; Naik, R. T.

    2010-12-01

    At the Koyna reservoir in western India, beginning form August 2005, earthquake activity is monitored in real time, and successful short term forecasts have been made of M~ 4 earthquakes. The basis of these forecasts is the observation of nucleation that precedes such earthquakes. Here we report that a total of 29 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 3.5 to 5.1 occurred in the region during the period of August 2005 through May 2010 (Figure 1). These earthquakes could broadly be put in three zones. Zone-A has been most active accounting for 18 earthquakes, while 5 in Zone-B and 6 in Zone-C are occurred (Figure 2). Earthquakes in Zone-A are found to be preceded by well-defined nucleation, while that is not the case with zones B and C. This indicates the complexity of the earthquakes processes and the fact that even in a small seismically active area of only 30 km x 20 km earthquake forecast is difficult. Figure 1: Seismic activity in the Koyna-Warna region during August 2005 to May 2010. In the inset India map indicates the study region. Figure 2: Earthquakes of magnitude range 3.5 - 5.1 in the Koyna-Warna region during August 2005 - May 2010. Zone ‘A’ indicates area in which all of the M 3.5 and above earthquakes preceded by nucleation, where as in Zone ‘B’ and Zone ‘C’ nucleation was not observed.

  19. A Preliminary Estimate of Immediate Cost of Chikungunya and Dengue to Gujarat, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dileep Mavalankar; Tapasvi Puwar; Dipti Govil; Tiina M Murtola; S S Vasan

    Background In this working paper, a preliminary estimate of the immediate cost of chikungunya and dengue to the Indian state of Gujarat has been estimated by combining nine earlier studies on major cost factors such as costs of illness and control, and thus building a more comprehensive picture of the immediate cost of these Aedes mosquito-borne diseases to Gujarat. Methods

  20. Development and implementation of South Asia's first heat-health action plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India).

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J; Toma, Violeta E; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J

    2014-04-01

    Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat's adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan's development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program's scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively. PMID:24670386

  1. The impact of sanskritization in a forest?dwelling tribe of Gujarat, India. Ecology, food consumption patterns, nutrient intake, anthropometric, clinical and hematological status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara Gopaldas; Anjali Gupta; Kalpna Saxena

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of “Sanskritization,” a process by which a low caste or tribe is able to rise to a higher position in the caste hierarchy by adopting vegetarianism, teetotalism, and rituals of the higher castes, was investigated in two culturally different segments of the forest?dwelling Rathwakoli, Gujarat, India. Sixty?five Bhagat families who had given up meat, alcohol and other tribal

  2. Healthcare-Seeking Behaviors of Mothers regarding their Children in a Tribal Community of Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Chandwani, Haresh; Pandor, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The mortality and morbidity from the diseases which contribute to the deaths among children can be reduced if early intervention is made in terms of appropriate care and treatment. Thus, utmost care should be taken to prevent diseases, recognize the danger signals, and treat them urgently. Thus, healthcare-seeking behavior is of prime importance and is pivotal in the well-being of the individual as well as the community. The aims of this research were to determine the possible factors that affect the healthcare-seeking behavior of mothers for their children in a tribal community of Narmada district and to determine the reasons for not seeking curative care for children who are perceived to be sick. Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based study of 405 mothers of the Dediyapada Block in Narmada District Gujarat, India, was undertaken, using a two-stage, cluster-sampling technique. The study was conducted from June through August 2011 using the questionnaire method. The chi squared test was used to determine the association between various factors and the healthcare-seeking behaviors of mothers. Results: The mothers were in the age range of 17 to 44 years, with the mean (+SD) being 26.2+3.2 years. Ninety-one percent of the children, irrespective of gender, had completed their primary immunization. Regarding curative healthcare-seeking behavior, 16.5% of the males and 42% of the females received no treatment. Joint family structure (P<0.05, df=1, ?2=41.39), mass media exposure (P<0.05, df=1, ?2=16.42), literacy status (P<0.05, df=1, ?2=60.76), socioeconomic status of the mothers (P<0.05, df=1, ?2=56.08), and gender differences among children (P<0.05, df=1, ?2=21.18) were found to be associated significantly with the healthcare-seeking behavior of the mothers. Conclusion: Increased maternal education, generation of intensified awareness through the mass media approach, implementing gender-sensitive interventions, and counseling may have positive implications in the future, leading to better health outcomes and favorable health indicators.

  3. Assessment of water quality index of bore well water samples from some selected locations of South Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S; Patel, H M; Srivastava, P K; Bafna, A M

    2013-10-01

    The present study calculates the water quality index (WQI) of some selected sites from South Gujarat (India) and assesses the impact of industries, agriculture and human activities. Chemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of WQI of some selected bore well samples. The results revealed that the WQI of the some bore well samples exceeded acceptable levels due to the dumping of wastes from municipal, industrial and domestic sources and agricultural runoff as well. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) was implemented for interpolation of each water quality parameter (pH, EC, alkalinity, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate) for the entire sampled area. The bore water is unsuitable for drinking and if the present state of affairs continues for long, it may soon become an ecologically dead bore. PMID:25906591

  4. The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinay K. Sahay

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous\\u000a shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal\\u000a maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite\\u000a mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results

  5. Fossil Steginoporellid (Cheilostomata: Neocheilostomina), Bryozoa from the Tertiary sediments of Western Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonar, Mohan A.; Gaikwad, Sharad G.

    2013-02-01

    Five species of Steginoporella from the Palaeogene rocks of the Western Kachchh, Gujarat are described in this paper. Out of five steginoporellids, S. mathuri n.sp., S. murachbanensis n.sp. and S. chiplonkari n.sp. are new to science; S. bhujensis is already reported from this region; and Steginoporella sp. indet is reported for the first time in these rocks. All these species show Indo-Pacific affinities. The occurrence of Steginoporella from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene indicates that two stages of radiation had taken place in Kachchh. Phylogenetic analysis using PAST programme indicates that S. mathuri is very distinct from other species of Steginoporella; while S. murachbanensis and S. bhujensis form the same clade.

  6. A unique trend of murder-suicide in the Jamnagar region of Gujarat, India (a retrospective study of 5 years).

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Gambhir Singh, O

    2008-05-01

    Jamnagar region, Gujarat state, enjoys a relatively low incidence of homicide in India. In the 5 year period from 2000 to 2004, 8 mothers committed 13 murders involving 3 male and 10 female victims and in every case it was followed by suicide of the assailant mothers. During the study the annual incidence of murder-suicide was about 1.8 cases. All the assailants were mothers and the victims were their small children in the age group of 6 months to 7 years. Five incidents took place in rural areas and three in urban areas. It was prevalent only in low socio-economic families. Methods both for killing and suicide were either burning or drowning. All the mothers were legally married and living with the family. Family and family related matters were the main motives for killing. In one case there was history of depression of the mother due to her previous miscarriage. Alcohol consumption or drug abuse was not seen even in a single case. All cases fell in the altruistic category of filicide-suicide. PMID:18423359

  7. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95 %. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region. PMID:26108747

  8. Development and Implementation of South Asia’s First Heat-Health Action Plan in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India)

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Kim; Kulkarni, Suhas P.; Azhar, Gulrez Shah; Mavalankar, Dileep; Jaiswal, Anjali; Connolly, Meredith; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Rajiva, Ajit; Dutta, Priya; Deol, Bhaskar; Sanchez, Lauren; Khosla, Radhika; Webster, Peter J.; Toma, Violeta E.; Sheffield, Perry; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent heat waves, already a concern in rapidly growing and urbanizing South Asia, will very likely worsen in a warming world. Coordinated adaptation efforts can reduce heat’s adverse health impacts, however. To address this concern in Ahmedabad (Gujarat, India), a coalition has been formed to develop an evidence-based heat preparedness plan and early warning system. This paper describes the group and initial steps in the plan’s development and implementation. Evidence accumulation included extensive literature review, analysis of local temperature and mortality data, surveys with heat-vulnerable populations, focus groups with health care professionals, and expert consultation. The findings and recommendations were encapsulated in policy briefs for key government agencies, health care professionals, outdoor workers, and slum communities, and synthesized in the heat preparedness plan. A 7-day probabilistic weather forecast was also developed and is used to trigger the plan in advance of dangerous heat waves. The pilot plan was implemented in 2013, and public outreach was done through training workshops, hoardings/billboards, pamphlets, and print advertisements. Evaluation activities and continuous improvement efforts are ongoing, along with plans to explore the program’s scalability to other Indian cities, as Ahmedabad is the first South Asian city to address heat-health threats comprehensively. PMID:24670386

  9. Geological contacts, thermal springs and earthquakes in Peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, R. K.

    1992-11-01

    The occurrence of thermal springs in Peninsular India shows a distinct pattern that is related to geological contacts, tectonic units and earthquakes. It is observed that most of these thermal springs occur either near the contact of two geological units or along prominent tectonic units in the Peninsular Shield. The seismicity map of Peninsular India from historical times up to 1990 for earthquakes of magnitude > 3.5 indicates a striking correlation between seismicity and thermal springs. The b-values which characterize the thermal spring areas of the western coast are higher (0.8-1.1) than those obtained in similar areas in the rest of the Peninsular Shield (0.47-0.6). This indicates that the stresses are released by frequent micro- to moderate earthquakes in the thermal springs area along the west coast of India, whereas in Peninsular India the stress release is through infrequent moderate earthquakes.

  10. Strong positive growth responses to salinity by Ceriops tagal, a commonly occurring mangrove of the Gujarat coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neha T.; Gupta, Ajit; Pandey, Amar Nath

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Mangroves of Western Gujarat (India) are subject to die-back. Salinity intolerance is one possible cause, especially in young plants. We therefore quantified the extent to which young plants of one widely occurring mangrove species (Ceriops tagal) tolerate high salt in terms of establishment, growth, water status, proline content and mineral accumulation. Methodology In a greenhouse study, juvenile plants were established from mature propagules over 40 days in soil containing added NaCl, raising soil water salinity to 0.2, 2.5, 5.1, 7.7, 10.3, 12.6, 15.4, 17.9, 20.5 and 23.0 ppt (w/v). Growth and physiological characteristics were monitored over the subsequent 6 months. Principal results Despite a negative relationship between the percentage of young plant establishment and salt concentration (50 % loss at 22.3 ppt), the remaining plants proved highly tolerant. Growth, in dry weight, was significantly promoted by low salinity, which is optimal at 12.6 ppt. Water content, leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation in tissues followed a similar optimum curve with leaf area being doubled at 12.6 ppt NaCl. Salinity >12.6 and <23 ppt inhibited plant growth, but never to below control levels. Root:shoot dry weight ratios were slightly reduced by salinity (maximum 19 %), but the water potential of roots, leaves and stems became more negative as salinity increases while proline increases in all tissues. The concentration of Na increased, whereas concentrations of K, Ca, N and P decreased and that of Mg remained stable. Conclusions Ceriops tagal has a remarkably high degree of salinity tolerance, and shows an optimal growth when soil water salinity is 12.6 ppt. Salinity tolerance is linked to an adaptive regulation of hydration and ionic content. The cause of localized die-back along the coastal region of Gujarat is thus unlikely to be a primary outcome of salinity stress although amendments with Ca and K, and perhaps proline, may help protect against extreme salinity. PMID:22476069

  11. Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-09-01

    A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

  12. Business strategies of micro enterprises in disaster affected areas of Gujarat, India 2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadezhda Sliwa

    Background Workers of the informal, unorganized sector constitute more than 90% of India's labour force. A majority of these run micro enterprises producing goods or rendering services. Micro enterprises are characterized by financial constraints, lack of access to credit and professional advice, dependence on personal networks and susceptibility to external shocks and disasters. Micro enterprises must constantly adapt their business

  13. Lithofacies and depositional dynamics of golden Oolite (Bathonian), Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Diwakar; Tiwari, R. N.

    2006-04-01

    The Golden Oolite Member of the Patcham Formation consisting of 84 m thick alternate sequence of limestones and mudstone are well exposed in the Jhura Dome, Kachchh Mainland, Gujarat. Petrographic study of limestones reveals four types of microfacies: oolitic fossiliferous grainstone (A 1); fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone (A 2); sandy fossiliferous grainstone (A 3); and pebbly fossiliferous grainstone (A 4). The microfacies normally form microfacies assemblages with calcareous mudstone (B 1) and are stacked vertically in ascending order as A 1-A 3, A 1-B 1, A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1. The assemblage (A 1-A 3) is characterised by interbedding of moderately to thickly bedded, hard and compact, golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone and sandy fossiliferous grainstone exhibiting small scale low angle planar cross beddings. It contains well preserved bioclast. Assemlage (A 1-B 1) is distinguished by rhythmic alternations of earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to very thickly bedded golden coloured oolitic fossiliferous grainstone showing ripple bedding, abundant bioclast and reworked intraclasts, whereas assemblage (A 4-B 1) exhibits rhythmic alternations of bioturbated, earthy, concretionary calcareous mudstone and moderately to thickly bedded pebbly fossiliferous grainstone. Assemblage (A 2-B 1) is characterised by earthy,bioturbated,calcareous mudstone containing thin uneven beds of fossiliferous intraclastic grainstone having micritic intraclast and microfossils. The study of lithofacies suggests two main depositional processes for the formation of golden oolite: (1) The high energy physical sedimentation from current flows during transgression characterized by irregular to sharp nature of basal contact of each cycle, abundance of well preserved bioclasts and reworked intraclasts and large scale ripple bedding; (2) Settling of fines from suspension during fair-weather period as distinguished by homogenous fine grained interbeds of mudstone in the sequence. The transition of facies from A 1-A 3 to A 2-B 1 marks deepening upward event during Bathonian period from shallow inner shelf to calcareous mud dominated outer shelf. The energy condition was very high during deposition of the lower and middle part (A 1-A 3 and A 1-B 1 assemblage) whereas low to very low as revealed by abundance of bioturbated calcareous mudstone (B 1) with episodic interruption of moderate to high energy storm event depositing A 4 (pebbly fossiliferous grainstone) microfacies during the upper part (A 4-B 1 and A 2-B 1 assemblage) of the sequence.

  14. Genetic diversity of 15 autosomal short tandem repeats loci using the AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit in a Bhil Tribe Population from Gujarat state, India

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ramesh R.; Dahiya, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genetic diversity and forensic parameters based on 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci; D8S1179,D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317,D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51,D5S818, and FGA in AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit from Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA were evaluated in saliva samples of 297 unrelated individuals from the Bhil Tribe population of Gujarat state, India to study genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and international populations. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium expectations with the exception of the locus vWA (0.019) and locus D18S51 (0.016). The neighbour joining phylogeny tree and Principal Co-ordinate Analysis plot constructed based on Fst distances from autosomal STRs allele frequencies of the present study and other national as well as international populations show clustering of all the South Asian populations in one branch of the tree, while Middle Eastern and African populations cluster in a separate branch. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal strong genetic affinities seen between the Indo-European (IE) speaking Bhil Tribe of Gujarat and Dravidian groups of South India. PMID:25400342

  15. Appropriate Management of Acute Diarrhea in Children Among Public and Private Providers in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christa L Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; LeFevre, Amnesty; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. In 2006, the Indian government formally endorsed the World Health Organization guidelines that introduced zinc supplementation and low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of diarrhea. Despite this, zinc is rarely prescribed and has not been available in the public sector in India until very recently. The Diarrhea Alleviation Through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) project was implemented in Gujarat between 2011 and 2013 to accelerate the uptake of zinc and ORS among public and private providers in 6 rural districts. As part of an external evaluation of DAZT, we interviewed 619 randomly selected facility- and community-based public and private providers 2–3 months after a 1-day training event had been completed (or, in the case of private providers, after at least 1 drug-detailing visit by a pharmaceutical representative had occurred) and supplies were in place. The purpose of the interviews was to assess providers’ knowledge of appropriate treatment for diarrhea in children, reported treatment practices, and availability of drugs in stock. More than 80% of all providers interviewed reported they had received training or a drug-detailing visit on diarrheal treatment in the past 6 months. Most providers in all cadres (range, 68% to 100%) correctly described how to prepare ORS and nearly all (range, 90% to 100%) reported routinely prescribing it to treat diarrhea in children. Reported routine prescription of zinc was lower, ranging from 62% among private providers to 96% among auxiliary nurse-midwives. Among providers who reported ever not recommending zinc (n?=?242), the 2 most frequently reported reasons for not doing so were not completely understanding zinc for diarrhea treatment and not having zinc in stock at the time of contact with the patient. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, recent training or drug-detailing visits and having zinc in stock were associated with reported zinc prescribing (P<.05). Recent training among public providers was significantly associated with having correct knowledge of zinc treatment duration and dosage, but the same was not true of drug-detailing visits among private providers. Treating diarrhea with zinc and low-osmolarity ORS is new for public and private providers in India and other low- and middle-income countries. Sufficient training and logistics support to ensure consistent supplies are critical if providers are to begin routinely treating all diarrhea episodes with zinc and ORS. PMID:26085020

  16. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  17. Loss-To-Follow-Up on Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment in Gujarat, India: The WHEN and WHO of It

    PubMed Central

    Shringarpure, Kalpita S.; Isaakidis, Petros; Sagili, Karuna D.; Baxi, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a rising global threat to public health and concerted efforts for its treatment are diluted if the outcomes are not successful, loss to follow up (LFU) being one of them. It is therefore necessary to know the proportion and the associated reasons for LFU and devise effective patient-centered strategies to improve retention in care. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at the MDR-TB treatment site (DR-TB Site)in Central Gujarat among all patients registered from February 2010 to June 2013.LFU patients were defined as those whose treatment was interrupted for two or more consecutive months for any reason. Descriptive statistics, survival analysis and multivariate modeling were used to determine the proportion of patients LFU and to assess associations between LFU and selected demographic and clinical factors. Results A total of 796 patients were enrolled during the study period; 71.9% were male and the median age was 35 years [Interquartile range (IQR) 27-45].The overall proportion of LFU patients was 153/796 (19.2%).The majority of LFU patients (133/153 i.e.87%) were lost within the first 6 months of treatment. Ambulatory treatment initiation (adjusted Hazards ratio aHR=2.63, CI:1.01-6.86), different providers in IP and CP ( aHR=1.27, CI:1.18-1.38)and culture conversion after more than 4 months of treatment(aHR=1.34, CI: 1.21-1.49)were found to be significantly associated with LFU in multivariate models. Conclusions A high proportion of LFU among patients on MDR-TB treatment was found in a programmatic setting in India. Clinical but equally important programmatic factors were associated with LFU, accounting for one-fifth of all the outcomes of MDR-TB treatment. Proper training for DOT providers and aggressive counseling and health system strengthening with patient friendly follow up services may help reduce LFU. PMID:26167891

  18. Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site Response, Moho reflections and a Triggered Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    1 Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site Response, Moho reflections and a Triggered Earthquake Susan E. Hough(1), Roger Bilham(2), Nicolas Ambraseys(3), and Nicole distributions for the Mw8.0 Shillong Plateau earthquake of 1897 and the Mw7.8 Kangra earthquake of 1905

  19. Estimation of seismic ground motions using deterministic approach for major cities of Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, J.; Choudhury, D.

    2012-06-01

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for various sites of the major cities (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bhuj, Jamnagar and Junagadh) of the Gujarat region in India to compute the seismic hazard exceeding a certain level in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and to estimate maximum possible PGA at each site at bed rock level. The seismic sources in Gujarat are very uncertain and recurrence intervals of regional large earthquakes are not well defined. Because the instrumental records of India specifically in the Gujarat region are far from being satisfactory for modeling the seismic hazard using the probabilistic approach, an attempt has been made in this study to accomplish it through the deterministic approach. In this regard, all small and large faults of the Gujarat region were evaluated to obtain major fault systems. The empirical relations suggested by earlier researchers for the estimation of maximum magnitude of earthquake motion with various properties of faults like length, surface area, slip rate, etc. have been applied to those faults to obtain the maximum earthquake magnitude. For the analysis, seven different ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs) of strong ground motion have been utilized to calculate the maximum horizontal ground accelerations for each major city of Gujarat. Epistemic uncertainties in the hazard computations are accounted for within a logic-tree framework by considering the controlling parameters like b-value, maximum magnitude and ground motion attenuation relations (GMARs). The corresponding deterministic spectra have been prepared for each major city for the 50th and 84th percentiles of ground motion occurrence. These deterministic spectra are further compared with the specified spectra of Indian design code IS:1893-Part I (2002) to validate them for further practical use. Close examination of the developed spectra reveals that the expected ground motion values become high for the Kachchh region i.e. Bhuj city and moderate in the Mainland Gujarat, i.e. cities of Surat and Ahmedabad. The seismic ground motion level in the Saurashtra is moderate but marginally differs from that as presently specified in IS:1893-Part I (2002). Based on the present study, the recommended PGA values for the cities studied are 0.13 g, 0.15 g, 0.64 g, 0.14 g and 0.2 g for Ahmedabad city, Surat City, Bhuj City, Jamnagar City and Junagadh city, respectively. The prepared spectra can be further used for seismic resistant design of structures within the above major city boundaries of Gujarat to quantify seismic loading on structures.

  20. MEMBERSHIP BASED ORGANIZING OF POOR WOMEN Reflections After An Exposure and Dialogue Program with SEWA in Gujarat, India, January 2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anonymous; Renana Jhabvala; Ravi Kanbur; Nidhi Mirani; Karl Osner; Carol Richards

    2005-01-01

    In January, 2005, a group of analysts and activists met in Gujarat at the invitation of SEWA to discuss papers presented at a conference on Membership Based Organizations of the Poor. The details of the conference are available at http:\\/\\/wiego.org\\/ahmedabad\\/. Somewhat unusually for academic conferences of this type, the discussions were preceded by an exposure to the lives of individual

  1. Double Outbreak of Measles in the Talaja Block of Bhavnagar District, Gujarat, India 2011: A Need for Improving the Vaccine Coverage and the Community Participation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pankhuri P.; Chauhan, Naresh T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two outbreaks of measles were reported from an urban and a village area of Bhavnagar District, Gujarat, India in January and March 2011 respectively. Aim The present study was conducted to investigate and to assess various epidemiological features which were associated with the measles outbreak. Settings and Design The present study was designed as a cross sectional study, which was conducted in an urban and a rural area of the Talaja block of the Bhavnagar district of Gujarat, India from December 2010 to April 2011. Methods and Material The suspected cases were detected through an active case finding in the community. We defined a case clinically by the WHO criteria as the occurrence of a febrile rash with or without cough, coryza and conjunctivitis in a resident of the Talaja-urban and the Gorkhi village of the Talaja block, in the period from 1st December 2010 to 30th April 2011. Blood samples from 10 case patients were collected for the IgM antibody detection. A community based, retrospective, cohort design was carried out to find the vaccine efficacy in the Gorkhi village. Statistical Analysis We entered and analyzed the data by using an MS-Excel sheet. Results This study identified 27 confirmed cases of measles in the urban area of Talaja and 78 cases in Gorkhi village. All the 105 case patients belonged to the age group of 3 months-15 years. According to their mothers’ statements, out of the 105 measles cases in the two areas, 40 (38%) case patients were immunized. Ten sera from five case-patients each from both the areas were tested; all were found to be positive for the IgM/IgG antibodies by ELISA. Conclusions The outbreaks occurred due to a poor community participation and the poor vaccine coverage levels. PMID:23373035

  2. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 447, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2004, pp. 201-222 WHITHER PERFORMANCE-BASED ENGINEERING IN INDIA?

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 447, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2004, pp. 201 Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee-247667 ABSTRACT The Kutch Earthquake of January 26, 2001 in Gujarat this earthquake, doubts arose about our professional practices, building by-laws, construction materials, building

  3. Geodetic constraints on the Translation and Deformation of India: implications for future great Himalayan earthquakes

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    earthquakes, the geodetic contribution to understanding future damaging earthquakes in India remains minor. Global Positioning System (GPS) geodesy promises to remedy the shortcomings of traditional studies. Within the last decade GPS studies have provided three fundamental constraints concerning the seismogenic

  4. Short-term earthquake forecasting may be feasible at Koyna, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harsh K. Gupta

    2001-01-01

    Reservoir triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment of Shivaji Sagar Lake created by Koyna Dam in 1962 near the west coast of India. Over the past 38 years, 15 earthquakes of magnitude ?5, including the biggest reservoir triggered earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967, and several hundred thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred. We believe it is

  5. Groundwater Depletion, Irreversible Damages and the Energy-Food-Water Nexus: A Case Study from Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, K. K.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.; Fishman, R.; Siegfried, T. U.

    2009-12-01

    The northern regions of the Indian state of Gujarat are experiencing perhaps the most dramatic instances of groundwater depletion in the country. Due to unsustainable water use patterns in agriculture, which is central to the state’s economy, there is serious concern that the region may soon face significant water problems with devastating consequences. We show that water tables have already declined over 80 meters in the last 30 years, and future declines could eventually cause irreversible salinization. We argue that the recent stabilization of water tables should not reduce public alarm, as it is likely related to recent abundant rainfall, a part of a multi-decadal cycle. Livelihoods are also negatively affected; we estimate that many farmers are no longer able to generate net incomes that exceed the cost of subsidized electricity supplied to them. In other words, the net economic impact of their farming is negative to the state. Solving the water-use problem will ultimately require a range of solutions, including a restructuring of the supply chain, a shift in cropping patterns, and the creation of incentives for capital investments in devices that improve water-use efficiency. A first step in this direction could be the restructuring of the subsidy program to incorporate an alternate mechanism that compensates farmers for saving energy and water. Such a system would improve the efficiency of water use, give farmers the potential to increase their incomes, and be revenue-neutral for the state. While the situation in Gujarat is more pressing than in other parts of the country, adopting a change such as this also creates an opportunity to provide the state with a first-mover advantage in implementing the types of transformations that will eventually be needed elsewhere.

  6. GIS-based colour composites and overlays to delineate heavy metal contamination zones in the shallow alluvial aquifers, Ankaleshwar industrial estate, south Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suyash; Shirke, K. D.; Pawar, N. J.

    2008-03-01

    In an attempt to delineate heavy metal contamination precincts and to evaluate the extent and degree of toxic levels, besides their possible sources, 38 water samples from Ankaleshwar Industrial Estate, south Gujarat, India were analyzed. By clutching geochemical analyses and GIS-based colour composites areas depicting anomalously high concentration of heavy metals (Mo, Zn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, etc.) in the groundwater were revealed. The multicomponent overlays in grey-scale facilitated in identifying situates of heavy metal ‘hot spots’, and lateral protuberances of the contamination plume around defile stretch of the main stream Amla Khadi flowing through the area. The multiple pollution plumes emerging from other parts of the area further coincide with effluent laden streams and small channels indicating industrial establishments as major sources of groundwater contamination. Influent nature of the streams, accelerated infiltration process, high mass influx and shallow groundwater table are the factors conducive for easy access of heavy metals to the phreatic aquifers affecting over 20 km2 area. On the basis of P/ U ratios (concentration of metals in polluted water to unpolluted water), geogenic and anthropogenic sources have been identified. Very high levels of technogenic elements present in the ground water raise concerns about possible migration into food crops, as the area is an important horticultural locale and is highly cultivated.

  7. Comparative analysis of enzymatic stability and amino acid sequences of thermostable alkaline proteases from two haloalkaliphilic bacteria isolated from Coastal region of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Megha K; Singh, Satya P

    2011-07-01

    Thermostable alkaline proteases from two haloalkaliphilic bacteria, Oceanobacillus iheyensis O.M.A(1)8 (EU680961) and Haloalkaliphilic bacterium O.M.E(1)2 (EU680960) were studied for enzymatic properties and amino acid sequences in comparative manner. The bacteria were isolated from salt enriched soil located in Okha, Coastal Gujarat, India. The unique aspect of the study was that alkaline protease from Haloalkaliphilic bacterium O.M.A(1)8 optimally catalyzed the reaction over a wide range of temperature, 50-90°C, with a half-life of 36 h at 90°C. The molecular weights of O.M.A(1)8 and O.M.E(1)2 were 35 kDa and 25 kDa, respectively. The enzyme secretion was over the broader range of pH 8-11, with an optimum at 11. The alkaline proteases from the two haloalkaliphilic strains isolated from the same site reflected quite different characteristics features. To the best of our knowledge, we have not come across with any such report on the thermal stability of alkaline proteases from haloalkaliphiles. Amino acid sequences for both enzymes were deduced from the nucleotide sequences of their corresponding genes followed by the analysis of physico-chemical properties of the enzymes. PMID:21510974

  8. Morphological and toxigenic variability in the Aspergillus flavus isolates from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production system in Gujarat (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Diwakar; Thankappan, Radhakrishnan; Kumar, Vinod; Bagwan, Naimoddin B; Basu, Mukti S; Dobaria, Jentilal R; Mishra, Gyan P; Chanda, Sumitra

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and toxigenic variability in 187 Aspergillus flavus isolates, collected from a major Indian peanut production system, from 10 districts of Gujarat was studied. On the basis of colony characteristics, the isolates were grouped as group A (83%), B (11%) and G (6%). Of all the isolates, 21%, 47% and 32% were found to be fast-growing, moderately-fast and slow-growing respectively, and nosclerotia and sclerotia production was recorded in 32.1% and 67% isolates respectively. Large, medium and small number of sclerotia production was observed in 55, 38 and 34 isolates respectively. Toxigenic potential based on ammonia vapour test was not found reliable, while ELISA test identified 68.5%, 18.7% and 12.8% isolates as atoxigenic, moderately-toxigenic and highly-toxigenic, respectively. On clustering, the isolates were grouped into 15 distinct clusters, 'A' group of isolates was grouped distinctly in different clusters, while 'B' and 'G' groups of isolates were clustered together. No association was observed between morphological-diversity and toxigenic potential of the isolates. From the present investigation, most virulent isolates were pooled to form a consortium for sick-plot screening of germplasm, against Aspergillus flavus. In future, atoxigenic isolates may be evaluated for their potential to be used as bio-control agent against toxigenicisolates. PMID:25895268

  9. Reduction of catastrophic health care expenditures by a community-based health insurance scheme in Gujarat, India: current experiences and challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, Michael Kent

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the Self Employed Women's Association's Medical Insurance Fund in Gujarat in terms of insurance coverage according to income groups, protection of claimants from costs of hospitalization, time between discharge and reimbursement, and frequency of use. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred and thirty claims submitted over six years were analysed. FINDINGS: Two hundred and fifteen (11%) of 1927 claims were rejected. The mean household income of claimants was significantly lower than that of the general population. The percentage of households below the poverty line was similar for claimants and the general population. One thousand seven hundred and twelve (1712) claims were reimbursed: 805 (47%) fully and 907 (53%) at a mean reimbursement rate of 55.6%. Reimbursement more than halved the percentage of catastrophic hospitalizations (>10% of annual household income) and hospitalizations resulting in impoverishment. The average time between discharge and reimbursement was four months. The frequency of submission of claims was low (18.0/1000 members per year: 22-37% of the estimated frequency of hospitalization). CONCLUSIONS: The findings have implications for community-based health insurance schemes in India and elsewhere. Such schemes can protect poor households against the uncertain risk of medical expenses. They can be implemented in areas where institutional capacity is too weak to organize nationwide risk-pooling. Such schemes can cover poor people, including people and households below the poverty line. A trade off exists between maintaining the scheme's financial viability and protecting members against catastrophic expenditures. To facilitate reimbursement, administration, particularly processing of claims, should happen near claimants. Fine-tuning the design of a scheme is an ongoing process - a system of monitoring and evaluation is vital. PMID:12219151

  10. Household Resources and Their Changing Relationships: Case Studies in Gujarat, India. International Agriculture Publications General Series Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrabi, Frances M., Ed.; Verma, Amita, Ed.

    This publication contains case studies based on rural life in northern India. The titles include: (1) "Profiles of Two Indian Rural Settings"; (2) "Visitors View a Village"; (3) "Village Households"; (4) "Agriculture"; (5) "Women's Needs: Health and Nutrition"; (6) "Meal Pattern, Nutrient Intake, Intra-Familial Distribution of Foods, Food Habits,…

  11. Major and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic composition of Carbonatites from Amba Dongar, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Jyoti; Paul, Debajyoti; Viladkar, Shrinivas G.; Sensarma, Sarajit

    2015-04-01

    Despite significant progress during the last decade, the petrogenesis of carbonatites is still highly debated regarding the exact mechanism of carbonatite magma generation (fractional crystallization of carbonated-silicate magmas, liquid immiscibility of carbonated-silicate magmas, partial melting of carbonated mantle peridotite or carbonated lherzolitic mantle) and its evolution. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex in Chhota Udaipur district, Gujarat is the youngest Indian carbonatite complex, which intruded into the ~ 90 Ma Bagh sandstones and limestone and 68-65 Ma Deccan flood basalts. The emplacement age (40Ar/39Ar age of 65±0.3 Ma; Ray and Pande, 1999) coincides with the age of main pulse of Deccan flood basalts at ca. 65 Ma. We report new geochemical data (major oxide and trace element abundances, and Sr and Nd isotopic ratios) on 23 carbonatite samples from Amba Dongar. The Amba Dongar carbonatite complex consists of carbonatite (sövite, and ankerite), and associated nephelinite, phonolite, and both pre- and post-carbonatite basalts. Detailed minerology of carbonatite include dominant calcite along with pyrochlore, apatite, magnetite, aegirine-augite and accessory phases. Apatite crystals are observed in carbonatite as well as in nephelinite. In sövites, apatite occur in various forms including cumulus, clusters and scattered within and along the boundary of calcite crystals. Two generation of apatite crystals are commonly observed in sövite and nephelinite; textural changes suggest presence of different five pulses of sövitic magma during the emplacement of the sövite ring dike. Bulk major oxides and trace element (including REEs) compositions of carbonatites and associated silicate rocks are determined by WD-XRF and ICP-MS, respectively. Major oxides abundances are consistent with the already available data on the Amba Dongar carbonatite complex. Trace element concentrations for the sövite reveals high concentrations of Sr (929-7476 ppm), Ba (344-52072 ppm) and Nb (35-2115 ppm). The ankeritic carbonatites are extremely enriched in the incompatible trace elements (e.g., ~7-32 times higher Ba, highest REE ~40,000 ppm and ~600 ppm of Th). Chondrite-normalized REE patterns show high degree of LREE enrichment suggesting low-degree partial melting of the source. The chondrite normalized La/Yb ratio of sövite and ankeritic carbonatite vary in the range 70-411. The radiogenic Sr-Nd isotopic composition of sövites (87Sr/86Sr: 0.7055-0.7066; É?Nd: -6.0 to -2.2) and ankerites (0.7058-0.7081; -3.8 to -1.9) reveal more isotopic variability compared to the available data (sövites 0.7054-0.706; -2.5 to -1.5; ankerites 0.7056-0.7065; -2.5 to -1.5). It is likely that EM I and II type sources are involved in the generation of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex. More data on carbonatites and associated silicate rocks will be helpful to establish the composition of parental carbonatite melts, depth of generation (lithosphere vs asthenosphere), their spatial relation with associated silicate rocks, and the evolution of the primary carbonatite melt over time.

  12. Spatial variation of maximum considered and design basis earthquakes in peninsular India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kishor Jaiswal; Ravi Sinha

    2007-01-01

    Realistic seismic hazard assessment is essential for carrying out safe and economic design of structures. The zone factors corresponding to seismic hazard in different parts of India that has been specified in the IS code (IS 1893 : 2002) does not fully consider the recent advances in understanding of seismic hazard in penin- sular India. The recent damaging earthquakes in

  13. Thyroid ultrasound is the best prevalence indicator for assessment of iodine deficiency disorders: a study in rural\\/tribal schoolchildren from Gujarat (Western India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheela Brahmbhatt; Rajesh M Brahmbhatt; Steven C Boyages

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: (i) To assess the severity of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), (ii) to determine the aetiology of IDD in Gujarat, (iii) to identify the best prevalence indicator of IDD, and (iv) to compare thyroid volume (TV) results with the WHO International reference. Methods: Five hundred and thirty schoolchildren (6-15 years) were studied from two districts (Baroda and Dang) and data

  14. Individual and interpersonal characteristics that influence male-dominated sexual decision-making and inconsistent condom use among married HIV serodiscordant couples in Gujarat, India: results from the positive Jeevan Saathi study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

  15. The phenomenon of Sanskritization in a forest?dwelling tribe of Gujarat, India. nutrient intake and practices in the special groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tara Gopaldas; Anjali Gupta; Kalpna Saxena

    1983-01-01

    “Sanskritization,” a social?cultural phenomenon attempting to improve caste or tribal status, was studied for differences in nutrient intake and food practices in the infant, toddler, preschooler, pregnant and lactating woman of the Sanskritized and non?Sanskritized segments of the Rathwakoli, Gujarat. The retinol intakes in all groups of both segments was alarmingly low. The non?Sanskritized special groups, however, showed notably higher

  16. Water level fluctuations due to earthquakes in Koyna-Warna region, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Ramana; R. K. Chadha; Chandrani Singh; M. Shekar

    2007-01-01

    Earthquakes cause a variety of hydrological phenomena, including changes in the ground water levels in bore wells. The Koyna\\u000a region in the peninsular shield of India, hitherto considered stable in terms of seismic activity, has been active since 1967.\\u000a More recently, the earthquakes have been localized to the newly impounded Warna reservoir, which is located south of Koyna,\\u000a where a

  17. SRTM Stereo Pair: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 people were killed, and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this image, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

    In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears green. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 13.5 x 20.6 kilometers ( 8.4 x 12.8 miles) Location: 23.3 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red, respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  18. SRTM Anaglyph: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 were killed and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this anaglyph, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

    In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a medium gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears very dark. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the SRTM and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 13.5 x 20.6 kilometers ( 8.4 x 12.8 miles) Location: 23.3 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Band 3 Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  19. Coseismic ground deformation due to an intraplate earthquake using synthetic aperture radar interferometry: The Mw6.1 Killari, India, earthquake of 29 September 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Satyabala

    2006-01-01

    The Mw6.1 Killari earthquake of 29 September 1993 occurred in central India, an intraplate area of low historical seismicity resulting in 11,000 fatalities and causing devastation within a 15 km by 16 km region near the epicenter (18.01°N, 76.56°E). This earthquake occurred on a nearly east-west trending, ?45° south dipping reverse fault and is one of the few intraplate earthquakes

  20. Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault

    E-print Network

    Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

    2014-07-23

    We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6–8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western...

  1. Interpreting the style of faulting and paleoseismicity associated with the 1897 Shillong, northeast India, earthquake: Implications for regional tectonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Rajendran; Kusala Rajendran; B. P. Duarah; S. Baruah; Anil Earnest

    2004-01-01

    The 1897 Shillong (Assam), northeast India, earthquake is considered to be one of the largest in the modern history. Although Oldham's [1899] classic memoir on this event opened new vistas in observational seismology, many questions on its style of faulting remain unresolved. Most previous studies considered this as a detachment earthquake that occurred on a gently north dipping fault, extending

  2. Radon and Helium as productive tools for earthquake precursory and fault delineation studies in NW Himalayas, India: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bajwa; S. Mahajan; V. Walia; A. Kumar; S. Singh; T. F. Yang

    2009-01-01

    To determine the role of radon and helium as a productive tool for fault delineation and earthquake precursory studies, continuous measurements are made in the soil-gas and groundwater in NW Himalayas, India. The area under study is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zones IV and V of the Seismic Map of India. The NW Himalayas are tectonically

  3. Quantifying the media bias in intensity surveys: Lessons from the 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Pande, P.

    2007-01-01

    Many seismologists have looked at the 26 January 2001 Bhuj earthquake as a key modern calibration event that could be used to improve estimates of magnitudes of large historic mainshocks in stable continental regions. Since no instrumental data are available for important historic events such as the 1819 Allah Bund, India, and the 1811-1812 New Madrid, central U.S. mainshocks, calibration hinges on comparisons of the macroseismic effects of these earthquakes with those of comparable modern earthquakes for which a reliable, instrumentally determined moment magnitude is available. However, although such a comparison is conceptually straightforward, in practice it is complicated by potentially significant inconsistencies in methods used to quantify macroseismic effects in different regions and/or times. For the Bhuj earthquake, extensive intensity data sets have been compiled and published from both media accounts and detailed direct surveys. Comparing the two provides a quantification of the previously suspected media bias, whereby earthquake effects can be exaggerated in media accounts. This bias is a strong function of intensity level, with substantial bias at the highest shaking levels and significantly less bias at low intensities. Because only sparse documentary data are in general available for older historic earthquakes, the results of this study suggest that their inferred intensity distributions might be similarly biased. We further use the survey-based intensity values to develop a new relationship between intensities and ground motions.

  4. The Association between Provider Practice and Knowledge of ORS and Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Childhood Diarrhea in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Laura M.; Fischer Walker, Christa L.; Taneja, Sunita; Mazumder, Sarmila; Black, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Programs aimed at reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under-five in low-resource settings typically allocate resources to training community-level health workers, but studies have suggested that provider knowledge does not necessarily translate into adequate practice. A diarrhea management program implemented in Bihar, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India trained private sector rural medical practitioners (RMPs) and public sector Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and Anganwadi workers (AWWs) in adequate treatment of childhood diarrhea with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. We used cross-sectional program evaluation data to determine the association between observed diarrhea treatment practices and reported knowledge of ORS and zinc among each provider cadre. Methods We conducted principal components analysis on providers’ responses to diarrhea treatment questions in order to generate a novel scale assessing ORS/zinc knowledge. We subsequently regressed a binary indicator of whether ORS/zinc was prescribed during direct observation onto the resulting knowledge scores, controlling for other relevant knowledge predictors. Results There was a positive association between ORS/zinc knowledge score and prescribing ORS and zinc to young children with diarrhea among private sector RMPs (aOR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.29-4.17) and public sector ASHAs and AWWs (aOR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.90-3.24). Controlling for knowledge score, receipt of training in the preceding 6 months was a good predictor of adequate prescribing in the public but not the private sector. In the public sector, direct access to ORS and zinc supplies was also highly associated with prescribing. Conclusions To enhance the management of childhood diarrhea in India, programmatic activities should center on increasing knowledge of ORS and zinc among public and private sector providers through biannual trainings but should also focus on ensuring sustained access to an adequate supply chain. PMID:26098305

  5. Review of the bioenvironmental methods for malaria control with special reference to the use of larvivorous fishes and composite fish culture in central Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Haq, S; Srivastava, H C; Sharma, V P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito control with the use of insecticides is faced with the challenges of insecticide resistance in disease vectors, community refusal, their high cost, operational difficulties, and environmental concern. In view of this, integrated vector control strategies with the use of larvivorous fishes such as Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and Gambusia (G. affinis) as biological control agents were used in controlling mosquito breeding in different types of breeding places such as intradomestic containers, various types of wells, rice-fields, pools, ponds and elsewhere in malaria prone rural areas of central Gujarat. Attempts were also made to demonstrate composite fish culture in unused abandoned village ponds by culturing Guppy along with the food fishes such as Rohu (Labeo rohita), Catla (Catla catla) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Income generated from these ponds through sale of fishes was utilized for mosquito control and village development. The technology was later adopted by the villagers themselves and food fish culture was practised in 23 ponds which generated an income of Rs 1,02,50,992 between 1985 and 2008. The number of villages increased from 13 to 23 in 2008 and there was also gradual increase of income from Rs 3,66,245 in 1985-90 to Rs 55,06,127 in 2002-08 block. It is concluded that larvivorous fishes can be useful tool in controlling mosquito breeding in certain situations and their use along with composite fish culture may also generate income to make the programme self-sustainable. PMID:23703433

  6. A comparative study on the Earthquake Information Management Systems (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima

    2012-01-01

    Context: Damages and loss of life sustained during an earthquake results from falling structures and flying glass and objects. To address these and other problems, new information technology and systems as a means can improve crisis management and crisis response. The most important factor for managing the crisis depends on our readiness before disasters by useful data. Aims: This study aimed to determine the Earthquake Information Management System (EIMS) in India, Afghanistan and Iran, and describe how we can reduce destruction by EIMS in crisis management. Materials and Methods: This study was an analytical comparison in which data were collected by questionnaire, observation and checklist. The population was EIMS in selected countries. Sources of information were staff in related organizations, scientific documentations and Internet. For data analysis, Criteria Rating Technique, Delphi Technique and descriptive methods were used. Results: Findings showed that EIMS in India (Disaster Information Management System), Afghanistan (Management Information for Natural Disasters) and Iran are decentralized. The Indian state has organized an expert group to inspect issues about disaster decreasing strategy. In Iran, there was no useful and efficient EIMS to evaluate earthquake information. Conclusions: According to outcomes, it is clear that an information system can only influence decisions if it is relevant, reliable and available for the decision-makers in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is necessary to reform and design a model. The model contains responsible organizations and their functions. PMID:23555130

  7. Ethnomedical information and in vitro screening for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition of plants utilized as traditional medicines in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Kerala (India)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Nyman; P Joshi; L. B Madsen; T. B Pedersen; M Pinstrup; S Rajasekharan; V George; P Pushpangadan

    1998-01-01

    Plants utilized as traditional medicines in India have been investigated for their ability to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). In total, 75 species belonging to 42 families have been investigated and new ethnomedical information has been obtained for 41 species. Four species were found to possess a high ACE inhibiting ability and were low in their tannin content.

  8. Evaluating the seismic hazard to the National Capital (Delhi) Region, India, from moderate earthquakes using simulated accelerograms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh Kumar; Irene Sarkar; V. Sriram; S. S. Teotia

    The National Capital Region (NCR) of India is exposed to high seismic hazard and risk due to a great earthquake in the central\\u000a seismic gap of Himalaya and\\/or due to moderate-size earthquake within NCR. The high population density, rapid growth of infrastructure,\\u000a and old engineering structures in the region make it more vulnerable to the human as well as economic

  9. Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

    2010-12-01

    Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November 2002. Earthquakes with magnitude range from 3.8 to 4.9 have been taken into account. The time domain coda decay method of a single back scattering model is used to calculate frequency dependent values of Coda Q (Qc) where as, the source parameters like seismic moment(Mo), stress drop, source radius(r), radiant energy(Wo),and strain drop are estimated using displacement amplitude spectrum of body wave using Brune's model. The earthquakes with magnitude range 3.8 to 4.9 have been used for estimation Qc at six central frequencies 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, and 18.0 Hz. In the present work, the Qc value of local earthquakes are estimated to understand the attenuation characteristic, source parameters and tectonic activity of the region. Based on a criteria of homogeneity in the geological characteristics and the constrains imposed by the distribution of available events the study region has been classified into three zones such as the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ), Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ), Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ). It follows the power law Qc= Qo (f/fo)n where, Qo is the quality factor at the reference frequency (1Hz) fo and n is the frequency parameter which varies from region to region. The mean values of Qc reveals a dependence on frequency, varying from 292.9 at 1.5 Hz to 4880.1 at 18 Hz. Average frequency dependent relationship Qc values obtained of the Northeastern India is 198 f 1.035, while this relationship varies from the region to region such as, Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ): Qc= 226 f 1.11, Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) : Qc= 301 f 0.87, Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc=126 fo 0.85. It indicates Northeastern India is seismically active but comparing of all zones in the study region the Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc= 126 f 0.85 is seismically most active. Where as the Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) are less active and out of three the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)is intermediate active. This study may be useful for the seismic hazard assessment. The estimated seismic moments (Mo), range from 5.98×1020 to 3.88×1023 dyne-cm. The source radii(r) are confined between 152 to 1750 meter, the stress drop ranges between 0.0003×103 bar to 1.04×103 bar, the average radiant energy is 82.57×1018 ergs and the strain drop for the earthquake ranges from 0.00602×10-9 to 2.48×10-9 respectively. The estimated stress drop values for NE India depicts scattered nature of the larger seismic moment value whereas, they show a more systematic nature for smaller seismic moment values. The estimated source parameters are in agreement to previous works in this type of tectonic set up. Key words: Coda wave, Seismic source parameters, Lapse time, single back scattering model, Brune's model, Stress drop and North East India.

  10. Intensity, magnitude, location, and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, W.; Hough, S.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earth-quakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental-with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earth-quakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly overestimate the magnitudes of historical earthquakes.

  11. Intensity, magnitude, location and attenuation in India for felt earthquakes since 1762

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szeliga, Walter; Hough, Susan; Martin, Stacey; Bilham, Roger

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, consistently interpreted new catalog of felt intensities for India (Martin and Szeliga, 2010, this issue) includes intensities for 570 earthquakes; instrumental magnitudes and locations are available for 100 of these events. We use the intensity values for 29 of the instrumentally recorded events to develop new intensity versus attenuation relations for the Indian subcontinent and the Himalayan region. We then use these relations to determine the locations and magnitudes of 234 historical events, using the method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997). For the remaining 336 events, intensity distributions are too sparse to determine magnitude or location. We evaluate magnitude and location accuracy of newly located events by comparing the instrumental- with the intensity-derived location for 29 calibration events, for which more than 15 intensity observations are available. With few exceptions, most intensity-derived locations lie within a fault length of the instrumentally determined location. For events in which the azimuthal distribution of intensities is limited, we conclude that the formal error bounds from the regression of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) do not reflect the true uncertainties. We also find that the regression underestimates the uncertainties of the location and magnitude of the 1819 Allah Bund earthquake, for which a location has been inferred from mapped surface deformation. Comparing our inferred attenuation relations to those developed for other regions, we find that attenuation for Himalayan events is comparable to intensity attenuation in California (Bakun and Wentworth, 1997), while intensity attenuation for cratonic events is higher than intensity attenuation reported for central/eastern North America (Bakun et al., 2003). Further, we present evidence that intensities of intraplate earthquakes have a nonlinear dependence on magnitude such that attenuation relations based largely on small-to-moderate earthquakes may significantly overestimate the magnitudes of historical earthquakes.

  12. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India to Investigate Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh; Nayak, Shailesh; Bansal, Brijesh; Roy, Sukanta; Purnachandra Rao, Nemalikanti; S, Satyanarayana H. V.; M, Tiwari V.; Arora, Kusumita; K, Patro B. P.; Dodla, Shashidhar; Kothamasu, Mallika

    2015-04-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in 1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave an impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of ~ 50 meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Four of them are already in operation and four more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work includes: • Submitting a proposal to ICDP for two pilot boreholes by Jan 15, 2015. • Drilling 2 pilot boreholes of 3 km depth during 2015. • Concurrent planning of deep borehole(s), firming the specifications by the end of 2015 and drilling and setting of deep borehole observatory during 2016 and 2017. • Plan for an international meeting and visit to Koyna in 2017.

  13. Distribution of Earthquake Interevent Times in Northeast India and Adjoining Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasari, Sumanta; Dikshit, Onkar

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes earthquake interoccurrence times of northeast India and its vicinity from eleven probability distributions, namely exponential, Frechet, gamma, generalized exponential, inverse Gaussian, Levy, lognormal, Maxwell, Pareto, Rayleigh, and Weibull distributions. Parameters of these distributions are estimated from the method of maximum likelihood estimation, and their respective asymptotic variances as well as confidence bounds are calculated using Fisher information matrices. Three model selection criteria namely the Chi-square criterion, the maximum likelihood criterion, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov minimum distance criterion are used to compare model suitability for the present earthquake catalog (Yuc(adav) et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 167:1331-1342, 2010). It is observed that gamma, generalized exponential, and Weibull distributions provide the best fitting, while exponential, Frechet, inverse Gaussian, and lognormal distributions provide intermediate fitting, and the rest, namely Levy, Maxwell Pareto, and Rayleigh distributions fit poorly to the present data. The conditional probabilities for a future earthquake and related conditional probability curves are presented towards the end of this article.

  14. Earthquakes

    MedlinePLUS

    An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

  15. Strategies for coping with the costs of inpatient care: a mixed methods study of urban and rural poor in Vadodara District, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, Michael Kent; Jayaswal, Rupal; Mills, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, coping mechanisms for inpatient care costs have been explored in rural areas, but seldom among urbanites. This study aims to explore and compare mechanisms employed by the urban and rural poor for coping with inpatient expenditures, in order to help identify formal mechanisms and policies to provide improved social protection for health care. Methods A three-step methodology was used: (1) six focus-group discussions; (2) 800 exit survey interviews with users of public and private facilities in both urban and rural areas; and (3) 18 in-depth interviews with poor (below 30th percentile of socio-economic status) hospital users, to explore coping mechanisms in greater depth. Results Users of public hospitals, in both urban and rural areas, were poor relative to users of private hospitals. Median expenditures per day were much higher at private than at public facilities. Most respondents using public facilities (in both urban and rural areas) were able to pay out of their savings or income; or by borrowing from friends, family or employer. Those using private facilities were more likely to report selling land or other assets as the primary source of coping (particularly in rural areas) and they were more likely to have to borrow money at interest (particularly in urban areas). Poor individuals who used private facilities cited as reasons their closer proximity and higher perceived quality of care. Conclusions In India, national and state governments should invest in improving the quality and access of public first-referral hospitals. This should be done selectively—with a focus, for example, on rural areas and urban slum areas—in order to promote a more equitable distribution of resources. Policy makers should continue to explore and support efforts to provide financial protection through insurance mechanisms. Past experience suggests that these efforts must be carefully monitored to ensure that the poorer among the insured are able to access scheme benefits, and the quality and quantity of health care provided must be monitored and regulated. PMID:21653545

  16. Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hemedinger

    2007-11-26

    Students will participate in a virtual earthquake lab where they will locate an epicenter and measure Richter Scale magnitude. They will also plot the positions of earthquakes that occurred that day. 1) Go to Virtual Earthquake website and follow instructions to complete the online lab assignment. 2) Go to the USGS earthquake site. Take a few minutes to explore the earthquakes displayed on the world map. Click on \\"M2.5/4+ Earthquake List\\". Use the world map provided by your teacher to plot the locations ...

  17. Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson on earthquakes is based on naturalist John Muir's experiences with two significant earthquakes, the 1872 earthquake on the east side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Students will learn to explain that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and list the major geologic events including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, which are the result of crustal plate motions. A downloadable, printable version (PDF) of the lesson plan is available.

  18. Coseismic responses and the mechanism behind M W 5.1 earthquake of March 14, 2005 in the Koyna–Warna region, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandrani Singh; D. V. Ramana; R. K. Chadha; M. Shekar

    2008-01-01

    An earthquake of Mw 5.1 occurred on March 14, 2005, in the seismically active Koyna–Warna region in western India, the site known for the largest reservoir triggered seismicity (RTS) in the world. For more than four decades, earthquakes with M?4.0 have occurred in this region at regular intervals. Impoundment of reservoirs and changes in lake levels can trigger earthquakes by

  19. Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Timothy Heaton

    This site contains 22 questions on the topic of earthquakes, which covers seismic waves, earthquake characteristics, and earthquake magnitudes. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answers and are provided immediate verification.

  20. Earthquakes

    MedlinePLUS

    Earthquakes are sudden rolling or shaking events caused by movement under the earth’s surface. Earthquakes happen along cracks in the earth's surface, called ... although they usually last less than one minute. Earthquakes cannot be predicted — although scientists are working on ...

  1. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

  2. The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake: Global lessons for earthquake hazard in intra-plate regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweig, E.; Gomberg, J.; Petersen, M.; Ellis, M.; Bodin, P.; Mayrose, L.; Rastogi, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh District of the State of Gujarat, India on 26 January 2001, and was one of the most damaging intraplate earthquakes ever recorded. This earthquake is in many ways similar to the three great New Madrid earthquakes that occurred in the central United States in 1811-1812, An Indo-US team is studying the similarities and differences of these sequences in order to learn lessons for earthquake hazard in intraplate regions. Herein we present some preliminary conclusions from that study. Both the Kutch and New Madrid regions have rift type geotectonic setting. In both regions the strain rates are of the order of 10-9/yr and attenuation of seismic waves as inferred from observations of intensity and liquefaction are low. These strain rates predict recurrence intervals for Bhuj or New Madrid sized earthquakes of several thousand years or more. In contrast, intervals estimated from paleoseismic studies and from other independent data are significantly shorter, probably hundreds of years. All these observations together may suggest that earthquakes relax high ambient stresses that are locally concentrated by rheologic heterogeneities, rather than loading by plate-tectonic forces. The latter model generally underlies basic assumptions made in earthquake hazard assessment, that the long-term average rate of energy released by earthquakes is determined by the tectonic loading rate, which thus implies an inherent average periodicity of earthquake occurrence. Interpreting the observations in terms of the former model therefore may require re-examining the basic assumptions of hazard assessment.

  3. Earthquakes!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A strong earthquake struck Istanbul, Turkey on Monday, only weeks after a major quake in the same area claimed more than 15,500 lives. This site, from The Why Files (see the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), offers background information on the science of earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the recent tectonic activity in Turkey.

  4. The b-value as an earthquake precursor: Spatiotemporal variations for the NW Himalayan region, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushil, R.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    The northwest Himalayan region and the adjoining regions fall in the most intense seismic zone. Earthquakes of varying intensities have hit the region in the past and similar threats remain imminent. In the last 105 years, the main earthquakes occurred are the Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms=8.0), the Kinnaur earthquake of 1975 (M=6.8), Dharchula earthquake of 1980 (Mw=6.5), Uttarkashi earthquake of 1991 (Mb=6.6), Chamoli earthquake of 1999 (Mb=6.8) and the Kashmir earthquake of 2005 (Mw=7.6), which resulted in tremendous loss of life and property. The earthquakes occurrence possesses non-linear relation with respect to space and size. Spatiotemporal variations in b-Value are determined from 3846 well-located earthquakes, recorded at 10-19 seismic stations in Northwest Himalaya during 1995-2011. A systematic study of b-values in NW Himalaya has shown that within the vicinity of forthcoming large earthquakes there is initially a decrease and then increase in b after that return to normal. The Uttarkashi earthquake (Mb=6.5) and Chamoli earthquake (Mb=6.8) shows the same phenomenon. The results of this analysis will be discussed during the presentation of this paper.

  5. The 26 January 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India, earthquake: Observed and predicted ground motions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    Although local and regional instrumental recordings of the devastating 26, January 2001, Bhuj earthquake are sparse, the distribution of macroseismic effects can provide important constraints on the mainshock ground motions. We compiled available news accounts describing damage and other effects and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities (MMIs) at >200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are then used to map the intensity distribution throughout the subcontinent using a simple mathematical interpolation method. Although preliminary, the maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated toward the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region, intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium, such as mudflats and salt pans. In addition, we use fault-rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard-rock ground-motion parameters to MMI by using a relationship (derived from Internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-3 units than those estimated from news accounts, although they do predict near-field ground motions of approximately 80%g and potentially damaging ground motions on hard-rock sites to distances of approximately 300 km. For the most part, this discrepancy is consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors, such as unusually high building vulnerability in the Bhuj region and a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. The discrepancy may also be partly attributable to the inadequacy of the empirical relationship between MMI and peak ground acceleration (PGA), when applied to India. The MMI-PGA relationship was developed using data from California earthquakes, which might have a systematically different stress drop and therefore, a different frequency content than intraplate events. When a relationship between response spectra and MMI is used, we obtain larger predicted MMI values, in better agreement with the observations.

  6. Seismicity, faulting, and structure of the Koyna-Warna seismic region, Western India from local earthquake tomography and hypocenter locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Madan M.; Kumar, Sanjay; Catchings, R. D.; Suman, K.; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sen, M. K.

    2014-08-01

    Although seismicity near Koyna Reservoir (India) has persisted for ~50 years and includes the largest induced earthquake (M 6.3) reported worldwide, the seismotectonic framework of the area is not well understood. We recorded ~1800 earthquakes from 6 January 2010 to 28 May 2010 and located a subset of 343 of the highest-quality earthquakes using the tomoDD code of Zhang and Thurber (2003) to better understand the framework. We also inverted first arrivals for 3-D Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratio tomography models of the upper 12 km of the crust. Epicenters for the recorded earthquakes are located south of the Koyna River, including a high-density cluster that coincides with a shallow depth (<1.5 km) zone of relatively high Vp and low Vs (also high Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios) near Warna Reservoir. This anomalous zone, which extends near vertically to at least 8 km depth and laterally northward at least 15 km, is likely a water-saturated zone of faults under high pore pressures. Because many of the earthquakes occur on the periphery of the fault zone, rather than near its center, the observed seismicity-velocity correlations are consistent with the concept that many of the earthquakes nucleate in fractures adjacent to the main fault zone due to high pore pressure. We interpret our velocity images as showing a series of northwest trending faults locally near the central part of Warna Reservoir and a major northward trending fault zone north of Warna Reservoir.

  7. Earthquake!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Hildo

    2000-01-01

    Examines the types of damage experienced by California State University at Northridge during the 1994 earthquake and what lessons were learned in handling this emergency are discussed. The problem of loose asbestos is addressed. (GR)

  8. Structure of the Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone, Maharashtra, India: A possible model for large induced earthquakes elsewhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Dixit, M. M.; Goldman, M. R.; Kumar, S.

    2015-05-01

    The Koyna-Warna area of India is one of the best worldwide examples of reservoir-induced seismicity, with the distinction of having generated the largest known induced earthquake (M6.3 on 10 December 1967) and persistent moderate-magnitude (>M5) events for nearly 50 years. Yet, the fault structure and tectonic setting that has accommodated the induced seismicity is poorly known, in part because the seismic events occur beneath a thick sequence of basalt layers. On the basis of the alignment of earthquake epicenters over an ~50 year period, lateral variations in focal mechanisms, upper-crustal tomographic velocity images, geophysical data (aeromagnetic, gravity, and magnetotelluric), geomorphic data, and correlation with similar structures elsewhere, we suggest that the Koyna-Warna area lies within a right step between northwest trending, right-lateral faults. The sub-basalt basement may form a local structural depression (pull-apart basin) caused by extension within the step-over zone between the right-lateral faults. Our postulated model accounts for the observed pattern of normal faulting in a region that is dominated by north-south directed compression. The right-lateral faults extend well beyond the immediate Koyna-Warna area, possibly suggesting a more extensive zone of seismic hazards for the central India area. Induced seismic events have been observed many places worldwide, but relatively large-magnitude induced events are less common because critically stressed, preexisting structures are a necessary component. We suggest that releasing bends and fault step-overs like those we postulate for the Koyna-Warna area may serve as an ideal tectonic environment for generating moderate- to large- magnitude induced (reservoir, injection, etc.) earthquakes.

  9. Anatomy of surface rupture zones of two stable continental region earthquakes, 1967 Koyna and 1993 Latur, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh K.; Rao, R. U. M.; Srinivasan, R.; Rao, G. V.; Reddy, G. K.; Dwivedy, K. K.; Banerjee, D. C.; Mohanty, R.; Satyasaradhi, Y. R.

    1999-07-01

    Soil-helium surveys in the surface rupture zones of the 1993 Latur (Mw 6.2) and the 1967 Koyna (Mw 6.3) stable continental region (SCR) earthquake sites in Peninsular India showed anomalies defining surface traces of the causative faults. Propagating from the Archaean crystalline basement through the Deccan basalt cover, the seismic fault produced a scarp by uplift along a thrust in the Killari area of the Latur earthquake, whereas the Koyna earthquake was associated with a strike-slip fault which expressed itself as an en echelon fissure zone. Core drilling has confirmed that the fault at Killari extends downward from the surface rupture zone with an approximate dip of 50° towards SSW. The level differences of flow contacts obtained by drilling in the hanging wall and foot wall sides of the fault, do not unequivocally establish the amount of displacement, but suggest that it might be anything from 1 m to 6 m. If the higher figure of 6 m is accepted, it would indicate reactivation of an old fault. Drilling established a WNW dip of the Koyna fault, resolving a long-standing debate.

  10. Application of principal component analysis to some earthquake related data in the Koyna region, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Srivastava; S. N. Bhattacharya

    1998-01-01

    Bearing in mind the recurrence of earthquakes of magnitude 5.0 in the Koyna region, a new approach based on the principal component analysis has been used to study the distinctive characteristics of September 1967, October 1973 and September 1980 earthquakes. For this purpose, 12 parameters were selected to understand their relative loadings on different principal components. It was found that

  11. Exports of Agri-Products from Gujarat: Problems and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravindra H. Dholakia

    Agri-products are defined to include products of agriculture & allied activities, fishing, forestry, and manufacturing industries, like food & food products, tobacco, textiles, paper, furniture, etc. Gujarat has a revealed comparative advantage in the exporting activity over the other states since, as per GITCO Study (November 2001), more than one-fifth of the exports of the country originate from Gujarat. Gujarat

  12. Active Fault Mapping of Naga-Disang Thrust (Belt of Schuppen) for Assessing Future Earthquake Hazards in NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2014-12-01

    We observe the geodynamic appraisal of Naga-Disang Thrust North East India. The Disang thrust extends NE-SW over a length of 480 km and it defines the eastern margin of Neogene basin. It branches out from Haflong-Naga thrust and in the NE at Bulbulia in the right bank of Noa Dihing River, it is terminated by Mishmi thrust, which extends into Myanmar as 'Sagaing fault,which dip generally towards SE. It extends between Dauki fault in the SW and Mishmi thrust in the NE. When the SW end of 'Belt of Schuppen' moved upwards and towards east along the Dauki fault, the NE end moved downwards and towards west along the Mishmi thrust, causing its 'S' shaped bending. The SRTM generated DEM is used to map the topographic expression of the schuppen belt, where these thrusts are significantly marked by topographic break. Satellite imagery map also shows presence lineaments supporting the post tectonic activities along Naga-Disang Thrusts. The southern part of 'Belt of Schuppen' extends along the sheared western limb of southerly plunging Kohima synform, a part of Indo Burma Ranges (IBR) and it is seismically active.The crustal velocity at SE of Schuppen is 39.90 mm/yr with a azimuth of 70.780 at Lumami, 38.84 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Senapati and 36.85 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Imphal. The crustal velocity at NW of Schuppen belt is 52.67 mm/yr (Azimuth 57.66) near Dhauki Fault in Meghalaya. It becomes 43.60 mm/yr (Azimuth76.50) - 44.25 (Azimuth 73.27) at Tiding and Kamlang Nagar around Mishmi thrust. The presence of Schuppen is marked by a change in high crustal velocity from Indian plate to low crustal velocity in Mishmi Suture as well as Indo Burma Ranges. The difference in crustal velocities results in building up of strain along the Schuppen which may trigger a large earthquake in the NE India in future. The belt of schuppean seems to be seismically active, however, the enough number of large earthquakes are not recorded. These observations are significant on Naga-Disang Thrusts to reveal a possible seismic gap in NE India observed from two great earthquakes in the region viz. 1897 (Shillong 8.7M) and 1950 (Arunachal-China 8.7M), which is required to be investigated.

  13. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  14. Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-03-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  15. Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

    2014-04-01

    India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

  16. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ? 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

  17. Modelling of Strong Ground Motions from 1991 Uttarkashi, India, Earthquake Using a Hybrid Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Teotia, S. S.; Sriram, V.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple and efficient hybrid technique for simulating earthquake strong ground motion. This procedure is the combination of the techniques of envelope function (M idorikawa et al. Tectonophysics 218:287-295, 1993) and composite source model (Z eng et al. Geophys Res Lett 21:725-728, 1994). The first step of the technique is based on the construction of the envelope function of the large earthquake by superposition of envelope functions for smaller earthquakes. The smaller earthquakes (sub-events) of varying sizes are distributed randomly, instead of uniform distribution of same size sub-events, on the fault plane. The accelerogram of large event is then obtained by combining the envelope function with a band-limited white noise. The low-cut frequency of the band-limited white noise is chosen to correspond to the corner frequency for the target earthquake magnitude and the high-cut to the Boore's f max or a desired frequency for the simulation. Below the low-cut frequency, the fall-off slope is 2 in accordance with the ?2 earthquake source model. The technique requires the parameters such as fault area, orientation of the fault, hypocenter, size of the sub-events, stress drop, rupture velocity, duration, source-site distance and attenuation parameter. The fidelity of the technique has been demonstrated by successful modeling of the 1991 Uttarkashi, Himalaya earthquake (Ms 7). The acceptable locations of the sub-events on the fault plane have been determined using a genetic algorithm. The main characteristics of the simulated accelerograms, comprised of the duration of strong ground shaking, peak ground acceleration and Fourier and response spectra, are, in general, in good agreement with those observed at most of the sites. At some of the sites the simulated accelerograms differ from observed ones by a factor of 2-3. The local site geology and topography may cause such a difference, as these effects have not been considered in the present technique. The advantage of the technique lies in the fact that detailed parameters such as velocity-Q structures and empirical Green's functions are not required or the records of the actual time history from the past earthquakes are not available. This method may find its application in preparing a wide range of scenarios based on simulation. This provides information that is complementary to the information available in probabilistic hazard maps.

  18. Estimation of ground motion for Bhuj (26 January 2001; Mw 7.6 and for future earthquakes in India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, S.K.; Bansal, B.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.; Pacheco, J.F.; Dattatrayam, R.S.; Ordaz, M.; Suresh, G.; Kamal; Hough, S.E.

    2003-01-01

    Only five moderate and large earthquakes (Mw ???5.7) in India-three in the Indian shield region and two in the Himalayan arc region-have given rise to multiple strong ground-motion recordings. Near-source data are available for only two of these events. The Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6), which occurred in the shield region, gave rise to useful recordings at distances exceeding 550 km. Because of the scarcity of the data, we use the stochastic method to estimate ground motions. We assume that (1) S waves dominate at R < 100 km and Lg waves at R ??? 100 km, (2) Q = 508f0.48 is valid for the Indian shield as well as the Himalayan arc region, (3) the effective duration is given by fc-1 + 0.05R, where fc is the corner frequency, and R is the hypocentral distance in kilometer, and (4) the acceleration spectra are sharply cut off beyond 35 Hz. We use two finite-source stochastic models. One is an approximate model that reduces to the ??2-source model at distances greater that about twice the source dimension. This model has the advantage that the ground motion is controlled by the familiar stress parameter, ????. In the other finite-source model, which is more reliable for near-source ground-motion estimation, the high-frequency radiation is controlled by the strength factor, sfact, a quantity that is physically related to the maximum slip rate on the fault. We estimate ???? needed to fit the observed Amax and Vmax data of each earthquake (which are mostly in the far field). The corresponding sfact is obtained by requiring that the predicted curves from the two models match each other in the far field up to a distance of about 500 km. The results show: (1) The ???? that explains Amax data for shield events may be a function of depth, increasing from ???50 bars at 10 km to ???400 bars at 36 km. The corresponding sfact values range from 1.0-2.0. The ???? values for the two Himalayan arc events are 75 and 150 bars (sfact = 1.0 and 1.4). (2) The ???? required to explain Vmax data is, roughly, half the corresponding value for Amax, while the same sfact explains both sets of data. (3) The available far-field Amax and Vmax data for the Bhuj mainshock are well explained by ???? = 200 and 100 bars, respectively, or, equivalently, by sfact = 1.4. The predicted Amax and Vmax in the epicentral region of this earthquake are 0.80 to 0.95 g and 40 to 55 cm/sec, respectively.

  19. As India's Plates Collide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

  20. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  1. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  2. Modelling of Strong Ground Motions from 1991 Uttarkashi, India, Earthquake Using a Hybrid Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinesh Kumar; S. S. Teotia; V. Sriram

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient hybrid technique for simulating earthquake strong ground motion. This procedure is the combination\\u000a of the techniques of envelope function (Midorikawa\\u000a et al. Tectonophysics 218:287–295, 1993) and composite source model (Zeng\\u000a et al. Geophys Res Lett 21:725–728, 1994). The first step of the technique is based on the construction of the envelope function of the

  3. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis of magnitude series of seismicity of Kachchh region, Western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Lovallo, Michele; Khan, P. K.; Rastogi, B. K.; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-05-01

    The sequence of magnitudes of the earthquakes occurred in Kachchh area (Gujarat, Western India) from 2003 to 2012, has been analysed by using the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The complete and the aftershock-depleted catalogues with minimum magnitude M3 were investigated. Both seismic catalogues show multifractal characteristics. The aftershock-depleted catalogue is more multifractal and also more persistent than the whole catalogue; this indicates that aftershock magnitudes contribute to increase the homogeneity and the randomness of the magnitude sequence of the whole seismicity. The singularity spectrum of the whole catalogue, however, is more left-skewed than that of the aftershock-depleted one, indicating a stronger dependence of the multifractality on the large magnitude fluctuations.

  4. Deformation in Northeast India and Indo-Burmese Arc derived from GPS and Earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumaran, S. P.; Kreemer, C. W.; Blewitt, G.; Reddy, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    GPS/acoustic (GPS/A) seafloor geodetic observation is a precise seafloor positioning technique and has made great progress over the last decade. GPS/A observation determines the positions of acoustic mirror-type transponders installed on the seafloor by combining the two techniques of kinematic GPS and acoustic ranging through a ship or a buoy. The original idea was proposed by Prof. Spiess at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in 1985 and its protocol and hardware were made through research and development of his group by the mid-1990s. In Japan, three research groups, Japan Coast Guard, Tohoku University and Nagoya University, began to develop the GPS/A observation system in the 1990s, established GPS/A observation sites mainly on the landward slope of the plate boundaries around Japan, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai trough, and have been carrying out campaign observations since around 2000. The primary purpose of our observation is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where large interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred. By continuous efforts for over a decade, the positioning precision has achieved a few centimeters and seafloor movements such as intraplate deformation and coseismic displacements have been successfully detected. In particular, regarding the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0), which occurred off northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, east-southeastward coseismic displacements of up to 31 m were observed above the focal region, especially close to the epicenter, while those detected by on-land GPS measurements over 100 km away from the epicenter, conducted by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, was up to 5.3 m. Coseismic slip models on the plate boundary estimated from not only GPS data but also GPS/A results indicate that a huge slip of more than 50 m generated close to the trench axis, which was much larger than that estimated from GPS data only. This demonstrates the indispensable roles of seafloor geodesy. After the event, Tohoku University and Nagoya University deployed additional GPS/A sites along the Japan Trench in order to monitor postseismic movements offshore spatially, especially close to the trench axis. In addition, Japan Coast Guard deployed additional GPS/A sites along the Nankai Trough, southwestern Japan, where there are growing concerns about the occurrence of a huge earthquake in the future. This expansion will enable us to detect the spatial change of intraplate velocities along the Nankai Trough, which reflects the difference of the degrees of interplate coupling. We have more than 50 GPS/A sites in total and have been carrying out several campaign observations per site per year. Seafloor geodetic data is an important key to understand the mechanism of the occurrence of interplate earthquakes which occur in the sea area.

  5. Postseismic deformation and stress changes following the 1819 Rann of Kachchh, India earthquake: Was the 2001 Bhuj earthquake a triggered event?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    To, A.; Burgmann, R.; Pollitz, F.

    2004-01-01

    The 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake occurred in an intraplate region with rather unusual active seismicity, including an earlier major earthquake, the 1819 Rann of Kachchh earthquake (M7.7). We examine if static coseismic and transient postseismic deformation following the 1819 earthquake contributed to the enhanced seismicity in the region and the occurrence of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, ???100 km away and almost two centuries later. Based on the Indian shield setting, great rupture depth of the 2001 event and lack of significant early postseismic deformation measured following the 2001 event, we infer that little viscous relaxation occurs in the lower crust and choose an upper mantle effective viscosity of 1019 Pas. The predicted Coulomb failure stress (DCFS) on the rupture plane of the 2001 event increased by more than 0.1 bar at 20 km depth, which is a small but possibly significant amount. Stress change from the 1819 event may have also affected the occurrence of other historic earthquakes in this region. We also evaluate the postseismic deformation and ??CFS in this region due to the 2001 event. Positive ??CFS from the 2001 event occur to the NW and SE of the Bhuj earthquake rupture. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Users and disusers of box solar cookers in urban India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bashir Ahmad

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the reasons behind the continued use or disuse of solar cookers, and to outline the implications from the results of this study for future solar cooker projects. Twenty-eight families in three urban sites in Gujarat, India who have a solar cooker have been interviewed. Their experience with solar cookers and solar cooking

  7. Earthquake hazard in Northeast India — A seismic microzonation approach with typical case studies from Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati city

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sankar Kumar Nath; Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Abhishek Raj

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical as well as numerical treatment of seismological, geological, geomorphological and geotechnical\\u000a concepts has been implemented through microzonation projects in the northeast Indian provinces of Sikkim Himalaya and Guwahati\\u000a city, representing cases of contrasting geological backgrounds — a hilly terrain and a predominantly alluvial basin respectively.\\u000a The estimated maximum earthquakes in the underlying seismic source zones, demarcated in

  8. An Appraisal of the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake (Mw 7.7, India) Source Zone: Fractal Dimension and b Value Mapping of the Aftershock Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, J. R.; Das, Vishal; Ghosh, Uma

    2012-12-01

    We examined seismic characteristics, b value and fractal dimension of the aftershock sequence of the January 26, 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) that occurred in the Kutch failed rift basin, western margin of the Stable Continental Region (SCR) of India. A total of about 2,000 events (M ? 2.0) were recorded within two and a half months, immediately after the main shock. Some 795 events were precisely relocated by simultaneous inversion. These relocated events are used for mapping the frequency-magnitude relation ( b value) and fractal correlation dimension (Dc) to understand the seismic characteristics of the aftershocks and the source zone of the main shock. The surface maps of the b value and Dc reveal two distinct tectonic arms or zones of the V-shaped aftershock area, western zone and eastern zone. The b value is relatively higher (~1.6) in the western zone compared to a lower value (~1.4) in the eastern zone. The Dc map also shows a higher value (1.2-1.35) in the western zone compared to a lower Dc (0.80-1.15) in the eastern zone; this implies a positive correlation between Dc and b value. Two cross sections, E-W and N-S, are examined. The E-W sections show similar characteristics, higher b value and higher Dc in the western zone and lower in the eastern zone with depth. The N-S sections across the fault zones, however, show unique features; it imaged both the b and Dc characteristics convincingly to identify two known faults, the Kutch Mainland fault and the South Wagad fault (SWF), one stepping over the other with a seismogenic source zone at depth (20-35 km). The source zone at depth is imaged with a relatively lower b and higher Dc at the `fault end' of the SWF showing a negative correlation. These observations, corroborated with the seismic tomography as well as with the proposed geological/tectonic model, shed a new light to our understanding on seismogenesis of the largest SCR earthquake in India in the recent years.

  9. MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY TRIBALS OF PANCHMAHALS DISTRICT, GUJARAT

    PubMed Central

    Painuli, R.M.; Maheshwari, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conduction in 20 tribal villages of Panchamahals district of Gujarat, inhabited by various tribal groups. The present communication records 36 plant species belongings to 34 genera and 27 families used by them in the treatment of various diseases and ailments. PMID:22556656

  10. Predicting heat flow in the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw=7.7) region of Kachchh (Western India), using an inverse recurrence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedanti, N.; Pandey, O. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Mandal, P.; Kumar, S.; Dimri, V. P.

    2011-09-01

    Terrestrial heat flow is considered an important parameter in studying the regional geotectonic and geodynamic evolutionary history of any region. However, its distribution is still very uneven. There is hardly any information available for many geodynamically important areas. In the present study, we provide a methodology to predict the surface heat flow in areas, where detailed seismic information such as depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and crustal structure is known. The tool was first tested in several geotectonic blocks around the world and then used to predict the surface heat flow for the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Kachchh, India, which has been seismically active since historical times and where aftershock activity is still continuing nine years after the 2001 main event. Surface heat flow for this region is estimated to be about 61.3 mW m-2. Beneath this region, heat flow input from the mantle as well as the temperatures at the Moho are quite high at around 44 mW m-2 and 630 °C, respectively, possibly due to thermal restructuring of the underlying crust and mantle lithosphere. In absence of conventional data, the proposed tool may be used to estimate a first order heat flow in continental regions for geotectonic studies, as it is also unaffected by the subsurface climatic perturbations that percolate even up to 2000 m depth.

  11. An integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, Scott Lowrey

    PQuake(TM) is an integrated digital system that facilitates earthquake damage reconnaissance. It combines digital photography, handheld GPS technology and custom software for a PalmRTM handheld computer to provide a user-friendly field data collection system. It mitigates the deficiencies involved with traditional reconnaissance techniques by allowing the rapid collection of consistent quantitative and qualitative damage data for both manmade structures and natural features. At the end of each day of reconnaissance, the reconnaissance personnel can upload their data to a personal computer and in minutes using the GIS-extension, create comprehensive maps of the damage. Consequently, PQuake(TM) facilitates more sophisticated planning of the reconnaissance activities, collecting larger quantities of consistent data, collaboration among researchers, near real-time reporting, analysis, visualization and mapping of the data. Additionally, it utilizes a relational database for managing, storing and archiving damage data as well as linking data to digital photographs and GPS waypoints. Consequently, PQuake facilitates the complete workflow process from data collection through analysis and reporting. The limitations of traditional reconnaissance are illustrated through a case history utilizing reconnaissance data collected in Adapazari, Turkey, following the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999. The damage data was combined with liquefaction analyses performed on geotechnical soundings obtained by PEER months after the event to investigate the building damage associated with local site effects in Adapazari. In particular, this case history demonstrates the necessity and benefits of the PQuake system. The PQuake(TM) system was first field-tested following the Gujarat, India, earthquake in January 2001. Additionally, the system was modified following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Centers to document structural and non structural damage to the surrounding buildings that suffered collateral damage as the towers collapsed. PQuake provides the ability to obtain damage data that is comprehensive and accurate. In order to learn as much as possible from catastrophic events, civil engineers must adopt new technologies and incorporate new reconnaissance protocols. This dissertation presents the development of an integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance that serves as a tool and a means for implementing the reconnaissance procedures.

  12. Marital Ideoscapes in 21st-Century India: Creative Combinations of Love and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netting, Nancy S.

    2010-01-01

    Although arranged marriage has survived in India, the custom is increasingly challenged by the current influx of new commodities, media, and ideas. Interviews with 15 male and 15 female unmarried professionals, age 22 to 29, in Vadodara, Gujarat, showed that educated youth have moved beyond the conventional love-versus-arranged marriage dichotomy.…

  13. Relationship between Household Literacy and Educational Engagement: Analysis of Data from Rajkot District, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudgar, Amita; Miller, Karyn; Kothari, Brij

    2012-01-01

    Household engagement in a child's education is a complex process; depending on the culture and the context, it may be revealed through a variety of behaviours. Using data from one district in rural Gujarat, India, four indicators of a household's educational engagement were employed to investigate the relationship between household literacy levels…

  14. Earthquakes and emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

  15. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-10-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M>or=2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250km distance from the monitoring stations. PMID:19546007

  16. Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR images show the Kachchh region in the Gujarat province of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying buildings, dams, and port facilities. The two upper MISR images are pre- and post-earthquake scenes acquired on January 15 and January 31, 2001, respectively (Terra orbits 5736 and 5969). They are 'true-color' images made by combining the red, green and blue bands from the nadir (vertically down-looking) camera. The two lower views are 'false-color' images made by combining the red bands from three different cameras. Blue is assigned to the camera pointing 70 degrees forward (more sun-facing), green to the nadir camera, and red to the camera pointing 70 degrees aftward. Each of these images is about 275 kilometers wide by 218 kilometers high.

    The earthquake epicenter was just below the southern tip of the large, white area on the right-hand side of the images, and about 70 kilometers northeast of the city of Bhuj. The earthquake may have occurred on the Kachchh Mainland Fault, which extends from the region of the epicenter westward along the curved boundary between the darker brown region to the south and the lighter brown area north of it. The compressive stresses responsible for the earthquake are related to the collision of India with Asia and the resulting rise of the Himalayas to the northeast.

    That part of the Kachchh region which lies north of the Kachchh Mainland Fault includes the Banni Plains and the Rann of Kachchh. It is a low, flat basin characterized by salt pans and mud flats. The salt forms in the Rann of Kachchh as mineral-laden waters evaporate. The salt flats can be seen in the nadir images as highly reflective, white and gray areas. During the earthquake, strong shaking produced liquefaction in the fine silts and sands below the water table in the Rann of Kachchh. This caused the mineral grains to settle and expel their interstitial water to the surface. Field investigations have found abundant evidence of mud volcanos, sand boils, and fissures from which salty ground water erupted over an area exceeding 10,000 square kilometers. Evidence of the expelled water can also be seen on the MISR images.

    Notice the delicate, dendritic pattern of stream channels throughout many of the salt-flats on the post-earthquake image, especially due north of the epicenter. These carried water brought to the surface by liquefaction during the earthquake. Areas where shallow surface water is present are much easier to see on the false-color multi-angle composite images. Wet areas are exhibiting a combination of enhanced forward-scattered light due to the reflection by the water, and enhanced backward scattering due to surface roughness or the presence of sediments. This combination results in blue to purple hues.

    The region of sand dunes in the upper right and the Indus River valley and delta in the upper left are inside Pakistan. Near the top of the images, there is an east-west trending linear feature separating the Thar desert of Pakistan from the Rann of Kachchh. This is the Nagar Parkar Fault. On both pre-earthquake images, this feature is evident only from the contrasting brown colors on either side of it. On the post-earthquake images, a narrow ribbon defines the boundary between the two geologic provinces. However, only in the multi-angle composite do we see evidence that this ribbon may be a water-filled channel. Because this area is politically sensitive and fairly inaccessible, no field teams have been able to verify liquefaction effects or the presence of water there.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. Palynology and clay mineralogy of the Deccan volcanic associated sediments of Saurashtra, Gujarat: Age and paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, D. M.; Srivastava, P.; Thakre, Deepali

    2014-02-01

    The intertrappean sediments associated with Deccan Continental Flood Basalt (DCFB) sequence at Ninama in Saurashtra, Gujarat yielded palynoassemblage comprising at least 12 genera and 14 species including Paleocene taxa such as Intrareticulites brevis, Neocouperipollis spp., Striacolporites striatus, Retitricolpites crassimarginatus and Rhombipollis sp. The lava flows of Saurashtra represent the northwestern most DCFB sequence in India. It is considered that the Saurashtra lava flows represent the earliest volcanic activity in the Late Cretaceous of the Reunion Mantle Plume on the northward migrating Indian Plate. The present finding of the Paleocene palynoflora from Ninama sediments indicate Paleocene age for the associated lava flows occurring above the intertrappean bed which suggests that the Saurashtra plateau witnessed eruption of Deccan lava flows even during Paleocene. The clay mineral investigation of the Ninama sediments which are carbonate dominated shows dominance of low charge smectite (LCS) along with the presence of mica and vermiculite. Based on the clay mineral assemblage it is interpreted that arid climatic conditions prevailed during the sedimentation. The smectite dominance recorded within these sediments is in agreement with global record of smectite peak close to the Maastrichtian-Paleocene transition and climatic aridity.

  18. Re-ordering a Border Space: Relief, Rehabilitation, and Nation-Building in North- Eastern India after the 1950 Assam Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Guyot-Réchard, Bérénice

    2015-04-08

    to be aseismic.7 Yet if the 1897 disaster was bad enough, the 1950 earthquake was a cataclysm of even greater proportions. At the time, the latter ranked as the fifth biggest tremor ever recorded.8 Newspapers likened it to a gigantic atomic bomb.9... ://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/world/10_largest_world.php [accessed 18 March 2014]. 9 'Assam earthquake released 1,000,000 times more energy than atom bomb', The Assam Tribune (28 April 1951). 3 come. When these natural dams burst, the water engulfed the countryside, and rivers...

  19. The unbearable modernity of ‘development’? Canal irrigation and development planning in Western India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinay Gidwani

    2002-01-01

    Post-development theorists have argued that ideas such as ‘progress’, ‘growth’, ‘poverty’ and ‘underdevelopment’, are artifacts of a discourse of development that has imposed its normalizing and teleological vision on the world. I intend this essay as a provisional critique of post-development theory. I show with the help of a detailed case study of canal irrigation-led development in central Gujarat, India,

  20. Earthquake Myths

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

  1. Earthquake Quiz

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site provides a short, interactive, four-question quiz on earthquakes focusing the the largest earthquake in both the world and in recent US history, preparedness, and the development of seismic instrumentation.

  2. Earthquake Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters Photos Publications Share ... for Education FAQ EQ Glossary For Kids Google Earth/KML Files EQ Summary Posters Photos Publications Monitoring ...

  3. A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

  4. Virtual Earthquake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary Novak

    This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

  5. Earthquake prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuneji Rikitake

    1968-01-01

    Earthquake prediction research programmes in a number of countries are reviewed together with achievements in various disciplines involved in earthquake prediction research, i.e., geodetic work, tide gauge observation, continuous observation of crustal movement, seismic activity and seismological method, seismic wave velocity, geotectonic work, geomagnetic and geoelectric work and laboratory work and its application in the field. Present-day development of earthquake

  6. Earthquakes Rock!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn the two main methods to measure earthquakes, the Richter Scale and the Mercalli Scale. They make a model of a seismograph—a measuring device that records an earthquake on a seismogram. Students also investigate which structural designs are most likely to survive an earthquake. And, they illustrate an informational guide to the Mercalli Scale.

  7. The Darbar, the British, and the Runaway Maharaja: Religion and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Western India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shandip Saha

    2007-01-01

    The Vallabha Sampradaya or Pus.t.i Marga Hindu devo- tional community was founded in the sixteenth century by the Vais.n . avite philosopher, Vallabha. His successors, known as maharajas, continued to spread the teachings of the Pus.t.i Marga and enjoyed much success in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Political and economic patronage by elites of Western India soon transformed these maharajas into wealthy

  8. VARIOUS PROCESSING SCHEMES TO UPGRADE NORTH GUJARAT MIX CRUDE RESIDUE - A TYPICAL CASE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. Kuchhal

    1993-01-01

    North Gujarat blended atmospheric residue is paraffinic in nature, low in sulfur, and high in metal and naphthenic acid content. It's processing in catalytic conversion units without pretreatment creates problems. Therefore, to upgrade the atmospheric residue, seventeen process schemes have been evaluated to yield more valuable products. Only the well established processes viz. thermal cracking (visbreaking, delayed and fluid coking),

  9. Synthesis and characterization of organic bentonite using Gujarat and Rajasthan clays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasmukh A. Patel; Rajesh S. Somani; Hari C. Bajaj; Raksh V. Jasra

    Indian bentonite collected from two different sources, namely Barmer district, Rajasthan and Cutch district, Gujarat was screened and purified using the well- known Stoke's law of sedimentation by dispersing dif- ferent concentrations of bentonite (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) in deionized water. Chemical composition and cation exchange capacity of raw and purified bentonite (sed i- mented at different amounts

  10. Earthquake Plotting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Perry

    2008-11-18

    Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

  11. Earthquake Plotting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Kio

    2008-12-06

    Do earthquakes tend to happen in certain locations on Earth? Are there predictable patterns to where earthquakes will occur? The Earth is divided into large tectonic plates that move on a ductile layer of material in the mantle (the Asthenosphere). Earthquakes tend to occur along the boundaries where these plates either collide with one another or try to slide one past the other. Today you will plot on a map the location of every earthquake with a magnitude greater than 4.0 within the past week to see if any patterns appear. You will need Dynamic Crust lab #3 (Earthquake Plotting) from your lab books and your Earth Science Reference Tables. Vocabulary: Use the following website to find definitions to the vocabulary terms in the lab. Geology Dictionary Procedures: Go to this site to find a list of \\"Latest Earthquakes Magnitude 2.5 or Greater in the United States ...

  12. Cross-sensor SAR image offsets for deriving coseismic displacements: Application to the 2001 Bhuj (India) earthquake using ERS and Envisat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wei, S.; Jonsson, S.; Avouac, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a powerful imaging technique for measuring ground deformation, either through Interferometric SAR (InSAR) or image offset tracking. However, these methods are only applied to SAR images acquired by the same satellite, which limits the measurement capability for many earthquakes. Here we propose a novel approach that allows for calculating offsets between images acquired from the European ERS and Envisat satellites. To achieve this cross-sensor offset calculation, we first coregister pre-event (ERS) and post-event (Envisat) SAR images separately to generate averaged pre- and post-event SAR amplitude maps. We then compute the orbital offsets between these two maps in order to resample the ERS average map onto the grid of the averaged Envisat image. We finally calculate the cross-sensor image offsets based on cross-correlating selected sub-images distributed throughout the coregistered averaged SAR maps. Application to the 2001 Bhuj earthquake reveals, for the first time, its near-field coseismic displacement field right above the epicenter. We compare our measurements with the surface displacement field predicted from the published source model of Copley et al. [2011]. This model was derived from tele-seismic waveforms and limited far-field geodetic data. The comparison between the two displacement maps shows consistent displacement patterns, yet a systematic shift, which likely is due to the limited near-fault resolution of the data used in the previous model. We then perform a joint inversion using the newly derived SAR image offsets and tele-seismic waveforms. The preferred source model suggests a compact slip pattern at depths of 20-30 km with a peak slip of ~10 meters and a fairly short rise time (<3s). The large slip rate and low attenuation in the crust are likely responsible for the widely felt ground shaking despite of its compact source area. The result demonstrates that it is possible to correlate non-coherent SAR images acquired by different sensors to measure surface displacements. This approach extends further the possibility of mining the archive of SAR images for various types of earth-science studies.

  13. Law of the Landless: The Dalit Bid for Land Redistribution in Gujarat, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Topher McDougal

    2011-01-01

    Tenuous land access contributes to food and livelihood insecurity, and fuels conflicts in many rural societies. In such cases, the ability of government legal institutions to structure and ultimately transform the conflict depends not just on the adoption of laws favorable to progressive land redistribution, but also the effective implementation of those laws in the face of elite influence in

  14. Comparative molecular analysis of chemolithoautotrophic bacterial diversity and community structure from coastal saline soils, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Soils harbour high diversity of obligate as well as facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that contribute significantly to CO2 dynamics in soil. In this study, we used culture dependent and independent methods to assess the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophs in agricultural and coastal barren saline soils (low and high salinity). We studied the composition and distribution of chemolithoautotrophs by means of functional marker gene cbbL encoding large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and a phylogenetic marker 16S rRNA gene. The cbbL form IA and IC genes associated with carbon fixation were analyzed to gain insight into metabolic potential of chemolithoautotrophs in three soil types of coastal ecosystems which had a very different salt load and sulphur content. Results In cbbL libraries, the cbbL form IA was retrieved only from high saline soil whereas form IC was found in all three soil types. The form IC cbbL was also amplified from bacterial isolates obtained from all soil types. A number of novel monophyletic lineages affiliated with form IA and IC phylogenetic trees were found. These were distantly related to the known cbbL sequences from agroecosystem, volcanic ashes and marine environments. In 16S rRNA clone libraries, the agricultural soil was dominated by chemolithoautotrophs (Betaproteobacteria) whereas photoautotrophic Chloroflexi and sulphide oxidizers dominated saline ecosystems. Environmental specificity was apparently visible at both higher taxonomic levels (phylum) and lower taxonomic levels (genus and species). The differentiation in community structure and diversity in three soil ecosystems was supported by LIBSHUFF (P?=?0.001) and UniFrac. Conclusion This study may provide fundamentally new insights into the role of chemolithoautotrophic and photoautotrophic bacterial diversity in biochemical carbon cycling in barren saline soils. The bacterial communities varied greatly among the three sites, probably because of differences in salinity, carbon and sulphur contents. The cbbL form IA-containing sulphide-oxidizing chemolithotrophs were found only in high saline soil clone library, thus giving the indication of sulphide availability in this soil ecosystem. This is the first comparative study of the community structure and diversity of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in coastal agricultural and saline barren soils using functional (cbbL) and phylogenetic (16S rDNA) marker genes. PMID:22834535

  15. Maternal Socialization of Children's Anger, Sadness, and Physical Pain in Two Communities in Gujarat, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali Vidhatri; Martini, Tanya Susan

    2009-01-01

    Despite the recognition of cultural influences in child socialization, little is known about socialization of emotion in children from different cultures. This study examined (a) Gujarati Indian mothers' reports concerning their beliefs, affective and behavioral responses to their children's displays of anger, sadness, and physical pain, and (b)…

  16. The Indo-Islamic Garden: Conflict, Conservation, and Conciliation in Gujarat, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Wescoat

    I begin with the passage from Rajmohan Gandhi’s Revenge and Reconciliation: Understanding South Asian History that inspires this chapter: “A word, finally, on Delhi, for we started this study by noting Delhi’s djinns, its great load of unrepented cruelty and unshared sorrow.… Can Delhi’s accumulated offences be washed away? Can some atonement\\u000a or penance – or some God-sent blessing or

  17. A FUZZY BASED OPTIMAL IRRIGATION PLANNING FOR KAKRAPAR RIGHT BANK CANAL COMMAND AREA, GUJARAT, INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Mirajkar; P. L. Patel

    2011-01-01

    The availability of water in space and time in the command area may be imprecise and unpredictable due to uncertainty in the inflows into the reservoir due to rainfall. The impreciseness and uncertainty can be tackled effectively with the fuzzy logics. In the present study, the multi-objective fuzzy linear programming (MOFLP) has been formulated for crop planning in the command

  18. Fishery forecast using OCM chlorophyll concentration and AVHRR SST: validation results off Gujarat coast, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Dwivedi; S. R. Nayak; V. S. Somvanshi; D. K. Gulati; S. K. Pattnayak

    2003-01-01

    Satellite sensor data analysis, generation of fishery forecast, validation procedure, feedback analysis and results of validation experiments are discussed in this Letter. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS-P4) Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) derived chlorophyll concentration and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) derived sea surface temperature (SST) images were integrated to generate a fishery forecast. The

  19. Regional Seismic Amplitude Modeling and Tomography for Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Walter; M. E. Pasyanos; E. Matzel; R. Gok; J. Sweeney; S. R. Ford; A. J. Rodgers

    2008-01-01

    Empirically explosions have been discriminated from natural earthquakes using regional amplitude ratio techniques such as P\\/S in a variety of frequency bands. We demonstrate that such ratios discriminate nuclear tests from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India,

  20. Earthquake Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neville

    1979-01-01

    Provides a survey and a review of earthquake activity and global tectonics from the advancement of the theory of continental drift to the present. Topics include: an identification of the major seismic regions of the earth, seismic measurement techniques, seismic design criteria for buildings, and the prediction of earthquakes. (BT)

  1. Earthquake response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, David; Hough, Susan; Lerner-Lam, Arthur; Phinney, Robert

    The Loma Prieta earthquake in northern California gave geophysicists an unexpected chance to mobilize a team to take portable seismographs to an earthquake region. The magnitude-7.1 earthquake occurred Tuesday, October 17 at 5:04 P.M. Pacific Daylight Time. Less than 48 hours after the main shock, IRIS consortium seismologists from Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., were setting up new, portable equipment around San Francisco.The ability to move quickly to the earthquake area was an unanticipated bonus of two National Science Foundation programs: IRIS, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology in Arlington, Va., and NCEER, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research in Buffalo, N.Y.

  2. SCS-CN and GIS-based approach for identifying potential water harvesting sites in the Kali Watershed, Mahi River Basin, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ramakrishnan; A. Bandyopadhyay; K. N. Kusuma

    2009-01-01

    The Kali sub-watershed is situated in the semi-arid region of Gujarat, India and forms a part of the Mahi River Watershed.\\u000a This watershed receives an average annual rainfall of 900mm mainly between July and September. Due to high runoff potential,\\u000a evapo-transpiration and poor infiltration, drought like situation prevails in this area from December to June almost every\\u000a year. In this

  3. Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

    2013-10-01

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

  4. Earthquake Effects and Experiences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

  5. Earthquake Prediction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earthquake prediction has never been an exact science or an easy job. In 1923, the debate between two Japanese seismologists, Akitune Imamura, and his superior at the University of Tokyo, Professor Omori, over whether a great earthquake was imminent, ended in tragedy as Omori prevailed and no preparations were made for the disaster. In this video segment, a contemporary seismologist tells the story of these two pioneers and describes the events of the Kanto Earthquake, in which 140,000 people were killed. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  6. Modelling of U-shaped reinforced concrete walls under seismic loading with diagonal direction

    E-print Network

    CONCRETE Ottosen Material Model Fig.1 L`Aquila, Italy ­2009 Earthquake ­ RC core wall damage (R.1.) Fig. 4 Auteur(e)s Raluca-Tereza Constantin1 Encadrement Prof. K. Beyer 1 1 Earthquake Engineering and Structural of the wall Fig.2 Bhuj, India ­Structure with RC core after the 2001 Gujarat Earthquake (R.2.) REFERENCES: R.1

  7. Tsunami: India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Universal Time) on December 26, 2004, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake occurred off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This was the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and the largest in over 40 years. It was ...

  8. Complexity in hydroseismicity of the Koyna-Warna region, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Ramana; A. Chelani; M. Shekar; R. K. Chadha; R. N. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Koyna region in India is known to be the largest case of the Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) in the world with M6.3 earthquake in 1967. The region is seismically active even after forty five years with occurrences of earthquakes up to M5.0. The porous crustal rocks of Koyna - Warna region respond to changes in the prevailing stress \\/ strain

  9. Predicting Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Five moderate-to-strong earthquakes struck California in June 2005. Could the cluster of quakes be a harbinger of the Big One? Another earthquake-prone area, New Madrid, near Memphis, Tennessee, has had more than its share of impressive quakes and strain is building along its fault lines. This radio broadcast discusses these two seismic zones, the new data based on years of GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements that may give scientists more information, and how the Earth generates the stress which leads to earthquakes. There is also discussion of the danger of tsunamis in the Virgin Islands and the need for a worldwide tsunami warning network. The broadcast is 18 minutes in length.

  10. Earthquake Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about the structure of the earth and how an earthquake happens. In one activity, students make a model of the earth including all of its layers. In a teacher-led demonstration, students learn about continental drift. In another activity, students create models demonstrating the different types of faults.

  11. Genetic counselling in tribals in India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

    2011-01-01

    Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

  12. Government of Gujarat has selected Dr.Harinarayana as an independent Director on the board of Directors of

    E-print Network

    Harinarayana, T.

    Government of Gujarat has selected Dr.Harinarayana as an independent Director on the board and Tsunami monitoring studies, geothermal exploration, seismotectonics and deep crustal studies. He has committee. Dr.Harinarayana's pioneering work in geothermal energy has opened up a new sector for power

  13. Changes in wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) habitat conditions in Little Rann of Kutch, Gujarat from a remote sensing perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. PRASAD; S. P. GOYAL; P. S. ROY; S. SINGH

    1994-01-01

    The Rann of Kutch, Gujarat is the only habitat for one of the endangered sub-species of the Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus khur) and most of the population survives in the Wild Ass Sanctuary in Little Rann of Kutch. The area is a saline desert with extremely sparse cover of vegetation. In the past, the habitat supported a thriving population

  14. Darwin's earthquake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Richard V

    2010-07-01

    Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

  15. Do cervical cancer data justify HPV vaccination in India? Epidemiological data sources and comprehensiveness

    PubMed Central

    Mattheij, I; Pollock, AM; Brhlikova, P

    2012-01-01

    The Indian government suspended research in April 2010 on the feasibility and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in two Indian states (Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat) amid public concerns about its safety. This paper describes cervical cancer and cancer surveillance in India and reviews the epidemiological claims made by the Programme for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) in support of the vaccine in these two states. National cancer data published by the Indian National Cancer Registry Programme of state registry returns and the International Agency for Research on Cancer cover around seven percent of the population with underrepresentation of rural, northern, eastern and north-eastern areas. There is no cancer registry in the state of Andhra Pradesh and PATH does not cite data from the Gujarat cancer registries. Age-adjusted cervical cancer mortality and incidence rates vary widely across and within states. National trends in age standardized cervical cancer incidence fell from 42.3 to 22.3 per 100,000 between 1982/1983 and 2004/2005 respectively. Incidence studies report low incidence and mortality rates in Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. Although HPV prevalence is higher in cancer patients (93.3%) than healthy patients (7.0%) and HPV types 16 and 18 are most prevalent in cancer patients, population prevelance data are poor and studies highly variable in their findings. Current data on HPV type and cervical cancer incidence do not support PATH's claim that India has a large burden of cervical cancer or its decision to roll out the vaccine programme. In the absence of comprehensive cancer surveillance, World Health Organization criteria with respect to monitoring effectiveness of the vaccine and knowledge of disease trends cannot be fulfilled. PMID:22722970

  16. National Earthquake Information Center: Earthquake Search

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site enables the user to access a vast database of earthquakes. Searches may be done using a number of different geographic approaches: a Global or Worldwide search, a Rectangular search by specifying latitudes and longitudes of a rectangular area, and a Circular search by specifying the center latitude and longitude coordinates and a radius. Additional parameters, including dates of events, places of events, magnitude, depth and intensity can be specified before engaging in a search. The results of each search can be viewed in a variety of formats. Users may also view information and data on the following pages: Near Real Time Earthquake List, Current and General Earthquake Information, Seismograph Station Codes, Earthquake Information Sources, Routine U.S. Mining Seismicity, U.S. National Seismograph Networks, Today in Earthquake History, Large Earthquakes in 2001, and Earthquake E-mail Notification. Links to other U.S. Geological Survey earthquake websites are provided.

  17. USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: Current Earthquakes Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) provides this Website for current earthquake maps (for a related USGS site of geologic hazards, see the September 18, 1998 Scout Report). Taken from the NEIC's Near-Real Time Earthquake Bulletin, maps of the world, hemispheres, continents, and sub-continents provide location and phase data for the most recent seismic events. More detailed maps and charts can be accessed by clicking on earthquake locations on the larger maps.

  18. Towards a Better Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring System: Indian Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, B.; Gupta, G.

    2005-12-01

    The December 26, 2004 earthquake (mw 9.3) in the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone was unprecedented in its size, rupture extent as well as tsunamigenic capacity. Knowledge about the lack of a predecessor to this event was part of the reason for the apparent lack of anticipation and preparedness. Clearly, this event has changed the perception of earthquake/tsunami hazard along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as well as regions along the southwest coast of India, far removed from the source earthquake. The government of India is embarking on a major programme to study the earthquake processes in the Andaman and Nicobar regions, part of the subduction zone stretching about 1000 km, most of which was affected by the earthquake. These efforts include expansion and modernization of the existing seismic network, continuous and campaign-mode GPS surveys, geological and geophysical investigations and inundation mapping. Research programmes being funded by the DST aims at improved understanding of the seismic sources, their past behavior, rupture characteristics, physical processing related to earthquakes in this subduction zone and style of deformation using geodetic techniques. A network of more than 100 seismological stations operate in India presently, most of them being operated by the India Meteorological Department, the nodal agency for seismological studies. Linking and modernization and addition of more seismic observatories are underway. The station at Port Blair has been upgraded as broadband and a good network of portable stations are now operational. Added to these are the GPS campaign mode surveys that are being done along the entire arc. Establishment of a multiparametric geophysical observatory to monitor physical processes prior to large earthquakes is another experiment in plan. The structure of the Tsunami Warning System being proposed also involves establishment of more tide gauges and pressure sensors at strategic locations. It is expected that the data generated through various research initiatives will provide the necessary scientific basis for the proposed warning system.

  19. Energy Balance of Rural Ecosystems In India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, A.; Madhava Rao, V.; Hermon, R. R.; Garg, A.; Nag, T.; Bhaskara Rao, N.; Sharma, A.; Parihar, J. S.

    2014-11-01

    India is predominantly an agricultural and rural country. Across the country, the villages vary in geographical location, area, human and livestock population, availability of resources, agricultural practices, livelihood patterns etc. This study presents an estimation of net energy balance resulting from primary production vis-a-vis energy consumption through various components in a "Rural Ecosystem". Seven sites located in different agroclimatic regions of India were studied. An end use energy accounting "Rural Energy Balance Model" is developed for input-output analysis of various energy flows of production, consumption, import and export through various components of crop, trees outside forest plantations, livestock, rural households, industry or trade within the village system boundary. An integrated approach using field, ancillary, GIS and high resolution IRS-P6 Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data is adopted for generation of various model inputs. The primary and secondary field data collection of various energy uses at household and village level were carried out using structured schedules and questionnaires. High resolution multi-temporal Resourcesat-2 LISS IV data (2013-14) was used for generating landuse/landcover maps and estimation of above-ground Trees Outside Forests phytomass. The model inputs were converted to energy equivalents using country-specific energy conversion factors. A comprehensive geotagged database of sampled households and available resources at each study site was also developed in ArcGIS framework. Across the study sites, the estimated net energy balance ranged from -18.8 Terra Joules (TJ) in a high energy consuming Hodka village, Gujarat to 224.7 TJ in an agriculture, aquaculture and plantation intensive Kollaparru village, Andhra Pradesh. The results indicate that the net energy balance of a Rural Ecosystem is largely driven by primary production through crops and natural vegetation. This study provides a significant insight to policy relevant recommendations for Energy Sustainable Rural India.

  20. Internet Geography: Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is part of GeoNet Internet Geography, a resource for pre-collegiate British geography students and their instructors. This page focuses on earthquakes and how they occur. Topics covered include the effects of earthquakes, measuring earthquakes, and case studies about specific recent earthquakes.

  1. EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES By: Christopher E. Kohler (Environmental Health and Safety) and Walter E. Gray (Indiana Geological Survey) Earthquakes occur with little or no warning, and so planning of an earthquake. While most historical earthquakes were minor, Indiana's proximity to two seismic zones

  2. 2011 TOHOKUCHIHOTAIHEIYOU OKI EARTHQUAKE

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    2011 TOHOKUCHIHOTAIHEIYOU OKI EARTHQUAKE M. HORI Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo Seminar on the Honshu Earthquake & Tsunami UCL Institute for Risk & Disaster Reduction March 24, 2011 #12;Earthquake Details · Magnitude in Richter scale 9.0 · Moment Magnitude 9.0 · Location 38.03N, 143.15E · Depth

  3. Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroo Kanamori

    1972-01-01

    The mechanism of the Aleutian islands earthquake of 1946 and the Sanriku earthquake of 1896 is studied on the basis of the data on seismic waves from 5 to 100 s and on tsunamis. These earthquakes generated, despite their relatively small earthquake magnitude, two of the largest and most widespread tsunamis in history. The data obtained at different periods are

  4. Listening to Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, users can listen to the 'sounds' produced by earthquakes. Scientists have taken recordings of vibrations that occur during earthquakes and transformed them into sound files by speeding them up. Through listening, people can better understand the shaking that occurs during earthquakes. An interactive listening quiz lets students hear and compare earthquakes that occurred near each other, but from faults of different lengths. There is also a collection of sounds from historical earthquakes, such as the 1992 magnitude 7.3 Landers Earthquake, and a download page where sounds from various earthquakes can be obtained as .wav files.

  5. Virtual Courseware: Earthquake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gary Novak

    2000-04-25

    Virtual Earthquake is an interactive web-based program designed to introduce the concepts of how an earthquake epicenter is located and how the Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined. Virtual Earthquake shows the recordings of an earthquake's seismic waves detected by instruments far away from the earthquake. The instrument recording the seismic waves is called a seismograph and the recording is a seismogram. The point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus and the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter. You are to locate the epicenter of an earthquake by making simple measurements on three seismograms that are generated by the Virtual Earthquake program. Additionally, you will be required to determine the Richter Magnitude of that quake from the same recordings. Richter Magnitude is an estimate of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.

  6. Greater India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Ali; Jonathan C. Aitchison

    2005-01-01

    “Greater India” is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India–Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and\\/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924)

  7. Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Baer

    Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

  8. Rapid Earthquake Viewer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV) provides access to earthquake data from seismograph recording stations around the world. The Earthquake View lets users select an earthquake and see data at various stations. The Station View allows users to see if any ground motion has been recorded at a particular station. Lesson plans are being developed for REV, aimed primarly at the middle school level. The resource provides several techniques to help users contextualize and understand seismic data. REV is related to GEE, the Global Earthquake Explorer, a fully-functional earthquake analysis tool.

  9. Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

  10. Modeling the energy content of ship-scraping waste at Alang-Sosiya, Gujarat, India, using multiple regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Srinivasa Reddy; Shaik Basha; H. V. Joshi; V. G. Sravan Kumar; B. Jha; G. B. Marg

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. Alang-Sosiya (Lat 21\\/spl deg\\/5'; 21\\/spl deg\\/29'N, Long 72\\/spl deg\\/5'; 72\\/spl deg\\/15'E) is the largest ship-scraping yard in the world, established in 1982. Every year an average of 365 ships having a mean weight of 2.10\\/spl times\\/106 \\/spl plusmn\\/7.82\\/spl times\\/105 (LDT) being scrapped. This yard generates a huge amount of combustible solid waste in the form of

  11. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on bioaccumulation of metals by seaweeds of coastal region of Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2007-08-17

    The bioaccumulation ability of five species of seaweeds to 15 metals was studied in the seawater polluted by the effluent of soda ash industry. The bioaccumulation of Al, Mn and Fe in these seaweeds increased continuously as distance increased from outfall. However, Padina tetrastromatica showed reverse trend. Quite a number of metals like Au, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb, Pt and Sn were not recorded from any species of seaweeds from all sampling stations. Cr was recorded in Gracillaria acerosa from control site only. Accumulation of Cu in Gracilaria corticata was maximum near effluent discharge point and least at control, whereas its accumulation in P. tetrastromatica was more at station with lower pollution (station-3) than higher polluted station (station-2). Seaweeds had different pattern of bioaccumulation to Cu and Ag under the influence of the effluent. The bioaccumulation of Cd in quite a number of species was in non-detectable range, however in case of red seaweed it was more under polluted condition and non-detectable in control. The biosequestering capacity of different seaweed to different metals and their suitability for bioremediation under the influence of effluent is discussed. Bioconcentration factor for different seaweed species from different distances from outfall has been computed and discussed. The undiluted soda ash industry effluent is characterized by very high pH, density, settleable solids, total dissolved solids, ammonia and nitrate. The specific gravity, density, total suspended solids and total dissolved solids decreased continuously from undiluted effluent to seawater affected up to 1 km. PMID:17258393

  12. Earthquakes - Discover Our Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) Geoscience Information Project

    This site, from Cornell University, describes the origins, effects, measurement, and consequences of earthquakes. The site includes an overview and an exercise section that discusses key points pertaining to earthquakes, followed up with three activities.

  13. Earthquakes in Your State

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation of where earthquakes occur. Students research past earthquakes to see if any have occurred in their region. This activity has an accompanying page of websites for further research.

  14. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  15. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  16. School Safety and Earthquakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

    1997-01-01

    A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

  17. Earthquake and Schools. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Designing schools to make them more earthquake resistant and protect children from the catastrophic collapse of the school building is discussed in this videotape. It reveals that 44 of the 50 U.S. states are vulnerable to earthquake, but most schools are structurally unprepared to take on the stresses that earthquakes exert. The cost to the…

  18. WIND TURBINES AND EARTHQUAKES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Ritschel; I. Warnke; J. Kirchner; B. Meussen

    Presenter: U. Ritschel, Physicist and Managing Director of Windrad Engineering GmbH Abstract: Modern wind turbines have been mainly erected in regions where earthquakes are rare or normally weak. More recently wind farms in Africa, Asia ad southern Europe have been developed where stability under earthquakes becomes an issue. So far earthquake loads have been analyzed with methods adapted from civil

  19. Forecasting Earthquakes Using Paleoseismology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online article, from Earth: Inside and Out, takes a look at how paleoseismologists study the sediment around faults to help predict future earthquakes. It covers the role faults play in earthquakes and how sediment evidence is used to reconstruct a site's earthquake history.

  20. Real Earthquakes, Real Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schomburg, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

  1. Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  2. Earthquake Hazards Program - National Earthquake Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Users can access a selection of technical information and data about earthquakes in the U.S. and around the world. A current worldwide list of earthquakes is available, as are data on geophysical solutions, a catalog search, an automatic data request function, mining seismicity information, and a registry of seismograph stations.

  3. Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

    2008-01-01

    The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

  4. Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time?dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground?motion exceedance probabilities as well as short?term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long?term forecasts of probabilistic seismic?hazard analysis (PSHA).

  5. Predicting catastrophic earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iwata et al.

    This resource provides an abstract. This article discusses a method based on the magnitude-frequency distribution of previous earthquakes in a region. It is used to examine the probability of a small earthquake growing into a catastrophic one. When a small earthquake is detected in a region where a catastrophic one is expected, early warning systems can be modified to determine the probability that this earthquake will grow in magnitude. It was found that if the observed earthquake magnitude reaches 6.5, the estimated probability that the final magnitude will reach 7.5 is between 25 and 41 percent.

  6. USGS Earthquake Hazards Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site serves as a portal to all US Geological Survey (USGS) earthquake information, both real-time and historic. At the site, visitors can find information on past, present, and predicted future earthquake activity; access a range of publications, maps, and fact sheets; use a number of earthquake education activities; link to various earthquake research centers; and read in-depth information on selected recent earthquakes worldwide. While the site does offer some detailed information, it is probably still best suited for K-12 students and general users.

  7. Earthquake forecasting and warning

    SciTech Connect

    Rikitake, T.

    1983-01-01

    This review briefly describes two other books on the same subject either written or partially written by Rikitake. In this book, the status of earthquake prediction efforts in Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and the United States are updated. An overview of some of the organizational, legal, and societal aspects of earthquake prediction in these countries is presented, and scientific findings of precursory phenomena are included. A summary of circumstances surrounding the 1975 Haicheng earthquake, the 1978 Tangshan earthquake, and the 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquake (all magnitudes = 7.0) in China and the 1978 Izu-Oshima earthquake in Japan is presented. This book fails to comprehensively summarize recent advances in earthquake prediction research.

  8. Serosurveillance for Japanese encephalitis virus infection among equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Singha, Harisankar; Singh, Birendra K.; Virmani, Nitin; Khurana, Sandip K.; Singh, Raj K.

    2011-01-01

    The seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) among equines was evaluated from January 2006 to December 2009 in 13 different states of India by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and virus neutralization test (VNT). Antibodies against JEV were detected in 327 out of 3,286 (10%) equines with a maximum prevalence reported in the state of Manipur (91.7%) followed by Gujarat (18.5%), Madhya Pradesh (14.4%), and Uttar Pradesh (11.6%). Evidence of JEV infection was observed in equines in Indore (Madhya Pradesh) where a 4-fold or higher rise in antibody titer was observed in 21 out of 34 horses in November 2007 to October 2006. In March 2008, seven of these horses had a subsequent 4-fold rise in JEV antibody titers while this titer decreased in nine animals. JEV-positive horse sera had a JEV/WNV (West Nile virus) ratio over 2.0 according to the HI and/or VNT. These results indicated that JEV is endemic among equines in India. PMID:22122900

  9. Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Daniel P.

    2005-01-01

    A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others has failed to produce similar findings. What exactly are these anomalies? Might they be useful for earthquake prediction? It is the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies can be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant responses occurred prior to the earthquake event. A new set of automatic co-registration procedures was developed for this task to accommodate all properties particular to weather satellite observations taken at night, and it relies on the general condition that the ground cools after sunset. Using these procedures, we can produce a set of temperature-sensitive satellite images for each of five selected earthquakes (Algeria 2003; Bhuj, India 2001; Izmit, Turkey 2001; Kunlun Shan, Tibet 2001; Turkmenistan 2000) and thus more effectively investigate heating trends close to the epicenters a few hours prior to the earthquake events. This study will lay tracks for further work in earthquake prediction and provoke the question of the exact nature of the thermal anomalies.

  10. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean west of Australia, in particular the Wallaby-Zenith Plateau Ridge and the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. We suggest that the Indian continent probably extended no more than 950 km in the central portion of the Main Boundary Thrust, up to the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. At the Western Syntaxis, the extension was about 600 km. These estimates are broadly compatible with some of the geophysically-derived models depicting subducted Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet, as well as estimates of Himalayan shortening. Models requiring sub-continent extensions > 9° ahead of the craton are probably wrong. We also suggest that northern India did not have a thinned rifted passive margin due to the earlier rifting of blocks away from it when it formed part of Gondwana. Instead, the boundary developed as a transform fault and probably had a very narrow ocean-continent transition zone (5-10 km wide), similar to the Romanche Fracture Zone offshore of Ghana, West Africa.

  11. Lab 5 : Earthquakes --I: Locating an Earthquake Introduction

    E-print Network

    Chen, Po

    they design earthquake resistant structures. There are two main types of body waves, each traveling 1 Lab 5 : Earthquakes -- I: Locating an Earthquake Introduction Earthquakes have had a profound impact on nearly all human societies. In the past, earthquake activity was explained by myths

  12. Sex difference and earthquake experience effects on earthquake victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veysel Yilmaz; Sengul Cangur; H. Eray Çelik

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated whether sex differences and earthquake experiences affect the earthquake victims as to their future expectations, their reactions during the earthquake and their first feelings after the earthquake. Especially, conditional relationships among reaction, expectation and first feeling by sex and earthquake experiences were investigated. Graphical Log-linear models were used in order to determine the interaction structure among the

  13. The Distribution of Earthquakes: An Earthquake Deficit?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Marquis

    In this activity, students use online resources to investigate the occurrence of earthquakes in Southern California to decide if there has been a 'deficit', that is, not enough earthquakes in the area in historical time to release the amount of strain energy that plate tectonics is constantly supplying to the crust. In the first two parts, they must determine the appropriate year to begin their study of historic earthquake records (from 1860-1900), and then they must decide if the energy released by past earthquakes has been equivalent to the amount of energy accumulating through the action of plate tectonics over the same number of years. In part three, they perform an analysis of their findings by answering a set of questions. References are included.

  14. United States Geological Survey, Earthquake Hazards Program: Earthquake Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site describes the research activities of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The activities include: borehole geophysics and rock mechanics, crustal deformation, earthquake information, earthquake geology and paleoseismology, hazards, seismology and earth structure, and strong motion seismology, site response, and ground motion. Other links include: earthquake activity, earthquake facts and education, earthquake products, hazards and preparedness, regional websites, and seismic networks.

  15. Earthquake resistant design

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence L. Malinconico

    After having learned about earthquakes in class, through readings and earlier lab assignments, students (in groups of two) are asked to design and construct (using balsa wood, string, paper and glue) a three-story building designed to minimize the effects of shear-wave vibrations that occur during an earthquake. The students are required to research the design concepts on their own and most of the construction work occurs outside of the regular laboratory period. The structures are tested for strength a week before the earthquake occurs - can they support the required load for each floor? On earthquake day, the buildings a tested for a "design earthquake" and then each group is given the opportunity to see how "large" and earthquake their structure can withstand - both in terms of frequency and amplitude variations. In addition to building the structure, each team has to submit a paper reflecting on why they designed and built the structure the way they did.

  16. Early Eocene lagomorph (Mammalia) from Western India and the early diversification of Lagomorpha

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kenneth D; DeLeon, Valerie Burke; Missiaen, Pieter; Rana, R.S; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Lachham; Smith, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    We report the oldest known record of Lagomorpha, based on distinctive, small ankle bones (calcaneus and talus) from Early Eocene deposits (Middle Ypresian equivalent, ca 53?Myr ago) of Gujarat, west-central India. The fossils predate the oldest previously known crown lagomorphs by several million years and extend the record of lagomorphs on the Indian subcontinent by 35?Myr. The bones show a mosaic of derived cursorial adaptations found in gracile Leporidae (rabbits and hares) and primitive traits characteristic of extant Ochotonidae (pikas) and more robust leporids. Together with gracile and robust calcanei from the Middle Eocene of Shanghuang, China, also reported here, the Indian fossils suggest that diversification within crown Lagomorpha and possibly divergence of the family Leporidae were already underway in the Early Eocene. PMID:18285282

  17. Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medina, Philip

    This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, volcanoes, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

  18. Earthquakes Influenced by Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Yuen Wang; Michael Manga

    \\u000a Thus far, we have focused on the effects of earthquakes on hydrological processes. This is not a one-way relationship. Changes\\u000a in pore pressure can also induce earthquakes. In this chapter we thus discuss several ways in which hydrology influences seismicity.\\u000a While the term and ‘induced’ and ‘triggered’\\u000a are often used interchangeably, we endeavor to refer to ‘triggered earthquakes’ when the

  19. Thermal omens before earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    De-Fu Liu; Ke-Yin Peng; Wei-He Liu; Ling-Yi Li; Jian-Sheng Hou

    1999-01-01

    The calefacient phenomenon in the vicinity of the epicenter before an earthquake has observed. It shows that there exists\\u000a some abnormal information of heat radiation in the seismogenic zone. It might be helpful to open up a new research field of\\u000a survey the hot omen of earthquake and to improve the capability of earthquake prediction by using the satellite remote

  20. PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER

    E-print Network

    Adolphs, Ralph

    PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER PEER Testbed Study on a Laboratory Building, Berkeley PEER Report 2005/12 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering to "exercise" the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. All projects involved

  1. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  2. Locating Earthquake Epicenters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pinter, Nicholas

    In this exercise, students use data from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake to locate the earthquake and its time of occurrence, and plot data from Central and South America on a map to delineate plate boundaries. Introductory materials explain how earthquakes are caused, describe the types of seismic waves, and explain that the difference in arrival times may be used to calculate distance to the earthquake. Each portion of the exercise includes instructions, datsets, maps, travel-time graphs, study questions, and tables for entering data. A bibliography is also provided.

  3. Earthquakes of the Holocene.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Areas in which significant new data and insights have been obtained are: 1) fault slip rates; 2) earthquake recurrence models; 3) fault segmentation; 4) dating past earthquakes; 5) paleoseismicity in the E and central US; 6) folds and earthquakes, and 7) future earthquake behavior. Summarizes important trends in each of these research areas based on information published between June 1982 and June 1986 and preprints of papers in press. The bibliography for this period contains mainly referred publications in journals and books.-from Author

  4. Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?

    SciTech Connect

    Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2011-03-11

    The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

  5. Rapid Earthquake Viewer Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial is designed to help you and your students become familiar with the Rapid Earthquake Viewer (REV), an interactive website that provides access to earthquake data from seismograph stations around the world. REV gathers earthquake data from seismic networks around the Earth and posts information about recent notable earthquakes so you can see where they happened and view the seismograms from global seismograph stations. REV also lets you see if any seismic activity has registered on seismograph stations in your area or other areas around the world. It is recommended that you and your students go through this tutorial before initiating other lessons involving REV.

  6. Earthquakes Learning Module

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rita Haberlin

    This earthquake unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn the location of areas in the United States with the greatest potential for earthquake shaking and the hazards presented by earthquakes. They also learn how geological conditions and building construction affect the amount of destruction during an earthquake. Seismographs and the Richter scale are also covered. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

  7. Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Portal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Site aiming to provide useful and educational information in geotechnical earthquake engineering. The site involves topics such as: liquefaction engineering, seismic slope analysis and soil structure interaction.

  8. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ? 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw?8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw?8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough (2013) compilation and the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) catalog released in June, 2013. The GEM catalog includes three 19th century earthquakes of M8.5 and three M8.4s, and no 19th century earthquakes larger than 8.5. Cumulative moment release rates are notoriously difficult to estimate, but using the Hough (2013) compilation the 19th century moment release rate appears to be roughly half of the rate during the instrumental era; using the GEM catalog the 19th century rate appears to be roughly ¼ the instrumental rate. Thus, either 1) the global moment release rate varies by a factor of two or more on century time scales, or 2) the best available historical catalogs significantly underestimate great earthquake magnitudes and overall moment release rates. One can also consider whether magnitudes of great earthquakes were systematically underestimated during the first half of the 20th century, prior to the advent of long-period seismometry. We consider whether the 19th century moment release rate can be made consistent with the rate during the instrumental era using individual event magnitudes within the uncertainties estimated by past published studies. Lastly we consider the expected variability in global moment release rate, assuming a linear b-value up to Mmax9.5 and a Poissonian rate.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Intelligence Quotient among Children Living in High and Low Fluoride Areas of Kutch, India-a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    NAGARAJAPPA, Ramesh; PUJARA, Piyush; SHARDA, Archana J; ASAWA, Kailash; TAK, Mridula; AAPALIYA, Pankaj; BHANUSHALI, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term ingestion of large amounts of fluoride can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems and neurological consequences. The study was conducted to assess and compare intelligence quotient of children living in high and low fluoride areas in Kutch, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 100 school children aged 8 to 10 years, living in Kutch District, Gujarat, India during July 2012. Mundra (2.4 to 3.5 mg/L) and Bhuj (0.5mg/L) were the two villages randomly selected to represent the high and low water fluoride areas respectively. Seguin Form Board Test was used to assess the intelligence quotient (IQ) level of children. Descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test was used for analysis. Results: Mean scores for average, shortest and total timing category were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) among children living in Mundra (30.45±4.97) than those living in Bhuj (23.20±6.21). Mean differences at 95% confidence interval for these timings were found to be 7.24, 7.28 and 21.78 respectively. In both the villages, females had lower mean timing scores than males but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: Chronic exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was observed to be associated with lower intelligence quotient.

  10. ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 458, Vol. 42, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 95-110 FLOOD ELEVATION, INUNDATION DISTANCE AND FLOW

    E-print Network

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar

    ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 458, Vol. 42, No. 4, December 2005, pp. 95-to-moderate forcing, i.e, maximum still water 2-4 m MTL, in the low-relief settings of the South-East India coastal Mw 9.3 rupture. This great subduction zone earthquake from the Sumatra-Andaman margin (Stein and Okal

  11. Crust beneath the northwestern Deccan Volcanic Province, India: Evidence for uplift and magmatic underplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. Madhusudhan; Kumar, M. Ravi; Rastogi, B. K.

    2015-05-01

    The northwestern Deccan Volcanic Province of India and its pericratonic rift basins were reactivated during different stages after the breakup of India from the Gondwanaland and collision with the Asian plate. In this study, we present results of crustal thickness and average crustal Vp/Vs ratios beneath this plume-affected region using common conversion point imaging and H-k stacking analysis of 6893 receiver functions using data from a network comprising 58 broadband seismic stations sited on diverse tectonic terrains. We find large variations in crustal thickness, with the Moho depths varying from 28 to 43 km in the Kachchh rift, 28 to 38 km in the Cambay rift, 39.5-41.5 km in the north and eastern parts of the Cambay rift, and 29 to 39 km in the Saurashtra region and South Gujarat. A Moho upwarp of 6 to 7 km in the Saurashtra region can be attributed to positive buoyancy and uplift due to thermal influx affected by the Reunion plume. High crustal Vp/Vs ratios beneath the Kachchh rift (1.8 to 2.05), coastal areas of Saurashtra (1.75 to 2.06), and North Gujarat (1.81 to 1.85) indicate dominance of a mafic/ultramafic crust. High regional heat flow, high electrical conductivity, large intracrustal S wave velocity reduction, and high average crustal Poisson's ratios are consistent with partial melt related to the process of magmatic underplating in the lower crust. At other stations, the crust appears to be felsic with Vp/Vs ratios in the range of 1.57 to 1.76.

  12. Mughal India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As you enter a large room filled with various items, including a well-worn globe, a medium-sized file cabinet, and a wall of books, you wonder to yourself, Where am I?. It turns out that you have stumbled across the British Museum's fine interactive website on Mughal India. Designed for young people, the site is set up as an office where visitors may click on various items (such as a globe or a model of the Taj Mahal) in order to entire Flash-enabled learning environments that address various aspects of this most grand and productive period in India's history. While visitors will want to spend a good deal of time exploring the site, one particular representative area of the site is the coin cabinet. Clicking on the coin cabinet opens up a small chest that holds various pieces of currencies from the Mughal Empire. Visiting the different drawers in the chest allows users to learn what each type of coin can tell contemporary observers about the Empire's religious traditions, emperors, and politics. Thoroughly engaging and dynamic in its layout and content, this is a site that is worth a close look.

  13. AGU Member's Organization Awarded $2.5 Million to Conduct Earthquake Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A California-based, non-profit organization whose president and founder is an AGU member, announced on 11 November that it had been awarded two U.S. foreign assistance grants totalling $2.54 million to support earthquake safety initiatives in 20 major cities in India, and 3 cities in Central Asia.With these grants, GeoHazards International (GHI) will assess risk, raise awareness, improve school safety, launch self-sustaining mitigation activities, and strengthen the capacity of governments and in-country non-governmental organization (NGOs) to prepare and respond to future earthquakes. The measures should save lives and livelihoods in these earthquake-prone regions.

  14. Earthquake Preparedness and Response

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides access to a variety of governmental, charitable, and private websites with information on earthquake preparedness. Information is available for citizens, responders, planners, and engineers. There are also links to a variety of publications on how to prepare for an earthquake, and to government and non-government first response organizations.

  15. Earthquake Monitoring in Haiti

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Following the devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake, the USGS has been helping with earthquake awareness and monitoring in the country, with continued support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). This assistance has helped the Bureau des Mines et de l'Energie (BME) in Port-au-Prin...

  16. Earthquakes for Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-12-13

    These resources include sections on the latest quakes, science project ideas, puzzles and games, online activities, a glossary, and cool earthquake facts. In addition, there is an Ask A Geologist section, and earthquake FAQs. One link leads to a teacher page with grade level topics and educational materials.

  17. Testing earthquake forecast hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Console

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines methodological aspects of the statistical evaluation of earthquake forecast hypotheses. The recent debates concerning predictability of earthquakes clearly show how this problem is centred on the difficulty of systematically testing the numerous methodologies that in the years have been proposed and sustained by the supporters of prediction. This difficulty starts, sometimes, from the lack of a quantitative

  18. Earthquakes and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

  19. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  20. Earthquake Notification Services

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Geological Survey Earthquake Hazards Web site contains the Earthquake Notification Services page and service. Users can subscribe to three email lists that include BIGQUAKE -- which sends a message whenever an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.5 or greater occurs anywhere in the world or a magnitude of 4.5 or greater occurs within the 50 US states -- and QEDPOST -- which sends a daily message of the earthquakes located 7 days prior to the current day -- and MTALL -- which sends a message that contains the estimate of the seismic moment tensor for earthquakes with either a body-wave magnitude or surface wave magnitude of 5.5 or greater. Seismologists and other related professionals will appreciate being able to stay abreast of the latest tectonic activity with this helpful tool.

  1. On numerical earthquake prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaolin; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Siqi; Zhang, Huai

    2014-06-01

    Can earthquakes be predicted? How should people overcome the difficulties encountered in the study of earthquake prediction? This issue can take inspiration from the experiences of weather forecast. Although weather forecasting took a period of about half a century to advance from empirical to numerical forecast, it has achieved significant success. A consensus has been reached among the Chinese seismological community that earthquake prediction must also develop from empirical forecasting to physical prediction. However, it is seldom mentioned that physical prediction is characterized by quantitatively numerical predictions based on physical laws. This article discusses five key components for numerical earthquake prediction and their current status. We conclude that numerical earthquake prediction should now be put on the planning agenda and its roadmap designed, seismic stations should be deployed and observations made according to the needs of numerical prediction, and theoretical research should be carried out.

  2. Modeling earthquake dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpentier, Arthur; Durand, Marilou

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate questions arising in Parsons and Geist (Bull Seismol Soc Am 102:1-11, 2012). Pseudo causal models connecting magnitudes and waiting times are considered, through generalized regression. We do use conditional model (magnitude given previous waiting time, and conversely) as an extension to joint distribution model described in Nikoloulopoulos and Karlis (Environmetrics 19: 251-269, 2008). On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using a Gamma or a Weibull distribution, where parameters are functions of the magnitude of the previous earthquake. We use those two models, alternatively, to generate the dynamics of earthquake occurrence, and to estimate the probability of occurrence of several earthquakes within a year or a decade.

  3. Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake

    E-print Network

    Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

  4. 1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake events are well documented by those historic and recent earthquakes was not very high, and it is believed that Korea belongs to a low to moderate seismicity zone. However, after the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, there was a growing concern

  5. India’s Initiative in Mitigating Tsunami Hazard & Tsunami Potential in Northern Bay of Bengal (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    Soon after the occurrence of the most devastating tsunami caused by the 26th December 2004 Sumatra earthquake, India took the initiative to set up an end-to-end system to mitigate tsunami and storm surge hazard. The system includes all the necessary elements: networking of seismic stations; deployment of ocean bottom pressure recorders; real time sea level monitoring stations; establishment of radar based monitoring stations for real time measurement of surface currents and waves; modeling for tsunamis and storm surges; generation of coastal inundation and vulnerability maps; operation of a tsunami and storm surges warning centre on 24×7 basis; capacity building and training of all the stakeholders and communication with the global community. This initiative was estimated to have a direct cost of US $30million and was to be operative by August 2007. This has been achieved. The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information and Services (INCOIS), belonging to the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, located at Hyderabad, is the nodal agency for this program. The system is functioning well. We also examine the tsunami potential in the northern Bay of Bengal, where a large population (about 100 million) in the coastal area makes the region very vulnerable if a large tsunami was to occur. It is observed that: i) oblique plate motion characterizes the region resulting in strike-slip dominated earthquakes with low tsunami generating potential; ii) in the northern Bay of Bengal, the deformation front associated with the plate boundary between India and Sunda plates is either landward or in the shallow water in the Arakan region and therefore a great earthquake will not displace large amounts of water causing a major tsunami; and iii) there is no evidence of the region been affected by a large tsunami in the past 2000 years. We therefore conclude that though a great earthquake could occur in the Arakan region, it would not generate a large tsunami in the northern Bay of Bengal.

  6. Earthquakes Living Lab: Geology and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students examine the effects of geology on earthquake magnitudes and how engineers anticipate and prepare for these effects. Using information provided through the Earthquakes Living Lab interface, students investigate how geology, specifically soil type, can amplify the magnitude of earthquakes and their consequences. Students look in-depth at the historical 1906 San Francisco earthquake and its destruction thorough photographs and data. They compare the 1906 California earthquake to another historical earthquake in Kobe, Japan, looking at the geological differences and impacts in the two regions, and learning how engineers, geologists and seismologists work to predict earthquakes and minimize calamity. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

  7. The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saragoni, G. Rodolfo [Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad of Chile (Chile)

    2008-07-08

    The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

  8. Earthquake forecasting and its verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Holliday; Kazuyoshi Z. Nanjo; Kristy F. Tiampo; John B. Rundle; Donald L. Turcotte

    2005-01-01

    No proven method is currently available for the reliable short time\\u000aprediction of earthquakes (minutes to months). However, it is possible to make\\u000aprobabilistic hazard assessments for earthquake risk. These are primarily based\\u000aon the association of small earthquakes with future large earthquakes. In this\\u000apaper we discuss a new approach to earthquake forecasting. This approach is\\u000abased on a

  9. Historic Earthquakes in Southern California

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page contains a map of southern California with epicenters of earthquakes shown as circles of different sizes and colors. The size and color of each earthquake symbol corresponds to its magnitude, as indicated by a scale on the map. Clicking on an epicenter takes the user to a page of information about that earthquake. Earthquakes dating back to 1812 are shown. Also available on this page are links to fault maps, earthquake animations, and other indexes of seismological information.

  10. Measuring Earthquakes: Intensity Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of exercises will introduce students to the construction of earthquake intensity maps, familiarize them with the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, and give them the opportunity to build their own maps online in order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. In the first exercise, they will use intensity data from the 1986 North Palm Springs, California earthquake to create an isoseismal map. In the second, they will use a special interactive page of dynamic HTML to plot intensities that they assign based on reports, and attempt to determine the epicenter based on the area of highest intensity.

  11. global warming's six indias

    E-print Network

    Haller, Gary L.

    global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

  12. Earthquake resistant design

    SciTech Connect

    Dowrick, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses recent advances in earthquake-resistant design. This book covers the entire design process, from aspects of loading to details of construction. Early chapters offer a broad theoretical background; later chapters provide rigorous coverage of practical aspects.

  13. Northridge, CA Earthquake Damage

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The person in this image was a USGS employee at the time this was taken. Collection of USGS still images taken after the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake highlighting the damage to buildings and infrastructure....

  14. To capture an earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsworth, W.L. (USGS, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    An earthquake model based on the theory of plate tectonics is presented. It is assumed that the plates behave elastically in response to slow, steady motions and the strains concentrate within the boundary zone between the plates. When the accumulated stresses exceed the bearing capacity of the rocks, the rocks break, producing an earthquake and releasing the accumulated stresses. As the steady movement of the plates continues, strain begins to reaccumulate. The cycle of strain accumulation and release is modeled using the motion of a block, pulled across a rough surface by a spring. A model earthquake can be predicted by taking into account a precursory event or the peak spring force prior to slip as measured in previous cycles. The model can be applied to faults, e.g., the San Andreas fault, if the past earthquake history of the fault and the rate of strain accumulation are known.

  15. Coastal Dynamics during Earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Sawicki Waldemar

    2008-01-01

    The results of research on some aspects of coastal dynamics during earthquakes, carried out in the Institute of Hydro-Engineering, are summarized. The attention is focused on the liquefaction-related phenomena, like modeling the earthquake-induced generation of pore-pressures and subsequent liquefaction of subsoil, the behavior of liquefied soil, underwater landslides, sinking of structures in a liquefied seabed and large displacements of quay-walls.

  16. Focus of an Earthquake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    McGraw-Hill

    This simple Flash animation by McGraw-Hill shows the relationship between earthquake focus and earthquake epicenter which is found directly above the focus. Also displayed in the animation are the fault plane, fault scarp, and fault trace. The animation is part of a collection of animations and movies related to Physical Geology published by McGraw-Hill. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072402466/student_view0/chapter16/animations_and_movies.html

  17. Connecting Earthquakes and Violins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Ringlein

    2005-11-01

    Violins, earthquakes, and the "singing rod" demonstration all have something in common--stick-slip frictional motion. This article begins with a typical classroom experiment used to understand the transition between sticking and slipping, proceeds to a mechanical earthquake model that is truly "stick-slip" as scientists describe it, and progresses to acoustic examples of the same phenomenon in action. Other interesting cases involving frictional effects are described.

  18. Virtual Courseware: Earthquake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive exercise lets students investigate how seismic waves are used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude. They will place virtual seismic stations on an interactive map, trigger a virtual explosion, and measure the difference in arrival times of S- and P-waves generated by the explosion. Using this data, they can determine the distance to each station and use triangulation to determine the epicenter of the earthquake.

  19. Tectonics, Earthquakes, Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Camille Holmgren

    Students do background reading on plate tectonics and associated geologic hazards. In the first part of this exercise, students use on-line courseware from California State University, Los Angeles (Virtual Earthquake) to investigate seismograph records and use these records to determine earthquake epicenters and magnitudes. In the second part, they complete a crossword puzzle designed to help them master new vocabulary related to plate tectonics.

  20. Earthquake prediction, societal implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aki, Keiiti

    1995-07-01

    "If I were a brilliant scientist, I would be working on earthquake prediction." This is a statement from a Los Angeles radio talk show I heard just after the Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. Five weeks later, at a monthly meeting of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), where more than two hundred scientists and engineers gathered to exchange notes on the earthquake, a distinguished French geologist who works on earthquake faults in China envied me for working now in southern California. This place is like northeastern China 20 years ago, when high seismicity and research activities led to the successful prediction of the Haicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 with magnitude 7.3. A difficult question still haunting us [Aki, 1989] is whether the Haicheng prediction was founded on the physical reality of precursory phenomena or on the wishful thinking of observers subjected to the political pressure which encouraged precursor reporting. It is, however, true that a successful life-saving prediction like the Haicheng prediction can only be carried out by the coordinated efforts of decision makers and physical scientists.

  1. Coda Q Estimates in the Koyna Region, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Gupta; S. S. Teotia; S. S. Rai; N. Gautam

    1998-01-01

    The coda Q, Qc , have been estimated for the Koyna region of India. The coda waves of 76 seismograms from thirteen local earthquakes, recorded digitally in the region during July-August, 1996, have been analyzed for this purpose at nine central frequencies viz., 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 and 24.0 Hz using a single backscattering model. All

  2. Charles Darwin's earthquake reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiev, Shamil

    2010-05-01

    As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the problems which began to discuss only during the last time. Earthquakes often precede volcanic eruptions. According to Darwin, the earthquake-induced shock may be a common mechanism of the simultaneous eruptions of the volcanoes separated by long distances. In particular, Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…'. According to Darwin the crust is a system where fractured zones, and zones of seismic and volcanic activities interact. Darwin formulated the task of considering together the processes studied now as seismology and volcanology. However the difficulties are such that the study of interactions between earthquakes and volcanoes began only recently and his works on this had relatively little impact on the development of geosciences. In this report, we discuss how the latest data on seismic and volcanic events support the Darwin's observations and ideas about the 1835 Chilean earthquake. The material from researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474 is used. We show how modern mechanical tests from impact engineering and simple experiments with weakly-cohesive materials also support his observations and ideas. On the other hand, we developed the mathematical theory of the earthquake-induced catastrophic wave phenomena. This theory allow to explain the most important aspects the Darwin's earthquake reports. This is achieved through the simplification of fundamental governing equations of considering problems to strongly-nonlinear wave equations. Solutions of these equations are constructed with the help of analytic and numerical techniques. The solutions can model different strongly-nonlinear wave phenomena which generate in a variety of physical context. A comparison with relevant experimental observations is also presented.

  3. Some seismological and geometric features of intraplate earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talwani, P.; Rajendran, K.

    1991-02-01

    To understand the nature and cause of intraplate earthquakes we carried out a systematic search for common features associated with them. Various geological, geophysical and seismic data were analyzed and geometric and seismic parameters were compared for 29 intraplate events ( M ? 4.5) occurring worldwide. The results suggest that intraplate earthquakes occur by the reactivation of pre-existing zones of weakness in a compressional stress regime which is generally oriented parallel to the absolute direction of plate motion. Two styles of faulting were observed. For type A earthquakes, observed in the eastern United States, eastern China, western Europe and West Africa, deformation occurs by strike-slip motion on steeply dipping faults. Type B events are usually associated with thrust or normal faulting and were observed in eastern Canada, Fennoscandia, Australia and peninsular India. Focal depths did not explain the differences between type A and type B earthquakes; rather, the differences are due to the perturbation of a regional stress field by a local stress field. The regional stress field for type A events is primarily due to ridge push forces. The method of stress perturbation varied from region to region. The earthquakes in the type B category were further divided into three subcategories: type B 1 (occurring in eastern Canada and Fennoscandia), type B 2 (occurring in Australia, peninsular India and central Brazil) and type B 3 (occurring in the Gulf Coast of the U.S.). The inferred causes of the perturbing stresses are deglaciation, intracontinental resistive forces resulting from the collision of plates and the deposition of a large thickness of sediments, respectively. Type A events were found to be associated with intersecting faults and generally supported the intersection model of Talwani (1988) and had analogs in plate boundary events.

  4. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

  5. Nisqually, Washington Intraplate Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Hofmeister, R.

    2001-05-01

    On February 28, 2001, the M6.8 Nisqually earthquake shook the Pacific Northwest. This intraplate event occurred within the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia margin. Although the damage was less than observed at most large urban earthquakes, serious damage was found in Olympia, Seattle, and Tacoma. To better serve Oregon public safety needs, DOGAMI and others surveyed the Puget Sound damage to expand our technical understanding of seismic ground response, building and lifeline behavior, and secondary hazards (landslides and liquefaction). Damage was observed in structures and areas that, for the most part, would be predicted to be vulnerable. These included: old buildings (URMs), old lifelines (4th Ave bridge in Olympia), areas with poor soil conditions (Harbor Island, Seattle; Sunset Lake, Tumwater), and steep slopes (Salmon Beach; Burien). Damage types included: structural, nonstructural, contents, lifelines, landslides, liquefaction, lateral spreading, sand boils, and settlement. In several notable places, seismic-induced ground failures significantly increased the damage. Estimated costs developed from HAZUS evaluations ranged from \\2 billion to \\3.9 billion. Historic intraplate earthquakes in the Puget Sound region, including the 1949 M7.1, 1965 M6.5, and 1999 M5.9, were not accompanied by significant aftershock events or associated with earthquake sequences. However, a recent El Salvador earthquake sequence suggests there may be particular cases of increased seismicity following large intraplate events, with implications for post-earthquake response and mitigation. The January 13, 2001 M7.6 El Salvador intraplate earthquake was followed by a M6.6 crustal event February 13, 2001 and a M5.4 intraplate event February 28, 2001.

  6. Detection, Isolation and Confirmation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Human, Ticks and Animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Shete, Anita M.; Gurav, Yogesh K.; Raut, Chandrashekhar G.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Pawar, Shailesh D.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. Principal Findings Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E) and the husband of the index case (case D) were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat) showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966), which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. Conclusions The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A). In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India. PMID:22616022

  7. Searching for an Earthquake Precursor—A Case Study of Precursory Swarm as a Real Seismic Pattern Before Major Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, D.; Singh, H. N.; Paudyal, H.; Kumar, A.; Panthi, A.; Singh, V. P.

    2010-06-01

    A long-range correlation between earthquakes is indicated by some phenomena precursory to strong earthquakes. Most of the major earthquakes show prior seismic activity that in hindsight seems anomalous. The features include changes in regional activity rate and changes in the pattern of small earthquakes, including alignments on unmapped linear features near the (future) main shock. It has long been suggested that large earthquakes are preceded by observable variations in regional seismicity. Studies on seismic precursors preceding large to great earthquakes with M ? 7.5 were carried out in the northeast India region bounded by the area 20°-32°N and 88°-100°E using the earthquake database from 1853 to 1988. It is observed that all earthquakes of M ? 7.5, including the two great earthquakes of 1897 and 1950, were preceded by abnormally low anomalous seismicity phases some 11-27 years prior to their occurrence. On the other hand, precursory time periods ranged from 440 to 1,768 days for main shocks with M 5.6-6.5 for the period from 1963 to 1988. Furthermore, the 6 August, 1988 main shock of M 7.5 in the Arakan Yoma fold belt was preceded by well-defined patterns of anomalous seismicity that occurred during 1963-1964, about 25.2 years prior to its occurrence. The pattern of anomalous seismicity in the form of earthquake swarms preceding major earthquakes in the northeast India region can be regarded as one of the potential seismic precursors. Database constraints have been the main barrier to searching for this precursor preceding smaller earthquakes, which otherwise might have provided additional information on its existence. The entire exercise indicates that anomalous seismicity preceding major shocks is a common seismic pattern for the northeast India region, and can be employed for long-range earthquake prediction when better quality seismological data sets covering a wide range of magnitudes are available. Anomalous seismic activity is distinguished by a much higher annual frequency of earthquake occurrence than in the preceding normal and the following gap episodes.

  8. Investigating Earthquakes with Google Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maggie Molledo

    2012-07-25

    Students will explore the relationship between earthquakes and the tectonic plate boundaries using Google Earth. Students will track earthquakes noting location, magnitude and date. Students will apply their findings to formulate an understanding the processes that shape the earth.

  9. Being Prepared for an Earthquake

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Being Prepared for an Earthquake Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... has been the state most prone to serious earthquakes in recent years, there are many other fault ...

  10. Earthquake Education Environment (E3)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earthquake Education Environment (E3) supports high-quality K-12 and undergraduate education by providing up-to-date earthquake information, authoritative technical sources and educational resources for the classroom.

  11. Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation shows earthquake and volcanic activity corresponds to plate boundaries. This interactive topographical map with the ocean water removed shows the boundaries of major plates and the locations of major volcanic eruptions and earthquakes worldwide.

  12. ETHNOBOTANICAL ASPECTS OF SOME PLANTS OF ARAVALLI HILLS IN NORTH GUJARAT

    PubMed Central

    Punjani, Bhasker L.

    2002-01-01

    The Aravalli ranges run along the Sabarkantha district is the ancient region of India, inhibited by tribals living in close vicinity of enriched forest. The present paper contains various ethnobotanical aspects of some plant species used by the tribals for their day-to day requirement. The paper includes the first hand information collected through tribal informants, medicinemen and tribal people of several villages during the field trips in the region for last three years in different seasons. The paper provides an account of the ethnobotanical uses for basic necessities and welfare of tribal life, medicine and hygiene, fuel fodder, fibres food, shelter, dye, oil and other miscellaneous purposes. PMID:22557066

  13. Earthquake Research Reveals New Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    This brief, three-part report focuses on NSF-sponsored earthquake safety projects. The first section is on the Simmillennium Project, which investigates computer earthquake modeling techniques. The second section concentrates on hospitals, which are particularly difficult to retrofit for earthquake safety because of the sophisticated diagnostic and treatment systems they contain. The report also gives news of a safety engineering project for elementary school students created by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center.

  14. The CATDAT damaging earthquakes database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Daniell; B. Khazai; F. Wenzel; A. Vervaeck

    2011-01-01

    The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used

  15. Earthquakes! Amplitude and Magnitude Connection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-13

    This interdisciplinary learning activity illustrates the differences between the amplitude and magnitude of earthquakes in a mathematical context. Students will express earthquake magnitude as a logarithmic function of amplitude and express earthquake amplitude as an exponential function of magnitude. Worksheets are also included in the document.

  16. Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

  17. March 13, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    March 13, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake I extend my sincere sympathies to the many people affected by the Tohoku earthquake. I pray that those affected are able to return to a peaceful existence as quickly staff have been affected by this earthquake. The situation remains unpredictable, with aftershocks

  18. Staying Safe in Earthquake Country

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Staying Safe in Earthquake Country David Bowman On July 29 of this year, Mother Nature sent Cal State Fullerton a wake-up call in the form of the magnitude (M) 5.4 Chino Hills earthquake. Although this earthquake did not cause any serious damage to our campus, it has served as a reminder that we do indeed live

  19. Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Canan Lacin

    2007-01-01

    Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

  20. Parkfield, California, earthquake prediction experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Bakun; A. G. Lindh

    1985-01-01

    Five moderate (magnitude 6) earthquakes with similar features have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault in central California since 1857. The next moderate Parkfield earthquake is expected to occur before 1993. The Parkfield prediction experiment is designed to monitor the details of the final stages of the earthquake preparation process; observations and reports of seismicity and

  1. Government of India Geological Survey of India

    E-print Network

    Bilham, Roger

    that devastated the coastal regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India and Maldives and affected. The impact of the tsunami was quite severe in the coasts of Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands, Tamil Nadu

  2. Earthquakes Living Lab: Geology and Earthquakes in Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,

    Students study how geology relates to the frequency of large-magnitude earthquakes in Japan. Using the online resources provided through the Earthquakes Living Lab, students investigate reasons why large earthquakes occur in this region, drawing conclusions from tectonic plate structures and the locations of fault lines. Working in pairs, students explore the 1995 Kobe earthquake, why it happened and the destruction it caused. Students also think like engineers to predict where other earthquakes are likely to occur and what precautions might be taken. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

  3. [Earthquakes in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    de Ville de Goyet, C

    2001-02-01

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has 25 years of experience dealing with major natural disasters. This piece provides a preliminary review of the events taking place in the weeks following the major earthquakes in El Salvador on 13 January and 13 February 2001. It also describes the lessons that have been learned over the last 25 years and the impact that the El Salvador earthquakes and other disasters have had on the health of the affected populations. Topics covered include mass-casualties management, communicable diseases, water supply, managing donations and international assistance, damages to the health-facilities infrastructure, mental health, and PAHO's role in disasters. PMID:11293828

  4. Earthquakes and Tsunamis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, by the Lane Community College MAPS GIS Program, students work in teams to evaluate Oregon citiesâ?? tsunami evacuation plans related to a potential 8.1 coastal earthquake. Teams use additional information from a Web-based GIS to study the multi-faceted nature of earthquake damage in addition to tsunami impacts and make recommendations to improve the existing plan. The data are from the Oregon Geospatial Data Clearinghouse and the Oregon Department of Geology and Mines. On this site, visitors will find both the teacher version of the lesson plan and the student exercise, both as PDFs.

  5. Earthquake Word Searches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Harshbarger

    2009-10-27

    Finding the words in these word searches will help you learn about earthquakes. The words in the puzzles may be hidden horizontally, vertically, diagonally, forward, or backward. To circle a discovered word, mouse-click on one end of the word and mouse-drag to the other end of the word. Once a word is found, it will be taken off the list. There are nine word searches that you can play: famous seismologists, general earthquake terms, magnitude, Mercalli Intensity Scale, plate names, plate tectonics, Richter Magnitude Scale, seismic waves, and tsunamis.

  6. The Parkfield, California, Earthquake Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report decribes research being carried out in Parkfield, California whose purpose is to better understand the physics of earthquakes: what actually happens on the fault and in the surrounding region before, during and after an earthquake. Ultimately, scientists hope to better understand the earthquake process and, if possible, to provide a scientific basis for earthquake prediction. Topics include the scientific background for the experiment, including the tectonic setting at Parkfield, historical earthquake activity on this section of the San Andreas fault, the monitoring and data collecting activities currently being carried out, and plans for future research. Data are also available to view in real time and to download.

  7. Haiti and Earthquake Relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis Bertin M. Jr

    2010-01-01

    The earthquake that hit Haiti killed more than 200,000 people and left 1.5 million homeless. Although recovery efforts are continuing in full speed, daily life in haiti remains precarious and needs further assistance. Almost 2 billion dollars have been raised by governments, organizations and individuals. The emphasis now is on providing food, shelter and medical care for the ones who

  8. Earthquake Slip Classroom Exercise

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students explore the 'stick-slip' mechanism of earthquake generation. They will learn about the concepts of stick-slip sliding, static friction, energy conversion, and the elastic properties of materials. Students work together to develop and test a hypothesis, make measurements, graph and write a short report on the results.

  9. Earthquake Damage Slide Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This slide show presents examples of various types of damage caused by earthquakes. Photos include structural failures in bridges and buildings, landshifts, landslides, liquefaction, fires, tsunamis, and human impacts. Supplemental notes are provided to aid instructors about the photos presented on each slide.

  10. Earthquakes Within Continents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Seth Stein

    This page offers an model for explaining earthquakes that occur within continents, namely, the New Madrid seismic zone. The model, known as the Booby Trap, is an example of a complex system. A link to a video depicting the model is also provided.

  11. Earthquakes and Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ozsvath

    In this activity, students investigate the relationship between intensity of ground motion and type of rock or alluvium, as seen in the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake. They will examine a map of Mercalli intensity, a cross-section showing geologic structures and rock types, and a map of surficial geology, and answer questions pertaining to amplification of ground motion and S-wave velocities.

  12. The VAN earthquake predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Rhoades; F. F. Evison

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of the proposed VAN method for predicting earthquakes in Greece remains inconclusive. Authors who have attempted to evaluate the method have had to make their own subjective decisions about some features of the hypothesis, and to propose their own algorithms for testing against a null hypothesis. Different treatments of the inhomogeneity in space and time have lead to widely

  13. San Franciscso Earthquake Aftermath

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    various

    A series of films hosted by Internet Archive that show the aftermath of the earthquake and efforts to rebuild. The films are available in a variety of file formats of varying quality, and are digitized from period silent films of the disaster. Included in the collection is an Edison newsreel from the period, as well as footage of trolley rides through the destruction.

  14. Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article describes the theory of plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes and seismic zones. Materials include an overview of plate tectonics, a description of Earth's crustal plates and their motions, and descriptions of the four types of seismic zones.

  15. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  16. Source area and rupture parameters of the 31 December 1881 Mw = 7.9 Car Nicobar earthquake estimated from tsunamis

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Source area and rupture parameters of the 31 December 1881 Mw = 7.9 Car Nicobar earthquake on the India/Andaman plate boundary resulting in 10­60 cm of uplift of the island of Car Nicobar. The rupture., and R. Bilham, Source area and rupture parameters of the 31 December 1881 Mw = 7.9 Car Nicobar

  17. India's Initiative in Mitigating Tsunami and Storm Surge Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H.

    2008-12-01

    Soon after the occurrence of the most devastating tsunami caused by the 26th December, 2004 Sumatra earthquake, India took the initiative to set up an end to end system to mitigate tsunami and storm surge hazard. The system includes all the necessary elements: networking of seismic stations; deployment of ocean bottom pressure recorders; real time sea level monitoring stations; establishment of radar based monitoring stations for real time measurement of surface currents and waves; modeling for tsunamis and storm surges; generation of coastal inundation and vulnerability maps; operation of a tsunami and storm surges warning centre on 24×7 basis; capacity building and training of all the stakeholders and communication with the global community. This initiative was estimated to have a direct cost of US $30 million and was to be operative by August 2007. This has been achieved. The Indian National Centre for Ocean Information and Services (INCOIS), belonging to the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), located at Hyderabad, is the nodal agency for this program. The system fared well during the occurrence of September 12/13 2007 tsunamigenic earthquakes. One of the problems is delay in estimating the size of large earthquakes. Empirical approaches are being developed to quickly estimate the size of the earthquakes occurring in Sumatra -Andaman zone of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  18. The 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance: A Case Study - Using an Earthquake Anniversary to Promote Earthquake Preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Garcia, S.; Aagaard, B. T.; Boatwright, J. J.; Dawson, T.; Hellweg, M.; Knudsen, K. L.; Perkins, J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Stoffer, P. W.; Zoback, M.

    2008-12-01

    Last October 21st marked the 140th anniversary of the M6.8 1868 Hayward Earthquake, the last damaging earthquake on the southern Hayward Fault. This anniversary was used to help publicize the seismic hazards associated with the fault because: (1) the past five such earthquakes on the Hayward Fault occurred about 140 years apart on average, and (2) the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system is the most likely (with a 31 percent probability) fault in the Bay Area to produce a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the next 30 years. To promote earthquake awareness and preparedness, over 140 public and private agencies and companies and many individual joined the public-private nonprofit 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance (1868alliance.org). The Alliance sponsored many activities including a public commemoration at Mission San Jose in Fremont, which survived the 1868 earthquake. This event was followed by an earthquake drill at Bay Area schools involving more than 70,000 students. The anniversary prompted the Silver Sentinel, an earthquake response exercise based on the scenario of an earthquake on the Hayward Fault conducted by Bay Area County Offices of Emergency Services. 60 other public and private agencies also participated in this exercise. The California Seismic Safety Commission and KPIX (CBS affiliate) produced professional videos designed forschool classrooms promoting Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Starting in October 2007, the Alliance and the U.S. Geological Survey held a sequence of press conferences to announce the release of new research on the Hayward Fault as well as new loss estimates for a Hayward Fault earthquake. These included: (1) a ShakeMap for the 1868 Hayward earthquake, (2) a report by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasting the number of employees, employers, and wages predicted to be within areas most strongly shaken by a Hayward Fault earthquake, (3) new estimates of the losses associated with a Hayward Fault earthquake, (4) new ground motion simulations of a Hayward Fault earthquake, (5) a new USGS Fact Sheet about the earthquake and the Hayward Fault, (6) a virtual tour of the 1868 earthquake, and (7) a new online field trip guide to the Hayward Fault using locations accessible by car and public transit. Finally, the California Geological Survey and many other Alliance members sponsored the Third Conference on Earthquake Hazards in the East Bay at CSU East Bay in Hayward for the three days following the 140th anniversary. The 1868 Alliance hopes to commemorate the anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake every year to maintain and increase public awareness of this fault, the hazards it and other East Bay Faults pose, and the ongoing need for earthquake preparedness and mitigation.

  19. Deterministic seismic hazard macrozonation of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolathayar, Sreevalsa; Sitharam, T. G.; Vipin, K. S.

    2012-10-01

    Earthquakes are known to have occurred in Indian subcontinent from ancient times. This paper presents the results of seismic hazard analysis of India (6°-38°N and 68°-98°E) based on the deterministic approach using latest seismicity data (up to 2010). The hazard analysis was done using two different source models (linear sources and point sources) and 12 well recognized attenuation relations considering varied tectonic provinces in the region. The earthquake data obtained from different sources were homogenized and declustered and a total of 27,146 earthquakes of moment magnitude 4 and above were listed in the study area. The sesismotectonic map of the study area was prepared by considering the faults, lineaments and the shear zones which are associated with earthquakes of magnitude 4 and above. A new program was developed in MATLAB for smoothing of the point sources. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area was divided into small grids of size 0.1° × 0.1° (approximately 10 × 10 km), and the hazard parameters were calculated at the center of each of these grid cells by considering all the seismic sources within a radius of 300 to 400 km. Rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA) and spectral accelerations for periods 0.1 and 1 s have been calculated for all the grid points with a deterministic approach using a code written in MATLAB. Epistemic uncertainty in hazard definition has been tackled within a logic-tree framework considering two types of sources and three attenuation models for each grid point. The hazard evaluation without logic tree approach also has been done for comparison of the results. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of hazard values are presented in the paper.

  20. Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

  1. ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STYLER, W.E.

    AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

  2. Real time earthquake forecasting in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murru; R. Console; G. Falcone

    2009-01-01

    We have applied an earthquake clustering epidemic model to real time data at the Italian Earthquake Data Center operated by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) for short-term forecasting of moderate and large earthquakes in Italy. In this epidemic-type model every earthquake is regarded, at the same time, as being triggered by previous events and triggering following earthquakes.

  3. Tsunami Generation from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.

    2005-12-01

    The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, Sumatra earthquake (Mw 9.1) propagated across the Indian Ocean and caused the worst tsunami disaster. Factors contributed to the tragedy include the giant size of the earthquake, absence of both tsunami warning system and long-term forecast of future earthquakes in the Indian Ocean. Seismological developments since 1960, when the Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) caused Pacific-wide tsunami damage, make it possible to estimate the earthquake source parameters within minutes after the occurrence and utilize it for the tsunami warning purposes. The length of the tsunami source of the December Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is enigmatic. The aftershock zone extended from west of Sumatra through Nicobar Islands all the way to Andaman Islands; the total length is over 1,200 km. The seismic wave analyses indicate the southern half ruptured in rather rapidly while the northern half did slowly. Sea level changes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands indicate that the coseismic crustal deformation extended to Andaman Islands. The tsunami source size was estimated to be about 700 km long from the tsunami arrival times recorded on tide gauges, but the northern end was not well constrained. The tsunami heights in Indian Ocean, captured by Jason-1 and other satellites, support that the tsunami source was about 1,100 km long. For more accurate tsunami computations requires detailed shallow bathymetry data. To document the 2004 tsunami, many scientists from all over the world visited the affected coasts. From Japan alone, several survey teams visited coasts of Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, India and Sri Lanka, with collaborators in each country. The tsunami heights in Sumatra Island, particularly around Band Aceh, were mostly larger than 20 m with the maximum of 30 m. The tsunami heights along the Andaman Sea coast were highly variable; they were 5 to 15 m in Thailand but less than 3 m in Myanmar. In fact, the tsunami damage and casualties, reportedly 61, were much slighter in Myanmar than other countries. The tsunami heights were also up to 5 m on India_fs Andaman Islands. In Sri Lanka, the tsunami heights were 5 to 15 m. The tsunami height distribution is consistent with the damage distribution, and supports that the tsunami source was concentrated in the southern 700 km section of the aftershock zone.

  4. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. At the Southern California field sites, one loop antenna was positioned for omni-directional reception and also detected a strong First Schumann Resonance; however, additional Schumann Resonances were absent. At the Timpson, TX field sites, loop antennae were positioned for directional reception, due to earthquake-induced, hydraulic fracturing activity currently conducted by the oil and gas industry. Two strong signals, one moderately strong signal, and approximately 6-8 weaker signals were detected in the immediate vicinity. The three stronger signals were mapped by a biangulation technique, followed by a triangulation technique for confirmation. This was the first antenna mapping technique ever performed for determining possible earthquake epicenters. Six and a half months later, Timpson experienced two M4 (M4.1 and M4.3) earthquakes on September 2, 2013 followed by a M2.4 earthquake three days later, all occurring at a depth of five kilometers. The Timpson earthquake activity now has a cyclical rate and a forecast was given to the proper authorities. As a result, the Southern California and Timpson, TX field results led to an improved design and construction of a third prototype antenna. With a loop antenna array, a viable communication system, and continuous monitoring, a full fracture cycle can be established and observed in real-time. In addition, field data could be reviewed quickly for assessment and lead to a much more improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursors determined by this method appear to surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

  5. Charleston Earthquake 1886

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Major earthquakes may not be that common in the Southeast, but on August 31, 1886, just such a cataclysmic event shook Charleston and the surrounding area. While the entire event lasted less than a minute, it caused many deaths and injuries, along with tremendous property damage. On hand during the aftermath was George LaGrange Cook a prominent local photographer who created the series "Cook's Earthquake Views of Charleston and Vicinity". This collection featured 200 photographs that could be purchased as souvenirs. Visitors to this digital collection can view some of the items from this volume, which documents the destruction wrought by this event. Also, it is worth noting that visitors can also search for specific items of interest and browse around by subject heading.

  6. Written in Stone Earthquake Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeff Sale, EdCenter Staff Scientist

    This group of brief animations shows destructive phenomena related to earthquakes and provides some advice on mitigating their effects. The collection includes an animation of Rayleigh waves, showing the reverse elliptical motion that makes them especially damaging; a demonstration of the difference in wave propagation and amplitude between hard rock and unconsolidated sediment; and an animation showing the relationship between earthquake magnitude and fault movement on the San Andreas Fault. For homeowners, there are animations depicting an unsecured cripple wall and chimney failure, with suggestions for strengthening these components. There are also animations of fault movement that occurred during specific earthquakes, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1992 Landers earthquake, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The animations were developed for the educational video "Written in Stone," a project funded by and developed for the California Seismic Safety Commission.

  7. Do Earthquakes Shake Stock Markets?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how major earthquakes affected the returns and volatility of aggregate stock market indices in thirty-five financial markets over the last twenty years. Results show that global financial markets are resilient to shocks caused by earthquakes even if these are domestic. Our analysis reveals that, in a few instances, some macroeconomic variables and earthquake characteristics (gross domestic product per capita, trade openness, bilateral trade flows, earthquake magnitude, a tsunami indicator, distance to the epicenter, and number of fatalities) mediate the impact of earthquakes on stock market returns, resulting in a zero net effect. However, the influence of these variables is market-specific, indicating no systematic pattern across global capital markets. Results also demonstrate that stock market volatility is unaffected by earthquakes, except for Japan. PMID:26197482

  8. Why Do Earthquakes Happen?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This brief tutorial and activity will provide younger students with some idea how earthquakes occur. The text explains how strain builds up along a fault until the rock breaks, releasing energy in the form of seismic waves. This concept is reinforced by a simple experiment in which the students break a foam rubber block in half and then try to slide the broken halves past each other.

  9. Landslides, earthquakes, and erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Bruce D.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Guzzetti, Fausto; Reichenbach, Paola

    2004-12-01

    This paper relates landslide inventories to erosion rates and provides quantitative estimates of the landslide hazard associated with earthquakes. We do this by utilizing a three-parameter inverse-gamma distribution, which fits the frequency-area statistics of three substantially 'complete' landslide-event inventories. A consequence of this general distribution is that a landslide-event magnitude mL=log NLT can be introduced, where NLT is the total number of landslides associated with the landslide event. Using this general distribution, landslide-event magnitudes mL can be obtained from incomplete landslide inventories, and the total area and volume of associated landslides, as well as the area and volume of the maximum landslides, can be directly related to the landslide-event magnitude. Using estimated recurrence intervals for three landslide events and the time span for two historical inventories, we estimate regional erosion rates associated with landslides as typically 0.1-2.5 mm year -1. We next give an empirical correlation between the earthquake magnitude, associated landslide-event magnitude, and the total volume of associated landslides. Using these correlations, we estimate that the minimum earthquake magnitudes that will generate landslides is M=4.3±0.4. Finally, using Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude statistics for regional seismicity, we relate the intensity of seismicity in an area and the magnitude of the largest regional earthquakes to erosion rates. We find that typical seismically induced erosion rates in active subduction zones are 0.2-7 mm year -1 and adjacent to plate boundary strike-slip fault zones are 0.01-0.7 mm year -1.

  10. Earthquakes and plate tectonics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

  11. How to design for earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Degenkolb, M.J.

    1982-10-01

    This article emphasizes that the most important attribute of earthquake resistant construction is that the structure must be tied together so that it and all its components act as a unit. Earthquake force levels in most codes and standards are much less than those to be expected in a strong earthquake. It cautions that where design criteria is based only on adequate calculated strength, without regard for ductility, failures will occur.

  12. Comparing Ground Motion from Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students use data provided in REV (Rapid Earthquake Viewer) to compare the amplitude of the seismic waves recorded as a result of ground shaking from recent earthquakes. They explore the concept of a logarithmic scale, and create a graph using a logarithmic axis. By graphing and comparing data for earthquakes of different magnitudes recorded at similar distances from the epicenter, students discover that the amount of ground motion recorded by a seismometer is a measure of magnitude.

  13. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) created the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) to give researchers the tools to learn how earthquakes and tsunami impact the buildings, bridges, utility systems and other critical components of today's society. NEES is a network of 15 large-scale, experimental sites linked to a centralized data pool and earthquake simulation software which allows off-site researchers to interact in real time with any of the networked sites.

  14. The Earthquake Engineering Online Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earthquake Engineering Online Archive is a database of significant publicly-funded research and development literature, data and software on earthquake, structural, and geotechnical engineering, photographs, and engravings and allegorical images from the era before photography. Users may search and download photos and other images of earthquake-related damage and effects. Low-resolution images are available free; registration and log-in are required for full-resolution imagery and other services.

  15. Identification of novel mutations in HEXA gene in children affected with Tay Sachs disease from India.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Mehul; Tamhankar, Parag M; Sheth, Frenny; Sanghavi, Daksha; Kondurkar, Pratima; Patil, Swapnil; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to ?-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients). Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-?-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K), c.964 G>A (p.D322N), c.964 G>T (p.D322Y), c.1178C>G (p.R393P) and c.1385A>T (p.E462V), c.1432 G>A (p.G478R) and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W). The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V. PMID:22723944

  16. Assessment of Interplate and Intraplate Earthquakes 

    E-print Network

    Bellam, Srigiri Shankar

    2012-10-19

    of earthquakes are observed in the surface plates, interplate and intraplate earthquakes, which are classified, based on the location of the origin of an earthquake either between two plates or within the plate respectively. Limited work has been completed...

  17. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  18. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  19. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  20. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  1. 13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

  2. Earthquake forecasting: Statistics and Information

    E-print Network

    Gertsik, V; Krichevets, A

    2013-01-01

    We present an axiomatic approach to earthquake forecasting in terms of multi-component random fields on a lattice. This approach provides a method for constructing point estimates and confidence intervals for conditional probabilities of strong earthquakes under conditions on the levels of precursors. Also, it provides an approach for setting multilevel alarm system and hypothesis testing for binary alarms. We use a method of comparison for different earthquake forecasts in terms of the increase of Shannon information. 'Forecasting' and 'prediction' of earthquakes are equivalent in this approach.

  3. Radon in earthquake prediction research.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, H

    2012-04-01

    The observation of anomalies in the radon concentration in soil gas and ground water before earthquakes initiated systematic investigations on earthquake precursor phenomena. The question what is needed for a meaningful earthquake prediction as well as what types of precursory effects can be expected is shortly discussed. The basic ideas of the dilatancy theory are presented which in principle can explain the occurrence of earthquake forerunners. The reasons for radon anomalies in soil gas and in ground water are clarified and a possible classification of radon anomalies is given. PMID:21669940

  4. After the CTB... India`s intentions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bidwai; A. Vanaik

    1997-01-01

    More than six months after it was adopted in the U.N. General Assembly, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTB) remains a victim of narrowly perceived national security interests. Three sour ironies marked the way agreement was reached. First, India, which pioneered the proposal in 1954, became its bitterest opponent, alone vetoing it at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, thus

  5. Census of India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    India's richly diverse population of more than 975 million people, growing at a rate of over 43,000 persons per day, provides a wealth of fascinating data when its decennial census is taken by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Although the last Indian census was conducted in 1991, new data are still being released every month. This Website provides access to Census Publications; India and State Maps; State Publications; District Census Handbooks; Special Studies; India at a Glance; Key Population Statistics; Vital Statistics; State Census Directorates; and New Book Releases.

  6. GUIDELINES FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN and EVALUATION OF EARTHQUAKE FORCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Bhattacharyya

    Seismic risk is the probability that social or economic consequences of earthquakes will equal or exceed specified values at a site or at several sites or in an area during a specified exposure time. The seismic risk for a project depends to a great extent on the seismic activity of the region. As most earthquakes arise from stress build-up due

  7. Generic precursors to coastal earthquakes: Inferences from Denali fault earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh P. Singh; Guido Cervone; Vijay P. Singh; Menas Kafatos

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown evidence of strong coupling between the atmosphere and lithosphere in coastal regions, associating abnormal atmospheric phenomena to the occurrence of strong earthquakes. Surface latent heat flux (SLHF), total column water vapor (CWV), relative humidity (RH) and total ozone column (TOC), analyzed over the epicentral region of the Denali fault earthquake of November 3, 2002, exhibit anomalous

  8. The Distribution of Earthquakes: Where Do Large Earthquakes Occur?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Marquis

    In this activity, students investigate the distribution of large earthquakes (magnitude greater than 6) in Southern California. Using online maps of earthquake epicenters in Southern California and the Los Angeles Basin, they will compare these distributions with historic distributions (1932-1996), and with respect to the locations of major fault traces.

  9. EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING & STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Earthquake Engng Struct. Dyn. (2013)

    E-print Network

    Baker, Jack W.

    2013-01-01

    EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING & STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS Earthquake Engng Struct. Dyn. (2013) Published online for a structure at a specific site for nonlinear dynamic analysis. As nonlinear dynamic analysis becomes more that links nonlin- ear dynamic analysis back to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for ground motion

  10. Green reconstruction of the tsunami-affected areas in India using the integrated coastal zone management concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sangeeta Sonak; Prajwala Pangam; Asha Giriyan

    2008-01-01

    A tsunami, triggered by a massive undersea earthquake off Sumatra in Indonesia, greatly devastated the lives, property and infrastructure of coastal communities in the coastal states of India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand. This event attracted the attention of environmental managers at all levels, local, national, regional and global. It also shifted the focus from

  11. Study of sexual behavior and prevalence of STIs/RTIs and HIV among female workers of textile industries in Surat city, Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Binita; Kosambiya, J. K.; Mulla, Summaiya; Verma, Ragini; Patel, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surat city is vulnerable to transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV due to its huge migratory population in diamond and textile industries. Females working in textile industries were not receiving focused intervention although they were at high risk of acquiring STIs/HIV. Objective: The present study was conducted to know the prevalence of various STIs and HIV among the group of female textile workers in Surat city. The findings of the study will be helpful for policy decision makers to address the issues of a specific vulnerable group. Materials and Methods: A total 257 female workers in various textile markets were enrolled in the present study. Data were collected by the help of a pre-tested questionnaire and analysis was done by using Microsoft Excel and the EPI Info software. Result: Overall prevalence of various STIs/RTIs (reproductive tract infections) was 16.73%, whereas HIV positivity was 1.17%. Bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis were the most common infections. Conclusion: Groups such as female textile workers need to be taken care of especially to enhance the HIV prevention and control activities in Surat city, which would help in breaking the chain of transmission. PMID:23919049

  12. Characterization and evaluation of hydrological processes responsible for spatiotemporal variation of surface water quality at Narmada estuarine region in Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nirmal; Kumar, Pankaj; Basil, George; Kumar, Rita N.; Kharrazi, Ali; Avtar, Ram

    2014-04-01

    This study is an effort to trace the spatiotemporal variation in water at Narmada estuarine region through solute concentration. A total of 72 water samples were collected and analyzed from three sampling points along with in situ measurement of tidal height at monthly basis for 2 years. Result shows that spatiotemporal variation of water quality occurs because of the following main mechanisms, i.e., carbonate weathering, dilution and seawater-freshwater mixing. Firstly, points situated toward inland showing the simple dilution effect on receiving high amount of monsoonal precipitation. Secondly, tidal fluctuation pattern has a strong influence on the water quality taken from the point located in near proximity to the coast. Finally, it can be concluded that water quality shows a different response, in accordance with the different tidal phase and the distance from the sea.

  13. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1?MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10?MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  14. Parkfield earthquakes: Characteristic or complementary?

    E-print Network

    Custodio, Susana; Archuleta, Ralph J.

    2007-01-01

    located along a line perpendicular to the fault on the SEfault planes modeled for the 1966 and 2004 earthquakes correspond to the red and blue lines,fault planes modeled for the 1966 and 2004 earthquakes correspond to the red and blue lines,

  15. Magnitude and Energy of Earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gutenberg; C. F. Richter

    1955-01-01

    IN a paper presented at a meeting of the Seismological Society of America on April 29, 19551, we have revised previous work2 on the relation of earthquake magnitude M to energy E (in ergs). Methods formerly used to extend the magnitude scale for local earthquakes to teleseisms lead to inconsistencies, so that in effect three different magnitude scales are in

  16. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  17. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1?MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10?MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  18. Probabilistic Approach To Earthquake Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodolfo Console; Daniela Pantosti; G. D'Addezio

    2002-01-01

    The evaluation of any earthquake forecast hypothesis requires the application of rigor- ous statistical methods. It implies a univocal definition of the model characterising the concerned anomaly or precursor, so as it can be objectively recognised in any circum- stance and by any observer. A simple definition of an earthquake forecasting hypothe- sis could consist in the identification of particular

  19. Earthquake Preparedness Checklist for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    A brochure provides a checklist highlighting the important questions and activities that should be addressed and undertaken as part of a school safety and preparedness program for earthquakes. It reminds administrators and other interested parties on what not to forget in preparing schools for earthquakes, such as staff knowledge needs, evacuation…

  20. Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

  1. Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savasci, Funda

    2011-01-01

    The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

  2. Geochemical Challenge to Earthquake Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Wakita

    1996-01-01

    The current status of geochemical and groundwater observations for earthquake prediction in Japan is described. The development of the observations is discussed in relation to the progress of the earthquake prediction program in Japan. Three major findings obtained from our recent studies are outlined. (i) Long-term radon observation data over 18 years at the SKE (Suikoen) well indicate that the

  3. Earthquake swarms in South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Holtkamp; M. E. Pritchard; R. B. Lohman

    2011-01-01

    We searched for earthquake swarms in South America between 1973 and 2009 using the global Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) catalogue. Seismicity rates vary greatly over the South American continent, so we employ a manual search approach that aims to be insensitive to spatial and temporal scales or to the number of earthquakes in a potential swarm. We identify 29

  4. Modern Mammals dispersion linked to the Paleocene Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and early Eocene climatic optimum, new insights from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozyem, H. M.; Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Spangenberg, J.; Bajpai, S.; Samant, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.9Ma)) is globally related with the extinction of deep benthic foraminifera, the diversification of both planktic foraminifera and modern mammals. In India, the tempo and timing of modern mammal dispersion, their association with the PETM or EECO (Early Eocene Climatic Optimum) and the India-Asia collision remain uncertain. Four Indian sections (Giral, Bhavnagar, Vastan and Tadkeshware lignite mines) have been studied using sedimentology, micropaleontology, mineralogy (bulk and clay mineralogy) and geochemistry (stable isotopes, major and trace elements, organic matter). Both PETM and ETM2 (second Eocene Thermal Maximum, 53.7Ma), a short-lived warming episode that followed the PETM, are globally marked by a pronounced ?13Ccarb and ?13Corg negative excursion. Both isotopic excursions have been recognized in the Vastan and Tarkeswhar lignite mines (Cambay basin, Gujarat) associated with the main mammal bearing level. The lower shift is located above the first lignite seam and corresponds to the transition from continental to shallow marine conditions. The upper excursion appears to be linked to the ETM2 and corresponds to a second marine incursion containing bivalves, benthic (Nummulites burdigalensis) and planktic foraminifera located below the second lignite seam. A very pronounced ?13Corg peak has been detected in the Giral lignite mine (Barmer, Rajhastan) around 6m above the vertebrate bearing level and may correspond to the PETM. This correlation is confirmed by palynological data and more particularly by a dinoflagellate acme that globally characterizes the PETM interval. Our micropaleontological data combined with stable carbone isotopes indicate the presence of both PETM and ETM2 events and constrain the age of the early mammals in northwestern India in between these two thermal events in the early Eocene. These new data will significantly improve the ongoing debate on whether mammals originated in or out of India.

  5. Self-Organized Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Holliday, J. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Klein, W.

    2011-12-01

    Self-Organized Criticality was proposed by the Per Bak et al. [1] as a means of explaining scaling laws observed in driven natural systems, usually in (slowly) driven threshold systems. The example used by Bak was a simple cellular automaton model of a sandpile, in which grains of sand were slowly dropped (randomly) onto a flat plate. After a period of time, during which the 'critical state' was approached, a series of self-similar avalanches would begin. Scaling exponents for the frequency-area statistics of the sandpile avalanches were found to be approximately 1, a value that characterizes 'flicker noise' in natural systems. SOC is associated with a critical point in the phase diagram of the system, and it was found that the usual 2-scaling field theory applies. A model related to SOC is the Self-Organized Spinodal (SOS), or intermittent criticality model. Here a slow but persistent driving force leads to quasi-periodic approach to, and retreat from, the classical limit of stability, or spinodal. Scaling exponents for this model can be related to Gutenberg-Richter and Omori exponents observed in earthquake systems. In contrast to SOC models, nucleation, both classical and non-classical types, is possible in SOS systems. Tunneling or nucleation rates can be computed from Langer-Klein-Landau-Ginzburg theories for comparison to observations. Nucleating droplets play a role similar to characteristic earthquake events. Simulations of these systems reveals much of the phenomenology associated with earthquakes and other types of "burst" dynamics. Whereas SOC is characterized by the full scaling spectrum of avalanches, SOS is characterized by both system-size events above the nominal frequency-size scaling curve, and scaling of small events. Applications to other systems including integrate-and-fire neural networks and financial crashes will be discussed. [1] P. Bak, C. Tang and K. Weisenfeld, Self-Organized Criticality, Phys. Rev. Lett., 59, 381 (1987).

  6. Prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats in India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Krishnamoorthy, P; Raju, D S N; Rajak, K K; Bhanuprakash, V; Pandey, A B; Gajendragad, M R; Prabhudas, K; Rahman, H

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the prevalence of Peste-des-petits-ruminant virus (PPRV) antibodies in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats carried out during the period 2011 using the serum samples randomly collected from different villages of five states of India. A total of 1,498 serum samples [n = 605 (cattle); n = 432 (buffaloes); n = 173 (sheep); n = 288 (goats)] were collected from 52 districts in five states (Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra and Rajasthan) of India and were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal antibody-based competitive ELISA kit. Analysis of 1,498 samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 21.83 % with 11.07 % in cattle, 16.20 % in buffaloes, 45.66 % in sheep and 38.54 % in goats. This report presents the results of PPRV-specific antibodies in situations where the subclinical, inapparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats. The presence of PPRV antibodies demonstrate that bovines are exposed to PPRV infection and it implies the importance of cattle and buffaloes as subclinical hosts for the virus besides widespread presence of the disease in sheep and goats. Further, the study showed that the prevalence of PPRV antibodies in apparently healthy livestock under natural situation, 21.83 % of the animals were protected from PPRV re-infection. This inturn help in the implementation of disease control strategies such as vaccination in that particular geographical area. PMID:24426314

  7. Spatial Pattern of Temporal Trend of Crop Phenology Matrices Over India Using Timeseries Gimms Ndvi Data (19826ndash;2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Das, P. Kumar; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Behera, G.

    2011-08-01

    NOAA-AVHRR bi-monthly NDVI data of 8×8 km for the period of 1982-2006 were used to analyze the trend of crop phenology matrices over Indian region. Time series principal component analysis of NDVI was performed to produce six calibration zones for fitting equations of temporal NDVI profile. Savitzky-Golay filter with different seasonality parameters, adaptation strengths and window sizes for different calibration zones were use to smoothen the NDVI profile. Three crop phenology matrices i.e. start of the growing season (SGS), Seasonal NDVI amplitude (AMP), Seasonally Integrated NDVI (SiNDVI) were extracted using TIMESAT software. Direction and magnitude of trends of these crop phenology matrices were analyzed at pixel level using Mann-Kendall test. Further the trends was assessed at meteorological subdivisional level using "Field significance test". Significant advancement of SGS was observed over Punjab, Haryana, Marathwada, Vidarbha and Madhya Maharashtra where as delay was found over Rayalaseema, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gangetic West Bengal and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal. North, West and central India covering Punjab, Haryana, West & East Uttar Pradesh, West & East Rajasthan, West & East Madhya Pradesh, Sourastra & Kutch, Rayalaseema, Marathwada, Vidarbha, Bihar and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal showed significant greening trend of kharif season. Most of the southern and eastern part of India covering Tamilnadu, South Interior Karnataka, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Maharashtra, Gujarat region, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Gangetic West Bengal showed significant browning trend during kharif season.

  8. Earthquakes: Los Angeles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Although the San Andreas Fault is the longest and one of the most active fault zones in California, it is not responsible for every earthquake in the state. This video segment describes the geologic setting of the San Andreas fault and a network of other active faults, particularly thrust faults, closer to Los Angeles, and explains why these may present a greater danger to the city than the San Andreas Fault. The segment is five minutes fifteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included. Running time for the video is 5:15.

  9. Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

    2013-04-01

    The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity to assessing the damage to different elements at risk, of the databases on different elements at risk, such as population and building stock distribution, as well critical facilities characteristics, on the reliability of expected loss estimations at regional and global scale.

  10. The Disadvantage to the Rural Population in Earthquake Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, M.

    2014-12-01

    Scenario calculations show that the rural population is more vulnerable to earthquake disasters because of their comparatively weak building stock. For calculating damage due to strong ground shaking, the building stock is modeled separately for different countries and in each country separately in three settlement size classes. It is generally understood that cities contain more buildings that are resistant to strong shaking than villages. A corollary of this observation is that villagers are more likely to be killed by their collapsing homes than city dwellers. The quantitative excess of the vulnerability of villagers compared to city dwellers varies as a function of the following parameters: (1) Country, (2) epicentral distance, and (3) earthquake magnitude, in addition to the quality of the built environment. For estimating quantitatively the difference of mortality in villages compared to cities, we used the building stock as modeled in the earthquake loss estimating tool QLARM. For the scenario calculations, the epicenters and depths of recent large or damaging earthquakes were selected and their magnitudes were set to M7.5, in cases where the magnitude of the historic event had been smaller. The countries for which we estimated the excess rural mortality included: Algeria, China, Greece, Guatemala, India, Iran, Mexico and Turkey. In all of these countries and for all distances the mortality rate was found to be larger in the villages. Depending on the parameters (1), (2) and (3), the percentage of fatalities in villages was higher by 20% to 97% than in cities. In the case of Greece, where the QLARM data are the most detailed, a clear function of the per cent of fatalities as a function of settlement size emerged. Because indigenous peoples live typically in small settlements, these findings mean that the indigenous population is exposed to a greater earthquake risk than the average population. Although it is understandable that earthquake risk mitigation has focused on megacities, the conclusion of this study is that the rural population needs more help in earthquake risk mitigation than the urban population.

  11. Are Earthquakes a Critical Phenomenon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, O.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes, granular avalanches, superconducting vortices, solar flares, and even stock markets are known to evolve through power-law distributed events. During decades, the formalism of equilibrium phase transition has coined these phenomena as critical, which implies that they are also unpredictable. This work revises these ideas and uses earthquakes as the paradigm to demonstrate that slowly driven systems evolving through uncorrelated and power-law distributed avalanches (UPLA) are not necessarily critical systems, and therefore not necessarily unpredictable. By linking the correlation length to the pdf of the distribution, and comparing it with the one obtained at a critical point, a condition of criticality is introduced. Simulations in the classical Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) earthquake model confirm the findings, showing that earthquakes are not a critical phenomenon. However, one single catastrophic earthquake may show critical properties and, paradoxically, the emergence of this temporal critical behaviour may eventually carry precursory signs of catastrophic events.

  12. Testing an earthquake prediction algorithm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Healy, J.H.; Dewey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    A test to evaluate earthquake prediction algorithms is being applied to a Russian algorithm known as M8. The M8 algorithm makes intermediate term predictions for earthquakes to occur in a large circle, based on integral counts of transient seismicity in the circle. In a retroactive prediction for the period January 1, 1985 to July 1, 1991 the algorithm as configured for the forward test would have predicted eight of ten strong earthquakes in the test area. A null hypothesis, based on random assignment of predictions, predicts eight earthquakes in 2.87% of the trials. The forward test began July 1, 1991 and will run through December 31, 1997. As of July 1, 1995, the algorithm had forward predicted five out of nine earthquakes in the test area, which success ratio would have been achieved in 53% of random trials with the null hypothesis.

  13. Regional Seismic Amplitude Modeling and Tomography for Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Sweeney, J.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Empirically explosions have been discriminated from natural earthquakes using regional amplitude ratio techniques such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. We demonstrate that such ratios discriminate nuclear tests from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling. For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East.

  14. Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering

    E-print Network

    Baker, Jack W.

    Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July earthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodologies for simulated ground

  15. Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July EARTHQUAKE CHARACTERISTICS WITH TWEETS L. Burks1 *, M. Miller1 *, and R. Zadeh2 ABSTRACT Here we demonstrate a model that combines Tweets following significant earthquakes with basic site and earthquake

  16. Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture Gilead Wurman

    E-print Network

    Allen, Richard M.

    Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture By Gilead Wurman 2010 #12; #12; 1 Abstract Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow

  17. 1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BAOTOU EARTHQUAKE DAMAGES

    E-print Network

    Spencer Jr., B.F.

    of the ore dressing system. The original design did not consider earthquake resistance, so the stressed1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF BAOTOU EARTHQUAKE DAMAGES An earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 occurred intensity of seven-degree. It was an another strong earthquake occurred in a city with a population of more

  18. Introduction Earthquake prediction research is based on

    E-print Network

    Haak, Hein

    126 Introduction Earthquake prediction research is based on understanding the long-term behaviour a fault is showing a series of earthquakes at regular time intervals and similar in size. These are called characteristic earthquakes and are studied in detail. One example of a characteristic earthquake sequence

  19. Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Utah Seismograph Stations

    This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

  20. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  1. Mammal Dispersion linked to The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): New Insights from India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozyem, H.; Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Spangenberg, J. E.; Bajpai, S.; Samant, B.; Mathur, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 55.5Ma) is globally related with the extinction of deep benthic foraminifera, the diversification of both plancktic foraminifera and mammals. In India, the tempo and timing of mammals dispersion, their association with the PETM or EECO (Early Eocene Climatic Optimum) and the India- Asia collision remain uncertain (Smith et al., 2006 Clementz, 2010). Three sections located in north and northwest India have been studied using sedimentology, micropaleontology, mineralogy (bulk and clay mineralogy) and geochemistry (stable isotopes, major and trace elements, organic matter). Both PETM and ETM2 (second Eocene Thermal Maximum, 53.7Ma), a short-lived warming episode that followed the PETM, are globally marked by a pronounced ?13Ccarb and org negative peak. Both isotopic excursions have been recognized in the Vastan and Tarkeswhar lignite mines (Cambay basin, Gujarat), above the main mammals bearing level. The lower shift is located above the first lignite seam (=lignite 2 of Sahni et al, 2004, 2009) and corresponds to the transition from continental to shallow marine conditions marked by benthic foraminifera and bivalves. The upper excursion appears to be linked to the ETM2 and corresponds to a second marine incursion containing bivalves, benthic (Nummulites burdigalensis) and planktic foraminifera located below the second lignite seam (lignite 1 of Sahni et al, 2004, 2009). A single but very pronounced ?13Corg peak has been detected in the Giral Lignite mine (Barmer, Rajhastan), around 6m above the vertebrates bearing level and may correspond to the PETM. This correlation is confirmed by palynological data (Tripathi et al., 2009, Sahni et al., 2004, 2009) and more particularly by an acme in the dinoflagellate Apectodinium that globally characterizes the PETM interval (Sluijs et al. 2007). Our micropaleontological data combined with stable carbone isotopes indicate the presence of both PETM and ETM2 events and constrain the age of the early mammals in northwestern India in between these two thermal events (early Eocene). These new data will improve significantly the ongoing debate on « in-to or out-of-India » palaeobiogeographic hypothese.

  2. Accessing Current, Recent and Historical Earthquake Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Larry Braile

    This site explains the many Internet tools that are currently available for accessing earthquake data. Students discover that by using these tools one can obtain information (such as location, origin time and magnitude) about the most recent earthquakes; search historical earthquake catalogs for earthquakes in a given region over a selected time period; and view, download or make maps of recent or historical earthquake activity of the world or of a selected region. They also learn that the tools support education and research activities related to earthquakes such as: maintaining a classroom map of significant earthquakes; calculating earthquake magnitude from educational seismograph records and comparing with official magnitude estimates; obtaining historical earthquake data for a specific area to relate a recent event to the background seismicity; and analyzing sequences of earthquake activity. There is a link to information about obtaining and using seismograms.

  3. The physics of an earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, John

    2008-03-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 (Boxing Day 2004) and its tsunami will endure in our memories as one of the worst natural disasters of our time. For geophysicists, the scale of the devastation and the likelihood of another equally destructive earthquake set out a series of challenges of how we might use science not only to understand the earthquake and its aftermath but also to help in planning for future earthquakes in the region. In this article a brief account of these efforts is presented. Earthquake prediction is probably impossible, but earth scientists are now able to identify particularly dangerous places for future events by developing an understanding of the physics of stress interaction. Having identified such a dangerous area, a series of numerical Monte Carlo simulations is described which allow us to get an idea of what the most likely consequences of a future earthquake are by modelling the tsunami generated by lots of possible, individually unpredictable, future events. As this article was being written, another earthquake occurred in the region, which had many expected characteristics but was enigmatic in other ways. This has spawned a series of further theories which will contribute to our understanding of this extremely complex problem.

  4. Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

  5. Rupture Velocities of Small Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomic, J.; Houston, H.

    2006-12-01

    Whether the rupture process of small earthquakes differs from those of large earthquakes has been a long- standing question in seismology. Recent proposals as to whether and how the physics of rupture may change with earthquake size have sparked interest in the energy budget, which depends strongly on the rupture velocity (Vr). Small earthquake rupture velocities have proved difficult to determine due to the strong attenuation of high-frequency waves. We analyze P and S waves of small earthquakes to detect rupture directivity and constrain Vr. We apply the projected Landweber deconvolution (PLD) method to a data set of 30 earthquakes 3.6earthquakes and the stations. Variation in RSTFs with azimuth yields estimates of Vr for 6 earthquakes from 0.4 to 0.9?. Our results are broadly consistent with those of Yamada and Mori (JGR, 2005) and McGuire (BSSA, 2004). We now explore the implications of the range in Vr for static stress drop (??), and the ratio of radiated energy to seismic moment, which are interrelated. Kanamori and Rivera (BSSA, 2004) discuss how Vr and ?? must change with earthquake moment, if the ratio of energy to moment ? increases with moment, as has been suggested by various studies. There is currently no consensus that such a change in this ratio truly occurs. The increase in the energy-to- moment ratio is controlled by the relation between moment and corner frequency, which has moment inversely proportional to corner frequency raised to the power (3 + ?). Data compiled in Kanamori and Rivera suggests ? of 0.5. Then Vr of 0.4 to 0.9? for M3 events require that ?? of M3 events range from 1 to 0.1 respectively, of that of M7 events. More constraints on rupture velocities of small earthquakes will help to resolve possible changes in the energy budget, and thus earthquake physics, with earthquake size.

  6. Slow Earthquakes and Nonvolcanic Tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beroza, Gregory C.; Ide, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    Nonvolcanic tremor is observed in close association with geodetically observed slow-slip events in subduction zones. Accumulating evidence points to these events as members of a family of slow earthquakes that occur as shear slip on the downdip extensions of fault zones in a regime that is transitional between a frictionally locked region above and a freely slipping region below. By virtue of their locations and their properties, slow earthquakes are certain to provide new insights into the behavior of earthquakes and faulting and into the hazard they embody.

  7. Economic development trends in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Hazaray

    1972-01-01

    On August 15, 1972, India celebrated the 25th anniversary of its independence. It is therefor appropriate to give on this\\u000a occasion an account of india’s past achievements and failures in view of its striving still more tenaciously towards a balanced\\u000a economic development in the years to come.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Stress evolution and earthquake sequence of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Peiyu; Hu, Caibo; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    The India-Eurasia's collision produces N-S compression and results in large thrust fault in the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Differential eastern flow of the lower crust of the plateau leads to large strike-slip faults and normal faults within the plateau. From 1904 to 2014, more than 30 earthquakes of Mw > 6.5 occurred sequentially in this distinctive tectonic environment. How did the stresses evolve during the last 110 years, how did the earthquakes interact with each other? Can this knowledge help us to forecast the future seismic hazards? In this essay, we tried to simulate the evolution of the stress field and the earthquake sequence in the Tibetan plateau within the last 110 years with a 2-D finite element model. Given an initial state of stress, the boundary condition was constrained by the present-day GPS observation, which was assumed as a constant rate during the 110 years. We calculated stress evolution year by year, and earthquake would occur if stress exceed the crustal strength. Stress changes due to each large earthquake in the sequence was calculated and contributed to the stress evolution. A key issue is the choice of initial stress state of the modeling, which is actually unknown. Usually, in the study of earthquake triggering, people assume the initial stress is zero, and only calculate the stress changes by large earthquakes - the Coulomb failure stress changes (? CFS). To some extent, this simplified method is a powerful tool because it can reveal which fault or which part of a fault becomes more risky or safer relatively. Nonetheless, it has not utilized all information available to us. The earthquake sequence reveals, though far from complete, some information about the stress state in the region. If the entire region is close to a self-organized critical or subcritical state, earthquake stress drop provides an estimate of lower limit of initial state. For locations no earthquakes occurred during the period, initial stress has to be lower than certain value. For locations where large earthquakes occurred during the 110 years, the initial stresses can be inverted if the strength is estimated and the tectonic loading is assumed constant. Therefore, although initial stress state is unknown, we can try to make estimate of a range of it. In this study, we estimated a reasonable range of initial stress, and then based on Coulomb-Mohr criterion to regenerate the earthquake sequence, starting from the Daofu earthquake of 1904. We calculated the stress field evolution of the sequence, considering both the tectonic loading and interaction between the earthquakes. Ultimately we got a sketch of the present stress. Of course, a single model with certain initial stress is just one possible model. Consequently the potential seismic hazards distribution based on a single model is not convincing. We made test on hundreds of possible initial stress state, all of them can produce the historical earthquake sequence occurred, and summarized all kinds of calculated probabilities of the future seismic activity. Although we cannot provide the exact state in the future, but we can narrow the estimate of regions where is in high probability of risk. Our primary results indicate that the Xianshuihe fault and adjacent area is one of such zones with higher risk than other regions in the future. During 2014, there were 6 earthquakes (M > 5.0) happened in this region, which correspond with our result in some degree. We emphasized the importance of the initial stress field for the earthquake sequence, and provided a probabilistic assessment for future seismic hazards. This study may bring some new insights to estimate the initial stress, earthquake triggering, and the stress field evolution .

  9. Nonextensive models for earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R.; França, G. S.; Vilar, C. S.; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2006-02-01

    We have revisited the fragment-asperity interaction model recently introduced by Sotolongo-Costa and Posadas [Phy. Rev. Lett. 92, 048501 (2004)] by considering a different definition for mean values in the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistics and introducing a scale between the earthquake energy and the size of fragment ??r3 . The energy-distribution function (EDF) deduced in our approach is considerably different from the one obtained in the above reference. We have also tested the viability of this EDF with data from two different catalogs (in three different areas), namely, the NEIC and the Bulletin Seismic of the Revista Brasileira de Geofísica. Although both approaches provide very similar values for the nonextensive parameter q , other physical quantities, e.g., energy density, differ considerably by several orders of magnitude.

  10. Dynamics of Earthquake Faults

    E-print Network

    J. M. Carlson; J. S. Langer; B. E. Shaw

    1993-08-05

    We present an overview of our ongoing studies of the rich dynamical behavior of the uniform, deterministic Burridge--Knopoff model of an earthquake fault. We discuss the behavior of the model in the context of current questions in seismology. Some of the topics considered include: (1) basic properties of the model, such as the magnitude vs. frequency distribution and the distinction between small and large events; (2) dynamics of individual events, including dynamical selection of rupture propagation speeds; (3) generalizations of the model to more realistic, higher dimensional models; (4) studies of predictability, in which artificial catalogs generated by the model are used to test and determine the limitations of pattern recognition algorithms used in seismology.

  11. Visualizing Global Earthquakes â Where and Why do Earthquakes Occur?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cara Harwood

    This screenshot from this visualization shows a map of tectonic plate boundaries. The visualization transitions between global earthquake distribution to a map of plate boundaries, to clearly illustrate how they are related. This visualization also includes an overview of the distribution and magnitude of earthquakes at different types of plate boundaries. Click the image to enlarge or view the MP4 movie ( 31.1MB Jul27 11). The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to the distribution of earthquakes at and below the surface of earth and how their distribution is related to the geometry and type of plate boundaries. Because the depth of earthquakes can be difficult for students to visualize in 2D representations, this activity allows students to visualize the 3D distribution of earthquakes within Earth's surface, which is essential for understanding how different types of earthquakes occur in different tectonic settings. Talking points and questions are included to use this visualization as part of an interactive lecture. In addition to playing back the visualization, instructors can also download the visualization software and data set and explore it themselves.

  12. Sichuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

    This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

  13. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  14. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  15. Archaeological Survey of India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees Indiaâ??s ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring Indiaâ??s methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.

  16. Soil dynamics in earthquake engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Collapsed buildings, buckled bridges, and other evidence of structural damage are what the news media usually focus on when reporting earthquakes. The impression may be that the responses of timber, steel, stone, and concrete are the only considerations in earthquake analysis and earthquake-resistant design. Actually, earth materials are a major factor. All constructed facilities are in some way founded on or in earth materials, and sometimes the structures - such as rock- and earth-fill dams - are constructed entirely of these materials. Since the soil is always present, it is difficult to separate earthquake damage, or prevention of damage, into components that are related entirely to a steel or concrete structure, or entirely to the supporting foundation materials. The study of how soil and rock behave as engineering materials is known as geotechnical engineering.

  17. Earthquakes and death toll down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewer ‘significant’ earthquakes occurred worldwide in 1981 than in the previous year, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. Significant quakes are those that register 6.5 or more on the Richter scale and smaller ones that cause casualties or considerable damage.Worldwide, there were 50 significant earthquakes in 1981, down from 71 in 1980; only two of 1981's significant seismic events shook the United States, down from 11 in 1980. The known death toll from earthquakes in 1981 was 5239, down from 7139 in 1980. Of the deaths in 1981, 4500 occurred in two separate quakes in Iran. No one has been killed by an earthquake in the United States since November 29, 1975.

  18. 1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

  19. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    E-print Network

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2013-01-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range magnitude, and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5 degree spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75 to +75 degrees, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalog. In the new forecasts we've improved the spatial resolution to 0.1 degree and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each grid point. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method ...

  20. Rating the Size of Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report describes how the work of K. Wadati, Charles F. Richter, Harry O. Wood, and Beno Gutenberg resulted in a way of rating earthquakes in southern California according to an instrumental analysis of the amount of energy they released in the form of seismic waves. This work resulted in the first use of the term "magnitude" for describing the amount of energy released by an earthquake, and in the development of the now-famous Richter Scale for quantifying earthquake magnitudes. Topics include the original definition of Richter magnitude and a brief synopsis of how Richter used earthquake data from southern California to graphically represent trace amplitude and develop a table of values that could be used to calculate magnitudes.

  1. Earthquakes and trauma: review of triage and injury-specific, immediate care.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Cadosch, Dieter; Rajan, Gunesh; Zellweger, René

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes present a major threat to mankind. Increasing knowledge about geophysical interactions, progressing architectural technology, and improved disaster management algorithms have rendered modern populations less susceptible to earthquakes. Nevertheless, the mass casualties resulting from earthquakes in Great Kanto (Japan), Ancash (Peru), Tangshan (China), Guatemala, Armenia, and Izmit (Turkey) or the recent earthquakes in Bhuj (India), Bam (Iran), Sumatra (Indonesia) and Kashmir (Pakistan) indicate the devastating effect earthquakes can have on both individual and population health. Appropriate preparation and implementation of crisis management algorithms are of utmost importance to ensure a large-scale medical-aid response is readily available following a devastating event. In particular, efficient triage is vital to optimize the use of limited medical resources and to effectively mobilize these resources so as to maximize patient salvage. However, the main priorities of disaster rescue teams are the rescue and provision of emergency care for physical trauma. Furthermore, the establishment of transport evacuation corridors, a feature often neglected, is essential in order to provide the casualties with a chance for survival. The optimal management of victims under such settings is discussed, addressing injuries of the body and psyche by means of simple diagnostic and therapeutic procedures globally applicable and available. PMID:18557301

  2. Progress in Understanding the Pre-Earthquake Associated Events by Analyzing IR Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Taylor, Patrick; Bryant, Nevin

    2004-01-01

    We present latest result in understanding the potential relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earths crust and atmosphere with an increase in IR flux as a potential signature of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that are related to earthquake activity, either pre-, co- or post seismic. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by the polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) gave an indication of the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients that are associated with the location (epicenter and local tectonic structures) and time of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths less than 50km. We analyzed broad category of associated pre-earthquake events, which provided evidence for changes in surface temperature, surface latent heat flux, chlorophyll concentrations, soil moisture, brightness temperature, emissivity of surface, water vapour in the atmosphere prior to the earthquakes occurred in Algeria, India, Iran, Italy, Mexico and Japan. The cause of such anomalies has been mainly related to the change of near-surface thermal properties due to complex lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmospheric interactions. As final results we present examples from the most recent (2000-2004) worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of EM emission mid-IR anomalies and a methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

  3. Earthquake Terms Word Search Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a word search for basic earthquake terms. This site has multiple versions of the word search which can be viewed by refreshing the page, or hitting the restart button. The word search can be completed online or can be printed out. When completed online, the words are links to their definitions. The words used are magnitude, intensity, epicenter, waves, shaking, fault, strike, slip, thrust, landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and earthquake.

  4. Testing an earthquake prediction algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir G. Kossobokov; John H. Healy; James W. Dewey

    1997-01-01

    A test to evaluate earthquake prediction algorithms is being applied to a Russian algorithm known asM8 TheM8 algorithm makes intermediate term predictions for earthquakes to occur in a large circle, based on integral counts of transient seismicity in the circle. In a retroactive prediction for the period January 1, 1985 to July 1, 1991 the algorithm as configured for the

  5. Intermediate-Term Earthquake Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Keilis-Borok

    1996-01-01

    An earthquake of magnitude M and linear source dimension L(M) is preceded within a few years by certain patterns of seismicity in the magnitude range down to about (M - 3) in an area of linear dimension about 5L-10L. Prediction algorithms based on such patterns may allow one to predict ≈ 80% of strong earthquakes with alarms occupying altogether 20-30%

  6. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  7. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  8. The Screening India's Twin Epidemic: Study design and methodology (SITE-1)

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Shashank R.; Vadivale, Muruga; Dalal, Jamshed J.; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The recent years have seen a surge in the prevalence of both diabetes and hypertension. Significant demographic variations reported on the prevalence patterns of diabetes and hypertension in India establish a clear need for a nation-wide surveillance study. The Screening India's Twin Epidemic (SITE) study aimed at collecting information on the prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes and hypertension cases in outpatient settings in major Indian states to better understand disease management, as well as to estimate the extent of underlying risk factors. Materials and Methods: During 2009–2010, SITE was conducted in eight states, in waves – one state at a time. It was planned to recruit about 2000 patients from 100 centers per wave. Each center enrolled the first 10 eligible patients (?18 years of age, not pregnant, signed data release consent form, and ready to undergo screening tests) per day on two consecutive days. Patient demographics, medical history, and laboratory investigation results were collected and statistically interpreted. The protocol defined diabetes and hypertension as per the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommendations, respectively. Results: After the first two pilot phases in Maharashtra and Delhi, the protocol was refined and the laboratory investigations were simplified to be further employed for all other states, namely, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Gujarat. Conclusion: SITE's nation-wide approach will provide a real-world perspective on diabetes and hypertension and its contributing risk factors. Results from the study will raise awareness on the need for early diagnosis and management of these diseases to reduce complications. PMID:22145145

  9. Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

    2015-06-01

    We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8 f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8 f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/ Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

  10. The Impact of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Mario M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

  11. Asbestos problem in India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N

    2005-07-01

    Primary exposure to asbestos in India can be encountered in the form of asbestos mining, asbestos cement industries, asbestos processing unit and during renovation and demolition of old asbestos cemented roof or other structures as well as modern electrical as well as mechanical appliances in which asbestos is still found. Ultimately construction workers, electricians, vehicle mechanics and other workers in the building trades who are exposed to asbestos inhale hundreds and thousands of amphiboles, which causes lung damage. It is being mined in India at places such as Andhra Pradesh (Pulivendla), Jharkand (Roro), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Rajsamand) and the common problem faced by the locals are asbestosis through air and fluorosis through drinking water. The problem continues to be in India as well as other developing countries. Also, India import and re-export asbestos to other countries and workers at shipyard, transport of the hazardous material on road and roadside residents all are vulnerable to this uncommon disease. The signs and symptoms generally found with the workers are shortness of breath, persistent and productive cough due to pulmonary fibrosis can show up many years after the asbestos exposure. PMID:15950810

  12. India's rocket propellant developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mama, Hormuz P.

    1995-01-01

    On 15 October 1994, the first successful launch took place of India's fourstage Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from the Sriharikota launch base. Behind this success lies a long-standing and active program of Indian rocket propulsion development and propellant production. This paper provides an overview of this work, particularly in relation to the PSLV.

  13. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  14. IDEERS: Introducing and Demonstrating Earthquake Engineering Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    Introducing and Demonstrating Earthquake Engineering Research in Schools (IDEERS) is a program of the University of Bristol "to communicate the challenge and excitement of earthquake engineering research to young people." Beginning with a detailed explanation of earthquake causes and effects, the Web site provides motivation for designing structurally reinforced buildings. Five recent earthquake disasters are outlined and related to the general impact of earthquakes on society. The material then describes building dynamics, such as vibration and resonance, and various techniques to design earthquake resistant buildings. There are some interesting animations that demonstrate important concepts.

  15. A Prospect of Earthquake Prediction Research

    E-print Network

    Ogata, Yosihiko

    2013-01-01

    Earthquakes occur because of abrupt slips on faults due to accumulated stress in the Earth's crust. Because most of these faults and their mechanisms are not readily apparent, deterministic earthquake prediction is difficult. For effective prediction, complex conditions and uncertain elements must be considered, which necessitates stochastic prediction. In particular, a large amount of uncertainty lies in identifying whether abnormal phenomena are precursors to large earthquakes, as well as in assigning urgency to the earthquake. Any discovery of potentially useful information for earthquake prediction is incomplete unless quantitative modeling of risk is considered. Therefore, this manuscript describes the prospect of earthquake predictability research to realize practical operational forecasting in the near future.

  16. The Far Reach of Megathrust Earthquakes: Evolution of Stress, Deformation and Seismicity Following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Kelly Grijalva

    Starting with the 2004 Mw 9.2 megathrust event, Southeast Asia has been home to an exceptional amount of seismic activity over the past eight years. The series of megathrust earthquakes have been imperfect dominoes, rupturing the northernmost section of the Sunda subduction zone in 2004, then the Nias segment next in line to the south in 2005, followed by the Bengkulu earthquake ˜750 km further south in 2007. The Bengkulu earthquake skipped over the northern Mentawai segment, which has not ruptured in a great event since 1797. However, the subduction zone has not been silent is this section. Analysis of focal mechanisms and geodetic data reveals the reactivation of the Mentawai backthrust system in the overriding plate, and a large, deep earthquake near the city of Padang in 2009 is shown through finite fault inversions and aftershock analysis to have obliquely ruptured the subducting slab. At the same time, the entire region spanning from the Indian Ocean, through the trench and forearc islands, and throughout Thailand has been aseismically deforming in response to the stress changes in the mantle following the megathrust earthquakes. Geodetic observations of postseismic deformation during the first five years following the 2004 earthquake have shown that the far-field regions of Thailand and the Malay Peninsula have moved more postseismically than coseismically, peaking at ˜0.4 m of horizontal displacement in Phuket. In 2012, the stress changes associated with this continued postseismic deformation, along with the initial push from the megathrust earthquakes, appears to have triggered the largest instrumentally recorded strike-slip earthquake. This was a complex earthquake, consisting of four conjugate fault segments, that ruptured the diffuse India-Australia plate boundary zone. Understanding how the faults interact throughout the subduction system, from the incoming plate, to the slab, to the megathrust interface, and overriding plate is an essential part of determining the future seismic hazard for Southeast Asia.

  17. Interaction Between the Himalaya and the Flexed Indian Plate--Spatial Fluctuations in Seismic Hazard in India in the Past Millennium?

    SciTech Connect

    Bilham, Roger; Szeliga, Walter [CIRES and Dept of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309-0399 (United States)

    2008-07-08

    Between the tenth and early 16th centuries three megaquakes allowed most of the northern edge of the Indian plate to slip 20-24 m northward relative to the overlying Himalaya. Although the renewal time for earthquakes with this large amount of slip is less than 1300 years given a geodetic convergence rate of 16-20 mm/yr, recently developed scaling laws for the Himalaya suggest that the past 200 years of great earthquakes may be associated with slip of less than 10 m and renewal times of approximately 500 years. These same theoretical models show that the rupture lengths of the Himalaya's Medieval earthquakes (300-600 km) are too short to permit 24 m of slip given the relationships demonstrated by recent events. There is thus reason to suppose that recent earthquakes may have responded to different elastic driving forces from those that drove the megaquakes of Medieval times.An alternative source of energy to drive Himalayan earthquakes exists in the form of the elastic and gravitational energy stored in flexure of the Indian plate. The flexure is manifest in the form of a 200-450 m high bulge in central India, which is sustained by the forces of collision and by the end-loading of the plate by the Himalaya and southern Tibet. These flexural stresses are responsible for earthquakes in the sub-continent. The abrupt release of stress associated with the northward translation of the northern edge of the Indian plate by 24 m, were the process entirely elastic, would result in a deflation of the crest of the bulge by roughly 0.8 m. Geometrical changes, however, would be moderated by viscous rheologies in the plate and by viscous flow in the mantle in the following centuries.The hypothesized relaxation of flexural geometry following the Himalayan megaquake sequence would have the effect of backing-off stresses throughout central India resulting in quiescence both in the Himalaya and the Indian plate. The historical record shows an absence of great Himalayan earthquakes in the late 16th to early 19th centuries, and colonial records for this period contain few records of earthquakes in central India. Although this may be an artifact caused by a poor recorded history, it is unlikely that Mw>8.2 earthquakes have escaped notice in the Mughal or early colonial histories.Recent mid-plate earthquakes in India may thus represent a redevelopment of flexural stressing of the Indian plate. Their return also signifies the development of stresses in the Himalaya that will eventually be released in great Himalayan earthquakes.

  18. Earthquake Response of Suspension Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdik, Mustafa; Apayd?n, Nurdan

    Suspension bridges represent critical nodes of major transportation systems. Bridge failure during strong earthquakes poses not only a threat of fatalities but causes a substantial interruption of emergency efforts. Although wind induced vibrations have historically been the primary concern in the design of suspension bridges, earthquake effects have also gained importance in recent decades. This study involves ambient vibration testing and sophisticated three-dimensional dynamic finite element analysis and earthquake performance assessment of Fatih Sultan Mehmet and suspension Bo?aziçi bridges in Istanbul under earthquake excitation. Nonlinear time history analysis of 3D finite-element models of Fatih Sultan Mehmet and Bo?aziçi suspension bridges included initial stresses in the cables, suspenders, and towers in equilibrium under dead load conditions. Multi-support scenario earthquake excitation was applied to the structure. Suspension bridges are complex 3-D structures that can exhibit a large number of closely spaced coupled modes of vibration. The large number of closely spaced modes, spatially different ground motion characteristics, and the potential for nonlinear behaviour complicate the seismic response of suspension bridges. Spatial variation of ground motion exhibits itself with different ground motions at supports due to the wave passage, incoherence and local site effects. The source of nonlinear behaviour is due to geometric nonlinearity and the presence of cables that can only carry tensile forces. The natural frequencies of vibration and the corresponding mode shapes in their dead load and live load configurations are determined. Displacement time histories and stresses at critical points of the bridges are computed and their earthquake performance under the action of scenario earthquake are estimated.

  19. Deep bore well water level fluctuations in the Koyna region, India: the presence of a low order dynamical system in a seismically active environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Ramana; A. Chelani; R. K. Chadha; R. N. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in deep bore wells in the vicinity of seismically active Koyna region in western India provides an opportunity to understand the causative mech- anism underlying reservoir-triggered earthquakes. As the crustal porous rocks behave nonlinearly, their characteristics can be obtained by analysing water level fluctuations, which reflect an integrated response of the medium. A Fractal di- mension is

  20. Deep bore well water level fluctuations in the Koyna region, India: the presence of a low order dynamical system in a seismically active environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Ramana; A. Chelani; R. K. Chadha; R. N. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in deep bore wells in the vicinity of seismically active Koyna region in western India provides an opportunity to understand the causative mechanism underlying reservoir-triggered earthquakes. As the crustal porous rocks behave nonlinearly, their characteristics can be obtained by analysing water level fluctuations, which reflect an integrated response of the medium. A Fractal dimension is one such

  1. Earthquake Hazards Program: NEIC Near Real Time Earthquake List

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The United States Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center site offers readers near real time updates of seismological events worldwide. As one can gather from a glimpse at the report, our planet is in a near constant state of geophysical change and upheaval, given the numerous earthquakes registered on a daily basis by the NEIC, sometimes up to a dozen or more. Readers will discover that the NEIC Web site lists, in chronological order, the earthquakes of the past several days, each with its own hyperlink to separate pages that detail geographic location and magnitude of specific events, as well as the faults responsible for geological upsets. Beyond the above, the site lists activity for the past week and month -- all with charts, maps, and detailed descriptions of regions cited.

  2. Model dissection from earthquake time series: A comparative analysis using modern non-linear forecasting and artificial neural network approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Lakshmi, S.; Tiwari, R. K.

    2009-02-01

    This study utilizes two non-linear approaches to characterize model behavior of earthquake dynamics in the crucial tectonic regions of Northeast India (NEI). In particular, we have applied a (i) non-linear forecasting technique to assess the dimensionality of the earthquake-generating mechanism using the monthly frequency earthquake time series (magnitude ?4) obtained from NOAA and USGS catalogues for the period 1960-2003 and (ii) artificial neural network (ANN) methods—based on the back-propagation algorithm (BPA) to construct the neural network model of the same data set for comparing the two. We have constructed a multilayered feed forward ANN model with an optimum input set configuration specially designed to take advantage of more completely on the intrinsic relationships among the input and retrieved variables and arrive at the feasible model for earthquake prediction. The comparative analyses show that the results obtained by the two methods are stable and in good agreement and signify that the optimal embedding dimension obtained from the non-linear forecasting analysis compares well with the optimal number of inputs used for the neural networks. The constructed model suggests that the earthquake dynamics in the NEI region can be characterized by a high-dimensional chaotic plane. Evidence of high-dimensional chaos appears to be associated with "stochastic seasonal" bias in these regions and would provide some useful constraints for testing the model and criteria to assess earthquake hazards on a more rigorous and quantitative basis.

  3. What to Do BEFOREBEFORE an Earthquake What to Do DURINGDURING an Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Weber, Rodney

    What to Do BEFOREBEFORE an Earthquake What to Do DURINGDURING an Earthquake What to Do AFTERAFTER an Earthquake For Local Emergency Managers & CitizensFor Local Emergency Managers & Citizens BE PREPARED! For more information, log onto: www.gema.ga.gov www.ready.ga.gov www.geophysics.eas.gatech.edu Earthquake

  4. USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    E-print Network

    Irfanoglu, Ayhan

    USING THE EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING INTENSITY SCALE TO IMPROVE URBAN AREA EARTHQUAKE EMERGENCY distribution estimation of earthquake damage in building stocks is presented. The purpose is to start a strong urban area earthquake. We used a pair of ground motion and building-tag color databases

  5. FEASIBILITY STUDY ON EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING AND OPERATIONAL EARTHQUAKE FORECASTING FOR RISK

    E-print Network

    1 FEASIBILITY STUDY ON EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING AND OPERATIONAL EARTHQUAKE FORECASTING FOR RISK Within the framework of the EC-funded project REAKT (Strategies and Tools for Real Time Earthquake Risk and initial implementation of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) and time- dependent seismic hazard analyses aimed

  6. Earthquake Location, Direct, Global-Search Methods E 2449 Earthquake Location,

    E-print Network

    Earthquake Location, Direct, Global-Search Methods E 2449 Earthquake Location, Direct, Global Kingdom Article Outline Glossary Definition of the Subject Introduction The Earthquake Location Problem or temporal av- erage of some characteristic of an earthquake, such as surface shaking intensity or moment

  7. A M=9 earthquake occurred beneath Seattle in January 1700. Earthquakes release strain energy

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    A M=9 earthquake occurred beneath Seattle in January 1700. Earthquakes release strain energy, sufficient to drive another 8earthquake. A curious phenomenon observed every 14 months to occur near obtained from the biaxial tiltmeter at Shelton during the Sumatra Mw=9.3 earthquake region of slow

  8. Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering

    E-print Network

    Baker, Jack W.

    Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July and earthquake source characteristics (e.g. source type, magnitude, and distance) obtained from seismic hazard the contribution of interface earthquakes in subduction zones that are known to produce long duration ground

  9. Long-range Earthquake Forecasting with Every Earthquake a Precursor According to Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Rhoades; Frank F. Evison

    2004-01-01

    Scaling relations previously derived from examples of the precursory scale increase before major earthquakes show that the precursor is a long-term predictor of the time, magnitude, and location of the major earthquake. These relations are here taken as the basis of a stochastic forecasting model in which every earthquake is regarded as a precursor. The problem of identifying those earthquakes

  10. The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability perspective on computational earthquake science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Douglas Zechar; Danijel Schorlemmer; Maria Liukis; John Yu; Fabian Euchner; Philip J. Maechling; Thomas H. Jordan

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) aims to advance earthquake re- search by rigorous testing of earthquake forecast hypotheses. As in other disciplines,such hypothesis testing requires carefully designed experiments that meet certain requirements: they should be reproducible, fully transparent, and conducted within a controlled environment. CSEP has begun building infrastructure for conducting such rigorous earthquake forecasting

  11. Implications of earthquake triggering and rupture propagation for earthquake prediction based on premonitory phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James N. Brune

    1979-01-01

    A simple model of earthquake triggering and rupture propagation, based on concepts of earthquake mechanism commonly accepted, suggests that earthquake prediction (especially prediction of magnitude) might be very difficult, depending on the values of certain stress parameters. The concepts in the model suggest lines of research which may help to judge how successful the earthquake prediction effort might eventually be.

  12. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  13. Earthquakes and the urban environment. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Because of the complex nature of earthquake effects, current investigations encompass many disciplines, including those of both the physical and social sciences. Research activities center on such diversified topics as earthquake mechanics, earthquake prediction and control, the prompt and accurate detection of tsunamis (seismic sea waves), earthquake-resistant construction, seismic building code improvements, land use zoning, earthquake risk and hazard perception, disaster preparedness, plus the study of the concerns and fears of people who have experienced the effects of an earthquake. This monograph attempts to amalgamate recent research input comprising the vivifying components of urban seismology at a level useful to those having an interest in the earthquake and its effects upon an urban environment. Volume 2 contains chapters on earthquake prediction, control, building design and building response.

  14. Earthquake Hazards Program: Frequently Asked Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This frequently-asked-questions feature deals with the relationship between earthquakes, faults, and plate tectonics; myths about earthquakes; effects and experiences; preparedness; and many other topics. The page includes a collection of links which may aid in geology instruction.

  15. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ?650km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. PMID:25965045

  16. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunsuke Otani

    This paper briefly reviews the development of earthquake resistant design of buildings. The state-of-the-art of seismic design is discussed from the viewpoint of the performance criteria of buildings. These are (a) serviceability from frequent minor-intensity earthquake motions, (b) repairability from an infrequent but major-intensity earthquake motion, and (c) life safety from the maximum possible earthquake motion. The relation between the

  17. Shear-wave splitting and earthquake forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Gao; Stuart Crampin

    2008-01-01

    Seismic shear-wave splitting (SWS) monitors the low-level deformation of fluid-saturated microcracked rock. We report evidence of systematic SWS changes, recorded above small earthquakes, monitoring the accumulation of stress before earthquakes that allows the time and magnitude of impending large earthquakes to be stress-forecast. The effects have been seen with hindsight before some 15 earthquakes ranging in magnitude from an M1.7

  18. Efficient testing of earthquake forecasting models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Rhoades; Danijel Schorlemmer; Matthew C. Gerstenberger; Annemarie Christophersen; J. Douglas Zechar; Masajiro Imoto

    2011-01-01

    Computationally efficient alternatives are proposed to the likelihood-based tests employed by the Collaboratory for the Study\\u000a of Earthquake Predictability for assessing the performance of earthquake likelihood models in the earthquake forecast testing\\u000a centers. For the conditional L-test, which tests the consistency of the earthquake catalogue with a model, an exact test using convolutions of distributions\\u000a is available when the number

  19. Hemovigilance program-India.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Akanksha; Singh, Surinder; Marwaha, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    A centralized hemovigilance program to assure patient safety and to promote public health has been launched for the first time in India on Dec 10, 2012 in 60 medical colleges in the first phase along with a well-structured program for monitoring adverse reactions associated with blood transfusion and blood product administration. National Institute of Biologicals (NIB) will be the National Coordinating Centre for Hemovigilance. This program will be implemented under overall ambit of Pharmacovigilance Program of India (PvPI), which is being coordinated by Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC). All medical colleges of the country will be enrolled in this program by the year 2016 in order to have a National Centre of Excellence for Hemovigilance at NIB, which will act as a global knowledge platform. PMID:23559771

  20. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  1. San Francisco Bay Area Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Larry Braile

    This activity is designed to provide a better understanding of earthquake activity, the locations of faults, and earthquake hazards in the San Francisco bay area. Students study a false color satellite photo of the bay area on which earthquake epicenters for a seventeen year period have been plotted. Students use a California highway map or a copy of the California or San Francisco Bay area map from an atlas to help in finding some locations on the satellite image and help them become familiar with the geography represented in the satellite view. They will be guided in the recognition of some features and will be able to answer the questions based on the map and photograph.

  2. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1) Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2) Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3) The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is going to be, when we know the record of specific earthquakes and the routes they have followed towards the East. For example, to foresee an earthquake in the Mediterranean region, we take starting point earthquakes to Latin America (0°-40°).The aforementioned elements will reach Italy in an average time period of 49 days and Greece in 53 days. The most reliable preceding phenomenon to determine the epicenter of an earthquake is the rise of the crust's temperature at the area where a large quantity of elements is concentrated, among other phenomena that can be detected either by instruments or by our senses. When there is an active volcano along the route between the area where the "starting-point" earthquake occurred and the area where we expect the same elements to cause a new earthquake, it is possible these elements will escape through the volcano's crater, carrying lava with them. We could contribute to that end, nullifying earthquakes that might be triggered by these elements further to the east, by using manmade resources, like adequate quantities of explosives at the right moment.

  3. Earthquake Forecast via Neutrino Tomography

    E-print Network

    Bin Wang; Ya-Zheng Chen; Xue-Qian Li

    2011-03-29

    We discuss the possibility of forecasting earthquakes by means of (anti)neutrino tomography. Antineutrinos emitted from reactors are used as a probe. As the antineutrinos traverse through a region prone to earthquakes, observable variations in the matter effect on the antineutrino oscillation would provide a tomography of the vicinity of the region. In this preliminary work, we adopt a simplified model for the geometrical profile and matter density in a fault zone. We calculate the survival probability of electron antineutrinos for cases without and with an anomalous accumulation of electrons which can be considered as a clear signal of the coming earthquake, at the geological region with a fault zone, and find that the variation may reach as much as 3% for $\\bar \

  4. Earthquake Forecast via Neutrino Tomography

    E-print Network

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xue-Qian

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of forecasting earthquakes by means of (anti)neutrino tomography. Antineutrinos emitted from reactors are used as a probe. As the antineutrinos traverse through a region prone to earthquakes, observable variations of the matter effect on the antineutrino oscillation would provide a tomography of the vicinity of the region. In this preliminary work, we adopt a simplified model for the geometrical profile and matter density in a fault zone. We calculate the survival probability of electron antineutrinos for cases without and with an anomalous accumulation of electrons which can be considered as a clear signal of the coming earthquake, at the geological region with a fault zone and find that the variation may reach as large as 5% to 8.5% for $\\bar \

  5. Study on the design earthquake resistance and degree of earthquake damage of reinforced concrete viaducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ishibashi; H. Okamura

    1997-01-01

    The design earthquake resistance and actual damage caused by the Hyogoken-Nambu earthquake were studied and compared for reinforced concrete rigid-frame viaducts between Sumiyoshi and Nada on the JR Tokaido Line, which sustained the heaviest damage of all railway structures during the Hanshin-awaji earthquake disaster in January 1995 in order to find the design earthquake resistance required to withstand this earthquake.

  6. Ninth Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering

    E-print Network

    Masud, Arif

    EARTHQUAKE DESIGN CODES FOR PAKISTAN: AN OPTION OR A NECESSITY? Masud1 , A. and Elnashai2 , A. S. ABSTRACT to resist earthquake action on modern RC structures. It should also be noted that preliminary analysis design wind loads are rather modest in the northern regions hit by the October 8 earthquake

  7. Earthquake disaster risk management planning in schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmood Hosseini; Yasamin O. Izadkhah

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to develop an appropriate earthquake disaster management system for Iranian schools with a main focus on non-structural problems of schools during disasters. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A framework is proposed for disaster management planning regarding earthquakes in three phases: before, during, and after an earthquake. A detailed description of the proposed management system is also presented with

  8. "The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake &

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Suguru

    "The March 11th , East Japan Earthquake & Tsunami": Foreign Student Organizes International Seminar in English After the catastrophe caused by East Japan earthquake, many of the international students studying. The title of the discussion was "How foreigners see the great east Japan earthquake and what should be done

  9. MODELING EARTHQUAKE DYNAMICS ARTHUR CHARPENTIER1,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MODELING EARTHQUAKE DYNAMICS ARTHUR CHARPENTIER1, , MARILOU DURAND1 , AND MATHIEU BOUDREAULT1 in [77]. On the one hand, we fit a Pareto distribution for earthquake magnitudes, where the tail index is a function of waiting time following previous earthquake; on the other hand, waiting times are modeled using

  10. An Investigation of Southern California Earthquakes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site has directions for a classroom activity in which students plot locations of major Southern California earthquakes on a map. A table listing major earthquakes, when they occurred, their locations and their magnitudes is included. There is also a set of questions for the students to answer once they have plotted the earthquake data on their map. This site is in PDF format.

  11. Appendix H: WGCEP Historical California Earthquake Catalog

    E-print Network

    Felzer, Karen

    , Appendix H in The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, version 2 (UCERF 2): U.S. GeologicalAppendix H: WGCEP Historical California Earthquake Catalog By Karen R. Felzer1 and Tianqing Cao2-USGS Suggested citation: Felzer, K.R., and Cao, Tianqing, 2008, WGCEP Historical California earthquake catalog

  12. Prospective Tests of Southern California Earthquake Forecasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Jackson; D. Schorlemmer; M. Gerstenberger; Y. Y. Kagan; A. Helmstetter; S. Wiemer; N. Field

    2004-01-01

    We are testing earthquake forecast models prospectively using likelihood ratios. Several investigators have developed such models as part of the Southern California Earthquake Center's project called Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM). Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. Here we describe the testing procedure and present preliminary results. Forecasts are expressed

  13. Time reversal location of glacial earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carène Larmat; Jeroen Tromp; Qinya Liu; Jean-Paul Montagner

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, Ekström et al. reported the detection and location of a new class of earthquakes occurring in the polar regions of the Earth. The proposed source mechanism involves large and sudden sliding motions of glaciers, which gave the name ``glacial earthquakes'' to these events. In this study we localize some of these earthquakes with a time reversal mirror (TRM)

  14. Time reversal location of glacial earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carène Larmat; Jeroen Tromp; Qinya Liu; Jean-Paul Montagner

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, Ekström et al. reported the detection and location of a new class of earthquakes occurring in the polar regions of the Earth. The proposed source mechanism involves large and sudden sliding motions of glaciers, which gave the name “glacial earthquakes” to these events. In this study we localize some of these earthquakes with a time reversal mirror (TRM)

  15. The energy release in great earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroo Kanamori

    1977-01-01

    The conventional magnitude scale M suffers saturation when the rupture dimension of the earthquake exceeds the wavelength of the seismic waves used for the magnitude determination (usually 5-50 km). This saturation leads to an inaccurate estimate of energy released in great earthquakes. To circumvent this problem the strain energy drop W (difference in strain energy before and after an earthquake)

  16. It's an Earthquake: Know What to do

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of activities introduces younger students to the concept of earthquake preparedness. They will prepare their own earthquake kits and explain why they have chosen each item, work out a disaster plan, and write a creative short story about someone who survived an earthquake because they were well prepared.

  17. Understanding and responding to earthquake hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, C. A.; Lundgren, P. R.; Madsen, S. N.; Rundle, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the earthquake cycle and in assessing earthquake hazards is a topic of great importance. Dynamic earthquake hazard assessments resolved for a range of spatial scales and time scales will allow a more systematic approach to prioritizing the retrofitting of vulnerable structures, relocating populations at risk, protecting lifelines, preparing for disasters, and educating the public.

  18. Using lacustrine turbidites to illuminate past earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-08-01

    To fully understand earthquake occurrence patterns, especially at underwater subduction zones, scientists often look to the past. Geological structures such as turbidites—the deposits from sediment-infused, dense, watery landslides caused by undersea earthquakes—can be good proxies by which scientists study past earthquakes.

  19. Response of streamflow to multiple earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Manga; Emily E. Brodsky; Michael Boone

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the streamflow response of Sespe Creek, CA, to several large earthquakes. We find that flow increased after three earthquakes, and that the observed changes in flow have the same character. Both those earthquakes that induced static extension and those that induced static contraction cause flow to increase; streamflow thus appears to respond to dynamic strain. We find that

  20. Earthquakes as self-organized critical phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keisuke Ito; Mitsuhiro Matsuzaki

    1990-01-01

    A cellular automaton model with threshold elements, previously proposed by Bak et al. [1988], which generates 1\\/f noise and self-organizes into a critical state, is studied as a model for earthquake occurrence. The model explains some of fractal features of earthquakes such as the power law distribution of the size of the earthquake. The model is modified so that every

  1. Self-organized criticality and earthquakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sornette; D. Sornette

    1989-01-01

    We suggest that the concept of self-organized criticality (SOC) is relevant for understanding the processes underlying earthquakes. Earthquakes are an important part of the relaxation mechanism of the crust which is submitted to inhomogeneous increasing stresses accumulating at continental-plate borders. The SOC concept then implies that earthquakes in turn organize the crust both at the spatial and temporal levels. This

  2. The earthquake prediction experiment at Parkfield, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Roeloffs; John Langbein

    1994-01-01

    Since 1985, a focused earthquake prediction experiment has been in progress along the San Andreas fault near the town of Parkfield in central California. Parkfield has experienced six moderate earthquakes since 1857 at average intervals of 22 years, the most recent a magnitude of 6 event in 1966. The probability of another moderate earthquake soon appears high, but studies assigning

  3. Preseismic fault slip and earthquake prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Dieterich

    1978-01-01

    It is proposed that preseismic fault creep may be the underlying process that is responsible for observations of earthquake precursors. The assertion that fault creep precedes earthquakes is supported by evidence from at least some earthquakes and by analogy with detailed laboratory observations. Laboratory observations of stick slip reveal that at least two stages of preseismic slip are an intrinsic

  4. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  5. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  6. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  7. Stroke program for India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nishant K.; Khadilkar, Satish V.

    2010-01-01

    India is silently witnessing a stroke epidemic. There is an urgent need to develop a national program towards “Fighting Stroke”. This program should be specific to our national needs. In order to recommend on who should lead an Indian fight-stroke program, we examined the published opinions of stroke clinicians and the official documents on stroke care training abroad. We identified the resources that already exist in India and can be utilized to develop a national fight-stroke program. Through a review of published literature, we noted different opinions that exist on who would best manage stroke. We found that because stroke is a cardiovascular disorder of the central nervous system, its management requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving clinicians with background not limited to neurology. India has very few neurologists trained in stroke medicine and they cannot care for all stroke patients of the country. We propose a mechanism that would quickly put in place a stroke care model relevant in Indian context. We recommend for tapping the clinical expertise available from existing pool of non-neurologist physicians who can be trained and certified in stroke medicine (Strokology). We have discussed an approach towards developing a national network for training and research in Strokology hoping that our recommendations would initiate discussion amongst stroke academicians and motivate the national policy makers to quickly develop an “Indian Fight Stroke Program.” PMID:20436743

  8. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  9. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  10. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  11. Seismic Shaking and Earthquake Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicholas Pinter

    In this exercise, students will investigate the effects of earthquakes on Earth materials and on buildings. Introductory materials discuss seismic shaking (ground motion), material amplification by loose or unconsolidated deposits, and the concept of fundamental period. Using the supplied data tables, they will determine peak ground acceleration, compare ground shaking on bay mud, alluvium, and bedrock substrates, and compare fundamental period for buildings of various heights. They will also examine a case study comparing the 1906 and 1989 earthquakes that struck San Francisco, determine where surficial geology amplified ground shaking, calculate ground acceleration, and calculate base shear for a hypothetical building. Study questions and a bibliography are provided.

  12. Constructing Earthquake-Proof Buildings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ted Latham

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on how earthquake-proof buildings are designed. Students build a tester, then model buildings to test and see what factors make a building more earthquake-proof than others. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  13. Prospective Tests of Earthquake Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, D. D.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Rong, Y.; Shen, Z.

    2001-12-01

    We use likelihood and other probabilistic tests to evaluate several recent earthquake forecasts. Here we discuss the testing methodology and applications to specific forecasts. When forecasts are made in terms of rate density (probability per unit area, magnitude, and time), it is especially easy to compare their performance against future earthquakes and against other forecasts. Here we use only prospective tests (that is, based on earthquakes that occur after the model and all parameters are fixed and announced). In 1999 we announced yearly test forecasts for earthquakes over magnitude 5.8 in the NW Pacific and SW Pacific regions (http://scec.ess.ucla.edu/ ~ykagan/predictions_index.html). The forecast model is based on smoothed seismicity determined from the Harvard CMT catalog, which begins in 1977. The forecast model assumes no time dependence, thus the forecast provides a good null hypothesis against which to test time-dependent models. Earthquakes in 1999 and 2000 were consistent with our forecasts except for the SW Pacific during 1999. Before then, we had smoothed the seismicity too much. We reduced the smoothing for the year 2000 forecast, with good results. In this presentation, we will present preliminary results for 2001. We also presented in 1999 a probability map for California based on the historic earthquake catalog back to 1850. Competing forecasts, based on geodetic strain rates, have since been proposed. All are time-independent and will provide a standard against which to test time-dependent models. We will present a comparison of the predictive ability of the various forecasts at a magnitude threshold of about 4.5. Kossobokov et al. went public in 1999 with semi-annual "M8" forecasts (http://mitp.ru/), which identified circles within which large earthquakes (magnitude 7.5 and above) are expected. Another version uses a threshold of 8.0. We will present an alternative "null hypothesis, " with earthquake rate constant in time and following a modified Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution. We will evaluate these hypotheses prospectively against each other. >http://scec.ess.ucla.edu/~ykagan/predictions_index.html

  14. Earthquakes triggered by fluid extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segall, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seismicity is correlated in space and time with production from some oil and gas fields where pore pressures have declined by several tens of megapascals. Reverse faulting has occurred both above and below petroleum reservoirs, and normal faulting has occurred on the flanks of at least one reservoir. The theory of poroelasticity requires that fluid extraction locally alter the state of stress. Calculations with simple geometries predict stress perturbations that are consistent with observed earthquake locations and focal mechanisms. Measurements of surface displacement and strain, pore pressure, stress, and poroelastic rock properties in such areas could be used to test theoretical predictions and improve our understanding of earthquake mechanics. -Author

  15. Surfing for Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patty Coe

    This resource is part of the Science Education Gateway (SEGway) project, funded by NASA, which is a national consortium of scientists, museums, and educators working together to bring the latest science to students, teachers, and the general public. In this lesson, students use the Internet to research data on earthquakes and volcanoes and plot locations to determine plate boundaries. Extensions include interpretation of interaction between plate boundaries, causes of earthquakes and volcanoes, and the comparison of the formation of Olympus Mons on Mars and the Hawaiian volcanic chain. There are worksheets, references, assessment ideas, and vocabulary available for educators.

  16. 1. INTRODUCTION In earthquake engineering, reducing the earthquake

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    of the basic technologies used to protect buildings from earthquake effects and minimize seismic damage. These systems include a range of materials and devices for enhancing damping, stiffness and strength which. The metallic yield dampers can be found in different geometric configurations of X- shaped, E-shaped, honeycomb

  17. Dancing Earthquake Science Assists Recovery from the Christchurch Earthquakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Candice J.; Quigley, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The 2010-2012 Christchurch (Canterbury) earthquakes in New Zealand caused loss of life and psychological distress in residents throughout the region. In 2011, student dancers of the Hagley Dance Company and dance professionals choreographed the performance "Move: A Seismic Journey" for the Christchurch Body Festival that explored…

  18. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has created a balance in between the “developed” and developing countries. If India was producing the same amounts of emissions per capita as the it would have a total of 20 billion metric tons of CO2 emissions annually.

  19. Testing hypotheses of earthquake occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2003-12-01

    We present a relatively straightforward likelihood method for testing those earthquake hypotheses that can be stated as vectors of earthquake rate density in defined bins of area, magnitude, and time. We illustrate the method as it will be applied to the Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). Several earthquake forecast models are being developed as part of this project, and additional contributed forecasts are welcome. Various models are based on fault geometry and slip rates, seismicity, geodetic strain, and stress interactions. We would test models in pairs, requiring that both forecasts in a pair be defined over the same set of bins. Thus we offer a standard "menu" of bins and ground rules to encourage standardization. One menu category includes five-year forecasts of magnitude 5.0 and larger. Forecasts would be in the form of a vector of yearly earthquake rates on a 0.05 degree grid at the beginning of the test. Focal mechanism forecasts, when available, would be also be archived and used in the tests. The five-year forecast category may be appropriate for testing hypotheses of stress shadows from large earthquakes. Interim progress will be evaluated yearly, but final conclusions would be made on the basis of cumulative five-year performance. The second category includes forecasts of earthquakes above magnitude 4.0 on a 0.05 degree grid, evaluated and renewed daily. Final evaluation would be based on cumulative performance over five years. Other types of forecasts with different magnitude, space, and time sampling are welcome and will be tested against other models with shared characteristics. All earthquakes would be counted, and no attempt made to separate foreshocks, main shocks, and aftershocks. Earthquakes would be considered as point sources located at the hypocenter. For each pair of forecasts, we plan to compute alpha, the probability that the first would be wrongly rejected in favor of the second, and beta, the probability that the second would be wrongly rejected in favor of the first. Computing alpha and beta requires knowing the theoretical distribution of likelihood scores under each hypothesis, which we will estimate by simulations. Each forecast is given equal status; there is no "null hypothesis" which would be accepted by default. Forecasts and test results would be archived and posted on the RELM web site. The same methods can be applied to any region with adequate monitoring and sufficient earthquakes. If fewer than ten events are forecasted, the likelihood tests may not give definitive results. The tests do force certain requirements on the forecast models. Because the tests are based on absolute rates, stress models must be explicit about how stress increments affect past seismicity rates. Aftershocks of triggered events must be accounted for. Furthermore, the tests are sensitive to magnitude, so forecast models must specify the magnitude distribution of triggered events. Models should account for probable errors in magnitude and location by appropriate smoothing of the probabilities, as the tests will be "cold hearted:" near misses won't count.

  20. How Do Scientists Determine Earthquake Probabilities?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This provides many links to articles, graphics, scientific papers and podcasts to help students understand how scientists determine probabilities for earthquake occurrences. Topics include the locations of faults and how much they need to move in order to release the strain that accumulates; the study of past earthquakes on each fault to predict the size of possible earthquakes that could occur in the future; and using information on how long it's been since the last earthquake to estimate the probability that an earthquake will occur in the next few years. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

  1. Intraslab earthquakes: dehydration of the Cascadia slab.

    PubMed

    Preston, Leiph A; Creager, Kenneth C; Crosson, Robert S; Brocher, Thomas M; Trehu, Anne M

    2003-11-14

    We simultaneously invert travel times of refracted and wide-angle reflected waves for three-dimensional compressional-wave velocity structure, earthquake locations, and reflector geometry in northwest Washington state. The reflector, interpreted to be the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate, separates intraslab earthquakes into two groups, permitting a new understanding of the origins of intraslab earthquakes in Cascadia. Earthquakes up-dip of the Moho's 45-kilometer depth contour occur below the reflector, in the subducted oceanic mantle, consistent with serpentinite dehydration; earthquakes located down-dip occur primarily within the subducted crust, consistent with the basalt-to-eclogite transformation. PMID:14615535

  2. NEHRP: National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    "The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) is the Federal Government's program to reduce the risks to life and property from earthquakes." After learning about the program's main goals, users of the website can find links to the latest earthquake news and events, publications, seismic maps, upcoming conferences, and other resources. The site describes the model building codes in earthquake hazardous areas. Parents and educators can learn the basic facts about earthquakes and how to reduce the risk from natural disasters. Everyone that may be affected by seismic activity can find enlightening materials at this site.

  3. Parkfield: Earthquake Prediction: A Brief History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report describes recent efforts at earthquake prediction, focusing on the modern era beginning in the mid- to late 1970's. Topics include a history of prediction efforts, the measurement of physical parameters in areas where earthquakes occur, and the development of a model upon which predictions could be based. The efforts centered around Parkfield, California, whose well-known seismic history allowed the development of a 'characteristic Parkfield earthquake' model and led to a formal prediction that a moderate-size earthquake would occur at Parkfield between 1985 and 1993. However, the anticipated earthquake did not occur until September 2004.

  4. Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country is an informational Web site provided by the Southern California Earthquake Center. Citizens can learn about the San Andreas fault, other California faults, how to build and maintain an earthquake safe house, how to survive an earthquake, how they are measured and what the magnitude means, common earthquake myths, and much more. As a safety and an educational site, this unique resource does a good job of presenting a lot of information, illustrations, and graphics in an easy-to-follow format that helps explain this powerful and potentially deadly natural occurrence.

  5. Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Earthquake Research Institute (ERI) at the University of Tokyo acts as the primary association for fundamental geophysical research in Japan and oversees the Earthquake Predication Center and the Volcanic Eruption Prediction Program. The website offers the latest earthquake and volcano news. While a few of the research projects are described only in Japanese, visitors can learn about the Ocean Hemisphere Network Project, Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas, and the Marine Seismic Survey. The web site offers links to numerous earthquake databases and to the Institute's many research centers.

  6. ABAG Earthquake Shaking Maps and Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Everyone affected by earthquakes should visit this ABAG (the Association of Bay Area Governments) website. The website offers interactive maps of future earthquake scenarios as well as static maps of past earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. Residents can learn how to make their homes safer. Commuters can find out how earthquakes affect transportation routes. Businesses can discover planning tools and safety resources. In the Kid Zone, children can explore earthquake facts through stimulating quizzes, puzzles, and answers to common questions. The site also offers materials dealing with dam failure and other natural hazards.

  7. Earthquake Warning Performance in Vallejo for the South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurman, G.; Price, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. installed first-generation QuakeGuardTM earthquake warning devices at all eight fire stations in Vallejo, CA. These devices are designed to detect the P-wave of an earthquake and initiate predetermined protective actions if the impending shaking is estimated at approximately Modifed Mercalli Intensity V or greater. At the Vallejo fire stations the devices were set up to sound an audio alert over the public address system and to command the equipment bay doors to open. In August 2014, after more than 11 years of operating in the fire stations with no false alarms, the five units that were still in use triggered correctly on the MW 6.0 South Napa earthquake, less than 16 km away. The audio alert sounded in all five stations, providing fire fighters with 1.5 to 2.5 seconds of warning before the arrival of the S-wave, and the equipment bay doors opened in three of the stations. In one station the doors were disconnected from the QuakeGuard device, and another station lost power before the doors opened completely. These problems highlight just a small portion of the complexity associated with realizing actionable earthquake warnings. The issues experienced in this earthquake have already been addressed in subsequent QuakeGuard product generations, with downstream connection monitoring and backup power for critical systems. The fact that the fire fighters in Vallejo were afforded even two seconds of warning at these epicentral distances results from the design of the QuakeGuard devices, which focuses on rapid false positive rejection and ground motion estimates. We discuss the performance of the ground motion estimation algorithms, with an emphasis on the accuracy and timeliness of the estimates at close epicentral distances.

  8. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U. [Indian Association for the Advancement of Science, New Delhi (India); Sharma, S.K. [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Energy Research Centre

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  9. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Bhuj and Anjar, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the city of Bhuj, India, in the foreground near the right side (dark gray area). Bhuj and many other towns and cities nearby were almost completely destroyed by the January 26, 2001, earthquake in western India. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the deadliest in the history of India with some 20,000 fatalities and over a million homes damaged or destroyed. The epicenter of the earthquake was in the area in the upper left corner of this view.

    The city of Anjar is in the dark gray area near the top center of the image. Anjar was previously damaged by a magnitude 6.1 earthquake in 1956 that killed 152 people and suffered again in the larger 2001 earthquake. The red hills to the left of the center of the image are the Has and Karo Hills, which reach up to 300 meter (900 feet) elevation. These hills are formed by folded red sandstone layers. Geologists are studying these folded layers to determine if they are related to the fault that broke in the 2001 earthquake. The city of Bhuj was the historical capital of the Kachchh region. Highways and rivers appear as dark lines. Vegetation appears bright green in this false-color Landsat image. The Gulf of Kachchh (or Kutch) is the blue area in the upper right corner of the image, and the gray area on the left side of the image is called the Banni plains.

    This three-dimensional perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced false-color Landsat 7 satellite image. Colors are from Landsat bands 5, 4, and 2 as red, green and blue, respectively. Topographic expression is exaggerated 5X.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, DC.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: looking East Image Data: Landsat Bands 5, 4, 3 as red, green, blue respectively Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: four days in February, 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  10. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic fevers: is recent outbreak of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in India an indication?

    PubMed

    Lahariya, C; Goel, M K; Kumar, A; Puri, M; Sodhi, A

    2012-01-01

    The emerging and re-emerging diseases are posing a great health risk for the last few years. One such category of diseases is viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs), which have emerged in the new territories, worldwide. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) cases, for the first time in India, were reported from Gujarat, in January 2011. The emergence of diseases not reported earlier, pose great economic and social challenge, burden health system, and create panic reaction. Nonetheless, with recent experience in control of epidemic diseases, and advances in basic scientific knowledge; the public health community is better prepared for these unexpected events. This review provides information to physicians on CCHF for managing outbreak, and identifies public health measures to prevent emergence and re-emergence of VHFs (including CCHF) in future. The authors suggest that though, there are a few challenging and unanswered questions, the public health preparedness still remains the key to control emerging and re-emerging diseases. The countries where virus activities have been reported need to be prepared accordingly. PMID:22387647

  11. Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) Charophyte Gyrogonites from the Lameta Formation of Jabalpur, Central India: Palaeobiogeographic and Palaeoecological Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Ashu

    2014-12-01

    A charophyte gyrogonite assemblage consisting of Platychara cf. sahnii, Nemegtichara grambastii and Microchara sp. is reported herein from two localities (Bara Simla Hill and Chui Hill sections) of the Lameta Formation at Jabalpur. he Lameta Formation locally underlying the Deccan traps has been shown to be pedogenically modified alluvial plain deposits containing one of the most extensive dinosaur nesting sites in the world. They are associated with dinosaur bones and freshwater ostracod assemblages that suggest a Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) age. This is the first detailed systematic account of charophyte gyrogonites from the Lameta Formation. This charophyte assemblage is compatible with the biostratigraphic attribution provided by the ostracods. From a biogeographic viewpoint, it exhibits considerable similarity to other infratrappean assemblages of the Nand, Dongargaon, and Dhamni-Pavna sections (Maharashtra), and some intertrappean assemblages of Kora in Gujarat, Rangapur in Andhra Pradesh and Gurmatkal in South India. Globally, the genus Microchara is well distributed throughout Eurasia, whereas the genus Platychara occurs richly in the Upper Cretaceous deposits of Europe, Asia, America and Africa. However, at the specific level, Platychara cf. sahnii shows close affinities with charophytes from the Maastrichtian of Iran whilst Nemegtichara grambastii shows distinct affinities with two species of Early Palaeogene deposits of China and Mongolia. The presence of charophyte gyrogonites in the Lameta sediments is attributed to local lacustrine and palustrine conditions within a flood plain environment.

  12. Genetic analysis of precore/core and partial pol genes in an unprecedented outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B in India.

    PubMed

    Khare, S; Negi, S S; Singh, S; Singhal, M; Kumar, S; Prakash, C; Venugopal, R; Rawat, D S; Chauhan, L S; Rai, A

    2012-10-01

    We investigated an unprecedented outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B virus (HBV) that occurred in Modasa, Gujarat (India) in 2009. Genomic analysis of all fulminant hepatic failure cases confirmed exclusive predominance of subgenotype D1. A1762T, G1764A basal core promoter (BCP) mutations, insertion of isoleucine after nt 1843, stop codon mutation G1896A, G1862T transversion plus seven other mutations in the core gene caused inhibition of HBeAg expression implicating them as circulating precore/BCP mutant virus. Two rare mutations at amino acids 89 (Ile?Ala) and 119 (Leu?Ser) in addition to other mutations in the polymerase (pol) gene may have caused some alteration in either of four pol gene domains to affect encapsidation of pregenomic RNA to enhance pathogenicity. Sequence similarity among patients' sequences suggested an involvement of a single hepatitis B mutant strain/source to corroborate the finding of gross and continued usage of HBV mutant-contaminated syringes/needles by a physician which resulted in this unprecedented outbreak of fulminant hepatitis B. The fulminant exacerbation of the disease might be attributed to mutations in the BCP/precore/core and pol genes that may have occurred due to selection pressure during rapid spread/mutation of the virus. PMID:22417682

  13. Impact of Three-Parameter Weibull Models in Probabilistic Assessment of Earthquake Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasari, Sumanta; Dikshit, Onkar

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the suitability of a three-parameter (scale, shape, and location) Weibull distribution in probabilistic assessment of earthquake hazards. The performance is also compared with two other popular models from same Weibull family, namely the two-parameter Weibull model and the inverse Weibull model. A complete and homogeneous earthquake catalog ( Yadav et al. in Pure Appl Geophys 167:1331-1342, 2010) of 20 events ( M ? 7.0), spanning the period 1846 to 1995 from north-east India and its surrounding region (20°-32°N and 87°-100°E), is used to perform this study. The model parameters are initially estimated from graphical plots and later confirmed from statistical estimations such as maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and method of moments (MoM). The asymptotic variance-covariance matrix for the MLE estimated parameters is further calculated on the basis of the Fisher information matrix (FIM). The model suitability is appraised using different statistical goodness-of-fit tests. For the study area, the estimated conditional probability for an earthquake within a decade comes out to be very high (?0.90) for an elapsed time of 18 years (i.e., 2013). The study also reveals that the use of location parameter provides more flexibility to the three-parameter Weibull model in comparison to the two-parameter Weibull model. Therefore, it is suggested that three-parameter Weibull model has high importance in empirical modeling of earthquake recurrence and seismic hazard assessment.

  14. The Mechanism of Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes in the Hindu Kush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Warren, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Hindu Kush mountains, located near the borders of Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, and China, formed from the collision of India with Eurasia beginning in the Eocene (~55 Ma). The collision resulted in the subduction of the Indian plate. The subduction history has been inferred from seismic tomography, earthquake locations, and thermal modeling. Some of these studies have suggested that the Indian plate subducted northward, started to overturn, and then gradually broke off towards the east. Earthquakes in this region occur down to ~250 km depth, but why they occur is unknown. They may be related to slab break-off or dehydration in the oceanic crust. To distinguish between these mechanisms, we investigate the rupture processes of 22 intermediate-depth earthquakes with Mw between 5.5 and 7.4 that occurred from 1991 to 2005. The ruptures tend to propagate subhorizontally. The earthquakes are located in 3 main clusters. Cluster I is located <150 km depth and has variable focal mechanism orientations. In Cluster II, which is located between 185 and 225 km depth, the focal mechanisms change their orientation gradually with the shape of the slab. Cluster III, located between 210 and 240 km depth to the east of Cluster II, is the most consistent one: most of the focal mechanisms are similar to one another and the rupture vectors tend to point outwards from the slab.

  15. A note on evaluating VAN earthquake predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tselentis, G.-Akis; Melis, Nicos S.

    The evaluation of the success level of an earthquake prediction method should not be based on approaches that apply generalized strict statistical laws and avoid the specific nature of the earthquake phenomenon. Fault rupture processes cannot be compared to gambling processes. The outcome of the present note is that even an ideal earthquake prediction method is still shown to be a matter of a “chancy” association between precursors and earthquakes if we apply the same procedure proposed by Mulargia and Gasperini [1992] in evaluating VAN earthquake predictions. Each individual VAN prediction has to be evaluated separately, taking always into account the specific circumstances and information available. The success level of epicenter prediction should depend on the earthquake magnitude, and magnitude and time predictions may depend on earthquake clustering and the tectonic regime respectively.

  16. The World-Wide Earthquake Locator

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bruce Gittings

    The World-Wide Earthquake Locator provides up-to-date information and detailed dynamic maps of earthquakes across the world within a maximum of 24 hours of their occurence. Features include a current earthquake page with reports listed in chronological order, a catalog query page where users can search the earthquake database and map the results, and an animated map that shows worldwide activity for the last thirty days. There is also an earthquake map viewer that lets users construct their own maps of activity for the week, the previous week, or the rest of the month, with extra data such as plate boundaries, faults and volcanoes. The earthquake prediction map provides an estimate of earthquake probability for any region on Earth, also with extra data layers if desired. There are also links to news articles and to additional information from related sites.

  17. Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This handbook provides information about the threat posed by earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay region and explains how residents can prepare for, survive, and recover from these inevitable events. All Bay Area residents live on an active plate boundary where earthquakes are frequent events and history shows that damaging earthquakes have occurred throughout the Bay Area. Residents should know that although most earthquake damage is caused by shaking, earthquakes also cause damage in other ways. Residents should prepare because their life could change unexpectedly in the next quake and they should consider where their family will be, if they have medical services, and if they will be able to get home and stay in their home. The booklet outlines seven steps to earthquake safety and where to find earthquake information on the Web.

  18. Storage tanks under earthquake loading

    SciTech Connect

    Rammerstorfer, F.G.; Scharf, K. (Technical Univ. of Vienna (Austria)); Fisher, F.D. (Univ. for Mining and Metallurgy, Leoben (Austria))

    1990-11-01

    This is a state-of-the-art review of various treatments of earthquake loaded liquid filled shells by the methods of earthquake engineering, fluid dynamics, structural and soil dynamics, as well as the theory of stability and computational mechanics. Different types of tanks and different possibilities of tank failure will be discussed. The authors will emphasize cylindrical above-ground liquid storage tanks with vertical axis. But many of the treatments are also valid for other tank configurations. For the calculation of the dynamically activated pressure due to an earthquake a fluid-structure-soil interaction problem must be solved. The review will describe the methods, proposed by different authors, to solve this interaction problem. To study the dynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks, one must distinguish between anchored and unanchored tanks. In the case of an anchored tank, the tank bottom edge is fixed to the foundation. If the tank is unanchored, partial lifting of the tank's bottom may occur, and a strongly nonlinear problem has to be solved. They will compare the various analytical and numerical models applicable to this problem, in combination with experimental data. An essential aim of this review is to give a summary of methods applicable as tools for an earthquake resistant design, which can be used by an engineer engaged in the construction of liquid storage tanks.

  19. 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Seismogram

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David J Wald

    A seismogram of the 1906 Earthquake from a recording station in Gottingen, Germany. The records here show 26 minutes of north-south and east-west motion, recording the P and S waves from the great quake. When the surface waves arrived 26 minutes later, they threw the seismograph off-scale.

  20. The politics of earthquake prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    This book gives an account of the politics, scientific and public, generated from the Brady-Spence prediction of a massive earthquake to take place within several years in central Peru. Though the disaster did not happen, this examination of the events serves to highlight American scientific processes and the results of scientific interaction with the media and political bureaucracy.

  1. Radon as an earthquake precursor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Planinic; V. Radoli?; B. Vukovic

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were continuously measured by the LR-115 nuclear track detectors during a four-year period. Seismic activities, as well as barometric pressure, rainfall and air temperature were also observed. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal radon variations was investigated, and a respective equation of the multiple regression was derived. The earthquakes with magnitude ?3 at epicentral

  2. Hypothesis testing and earthquake prediction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D D

    1996-04-30

    Requirements for testing include advance specification of the conditional rate density (probability per unit time, area, and magnitude) or, alternatively, probabilities for specified intervals of time, space, and magnitude. Here I consider testing fully specified hypotheses, with no parameter adjustments or arbitrary decisions allowed during the test period. Because it may take decades to validate prediction methods, it is worthwhile to formulate testable hypotheses carefully in advance. Earthquake prediction generally implies that the probability will be temporarily higher than normal. Such a statement requires knowledge of "normal behavior"--that is, it requires a null hypothesis. Hypotheses can be tested in three ways: (i) by comparing the number of actual earth-quakes to the number predicted, (ii) by comparing the likelihood score of actual earthquakes to the predicted distribution, and (iii) by comparing the likelihood ratio to that of a null hypothesis. The first two tests are purely self-consistency tests, while the third is a direct comparison of two hypotheses. Predictions made without a statement of probability are very difficult to test, and any test must be based on the ratio of earthquakes in and out of the forecast regions. PMID:11607663

  3. Southern California Earthquake Data Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    To say that there are a few earthquake research centers in Southern California is a bit like saying that Chicago sits on a lake of some size. It's a bit of an obvious remark, but given that there are a number of such projects, it's important to take a look at some of the more compelling ones out there. One such important resource is the Southern California Earthquake Data Center, sponsored by a host of organizations, including the California Institute of Technology and the United States Geological Survey. Visitors to the project site can peruse some of its recent work, which includes a clickable map of the region that features information on recent earthquakes in California and Nevada. Equally compelling is the clickable fault map of Southern California where visitors can learn about the local faults and recent activity along each fault. Another key element of the site is the historical earthquake database, which may be of interest to both the general public and those who are studying this area.

  4. Earthquake prediction and its optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Molchan; Y. Y. Kagan

    1992-01-01

    This paper continues the work by Molchan (1990, 1991), who has considered earthquake prediction as a problem of the optimization of a certain loss function gamma. Function gamma is defined by specific social, economic, and geophysical goals. This problem can be fully solved for the loss function gamma dependent on only two parameters: fraction of alarm time tau and fraction

  5. Earthquake prediction: the null hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip B. Stark

    1997-01-01

    The null hypothesis in assessing earthquake predictions is often, loosely speaking,that the successful predictions are chance coincidences. To make this more preciserequires specifying a chance model for the predictions and\\/or the seismicity. The nullhypothesis tends to be rejected not only when the predictions have merit, but also whenthe chance model is inappropriate. In one standard approach, the seismicity is takento

  6. Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Plate Tectonics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page consists of two maps of the world, showing how earthquakes define the boundaries of tectonic plates. Volcanoes are also distributed at plate boundaries (the "Ring of Fire" in the Pacific) and at oceanic ridges. It is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory website, which features written material, images, maps, and links to related topics.

  7. Status of CFD in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Prahlad

    This paper gives an overview of the status of CFD activity that is being carried out in a number of organisations in India. It discusses the drive for CFD in India and its relevance, the general pattern of growth for CFD in the country, the present CFD scenario, some applications and directions for the future. The emphasis is mainly on

  8. Status of CFD in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Prahlad

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the status of CFD activity that is being carried out in a number of organisations in India. It discusses the drive for CFD in India and its relevance, the general pattern of growth for CFD in the country, the present CFD scenario, some applications and directions for the future. The emphasis is mainly on

  9. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  10. Optimizing biodiesel production in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Leduc; Karthikeyan Natarajan; Erik Dotzauer; Ian McCallum; Michael Obersteiner

    2009-01-01

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a

  11. E-Learning in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the e-learning in India. It describes the historical developments of e-learning and identifies major stakeholders and institutions that have initiated e-learning programs after the creation of the National Task Force on Information Technology and Software Development constituted by the Prime Minister of India

  12. Occupational Health Research in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Habibullah N SAIYED; Rajnarayan R TIWARI

    2004-01-01

    India being a developing nation is faced with traditional public health problems like communicable diseases, malnutrition, poor environmental sanitation and inadequate medical care. However, globalization and rapid industrial growth in the last few years has resulted in emergence of occupational health related issues. Agriculture (cultivators i.e. land owners+ agriculture labourers) is the main occupation in India giving employment to about

  13. Passages From India, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This collection of articles from Indian newspapers is designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are 12 categories of articles: (1) Women: Like Avis, #2 But Trying Harder; (2) Calcutta: City of Joy; (3) India: Feeling Its Curry; (4) Us & Them: Misunderstandings; (5) Those Monsoon Showers May Come Your Way;…

  14. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  15. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  16. Rupture Characteristics and Aftershocks of the July 15, 2003 Carlsberg `H' (Indian Ocean) Mw 7.6 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolik, M.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Pan, J.; Ekstrom, G.

    2003-12-01

    The occurrence of a Mw 7.6 earthquake near the Carlsberg ridge (15 July, 2003) provides valuable information about earthquake rupture processes in oceanic lithosphere, which are not well understood, and the distributed deformation of the India-Australia plate. The earthquake had a strike-slip mechanism opposite to that of the transform faults on the ridge, and appears to have ruptured a fracture zone (designated as `H' by Royer et al., 1997) within the India-Australia composite plate. We examine the rupture characteristics of this earthquake using the full spectrum of seismic radiation. Inversion of the body waves indicates rapid rupture propagation toward the NE, away from the Carlsberg Ridge, for a distance of ˜200 km. The average rupture velocity is well constrained and is ˜3.6 km s-1. The total source duration is ˜60 s; however, nearly all of the moment release occurs in the last 30 s. The age of the lithosphere in the area of largest moment is release is 10-15 Ma. The body waves can be well fit with a simple rupture model and no jump of fracture zones is required, as has been suggested for some oceanic earthquakes (e.g., McGuire et al., 1996). The source process is very similar to the well-studied 1994 Mw 7.0 earthquake along the Romanche transform in the equatorial Atlantic (Abercrombie and Ekström, 2001). We also analyze the aftershock distribution using multiple-hypocenter relocation techniques and moment-tensor analysis using intermediate-period surface waves. Only 15 aftershocks (M > 4.5) are listed in the USGS catalog, which is typical of large oceanic earthquakes (e.g., Boettcher and Jordan, 2001). Moment tensors obtained from five of the aftershocks show a diversity of focal mechanisms. We interpret a cluster of aftershocks located at ˜1o S as representing extension which results from the stress field of the mainshock at the end of the rupture. This interpretation is consistent with the 200-km rupture length inferred from body waves. The focal mechanism of the July 15 earthquake indicates N-S extension within the oceanic lithosphere east of the Carlsberg Ridge. Royer and Gordon (1997) interpreted this extension as part of the deformation associated with a diffuse plate boundary between the Indian plate and a hypothesized Capricorn Plate. They placed the northern boundary of the diffuse region of deformation near 7o S. The occurrence of the July 15 earthquake indicates this diffuse boundary is wider than previously believed.

  17. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Earthquake Occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Bakun, William H.; Prescott, William H.

    1993-01-01

    Professional Paper 1550 seeks to understand the M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake itself. It examines how the fault that generated the earthquake ruptured, searches for and evaluates precursors that may have indicated an earthquake was coming, reviews forecasts of the earthquake, and describes the geology of the earthquake area and the crustal forces that affect this geology. Some significant findings were: * Slip during the earthquake occurred on 35 km of fault at depths ranging from 7 to 20 km. Maximum slip was approximately 2.3 m. The earthquake may not have released all of the strain stored in rocks next to the fault and indicates a potential for another damaging earthquake in the Santa Cruz Mountains in the near future may still exist. * The earthquake involved a large amount of uplift on a dipping fault plane. Pre-earthquake conventional wisdom was that large earthquakes in the Bay area occurred as horizontal displacements on predominantly vertical faults. * The fault segment that ruptured approximately coincided with a fault segment identified in 1988 as having a 30% probability of generating a M7 earthquake in the next 30 years. This was one of more than 20 relevant earthquake forecasts made in the 83 years before the earthquake. * Calculations show that the Loma Prieta earthquake changed stresses on nearby faults in the Bay area. In particular, the earthquake reduced stresses on the Hayward Fault which decreased the frequency of small earthquakes on it. * Geological and geophysical mapping indicate that, although the San Andreas Fault can be mapped as a through going fault in the epicentral region, the southwest dipping Loma Prieta rupture surface is a separate fault strand and one of several along this part of the San Andreas that may be capable of generating earthquakes.

  18. Engaging Students in Earthquake Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, I. E.; Benthien, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center Communication, Education, and Outreach program (SCEC CEO) has been collaborating with the University of Southern California (USC) Joint Education Project (JEP) and the Education Consortium of Central Los Angeles (ECCLA) to work directly with the teachers and schools in the local community around USC. The community surrounding USC is 57 % Hispanic (US Census, 2000) and 21% African American (US Census, 2000). Through the partnership with ECCLA SCEC has created a three week enrichment intersession program, targeting disadvantaged students at the fourth/fifth grade level, dedicated entirely to earthquakes. SCEC builds partnerships with the intersession teachers, working together to actively engage the students in learning about earthquakes. SCEC provides a support system for the teachers, supplying them with the necessary content background as well as classroom manipulatives. SCEC goes into the classrooms with guest speakers and take the students out of the classroom on two field trips. There are four intersession programs each year. SCEC is also working with USC's Joint Education Project program. The JEP program has been recognized as one of the "oldest and best organized" Service-Learning programs in the country (TIME Magazine and the Princeton Review, 2000). Through this partnership SCEC is providing USC students with the necessary tools to go out to the local schools and teach students of all grade levels about earthquakes. SCEC works with the USC students to design engaging lesson plans that effectively convey content regarding earthquakes. USC students can check out hands-on/interactive materials to use in the classrooms from the SCEC Resource Library. In both these endeavors SCEC has expanded our outreach to the local community. SCEC is reaching over 200 minority children each year through our partnerships, and this number will increase as our programs grow.

  19. SRTM Stereo Pair: Northwest of Bhuj, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. Shortly thereafter, geologists traversed the region looking for ground surface disruptions, such as fault breaks, that could provide clues to the tectonic processes here. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) scientists provided stereoscopic images to the geologists, similar to this 3-D view of the terrain northwest of the city of Bhuj. The geologists reported back that the images were essential in optimizing their field activities. Tectonic landforms are created by ground displacements that are repetitious over geologic time, so these landforms are good places to look for co-seismic faulting and warping. The stereoscopic images showed the geologists where the structures are located and their overall pattern, which could not be seen while standing on anyone hill or in any one gully. In general, the field studies found that surface disruptions by the recent earthquake were minimal and that the major landforms are quite old and probably not directly related to ongoing tectonic processes.

    Features of interest in the view shown here include the largest hill (upper left-center), which is a dome or anticline, upwardly convex layered rocks. Also visible are a possible volcanic plug (lower left-center) and an incised meandering stream (center). Agriculture in this arid region is concentrated on the alluvial fan of the major stream (green pattern, upper right).

    This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (33-yard) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 21.3 x 11.9 kilometers (13.2 x 7.4 miles) Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.6 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red, respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  20. SRTM Anaglyph: Northwest of Bhuj, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001, the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. Shortly thereafter, geologists traversed the region looking for ground surface disruptions, such as fault breaks, that could provide clues to the tectonic processes here. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) scientists provided stereoscopic images to the geologists, similar to this anaglyph view of the terrain northwest of the city of Bhuj. The geologists reported back that the images were essential in optimizing their field activities. Tectonic landforms are created by ground displacements that are repetitious over geologic time, so these landforms are good places to look for co-seismic faulting and warping. The stereoscopic images showed the geologists where the structures are located and their overall pattern, which could not be seen while standing on any one hill or in any one gully. In general, the field studies found that surface disruptions by the recent earthquake were minimal and that the major landforms are quite old and probably not directly related to ongoing tectonic processes.

    Features of interest in the view shown here include the largest hill (upper left-center), which is a dome or anticline, upwardly convex layered rocks. Also visible are a possible volcanic plug (lower left-center) and an incised meandering stream (center). Agriculture in this arid region is concentrated on the alluvial fan of the major stream (dark pattern, upper right).

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the SRTM and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (33-yard) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 21.3 x 11.9 kilometers ( 13.2 x 7.4 miles) Location: 23.4 deg. North lat., 69.6 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Band 3 Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

  1. Estimation of crustal discontinuities from reflected seismic waves recorded at Shillong and Mikir Hills Plateau, Northeast India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saurabh Baruah; Dipok K. Bora; Rajib Biswas

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an attempt is made to determine seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath the Shillong-Mikir\\u000a Hills Plateau in northeast India region. The principle of the technique is to relate seismic travel times with crustal thickness\\u000a above the Conrad and Moho discontinuities. Broadband digital waveforms of the local earthquakes make a precise detection of\\u000a the

  2. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  3. Investigations of Anomalous Earthquakes at Active Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, Ashley Elizabeth

    This dissertation investigates the link between volcanic unrest and the occurrence of moderate-to-large earthquakes with a specific type of focal mechanism. Vertical compensated-linear-vector-dipole (vertical-CLVD) earthquakes have vertical pressure or tension axes and seismic radiation patterns that are inconsistent with the double-couple model of slip on a planar fault. Prior to this work, moderate-to-large vertical-CLVD earthquakes were known to be geographically associated with volcanic centers, and vertical-CLVD earthquakes were linked to a tsunami in the Izu-Bonin volcanic arc and a subglacial fissure eruption in Iceland. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are some of the largest and most anomalous earthquakes to occur in volcanic systems, yet their physical mechanisms remain controversial largely due to the small number of observations. Five vertical-CLVD earthquakes with vertical pressure axes are identified near Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Three earthquakes occur within days of a fissure eruption at Nyiragongo, and two occur several years later in association with the refilling of the lava lake in the summit crater of the volcano. Detailed study of these events shows that the earthquakes have slower source processes than tectonic earthquakes with similar magnitudes and locations. All five earthquakes are interpreted as resulting from slip on inward-dipping ring-fault structures located above deflating shallow magma chambers. The Nyiragongo study supports the interpretation that vertical-CLVD earthquakes may be causally related to dynamic physical processes occurring inside the edifices or magmatic plumbing systems of active volcanoes. Two seismicity catalogs from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) Project are used to search for further examples of shallow earthquakes with robust vertical-CLVD focal mechanisms. CMT solutions for approximately 400 target earthquakes are calculated and 86 vertical-CLVD earthquakes are identified near active volcanoes. Together with the Nyiragongo study, this work increases the number of well-studied vertical-CLVD earthquakes from 14 to 101. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes have focal depths in the upper ˜10 km of the Earth's crust, and ˜80% have centroid locations within 30 km of an active volcanic center. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near several different types of volcanoes in a variety of geographic and tectonic settings, but most vertical-CLVD earthquakes are observed near basaltic-to-andesitic stratovolcanoes and submarine volcanoes in subduction zones. Vertical-CLVD earthquakes are linked to tsunamis, volcanic earthquake swarms, effusive and explosive eruptions, and caldera collapse, and approximately 70% are associated with documented volcanic eruptions or episodes of volcanic unrest. Those events with vertical pressure axes typically occur after volcanic eruptions initiate, whereas events with vertical tension axes commonly occur before the start of volcanic unrest. Both types of vertical-CLVD earthquakes have longer source durations than tectonic earthquakes of the same magnitude. The isotropic and pure vertical-CLVD components of the moment tensor cannot be independently resolved using our long-period seismic dataset. As a result, several physical mechanisms can explain the retrieved deviatoric vertical-CLVD moment tensors, including dip-slip motion on ring faults, volume exchange between two reservoirs, the opening and closing of tensile cracks, and volumetric sources. An evaluation of these mechanisms is performed using constraints obtained from detailed studies of individual vertical-CLVD earthquakes. Although no single physical mechanism can explain all of the characteristics of vertical-CLVD earthquakes, a ring-faulting model consisting of slip on inward- or outward-dipping ring faults triggered by the inflation or deflation of a shallow magma chamber can account for their seismic radiation patterns and source durations, as well as their temporal relationships with volcanic unrest. The observation that most vertical-CLVD earthquakes a

  4. Seismic Energy of Small Earthquakes Using Hi-net Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Venkataraman; G. C. Beroza; S. Ide

    2003-01-01

    Seismic energy is a fundamental parameter of the earthquake source. The seismic energy of large earthquakes is well determined, but large earthquakes occur infrequently, so it is critical to develop accurate methods to study the more numerous smaller earthquakes as well. Additionally, a key question in earthquake source dynamics is whether there is something fundamentally different in the physics of

  5. Scenario for a Magnitude 6.7 Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    Scenario for a Magnitude 6.7 Earthquake on the Seattle Fault Earthquake Engineering Research for a Magnitude 6.7 Earthquake on the Seattle Fault Earthquake Engineering Research Institute and the Washington Military Department Emergency Management Division June 2005 #12;iv Scenario for a Magnitude 6.7 Earthquake

  6. THE KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 8, 2005 A QUICKLOOK REPORT

    E-print Network

    Masud, Arif

    THE KASHMIR EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 8, 2005 A QUICKLOOK REPORT Ahmad Jan Durrani Amr Salah Elnashai Youssef M.A. Hashash Sung Jig Kim Arif Masud Mid-America Earthquake Center University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Mid-America Earthquake CenterMid-America Earthquake Center #12;2Mid-America Earthquake

  7. PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING FOR OPERATIONAL EARTHQUAKE FORECASTING AND

    E-print Network

    1 PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING FOR OPERATIONAL EARTHQUAKE FORECASTING AND EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING TAILLEFER6 Practical implementations of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) and earthquake early of heightened seismic hazard to reduce the chance of a chemical spill in case of an earthquake. In the context

  8. Relation between the characteristics of strong earthquake activities in Chinese mainland and the Wenchuan earthquake?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Guohua; Lu, Xian; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Zhigao

    2009-10-01

    This paper studies the relations between the great Wenchuan earthquake and the active-quiet periodic characteristics of strong earthquakes, the rhythmic feature of great earthquakes, and the grouped spatial distribution of M S8.0 earthquakes in Chinese mainland. We also studied the relation between the Wenchuan earthquake and the stepwise migration characteristics of M S?7.0 earthquakes on the North-South seismic belt, the features of the energy releasing acceleration in the active crustal blocks related to the Wenchuan earthquake and the relation between the Wenchuan earthquake and the so called second-arc fault zone. The results can be summarized as follows: ? the occurrence of the Wenchuan earthquake was consistent with the active-quiet periodic characteristics of strong earthquakes; ? its occurrence is consistent with the features of grouped occurrence of M S8.0 earthquakes and follows the 25 years rhythm (each circulation experiences the same time) of great earthquakes; ? the Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake follows the well known stepwise migration feature of strong earthquakes on the North-South seismic belt; ? the location where the Wenchuan M S8.0 earthquake took place has an obvious consistency with the temporal and spatial characteristic of grouped activity of M S?7.0 strong earthquakes on the second-arc fault zone; ? the second-arc fault zone is not only the lower boundary for earthquakes with more than 30 km focal depth, but also looks like a lower boundary for deep substance movement; and ? there are obvious seismic accelerations nearby the Qaidam and Qiangtang active crustal blocks (the northern and southern neighbors of the Bayan Har active block, respectively), which agrees with the GPS observation data.

  9. Application of Rapid Earthquake Location for Earthquake Early Warning in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Rydelek, P. A.; Suk, B.

    2008-12-01

    Economic growth, industrialization and urbanization have made society more vulnerable then ever to seismic hazard in Korea. Although Korea has not experienced severe damage due to earthquakes during the last few decades, there is little doubt of the potential for large earthquakes in Korea as documented in the historical literature. As we see no immediate promise of short-term earthquake prediction with current science and technology, earthquake early warning systems attract more and more attention as a practical measure to mitigate damage from earthquakes. Earthquake early warning systems provide a few seconds to tens of seconds of warning time before the onset of strong ground shaking. To achieve rapid earthquake location, we propose to take full advantage of information from existing seismic networks; by using P wave arrival times at two nearest stations from the earthquake hypocenter and also information that P waves have not yet arrived at other stations. Ten earthquakes in the Korean peninsula and its vicinity are selected for the feasibility study. We observed that location results are not reliable when earthquakes occur outside of the seismic network. Earthquakes inside the seismic network, however, can be located very rapidly for the purpose of earthquake early warning. Seoul metropolitan area may secure 10 - 50 seconds of warning time before any strong shaking starts for certain events. Carefully orchestrated actions during the given warning time should be able to reduce hazard and mitigate damages due to potentially disastrous earthquakes.

  10. Napa earthquake: An earthquake in a highly connected world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossu, R.; Steed, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Napa earthquake recently occurred close to Silicon Valley. This makes it a good candidate to study what social networks, wearable objects and website traffic analysis (flashsourcing) can tell us about the way eyewitnesses react to ground shaking. In the first part, we compare the ratio of people publishing tweets and with the ratio of people visiting EMSC (European Mediterranean Seismological Centre) real time information website in the first minutes following the earthquake occurrence to the results published by Jawbone, which show that the proportion of people waking up depends (naturally) on the epicentral distance. The key question to evaluate is whether the proportions of inhabitants tweeting or visiting the EMSC website are similar to the proportion of people waking up as shown by the Jawbone data. If so, this supports the premise that all methods provide a reliable image of the relative ratio of people waking up. The second part of the study focuses on the reaction time for both Twitter and EMSC website access. We show, similarly to what was demonstrated for the Mineral, Virginia, earthquake (Bossu et al., 2014), that hit times on the EMSC website follow the propagation of the P waves and that 2 minutes of website traffic is sufficient to determine the epicentral location of an earthquake on the other side of the Atlantic. We also compare with the publication time of messages on Twitter. Finally, we check whether the number of tweets and the number of visitors relative to the number of inhabitants is correlated to the local level of shaking. Together these results will tell us whether the reaction of eyewitnesses to ground shaking as observed through Twitter and the EMSC website analysis is tool specific (i.e. specific to Twitter or EMSC website) or whether they do reflect people's actual reactions.

  11. Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Ozel, O.; Erdik, M.

    2007-12-01

    As part of the preparations for the future earthquake in Istanbul a Rapid Response and Early Warning system in the metropolitan area is in operation. For the Early Warning system ten strong motion stations were installed as close as possible to the fault zone. Continuous on-line data from these stations via digital radio modem provide early warning for potentially disastrous earthquakes. Considering the complexity of fault rupture and the short fault distances involved, a simple and robust Early Warning algorithm, based on the exceedance of specified threshold time domain amplitude levels is implemented. The band-pass filtered accelerations and the cumulative absolute velocity (CAV) are compared with specified threshold levels. When any acceleration or CAV (on any channel) in a given station exceeds specific threshold values it is considered a vote. Whenever we have 2 station votes within selectable time interval, after the first vote, the first alarm is declared. In order to specify the appropriate threshold levels a data set of near field strong ground motions records form Turkey and the world has been analyzed. Correlations among these thresholds in terms of the epicenter distance the magnitude of the earthquake have been studied. The encrypted early warning signals will be communicated to the respective end users. Depending on the location of the earthquake (initiation of fault rupture) and the recipient facility the alarm time can be as high as about 8s. The first users of the early warning signal will be the Istanbul gas company (IGDAS) and the metro line using the immersed tube tunnel (MARMARAY). Other prospective users are power plants and power distribution systems, nuclear research facilities, critical chemical factories, petroleum facilities and high-rise buildings. In this study, different algorithms based on PGA, CAV and various definitions of instrumental intensity will be discussed and triggering threshold levels of these parameters will be studied. More complex algorithms based on artificial neural networks (ANN) can also be used [Boese et al., 2003]. ANN approach considers the problem of earthquake early-warning as a pattern recognition task. The seismic patterns can be defined by the shape and frequency content of the parts of accelerograms that are available at each time step. ANN can extract the engineering parameters PGA, CAV and instrumental intensity from these patterns, and map them to any location in the surrounded area. Boese M., Erdik, M., Wenzel, F. (2003), Artificial Neural Networks for Earthquake Early Warning, Proceedings AGU2003 Abstracts, S42B-0155

  12. Institutional and Regulatory Economics of Electricity Market Reforms: the Evidence from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipulendu

    Five South Asian countries-- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka -- embarked on electricity market reforms in the 1990's. The dissertation uses the framework of New Institutional Economics to assess the effects on electricity sector performance of both observables elements of reform (i.e. privatization, unbundling, establishment of independent regulatory agencies etc.) as well as the unobservable elements (informal beliefs, habit, norms and culture of the actors involved in reforms). The first part of the dissertation -- econometric analysis of the relationship between observable electricity market reform measures and performance indicators -- finds that for the most part electricity market reforms in South Asia are having a positive impact on the performance of the sector. This is particularly the case for reforms that have increased private sector participation in generation and distribution and have vertically unbundled utilities into generation, transmission and distribution entities. Many of the reforms are positively correlated with higher tariffs, indicating a cost to the consumers from the reforms. The relationship between independent regulation and performance indicators , however, is not established. The second part of the dissertation - analytical narrative of the reform experiences of Gujarat and Nepal -- examines the informal elements (such as beliefs, norms, culture) that motivate behavior and explains how and why reform outcomes differed in these two places. The dissertation finds that the strength of formal institutions rules and the nature of social norms and customs have a significant influence on the outcome of reforms. Aided by the strength of its formal institutional framework and more evolved social norms and customs that encouraged people to follow formal rules, reforms in the Indian state of Gujarat were a success. The weakness of the formal institutional framework and the predominance of relation-based norms and customs in Nepal that led to limited compliance with formal rules, by contrast, limited the success of power sector reforms there. Efforts to reform the electricity sector in South Asia undertaken by governments with the assistance of development agencies such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank have focused to a large extent on getting the content of electricity market reform measures such as unbundling, privatization, and establishment of a power market right. The analysis in this dissertation suggests that such measures will be more successful in places with relatively robust formal rule based systems. Countries that are planning to carry out significant reforms in the electricity sector will benefit from the explicit consideration of the informal norms, habits and customs of the actors that will be affected by the reforms.

  13. Cancer notification in India.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Guruprasad, B; Lokesh, K N; Veena, V S

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common etiologic agents, better understanding of common preventable causes and better utilization of health resources with better monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of health programs such as cancer screening and cancer treatment programs, which ultimately might improve survival. Notification of cancer can be done by the doctor or the hospital. Akin to the integrated disease surveillance project where more than 90% of the districts report weekly data through E-mail/portal, notification of cancer can be implemented if it is incorporated into the National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular diseases and Stroke scheme. The need of the hour is cancer notification in India. PMID:24665453

  14. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. India Habitat Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The India Habitat Centre(IHC) was created in New Delhi, India, to "provide a physical environment [to] serve as a catalyst for a synergetic relationship between individuals and institutions working in diverse habitat related areas." Their website gives visitors a generous glimpse into what it is like to enjoy such features as the "Habitat Film Club", "Habitat Learning Centre", and the "IHC Visual Arts Gallery". Like a multi-faceted community center, the IHC houses a "Habitat Library & Resource Centre" and offers a monthly "Habitat Walk", among other activities. The "Habitat Walk" gives community members the opportunity to visit various natural and historical sites, and provides several pages of background on the sites that visitors can download or print from the "Habitat Walk" link on the website. The center also reaches out and empowers the community by encouraging students and non-students to participate in their annual contest for the Habitat Young Visionary Award, a photography fellowship, and in the recent past, internships in a non-governmental organization.

  16. Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, David; Turner, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

  17. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhruvesh P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Gupta, Manika; Nandhakumar, Naresh

    2015-02-01

    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  18. Alternative Splicing and Highly Variable Cadherin Transcripts Associated with Field-Evolved Resistance of Pink Bollworm to Bt Cotton in India

    PubMed Central

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Yelich, Alex J.; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. PMID:24840729

  19. Alternative splicing and highly variable cadherin transcripts associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm to bt cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Singh, Amar; Tanwar, Raj K; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Yelich, Alex J; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insect pests can reduce the benefits of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops. Despite considerable knowledge of the genes conferring insect resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected strains and in field populations exposed to Bt sprays, understanding of the genetic basis of field-evolved resistance to Bt crops remains limited. In particular, previous work has not identified the genes conferring resistance in any cases where field-evolved resistance has reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. Here we report that mutations in a gene encoding a cadherin protein that binds Bt toxin Cry1Ac are associated with field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) in India to Cry1Ac produced by transgenic cotton. We conducted laboratory bioassays that confirmed previously reported resistance to Cry1Ac in pink bollworm from the state of Gujarat, where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown extensively. Analysis of DNA from 436 pink bollworm from seven populations in India detected none of the four cadherin resistance alleles previously reported to be linked with resistance to Cry1Ac in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm from Arizona. However, DNA sequencing of pink bollworm derived from resistant and susceptible field populations in India revealed eight novel, severely disrupted cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Cry1Ac. For these eight alleles, analysis of complementary DNA (cDNA) revealed a total of 19 transcript isoforms, each containing a premature stop codon, a deletion of at least 99 base pairs, or both. Seven of the eight disrupted alleles each produced two or more different transcript isoforms, which implicates alternative splicing of messenger RNA (mRNA). This represents the first example of alternative splicing associated with field-evolved resistance that reduced the efficacy of a Bt crop. PMID:24840729

  20. A seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khattri, K.N.; Rogers, A.M.; Perkins, D.M.; Algermissen, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    We have produced a probabilistic seismic hazard map showing peak ground accelerations in rock for India and neighboring areas having a 10% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Seismogenic zones were identified on the basis of historical seismicity, seismotectonics and geology of the region. Procedures for reducing the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs were followed before estimating recurrence parameters. An eastern United States acceleration attenuation relationship was employed after it was found that intensity attenuation for the Indian region and the eastern United States was similar. The largest probabilistic accelerations are obtained in the seismotectonic belts of Kirthar, Hindukush, Himalaya, Arakan-Yoma, and the Shillong massif where values of over 70% g have been calculated. ?? 1984.