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1

India: Gujarat  

... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

2013-04-16

2

Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

2002-01-01

3

Crustal heterogeneities beneath the 2011 Talala, Saurashtra earthquake, Gujarat, India source zone: Seismological evidence for neo-tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1st decade of the 21st century, the study area of Talala, Saurashtra of western India witnessed three damaging earthquakes of moderate magnitude, year 2007 [Mw 5.0; Mw 4.8] and in the year 2011 [Mw 5.1] that generated public panic in the region. The last damaging moderate earthquake of the 20th October 2011 in Talala region (21.09°N;70.45°E), located at about 200 km south to the devastating 2001 Bhuj (23.412°N, 70.232°E) mainshock (Mw 7.6), jolted the entire Saurashtra region of Gujarat. A long series of aftershocks followed hereafter, recorded at nine seismograph/accelerograph stations. Hypocenters of aftershocks were relocated accurately using absolute and relative travel time (double-difference) method. In this study, we, for the first time, determined 3-D tomographic images of the upper crust beneath the 2011 Talala earthquake source zone by inverting about 1135 P and 1125 S wave arrival time data. Estimates of seismic velocities (Vp, Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structures offer a reliable interpretation of crustal heterogeneities and their bearing on geneses of moderate earthquakes and their aftershock sequences beneath the source zone. It is found that the 2011 Talala mainshock hypocenter depth (6 km) is located near the boundary of the low and high velocity (Vp, Vs) and the source zone is associated with low-? anomalies guarded by the prominent high-? anomalies along the active fault zone having strike-slip motion beneath the earthquake source zone. The pattern of distribution of (Vp, Vs, ?) and its association with occurrences of aftershocks provide seismological evidence for the neo-tectonics in the region having left lateral strike-slip motion of the fault.

Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Rastogi, B. K.; Kumar, Santosh

2013-01-01

4

Seismogenesis of the lower crustal intraplate earthquakes occurring in Kachchh, Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large intraplate continental earthquakes like the 1811–12 New Madrid (Mw?8.0) and the 2001 Bhuj (Mw7.7) were highly destructive because they occurred in strong crust, but the mechanisms underlying their seismogenesis are not understood. Here we show, using local earthquake velocity tomography, and joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocity dispersion that the crust and uppermost mantle beneath

Prantik Mandal; O. P. Pandey

2011-01-01

5

Wind Resource Assessment of Gujarat (India)  

SciTech Connect

India is one of the largest wind energy markets in the world. In 1986 Gujarat was the first Indian state to install a wind power project. In February 2013, the installed wind capacity in Gujarat was 3,093 MW. Due to the uncertainty around existing wind energy assessments in India, this analysis uses the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the wind at current hub heights for one year to provide more precise estimates of wind resources in Gujarat. The WRF model allows for accurate simulations of winds near the surface and at heights important for wind energy purposes. While previous resource assessments published wind power density, we focus on average wind speeds, which can be converted to wind power densities by the user with methods of their choice. The wind resource estimates in this study show regions with average annual wind speeds of more than 8 m/s.

Draxl, C.; Purkayastha, A.; Parker, Z.

2014-07-01

6

Simultaneous Estimation of Earthquake Source Parameters and Site Response from Inversion of Strong Motion Network Data in Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inversion of horizontal components of S-wave spectral data in the frequency range 0.1-10.0 Hz has been carried out to estimate simultaneously the source spectra of 38 aftershocks (Mw 2.93-5.32) of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.7) and site response at 18 strong motion sites in the Kachchh Seismic Zone, Gujarat, India. The spatial variation of site response (SR) in the region has been studied by averaging the SR values obtained from the inversion in two frequency bands; 0.2-1.8 Hz and 3.0-7.0 Hz, respectively. In 0.2-1.8 Hz frequency band, the high SR values are observed in the southern part of the Kachchh Mainland Fault that had suffered extensively during the 2001 Bhuj Earthquake. However, for 3.0-7.0 Hz band, the area of Jurassic and Quaternary Formations show predominantly high SR. The source spectral data obtained from the inversion were used to estimate various source parameters namely, the seismic moment, stress drop, corner frequency and radius of source rupture by using an iterative least squares inversion approach based on the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm. It has been observed that the seismic moment and radius of rupture from 38 aftershocks vary between 3.1x10^{13} to 2.0x10^{17} Nm and 226 to 889 m, respectively. The stress drop values from these aftershocks are found to vary from 0.11 to 7.44 MPa. A significant scatter of stress drop values has been noticed in case of larger aftershocks while for smaller magnitude events, it varies proportionally with the seismic moment. The regression analysis between seismic moment and radius of rupture indicates a break in linear scaling around 10^{15.3} Nm. The seismic moment of these aftershocks found to be proportional to the corner frequency, which is consistent for earthquakes with such short rupture length.

Dutta, U.; Mandal, P.

2010-12-01

7

Law of the landless : the Dalit bid for land redistribution in Gujarat, India  

E-print Network

This study examines how government's implementation of land reforms in Gujarat, India informs Dalit (i.e., 'Outcaste') activism for land redistribution. It takes as a case study the Navsarjan Trust (or simply Navsarjan), ...

McDougal, Topher L. (Topher Leinberger)

2007-01-01

8

Crustal structure of the Gujarat region, India: New constraints from the analysis of teleseismic receiver functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, receiver function analysis is carried out at 32 broadband stations spread all over the Gujarat region, located in the western part of India to image the sedimentary structure and investigate the crustal composition for the entire region. The powerful Genetic Algorithm technique is applied to the receiver functions to derive S-velocity structure beneath each site. A detail image in terms of basement depths and Moho thickness for the entire Gujarat region is obtained for the first time. Gujarat comprises of three distinct regions: Kachchh, Saurashtra and Mainland. In Kachchh region, depth of the basement varies from around 1.5 km in the eastern part to 6 km in the western part and around 2-3 km in the northern part to 4-5 km in the southern part. In the Saurashtra region, there is not much variation in the depth of the basement and is between 3 km and 4 km. In Gujarat mainland part, the basement depth is 5-8 km in the Cambay basin and western edge of Narmada basin. In other parts of the mainland, it is 3-4 km. The depth of Moho beneath each site is obtained using stacking algorithm approach. The Moho is at shallower depth (26-30 km) in the western part of Kachchh region. In the eastern part and epicentral zone of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, large variation in the Moho depths is noticed (36-46 km). In the Saurashtra region, the crust is more thick in the northern part. It varies from 36-38 km in the southern part to 42-44 km in the northern part. In the mainland region, the crust is more thick (40-44 km) in the northern and southern part and is shallow in Cambay and Narmada basins (32-36 km). The large variations of Poisson's ratio across Gujarat region may be interpreted as heterogeneity in crustal composition. High values of ? (?0.30) at many sites in Kachchh and few sites in Saurashtra and Mainland regions may be related to the existence of high-velocity lower crust with a mafic/ultramafic composition and, locally, to the presence of partial melt. The existing tectono-sedimentary models proposed by various researchers were also examined.

Chopra, Sumer; Chang, Tao-Ming; Saikia, Sowrav; Yadav, R. B. S.; Choudhury, Pallabee; Roy, Ketan Singha

2014-12-01

9

A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake  

E-print Network

, India earthquake within the Rann of Kachchh. The straight line shows a "pseudo-fault" with strike fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0 damaging. 1. Introduction The M7.6 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the state of Gujarat, India at 03:16 GMT (8

Bilham, Roger

10

POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE RECONSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this paper is to share the insights gained in the process of reconstruction following the Gujarat earthquake 2001, one of the largest disasters particularly in terms of the intensity and diversity of impacts. This paper analyzes the challenges of post-disaster reconstruction based on the policy milieu, processes to tackle challenges with respect to policy framework and

V. Thiruppugazh

11

Social Stratification and Mobility in a Rural Community (Mahi) in Gujarat, India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzing the interaction between factors that are stable and factors that initiate change re: promotion of social mobility or crystalization of existing social stratification, this paper presents a case study of Mahi, a rural village in Gujarat, India. Utilizing data derived from two field studies (1961-1962 and March 1967-June 1967), the stable…

Panchanadikar, K. C.; Panchanadikar, J.

12

Use of Seismotectonic Information for the Seismic Hazard Analysis for Surat City, Gujarat, India: Deterministic and Probabilistic Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surat, the financial capital of Gujarat, India, is a mega city with a population exceeding five millions. The city falls under Zone III of the Seismic Zoning Map of India. After the devastating 2001 Bhuj earthquake of Mw 7.7, much attention is paid towards the seismic microzonation activity in the state of Gujarat. In this work, an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard for Surat City (21.170 N, 72.830 E) based on the probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard analysis. After collecting a catalogue of historical earthquakes in a 350 km radius around the city and after analyzing a database statistically, deterministic analysis has been carried out considering known tectonic sources; a further recurrence relationship for the control region is found out. Probabilistic seismic hazard analyses were then carried out for the Surat region considering five seismotectonic sources selected from a deterministic approach. The final results of the present investigations are presented in the form of peak ground acceleration and response spectra at bed rock level considering the local site conditions. Rock level Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values at 0.01 s and 1.0 s corresponding to 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years have been calculated. Further Uniform Hazard Response Spectrum (UHRS) at rock level for 5% damping, and 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, were also developed for the city considering all site classes. These results can be directly used by engineers as basic inputs in earthquake-resistant design of structures in and around the city.

Thaker, T. P.; Rathod, Ganesh W.; Rao, K. S.; Gupta, K. K.

2012-01-01

13

int. j. remote sensing, 2002, vol. 23, no. 16, 31233128 Changes observed in land and ocean after Gujarat earthquake of  

E-print Network

, changes in ocean parameters and land features have been studied after the Gujarat earthquake. Figure 1 January 2001 with the epicentres determined by IMD, New Delhi, US Geological Survey (USGS) and ERI, Japan-mail: ramesh@iitk.ac.in Internationa l Journal of Remote Sensing ISSN 0143-1161 print/ISSN 1366-590 1 online

Singh, Ramesh P.

14

Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in domestic animals, Gujarat, India, 2013.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral disease that causes a fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans. This disease is asymptomatic in animals. CCHF was first confirmed in a nosocomial outbreak in 2011 in Gujarat State. Another notifiable outbreak occurred in July, 2013, in Karyana Village, Amreli district, Gujarat State. Anti-CCHF virus (CCHFV) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were detected in domestic animals from the adjoining villages of the affected area, indicating a considerable amount of positivity against domestic animals. The present serosurvey was carried out to determine the prevalence of CCHFV among bovine, sheep, and goat populations from 15 districts of Gujarat State, India. A total of 1226 serum samples from domestic animals were screened for IgG antibodies using a CCHF animal IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibodies were detected in all the 15 districts surveyed; with positivity of 12.09%, 41.21%, and 33.62% in bovine, sheep, and goat respectively. This necessitates the surveillance of CCHFV IgG antibodies in animals and hemorrhagic fever cases in human. PMID:25229708

Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Shete, Anita; Majumdar, Triparna D; Kanani, Amit; Kapadia, Dhirendra; Chandra, Vartika; Kachhiapatel, Anantdevesh J; Joshi, Pravinchandra T; Upadhyay, Kamalesh J; Dave, Paresh; Raval, Dinkar

2014-09-01

15

Usage of EMBRACETM in Gujarat, India: Survey of Paediatricians  

PubMed Central

Aim. EMBRACETM is an innovative, low cost infant warmer for use in neonates. It contains phase change material, which stays at constant temperature for 6 hours. We surveyed paediatricians using EMBRACETM regarding benefits, risks, and setup in which it was used in Gujarat. Methods. Questionnaire was administered telephonically to 52 out of 53 paediatricians. Results. EMBRACETM was used for an average of 8.27 (range of 3–18, SD = 3.84) months by paediatricians. All used it for thermoregulation during transfers, for average (SD) duration of 42 (0.64)?m per transfer, 62.7% used it at mother's side for average (SD) 11.06 (7.89)?h per day, and 3.9% prescribed it at home. It was used in low birth weight neonates only by 56.9% while 43.1% used it for all neonates. While hyperthermia was not reported, 5.9% felt that EMBRACETM did not prevent hypothermia. About 54.9% felt that they could not monitor the newborn during EMBRACETM use. Of paediatricians who practiced kangaroo mother care (KMC), 7.7% have limited/stopped/decreased the practice of KMC and substituted it with EMBRACETM. Conclusions. EMBRACETM was acceptable to most but concerns related to monitoring neonates and disinfection remained. Most paediatricians felt that it did not hamper KMC practice. PMID:25530887

Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Patel, Harshil; Dongara, Ashish; Patel, Dipen V.; Bansal, Satvik

2014-01-01

16

Microbial keratitis in Gujarat, Western India: findings from 200 cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study was to study the epidemiological characteristics and the microbiological profile of patients suspected with microbial keratitis in Gujarat. Methods Corneal scraping was collected from 200 consecutive cases of suspected microbial keratitis and was subjected to direct examination and culture. Results Of the 200 ulcers 55% were culture positive, 26.5% were bacterial ulcers of which 47% were due to Staphylococcus spp. Pure fungal growth was seen in 22% while 6% were mixed ulcers. Fusarium spp. (30%) was the most common fungus followed by Aspergillus spp. (21%). Only one case of Acanthamoeba keratitis was encountered. Patients were mainly from rural areas (61.5%) with male preponderance (61.5%). Corneal injury was seen in 78.5% cases of which 53% had injury with vegetative matter. Prior treatment was seen in 58% of which 5% had been treated by village healers. Nineteen patients (9.5%) also used some kind of traditional topical treatment. Increased incidence was seen from August to December. Five case of fugal ulcers lead to perforation of which three were due to Fusarium spp. whereas perforation was seen in only two cases of bacterial ulcers due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion Staphylococcus and Fusarium spp. were the most common etiological agents in our region. Predominant outdoor agricultural activity is the principal causative factor for corneal injury. Corneal ulcers complicated due to treatment by village healers are another important concern. The information regarding regional etiology will help empirical management as many eye clinics do not have microbiological facilities. PMID:22384294

Kumar, Anil; Pandya, Snehal; Kavathia, Ghanshyam; Antala, Sejul; Madan, Molly; Javdekar, Tanuja

2011-01-01

17

A unique trend of murder–suicide in the Jamnagar region of Gujarat, India (A retrospective study of 5 years)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jamnagar region, Gujarat state, enjoys a relatively low incidence of homicide in India. In the 5 year period from 2000 to 2004, 8 mothers committed 13 murders involving 3 male and 10 female victims and in every case it was followed by suicide of the assailant mothers. During the study the annual incidence of murder–suicide was about 1.8 cases. All

B. D. Gupta; O. Gambhir Singh

2008-01-01

18

Focus groups in rural Gujarat, India: a modified approach.  

PubMed

Focus groups have become increasingly popular in health research. However, their feasibility depends on the context of such research. Through discussion of focus groups they conducted in rural India, the authors argue that successful focus groups in rural contexts must be culturally sensitive, with a research team that goes beyond the mere technicalities of collecting data. A culturally competent focus group can result when the research team has geographic, political, economic, and sociocultural knowledge related to the research area and its population. With extensive local collaboration, foreign researchers are better able to conduct data collection respectfully. The authors provide recommendations for future studies toward increasing the cultural appropriateness of focus groups in areas such as rural India. PMID:12109727

Vissandjée, Bilkis; Abdool, Shelly N; Dupéré, Sophie

2002-07-01

19

Emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Amreli District of Gujarat State, India, June to July 2013.  

PubMed

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) etiology was detected in a family cluster (nine cases, including two deaths) in the village of Karyana, Amreli District, and also a fatal case in the village of Undra, Patan District, in Gujarat State, India. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were detected in domestic animals from Karyana and adjoining villages. Hyalomma ticks from households were found to be positive for CCHF viral RNA. This confirms the emergence of CCHFV in new areas and the wide spread of this disease in Gujarat State. PMID:24211848

Yadav, Pragya D; Gurav, Yogesh K; Mistry, Madhulika; Shete, Anita M; Sarkale, Prasad; Deoshatwar, Avinash R; Unadkat, Vishwa B; Kokate, Prasad; Patil, Deepak Y; Raval, Dinkar K; Mourya, Devendra T

2014-01-01

20

Y Chromosome Haplogroup Distribution in Indo-European Speaking Tribes of Gujarat, Western India  

PubMed Central

The present study was carried out in the Indo-European speaking tribal population groups of Southern Gujarat, India to investigate and reconstruct their paternal population structure and population histories. The role of language, ethnicity and geography in determining the observed pattern of Y haplogroup clustering in the study populations was also examined. A set of 48 bi-allelic markers on the non-recombining region of Y chromosome (NRY) were analysed in 284 males; representing nine Indo-European speaking tribal populations. The genetic structure of the populations revealed that none of these groups was overtly admixed or completely isolated. However, elevated haplogroup diversity and FST value point towards greater diversity and differentiation which suggests the possibility of early demographic expansion of the study groups. The phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 paternal lineages, of which six haplogroups: C5, H1a*, H2, J2, R1a1* and R2 accounted for a major portion of the Y chromosome diversity. The higher frequency of the six haplogroups and the pattern of clustering in the populations indicated overlapping of haplogroups with West and Central Asian populations. Other analyses undertaken on the population affiliations revealed that the Indo-European speaking populations along with the Dravidian speaking groups of southern India have an influence on the tribal groups of Gujarat. The vital role of geography in determining the distribution of Y lineages was also noticed. This implies that although language plays a vital role in determining the distribution of Y lineages, the present day linguistic affiliation of any population in India for reconstructing the demographic history of the country should be considered with caution. PMID:24614885

Aggarwal, Aastha; Mitra, Siuli; Italia, Yazdi M.; Saraswathy, Kallur N.; Chandrasekar, Adimoolam

2014-01-01

21

Communal violence in Gujarat, India: impact of sexual violence and responsibilities of the health care system.  

PubMed

Situations of chronic conflict across the globe make it imperative to draw attention to its gendered health consequences, particularly the violation of women's reproductive and sexual rights. Since early 2002 in Gujarat, western India, the worst kind of state-sponsored violence against Muslims has been perpetrated, which continues to this day. This paper describes the history of that violence and highlights the mental and physical consequences of sexual and gender-based violence and the issues that need to be addressed by the police, the health care system and civil society. It draws upon several reports, including from the International Initiative for Justice and the Medico Friend Circle, which documented the reproductive, sexual and mental health consequences of the violence in Gujarat, and the lacunae in the responses of the health system. The paper calls for non-discrimination to be demonstrated by health personnel in the context of conflict and social unrest. Their training should include conflict as a public health problem, their roles and responsibilities in prevention, treatment and documentation of this "disease", and focus on relevant medico-legal methodology and principles, the psychological impact of sexual assault on victims, and the legal significance of medical evidence in these cases. PMID:18513616

Khanna, Renu

2008-05-01

22

Source Characteristics of Aftershocks of the India Republic Day Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a preliminary analysis of aftershocks of the Mw=7.7 Republic Day (26 January) 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India, recorded on a network of portable digital event recorders (the MAEC/ISTAR network). During the 18 day deployment, this network recorded ground motion from nearly 2000 earthquakes; almost exclusively M<5 events within about 100 km of all stations. In this talk we will discuss the results of an analysis of approximately 400 earthquakes that were recorded at 6 or more sites. Because of its history of infrequent moderate-to-large earthquakes and its setting within a continental plate interior (albeit rather close to a rather diffuse continental boundary), studies of the Kachchh region may provide important insights for other high-consequence-but-low-occurrence-rate regions, such as the central US. A series of unfortunate circumstances has cast an obscuring veil of ignorance over the mainshock: we know of no strong-motion recordings of the mainshock, regional broad-band and seismic network data is notoriously difficult to obtain for scientific evaluation, evidence of surface rupture or deformation is fragmentary and complex or obscured by massive liquefaction, pre-existing geodetic networks are non-existent, and satellite-based radar interferometry studies have been hobbled by poor pre-earthquake images. Aftershock occurrence may provide critical evidence to determine which fault ruptured in January, 2001, and aftershock studies may provide important observational constraints on source processes and wave propagation in the region. We focus on trying to discern the mainshock fault plane, which appears to dip to the south, and whether the aftershocks are unusually deep (down to 35 km, which might help to explain the lack of obvious surface rupture). In addition to determining first-motion focal mechanisms we will examine whether stress drops of the aftershocks are, on the whole, high. We compare the seismic sources and regional propagation of Gujarati aftershocks with those of the central and eastern US.

Horton, S.; Bodin, P.; Johnston, A.; Withers, M.; Chiu, C.; Raphael, A.; Rabak, I.; Maio, Q.; Smalley, R.; Chiu, J.; Langston, C.

2001-05-01

23

Gujarat, India  

E-print Network

Abstract- Present study shows that in spite of availability of “biorational ” alternative in Vadodara for the control of mosquito species people are still dependent on conventional insecticides. In which maximum synthetic pyrethroid was used followed by organophosphate. Index Terms- Biorational alternative, Organophosphate,

Anita Singh; Suchi G

24

Source investigation of the tar balls deposited along the Gujarat coast, India, using chemical fingerprinting and transport modeling techniques.  

PubMed

Deposition of tar balls (TBs) along the south Gujarat coast, situated on the west coast of India (WCI), commonly occurs during the southwest monsoon season. Several offshore oil fields off the Mumbai-Gujarat coast, and refineries along the coast might be sources of oil spills/leakages and lead to the formation of TBs. To identify the sources, we collected 12 TB samples from the beaches of Gujarat (Tithal, Maroli, Umbergam, and Nargol) during 15-17 July 2012 as well as samples of crude oils, namely, Cairn, NIKO, MSC Chitra, and two at Bombay High (BH). These TBs were subject to the following multimarker approach for source identification: Diagnostic Ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentacyclic triterpanes, compound specific isotope analysis, Principle Component Analysis and numerical simulations (hydrodynamic model coupled with particle trajectories). The chemical fingerprint results reveal that the source of the TBs is BH crude oils, and the model results confirm that the source location is BH north oil fields. This is the first study of its kind in India to use fingerprinting and transport modeling techniques for source identification of TBs. PMID:25198506

Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Kumar, K Vinod; Sreenu, L; Samiksha, S V; Tai, Yunus; Sudheesh, K

2014-10-01

25

Dominance of cyanobacterial and cryptophytic assemblage correlated to CDOM at heavy metal contamination sites of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Industrial clusters of Gujarat, India, generate high quantity of effluents which are received by aquatic bodies such as estuary and coastal water. In the present study, microalgal assemblage, heavy metals, and physico-chemical variables were studied from different habitats. Principal component analysis revealed that biovolume of cyanobacterial and cryptophytic community positively correlated with the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As, Zn, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Co) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) under hypoxic environment. Green algae and diatoms dominated at comparatively lower nitrate concentration which was positively associated with Pb and Mn. PMID:25412889

Patidar, Shailesh Kumar; Chokshi, Kaumeel; George, Basil; Bhattacharya, Sourish; Mishra, Sandhya

2015-01-01

26

Promoting universal financial protection: evidence from the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) in Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background India’s health expenditure is met mostly by households through out-of-pocket (OOP) payments at the time of illness. To protect poor families, the Indian government launched a national health insurance scheme (RSBY). Those below the national poverty line (BPL) are eligible to join the RSBY. The premium is heavily subsidised by the government. The enrolled members receive a card and can avail of free hospitalisation care up to a maximum of US$ 600 per family per year. The hospitals are reimbursed by the insurance companies. The objective of our study was to analyse the extent to which RSBY contributes to universal health coverage by protecting families from making OOP payments. Methods A two-stage stratified sampling technique was used to identify eligible BPL families in Patan district of Gujarat, India. Initially, all 517 villages were listed and 78 were selected randomly. From each of these villages, 40 BPL households were randomly selected and a structured questionnaire was administered. Interviews and discussions were also conducted among key stakeholders. Results Our sample contained 2,920 households who had enrolled in the RSBY; most were from the poorer sections of society. The average hospital admission rate for the period 2010–2011 was 40/1,000 enrolled. Women, elderly and those belonging to the lowest caste had a higher hospitalisation rate. Forty four per cent of patients who had enrolled in RSBY and had used the RSBY card still faced OOP payments at the time of hospitalisation. The median OOP payment for the above patients was US$ 80 (interquartile range, $16–$200) and was similar in both government and private hospitals. Patients incurred OOP payments mainly because they were asked to purchase medicines and diagnostics, though the same were included in the benefit package. Conclusions While the RSBY has managed to include the poor under its umbrella, it has provided only partial financial coverage. Nearly 60% of insured and admitted patients made OOP payments. We plea for better monitoring of the scheme and speculate that it is possible to enhance effective financial coverage of the RSBY if the nodal agency at state level would strengthen its stewardship and oversight functions. PMID:23961956

2013-01-01

27

Prevalence of Risk Factors of Non-communicable Diseases in a District of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

The study attempted to identify the prevalence and distribution of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among urban and rural population in Gujarat, India. Using the WHO stepwise approach, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 1,805 urban and 1,684 rural people of 15-64 years age-group. Information on behavioural and physiological risk factors of non-communicable diseases was obtained through standardized protocol. High prevalence of smoking (22.8%) and the use of smokeless tobacco (43.4%) were observed among rural men compared to urban men (smoking-12.8% and smokeless tobacco consumption-23.1%). There was a significant difference in the average consumption of fruits and vegetables between urban (2.18±1.59 servings) and rural (1.78±1.48 servings) area. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be high among urban men and women in all age-groups compared to rural men and women. Prevalence of behavioural risk factors, overweight, and obesity increased with age in both the areas. Twenty-nine percent of the urban residents and 15.4% of the rural residents were found to have raised blood pressure, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01). For both men and women, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, hypertension, and lack of physical activities were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption, poor consumption of fruits and vegetables were more prevalent in the rural population. The results highlight the need for interventions and approaches for the prevention of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in rural and urban areas. PMID:23617208

Atul, Trivedi; Shikha, Jain

2013-01-01

28

Active tectonics of NE Gujarat (India) by morphometric and morphostructural studies of Vatrak River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape owes its shape to the combination of tectonic and climatic forces. Differential displacement of land by tectonic processes changes the elevation of earth's surface locally and in turn affects the rate of geomorphic processes which are altitude dependent. The tectonic and geomorphic processes are very tightly coupled and their results are intertwined. To extract the tectonic signal, the numerical modelling of the landscape of the Vatrak River basin, part of which falls in the northern part of the Gujarat Alluvial Plains of western India, has been undertaken applying morphometric and morphostructural approach. The study helped in understanding the role of tectonic elements in the evolution of the basin. Demarcation of geomorphic indicators of active tectonics (which include the analyses of asymmetry factor, valley floor ratio, gradient, basin elongation ratio, long profile and related parameters, pseudo hypsometric integral, drainage basin asymmetry), drainage pattern analysis and azimuthal distribution of stream channels have been performed for each drainage network and associated basin. The morphological field evidence of tectonics combined with the results of morphometric analysis has been used to obtain information about the orientation of tectonic elements and the possible reconstruction of their activity in recent times. The analyses indicate eastward tilting of the drainage systems, strong asymmetry in some reaches, pronounced elongation of certain tributaries, long profiles indicating base level lowering, poor organisation of the hydrographic network, and close alignment between lower order streams and active faults. All these analyses point towards the active tectonism in the area. Data obtained through the statistical analysis of preferred stream orientations confirm that the old tectonic directions markedly influenced the drainage network development of the older order streams, whereas, streams of lower order which preferentially follow the N-S and NE-SW directions suggest that these tectonic trends were active until very recent times.

Raj, Rachna

2012-05-01

29

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results

Vinay K. Sahay

2011-01-01

30

Draft Genome Sequence of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PK6, Isolated from the Saurashtra Region of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PK6, a potential petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading soil bacterium, was isolated from a site contaminated by a petroleum hydrocarbon spill from an automobile service station in Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PK6, which has genes encoding enzymes for potential and related metabolic pathways of the strain. PMID:24503980

Patel, P A; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Faldu, P R; Domadia, K K; Rawal, C M; Bhimani, H D; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

2014-01-01

31

Draft Genome Sequence of Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PK6, Isolated from the Saurashtra Region of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PK6, a potential petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading soil bacterium, was isolated from a site contaminated by a petroleum hydrocarbon spill from an automobile service station in Junagadh, Gujarat, India. Here, we provide the 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PK6, which has genes encoding enzymes for potential and related metabolic pathways of the strain. PMID:24503980

Patel, P. A.; Kothari, V. V.; Kothari, C. R.; Faldu, P. R.; Domadia, K. K.; Rawal, C. M.; Bhimani, H. D.; Parmar, N. R.; Nathani, N. M.; Koringa, P. G.; Joshi, C. G.

2014-01-01

32

Malignant transformation and natural history of oral leukoplakia in 57,518 industrial workers of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

In Gujarat, India, 6718 industrial workers, over 35 years of age, with oral leukoplakia (confirmed clinically and microscopically), were studied. After 2 years, 4762 (71%) of the individuals were re-examined. The buccal mucosa was the most common site of occurrence; 98.3% of these individuals had oral habits, with smoking alone or smoking in combination with "pan" or "supari" chewing accounting for 74.9% of the habit forms. Six individuals (0.13%) with oral leukoplakia developed oral carcinomas within 2 years. This incidence of malignant transformation was equivalent to 63/100,000 per year, which far exceeds that of new oral cancers expected even in high-risk populations. While 57.3% the leukoplakic lesions remained unchanged during a 2-year interval, 31.6% disappeared and 11% had an altered appearance. This study confirmed the precancerous nature of oral leukoplakia. PMID:1033027

Silverman, S; Bhargava, K; Smith, L W; Malaowalla, A M

1976-10-01

33

Health system capacity: maternal health policy implementation in the state of Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Introduction The Government of Gujarat has for the past couple of decades continuously initiated several interventions to improve access to care for pregnant and delivering women within the state. Data from the last District Family Heath survey in Gujarat in 2007–2008 show that 56.4% of women had institutional deliveries and 71.5% had at least one antenatal check-up, indicating that challenges remain in increasing use of and access to maternal health care services. Objective To explore the perceptions of high-level stakeholders on the process of implementing maternal health interventions in Gujarat. Method Using the policy triangle framework developed by Walt and Gilson, the process of implementation was approached using in-depth interviews and qualitative content analysis. Result Based on the analysis, three themes were developed: lack of continuity; the complexity of coordination; and lack of confidence and underutilization of the monitoring system. The findings suggest that decisions made and actions advocated and taken are more dependent on individual actors than on sustainable structures. The findings also indicate that the context in which interventions are implemented is challenged in terms of weak coordination and monitoring systems that are not used to evaluate and develop interventions on maternal health. Conclusions The implementation of interventions on maternal health is dependent on the capacity of the health system to implement evidence-based policies. The capacity of the health system in Gujarat to facilitate implementation of maternal health interventions needs to be improved, both in terms of the role of actors and in terms of structures and processes. PMID:23522352

Sanneving, Linda; Kulane, Asli; Iyer, Aditi; Ahgren, Bengt

2013-01-01

34

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous\\u000a shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal\\u000a maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite\\u000a mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results

Vinay K. Sahay

2011-01-01

35

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous\\u000a shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal\\u000a maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite\\u000a mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results

Vinay K. Sahay

36

Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

37

Improving quality of life with new menstrual hygiene practices among adolescent tribal girls in rural Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The Government of India has started a new scheme aimed at offering sanitary pads at a subsidized rate to adolescent girls in rural areas. This paper addresses menstrual health and hygiene practices among adolescent girls in a rural, tribal region of South Gujarat, India, and their experiences using old cloths, a new soft cloth (falalin) and sanitary pads. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in a community-based study over six months, with a pre-and post- design, among 164 adolescent girls from eight villages. Questions covered knowledge of menstruation, menstrual practices, quality of life, experience and satisfaction with the different cloths/pads and symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Knowledge regarding changes of puberty, source of menstrual blood and route of urine and menstrual flow was low. At baseline 90% of girls were using old cloths. At the end of the study, 68% of adolescent girls said their first choice was falalin cloths, while 32% said it was sanitary pads. None of them preferred old cloths. The introduction of falalin cloths improved quality of life significantly (p<0.000) and to a lesser extent also sanitary pads. No significant reduction was observed in self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infections. Falalin cloths were culturally more acceptable as they were readily available, easy to use and cheaper than sanitary pads. PMID:23684203

Shah, Shobha P; Nair, Rajesh; Shah, Pankaj P; Modi, Dhiren K; Desai, Shrey A; Desai, Lata

2013-05-01

38

Capacity of frontline ICDS functionaries to support caregivers on infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Improved infant and young child feeding practices have the potential to improve child growth and development outcomes in India. Anganwadi Workers, the frontline government functionaries of the national nutrition supplementation programme in India, play a vital role in promoting infant and young child feeding practices in the community. The present study assessed the Anganwadi Workers' knowledge of infant and young child feeding practices, and their ability to counsel and influence caregivers regarding these practices. Eighty Anganwadi Workers from four districts of Gujarat participated in assessment centres designed to evaluate a range of competencies considered necessary for the successful promotion of infant and young child feeding practices. The results of the evaluation showed the Anganwadi Workers possessing more knowledge about infant and young child feeding practices like initiation of breastfeeding, pre-lacteal feeding and colostrum, age of introduction of complementary foods, portion size and feeding frequency than about domains which appear to have a direct bearing on practices. A huge contrast existed between the Anganwadi Workers' knowledge and their ability to apply this in formal counselling sessions with caregivers. Inability to empathetically engage with caregivers, disregard for taking the feeding history of children, poor active listening skills and inability to provide need-based advice were pervasive during counselling. In conclusion, to ensure enhanced interaction between the Anganwadi Workers and caregivers on infant and young child feeding practices, a paradigm shift in training is required, making communication processes and counselling skills central to the training. PMID:25384724

Chaturvedi, Anuraag; Nakkeeran, N; Doshi, Minal; Patel, Ruchi; Bhagwat, Sadhana

2014-11-01

39

Response of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to long-term industrial effluent-polluted soils, Gujarat, Western India.  

PubMed

Soil nitrifiers have been showing an important role in assessing environmental pollution as sensitive biomarkers. In this study, the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were investigated in long-term industrial waste effluent (IWE) polluted soils. Three different IWE polluted soils characterized as uncontaminated (R1), moderately contaminated (R2), and highly contaminated (R3) were collected in triplicate along Mahi River basin, Gujarat, Western India. Quantitative numbers of ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes as well as 16S rRNA genes indicated apparent deleterious effect of IWE on abundance of soil AOA, AOB, bacteria, and archaeal populations. Relatively, AOB was more abundant than AOA in the highly contaminated soil R3, while predominance of AOA was noticed in uncontaminated (R1) and moderately contaminated (R2) soils. Soil potential nitrification rate (PNR) significantly (P?

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Shen, Ju-Pei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Archana, Gattupalli; He, Ji-Zheng

2014-07-01

40

The palaeodelta of the ``Proto'' Vatrak and ``Proto'' Mahi rivers of northeastern Gujarat, India: A remote sensing interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed remote sensing studies carried out in northeastern Gujarat, India, suggest that there has been a major change in the drainage system as evidenced by the presence of a large palaeo-delta system. The area is drained by two major rivers, the Mahi and Vatrak originating from the Aravalli Hills to the east, which discharge into the Gulf of Cambay, in the Indian Ocean. Major lineaments, palaeodrainage patterns and palaeodeltas of the Vatrak and Mahi rivers were delineated. These were large rivers in the past with a high discharge and floodplains which were 5-10 km wide. Most of the palaeodrainage follows the NE-SW Precambrian lineaments/ faults indicating their structural control. Reactivation of these lineaments and differential uplift of the Aravalli Hills resulted in increased transportation of the eroded sediments and deposition of more than 5 km thick sediments into the Tarapur block of the Cambay Basin. The Gulf of Cambay extended up to the Limbasi-Sojitra-Petlad area during the Quaternary. There are implications for petroleum exploration in the sense that the results when integrated with subsurface geological and geophysical data help to delineate the reservoir facies suitable for petroleum exploration along the eastern margin of the Tarapur block.

Agarwal, R. P.; Dotiwala, Sucheta; Mitra, D. S.; Bhoj, R.

1996-02-01

41

The deadliest stable continental region earthquake occurred near Bhuj on 26 January 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large destructive earthquake occurred on 26 January 2001 in the region of Kutch, Gujarat, in Western India, with magnitude Mw 7.7. The earthquake caused very heavy damage and a large number of casualties with more than 20,000 deaths. A preliminary study of ground deformation, damage pattern and aftershock distribution is presented.

B. K. Rastogi; H. K. Gupta; Prantik Mandal

2001-01-01

42

Strong positive growth responses to salinity by Ceriops tagal, a commonly occurring mangrove of the Gujarat coast of India  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Mangroves of Western Gujarat (India) are subject to die-back. Salinity intolerance is one possible cause, especially in young plants. We therefore quantified the extent to which young plants of one widely occurring mangrove species (Ceriops tagal) tolerate high salt in terms of establishment, growth, water status, proline content and mineral accumulation. Methodology In a greenhouse study, juvenile plants were established from mature propagules over 40 days in soil containing added NaCl, raising soil water salinity to 0.2, 2.5, 5.1, 7.7, 10.3, 12.6, 15.4, 17.9, 20.5 and 23.0 ppt (w/v). Growth and physiological characteristics were monitored over the subsequent 6 months. Principal results Despite a negative relationship between the percentage of young plant establishment and salt concentration (50 % loss at 22.3 ppt), the remaining plants proved highly tolerant. Growth, in dry weight, was significantly promoted by low salinity, which is optimal at 12.6 ppt. Water content, leaf expansion and dry matter accumulation in tissues followed a similar optimum curve with leaf area being doubled at 12.6 ppt NaCl. Salinity >12.6 and <23 ppt inhibited plant growth, but never to below control levels. Root:shoot dry weight ratios were slightly reduced by salinity (maximum 19 %), but the water potential of roots, leaves and stems became more negative as salinity increases while proline increases in all tissues. The concentration of Na increased, whereas concentrations of K, Ca, N and P decreased and that of Mg remained stable. Conclusions Ceriops tagal has a remarkably high degree of salinity tolerance, and shows an optimal growth when soil water salinity is 12.6 ppt. Salinity tolerance is linked to an adaptive regulation of hydration and ionic content. The cause of localized die-back along the coastal region of Gujarat is thus unlikely to be a primary outcome of salinity stress although amendments with Ca and K, and perhaps proline, may help protect against extreme salinity. PMID:22476069

Patel, Neha T.; Gupta, Ajit; Pandey, Amar Nath

2010-01-01

43

Earthquake precursory studies in India: Scenario and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are the worst natural calamities that strike without any notice and cause immediate loss of life and property. Internationally, serious and scientifically acceptable earthquake prediction studies started in 1970s and short term prediction of the Heicheng earthquake of February 4, 1975 in China is a land mark. In India, a successful medium term prediction of August 6, 1988 earthquake, (M 7.5) in northeast Indian region encouraged to intensify such studies in the country. These predictions were based mainly on seismological precursors. Initially, the precursory studies were taken in isolated manner, but after validation of specific geophysical parameters, efforts were made to adopt an integrated approach involving collection, analysis and interpretation of various precursory observations in a comprehensive and coordinated manner. Accordingly, a few Multi-parametric Geophysical Observatories (MPGOs) have been established at the selected locations in seismically active areas in the country. This approach led to successful short term prediction of some moderate earthquakes (M ? 4) in Koyna region (famous for Reservoir Triggered Seismicity) in western India. Simultaneously, efforts have been made to generate long term multi-parametric observations from these observatories, as a basic scientific input required for future earthquake prediction related studies. The real-time analysis of these data sets would help to understand the earthquake generation process and attaining the predictive capabilities by developing models for short term earthquake forecasting. To facilitate direct observations and test the hypothesis of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) as well as to understand the earthquake generation processes, it is planned to undertake deep borehole (6-8 km) investigations in Koyna region of western India. The paper highlights the efforts made so far in India in the area of earthquake precursory studies as well as the future road map.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2012-08-01

44

Usage of EMBRACE(TM) in Gujarat, India: Survey of Paediatricians.  

PubMed

Aim. EMBRACE(TM) is an innovative, low cost infant warmer for use in neonates. It contains phase change material, which stays at constant temperature for 6 hours. We surveyed paediatricians using EMBRACE(TM) regarding benefits, risks, and setup in which it was used in Gujarat. Methods. Questionnaire was administered telephonically to 52 out of 53 paediatricians. Results. EMBRACE(TM) was used for an average of 8.27 (range of 3-18, SD = 3.84) months by paediatricians. All used it for thermoregulation during transfers, for average (SD) duration of 42 (0.64)?m per transfer, 62.7% used it at mother's side for average (SD) 11.06 (7.89)?h per day, and 3.9% prescribed it at home. It was used in low birth weight neonates only by 56.9% while 43.1% used it for all neonates. While hyperthermia was not reported, 5.9% felt that EMBRACE(TM) did not prevent hypothermia. About 54.9% felt that they could not monitor the newborn during EMBRACE(TM) use. Of paediatricians who practiced kangaroo mother care (KMC), 7.7% have limited/stopped/decreased the practice of KMC and substituted it with EMBRACE(TM). Conclusions. EMBRACE(TM) was acceptable to most but concerns related to monitoring neonates and disinfection remained. Most paediatricians felt that it did not hamper KMC practice. PMID:25530887

Nimbalkar, Somashekhar; Patel, Harshil; Dongara, Ashish; Patel, Dipen V; Bansal, Satvik

2014-01-01

45

Draft Genome Sequence of Textile Azo Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PFK10, Isolated from the Common Effluent Treatment Plant of the Ankleshwar Industrial Area of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PFK10, isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of the Ankleshwar industrial area of Gujarat, India. The 6.04-Mb draft genome sequence of strain PFK10 provides information about the genes encoding enzymes that enable the strain to decolorize and degrade textile azo dye. PMID:24503984

Faldu, P R; Kothari, V V; Kothari, C R; Rawal, C M; Domadia, K K; Patel, P A; Bhimani, H D; Raval, V H; Parmar, N R; Nathani, N M; Koringa, P G; Joshi, C G; Kothari, R K

2014-01-01

46

Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site Response, Moho reflections and a Triggered Earthquake  

E-print Network

1 Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site Response, Moho reflections and a Triggered Earthquake Susan E. Hough(1), Roger Bilham(2), Nicolas Ambraseys(3), and Nicole distributions for the Mw8.0 Shillong Plateau earthquake of 1897 and the Mw7.8 Kangra earthquake of 1905

Bilham, Roger

47

Organizing for rural energy development: Improved cookstoves, local organizations, and the state in Gujarat, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proponents of the sustainable development of Third World States frequently urge the integration of local non-government organizations (NGOs) into State-sponsored, centrally administered programs of rural-resource development. This study draws on literatures on energy use, biomass technologies, and organization theory, and on interviews, archival research, and organizational surveys of eight Gujarati NGOs conducted in India in 1986 and 1987. It concludes

Maniates

1990-01-01

48

Carbonate-Dissolving Bacteria from ‘Miliolite’, a Bioclastic Limestone, from Gopnath, Gujarat, Western India  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation, the abundance and molecular phylogeny of part of the culturable bacterial population involved in the dissolution of “miliolite”, a bioclastic limestone, from Gopnath, India, was studied. Carbonate-dissolving bacteria were isolated, enumerated and screened for their ability to dissolve miliolite. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) indicated 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to be distributed in 5 different clades at a similarity coefficient of 0.85. Then, 16S rRNA sequence analysis helped to decipher that the majority of carbonate-dissolving bacteria were affiliated to phyla Firmicutes (Families Bacillaceae and Staphylococcaceae) and Actinobacteria (Family Promicromonosporaceae) indicating their role in miliolite weathering. PMID:22446314

Subrahmanyam, Gangavarapu; Vaghela, Ravi; Bhatt, Nilesh Pinakinprasad; Archana, Gattupalli

2012-01-01

49

Effect of Chiranjeevi Yojana on institutional deliveries and neonatal and maternal outcomes in Gujarat, India: a difference-in-differences analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the effect of the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme, a public–private partnership to improve maternal and neonatal health in Gujarat, India. Methods A household survey (n?=?5597 households) was conducted in Gujarat to collect retrospective data on births within the preceding 5 years. In an observational study using a difference-in-differences design, the relationship between the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme and the probability of delivery in health-care institutions, the probability of obstetric complications and mean household expenditure for deliveries was subsequently examined. In multivariate regressions, individual and household characteristics as well as district and year fixed effects were controlled for. Data from the most recent District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) wave conducted in Gujarat (n?=?6484 households) were used in parallel analyses. Findings Between 2005 and 2010, the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme was not associated with a statistically significant change in the probability of institutional delivery (2.42 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, CI: ?5.90 to 10.74) or of birth-related complications (6.16 percentage points; 95% CI: ?2.63 to 14.95). Estimates using DLHS-3 data were similar. Analyses of household expenditures indicated that mean household expenditure for private-sector deliveries had either not fallen or had fallen very little under the Chiranjeevi Yojana programme. Conclusion The Chiranjeevi Yojana programme appears to have had no significant impact on institutional delivery rates or maternal health outcomes. The absence of estimated reductions in household spending for private-sector deliveries deserves further study. PMID:24700978

Bauhoff, Sebastian; La Forgia, Gerard; Babiarz, Kimberly Singer; Singh, Kultar; Miller, Grant

2014-01-01

50

Earthquake risk mitigation projects in central asia and india  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the fall of 2002, GeoHazards International (GHI), a California-based nonprofit organization, launched two 3-year projects, each funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, to improve the earthquake risk management of 23 cities in Central Asia and India. The objectives of these projects are to: * Assess the earthquake risk of each city, * Identify the most effective risk mitigation options for each city, * Raise awareness of that risk and those mitigation options, and * Initiate mitigation activities in some of these cities. A critical characteristic of these projects is that leaders of each local community will be deeply involved in realizing all four objectives. GHI will work with, in addition to local authorities, national government, academic and non-governmental organizations. In India, GHI’s partners are the Disaster Management Planning Hyogo Office, United Nations Centre for Regional Development (UNCRD) of Kobe, Japan, and the Sustainable Environment and Ecological Development Society (SEEDS), of Delhi, India. In India, we will work in 20 cities that were chosen, in a February 1, 2002 workshop (sponsored by Munich Reinsurance Company) in Delhi; the cities were selected by Indian earthquake professionals on the basis of the cities’ population, hazard, and economic, cultural and political significance. In Central Asia, we will focus on Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan; and Almaty, Kazakstan. GHI and its partners are looking for other organizations that would like to collaborate on these projects.

Hausler, E.; Petal, M.; Tobin, T.; Tucker, B.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, A.; Shaw, R.

2003-04-01

51

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 447, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2004, pp. 201-222 WHITHER PERFORMANCE-BASED ENGINEERING IN INDIA?  

E-print Network

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 447, Vol. 41, No. 1, March 2004, pp. 201 Institute of Technology Roorkee Roorkee-247667 ABSTRACT The Kutch Earthquake of January 26, 2001 in Gujarat this earthquake, doubts arose about our professional practices, building by-laws, construction materials, building

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

52

Rupture mechanism of the 1993 Killari earthquake, India: constraints from aftershocks and static stress change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Killari earthquake of September 29, 1993 (Mw=6.2) in peninsular India triggered several aftershocks that were recorded by a network of 21 stations. We computed the change in regional static stress caused by coseismic slip on the earthquake rupture and correlated it with the aftershocks with a view to constrain some of the rupture parameters of this earthquake. We evaluated

V. K. Gahalaut; Kalpna; P. S. Raju

2003-01-01

53

Groundwater Depletion, Irreversible Damages and the Energy-Food-Water Nexus: A Case Study from Gujarat, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern regions of the Indian state of Gujarat are experiencing perhaps the most dramatic instances of groundwater depletion in the country. Due to unsustainable water use patterns in agriculture, which is central to the state’s economy, there is serious concern that the region may soon face significant water problems with devastating consequences. We show that water tables have already declined over 80 meters in the last 30 years, and future declines could eventually cause irreversible salinization. We argue that the recent stabilization of water tables should not reduce public alarm, as it is likely related to recent abundant rainfall, a part of a multi-decadal cycle. Livelihoods are also negatively affected; we estimate that many farmers are no longer able to generate net incomes that exceed the cost of subsidized electricity supplied to them. In other words, the net economic impact of their farming is negative to the state. Solving the water-use problem will ultimately require a range of solutions, including a restructuring of the supply chain, a shift in cropping patterns, and the creation of incentives for capital investments in devices that improve water-use efficiency. A first step in this direction could be the restructuring of the subsidy program to incorporate an alternate mechanism that compensates farmers for saving energy and water. Such a system would improve the efficiency of water use, give farmers the potential to increase their incomes, and be revenue-neutral for the state. While the situation in Gujarat is more pressing than in other parts of the country, adopting a change such as this also creates an opportunity to provide the state with a first-mover advantage in implementing the types of transformations that will eventually be needed elsewhere.

Narula, K. K.; Modi, V.; Lall, U.; Fishman, R.; Siegfried, T. U.

2009-12-01

54

Comparative studies on the extraction of metagenomic DNA from the saline habitats of Coastal Gujarat and Sambhar Lake, Rajasthan (India) in prospect of molecular diversity and search for novel biocatalysts.  

PubMed

Extraction of total DNA from a given habitat assumes significance in metagenomics, due to the requirement of inhibitor free and high quality metagenome in good quantity for applications in molecular biology. DNA extraction and its quality assessment for PCR applications from saline soils of Coastal Gujarat and Sambhar Soda Lake, Rajasthan in India is described in a comparative manner. The mechanical and soft lysis methods were simple and efficient for rapid isolation of PCR amplifiable total genomic DNA. The results are significant as only few extreme environments, particularly saline habitats are explored for their metagenomic potential. PMID:20600268

Siddhapura, P K; Vanparia, S; Purohit, M K; Singh, S P

2010-10-01

55

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), T max and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal industry for coal mine planning, development and exploitation, because of the predictive ability to infer changes in stratigraphy and coal quality.

Sahay, Vinay K.

2011-03-01

56

The hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic setting and depositional palaeoenvironment of carbonaceous shale and lignite successions of Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present paper is to provide geochemical and palynological data to characterize lignites and carbonaceous shales from Panandhro, northwestern Kutch Basin, Gujarat, Western India, in terms of their hydrocarbon potential, thermal maturity, sequence stratigraphic settings and depositional palaeoenvironment. The samples, collected in Panandhro lignite mine, belong to Naredi Formation of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene age. The geochemical results are based on proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, X-ray diffraction and Rock-Eval py-rolysis analyses, whereas palynological data include palynofossil composition and thermal alteration index (TAI). The TOC, hydrogen index (HI), cracked hydrocarbon (S2), bitumen index (BI), quality index (QI), and the total genetic potential (S1+S2) values indicate that the studied lignites and carbonaceous shales have good source rock potential. The organic matter is predominantly of type II and type II/III kerogen, which has potential to generate oil as well as gas. Thermal maturity determined from thermal alteration index (TAI), Tmax and production index (PI) indicates that the organic matter is immature, and in the diagenesis stage of organic matter transformation. The deposition of the studied carbonaceous shales and lignites took place in palaeoenvironments varying from brackish mangrove to freshwater swamp. This study indicates that the proportion of ferns, palms, volatile matter content, S/C, H/C ratios, as well as the presence of siderite and quartz can be used as an indicator of accommodation trends in the coal depositional system. The Panandhro carbonaceous shales and lignites were deposited during the lowstand systems tract with many cycles of small magnitude trangressive-regressive phases. Thus, the geochemistry and ecological palynology are useful not only for the investigation of coal quality and origin, but also to infer accommodation space settings of the mire. This can be gainfully utilized in the coal industry for coal mine planning, development and exploitation, because of the predictive ability to infer changes in stratigraphy and coal quality.

Sahay, Vinay

2011-03-01

57

Damage forecast for masonry infilled reinforced concrete framed buildings subjected to earthquakes in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is based on analytical investigation of seismic performance and potential seismic damage of typical masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R\\/C) framed buildings due to earthquakes in India, using rational nonlinear modelling and displacement-based analysis techniques. The study focuses on the structural configurations of masonry infilled frames that are commonly constructed in urban India and have been observed to

Arshad K. Hashmi; Alok Madan

2008-01-01

58

The June 2000 Mw 7.9 earthquakes south of Sumatra: Deformation in the IndiaAustralia Plate  

E-print Network

earthquake. The 18 June earthquake in the Wharton Basin is one of the largest shallow strike-slip faulting earthquakes ever recorded. A small second subevent with reverse slip is required to fit the body wavesThe June 2000 Mw 7.9 earthquakes south of Sumatra: Deformation in the India­Australia Plate Rachel

Abercrombie, Rachel E.

59

Short-term earthquake forecasting may be feasible at Koyna, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reservoir triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment of Shivaji Sagar Lake created by Koyna Dam in 1962 near the west coast of India. Over the past 38 years, 15 earthquakes of magnitude ?5, including the biggest reservoir triggered earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967, and several hundred thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred. We believe it is an ideal site for monitoring earthquake precursors, which may lead to forecasts of M˜5 earthquakes with adequate accuracy. This optimism is based on the fact that here earthquakes occur in a small area of 30 km by 15 km and there are no other seismically active regions in the near vicinity. The epicentral region is accessible for all kinds of experiments and observations, and certain characters of Koyna seismicity are quite well understood.

Gupta, Harsh K.

2001-08-01

60

A new insight into crustal heterogeneity beneath the 2001 Bhuj earthquake region of Northwest India and its implications for rupture initiations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic characteristics of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6) has been examined from the proxy indicators, relative size distribution (3D b-value mapping) and seismic tomography using a new data set to understand the role of crustal heterogeneities in rupture initiations of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake of the Gujarat (India), one of the disastrous Indian earthquakes of the new millennium. The aftershocks sequence recorded by 22 seismograph stations of Gujarat Seismic Network (GSNet) during the period from 2006 to 2009, encompassing approximately 80 km × 70 km rupture area had revealed clustering of aftershocks at depth of 5-35 km, which is seismogenic layer responsible for the occurrence of continued aftershocks activity in the study region. The 3D b-value mapping estimated from a total of 3850 precisely located aftershocks with magnitude of completeness Mc ? 2.7 shows that a high b-value region is sandwiched within the main shock hypocenter at the depth of 20-25 km and low b-value region above and below of the 2001 Bhuj main shock hypocenter. Estimates of 3-D seismic velocity (Vp; Vs) and Poisson's ratio (?) structure beneath the region demonstrated a very close correspondence with the b-value mapping that supports the similar physicochemical processes of retaining fluids within the fractured rock matrix beneath the 2001 Bhuj mainshock hypocenter. The overall b-value is estimated close to 1.0 which reveals that seismogenesis is related to crustal heterogeneity, which, in turn also supported by low-Vs and high-? structures. The high b-value and high-? anomaly at the depth of 20-25 km indicate the presence of highly fractured heterogeneous rock matrix with fluid intrusions into it at deeper depth beneath the main shock hypocenter region. Low b-value and high-Vp in the region is observed towards the north-east and north-west of the main shock that might be an indication of the existence of relatively competent rock masses with negligible volume of cracks that may have contained over-pressurized fluids without molten rocks.

Singh, A. P.; Mishra, O. P.; Yadav, R. B. S.; Kumar, Dinesh

2012-04-01

61

Reduction of catastrophic health care expenditures by a community-based health insurance scheme in Gujarat, India: current experiences and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the Self Employed Women's Association's Medical Insurance Fund in Gujarat in terms of insurance coverage according to income groups, protection of claimants from costs of hospitalization, time between discharge and reimbursement, and frequency of use. Methods One thousand nine hundred and thirty claims submitted over six years were analysed. Findings Two hundred and fifteen (11%) of 1927

Michael Kent Ranson

2002-01-01

62

The State-Led Large Scale Public Private Partnership ‘Chiranjeevi Program’ to Increase Access to Institutional Delivery among Poor Women in Gujarat, India: How Has It Done? What Can We Learn?  

PubMed Central

Background Many low-middle income countries have focused on improving access to and quality of obstetric care, as part of promoting a facility based intra-partum care strategy to reduce maternal mortality. The state of Gujarat in India, implements a facility based intra-partum care program through its large for-profit private obstetric sector, under a state-led public-private-partnership, the Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY), under which the state pays accredited private obstetricians to perform deliveries for poor/tribal women. We examine CY performance, its contribution to overall trends in institutional deliveries in Gujarat over the last decade and its effect on private and public sector deliveries there. Methods District level institutional delivery data (public, private, CY), national surveys, poverty estimates, census data were used. Institutional delivery trends in Gujarat 2000–2010 are presented; including contributions of different sectors and CY. Piece-wise regression was used to study the influence of the CY program on public and private sector institutional delivery. Results Institutional delivery rose from 40.7% (2001) to 89.3% (2010), driven by sharp increases in private sector deliveries. Public sector and CY contributed 25–29% and 13–16% respectively of all deliveries each year. In 2007, 860 of 2000 private obstetricians participated in CY. Since 2007, >600,000 CY deliveries occurred i.e. one-third of births in the target population. Caesareans under CY were 6%, higher than the 2% reported among poor women by the DLHS survey just before CY. CY did not influence the already rising proportion of private sector deliveries in Gujarat. Conclusion This paper reports a state-led, fully state-funded, large-scale public-private partnership to improve poor women’s access to institutional delivery - there have been >600,000 beneficiaries. While caesarean proportions are higher under CY than before, it is uncertain if all beneficiaries who require sections receive these. Other issues to explore include quality of care, provider attrition and the relatively low coverage. PMID:24787692

De Costa, Ayesha; Vora, Kranti S.; Ryan, Kayleigh; Sankara Raman, Parvathy; Santacatterina, Michele; Mavalankar, Dileep

2014-01-01

63

New discovery of coral rubbings in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, Western India — GIS based evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of Kachchh in western India, with its arid climate, large semi-diurnal tidal amplitudes, negative water balance and near-pristine water quality, is being extensively developed as oil importing bases for economic reasons in connection with its proximity to the oil exporting countries of the Middle East. Besides, new coral rubbings were sighted in Jakhau, north-western Gulf of Kachchh. Dredging in Mandvi of the north Gulf covering 3.5 km2 revealed a similar assortment of live corals with their associated flora and fauna. These pioneering observations demonstrate that there exist live corals of young polyps-colony of Favia sp. belonging to the family Faviidae in the north-western Gulf of Kachchh. The environmental parameters there were carefully recorded as: surface water temperature (°C) varying from 29 to 31.8, salinity (ppt), pH, dissolved oxygen (mgL-1) and total suspended solids (mgL-1) in the ranges of 37-43.5, 7.7-8.45, 5.4-6.8 and 11-31, respectively.

Sesh Serebiah, J.; Rajkumar, M.; Sun, Jun; Venmathi Maran, B. A.; Saravanakumar, A.; Thivakaran, G. A.

2011-06-01

64

The Mw 7.7 India Republic Day Earthquake: A Global Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are nine continent-scale SCRs (stable continental regions) in the world: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, China, Europe, India and North and South America. The smallest is the India shield and craton, which contains only about 3 percent of the total SCR crust or 2 percent of all continental crust. Similar to other continental SCRs, the Indian Precambrian craton contains a number of Mesozoic and younger failed continental rifts, of which the Kutch rift, the host structure of the Republic Day earthquake, is one. Such failed rifts are, worldwide, preferential sites of the rare SCR earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. The Kutch rift is close to the active western plate boundary of India but separated from it by the 200-km-wide Indus sedimentary basin whose deep, undeformed sediments overlie Indian cratonic crust. The India craton is contracting north to south at a strain rate of -1.8x10e-9/yr (Bilham and Gaur, 2000). The cumulative seismic moment release rate (pre-26 Jan 01) was estimated by Johnston (1994) at 1.25x10e25 dyn-cm/yr, resulting in Kostrov seismic strain release of 2.5x10e-10/yr. The Republic Day earthquake released the equivalent of approximately 320 years of accumulated elastic strain in the entire India craton. The India seismic strain rate is the highest of any SCR except North America and would exceed it if the Republic Day earthquake strain release were included or if the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811-12 in the Central U.S. were excluded. Finally the Republic Day earthquake shares a number of important source scaling characteristics with other SCR events, but extends our data for them to much higher magnitude that previously could be reached only by extrapolation.

Johnston, A. C.

2001-05-01

65

Earthquake Loss Estimation for India Based on Macroeconomic Indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Preliminary results from the 2001 India census indicate that the population is now 1,027,015,247 [1], making India the second most populous country in the world [2]. The United Nations projects that by the year 2050, India will be the most populated country in the world with over 1.5\\u000a billion people [2]. India has also experienced some of the most devastating

Paula K. Dunbar; Roger G. Bilham; Melinda J. Laituri

66

Preliminary Observations on the Origin and Effects of the January 26, 2001 Republic Day Earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The January 26, 2001 Mw 7.6 Republic Day earthquake occurred along a south-dipping reverse fault on the Kachchh peninsula of northwestern India. The principal faults in the region are the east-trending Katrol Hills fault, Katchchh Mainland fault, Island Belt fault and the Allah Bund fault, which was the source of the ~M8 1819 Kathchh earthquake. Aerial and field reconnaissance of

J. V. Hengesh; W. R. Lettis

2001-01-01

67

Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November

A. K. Mohapatra; W. K. Mohanty; Earthquake Seismology

2010-01-01

68

Helium\\/radon precursory signals of Chamoli Earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bhagirthi and Alaknanda valleys of Garhwal Himalaya, were rocked, respectively, by two major earthquakes: the Uttarkashi earthquake of magnitude mb=6.5, Ms=7.0 on October 20, 1991 and the Chamoli earthquake of mb=6.8, Ms=6.5 on March 29, 1999, during this decade. Both these seismic events are associated with ongoing deformation along the main central thrust of the Himalayas. Helium and radon

H. S Virk; V Walia

2001-01-01

69

SRTM Anaglyph: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 were killed and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this anaglyph, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a medium gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears very dark. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation data from the SRTM and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center,Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 13.5 x 20.6 kilometers ( 8.4 x 12.8 miles) Location: 23.3 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Band 3 Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

2001-01-01

70

SRTM Stereo Pair: Bhuj, India, Two Weeks After earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 26, 2001, the city of Bhuj suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. About 20,000 people were killed, and more than one million homes were damaged or destroyed. Shortly after the quake, geologists conducted field investigations to inventory and analyze the natural effects of the event. Stereoscopic views, similar to this image, aided the geologists in locating landforms indicative of long-term (and possibly ongoing) deformation. Soon, elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) will be used in the study of a wide variety of natural hazards worldwide.

In this image, the city of Bhuj appears as a gray area at the scene center, and the city airport is toward the north (top). Vegetation appears green. Rugged but low relief hills of previously folded and faulted bedrock appear south (bottom) and northwest (upper-left) of the city.

This stereoscopic image was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over a preliminary SRTM elevation model. Two differing perspectives were then calculated, one for each eye. They can be seen in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing) or by downloading and printing the image pair and viewing them with a stereoscope. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.

Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to the SRTM project by the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 13.5 x 20.6 kilometers ( 8.4 x 12.8 miles) Location: 23.3 deg. North lat., 69.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Landsat Bands 1, 2+4, 3 as blue, green, red, respectively Date Acquired: February 2000 (SRTM), February 9, 2001 (Landsat)

2001-01-01

71

Occupational Choice and Multiple Job Holding in Rural Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the occupational choice behaviour of individuals in rural Gujarat in Western India. It examines the economic rationale for holding single or multiple jobs and undertaking self or wage employment. The analysis suggests that persons who undertake multiple jobs are younger, less educated, are faced with lower wage rates and live further away from towns. The influence of

Jeemol Unni

1996-01-01

72

Radon and Helium as productive tools for earthquake precursory and fault delineation studies in NW Himalayas, India: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the role of radon and helium as a productive tool for fault delineation and earthquake precursory studies, continuous measurements are made in the soil-gas and groundwater in NW Himalayas, India. The area under study is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zones IV and V of the Seismic Map of India. The NW Himalayas are tectonically

B. Bajwa; S. Mahajan; V. Walia; A. Kumar; S. Singh; T. F. Yang

2009-01-01

73

Estimation of source parameters of Chamoli Earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devastating earthquake (mb = 6.6) at Chamoli, Garhwal Himalaya, which occurred in the morning hours on 29th March 1999,\\u000a was recorded on Delhi Strong Motion Accelerograph (DSMA) Network operated by the Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee.\\u000a In this paper the source parameters of this event calculated from the Strong Motion Data are presented. The seismic moment\\u000a for this event

Y. Pandey; R. Dharmaraju; P. K. S. Chauhan

2001-01-01

74

Probing reservoir-triggered earthquakes in Koyna, India, through scientific deep drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report here the salient features of the recently concluded International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in Koyna, India. This workshop was a sequel to the earlier held ICDP workshop in Hyderabad and Koyna in 2011. A total of 49 experts (37 from India and 12 from 8 other countries) spent 3 days reviewing the work carried out during the last 3 years based on the recommendations of the 2011 workshop and suggesting the future course of action, including detailed planning for a full deep drilling proposal in Koyna, India. It was unanimously concluded that Koyna is one of the best sites anywhere in the world to investigate genesis of triggered earthquakes from near-field observations. A broad framework of the activities for the next phase leading to deep drilling has been worked out.

Gupta, H.; Nayak, S.; Ellsworth, W.; Rao, Y. J. B.; Rajan, S.; Bansal, B. K.; Purnachandra Rao, N.; Roy, S.; Arora, K.; Mohan, R.; Tiwari, V. M.; Satyanarayana, H. V. S.; Patro, P. K.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.

2014-12-01

75

Earthquake Recurrence in the Kachchh-Saurashtra Region, Northwest India: Insights from Historical Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of two M >7.5 earthquakes in 1819 and 2001, is unexpected in the mid-plate setting of the Kachchh basin, a Mesozoic rift system in northwestern India,. Three issues are recognized as central to the assessment of future seismic hazards in the region. First, the perceived inactivity of surface structures may result from long interseismic intervals. Second, potentially active structures, as exemplified by the Bhuj earthquake (whose rupture terminate below 9 km depth), may lie hidden beneath surface geology. Finally, seismic source zones may be characterized by varying recurrence rates and styles of deformation. The study of past seismicity in the Kachchh region is facilitated by an exceptionally rich >5000 year archaeological and historical database, with paleoseismological data providing additional constraints (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2001). We report here evidence for three earlier earthquakes in 893 AD, c. 30 AD and 2500-2200 BC . Trench investigations indicate that an earthquake sharing similar deformational characteristics as that of the 1819 event occurred in 893 AD (Rajendran and Rajendran, 2002). Evidence for a still older event (30 AD) has been obtained from archaeological excavations near Dwarka, a coastal town 200 km SW of the 1819 and 2001 earthquake sources, suggesting a millennium-long interval between events. In contrast, trenching excavations in the meizoseismal area of the 2001 earthquake, and the pattern of documented damage to historical and ancient monuments, suggest that the 2001 source region may be associated with a much longer recurrence interval. Ancient ruins at Dholavira, a major Harappan city (2600 to 1600 BC) about 60 km from Bhuj epicenter, is the oldest structure in the 2001 epicentral area. Archaeologists attribute repairs undertaken during Stage III of this settlement (2500- 2200 BC) to earthquake related damage (Joshi and Bisht, 1994). Paleoliquefaction features near Ahmedabad, a site located within the Cambay basin, provide additional evidence for the occurrence of an earthquake dated at 2948ñ295 yr BP, its source remaining uncertain (Rajendran et al., 2002). Our study suggests the existence of multiple seismic sources within the Kachchh-Saurashtra rift system that can generate large earthquakes, and these may be characterized by varying recurrence patterns and styles of deformation. A fundamental issue is to understand the driving mechanism for the multiplicity of large earthquakes within a short period of about 5000 years, in an area traditionally classified as a `stable continental region'.

Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.

2002-12-01

76

A re-assessment of focal depth distributions in southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India: do earthquakes really occur in the continental mantle?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the depth distribution of earthquakes within the continental lithosphere of southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India by using synthetic seismograms to analyse P and SH body waveforms. In the Zagros mountains of southern Iran, earthquakes are apparently restricted to the upper crust (depths of <20km), whereas in the Tien Shan and northern India they occur throughout

A. Maggi; J. A. Jackson; K. Priestley; C. Baker

2000-01-01

77

Geodetic constraints on earthquake source parameters and continental deformation in India and Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies contained herein are divided into two groups. First, I devise methods for combining historical data from the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India (GTS) with Global Positioning System (GPS) data to determine rupture parameters of two large Indian earthquakes and quantify intraplate deformation on rift basins in western India. I confirm that the Mw 7.6 Bhuj 2001 earthquake was a high stress-drop event on a relatively small rupture (25 km x 15 km); the region may suffer future similar earthquakes. With the same methods, I provide weak constraints on the rupture of the Mw 7.8 Kangra 1905 earthquake and prove that previous interpretations of a rupture length of >200 km are incorrect, and a large segment of the plate boundary may rupture in future major events. I also attempt to quantify strain over long baselines that span paleorifts in western India. While the GTS data reveal apparent shortening across the Kachchh and Narmada Rifts, GPS velocities show there is little relative motion across the rifts; the GTS data are likely contaminated by errors. Second, I examine the continental deformation of Tibet in two different studies. To address the question of whether Tibet is best described as a continuum of regionally distributed deformation or a series of rigid blocks bounded by large, quickly slipping fault systems, I measure a GPS profile across the Altyn Tagh strike-slip fault. The results confirm a slip rate of 9+/-4 mm/yr, consistent with other geodetic estimates and supporting the description of Tibet as a continuum in which most of the India-Asia collision is accommodated by regionally distributed deformation. Finally, I examine the rheology and strength of the lithosphere by considering the deformation field around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis in the context of the thin viscous sheet deformation model. The Moho temperature beneath Tibet must be 75°-200°C warmer than beneath Eurasia to reproduce the observed deformation field, and the rheology is consistent with deformation that is limited by the strength of the viscous upper mantle rather than that of the brittle, faulted upper crust.

Wallace, Kali Elizabeth

78

Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alok Kumar Mohapatra1* and William Kumar Mohanty1 *Corresponding author: alokgpiitkgp@gmail.com 1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India. Pin-721302 ABSTRACT In the present study, the quality factor of coda waves (Qc) and the source parameters has been estimated for the Northeastern India, using the digital data of ten local earthquakes from April 2001 to November 2002. Earthquakes with magnitude range from 3.8 to 4.9 have been taken into account. The time domain coda decay method of a single back scattering model is used to calculate frequency dependent values of Coda Q (Qc) where as, the source parameters like seismic moment(Mo), stress drop, source radius(r), radiant energy(Wo),and strain drop are estimated using displacement amplitude spectrum of body wave using Brune's model. The earthquakes with magnitude range 3.8 to 4.9 have been used for estimation Qc at six central frequencies 1.5 Hz, 3.0 Hz, 6.0 Hz, 9.0 Hz, 12.0 Hz, and 18.0 Hz. In the present work, the Qc value of local earthquakes are estimated to understand the attenuation characteristic, source parameters and tectonic activity of the region. Based on a criteria of homogeneity in the geological characteristics and the constrains imposed by the distribution of available events the study region has been classified into three zones such as the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ), Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ), Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ). It follows the power law Qc= Qo (f/fo)n where, Qo is the quality factor at the reference frequency (1Hz) fo and n is the frequency parameter which varies from region to region. The mean values of Qc reveals a dependence on frequency, varying from 292.9 at 1.5 Hz to 4880.1 at 18 Hz. Average frequency dependent relationship Qc values obtained of the Northeastern India is 198 f 1.035, while this relationship varies from the region to region such as, Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ): Qc= 226 f 1.11, Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) : Qc= 301 f 0.87, Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc=126 fo 0.85. It indicates Northeastern India is seismically active but comparing of all zones in the study region the Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc= 126 f 0.85 is seismically most active. Where as the Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) are less active and out of three the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)is intermediate active. This study may be useful for the seismic hazard assessment. The estimated seismic moments (Mo), range from 5.98×1020 to 3.88×1023 dyne-cm. The source radii(r) are confined between 152 to 1750 meter, the stress drop ranges between 0.0003×103 bar to 1.04×103 bar, the average radiant energy is 82.57×1018 ergs and the strain drop for the earthquake ranges from 0.00602×10-9 to 2.48×10-9 respectively. The estimated stress drop values for NE India depicts scattered nature of the larger seismic moment value whereas, they show a more systematic nature for smaller seismic moment values. The estimated source parameters are in agreement to previous works in this type of tectonic set up. Key words: Coda wave, Seismic source parameters, Lapse time, single back scattering model, Brune's model, Stress drop and North East India.

Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

2010-12-01

79

Surface loading and triggered earthquakes in the Koyna-Warna region, western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes of M?5.0 continue to occur in the vicinity of Koyna reservoir in western India, the largest known case of Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes (RTS). The region remains seismically active even after four decades of the impounding of the Koyna reservoir. The earthquakes occur repeatedly along two major fault systems in NE-SW and NW-SE directions. We performed cross-correlation analysis between time series of the Koyna reservoir levels and the strain factor (energy 1/2) calculated for earthquakes of M?3.0 occurring in the region during 1963-1999. Four time windows of 5 years or more are selected for cross-correlation to predict the periodicities, if any, in the seismic energy release caused by the annual reservoir water level fluctuations. A similar analysis was performed for the newly-impounded Warna reservoir, 25 km south of the Koyna dam. Our results suggest that the initial seismicity in the Koyna region during 1963 was triggered after the region attained steady state pore pressure by diffusion processes, particularly occurring along vertical strike-slip faults. Subsequently, major episodes of earthquake energy release until 1999 show a periodic behavior related to the annual filling of both the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. Two stages of earthquake energy release are evident till 1996 and coincide with annual filling and draining cycles of the reservoirs. Since 1996, the seismic energy release episodes correlate mostly with the draining cycle of the reservoir levels indicating a shift in the present day earthquake activity in the region, which may be due to a combined effect of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. To explain the causal relationship between the reservoir water level fluctuations at the surface and earthquakes at hypocentral depths in terms of diffusion processes, we modeled the pore pressure front diffusion with time, in an inhomogeneous medium. It is seen that a water level change of the order of 1 m in 5 days in the surface loading can propagate 5-15% of pore pressure front, corresponding to 0.75-2.25 bar, to the hypocentral depth of 6-8 km in the presence of a vertical conducting fault. These small stress perturbations are sufficient to trigger seismicity on pre-existing, critically stressed faults in the Koyna-Warna region.

Pandey, Ajeet P.; Chadha, R. K.

2003-10-01

80

Ethnomedical information and in vitro screening for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition of plants utilized as traditional medicines in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Kerala (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants utilized as traditional medicines in India have been investigated for their ability to inhibit the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). In total, 75 species belonging to 42 families have been investigated and new ethnomedical information has been obtained for 41 species. Four species were found to possess a high ACE inhibiting ability and were low in their tannin content.

U Nyman; P Joshi; L. B Madsen; T. B Pedersen; M Pinstrup; S Rajasekharan; V George; P Pushpangadan

1998-01-01

81

Network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories for earthquake prediction research in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present paper deals with a brief review of the research carried out to develop multi-parametric gas-geochemical monitoring facilities dedicated to earthquake prediction research in India by installing a network of seismo-geochemical monitoring observatories at different regions of the country. In an attempt to detect earthquake precursors, the concentrations of helium, argon, nitrogen, methane, radon-222 (222Rn), polonium-218 (218Po), and polonium-214 (214Po) emanating from hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously and round the clock at these observatories. In this paper, we make a cross correlation study of a number of geochemical anomalies recorded at these observatories. With the data received from each of the above observatories we attempt to make a time series analysis to relate magnitude and epicentral distance locations through statistical methods, empirical formulations that relate the area of influence to earthquake scale. Application of the linear and nonlinear statistical techniques in the recorded geochemical data sets reveal a clear signature of long-range correlation in the data sets.

Chaudhuri, Hirok; Barman, Chiranjib; Iyengar, A. N. Sekar; Ghose, Debasis; Sen, Prasanta; Sinha, Bikash

2013-08-01

82

Source-mechanism of the burma—india border earthquake of october 17, 1969  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focal mechanism for the Burma—India Border earthquake of October 17, 1969 has been determined using the P-wave first motions, S-wave polarization angles and surface wave spectral data. A combination of thrust and strike-slip faulting is obtained along a plane with a strike N 34° W, dip 26° SW and slip angle 141°. The direction of rupture propagation is southward. This earthquake, which occurred at latitude 23°N, indicates north-south compression and change in the thrusting direction which is in general eastwest in the Burma region. This earthquake mechanism may suggest southward underthrusting of the Burmese block or contortion of the lithospheric block of the Indian plate. The source-parameters have been estimated for this event using the body and surface wave spectra. From the surface waves, calculated values of the magnitude, radiated energy, moment and apparent stress are 5.7, 0.21 × 10 21ergs, 0.32 × 10 26 dyne-cm and 2 bar, respectively. From P-waves the seismic moment, fault length, stress drop and dislocation are determined to be 0.9 × 10 26 dyne-cm, 51 km, 2.4 bar and 15 cm, respectively.

Singh, D. D.; Rastogi, B. K.

1980-08-01

83

Protocol for the economic evaluation of the diarrhea alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salt therapy at scale through private and public providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India.  

PubMed

BackgroundChild diarrhea persists as a leading public health problem in India despite evidence supporting zinc and low osmolarity oral rehydration salts as effective treatments. Across 2 years in 2010¿2013, the Diarrhea Alleviation using Zinc and Oral Rehydration Salts Therapy (DAZT) program was implemented to operationalize delivery of these interventions at scale through private and public sector providers in rural Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India.Methods/DesignThis study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of DAZT program activities relative to status quo conditions existing before the study, comparing a Monte Carlo simulation method with net-benefit regression, discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. A control group was not included in the `before and after¿ study design as zinc has proven effectiveness for diarrhea treatment. Costs will be calculated using a societal perspective including program implementation and household out-of-pocket payments for care seeking, as well as estimates of wages lost. Outcomes will be measured in terms of episodes averted in net-benefit regression and in terms of the years of life lost component of disability-adjusted life years in the method based on Monte Carlo simulation. The Lives Saved Tool will be used to model anticipated changes in mortality over time and deaths averted based on incremental changes in coverage of oral rehydration salts and zinc. Data will derive from cross-sectional surveys at the start, midpoint, and endpoint of the program. In addition, Lives Saved Tool (LiST) projections will be used to define the reference case value for the ceiling ratio in terms of natural units.DiscussionThis study will be useful both in its application to an economic evaluation of a public health program in its implementation phase but also in its comparison of two methodological approaches to cost-effectiveness analysis. Both policy recommendations and methodological lessons learned will be discussed, recognizing the limitations in drawing strong policy conclusions due to the uncontrolled study design. It is expected that this protocol will be useful to researchers planning what method to use for the evaluation of similar before and after studies. PMID:25407053

Shillcutt, Samuel D; LeFevre, Amnesty E; Walker, Christa L Fischer; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

2014-11-19

84

Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in earthquakes with an introduction to the subject. Following a section presenting an historical look at the world's major earthquakes, the booklet discusses earthquake-prone geographic areas, the nature and workings of earthquakes, earthquake

Pakiser, Louis C.

85

Probing the phylogenetic relationships of a few newly recorded intertidal zoanthids of Gujarat coast (India) with mtDNA COI sequences.  

PubMed

Abstract The present study reports the phylogenetic relationship of six zoanthid species belonging to three genera, Isaurus, Palythoa, and Zoanthus identified using systematic computational analysis of mtDNA gene sequences. All six species are first recorded from the coasts of Kathiawar Peninsula, India. Genus: Isaurus is represented by Isaurus tuberculatus, genus Zoanthus is represented by Zoanthus kuroshio and Zoanthus sansibaricus, while genus Palythoa is represented by Palythoa tuberculosa, P. sp. JVK-2006 and Palythoa heliodiscus. Results of the present study revealed that among the various species observed along the coastline, a minimum of 99% sequence divergence and a maximum of 96% sequence divergence were seen. An interspecific divergence of 1-4% and negligible intraspecific divergence was observed. These results not only highlighted the efficiency of the COI gene region in species identification but also demonstrated the genetic variability of zoanthids along the Saurashtra coastline of the west coast of India. PMID:25329274

Joseph, Sneha; Poriya, Paresh; Kundu, Rahul

2014-10-20

86

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

An earthquake happens when two blocks of the earth suddenly slip past one another. Earthquakes strike suddenly, violently, and without warning at any time of the day or night. If an earthquake occurs in a populated area, it may cause ...

87

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: Rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present observations of active faulting within peninsular India, far from the surrounding plate boundaries. Offset alluvial fan surfaces indicate one or more magnitude 7.6-8.4 thrust-faulting earthquakes on the Tapti Fault (Maharashtra, western India) during the Holocene. The high ratio of fault displacement to length on the alluvial fan offsets implies high stress-drop faulting, as has been observed elsewhere in the peninsula. The along-strike extent of the fan offsets is similar to the thickness of the seismogenic layer, suggesting a roughly equidimensional fault rupture. The subsiding footwall of the fault is likely to have been responsible for altering the continental-scale drainage pattern in central India and creating the large west flowing catchment of the Tapti river. A preexisting sedimentary basin in the uplifting hanging wall implies that the Tapti Fault was active as a normal fault during the Mesozoic and has been reactivated as a thrust, highlighting the role of preexisting structures in determining the rheology and deformation of the lithosphere. The slip sense of faults and earthquakes in India suggests that deformation south of the Ganges foreland basin is driven by the compressive force transmitted between India and the Tibetan Plateau. The along-strike continuation of faulting to the east of the Holocene ruptures we have studied represents a significant seismic hazard in central India.

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R. Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-08-01

88

2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

2003-01-01

89

Scientific Deep Drilling to Study Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Koyna region near the west coast of India is the premier site of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), where triggered earthquakes have been occurring in a restricted area of 20x30 km2 since the impoundment of Shivajisagar Lake in 1962. These include the largest triggered earthquake of M~6.3 on Dec 10 1967, 22 earthquakes of M?5, about 200 earthquakes of M~4, and several thousand smaller earthquakes. The RTS was further enhanced by impoundment of the nearby located Warna reservoir in 1985. The seismic zone is quite isolated with no other source of activity within 50 km of the Koyna dam. The seismicity distribution during the past ~5 years defines two seismic zones in the area, each about 10 km long, relatively narrow (~2 km) and shallow (6-8 km). The earthquake activity is governed by the annual water cycle, increasing in response to the rapid filling of the reservoirs during the monsoon rains as well as the post-monsoon unloading cycle. We plan to carry out scientific deep drilling in the seismic zone. A borehole penetrating the Deccan Traps cover and reaching the focal depths (~7 km) in the granitic basement is envisaged. This will provide a unique opportunity to directly measure the physical and mechanical properties of rocks, pore fluid pressure, hydrology, temperature, and other parameters of an intra-plate active fault zone in the "near-field" of earthquakes, before during and after their occurrence. Down hole measurements complemented by observations on cores and cuttings, analyses of fluid and gas samples, geophysical and geological characterization studies including fault zone monitoring would help answer questions related to the genesis of RTS. Precursory parameters obtained from continuous monitoring of deep, in-situ measurements may help in formulating a comprehensive earthquake model for RTS sites in general and the Koyna region in particular. A preparatory phase of investigations including compilation of existing datasets, acquisition of new datasets and exploratory drilling aimed at delineation of the fine structure of the subsurface fault zone(s) is underway. New datasets include low-elevation aeromagnetic profiles, high-resolution seismic profiling across the seismic zone, micro-topography studies using Lidar, dense seismological observations made in the epicentral area, magnetotelluric profiling and deep resistivity sounding across the zone, and closely spaced gravity measurements. The exploratory boreholes and availability of core samples will allow measurements of heat flow, in-situ stress, hydrological parameters, etc. besides detailed geochemical characterization of the basaltic lava pile, information regarding the presence of infra-Trappean sediments and the nature of the underlying granite basement. Information obtained from these studies will guide the planning for scientific deep drilling to be undertaken during the next phase.

Gupta, H. K.; Sen, M.; Rao, P. N.; Dodla, S.; Kothamasu, M.; Roy, S.

2012-12-01

90

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the British Geological Survey, the Earthquakes Web site contains numerous educational topics for kids. Best suited for junior high school students and older, the site contains information on macroseismology (or the observable effects of earthquakes on people, buildings, and nature); seismic hazards; earthquake monitoring; recent and historical earthquakes; and more. Other links on the site include a Questions and Answers page, earthquake references, and additional educational links culminating in an informative and helpful source of online science learning. [JAB

91

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This outline of basic information on earthquakes starts with an explanation of an earthquake, including the forces acting on rock, (tension, compression, and shear) and plastic and elastic deformation of rock. Next, the principle of the seismograph, seismometer, and seismogram along with the three types of seismic waves are discussed. Information is then presented to help the student distinguish between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, describe the world-wide distribution pattern of earthquake activity, and explain the earthquake magnitude (Richter) scale and the Modified Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity. This site also includes an explanation of how the epicenter of an earthquake can be located. There is a discussion of some past earthquakes along with a description of the effects of earthquake activity.

Pamela Gore

92

Strategies for coping with the costs of inpatient care: a mixed methods study of urban and rural poor in Vadodara District, Gujarat, India  

PubMed Central

Background In India, coping mechanisms for inpatient care costs have been explored in rural areas, but seldom among urbanites. This study aims to explore and compare mechanisms employed by the urban and rural poor for coping with inpatient expenditures, in order to help identify formal mechanisms and policies to provide improved social protection for health care. Methods A three-step methodology was used: (1) six focus-group discussions; (2) 800 exit survey interviews with users of public and private facilities in both urban and rural areas; and (3) 18 in-depth interviews with poor (below 30th percentile of socio-economic status) hospital users, to explore coping mechanisms in greater depth. Results Users of public hospitals, in both urban and rural areas, were poor relative to users of private hospitals. Median expenditures per day were much higher at private than at public facilities. Most respondents using public facilities (in both urban and rural areas) were able to pay out of their savings or income; or by borrowing from friends, family or employer. Those using private facilities were more likely to report selling land or other assets as the primary source of coping (particularly in rural areas) and they were more likely to have to borrow money at interest (particularly in urban areas). Poor individuals who used private facilities cited as reasons their closer proximity and higher perceived quality of care. Conclusions In India, national and state governments should invest in improving the quality and access of public first-referral hospitals. This should be done selectively—with a focus, for example, on rural areas and urban slum areas—in order to promote a more equitable distribution of resources. Policy makers should continue to explore and support efforts to provide financial protection through insurance mechanisms. Past experience suggests that these efforts must be carefully monitored to ensure that the poorer among the insured are able to access scheme benefits, and the quality and quantity of health care provided must be monitored and regulated. PMID:21653545

Ranson, Michael Kent; Jayaswal, Rupal; Mills, Anne J

2012-01-01

93

THE CONTRIBUTION OF FARM FORESTRY TO RURAL LIVELIHOODS: A CASE STUDY FROM EASTERN GUJARAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

PHYSICAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE SURVEY AREA The area selected for this research was the Panchmahals District of Gujarat State, India. The Sadguru Water and Development Foundation has been working in this District since 1976, in the two Talukas of Dahod and Jhalod. Tribals constitute 92% and 85% of the populations respectively in these Talukas, which are among

Czech Conroy

94

Causes and incidence of maxillofacial injuries in India: 12-year retrospective study of 4437 patients in a tertiary hospital in Gujarat.  

PubMed

Maxillofacial injuries are unique because of the anatomical complexity of the area and their associated psychological effects. An understanding of the epidemiology of these injuries is important if we are to develop preventive measures, increase the efficiency and delivery of health services, improve the skills of healthcare providers, and better distribute resources. We retrospectively evaluated data on 4455 patients (aged between 3 and 84 years) who presented with maxillofacial injuries to a tertiary referral hospital in Ahmedabad, India, between 1 January 1999 and 31 January 2010. Of these, 18 needed only rest and medication so 4437 were included. Data included patients'characteristics and the cause of injury. Details on the presentation and severity of injury, associated injuries including head injuries, the influence of alcohol and other drugs, treatment, and outcome, were also included. Around one-third were aged between 21and 30 years, and the male to female ratio was 5:1. The main causes of injury were road traffic accidents (n=2347, 53%) and interpersonal violence (n=1041, 23%). Most road traffic accidents involved two-wheeled vehicles. Alcohol was associated with 11% of injuries. A total of 2546 patients (57%) had mandibular fractures. To reduce the number of injuries we need better road safety laws with stringent enforcement, and the public, particularly those between 15 and 45 years of age, must be educated about road safety. PMID:25086833

Weihsin, Hu; Thadani, Sandeep; Agrawal, Mohit; Tailor, Suket; Sood, Ramita; Langalia, Akshay; Patel, Twinkle

2014-10-01

95

Predicting strong motion parameters for the Chamoli earthquake of 28 th March, 1999, Garhwal Himalaya, India, from simplified finite fault model  

Microsoft Academic Search

State of Uttaranchal in the northern part of India in the Garhwal Himalaya was hit by the Chamoli earthquake on 28th March, 1999 (GMT). This earthquake was recorded on a strong motion array installed in this region. The maximum peak ground acceleration of 353 cm\\/sec2 was recorded at an accelerograph located at the Gopeshwar station at an approximate epicentral distance

A. Joshi

2003-01-01

96

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will participate in a virtual earthquake lab where they will locate an epicenter and measure Richter Scale magnitude. They will also plot the positions of earthquakes that occurred that day. 1) Go to Virtual Earthquake website and follow instructions to complete the online lab assignment. 2) Go to the USGS earthquake site. Take a few minutes to explore the earthquakes displayed on the world map. Click on \\"M2.5/4+ Earthquake List\\". Use the world map provided by your teacher to plot the locations ...

Hemedinger, Mrs.

2007-11-26

97

Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson on earthquakes is based on naturalist John Muir's experiences with two significant earthquakes, the 1872 earthquake on the east side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, and the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Students will learn to explain that earthquakes are sudden motions along breaks in the crust called faults, and list the major geologic events including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building, which are the result of crustal plate motions. A downloadable, printable version (PDF) of the lesson plan is available.

98

Earthquakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the causes and effects of earthquakes, defines the meaning of magnitude (measured on the Richter Magnitude Scale) and intensity (measured on a modified Mercalli Intensity Scale) and discusses earthquake prediction and control. (JR)

Roper, Paul J.; Roper, Jere Gerard

1974-01-01

99

Investigations related to scientific deep drilling to study reservoir-triggered earthquakes at Koyna, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial water reservoir-triggered earthquakes have continued at Koyna in the Deccan Traps province, India, since the impoundment of the Shivaji Sagar reservoir in 1962. Existing models, to comprehend the genesis of triggered earthquakes, suffer from lack of observations in the near field. To investigate further, scientific deep drilling and setting up a fault zone observatory at depth of 5-7 km is planned in the Koyna area. Prior to undertaking deep drilling, an exploratory phase of investigations has been launched to constrain subsurface geology, structure and heat flow regime in the area that provide critical inputs for the design of the deep borehole observatory. Two core boreholes drilled to depths of 1,522 and 1,196 m have penetrated the Deccan Traps and sampled the granitic basement in the region for the first time. Studies on cores provide new and direct information regarding the thickness of the Deccan Traps, the absence of infra-Trappean sediments and the nature of the underlying basement rocks. Temperatures estimated at a depth of 6 km in the area, made on the basis of heat flow and thermal properties data sets, do not exceed 150 °C. Low-elevation airborne gravity gradient and magnetic data sets covering 5,012 line km, together with high-quality magnetotelluric data at 100 stations, provide both regional information about the thickness of the Deccan Traps and the occurrence of localized density heterogeneities and anomalous conductive zones in the vicinity of the hypocentral zone. Acquisition of airborne LiDAR data to obtain a high-resolution topographic model of the region has been completed over an area of 1,064 km2 centred on the Koyna seismic zone. Seismometers have been deployed in the granitic basement inside two boreholes and are planned in another set of six boreholes to obtain accurate hypocentral locations and constrain the disposition of fault zones.

Gupta, Harsh; Purnachandra Rao, N.; Roy, Sukanta; Arora, Kusumita; Tiwari, V. M.; Patro, Prasanta K.; Satyanarayana, H. V. S.; Shashidhar, D.; Mallika, K.; Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Goswami, Deepjyoti; Vyas, Digant; Ravi, G.; Srinivas, K. N. S. S. S.; Srihari, M.; Mishra, S.; Dubey, C. P.; Raju, D. Ch. V.; Borah, Ujjal; Chinna Reddy, K.; Babu, Narendra; Rohilla, Sunil; Dhar, Upasana; Sen, Mrinal; Bhaskar Rao, Y. J.; Bansal, B. K.; Nayak, Shailesh

2014-12-01

100

Maternal Healthcare Financing: Gujarat's Chiranjeevi Scheme and Its Beneficiaries  

PubMed Central

Maternal mortality is an important public-health issue in India, specifically in Gujarat. Contributing factors are the Government's inability to operationalize the First Referral Units and to provide an adequate level of skilled birth attendants, especially to the poor. In response, the Gujarat state has developed a unique public-private partnership called the Chiranjeevi Scheme. This scheme focuses on institutional delivery, specifically emergency obstetric care for the poor. The objective of the study was to explore the targeting of the scheme, its coverage, and socioeconomic profile of the beneficiaries and to assess financial protection offered by the scheme, if any, in Dahod, one of the initial pilot districts of Gujarat. A household-level survey of beneficiaries (n=262) and non-users (n=394) indicated that the scheme is well-targeted to the poor but many poor people do not use the services. The beneficiaries saved more than Rs 3,000 (US$ 75) in delivery-related expenses and were generally satisfied with the scheme. The study provided insights on how to improve the scheme further. Such a financing scheme could be replicated in other states and countries to address the cost barrier, especially in areas where high numbers of private specialists are available. PMID:19489419

Bhat, Ramesh; Singh, Prabal V.; Singh, Neelu

2009-01-01

101

India: Kachchh  

... article title:  Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj Earthquake     View Larger Image ... of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying ...

2013-04-16

102

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake: Global lessons for earthquake hazard in intra-plate regions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake occurred in the Kachchh District of the State of Gujarat, India on 26 January 2001, and was one of the most damaging intraplate earthquakes ever recorded. This earthquake is in many ways similar to the three great New Madrid earthquakes that occurred in the central United States in 1811-1812, An Indo-US team is studying the similarities and differences of these sequences in order to learn lessons for earthquake hazard in intraplate regions. Herein we present some preliminary conclusions from that study. Both the Kutch and New Madrid regions have rift type geotectonic setting. In both regions the strain rates are of the order of 10-9/yr and attenuation of seismic waves as inferred from observations of intensity and liquefaction are low. These strain rates predict recurrence intervals for Bhuj or New Madrid sized earthquakes of several thousand years or more. In contrast, intervals estimated from paleoseismic studies and from other independent data are significantly shorter, probably hundreds of years. All these observations together may suggest that earthquakes relax high ambient stresses that are locally concentrated by rheologic heterogeneities, rather than loading by plate-tectonic forces. The latter model generally underlies basic assumptions made in earthquake hazard assessment, that the long-term average rate of energy released by earthquakes is determined by the tectonic loading rate, which thus implies an inherent average periodicity of earthquake occurrence. Interpreting the observations in terms of the former model therefore may require re-examining the basic assumptions of hazard assessment.

Schweig, E.; Gomberg, J.; Petersen, M.; Ellis, M.; Bodin, P.; Mayrose, L.; Rastogi, B.K.

2003-01-01

103

Earthquakes!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A strong earthquake struck Istanbul, Turkey on Monday, only weeks after a major quake in the same area claimed more than 15,500 lives. This site, from The Why Files (see the August 9, 1996 Scout Report), offers background information on the science of earthquakes, with particular emphasis on the recent tectonic activity in Turkey.

104

Disaster Mitigation vis-á-vis Time of Occurrence and Magnitude of Earthquakes in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes occurring during the night or early morning hours cause a heavy loss of life. Also, an earthquake occurring in the late evening hours poses serious handicap for disaster mitigation efforts due to failure of electricity and blocking of roads due to fall of debris. The larger aftershocks may cause further damage depending upon the magnitude of the main earthquakes

H. N. Srivastava; G. D. Gupta

2004-01-01

105

Paleoliquefaction evidence and periodicity of large prehistoric earthquakes in Shillong Plateau, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tectonic setting and the occurrence of the great Assam earthquake (M=8.7) of 1897 in the Shillong Plateau succeeded by three great earthquakes (1905, 1934 and 1950) in the adjoining Himalayan frontal arc, indicates the vulnerability of the Shillong Plateau to large earthquakes. The lack of seismicity records of the region earlier than 100 years and data on the recurrence

B. S Sukhija; M. N Rao; D. V. Reddy; P. Nagabhushanam; S. Hussain; R. K Chadha; H. K Gupta

1999-01-01

106

Earthquakes  

MedlinePLUS

... earthquake is the sudden, rapid shaking of the earth, caused by the breaking and shifting of subterranean ... the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the earth, as the huge plates that form the earth’s ...

107

Low deformation rate in the Koyna-Warna region, a reservoir triggered earthquake site in west-central stable India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse nine years of GPS measurements of crustal deformation from the Koyna-Warna region within the stable India plate. The Koyna-Warna region experienced a strong earthquake on 10 December 1967 (M 6.3) that is considered to have been induced by the impoundment of the Koyna reservoir and the continuing earthquake activity in the region is considered to be associated with the Koyna and Warna reservoirs. The earthquakes occur in a very small region of 30 × 10 km2 in two well defined seismic zones, the NNE-SSW trending Koyna Seismic zone, and the NNW-SSE trending Warna Seismic Zone. These zones are characterised by predominantly left-lateral strike slip motion and normal motion, respectively. In 2003, we initiated campaign-mode GPS measurements in the region. Analysis of the GPS data collected over nine years indicate low to moderate deformation rate (<2 ± 0.5 mm/year) at a few sites within and close to the fault zones and no resolvable deformation elsewhere. This has been seen in many intra-plate seismic regions of the world with varying causative mechanism for the deformation. In the Koyna Warna region, the observed surface displacement rates of up to 2 mm/year near the fault zones are consistent with a fault slip rate of about 7 mm/year, and with the inferred sense of motion on the faults. The inferred fault slip rate is consistent with the total moment release during earthquakes of past six years in the Koyna Warna region which may imply that the ongoing earthquake activity causes the deformation in the region.

Catherine, J. K.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Kundu, Bhaskar; Ambikapathy, A.; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Bansal, Amit; Narsaiah, M.; Naidu, S. M.

2015-01-01

108

Helium/radon precursory anomalies of Chamoli earthquake, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Garhwal Himalaya, the Bhagirthi and Alaknanda valleys were rocked respectively by two major earthquakes; the Uttarkashi earthquake of magnitude mb=6.5, Ms= 7.0 on 20 October, 1991 and the Chamoli earthquake of mb =6.8, Ms=6.5 on 29 March 1999, during this decade only. Both these seismic events are associated with ongoing deformation along the main central thrust (MCT) of the Himalayas. The helium and radon anomalies on 24 and 27 March 1999, respectively, were recorded at Palampur which is about 393 km from the Chamoli earthquake epicentre. A helium/radon ratio anomaly was recorded on 20 March, 9 days before the Chamoli earthquake. The precursory nature of radon and helium anomalies is a strong indicator of the physical basis of earthquake prediction and a preliminary test for the proposed conceptual helium/radon ratio model.

Singh Virk, Hardev; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Naresh

2001-03-01

109

Helium\\/radon precursory anomalies of Chamoli earthquake, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Garhwal Himalaya, the Bhagirthi and Alaknanda valleys were rocked respectively by two major earthquakes; the Uttarkashi earthquake of magnitude mb=6.5, Ms= 7.0 on 20 October, 1991 and the Chamoli earthquake of mb =6.8, Ms=6.5 on 29 March 1999, during this decade only. Both these seismic events are associated with ongoing deformation along the main central thrust (MCT) of

Hardev Singh Virk; Vivek Walia; Naresh Kumar

2001-01-01

110

Radon and Helium as productive tools for earthquake precursory and fault delineation studies in NW Himalayas, India: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the role of radon and helium as a productive tool for fault delineation and earthquake precursory studies, continuous measurements are made in the soil-gas and groundwater in NW Himalayas, India. The area under study is seismically active and falls in the High Seismic Zones IV and V of the Seismic Map of India. The NW Himalayas are tectonically active due to the northward movement of the Indian plate towards Eurasian plate and the frequent occurrence of small magnitude earthquake indicates that the area is under unusually high stress and strain. The temporal variations in the radon concentration in soil-gas and groundwater are continuous monitored, at three different stations viz. Amritsar (Zone IV), Dharamsala (Zone V) and Dalhousie (Zone IV), using Barasol probes (Algade, France) and RAD7 (Durrige, USA) respectively. The radon anomalies, in the data are correlated with micro seismic events recorded along Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and Main Central Thrust (MCT) of NW Himalayas within the grid (28 - 34° North, 72 - 79° East). The anomalous change in the radon concentration before an event suggests that continuous radon monitoring in a grid pattern can serve as a productive tool in earthquake prediction studies. The MCT and MBT are associated with evolution of Himalayan orogeny. Besides the longitudinal lineaments several transverse lineaments occur as faults and fractures trending normally or obliquely to Himalayan trend. Keeping this thing in view, a geochemical soil-gas surveys have been conducted in the NW Himalayas. To carry out the present investigation soil-gas samples were collected in sample bags at depth of about 0.7 - 1.0 m by using hollow steel probe. The collected soil-gas sample bags are analyzed for radon and helium using RTM 2100 and Helium Leak Sniff Detector respectively. The data analysis clearly reveals anomalous values of subsurface gases along the fault and lineaments.

Bajwa, B.; Mahajan, S.; Walia, V.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.; Yang, T. F.

2009-12-01

111

Planetary Configuration: Implications for Earthquake Prediction and Occurrence in Southern Peninsular India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though there have been several attempts at earthquake prediction from different perspectives, this attempt aims at establishing planetary configurations as a definitive means of earthquake prediction. When two or more planets, Sun and Moon are aligned more or less in line (0o or 180o) with the Earth, then the Earth would be caught in the middle of a huge gravity

N. Venkatanathan; N. Rajeshwara Rao; K. K. Sharma; P. Periakali

2005-01-01

112

Pronounced soil-radon anomaly—Precursor of recent earthquakes in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real time radon monitoring is an extensively studied area in order to give premonitory signs prior to an earthquake. The strain changes that occurred within the earth surface during earthquake is expected to enhance the radon concentration in soil gas. In order to support this theoretical view, we have performed an experiment on measuring radon concentration in soil gas

Dipak Ghosh; Argha Deb; Rosalima Sengupta; Kanchan Kumar Patra; Sukumar Bera

2007-01-01

113

Paleoseismological evidence of surface faulting along the northeastern Himalayan front, India: Timing, size, and spatial extent of great earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ˜2500 km long Himalayan arc has experienced three large to great earthquakes of Mw 7.8 to 8.4 during the past century, but none produced surface rupture. Paleoseismic studies have been conducted during the last decade to begin understanding the timing, size, rupture extent, return period, and mechanics of the faulting associated with the occurrence of large surface rupturing earthquakes along the ˜2500 km long Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) system of India and Nepal. The previous studies have been limited to about nine sites along the western two-thirds of the HFT extending through northwest India and along the southern border of Nepal. We present here the results of paleoseismic investigations at three additional sites further to the northeast along the HFT within the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. The three sites reside between the meizoseismal areas of the 1934 Bihar-Nepal and 1950 Assam earthquakes. The two westernmost of the sites, near the village of Chalsa and near the Nameri Tiger Preserve, show that offsets during the last surface rupture event were at minimum of about 14 m and 12 m, respectively. Limits on the ages of surface rupture at Chalsa (site A) and Nameri (site B), though broad, allow the possibility that the two sites record the same great historical rupture reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. The correlation between the two sites is supported by the observation that the large displacements as recorded at Chalsa and Nameri would most likely be associated with rupture lengths of hundreds of kilometers or more and are on the same order as reported for a surface rupture earthquake reported in Nepal around A.D. 1100. Assuming the offsets observed at Chalsa and Nameri occurred synchronously with reported offsets in Nepal, the rupture length of the event would approach 700 to 800 km. The easternmost site is located within Harmutty Tea Estate (site C) at the edges of the 1950 Assam earthquake meizoseismal area. Here the most recent event offset is relatively much smaller (<2.5 m), and radiocarbon dating shows it to have occurred after A.D. 1100 (after about A.D. 1270). The location of the site near the edge of the meizoseismal region of the 1950 Assam earthquake and the relatively lesser offset allows speculation that the displacement records the 1950 Mw 8.4 Assam earthquake. Scatter in radiocarbon ages on detrital charcoal has not resulted in a firm bracket on the timing of events observed in the trenches. Nonetheless, the observations collected here, when taken together, suggest that the largest of thrust earthquakes along the Himalayan arc have rupture lengths and displacements of similar scale to the largest that have occurred historically along the world's subduction zones.

Kumar, Senthil; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Jayangondaperumal, R.; Nakata, T.; Kumahara, Y.; Singh, Vimal

2010-12-01

114

SAR interferometry in post-seismic ground deformation detection related to the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 Bhuj earthquake, which occurred due to rupturing of a hidden reverse fault, caused large-scale ground deformation. The ground deformations in the Bhuj earthquake-affected region have been analysed using two interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets. The data sets belong to the years 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, covering an area east of Bhuj falling on near-flat terrain north of

Arun K. Saraf; Josodhir Das; Ankita Biswas; Vineeta Rawat; Kanika Sharma; Yazdana Suzat

2012-01-01

115

SAR interferometry in post-seismic ground deformation detection related to the 2001 Bhuj earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2001 Bhuj earthquake, which occurred due to rupturing of a hidden reverse fault, caused large-scale ground deformation. The ground deformations in the Bhuj earthquake-affected region have been analysed using two interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets. The data sets belong to the years 2003–2004 and 2004–2005, covering an area east of Bhuj falling on near-flat terrain north of

Arun K. Saraf; Josodhir Das; Ankita Biswas; Vineeta Rawat; Kanika Sharma; Yazdana Suzat

2011-01-01

116

A re-assessment of focal depth distributions in southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India: do earthquakes really occur in the continental mantle?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the depth distribution of earthquakes within the continental lithosphere of southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India by using synthetic seismograms to analyse P and SH body waveforms. In the Zagros mountains of southern Iran, earthquakes are apparently restricted to the upper crust (depths of <20km), whereas in the Tien Shan and northern India they occur throughout the thickness of the continental crust, to depths of ~40-45km. We find no convincing evidence for earthquakes in the continental mantle of these regions, in spite of previous suggestions to the contrary, and question whether seismicity in the continental mantle is important in any part of the world. In some regions, such as Iran, the Aegean, Tibet and California, seismicity is virtually restricted to the upper continental crust, whereas in others, including parts of East Africa, the Tien Shan and northern India, the lower crust is also seismically active, although usually less so than the upper crust. Such variations cannot reliably be demonstrated from published catalogue or bulletin locations, even from ones in which depth resolution is generally improved. In contrast to the oceanic mantle lithosphere, in which earthquakes certainly occur, the continental mantle lithosphere is, we suggest, virtually aseismic and may not be significantly stronger than the lower continental crust. These variations in continental seismogenic thickness are broadly correlated with variations in effective elastic thickness, suggesting that the strength of the continental lithosphere resides in the crust, and require some modification to prevalent views of lithosphere rheology.

Maggi, A.; Jackson, J. A.; Priestley, K.; Baker, C.

2000-12-01

117

Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ? 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

2013-01-01

118

Earthquake scenario in West Bengal with emphasis on seismic hazard microzonation of the city of Kolkata, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic microzonation is a process of estimating site-specific effects due to an earthquake on urban centers for its disaster mitigation and management. The state of West Bengal, located in the western foreland of the Assam-Arakan Orogenic Belt, the Himalayan foothills and Surma Valley, has been struck by several devastating earthquakes in the past, indicating the need for a seismotectonic review of the province, especially in light of probable seismic threat to its capital city of Kolkata, which is a major industrial and commercial hub in the eastern and northeastern region of India. A synoptic probabilistic seismic hazard model of Kolkata is initially generated at engineering bedrock (Vs30 ~ 760 m s-1) considering 33 polygonal seismogenic sources at two hypocentral depth ranges, 0-25 and 25-70 km; 158 tectonic sources; appropriate seismicity modeling; 14 ground motion prediction equations for three seismotectonic provinces, viz. the east-central Himalaya, the Bengal Basin and Northeast India selected through suitability testing; and appropriate weighting in a logic tree framework. Site classification of Kolkata performed following in-depth geophysical and geotechnical investigations places the city in D1, D2, D3 and E classes. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment at a surface-consistent level - i.e., the local seismic hazard related to site amplification performed by propagating the bedrock ground motion with 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years through a 1-D sediment column using an equivalent linear analysis - predicts a peak ground acceleration (PGA) range from 0.176 to 0.253 g in the city. A deterministic liquefaction scenario in terms of spatial distribution of liquefaction potential index corresponding to surface PGA distribution places 50% of the city in the possible liquefiable zone. A multicriteria seismic hazard microzonation framework is proposed for judicious integration of multiple themes, namely PGA at the surface, liquefaction potential index, NEHRP soil site class, sediment class, geomorphology and ground water table in a fuzzy protocol in the geographical information system by adopting an analytical hierarchal process. The resulting high-resolution surface consistent hazard, liquefaction and microzonation maps are expected to play vital roles in earthquake-related disaster mitigation and management of the city of Kolkata.

Nath, S. K.; Adhikari, M. D.; Maiti, S. K.; Devaraj, N.; Srivastava, N.; Mohapatra, L. D.

2014-09-01

119

Temporal variation of seismicity in a Himalayan tectonic block and the 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal variation of the seismicity between 1970 and August 1991 in the northwestern Himalaya and adjoining areas of Tibet, immediately to the north, were investigated using a function of the CN algorithm. The aim of the exercise was to detect a pattern which, if known earlier, could have been used to predict the Uttarkashi earthquake of 19 October

V. K. Gahalaut

1994-01-01

120

Estimation of ground motion for Bhuj (26 January 2001; Mw 7.6 and for future earthquakes in India  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Only five moderate and large earthquakes (Mw ???5.7) in India-three in the Indian shield region and two in the Himalayan arc region-have given rise to multiple strong ground-motion recordings. Near-source data are available for only two of these events. The Bhuj earthquake (Mw 7.6), which occurred in the shield region, gave rise to useful recordings at distances exceeding 550 km. Because of the scarcity of the data, we use the stochastic method to estimate ground motions. We assume that (1) S waves dominate at R < 100 km and Lg waves at R ??? 100 km, (2) Q = 508f0.48 is valid for the Indian shield as well as the Himalayan arc region, (3) the effective duration is given by fc-1 + 0.05R, where fc is the corner frequency, and R is the hypocentral distance in kilometer, and (4) the acceleration spectra are sharply cut off beyond 35 Hz. We use two finite-source stochastic models. One is an approximate model that reduces to the ??2-source model at distances greater that about twice the source dimension. This model has the advantage that the ground motion is controlled by the familiar stress parameter, ????. In the other finite-source model, which is more reliable for near-source ground-motion estimation, the high-frequency radiation is controlled by the strength factor, sfact, a quantity that is physically related to the maximum slip rate on the fault. We estimate ???? needed to fit the observed Amax and Vmax data of each earthquake (which are mostly in the far field). The corresponding sfact is obtained by requiring that the predicted curves from the two models match each other in the far field up to a distance of about 500 km. The results show: (1) The ???? that explains Amax data for shield events may be a function of depth, increasing from ???50 bars at 10 km to ???400 bars at 36 km. The corresponding sfact values range from 1.0-2.0. The ???? values for the two Himalayan arc events are 75 and 150 bars (sfact = 1.0 and 1.4). (2) The ???? required to explain Vmax data is, roughly, half the corresponding value for Amax, while the same sfact explains both sets of data. (3) The available far-field Amax and Vmax data for the Bhuj mainshock are well explained by ???? = 200 and 100 bars, respectively, or, equivalently, by sfact = 1.4. The predicted Amax and Vmax in the epicentral region of this earthquake are 0.80 to 0.95 g and 40 to 55 cm/sec, respectively.

Singh, S.K.; Bansal, B.K.; Bhattacharya, S.N.; Pacheco, J.F.; Dattatrayam, R.S.; Ordaz, M.; Suresh, G.; Kamal; Hough, S.E.

2003-01-01

121

India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

Semaan, Leslie

122

As India's Plates Collide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This winning entry in the museum's Young Naturalist Awards 1999 by Rikesh, a 12 year old student from New York, reports on the causes of earthquakes, using India as a focal point. He discusses the earthquakes that have hit India from 1737 to 1991 and their effects, including tsunamis, and the work engineers are doing to reduce the damage from earthquakes.

123

India.  

PubMed

In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the exception of the 1977-79 period of Janta Party rule. Domestically, India has made much progress since independnece. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and a large pool of skilled labor have been created, but agriculture remains the crucial sector and supports 70% of the people. It contributes about 40% of gross national product (GNP). Only modest gains in per capita GNP have been achieved. Agricultural production has been increasing at an average annual rate of around 3%. Cotton and jute textile production continues to be the most important industry, but public sector firms in steel, heavy industry, and chemicals have become important since 1960. Supreme command of India's armed forces rests with the president but actual responsibility for national defense lies with the Cabinet Committee for Political Affairs. The US and India have aimed at cordial relations. The US is India's largest trading partner and has been an important source of foreign economic assistance. PMID:12178110

1985-05-01

124

Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

2014-04-01

125

Variability of Photovoltaic Power in the State of Gujarat Using High Resolution Solar Data  

SciTech Connect

India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Zhang, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Parsons, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

2014-03-01

126

Variability of Power from Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Scenarios in the State of Gujarat: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

India has ambitious goals for high utilization of variable renewable power from wind and solar, and deployment has been proceeding at a rapid pace. The western state of Gujarat currently has the largest amount of solar generation of any Indian state, with over 855 Megawatts direct current (MWDC). Combined with over 3,240 MW of wind, variable generation renewables comprise nearly 18% of the electric-generating capacity in the state. A new historic 10-kilometer (km) gridded solar radiation data set capturing hourly insolation values for 2002-2011 is available for India. We apply an established method for downscaling hourly irradiance data to one-minute irradiance data at potential PV power production locations for one year, 2006. The objective of this report is to characterize the intra-hour variability of existing and planned photovoltaic solar power generation in the state of Gujarat (a total of 1.9 gigawatts direct current (GWDC)), and of five possible expansion scenarios of solar generation that reflect a range of geographic diversity (each scenario totals 500-1,000 MW of additional solar capacity). The report statistically analyzes one year's worth of power variability data, applied to both the baseline and expansion scenarios, to evaluate diurnal and seasonal power fluctuations, different timescales of variability (e.g., from one to 15 minutes), the magnitude of variability (both total megawatts and relative to installed solar capacity), and the extent to which the variability can be anticipated in advance. The paper also examines how Gujarat Energy Transmission Corporation (GETCO) and the Gujarat State Load Dispatch Centre (SLDC) could make use of the solar variability profiles in grid operations and planning.

Parsons, B.; Hummon, M.; Cochran, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; Batra, P.; Mehta, B.; Patel, D.

2014-04-01

127

Temporal variation of b value associated with M ˜4 earthquakes in the reservoir-triggered seismic environment of the Koyna-Warna region, Western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally found that the b values associated with reservoir-triggered seismicity (RTS) are higher than the regional b values in the frequency magnitude relation of earthquakes. In the present study, temporal and spatial variation of b value is investigated using a catalog of 3,000 earthquakes from August 2005 through December 2010 for the Koyna-Warna region in Western India, which is a classical site of RTS globally. It is an isolated (30 × 20 km2) zone of seismicity where earthquakes of up to M ˜5 are found to occur during phases of loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs situated 25 km apart. For the Warna region, it is found that low b values of 0.6-0.9 are associated with earthquakes of M ˜4 during the loading phase. The percentage correlation of the occurrence of an M ? 4 earthquake with a low b value outside the 1 ? or 2 ? level is as high as 78 %. A drastic drop in the b value of about 50 % being reported for an RTS site may be an important precursory parameter for short-term earthquake forecast in the future.

Mallika, K.; Gupta, Harsh; Shashidhar, D.; Rao, N. Purnachandra; Yadav, Amrita; Rohilla, Sunil; Satyanarayana, H. V. S.; Srinagesh, D.

2013-01-01

128

Modelling of active lineaments for predicting a possible earthquake scenario around Dehradun, Garhwal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Doon valley which consists of the Doon gravels and Siwalik rocks is surrounded by the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) in the north, the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) (Mohand Thrust and Bhimgoda Thrust) in the south, the Ganga Tear Fault in the east and the Yamuna Tear Fault in the west. Lineaments, identified from the aerial photographs, show that a few of them trend parallel to the Himalayan orogen, and the others are transverse to it. The effect of the neotectonic activity is clearly reflected in the Doon valley, implying that the Doon valley is tectonically unstable today, and that the possibility of earthquakes in this region cannot be ruled out. The ruptures along identified active lineaments are modelled three dimensionally. Peak accelerations are obtained by using a methodology, based on the semi-empirical method of Irikura, which was used by Midorikawa. The efficacy of this modelling technique for the Himalayan region is established by simulating peak ground accelerations for the Uttarkashi earthquake of 20 October 1991 and comparing it with recorded one. A seismic study of the region shows, that it is prone to moderate as well as great earthquakes. The technique of Midorikawa has been applied for the preparation of zonation maps in this seismically active region. Two different zonation maps showing, respectively, the effects of moderate as well as great earthquakes in this region are presented in this paper. The zonation map for moderate earthquakes shows that the region can experience peak ground accelerations around 310 cm/s 2. This value is close to the peak ground acceleration of 304 cm/s 2 recorded for the Uttarkashi earthquake ( Ms = 7.1) at Uttarkashi station, which is about 60 km north of Dehradun. The prepared map shows that among all identified active lineaments, rupture along four lineaments can cause major damage in the region. Among these four, three lineaments are transverse to the major tectonic zones, viz., the MFT and MBT in the region, and one extends along the MFT lying south of Dehradun. The zonation map for great earthquakes ( M ? 8) has been prepared by modelling a rupture in the Central Gap region of the Himalaya. Seven different possibilities of rupture nucleation within the rupture plane are modelled and a zonation map containing three different zones is prepared. The prepared zonation map for this worst possible scenario shows that cities like Tehri, Uttarkashi, Srinagar, Deoprayag, Pauri and Dehradun fall within zone 1 and can experience ground accelerations bigger than 600 cm/s 2. The region like Hardwar and Rishikesh fall within zone 2 and can experience ground accelerations around 300 cm/s 2. The zonation map shows that Tehri can experience accelerations up to 0.84g and this value is comparable with that obtained by other researchers. This study confirms that for very long periods, the destruction in the region will be dominantly affected by ruptures having longer lengths and least effected by shorter ruptures. Therefore, special consideration about the longer ruptures should be taken while considering effect of earthquake hazards in this region.

Joshi, A.; Patel, R. C.

1997-12-01

129

Temporal variation of seismicity in a Himalayan tectonic block and the 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal variation of the seismicity between 1970 and August 1991 in the northwestern Himalaya and adjoining areas of Tibet, immediately to the north, were investigated using a function of the CN algorithm. The aim of the exercise was to detect a pattern which, if known earlier, could have been used to predict the Uttarkashi earthquake of 19 October 1991 in the Garhwal Himalaya. It is observed that strong earthquakes occurring in a block, defined by longitudes 75° and 83°E and latitudes 30° and 38°N approximately, yield a distinctive pattern of temporal variation in the seismicity for the purpose. We conclude from the analysis that the seismicity in the northwestern Himalayan segment of the Alpide-Himalayan seismic belt may not be independent of seismicity in southwestern Tibet.

Gahalaut, V. K.

1994-09-01

130

Source parameters of the Bhuj earthquake, India of January 26, 2001 from height and gravity changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Height and gravity measurements observed along a profile across the epicentral area before and after the January 26, 2001, Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake show a maximum uplift of 1.57 ± 0.5 m and a corresponding gravity change of ?393 ± 18 ?Gal. A best-fit, single-dislocation model inverted from the height-changes using non-linear optimization methods indicates that the high-slip rupture was

D. V. Chandrasekhar; D. C. Mishra; B. Singh; V. Vijayakumar; Roland Bürgmann

2004-01-01

131

Seismic imaging of the aftershock zone of the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed seismic tomography reveals that the 2001 Mw 7.7 Bhuj earthquake was associated with a 10–14% increase in Vp and Vs and a 10% decrease in Vp\\/Vs in the 10 to 35 km depth range covering a 2750 km2 area beneath the aftershock zone. This anomaly could be attributed to the existence of a lithological heterogeneity or a pluton of

Prantik Mandal; Jose Pujol

2006-01-01

132

Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation in the lower Shyok river valley, northern Ladakh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the ?150m thick Pliocene–Quaternary fluvio-lacustrine sediments exposed around the Khalsar and Tirit areas in the lower Shyok river valley, northern Ladakh and eastern Karakoram, India. These structures vary in morphology and pattern and occur at different stratigraphic horizons. They satisfy the criteria for attributing them to seismic events and it is proposed that these structures

Rajeev Upadhyay

2003-01-01

133

Earthquakes and deformational structures (seismites) in Holocene sediments from the Himalayan-Andaman Arc, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft-sediment deformational structures from the Himalayan Arc, caused by episodic earthquake recurrences during the Holocene (Recent), are produced by the ongoing tectonic processes. These small-scale, subtle structures occur along some major thrusts in the Garhwal Himalaya and vary from normal faults in the lower zone to compressional structures in the middle zone along the Main Central Thrust in the Tons Valley. The latter includes isoclinal, angular, kink and disharmonic folds (with discrete displacements along their axial surfaces), thrusts with décollement, listric and overstep thrusts in duplex style, and load slumping. The upper zone is marked by very low-angle thrusts with left-lateral displacement and associated displacement shears (D), Riedel shears (R) and thrust shears (P) as well as small-scale sporadic kinks. Three zones reveal changing tectonic character from gravity tectonics in the lower zone to compression in both the middle and upper zones with the maximum principal stress ? 1 oriented N60° to N110° respectively. Along the Tons Thrust, post-depositional structures include drag along normal fault zone characterized by D-, R- and P-shears and conjugate fractures that provide localized orientation of stresses: ? 1 at 75/N60°, ? 2 at 12/N280° and ? 3 at 12/N290°. Earthquake-induced liquefaction and subtle variations in physiomechanical properties of soft sediments have primarily controlled the deformational pattern due to localized tectonic stresses. Ground and sediment deformations during two earthquakes in the Himalayan-Andaman Arc provide additional support for the seismogenic origin of such structures preserved in loose or consolidated sediments.

Anand, Arvind; Jain, A. K.

1987-02-01

134

Stochastic Finite Fault Modeling of Subduction Zone Earthquakes in Northeastern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a stochastic finite fault source model is calibrated to estimate ground motion in northeastern India for intermediate depth events originating in the Indo-Burmese tectonic domain. A total of 47 three-component accelerograms from eight events with magnitudes ranging from M w 4.8-6.4 are used to estimate the input source and site parameters of the finite fault source model. Key seismic parameters such as stress drop (??) and site amplification function are determined from the recorded strong motion data. The obtained stress drop of the eight recorded events lies in between 105 and 165 bars.

Raghu Kanth, S. T. G.; Kavitha, B.

2013-11-01

135

Predicting strong motion parameters for the Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999, Garhwal Himalaya, India, from simplified finite fault model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State of Uttaranchal in the northern part of India in the Garhwal Himalaya was hit by the Chamoli earthquake on 28th March, 1999 (GMT). This earthquake was recorded on a strong motion array installed in this region. The maximum peak ground acceleration of 353 cm/sec2 was recorded at an accelerograph located at the Gopeshwar station at an approximate epicentral distance of 14 km. The simplified method of Midorikawa (1993) has been used to model finite fault responsible for causing the Chamoli earthquake. This method is based on the Empirical Green's Function (EGF) technique of Irikura (1986).Modifications in this method have been made to include layered earth model and transmission effects at each boundary by Joshi (2001). Rupture causing the Chamoli earthquake is placed in two structural models of the earth in this work: one is a homogeneous half space and other is the multi layered earth model. Comparison in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) is made between the simulated and actual strong motion parameters like peak acceleration and duration. It is seen that the introduction of multi layered earth system in this simplified technique is capable of significantly reducing the RMSE in observed and predicted strong motion parameters and defining the attenuation rate for peak ground acceleration of this earthquake.

Joshi, A.

136

India.  

PubMed

In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology. PMID:12177992

1989-03-01

137

A rare case of subconjunctival dirofilariasis by Dirofilaria repens in rural Gujarat.  

PubMed

Dirofilariasis is a worldwide zoonotic filariasis with over 782 cases reported so far from different parts of the world. Human dirofilariasis, caused by Dirofilaria repens, have been reported to occur widely throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. It has not been widely recognized in India, however; several cases have been reported in last few years. There is probably a focus of human infection with D. repens in Kerala. Herein, we present a review of human infections by D. repens, along with a case report of subconjunctival dirofilariasis from rural part of Gujarat. PMID:24088633

Patel, Rupal; Singh, Suman; Bhavsar, Samir

2014-05-01

138

Strong motion envelope modelling of the source of the Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garhwal Himalaya has been rocked by two major earthquakes in the span of just eight years, viz. Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991 and Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999. Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 was recorded at 11 different stations of a strong motion array installed in the epicentral region. The maximum peak ground acceleration (353 cm\\/s2) was

A. Joshi

2001-01-01

139

Spatial variation of crustal strain in the Kachchh region, India: Implication on the Bhuj earthquake of 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kachchh province of Western India is a major seismic domain in an intraplate set-up. This seismic zone is located in a rift basin, which was developed during the early Jurassic break-up of the Gondwanaland. The crustal strain determined from the GPS velocity data of post-seismic time period following the 2001 Bhuj earthquake indicates a maximum strain rate of ˜266 × 10-9 per year along N013°. Focal mechanism solutions of the main event of 26 January 2001 and the aftershocks show that the maximum principal stress axis is close to this high strain direction. Maximum shear strain rate determined from the GPS data of the area has similar orientation. The unusually high strain rate is comparable in magnitude to the continental rift systems. The partitioning of the regional NE-SW horizontal stress (SHmax) by the pre-existing EW-striking boundary fault developed the strike-slip components parallel to the regional faults, the normal components perpendicular to the faults, NE-striking conjugate Riedel shear fractures and tension fractures. The partitioned normal component of the stress is considered to be the major cause for compression across the regional EW faults and development of the second-order conjugate shear fractures striking NE-SW and NW-SE. The NE-striking transverse faults parallel to the anti-Riedel shear planes have become critical under these conditions. These anti-Riedel planes are interpreted to be critical for the seismicity of the Kachchh region. The high strain rate in this area of low to moderate surface heat flow is responsible for deeper position of the brittle-ductile transition and development of deep seated seismic events in this intraplate region.

Sinha, Sushmita; Mohanty, S.

2012-10-01

140

PREVALENCE OF ERGOT OF SORGHUM IN INDIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

On-farm sorghum ergot surveys were conducted in India in 1999, 2000 and 2001. A seven state area was surveyed including 250 fields in Andhra Pradesh, 451 fields in Karnataka, 413 fields in Maharashtra, 127 fields in Tamil Nadu, 3 in Rajasthan, 10 in Uttar Pradesh, and 1 in Gujarat. Ergot incidence ...

141

Late Pleistocene and Holocene large magnitude earthquakes along Himalayan Frontal Thrust in the Central Seismic Gap in NW Himalaya, Kala Amb, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT) forms the southernmost active tectonic mountain front of the Himalaya. To understand the ongoing tectonics further, paleoseismological study has been carried out in the vicinity of the HFT system along the Himalayan Front near Kala Amb, India. The trench excavation survey conducted across an explicit surface exposure of the HFT exhibits two distinct faults considered to be associated with the reactivation of the HFT where the Middle Siwalik rocks (Late Miocene) have repeatedly thrust over the Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. Presence of large-sized coseismically induced sand-injection feature and its disposition recognized in the trench also suggest occurrence of large magnitude earthquakes in this region. An uplifted and upwarped strath terrace, 3 to 5 m thick alluvium, resting over the 15 m high Middle Siwaliks, abruptly truncated by the HFT indicates its latest activity. Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating techniques were employed to constrain the chronology of events. The long term slip rate of the abandoned terraces due to the activity of the HFT is estimated to be 3.4 mm/yr or greater since Late Holocene. The paleoseismological investigations have provided unambiguous evidences of at least two large magnitude earthquakes occurred in this region where an earthquake with 12 m or larger surface displacement and magnitude 7.5 or greater hit this region in the period between 29.3 ka and 17 ka in the Late Pleistocene and another great earthquake recurred with 20-22 m or more surface displacement and magnitude of 7.7 or greater between 5.8 ka and 2 ka in the Holocene. The present study is the first time report of multiple large magnitude paleoearthquakes in the northwestern part of the Frontal Himalaya during Late Pleistocene and Holocene. The repeated reactivation of HFT substantiates high seismic potential of the Frontal Himalaya and calls for more extensive study of paleoearthquakes of this vastly populous mountainous region.

Philip, G.; Bhakuni, S. S.; Suresh, N.

2012-12-01

142

Bull. Astr. Soc. India (2012) 00, 1?? Interferometric studies of novae in the infrared  

E-print Network

Bull. Astr. Soc. India (2012) 00, 1­?? Interferometric studies of novae in the infrared O. Chesneau, Gujarat, India Received -- ; accepted -- Abstract. The Interferometric studies of novae in the optical insights into the nova phenomenon. This is particularly so in the early stages of the eruption when all

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Anomalous Behavior of D-Layer Preparation Time of the Ionosphere Due to Earthquakes as observed from Malda (India)  

SciTech Connect

The anomalous behavior of D-layer preparation time of the ionosphere are observed only before, during and after the earthquakes, which took place in the neighbouring region by monitoring the Very Low Frequency (VLF) signal using Gyrator II loop antenna. The anomalies were also observed in the sunrise terminator times during seismically active days. These anomalous behavior may be due to the Lithosphere-Ionosphere coupling. These anomalies may be a precursor of earthquake.

Chatterjee, Achintya K.; Nandy, Nilmadhab; Bari, Md. Washimul; Choudhury, Asit K. [Indian Centre for Space Physics (Malda Branch), Atul Market, Malda, West Bengal, Inda, 732101 (India)

2010-10-20

144

Strong motion envelope modelling of the source of the Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Garhwal Himalaya has been rocked by two major earthquakes in the span of just eight years, viz. Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991 and Chamoli earthquake of 28th March, 1999. Chamoli earthquake of March 28, 1999 was recorded at 11 different stations of a strong motion array installed in the epicentral region. The maximum peak ground acceleration (353 cm/s2) was recorded at an accelerograph located at Gopeshwar. The data from eleven stations has been used for comparison with the simulated acceleration envelopes due to a model of the rupture responsible for this earthquake. For simulation of acceleration envelope the method of Midorikawa (1993) has been modified for its applicability to Himalayan region. This method has earlier been used by Joshi and Patel (1997) and Joshi (1999) for the studyof Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th Oct, 1991. The same method has been used for study of Chamoli earthquake. Layered earth crust has been introduced in place of homogeneous one in this method. The model of rupture is placed at a depth of 12 km below the Munsiari thrust for modelling Chamoli earthquake. Peak ground acceleration was calculated from simulated acceleration envelope using layered as well as homogeneous earth crust. For the rupture placed in a layered crust model peak ground acceleration of order 312 cm/s2 was simulated at Gopeshwar which is quite close to actually recorded value. The comparison of peak ground acceleration values in terms of root mean square error at eleven stations suggests that the root mean square error is reduced by inclusion of a layered earth crust in place of homogeneous earth crust.

Joshi, A.

145

Subsurface stress analyses for the Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, India: An insight from the integrated geophysical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

6 suggest that intracon- tinental thrusting and shearing along the western Indian plate boundary may have diffused some deviatoric stresses into the Indian plate. No attempt has been made so far to compute the shear stress and analyse the failure stress condition for the Bhuj earthquake of 26 January 2001. Using results of the different geophysical investigations in the Bhuj

D. V. Chandrasekhar; B. Ramalingeswara Rao; B. Singh

2007-01-01

146

Earthquake Generated Tsunami in the Indian Ocean and Probable Vulnerability Assessment for the East Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tsunami hazard for the east coast of India is assessed. The Sumatra-Andaman 1300 km long fault is divided into five segments, each segment assumed to have different fault parameters. The initial vertical displacement of the sea bottom is calculated with the Mansinha and Smylie algorithm. Modeling of tsunami amplitude, travel time, run-up and directivity has been done. We compared

A. P. Singh; T. S. Murty; B. K. Rastogi; R. B. S. Yadav

2012-01-01

147

Surface rupture faulting of the 1950 Assam Earthquake: Evidence from paleoseismological trench investigation across the Northeastern Himalayan Front, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four large to great earthquakes of magnitude, Mw >=7 have occurred in the Indian subcontinent during the last 110 years. The 1905 Kangra (Mw 7.8), 1934 Bihar-Nepal (Mw 8.1) and 1950 (Mw 8.4) (former Assam, now Arunachal Pradesh) were located in the Himalayan belt, and the fourth 1897 (Ms 8.1) Assam affected the Shillong plateau and adjoining Brahmaputra plain. We

R. Perumal; V. C. Thakur; B. Choudhuri; A. Dubey

2010-01-01

148

Active faulting in apparently stable peninsular India: rift inversion and a Holocene-age great earthquake on the Tapti Fault  

E-print Network

source studies, observations and models of79 interseismic strain accumulation and postseismic relaxation, borehole obser-80 vations, and dynamic models of large-scale continental deformation. Due81 to the spatial distribution of earthquakes... interpreted as the infill of a fault-bounded rift valley,696 part of the Narmada-Son Lineament system of faults. This fault system,697 thought to have been active numerous times since the Precambrian [e.g. West,698 1962, Choubey, 1971, Biswas, 1982...

Copley, Alex; Mitra, Supriyo; Sloan, R Alastair; Gaonkar, Sharad; Reynolds, Kirsty

2014-07-23

149

Earthquakes in Stable Continental Crust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the reasons for earthquakes which occur in stable crust away from familiar zones at the ends of tectonic plates. Crust stability and the reactivation of old faults are described using examples from India and Australia. (CW)

Johnston, Arch C.; Kanter, Lisa R.

1990-01-01

150

An integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PQuake(TM) is an integrated digital system that facilitates earthquake damage reconnaissance. It combines digital photography, handheld GPS technology and custom software for a PalmRTM handheld computer to provide a user-friendly field data collection system. It mitigates the deficiencies involved with traditional reconnaissance techniques by allowing the rapid collection of consistent quantitative and qualitative damage data for both manmade structures and natural features. At the end of each day of reconnaissance, the reconnaissance personnel can upload their data to a personal computer and in minutes using the GIS-extension, create comprehensive maps of the damage. Consequently, PQuake(TM) facilitates more sophisticated planning of the reconnaissance activities, collecting larger quantities of consistent data, collaboration among researchers, near real-time reporting, analysis, visualization and mapping of the data. Additionally, it utilizes a relational database for managing, storing and archiving damage data as well as linking data to digital photographs and GPS waypoints. Consequently, PQuake facilitates the complete workflow process from data collection through analysis and reporting. The limitations of traditional reconnaissance are illustrated through a case history utilizing reconnaissance data collected in Adapazari, Turkey, following the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999. The damage data was combined with liquefaction analyses performed on geotechnical soundings obtained by PEER months after the event to investigate the building damage associated with local site effects in Adapazari. In particular, this case history demonstrates the necessity and benefits of the PQuake system. The PQuake(TM) system was first field-tested following the Gujarat, India, earthquake in January 2001. Additionally, the system was modified following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Centers to document structural and non structural damage to the surrounding buildings that suffered collateral damage as the towers collapsed. PQuake provides the ability to obtain damage data that is comprehensive and accurate. In order to learn as much as possible from catastrophic events, civil engineers must adopt new technologies and incorporate new reconnaissance protocols. This dissertation presents the development of an integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance that serves as a tool and a means for implementing the reconnaissance procedures.

Deaton, Scott Lowrey

151

A Clinical Study of Vitiligo in a Rural Set up of Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentary condition caused by inactivation or destruction of melanocytes in epidermis and hair follicle. Worldwide incidence of 1% has been reported; similar to various dermatological clinics in India. Widespread prejudice, ignorance, taboos, lack of scientific appraisal, and confusion of vitiligo with leprosy makes it an immense psychological stress. Aim: To know the clinical profile of vitiligo patient with associated cofactors. Materials and Methods: Total 1,010 patients of vitiligo attended in outpatient department at Shree Krishna Hospital (SKH) and Matar camp, Gujarat over 1 year period from August 2011 to July 2012 were included in this study. Detail history and clinical examination of patients were done. Results: Out of 1,010 patients 57.3% were females and 42.7 % were males. Most cases developed vitiligo by 2nd decade of life. Progressive course was found in 60.9 % of patients. Vitiligo vulgaris (57.8%) was most common morphological type. Most common site of onset (41.5%) and involvement (75.7%) was lower limb. Family history was present in 20.4%. Conclusions: Vitiligo constitutes important dermatological disease especially in India. The data suggest that local epidemiological behavior of vitiligo need not be the same across different regions. Vitiligo differs substantially in various clinical aspects. PMID:25136154

Vora, Rita V.; Patel, Bhumi B.; Chaudhary, Arvind H.; Mehta, Malay J.; Pilani, Abhishek P.

2014-01-01

152

Beyond the Education Silo? Tackling Adolescent Secondary Education in Rural India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the factors contributing to gender inequality in secondary schooling in India by critically reviewing the government's secondary education policy. Drawing on the findings of a study in rural Gujarat, we couple this analysis with an examination of the gendered dynamics that restrict girls' ability to fully benefit…

Kelly, Orla; Bhabha, Jacqueline

2014-01-01

153

Assessing the Environment for Introduction of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from a study conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two states in India: Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. The objectives of the study were to: (i) design effective and appropriate HPV vaccine delivery systems for 10- to 14-year-old girls; (ii) design a communication strategy for HPV vaccine delivery; and (iii) devise an HPV vaccine advocacy strategy. The

Martha Jacob; Nita Mawar; Lysander Menezes; Satish Kaipilyawar; Sanjay Gandhi; Irfan Khan; Manoj Patki; Allison Bingham; D. Scott LaMontagne; Rajani Bagul; Tuman Katendra; Neelima Karandikar; Varada Madge; Kishore Chaudhry; Ramesh Paranjape; Anjali Nayyar

2010-01-01

154

Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India  

PubMed Central

We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics. PMID:25593258

Bharadwaj SV, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar

2015-01-01

155

Marital Ideoscapes in 21st-Century India: Creative Combinations of Love and Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although arranged marriage has survived in India, the custom is increasingly challenged by the current influx of new commodities, media, and ideas. Interviews with 15 male and 15 female unmarried professionals, age 22 to 29, in Vadodara, Gujarat, showed that educated youth have moved beyond the conventional love-versus-arranged marriage dichotomy.…

Netting, Nancy S.

2010-01-01

156

Earthquakes and emergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes and emerging infections may not have a direct cause and effect relationship like tax evasion and jail, but new evidence suggests that there may be a link between the two human health hazards. Various media accounts have cited a massive 1993 earthquake in Maharashtra as a potential catalyst of the recent outbreak of plague in India that has claimed more than 50 lives and alarmed the world. The hypothesis is that the earthquake may have uprooted underground rat populations that carry the fleas infected with the bacterium that causes bubonic plague and can lead to the pneumonic form of the disease that is spread through the air.

157

Liquefaction Effects from the Bhuj earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These MISR images show the Kachchh region in the Gujarat province of western India. On January 26, 2001, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake devastated this area, killing 20,000 people and destroying buildings, dams, and port facilities. The two upper MISR images are pre- and post-earthquake scenes acquired on January 15 and January 31, 2001, respectively (Terra orbits 5736 and 5969). They are 'true-color' images made by combining the red, green and blue bands from the nadir (vertically down-looking) camera. The two lower views are 'false-color' images made by combining the red bands from three different cameras. Blue is assigned to the camera pointing 70 degrees forward (more sun-facing), green to the nadir camera, and red to the camera pointing 70 degrees aftward. Each of these images is about 275 kilometers wide by 218 kilometers high.

The earthquake epicenter was just below the southern tip of the large, white area on the right-hand side of the images, and about 70 kilometers northeast of the city of Bhuj. The earthquake may have occurred on the Kachchh Mainland Fault, which extends from the region of the epicenter westward along the curved boundary between the darker brown region to the south and the lighter brown area north of it. The compressive stresses responsible for the earthquake are related to the collision of India with Asia and the resulting rise of the Himalayas to the northeast.

That part of the Kachchh region which lies north of the Kachchh Mainland Fault includes the Banni Plains and the Rann of Kachchh. It is a low, flat basin characterized by salt pans and mud flats. The salt forms in the Rann of Kachchh as mineral-laden waters evaporate. The salt flats can be seen in the nadir images as highly reflective, white and gray areas. During the earthquake, strong shaking produced liquefaction in the fine silts and sands below the water table in the Rann of Kachchh. This caused the mineral grains to settle and expel their interstitial water to the surface. Field investigations have found abundant evidence of mud volcanos, sand boils, and fissures from which salty ground water erupted over an area exceeding 10,000 square kilometers. Evidence of the expelled water can also be seen on the MISR images.

Notice the delicate, dendritic pattern of stream channels throughout many of the salt-flats on the post-earthquake image, especially due north of the epicenter. These carried water brought to the surface by liquefaction during the earthquake. Areas where shallow surface water is present are much easier to see on the false-color multi-angle composite images. Wet areas are exhibiting a combination of enhanced forward-scattered light due to the reflection by the water, and enhanced backward scattering due to surface roughness or the presence of sediments. This combination results in blue to purple hues.

The region of sand dunes in the upper right and the Indus River valley and delta in the upper left are inside Pakistan. Near the top of the images, there is an east-west trending linear feature separating the Thar desert of Pakistan from the Rann of Kachchh. This is the Nagar Parkar Fault. On both pre-earthquake images, this feature is evident only from the contrasting brown colors on either side of it. On the post-earthquake images, a narrow ribbon defines the boundary between the two geologic provinces. However, only in the multi-angle composite do we see evidence that this ribbon may be a water-filled channel. Because this area is politically sensitive and fairly inaccessible, no field teams have been able to verify liquefaction effects or the presence of water there.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

158

Earthquakes Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the earthquake information page of the Natural Resources Canada Geologic Survey. It contains links to reports, maps, and lists of recent earthquakes, information and hazards as well as earthquake research and network and data archives. Links also connect to information on earthquake hazards, products and publications, a site to report earthquakes, and a link to other earthquake resources.

159

Palynology and clay mineralogy of the Deccan volcanic associated sediments of Saurashtra, Gujarat: Age and paleoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intertrappean sediments associated with Deccan Continental Flood Basalt (DCFB) sequence at Ninama in Saurashtra, Gujarat yielded palynoassemblage comprising at least 12 genera and 14 species including Paleocene taxa such as Intrareticulites brevis, Neocouperipollis spp., Striacolporites striatus, Retitricolpites crassimarginatus and Rhombipollis sp. The lava flows of Saurashtra represent the northwestern most DCFB sequence in India. It is considered that the Saurashtra lava flows represent the earliest volcanic activity in the Late Cretaceous of the Reunion Mantle Plume on the northward migrating Indian Plate. The present finding of the Paleocene palynoflora from Ninama sediments indicate Paleocene age for the associated lava flows occurring above the intertrappean bed which suggests that the Saurashtra plateau witnessed eruption of Deccan lava flows even during Paleocene. The clay mineral investigation of the Ninama sediments which are carbonate dominated shows dominance of low charge smectite (LCS) along with the presence of mica and vermiculite. Based on the clay mineral assemblage it is interpreted that arid climatic conditions prevailed during the sedimentation. The smectite dominance recorded within these sediments is in agreement with global record of smectite peak close to the Maastrichtian-Paleocene transition and climatic aridity.

Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, D. M.; Srivastava, P.; Thakre, Deepali

2014-02-01

160

Broken People: Caste Violence Against India's "Untouchables"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though "the imposition of social disabilities on persons by reason of their birth in certain castes" was legally abolished under India's constitution in 1950, "untouchability" is still practiced today in much of rural India. The "untouchable" caste -- or Dalits, which literally means "broken people" -- comprises over one-sixth of India's population, or 160 million people. This 310-page report, recently issued by Human Rights Watch (HRW), documents the discrimination and violence suffered by Dalits under the societal rule of higher-caste groups in the Indian states of Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Gujarat. The report also examines the government's role in preserving the status quo by thwarting peaceful social activism and failing to abolish exploitative labor practices through appropriate legislation.

161

Application of the time-predictable model in Peninsular India for future seismic hazard assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been the belief among Earth scientists that the Peninsular Shield is aseismic, as the region attained stability long\\u000a ago. However, the earthquake at Koyna (10 December 1967), Bhadrachalam (13 April 1969), Broach (23 March 1970), Hyderabad\\u000a (30 June 1983), Khillari (30 September 1993), Jabalpur (22 May 1997), Gujarat (26 January 2001), and additional ones of smaller\\u000a magnitudes, altered

Daya Shanker; H. N. Singh

2007-01-01

162

Estimation of Strong Ground Motion from a Great Earthquake Mw 8.5 in Central Seismic Gap Region, Himalaya (India) Using Empirical Green's Function Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study ground motions for a Mw 8.5 scenario earthquake are estimated at 13 sites in Kumaun-Garhwal region using the empirical Green's function technique. The recordings of 1991 Uttarkashi earthquake of Mw 6.8 at these sites are used as an element earthquake. A heterogeneous source model consisting of two asperities is considered for simulating the ground motions. The entire central seismic gap (CSG) can expect acceleration in excess of 100 cm/s2 with NW portion in excess of 400 cm/s2 and SE between 100 and 200 cm/s2. The central portion can expect peak ground acceleration (PGA) between 200 and 400 cm/s2. It has been observed from simulation of strong ground motion that sites located near the rupture initiation point can expect accelerations in excess of 1 g. In the present analysis, Bhatwari and Uttarkashi can expect ground accelerations in excess of 1 g. The estimates of the PGA are compared with earlier studies in the same region using different methodologies and it was found that the results are comparable. This has put constrains on the expected PGAs in this region. The obtained PGA values can be used in identifying the vulnerable areas in the central Himalaya, thereby facilitating the planning, design and construction of new structures and strengthening of the existing structures in the region.

Sharma, Babita; Chopra, Sumer; Sutar, Anup Kumar; Bansal, B. K.

2013-12-01

163

Earthquake Myths  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves to belie several popular myths about earthquakes. Students will learn that most earthquakes do not occur in the early morning and one cannot be swallowed up by an earthquake. In addition, there is no such thing as earthquake weather and California is not falling into the ocean. On the more practical side, students can learn that good building codes do not insure good buildings, it is safer under a table than in a doorway during an earthquake, and most people do not panic during an earthquake.

164

A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.

2003-01-01

165

Inside Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will witness the destructive power of earthquakes. You will watch home videos taken during earthquake tremors and you will go inside the Earth for the birth of a quake.

2010-01-01

166

EARTHQUAKES POWEROUTAGES  

E-print Network

TSUNAMI HURRICANES EARTHQUAKES POWEROUTAGES FIRE FOREMERGENCIES PREPAREFOREMERGENCIES Sign up in the event of a widespread disaster, such as a hurricane or earthquake. If a large area is affected, phone

167

Earthquakes Rock!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the two main methods to measure earthquakes, the Richter Scale and the Mercalli Scale. They make a model of a seismographâa measuring device that records an earthquake on a seismogram. Students also investigate which structural designs are most likely to survive an earthquake. And, they illustrate an informational guide to the Mercalli Scale.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

168

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows students how an earthquake epicenter is located and how Richter magnitude is determined. They will use recordings of seismograms from three stations (provided in the activity), learn the difference between the focus and epicenter of an earthquake, and that the magnitude of an earthquake is an estimate of the amount of energy that it has released.

Novak, Gary

169

Forecasting Earthquakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this video there are scenes of damage from the Northridge Earthquake and interviews with Dr. Andrea Donnelan, Geophysics at JPL, and Dr. Jim Dolan, earthquake geologist from Cal. Tech. The interviews discuss earthquake forecasting by tracking changes in the earth's crust using antenna receiving signals from a series of satellites called the Global Positioning System (GPS).

1994-01-01

170

Government of Gujarat has selected Dr.Harinarayana as an independent Director on the board of Directors of  

E-print Network

Government of Gujarat has selected Dr.Harinarayana as an independent Director on the board), Hyderabad, was chosen by the Government of Gujarat as an independent Director for it's state owned company developed international collaboration projects with GEMRC, Moscow, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria

Harinarayana, T.

171

Virtual Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake was created by California State University, Los Angeles, as part of the Electronic Desktop Project. This virtual simulation allows students to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude on the Richter scale. Students can choose from four geographic areas for their simulation. Virtual Earthquake carefully guides the student through the steps required to calculate the epicenter and to determine the magnitude of a simulated earthquake. The actual epicenter is provided along with the epicenter determined by the user. The user can then determine the magnitude of the earthquake as measured on the Richter scale.

1997-01-01

172

The Mw 7.5 2009 Coco earthquake, north Andaman region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent 10 August 2009 Coco earthquake (Mw 7.5), the largest aftershock of the giant 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake, occurred\\u000a within the subducting India plate under the Burma plate. The Coco earthquake nucleated near the northwestern edge of the 2004\\u000a Sumatra-Andaman earthquake rupture under the unruptured updip segment of the plate boundary interface. The earthquake with\\u000a predominant normal motion on

P. Mahesh; Amit Bansal; B. Kundu; J. K. Catherine; V. K. Gahalaut

2011-01-01

173

ISET Journal of Earthquake Technology, Paper No. 470, Vol. 43, No. 3, September 2006, pp. 49-64 PROBABILISTIC MODELING OF EARTHQUAKE HAZARD IN STABLE  

E-print Network

of India's most devastating earthquakes in recent times (e.g., 1967 Koyna, 1993 Killari, 1999 Jabalpur continental shield of peninsular India (10°N-26°N; 68°E-90°E) in terms of peak ground accelerations seismic hazard using a knowledge-tree approach. Attenuation relationships proposed for peninsular India

Gupta, Vinay Kumar

174

Corporate involvement in disaster response and recovery : an analysis of the Gujarat Earthquake  

E-print Network

Disaster vulnerability is a serious issue in developing countries where globalization, development patterns, poverty and environmental degradation are placing more people at risk to natural disasters. Recent appeals for ...

Sayegh, Tracy, 1976-

2004-01-01

175

Post-disaster reconstruction: A current analysis of Gujarat's response after the 2001 earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-disaster reconstruction is a complex process that involves the interaction of social, technological and economic factors. The most important goal of any post-disaster reconstruction programme must be to reduce the long-term vulnerability of affected communities through the construction of multi-hazard proof housing and appropriate knowledge transfer. Post-disaster reconstruction is an ever-evolving process and there is by no means a perfect

Plato Jack Powell

2011-01-01

176

UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE  

SciTech Connect

What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non-unitary site response. This indicates that often the actual behavior of a rock outcrop is far from that of an ideal, reference site.

Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

2005-05-04

177

Hidden earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Seismologists generally look for earthquakes to happen along visible fault lines, e.g., the San Andreas fault. The authors maintain that another source of dangerous quakes has been overlooked: the release of stress along a fault that is hidden under a fold in the earth's crust. The paper describes the differences between an earthquake which occurs on a visible fault and one which occurs under an anticline and warns that Los Angeles greatest earthquake threat may come from a small quake originating under downtown Los Angeles, rather than a larger earthquake which occurs 50 miles away at the San Andreas fault.

Stein, R.S.; Yeats, R.S.

1989-06-01

178

Izmit Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab allows students to look at variety of data from the North Anatolian fault in Turkey. Specifically, students have the oportunity to: interpret seismograms from the Izmit earthquake in 1999 (while accessing some seismograph station information from IRIS) make and interpret an earthquake focal mechanism solution based on these seismograms locate the earthquake epicenter calculate the moment magnitude of the earthquake using published data showing epicenter locations and displacement measurements intepret historical data from the North Anatolian fault and tectonic-scale plate motion information to see what patterns occur in the regional seismicity.

Sarah Titus

179

Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from NOVA tells the tragic story of two Japanese seismologists who disagreed about the threat of earthquakes in the early twentieth century. Today, seismologists in California offer residents a probability of risk that an earthquake might occur.

2005-12-17

180

Earthquakes 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn all about earthquakes! You will learn what causes them, how many occur daily, and where they usually happen. The video will also tell you about some of the earthquakes that have occurred in the United States.

2010-01-01

181

Plotting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners discover how to plot earthquakes on a map by exploring recent earthquake activity in California and Nevada. Within this activity, learners also practice using latitudinal and longitudinal lines and make predictions. This detailed lesson plan includes key vocabulary words, background information for educators, extension ideas, and resources.

California Academy of Sciences

2012-06-26

182

Earthquake prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The state of the art in earthquake prediction is discussed. Short-term prediction based on seismic precursors, changes in the ratio of compressional velocity to shear velocity, tilt and strain precursors, electromagnetic precursors, hydrologic phenomena, chemical monitors, and animal behavior is examined. Seismic hazard assessment is addressed, and the applications of dynamical systems to earthquake prediction are discussed.

Turcotte, Donald L.

1991-01-01

183

Synthesis and characterization of organic bentonite using Gujarat and Rajasthan clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian bentonite collected from two different sources, namely Barmer district, Rajasthan and Cutch district, Gujarat was screened and purified using the well- known Stoke's law of sedimentation by dispersing dif- ferent concentrations of bentonite (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4%) in deionized water. Chemical composition and cation exchange capacity of raw and purified bentonite (sed i- mented at different amounts

Hasmukh A. Patel; Rajesh S. Somani; Hari C. Bajaj; Raksh V. Jasra

184

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

185

Earthquake Effects and Experiences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portion of the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) frequently-asked-questions feature on earthquakes addresses what individuals might actually experience during an earthquake. Topics include earthquake motion (rolling or shaking), earthquake effects (ground shaking, surface faulting, ground failure, etc.), earthquake magnitude, what an earthquake feels like, and others. There are also links to additional resources on earthquake effects and experiences.

2010-11-23

186

Earthquakes Living Lab: Locating Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) real-time, real-world seismic data from around the planet to identify where earthquakes occur and look for trends in earthquake activity. They explore where and why earthquakes occur, learning about faults and how they influence earthquakes. Looking at the interactive maps and the data, students use Microsoft® Excel® to conduct detailed analysis of the most-recent 25 earthquakes; they calculate mean, median, mode of the data set, as well as identify the minimum and maximum magnitudes. Students compare their predictions with the physical data, and look for trends to and patterns in the data. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

187

Earthquake Search  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to provide instruction on how to collect earthquake data from on-line databases. The parameters can be changed so that data for earthquakes occurring at any time or part of the world can be accessed. Following completion of this activity the user will be able to find the epicenter and hypocenter (focus), determine the number of earthquakes in a given area or region, determine magnitude, and make inferences why ground shaking does not always decrease with increasing distance from the epicenter.

Hopson, R.

188

Emergence and extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in western India with reference to climate change: Fossil wood evidences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. and Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and Gujarat). These taxa are marked by their complete absence in the region today. The presence of Dipterocarpaceae in western India has been noticed from the Early Eocene up to the Plio-Pleistocene in deep time. The family is usually a dominant component of the humid tropical and subtropical flora of the Indo-Malayan region and its discovery, along with earlier described fossils from western India indicates existence of ancient tropical rain forests in western India. A change in the climate affected warm and humid conditions occurring there during the Cenozoic resulting in arid to semi-arid climate at present which is responsible for the ultimate extinction of Dipterocarpaceae in the region. In addition, the palaeobiogeography of Dipterocarpaceae is reviewed.

Shukla, Anumeha; Mehrotra, R. C.; Guleria, J. S.

2013-10-01

189

The Himalayan Frontal Thrust of India is not blind Senthil Kumar1  

E-print Network

, INDIA ABSTRACT We report evidence of surface rupturing earthquakes at Chandigarh, Kala Amb, Rampur Ganda of coseismic slip during the last surface rupture earthquake, assuming an average fault dip of 30o . The sites to accumulate the slip released during the most recent surface rupture earthquake. Assuming an average dip of 30

Bilham, Roger

190

Earthquake Facts  

MedlinePLUS

... and have smaller magnitudes than earthquakes on the Earth. It appears they are related to the tidal stresses associated with the varying distance between the Earth and Moon. They also occur at great depth, ...

191

Earthquake Location  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake location is an interesting and significant aspect of seismology. Locating earthquakes is necessary for compiling useful seismicity information, calculating magnitudes, and study of fault zones, Earth structure and the earthquake process. Methods of earthquake location involve understanding of seismic waves, wave propagation, interpretation of seismograms, Earth velocity structure, triangulation, and the concepts (and mathematics) of inverse problems. Because earthquake location can be approached with relatively simple to very complex methods, it can be included in various levels of educational curricula and for "in-depth" study. Progressively developing a deep understanding of concepts, computational techniques and applications (and the capabilities, limitations and uncertainties of these applications) is a characteristic of science and an opportunity to "learn science by doing science." A number of methods that vary from simple to complex are available for learning about earthquake location. The methods also allow connections to other important concepts in seismology and provide a variety of approaches that address different learning styles and can be used for reinforcement and assessment. Uses online and/or real-time data Has minimal/no quantitative component

Braile, Larry

192

The Quality of Care in Sterilization Camps: Evidence from Gujarat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterilization is the most popular method of contraception in India. The 1992-93 National Family Health Survey found that of the 36.2 percent of eligible couples using any modem method, most (30.7 per cent) had been sterilized and only 5.5 percent were using temporary methods (IIPS 1995, p. 143). Sterilization is thus six times more common than all the other modem

DILEEP MAVALANKAR; BHARTI SHARMA

193

Earthquake Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a demonstration of the principle of elastic rebound for the cause and recurrence of earthquakes. Under the Elastic Rebound Theory, the continuous motion of plates on Earth causes stress to build up at the boundaries between the plates, where friction keeps the boundaries locked. Stress is continually building up, and earthquakes act to relieve that stress. In the demonstration, the two sides of a fault are represented by sandpaper-covered blocks resting on a sandpaper-covered board. A weight rests on the block to apply a chosen amount of pressure on the sandpaper (defining the frictional strength of the fault). A spring is attached to the block and to a string, on which a constant pull is maintained. This apparatus is used to discover when the stress causes the blocks to move. Conclusions on earthquake recurrence (seismicity) may then be drawn.

Barker, Jeffrey

194

Predicting Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five moderate-to-strong earthquakes struck California in June 2005. Could the cluster of quakes be a harbinger of the Big One? Another earthquake-prone area, New Madrid, near Memphis, Tennessee, has had more than its share of impressive quakes and strain is building along its fault lines. This radio broadcast discusses these two seismic zones, the new data based on years of GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements that may give scientists more information, and how the Earth generates the stress which leads to earthquakes. There is also discussion of the danger of tsunamis in the Virgin Islands and the need for a worldwide tsunami warning network. The broadcast is 18 minutes in length.

195

GPS constraints on Indo-Asian convergence in the Bhutan Himalaya: Segmentation and potential for a 8.2earthquake.  

E-print Network

93929190898887 4 16 18 1934 epicenter 1934 Mw8.2 rupture A B KishinganjF. C India Fixed velocities Shillong India Block and India inplies slip increasing eastwards on the Dauki fault, and an ill defined boundary historical) earthquake depends on its along-strike length, for which we have no observational data. However

Bilham, Roger

196

Mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India: part 7--an overview.  

PubMed

Parts 1 to 6 of this series on the mosquitoes of the mangrove forests of India dealt with the mosquito species recorded in the mangroves of Bhitarkanika, Sundarbans, Andaman and Nicobar islands, Coringa, Chorao and Vikhroli, and Kundapur and Kannur. This concluding part provides an overview of the distribution of the mosquito species in different mangrove forests, including the mangroves of Muthupet in Tamilnadu and the mangroves of Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Kambhat in Gujarat, species collected as larvae, species in relation to the salinity of the larval habitats, species landing on humans for feeding in the mangroves, and the impact of habitat degradation on species diversity. PMID:19181053

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R

2008-12-01

197

Koyna Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Koyna earthquake of December 11, 1967, killed about 200 people and injured a few thousand. The eipcentre was within 5 km of the Koyna Dam (17° 23' N., 73° 45' E.). A magnitude of the order of 7.5 on the Richter scale has been reported by the Indian Meteorological Department and the Central Water and Power Research Station. The

Hari Narain; Harsh Gupta

1968-01-01

198

Earthquake Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the structure of the earth and how an earthquake happens. In one activity, students make a model of the earth including all of its layers. In a teacher-led demonstration, students learn about continental drift. In another activity, students create models demonstrating the different types of faults.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

199

Earthquake Vulnerability  

E-print Network

This report is available as an online document at www.nbmg.unr.edu. Please use links on the tables to view summary reports for scenarios involving earthquakes of magnitude 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, and 7.0 for 38 communities in Nevada.

Jonathan G. Price; Gary Johnson; Christine M. Ballard; Heather Armeno; Jonathan G. Price; Gary Johnson; Christine M. Ballard; Heather Armeno; Irene Seeley Linda D. Goar

200

The Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE of the most curious effects of the earthquake in the Peldon district is the evidence of a decided twist or apparent rotation of the shock evident in many cases upon standing buildings. Is is very apparent in the cracks throughout Dr. Green's house, which take a complete screw round some of the rooms and the staircase. It is also

W. F. Stanley

1884-01-01

201

Genetic counselling in tribals in India  

PubMed Central

Genetic counselling in tribals unlike general population residing in cities and near villages is a difficult task due of their lower literacy and poor socio-economic status. However, sustained effort is essential with a close interaction in the local language, certain misbeliefs need to be removed gradually taking into account their socio-cultural background. The present communication deals with our experience in counselling for haemoglobinopathies during Neonatal Screening Programme undertaken for sickle cell disease in Kalahandi district of Orissa and Community Screening Programmes in primitive tribes of India in four States viz. Orissa, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Counselling during neonatal screening programme was very well accepted demonstrating the benefit to the small babies as regards the morbidity. Premarital marriage counselling was also accepted by them. The success rate as followed up for 5 years is almost 50 per cent, the limitation being long follow up. Genetic counselling in these areas has to be continuous to achieve success and therefore the need for setting up of permanent centres in the tribal areas in India. PMID:22089621

Mohanty, Dipika; Das, Kishalaya

2011-01-01

202

Darwin's earthquake.  

PubMed

Charles Darwin experienced a major earthquake in the Concepción-Valdivia region of Chile 175 years ago, in February 1835. His observations dramatically illustrated the geologic principles of James Hutton and Charles Lyell which maintained that the surface of the earth was subject to alterations by natural events, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and the erosive action of wind and water, operating over very long periods of time. Changes in the land created new environments and fostered adaptations in life forms that could lead to the formation of new species. Without the demonstration of the accumulation of multiple crustal events over time in Chile, the biologic implications of the specific species of birds and tortoises found in the Galapagos Islands and the formulation of the concept of natural selection might have remained dormant. PMID:21038753

Lee, Richard V

2010-07-01

203

USGS Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage of the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This page points to information on earthquakes in Northern California, the United States, and the world. Topics include reports on recent large earthquakes, real-time earthquake maps, real-time shaking maps, real-time seismograms, earthquake network reports and updates, recent and significant earthquakes, and earthquake news releases. Users will be able to view maps and click on them. The EHP is part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) lead by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

204

Coseismic deformation induced by the Sumatra earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The giant Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 caused permanent deformations effects in a region of previously never observed extension. The GPS data from the worldwide network of permanent IGS sites show significant coseismic displacements in an area exceeding 107km2, reaching most of South-East Asia, besides Indonesia and India. We have analyzed long GPS time series histories in order to

E. Boschi; E. Casarotti; R. Devoti; D. Melini; A. Piersanti; G. Pietrantonio; F. Riguzzi

2006-01-01

205

Stochastic ground-motion simulation of two Himalayan earthquakes: seismic hazard assessment perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earthquakes in Uttarkashi (October 20, 1991, M w 6.8) and Chamoli (March 8, 1999, M w 6.4) are among the recent well-documented earthquakes that occurred in the Garhwal region of India and that caused extensive damage as well as loss of life. Using strong-motion data of these two earthquakes, we estimate their source, path, and site parameters. The quality

Ashish Harbindu; Mukat Lal Sharma; Kamal

2011-01-01

206

Conferees Examine Deadly 2005 Kashmir Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last major urban earthquake to strike Pakistan prior to 2005 severely damaged the city of Quetta in 1935 and killed 35,000 people. In the last 70 years, although much progress has been made in studying the location of active faults and zones of seismicity in Pakistan, the general public in Pakistan has not yet fully understood or recognized the earthquake hazard. The near-destruction of two towns- Balakot in the North-West Frontier Province, and Muzaffarabad, the capital of Azad Jammu Kashmir Province-and the deaths of more than 70,000 people caused by the 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) led the government of Pakistan to request a scientific response and plan of action. Accordingly, the Geological Survey of Pakistan (GSP) organized a recent international conference, which was attended by Pakistani scientists and participants from Austria, France, India, Iran, Japan, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States [Kausar et al., 2006].

Yeats, Robert S.; Kausar, Allah Bakhsh; Nakata, Takashi

2006-03-01

207

CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 106, NO. 5, 10 MARCH 2014 665 What makes Gujarat a hotspot for solar energy investments?  

E-print Network

energy investments? Komalirani Yenneti With over 300 days of sunshine and solar radiation of 5.6­6.0 kWh/m2 /day (refs 1, 2), the state of Gujarat has a potential of generating 750 GW from solar energy3 II, the project is expected to generate about 500 MW of solar energy. All this growth in the solar

Joshi, Yogesh Moreshwar

208

India: Bihar  

article title:  MISR Data Reveal Immense Pollution Pool over Bihar, India     ... satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool of pollution over the northern Indian state of Bihar. The discovery was made by ...

2013-04-16

209

Tsunami: India  

article title:  Breaking Tsunami Waves along India's Eastern Coast     ... several meters due to the quake, resulting in large ocean waves, called "tsunamis" from the Japanese for "harbor waves." The tsunami ...

2013-04-16

210

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Alaska Earthquake Information Center contains information on seismology and tsunami research, education and outreach projects, and earthquake preparedness. There are also maps, reports, and a database on recent earthquakes and a map of historical Alaskan earthquakes, active faults, and rupture zones.

211

EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES  

E-print Network

EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS FOR LABORATORIES By: Christopher E. Kohler (Environmental Health and Safety) and Walter E. Gray (Indiana Geological Survey) Earthquakes occur with little or no warning, and so planning of an earthquake. While most historical earthquakes were minor, Indiana's proximity to two seismic zones

Polly, David

212

Mechanism of tsunami earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of the Aleutian islands earthquake of 1946 and the Sanriku earthquake of 1896 is studied on the basis of the data on seismic waves from 5 to 100 s and on tsunamis. These earthquakes generated, despite their relatively small earthquake magnitude, two of the largest and most widespread tsunamis in history. The data obtained at different periods are

Hiroo Kanamori

1972-01-01

213

Earthquake occurrence and effects.  

PubMed

Although earthquakes are mainly concentrated in zones close to boundaries of tectonic plates of the Earth's lithosphere, infrequent events away from the main seismic regions can cause major disasters. The major cause of damage and injury following earthquakes is elastic vibration, rather than fault displacement. This vibration at a particular site will depend not only on the size and distance of the earthquake but also on the local soil conditions. Earthquake prediction is not yet generally fruitful in avoiding earthquake disasters, but much useful planning to reduce earthquake effects can be done by studying the general earthquake hazard in an area, and taking some simple precautions. PMID:2347628

Adams, R D

1990-01-01

214

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Virtual Earthquake is an interactive web-based program designed to introduce the concepts of how an earthquake epicenter is located and how the Richter magnitude of an earthquake is determined. Virtual Earthquake shows the recordings of an earthquake's seismic waves detected by instruments far away from the earthquake. The instrument recording the seismic waves is called a seismograph and the recording is a seismogram. The point of origin of an earthquake is called its focus and the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus is the epicenter. You are to locate the epicenter of an earthquake by making simple measurements on three seismograms that are generated by the Virtual Earthquake program. Additionally, you will be required to determine the Richter Magnitude of that quake from the same recordings. Richter Magnitude is an estimate of the amount of energy released during an earthquake.

Novak, Gary

2000-04-25

215

Early Eocene fossils suggest that the mammalian order Perissodactyla originated in India.  

PubMed

Cambaytheres (Cambaytherium, Nakusia and Kalitherium) are recently discovered early Eocene placental mammals from the Indo-Pakistan region. They have been assigned to either Perissodactyla (the clade including horses, tapirs and rhinos, which is a member of the superorder Laurasiatheria) or Anthracobunidae, an obscure family that has been variously considered artiodactyls or perissodactyls, but most recently placed at the base of Proboscidea or of Tethytheria (Proboscidea+Sirenia, superorder Afrotheria). Here we report new dental, cranial and postcranial fossils of Cambaytherium, from the Cambay Shale Formation, Gujarat, India (~54.5?Myr). These fossils demonstrate that cambaytheres occupy a pivotal position as the sister taxon of Perissodactyla, thereby providing insight on the phylogenetic and biogeographic origin of Perissodactyla. The presence of the sister group of perissodactyls in western India near or before the time of collision suggests that Perissodactyla may have originated on the Indian Plate during its final drift toward Asia. PMID:25410701

Rose, Kenneth D; Holbrook, Luke T; Rana, Rajendra S; Kumar, Kishor; Jones, Katrina E; Ahrens, Heather E; Missiaen, Pieter; Sahni, Ashok; Smith, Thierry

2014-01-01

216

Observing the Greatest Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGU Chapman Conference on Giant Earthquakes and Their Tsunamis; Viña del Mar and Valparaíso, Chile, 16-20 May 2010 ; An AGU Chapman Conference commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the 1960 M 9.5 Chile earthquake. Participants reexamined this earthquake, the largest ever recorded instrumentally, and compared it with Chile's February 2010 M 8.8 earthquake. They also addressed the giant earthquake potential

Brian Atwater; Sergio Barrientos; Inís Cifuentes; Marco Cisternas; Kelin Wang

2010-01-01

217

Earthquake Photo Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of earthquake photos, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), contains links to photos for specific earthquakes, as well as links to other USGS image collections and non-USGS collections. Highlights include photos from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the 1994 earthquake in Northridge, California. There is also a link to the USGS photo library (general geologic topics), and links to collections published by universities, museums, other government organizations, and professional organizations.

218

Tohoku earthquake: a surprise?  

E-print Network

We consider three issues related to the 2011 Tohoku mega-earthquake: (1) how to evaluate the earthquake maximum size in subduction zones, (2) what is the repeat time for the largest earthquakes in Tohoku area, and (3) what are the possibilities of short-term forecasts during the 2011 sequence. There are two quantitative methods which can be applied to estimate the maximum earthquake size: a statistical analysis of the available earthquake record and the moment conservation principle. The latter technique studies how much of the tectonic deformation rate is released by earthquakes. For the subduction zones, the seismic or historical record is not sufficient to provide a reliable statistical measure of the maximum earthquake. The moment conservation principle yields consistent estimates of maximum earthquake size: for all the subduction zones the magnitude is of the order 9.0--9.7, and for major subduction zones the maximum earthquake size is statistically indistinguishable. Starting in 1999 we have carried out...

Kagan, Yan Y

2011-01-01

219

Earthquake Magnitude - Linking Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earthquake magnitude is commonly used to represent the size of an earthquake. However, most people want to understand how much impact or damage earthquakes do. These two concepts are linked by shaking. Earthquake magnitude can be measured in a variety of ways, most commonly moment magnitude or Richter magnitude. Shaking is measured in units of acceleration, (often a percentage of g). Damage or intensity can be measured by the modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) scale. In this activity, students will model earthquakes of various magnitudes to determine the amount of shaking that these quakes will cause. They will then convert the shaking to modified Mercalli intensity and generate an isoseismal map for a M8 and M6 earthquake. Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields Addresses student misconceptions

Baer, Eric

220

Avian Flu / Earthquake Prediction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast includes a discussion of the avian flu spreading though Southeast Asia, Russia and parts of Europe. Topics include whether the outbreak is a pandemic in the making, and what preparations might be made to control the outbreak. The next segment of the broadcast discusses earthquake prediction, in light of the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan. Two seismologists discuss what was learned in the Parkfield project, an experiment in earthquake prediction conducted in California. Other topics include the distribution of large versus small earthquakes; how poor construction magnifies earthquake devastation; and the relationship of plate tectonics to the Pakistan earthquake.

221

Evaluation of GVI-based indices for drought early warning in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought is the major disaster, which occurs in some part of India every year due to monsoon variability. India has established satellite based National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System (NADAMS), at National Remote Sensing Agency, Department of Space since 1987. NADAMS provides near real time monitoring and early warning of drought conditions at National level using NOAA AVHRR and at regional level using IRS WiFS and AWiFS data. ISRO-NASA-NOAA science cooperation project has been initiated during 2005 for development of satellite based decision support drought monitor system in India. Initially, the evaluation of GVI based indices for drought early warning in India was taken up. The study was carried out over five small regions each covering part of a district and over five large regions each covering few districts in each state of Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan states and the result of the study is presented in this paper. The weekly GVI based indices such as Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI) for the period from 1991-2004 over 5 small regions covering part of districts namely Banaskantha district of Gujarat state to represent Bajra crop, Surendra nagar district of Gujarat state to represent Cotton crop, Nasik district of Maharashtra to represent Bajra crop, Bhandara district to represent Rice crop and Akola district of Maharastra to represent Jowar crop was selected. The weekly GVI based indices over 5 large regions with larger database from 1981 to 2004 covering few districts of Rajasthan state to represent winter wheat and few districts of Maharashtra state to represent Jowar, Rice and Cotton crops were selected. The comparison of seasonal average VCI, TCI and VHI with the corresponding crops yield over 5 small regions indicate better regression coefficient for VHI than VCI or TCI. The comparison over 5 large regions covering larger data base from 1982-2004 indicate better regression coefficient for VCI than VHI or TCI. Results of the study suggests over smaller region, the VCI and TCI combined VHI indices relates better with crop yields, whereas over larger region, the VCI itself relates better with crop yields than with TCI or the VCI and TCI combined VHI.

Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Kogan, Felix N.

2006-12-01

222

India Illustrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Houston's Digital Library brings together over 210 black and white photographs from a rare book entitled, India Illustrated. This work was originally published around 1905 and it came from the publishers of the English language newspaper, Times of India. Visitors can get started with the Browse the Collection section which offers thumbnails of such photos as "A Bathing Fair on the Gangesâ and "A Corner of Fort St. George.â The collection contains some rather curious images of British colonialism, including shots of the Madras Cricket Club, the Adyar Club, and a range of polo matches.

223

Characterisation of active faulting and earthquake hazard in the Mongolian Altay Mountains based on previously unknown ancient earthquake surface ruptures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in continental collision zones are typically distributed across a region that may be several thousands of kilometres away from the main collisional margin. This far-field deformation is poorly understood in terms of how strain is distributed onto upper crustal faults, particularly because active faults can be difficult to identify in regions where historical seismicity is sparse. The collision between India and Asia forms the most impressive example of active continental deformation on earth, with several zones of faulting and uplift extending across a region over 2500 km wide. The Altay Mountains, in western Mongolia, are at the northern edge of the India-Asia collision zone. Active dextral strike-slip faults in the Altay have produced M 8 earthquakes (such as the 1931 Fu Yun earthquake), and according to GPS measurements, the region accommodates approximately 7 mm/yr of shortening. Surface ruptures of pre-historic earthquakes are exceptionally preserved due to the cold and arid climate of the Altay. Observed surface ruptures are an effective extension to the historical seismic record, because the size and expression of ruptures may reveal important characteristics of the Altay active faults, such as typical earthquake magnitudes and definitive locations of active faults. We present observations of, previously unknown, surface ruptures and active faulting from the central Altay. The moment magnitudes of the ancient earthquakes are estimated based on the length of the ruptures using classic earthquake scaling laws. The newly discovered ruptures are combined with previously described earthquake ruptures to estimate the combined strike-slip rates of the Altay faults over the past ~1000 years on the basis of total moment release. This strike-slip rate will be discussed in the context of the modern-day estimates of shortening rate and the implications for the earthquake hazard in western Mongolia.

Gregory, L. C.; Walker, R.; Nissen, E.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Gantulga, B.; Amgalan, B.

2012-12-01

224

Rupture parameters of the 1999 Chamoli earthquake in Garhwal Himalaya: Constraints from aftershocks and change in failure stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A positive correlation between areas of increased coulomb stress changes, induced by an earthquake, and the spatial distribution in the occurrence of aftershocks have been reported in recent years. We consider such a correlation between the aftershocks of March 29, 1999 Chamoli earthquake (Ms 6.6) that occurred in the Garhwal Himalaya, India, and the mainshock induced coulomb stresses, to constrain

Shikha Rajput; V. K. Gahalaut; P. S. Raju; J. R. Kayal

2005-01-01

225

Cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices in the agate industry, Khambhat (Gujarat).  

PubMed

It is well known that an exposure to crystalline silica gives rise to silicosis and silico-tuberculosis (TB). In the agate industry of Khambhat (Gujarat) not only workers but also people staying in the vicinity of the agate-grinding facilities are exposed to crystalline silica. To reduce their dust exposure, dust control devices were developed. There are approximately 500 grinding machines located in Khambhat. A cost-benefit analysis of installing dust control devices on all agate-grinding machines was carried out by adding all positive factors and benefits and subtracting the negatives and costs. It was concluded that by installing dust control devices not only could the prevalence of silicosis and TB be reduced but also, in the long run, there could be financial benefits. PMID:20040971

Bhagia, Lakho J; Sadhu, H G

2008-12-01

226

Internet India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

Pahl, Ronald H.

1997-01-01

227

Earthquakes: The Prehistoric Record  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from NOVA, a geologist digs a trench along the San Andreas Fault to reveal three thousand years of earthquake history. Information from the layers of sediment may help geologists to predict earthquakes.

2005-12-17

228

Earthquakes in Your State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online investigation of where earthquakes occur. Students research past earthquakes to see if any have occurred in their region. This activity has an accompanying page of websites for further research.

229

Earthquakes: Hydrogeochemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

Ingebritsen, S. E.; Manga, M.

2014-10-01

230

Earthquakes for Kids  

MedlinePLUS

... Education FAQ Earthquake Glossary For Kids Prepare Google Earth/KML Files Earthquake Summary Posters Photos Publications Share ... for Education FAQ EQ Glossary For Kids Google Earth/KML Files EQ Summary Posters Photos Publications Monitoring ...

231

Earthquakes - Discover Our Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Cornell University, describes the origins, effects, measurement, and consequences of earthquakes. The site includes an overview and an exercise section that discusses key points pertaining to earthquakes, followed up with three activities.

Institute for the Study of the Continents (INSTOC) Geoscience Information Project

232

Speeding earthquake disaster relief  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

1995-01-01

233

A slow earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anomalous earthquakes such as creep events, tsunami earthquakes and silent earthquakes have been reported in the recent literature. In this paper we discuss an anomalous ``slow earthquake'' that occurred on June 6, 1960 in southern Chile. Although the surface-wave magnitude of this event is only 6.9, it excited anomalously large long-period multiple surface waves with a seismic moment of 5.6

Hiroo Kanamori; Gordon S. Stewart

1979-01-01

234

Earthquake History of California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes major earthquakes that have occurred in California since the colonial era, beginning with a 1769 earthquake experienced by a Spanish expedition near what is now Los Angeles, and ending with the July 1952 earthquake in Kern County. Each account provides observer's reports of injuries, fatalities, property damage, and ground effects (cracking, subsidence). More recent earthquake accounts include an estimated or measured magnitude.

235

Alaskan Earthquake of 1964  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will describe how a natural event, the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964, affected human activity. They will study a fact sheet with an account of the earthquake, examine maps of the tectonic plates in the vicinity of Alaska, model plate collisions using sponges, and make lists of what might happen during an earthquake in a hypothetical Alaskan city.

Mazzetti, Linda

236

Children's Ideas about Earthquakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

Simsek, Canan Lacin

2007-01-01

237

Real Earthquakes, Real Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred…

Schomburg, Aaron

2003-01-01

238

School Safety and Earthquakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent assessment of earthquake risk to Quito, Ecuador, concluded that many of its public schools are vulnerable to collapse during major earthquakes. A subsequent examination of 60 buildings identified 15 high-risk buildings. These schools were retrofitted to meet standards that would prevent injury even during Quito's largest earthquakes. US…

Dwelley, Laura; Tucker, Brian; Fernandez, Jeanette

1997-01-01

239

Redefining Earthquakes and the Earthquake Machine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Earthquake Machine (EML), a mechanical model of stick-slip fault systems, can increase student engagement and facilitate opportunities to participate in the scientific process. This article introduces the EML model and an activity that challenges ninth-grade students' misconceptions about earthquakes. The activity emphasizes the role of models…

Hubenthal, Michael; Braile, Larry; Taber, John

2008-01-01

240

Operational earthquake forecasting can enhance earthquake preparedness  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We cannot yet predict large earthquakes in the short term with much reliability and skill, but the strong clustering exhibited in seismic sequences tells us that earthquake probabilities are not constant in time; they generally rise and fall over periods of days to years in correlation with nearby seismic activity. Operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) is the dissemination of authoritative information about these time?dependent probabilities to help communities prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes. The goal of OEF is to inform the decisions that people and organizations must continually make to mitigate seismic risk and prepare for potentially destructive earthquakes on time scales from days to decades. To fulfill this role, OEF must provide a complete description of the seismic hazard—ground?motion exceedance probabilities as well as short?term rupture probabilities—in concert with the long?term forecasts of probabilistic seismic?hazard analysis (PSHA).

Jordan, T.H.; Marzocchi, W.; Michael, A.J.; Gerstenberger, M.C.

2014-01-01

241

Earthquake Nucleation and Its Relationship to Earthquake Clustering  

E-print Network

Earthquake clustering phenomena such as aftershocks, foreshocks, and pairing of mainshocks are prominent and characteristic features of earthquake occurrence. Because the earthquake nucleation process controls the time and place of occurrence of earthquakes, non-linear dependence of nucleation times on stress changes can strongly affect the spatial and temporal patterns of earthquake occurrence. Earthquake nucleation on faults with rate- and statedependent fault properties has this characteristic, and appears to quantitatively represent the details and broad statistical patterns of earthquake clustering.

James Dieterich Geological; James H. Dieterich

242

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

243

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

2011-05-05

244

Genetic variability and bottleneck studies in Zalawadi, Gohilwadi and Surti goat breeds of Gujarat (India) using microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian goat breeds are recognized as an invaluable component of the world's goat genetic resources. Microsatellite pairs were chosen from the list suggested by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) and amplified in two multiplexes (Set-I: 7 microsatellites and Set-II: 11 microsatellites) for automated fluorescence genotyping to assess bottleneck and analyze genetic variability and genetic distances within and between three

Shadma Fatima; C. D. Bhong; D. N. Rank; C. G. Joshi

2008-01-01

245

Effect of soda ash industry effluent on bioaccumulation of metals by seaweeds of coastal region of Gujarat, India.  

PubMed

The bioaccumulation ability of five species of seaweeds to 15 metals was studied in the seawater polluted by the effluent of soda ash industry. The bioaccumulation of Al, Mn and Fe in these seaweeds increased continuously as distance increased from outfall. However, Padina tetrastromatica showed reverse trend. Quite a number of metals like Au, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb, Pt and Sn were not recorded from any species of seaweeds from all sampling stations. Cr was recorded in Gracillaria acerosa from control site only. Accumulation of Cu in Gracilaria corticata was maximum near effluent discharge point and least at control, whereas its accumulation in P. tetrastromatica was more at station with lower pollution (station-3) than higher polluted station (station-2). Seaweeds had different pattern of bioaccumulation to Cu and Ag under the influence of the effluent. The bioaccumulation of Cd in quite a number of species was in non-detectable range, however in case of red seaweed it was more under polluted condition and non-detectable in control. The biosequestering capacity of different seaweed to different metals and their suitability for bioremediation under the influence of effluent is discussed. Bioconcentration factor for different seaweed species from different distances from outfall has been computed and discussed. The undiluted soda ash industry effluent is characterized by very high pH, density, settleable solids, total dissolved solids, ammonia and nitrate. The specific gravity, density, total suspended solids and total dissolved solids decreased continuously from undiluted effluent to seawater affected up to 1 km. PMID:17258393

Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

2007-08-17

246

Saint Louis University Earthquake Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Saint Louis University (SLU) Earthquake Center provides recent Midwest earthquake locations, the history of central U.S. earthquakes, a link for reporting an earthquake, historic earthquake and instrument photographs, and explanations of the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale. There are earthquake information flyers, links to course websites and course notes, a textbook description, computer tools and earthquake catalogs, and recent theses and dissertations. There are also links to seismic systems and networks as well as SLU network reports.

247

Weather Satellite Thermal IR Responses Prior to Earthquakes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of observers claim to have seen thermal anomalies prior to earthquakes, but subsequent analysis by others has failed to produce similar findings. What exactly are these anomalies? Might they be useful for earthquake prediction? It is the purpose of this study to determine if thermal anomalies can be found in association with known earthquakes by systematically co-registering weather satellite images at the sub-pixel level and then determining if statistically significant responses occurred prior to the earthquake event. A new set of automatic co-registration procedures was developed for this task to accommodate all properties particular to weather satellite observations taken at night, and it relies on the general condition that the ground cools after sunset. Using these procedures, we can produce a set of temperature-sensitive satellite images for each of five selected earthquakes (Algeria 2003; Bhuj, India 2001; Izmit, Turkey 2001; Kunlun Shan, Tibet 2001; Turkmenistan 2000) and thus more effectively investigate heating trends close to the epicenters a few hours prior to the earthquake events. This study will lay tracks for further work in earthquake prediction and provoke the question of the exact nature of the thermal anomalies.

OConnor, Daniel P.

2005-01-01

248

Delhi, India  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

249

Government of India Geological Survey of India  

E-print Network

:58:53 hrs. [06:28:51.1hrs. IST (IMD)]. This is one of the largest interplate shallow thrust earthquakes of Effects of the Sumatra - Andaman Earthquake of 26 December 2004 in Andaman and Nicobar Islands January 2005 #12;3 A Preliminary Report on Investigation of Effects of the Sumatra - Andaman Earthquake of 26

Bilham, Roger

250

Investigating Earthquakes through Regional Seismicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, sudents will use online interactive materials to investigate the nature of earthquakes. The module consists of three major sections, "What is an Earthquake?", "The Distribution of Earthquakes", and "Measuring Earthquakes". Each section presents online material for background and interactive learning activities which help them to understand such characteristics of earthquakes as their associated faults, rates of occurrence, magnitudes, and geographic distribution.

John Marquis

251

The Distribution of Earthquakes: An Earthquake Deficit?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use online resources to investigate the occurrence of earthquakes in Southern California to decide if there has been a 'deficit', that is, not enough earthquakes in the area in historical time to release the amount of strain energy that plate tectonics is constantly supplying to the crust. In the first two parts, they must determine the appropriate year to begin their study of historic earthquake records (from 1860-1900), and then they must decide if the energy released by past earthquakes has been equivalent to the amount of energy accumulating through the action of plate tectonics over the same number of years. In part three, they perform an analysis of their findings by answering a set of questions. References are included.

Marquis, John

252

Potential source zones for Himalayan earthquakes: constraints from spatial–temporal clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Himalayan fold-thrust belt has been visited by many disastrous earthquakes (magnitude > 6) time and again. This active\\u000a collisional orogen bordering Indian subcontinent in the north remains a potential seismic threat of similar magnitude in the\\u000a adjoining countries like India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan and China. Though earthquake forecasting is riddled with all conjectures\\u000a and still not a proven presumption, identifying likely

Basab Mukhopadhyay; Anshuman Acharyya; Sujit Dasgupta

2011-01-01

253

India Votes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's largest democracy goes to the polls in Mid-February for parliamentary elections. India Today (discussed in the August 29, 1997 Scout Report), a weekly news magazine with a circulation of over 11 million, provides this site for interested Internauts to follow the elections. It provides ongoing daily news, an election calendar, and election information organized by state, constituency, party, and leaders. In addition, there are links to IT articles of interest. Newcomers to the Indian electoral process are advised to consult the Reference section first.

1998-01-01

254

Researching Intermountain West Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson designed for 7-12th (adaptable for 4-6) grade students. It focuses on earthquakes in the Utah region, but can be adapted to use anywhere. Forty-eight Intermountain West earthquakes that have occurred since 1876 have been researched by Earthquake Education Services (EES). Newspaper articles, individual accounts (diary entries, interviews, letters, etc.), and photographs have been collected. They are a primary data source for scientists and are valuable for anyone interested in learning about earthquakes. These data provide an entertaining, relevant resource for students studying earthquakes. Students select a research question (list provided) and search newspaper articles written about one or more earthquakes for data relevant to the question. Reports could be oral or written. Some of the questions can be reworded to allow students to first develop their own hypothesis, then search for data that supports or disproves the hypothesis.

255

Earthquake resistant design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After having learned about earthquakes in class, through readings and earlier lab assignments, students (in groups of two) are asked to design and construct (using balsa wood, string, paper and glue) a three-story building designed to minimize the effects of shear-wave vibrations that occur during an earthquake. The students are required to research the design concepts on their own and most of the construction work occurs outside of the regular laboratory period. The structures are tested for strength a week before the earthquake occurs - can they support the required load for each floor? On earthquake day, the buildings a tested for a "design earthquake" and then each group is given the opportunity to see how "large" and earthquake their structure can withstand - both in terms of frequency and amplitude variations. In addition to building the structure, each team has to submit a paper reflecting on why they designed and built the structure the way they did.

Malinconico, Lawrence L.

256

Plate Tectonics: Earthquake Epicenter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of destructive earthquakes and their connection to tectonic movements of the Earth's crust. It includes a discussion of some especially destructive historic earthquakes, and a brief introduction to contintental drift and the theory of plate tectonics. There is also discussion of basic seismology (types of waves) and measures of the magnitude of an earthquake (the Richter Scale). The lesson inlcudes an activity in which students use an online simulator to locate the epicenter of an earthquake using readings from three different seismograph stations. After they have completed the simulation, they attempt to locate the epicenter of a real earthquake using data from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) earthquake website.

Pratte, John

257

Earthquake swarms in Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake swarms occur primarily near active volcanoes and in areas with frequent tectonic activity. However, intraplate earthquake swarms are not an unknown phenomenon. They are located near zones of weakness, e.g. in regions with geological contrasts, where dynamic processes are active. An earthquake swarm is defined as a period of increased seismicity, in the form of a cluster of earthquakes of similar magnitude, occurring in the same general area, during a limited time period. There is no obvious main shock among the earthquakes in a swarm. Earthquake swarms occur in Greenland, which is a tectonically stable, intraplate environment. The first earthquake swarms in Greenland were detected more than 30 years ago in Northern and North-Eastern Greenland. However, detection of these low-magnitude events is challenging due to the enormous distances and the relatively sparse network of seismographs. The seismograph coverage of Greenland has vastly improved since the international GLISN-project was initiated in 2008. Greenland is currently coved by an open network of 19 BB seismographs, most of them transmitting data in real-time. Additionally, earthquake activity in Greenland is monitored by seismographs in Canada, Iceland, on Jan Mayen, and on Svalbard. The time-series of data from the GLISN network is still short, with the latest station been added in NW Greenland in 2013. However, the network has already proven useful in detecting several earthquake swarms. In this study we will focus on two swarms: one occurring near/on the East Greenland coast in 2008, and another swarm occurring in the Disko-area near the west coast of Greenland in 2010. Both swarms consist of earthquakes with local magnitudes between 1.9 and 3.2. The areas, where the swarms are located, are regularly active with small earthquakes. The earthquake swarms are analyzed in the context of the general seismicity and the possible relationship to the local geological conditions.

Larsen, Tine B.; Voss, Peter H.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine

2014-05-01

258

Earthquakes and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit provides an introduction for younger students on earthquakes, volcanoes, and how they are related. Topics include evidence of continental drift, types of plate boundaries, types of seismic waves, and how to calculate the distance to the epicenter of an earthquake. There is also information on how earthquake magnitude and intensity are measured, and how seismic waves can reveal the Earth's internal structure. A vocabulary list and downloadable, printable student worksheets are provided.

Medina, Philip

259

Levy Flights and Earthquakes  

E-print Network

Levy flights representation is proposed to describe earthquake characteristics like the distribution of waiting times and position of hypocenters in a seismic region. Over 7500 microearthquakes and earthquakes from 1985 to 1994 were analyzed to test that its spatial and temporal distributions are such that can be described by a Levy flight with anomalous diffusion (in this case in a subdiffusive regime). Earthquake behavior is well described through Levy flights and Levy distribution functions such as results show.

O. Sotolongo-Costa; J. C. Antoranz; A. Posadas; F. Vidal; A. Vazquez

2002-05-27

260

Earthquakes in Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will gain a better understanding of how earthquakes and volcanoes are formed and how they have contributed to the geology of Utah. This web-based lesson will help guide you through a number of websites that will help you gain a better understanding of earthquakes and volcanoes especially happening in Utah. Follow the instructions for each and enjoy. You will need your headphones on for the videos. Site #1 .Watch video on earthquake ...

Ribera, Mr.

2009-02-25

261

2004), Importance of small earthquakes for stress transfers and earthquake  

E-print Network

Abstract. We estimate the relative importance of small and large earthquakes for static stress changes and for earthquake triggering, assuming that earthquakes are triggered by static stress changes and that earthquakes are located on a fractal network of dimension D. This model predicts that both the number of events triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m and the stress change induced by this earthquake at the location of other earthquakes increase with m as ? 10 Dm/2. The stronger the spatial clustering, the larger the influence of small earthquakes on stress changes at the location of a future event as well as earthquake triggering. If earthquake magnitudes follow the Gutenberg-Richter law with b> D/2, small earthquakes collectively dominate stress transfer and earthquake triggering, because their greater frequency overcomes their smaller individual triggering potential. Using a Southern-California catalog, we observe that the rate of seismicity triggered by an earthquake of magnitude m increases with m as 10 ?m, where ? = 1.00 ± 0.05. We also find that the magnitude distribution of triggered earthquakes is independent of the triggering earthquake’s magnitude m. When ? ? b, small earthquakes are roughly as important to earthquake triggering as larger ones. We evaluate the fractal correlation

Agnès Helmstetter; Yan Y. Kagan; David D. Jackson

262

Eye in the Sky: Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource presents a general introduction to earthquakes, including sections on the science, the phenomenon, and effects. It includes an animation of how earthquakes form, and footage of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake near San Francisco.

263

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER  

E-print Network

PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER PEER Testbed Study on a Laboratory Building, Berkeley PEER Report 2005/12 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center College of Engineering to "exercise" the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. All projects involved

Adolphs, Ralph

264

India Plate Motion, Intraplate deformation and Plate Boundary Processes (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use GPS-measured velocities to geodetically constrain India plate motion, intraplate strain, and examine plate boundary deformation and plate interactions around the India plate. Our solution includes 15 GPS velocities from continuously recording stations from within the stable India plate interior that are used to estimate angular velocity of the India plate with respect to its neighbors. We test a two-plate India system divided along the topographically prominent Narmada Son Lineament and find this scenario to be significant only to 89%. Dense station coverage along the Himalayan range front allows us to rigorously test boundary parameterizations and develop a preferred plate boundary model. In our preferred model the Himalayan Range Front accumulates ~50% of the India-Eurasia convergence with as much as 18 mm/yr of slip accumulation along some segments. We compare earthquake slip vector orientations with predicted divergence directions from our preferred model along the India-Somalia plate boundary. We see good agreement between predicted plate directions from our preferred model and the seismological data. Deviations between our model and the slip vectors highlight areas of diffuse oceanic deformation along the plate boundary. We estimate convergence vectors for the relative plate pairs along the Sumatra subduction zone. We test for the transition between Australian plate convergence and India plate convergence along the Sumatra subduction zone and refine the estimated motion of the Burman sliver plate.

Apel, E. V.; Burgmann, R.; Banerjee, P.

2010-12-01

265

Are earthquake magnitudes clustered?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of earthquake predictability is a longstanding and important challenge. Recent results (Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501, 2007; ibid 100, 038501, 2008) have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus, indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are an artifact due to short-term incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

Green, A.; Davidsen, J.

2010-12-01

266

Parkfield, California: Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the history of seismic activity at Parkfield, California, which is situated on the San Andreas Fault. It points out that moderate-size earthquakes have occurred on the Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault at fairly regular intervals, and that the earthquakes may have been 'characteristic' in the sense that they occurred with some regularity (mean repetition time of about 22 years). This indicates that they may have repeatedly ruptured the same area on the fault. A diagram shows the timing of the earthquakes, and illustrations of the seismic waveforms show the similarities between earthquakes occurring in 1922, 1934, and 1966.

267

Learning About Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much do you know about earthquakes? Did you even know that Utah actually has earthquakes and that it has a large fault line that is overdue for a major earthquake? The purpose of this activity is to find the locations of the fault lines in Utah and understand that they are usually earthquake zones. Students will learn how often earthquakes are expected to occur, when Utah is due for another one, and where the next one is expected to occur. This meets the Utah Core Standard 2 for 5th grade science: Students will understand that volcanoes, earthquakes, uplift, weathering, and erosion reshape Earth's surface. Objective 1: Explain the relationship between time and specific geological changes. Objective 2: Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and uplift affect Earth's surface. If your friend were moving to Utah from another state, where would you advise them the safest place to buy or build a house would be? Teacher Instruction Put students into groups of 4 or 5 and create a KWL chart about earthquakes. Instruct the groups that they are going to learn about earthquakes in ...

Mrs. Wallace

2012-02-07

268

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity, from the Real World Learning Objects Resource Library, allows students to use first-hand data analysis to "determine if there is any pattern to earthquake events and speculate on the causes of earthquakes." Intended to be an introductory activity for a unit of study on earthquakes, this 60-minute activity is complete with learning goals, step-by-step classroom procedures, materials, assessment activities, and resources for further information. The "Content Materials" section contains directions for students and graphics to help students understand earthquakes and plate tectonics. This is an excellent resource for geology and earth science instructors that is ready to use for the classroom.

2007-10-04

269

Are Earthquake Magnitudes Clustered?  

SciTech Connect

The question of earthquake predictability is a long-standing and important challenge. Recent results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 098501 (2007); ibid.100, 038501 (2008)] have suggested that earthquake magnitudes are clustered, thus indicating that they are not independent in contrast to what is typically assumed. Here, we present evidence that the observed magnitude correlations are to a large extent, if not entirely, an artifact due to the incompleteness of earthquake catalogs and the well-known modified Omori law. The latter leads to variations in the frequency-magnitude distribution if the distribution is constrained to those earthquakes that are close in space and time to the directly following event.

Davidsen, Joern; Green, Adam [Complexity Science Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2011-03-11

270

Earthquakes Learning Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This earthquake unit was designed to be used with a college course in physical geography. From this module, students learn the location of areas in the United States with the greatest potential for earthquake shaking and the hazards presented by earthquakes. They also learn how geological conditions and building construction affect the amount of destruction during an earthquake. Seismographs and the Richter scale are also covered. The module contains a study guide and outline notes, study questions, and a practice quiz. One feature of the module is a web exploration section with links to fifteen outside sites that augment the instruction.

Haberlin, Rita

271

Mughal India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you enter a large room filled with various items, including a well-worn globe, a medium-sized file cabinet, and a wall of books, you wonder to yourself, Where am I?. It turns out that you have stumbled across the British Museum's fine interactive website on Mughal India. Designed for young people, the site is set up as an office where visitors may click on various items (such as a globe or a model of the Taj Mahal) in order to entire Flash-enabled learning environments that address various aspects of this most grand and productive period in India's history. While visitors will want to spend a good deal of time exploring the site, one particular representative area of the site is the coin cabinet. Clicking on the coin cabinet opens up a small chest that holds various pieces of currencies from the Mughal Empire. Visiting the different drawers in the chest allows users to learn what each type of coin can tell contemporary observers about the Empire's religious traditions, emperors, and politics. Thoroughly engaging and dynamic in its layout and content, this is a site that is worth a close look.

272

Earthquake activity in Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

Oklahoma is one of the most seismically active areas in the southern Mid-Continent. From 1897 to 1988, over 700 earthquakes are known to have occurred in Oklahoma. The earliest documented Oklahoma earthquake took place on December 2, 1897, near Jefferson, in Grant County. The largest known Oklahoma earthquake happened near El Reno on April 9, 1952. This magnitude 5.5 (mb) earthquake was felt from Austin, Texas, to Des Moines, Iowa, and covered a felt area of approximately 362,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to 1962, all earthquakes in Oklahoma (59) were either known from historical accounts or from seismograph stations outside the state. Over half of these events were located in Canadian County. In late 1961, the first seismographs were installed in Oklahoma. From 1962 through 1976, 70 additional earthquakes were added to the earthquake database. In 1977, a statewide network of seven semipermanent and three radio-telemetry seismograph stations were installed. The additional stations have improved earthquake detection and location in the state of Oklahoma. From 1977 to 1988, over 570 additional earthquakes were located in Oklahoma, mostly of magnitudes less than 2.5. Most of these events occurred on the eastern margin of the Anadarko basin along a zone 135 km long by 40 km wide that extends from Canadian County to the southern edge of Garvin County. Another general area of earthquake activity lies along and north of the Ouachita Mountains in the Arkoma basin. A few earthquakes have occurred in the shelves that border the Arkoma and Anadarko basins.

Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman (USA))

1989-08-01

273

Study of ultra low frequency signals (0.01–10 Hz) associated with moderate earthquake occurred in Koyna region using induction type magnetic sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study of magnetic field fluctuations due to earthquakes have been started at Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India) using three axis ULF\\/VLF induction type magnetic sensors, since March 2006. We have considered one event of moderate earthquake (4.0earthquake occurred in Koyna region on 14 th The seismic hazard forecast has been the most urgent scientific problem

A. K. Sharma; R. N. Haridas; A. V. Patil; R. V. Bhonsle

2011-01-01

274

Earthquake Monitoring in Haiti  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Following the devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake, the USGS has been helping with earthquake awareness and monitoring in the country, with continued support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). This assistance has helped the Bureau des Mines et de l'Energie (BME) in Port-au-Prin...

275

Earthquakes for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources include sections on the latest quakes, science project ideas, puzzles and games, online activities, a glossary, and cool earthquake facts. In addition, there is an Ask A Geologist section, and earthquake FAQs. One link leads to a teacher page with grade level topics and educational materials.

2002-12-13

276

Earthquakes and Plates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts global distribution of earthquakes. A world map shows the location of large earthquakes that occurred from 1975-1995. A slider at the bottom left of the map allows the user to change the map to reveal the location of major plates or to select both views layered on top of one another.

277

Earthquakes and Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquakes are low-probability, high-consequence events. Though they may occur only once in the life of a school, they can have devastating, irreversible consequences. Moderate earthquakes can cause serious damage to building contents and non-structural building systems, serious injury to students and staff, and disruption of building operations.…

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

2008-01-01

278

Demand surge following earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

Olsen, Anna H.

2012-01-01

279

Observing the Greatest Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU Chapman Conference on Giant Earthquakes and Their Tsunamis; Viña del Mar and Valparaíso, Chile, 16-20 May 2010 ; An AGU Chapman Conference commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of the 1960 M 9.5 Chile earthquake. Participants reexamined this earthquake, the largest ever recorded instrumentally, and compared it with Chile's February 2010 M 8.8 earthquake. They also addressed the giant earthquake potential of subduction zones worldwide and strategies for reducing losses due to tsunamis. The conference drew 96 participants from 18 countries, and it reached out to public audiences in Chile. Its program and abstracts are posted at http://www.agu.org/meetings/chapman/2010/acall/pdf/Scientific_Program.pdf.

Atwater, Brian; Barrientos, Sergio; Cifuentes, Inís; Cisternas, Marco; Wang, Kelin

2010-11-01

280

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake  

E-print Network

Taiwan Nantou County earthquake 20130327 1 #12;0327 Taiwan Nantou County earthquake Source, Intensity 5 #12;I II III IV V VI VII Intensity Shake map of the March 27 Earthquake The peak ground and Technology Center for Disaster Reduction (NCDR) #12;Earthquake Response and Evacuation are a Part of Students

281

1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake  

E-print Network

1 INTRODUCTION Korea has a long history of earthquakes. Earthquake events are well documented by those historic and recent earthquakes was not very high, and it is believed that Korea belongs to a low to moderate seismicity zone. However, after the Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, there was a growing concern

Spencer Jr., B.F.

282

Earthquakes Living Lab: Geology and the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine the effects of geology on earthquake magnitudes and how engineers anticipate and prepare for these effects. Using information provided through the Earthquakes Living Lab interface, students investigate how geology, specifically soil type, can amplify the magnitude of earthquakes and their consequences. Students look in-depth at the historical 1906 San Francisco earthquake and its destruction thorough photographs and data. They compare the 1906 California earthquake to another historical earthquake in Kobe, Japan, looking at the geological differences and impacts in the two regions, and learning how engineers, geologists and seismologists work to predict earthquakes and minimize calamity. A worksheet serves as a student guide for the activity.

Civil And Environmental Engineering Department

283

Extreme events in Uttarakhand, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uttarakhand in NW Himalaya, India is prone to various disasters, which include earthquakes, cloud bursts, landslides, floods etc. These disasters have a cascading effect. The cloud burst results in flooding of rivers and landslides. The earthquakes shake the ground causing landslides, which sometimes block the natural path of river making artificial dams. These artificial dams can cause river flooding. The situation becomes more devastating, if heavy rainfall occurs. Such disasters are increasing in recent times. There could be several reasons for the rise in frequency of these disasters because of global and local environment changes. The global changes such as rise of global temperatures due to increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can be responsible for melting of Himalayan Glaciers and changes in precipitation/ rainfall patterns etc. Anthropogenic causes such as deforestation, establishment of new townships, new hydro-power projects, mining activities etc are also making the condition more vulnerable by changing the course of river channels. A case study of such extreme event is presented. The region is affected by changes of both global and local origin, tectonically as well as climatologically.

Dimri, V. P.

2013-12-01

284

Earthquakes in Afghanistan Nicholas Ambraseys  

E-print Network

that are currently seismically quiet but where earthquakes have occurred historically, and aseismic regions elsewhere between shallow moderate earthquakes that occur within a few minutes to days of deep earthquakes beneath1 Earthquakes in Afghanistan Nicholas Ambraseys Dept. of Civil Engineering, Imperial College

Bilham, Roger

285

Natural and human-induced landsliding in the Garhwal Himalaya of northern India  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the March 28, 1999, Garhwal earthquake, 338 active landslides, including 56 earthquake-induced landslides, were mapped in a 226-km2-study area in the Garhwal Himalaya, northern India. These landslides mainly comprised shallow failures in regolith and highly weathered bedrock involving avalanches, slides, and flows. The total volume of active landslide debris in the region was estimated to be ?1.3 million m3

Patrick L. Barnard; Lewis A. Owen; Milap C. Sharma; Robert C. Finkel

2001-01-01

286

Probabilistic seismic hazard map of NW Himalaya and its adjoining area, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismically active Northwest (NW) Himalaya falls within Seismic Zone IV and V of the hazard zonation map of India. The\\u000a region has suffered several moderate (~25), large-to-great earthquakes (~4) since Assam earthquake of 1897. In view of the\\u000a major advancement made in understanding the seismicity and seismotectonics of this region during the last two decades, an\\u000a updated probabilistic seismic

A. K. Mahajan; V. C. Thakur; Mukat Lal Sharma; Mukesh Chauhan

2010-01-01

287

The Challenge of Centennial Earthquakes to Improve Modern Earthquake Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The recent commemoration of the centennial of the San Francisco and Valparaiso 1906 earthquakes has given the opportunity to reanalyze their damages from modern earthquake engineering perspective. These two earthquakes plus Messina Reggio Calabria 1908 had a strong impact in the birth and developing of earthquake engineering. The study of the seismic performance of some up today existing buildings, that survive centennial earthquakes, represent a challenge to better understand the limitations of our in use earthquake design methods. Only Valparaiso 1906 earthquake, of the three considered centennial earthquakes, has been repeated again as the Central Chile, 1985, Ms = 7.8 earthquake. In this paper a comparative study of the damage produced by 1906 and 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes is done in the neighborhood of Valparaiso harbor. In this study the only three centennial buildings of 3 stories that survived both earthquakes almost undamaged were identified. Since for 1985 earthquake accelerogram at El Almendral soil conditions as well as in rock were recoded, the vulnerability analysis of these building is done considering instrumental measurements of the demand. The study concludes that good performance of these buildings in the epicentral zone of large earthquakes can not be well explained by modern earthquake engineering methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use in the future of more suitable instrumental parameters, such as the destructiveness potential factor, to describe earthquake demand.

Saragoni, G. Rodolfo [Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad of Chile (Chile)

2008-07-08

288

Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India  

PubMed Central

For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50–52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S.; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C.; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C.; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J.; Engel, Michael S.; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

2010-01-01

289

Biogeographic and evolutionary implications of a diverse paleobiota in amber from the early Eocene of India.  

PubMed

For nearly 100 million years, the India subcontinent drifted from Gondwana until its collision with Asia some 50 Ma, during which time the landmass presumably evolved a highly endemic biota. Recent excavations of rich outcrops of 50-52-million-year-old amber with diverse inclusions from the Cambay Shale of Gujarat, western India address this issue. Cambay amber occurs in lignitic and muddy sediments concentrated by near-shore chenier systems; its chemistry and the anatomy of associated fossil wood indicates a definitive source of Dipterocarpaceae. The amber is very partially polymerized and readily dissolves in organic solvents, thus allowing extraction of whole insects whose cuticle retains microscopic fidelity. Fourteen orders and more than 55 families and 100 species of arthropod inclusions have been discovered thus far, which have affinities to taxa from the Eocene of northern Europe, to the Recent of Australasia, and the Miocene to Recent of tropical America. Thus, India just prior to or immediately following contact shows little biological insularity. A significant diversity of eusocial insects are fossilized, including corbiculate bees, rhinotermitid termites, and modern subfamilies of ants (Formicidae), groups that apparently radiated during the contemporaneous Early Eocene Climatic Optimum or just prior to it during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Cambay amber preserves a uniquely diverse and early biota of a modern-type of broad-leaf tropical forest, revealing 50 Ma of stasis and change in biological communities of the dipterocarp primary forests that dominate southeastern Asia today. PMID:20974929

Rust, Jes; Singh, Hukam; Rana, Rajendra S; McCann, Tom; Singh, Lacham; Anderson, Ken; Sarkar, Nivedita; Nascimbene, Paul C; Stebner, Frauke; Thomas, Jennifer C; Solórzano Kraemer, Monica; Williams, Christopher J; Engel, Michael S; Sahni, Ashok; Grimaldi, David

2010-10-26

290

Sun, Moon and Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a study conducted to find the effect of Earth tides on the occurrence of earthquakes, for small areas [typically 1000km X1000km] of high-seismicity regions, it was noticed that the Sun's position in terms of universal time [GMT] shows links to the sum of EMD [longitude of earthquake location - longitude of Moon's foot print on earth] and SEM [Sun-Earth-Moon angle]. This paper provides the details of this relationship after studying earthquake data for over forty high-seismicity regions of the world. It was found that over 98% of the earthquakes for these different regions, examined for the period 1973-2008, show a direct relationship between the Sun's position [GMT] and [EMD+SEM]. As the time changes from 00-24 hours, the factor [EMD+SEM] changes through 360 degree, and plotting these two variables for earthquakes from different small regions reveals a simple 45 degree straight-line relationship between them. This relationship was tested for all earthquakes and earthquake sequences for magnitude 2.0 and above. This study conclusively proves how Sun and the Moon govern all earthquakes. Fig. 12 [A+B]. The left-hand figure provides a 24-hour plot for forty consecutive days including the main event (00:58:23 on 26.12.2004, Lat.+3.30, Long+95.980, Mb 9.0, EQ count 376). The right-hand figure provides an earthquake plot for (EMD+SEM) vs GMT timings for the same data. All the 376 events including the main event faithfully follow the straight-line curve.

Kolvankar, V. G.

2013-12-01

291

AEIC: Arizona Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Arizona Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) conducts research and distributes information about Arizona earthquakes in order to increase the knowledge about the causes and hazards of earthquakes. The website provides recent seismographs for many places including the Grand Canyon and Flagstaff along with a map of the fault system. Researchers can find a catalog of Arizona Earthquakes for the period of 1830 to 1998. Users can view an index map of recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West region of Utah as well.

292

global warming's six indias  

E-print Network

global warming's six indias: An Audience Segmentation Analysis #12;Global Warming's Six Indias 1............................................................................................................................................20 2. Global Warming Beliefs and Attitudes................................................................................ 21 Knowledge about global warming varies widely by group

Haller, Gary L.

293

Measuring Earthquakes: Intensity Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of exercises will introduce students to the construction of earthquake intensity maps, familiarize them with the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, and give them the opportunity to build their own maps online in order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. In the first exercise, they will use intensity data from the 1986 North Palm Springs, California earthquake to create an isoseismal map. In the second, they will use a special interactive page of dynamic HTML to plot intensities that they assign based on reports, and attempt to determine the epicenter based on the area of highest intensity.

294

Mercalli Earthquake Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an inquiry approach to term and concept introduction. Students will work in a jigsaw format to read through the descriptions of eyewitness accounts from earthquakes and assess a Mercalli value. In the jigsaw groups, they will compare the different Mercalli and Richter values and describe the basic events that occurred during different earthquakes. They will share this information in order to collaboratively assess the strengths and weaknesses of this scale relative to the Richter magnitudes provided. They will also begin to determine what types of hazards result from earthquakes.

Kaatje Kraft

295

Real Earthquakes, Real Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One teacher took her class on a year long earthquake expedition. The goal was to monitor the occurrences of real earthquakes during the year and mark their locations with push pins on a wall-sized world map in the hallway outside the science room. The purpose of the project was to create a detailed picture of the earthquakes that occurred worldwide over the school year and to see if any patterns emerged. Through this experience students conducted "real" science--using actual data, drawing conclusions based on that data.

Schomburg, Aaron

2003-09-01

296

1964 Alaska Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video adapted from the Valdez Museum & Historical Archive, explores what happened during the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 through original footage, first-person accounts, and animations illustrating plate tectonics.

2008-11-04

297

Alaska Earthquake Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center reports and provides information on seismic activity in Alaska. While its southern Pacific coast colleague, California, gets a lot more attention when it comes to earthquakes, Alaska experienced a magnitude 6.7 earthquake already this summer and was rocked by a 7.9 in 2002. The site offers links to general information about the center, general earthquake information, research activities at the center, education and outreach materials (including information on seismology education projects), and much more. The site is well populated with materials and should provide a great resources for those interested in North American seismic events.

298

Mammoth Mountain Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By watching this National Geographic video, you will learn about the seismic activity of Mammoth Mountain. Located in the eastern Sierra Mountains, everyday earthquakes shake the region and there are signs of an imminent volcanic eruption.

2010-01-01

299

Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students compare the amount of shaking caused by historic earthquakes, and use data from seismograms to determine Richter magnitude. They will also investigate moment magnitude, an alternative to Richter magnitude, and calculate a seismic moment. In the second portion of the exercise, students investigate earthquake intensity and prepare a map of intensity values from the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake, using actual reports of its effects. Introductory materials explain the difference between earthquake magnitude and intensity, point out the logarithmic nature of the Richter scale, and present criteria for assigning modified Mercalli intensity values to a particular location. The exercise includes instructions, maps, data, and study questions. A bibliography is also provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2012-04-26

300

Earthquake Magnitude and Intensity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students compare the amount of shaking caused by historic earthquakes, and use data from seismograms to determine Richter magnitude. They will also investigate moment magnitude, an alternative to Richter magnitude, and calculate a seismic moment. In the second portion of the exercise, students investigate earthquake intensity and prepare a map of intensity values from the 1994 Northridge, California earthquake, using actual reports of its effects. Introductory materials explain the difference between earthquake magnitude and intensity, point out the logarithmic nature of the Richter scale, and present criteria for assigning modified Mercalli intensity values to a particular location. The exercise includes instructions, maps, data, and study questions. A bibliography is also provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

301

Northridge, CA Earthquake Damage  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The person in this image was a USGS employee at the time this was taken. Collection of USGS still images taken after the January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake highlighting the damage to buildings and infrastructure....

302

To capture an earthquake  

SciTech Connect

An earthquake model based on the theory of plate tectonics is presented. It is assumed that the plates behave elastically in response to slow, steady motions and the strains concentrate within the boundary zone between the plates. When the accumulated stresses exceed the bearing capacity of the rocks, the rocks break, producing an earthquake and releasing the accumulated stresses. As the steady movement of the plates continues, strain begins to reaccumulate. The cycle of strain accumulation and release is modeled using the motion of a block, pulled across a rough surface by a spring. A model earthquake can be predicted by taking into account a precursory event or the peak spring force prior to slip as measured in previous cycles. The model can be applied to faults, e.g., the San Andreas fault, if the past earthquake history of the fault and the rate of strain accumulation are known.

Ellsworth, W.L. (USGS, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

303

Connecting Earthquakes and Violins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Violins, earthquakes, and the "singing rod" demonstration all have something in common--stick-slip frictional motion. This article begins with a typical classroom experiment used to understand the transition between sticking and slipping, proceeds to a mechanical earthquake model that is truly "stick-slip" as scientists describe it, and progresses to acoustic examples of the same phenomenon in action. Other interesting cases involving frictional effects are described.

James Ringlein

2005-11-01

304

Focus of an Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple Flash animation by McGraw-Hill shows the relationship between earthquake focus and earthquake epicenter which is found directly above the focus. Also displayed in the animation are the fault plane, fault scarp, and fault trace. The animation is part of a collection of animations and movies related to Physical Geology published by McGraw-Hill. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072402466/student_view0/chapter16/animations_and_movies.html

Mcgraw-Hill

305

Virtual Courseware: Earthquake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive exercise lets students investigate how seismic waves are used to locate the epicenter of an earthquake and determine its magnitude. They will place virtual seismic stations on an interactive map, trigger a virtual explosion, and measure the difference in arrival times of S- and P-waves generated by the explosion. Using this data, they can determine the distance to each station and use triangulation to determine the epicenter of the earthquake.

306

Tectonics, Earthquakes, Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students do background reading on plate tectonics and associated geologic hazards. In the first part of this exercise, students use on-line courseware from California State University, Los Angeles (Virtual Earthquake) to investigate seismograph records and use these records to determine earthquake epicenters and magnitudes. In the second part, they complete a crossword puzzle designed to help them master new vocabulary related to plate tectonics.

Holmgren, Camille

307

Injection-induced earthquakes.  

PubMed

Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

Ellsworth, William L

2013-07-12

308

Recent seismicity in Northeast India and its adjoining region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent seismicity in the northeast India and its adjoining region exhibits different earthquake mechanisms – predominantly\\u000a thrust faulting on the eastern boundary, normal faulting in the upper Himalaya, and strike slip in the remaining areas. A\\u000a homogenized catalogue in moment magnitude, M\\u000a W, covering a period from 1906 to 2006 is derived from International Seismological Center (ISC) catalogue, and Global

Kiran Kumar Singh Thingbaijam; Sankar Kumar Nath; Abhimanyu Yadav; Abhishek Raj; M. Yanger Walling; William Kumar Mohanty

2008-01-01

309

Attenuation of coda waves in the Northeastern Region of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coda wave attenuation quality factor Qc is estimated in the northeastern region of India using 45 local earthquakes recorded\\u000a by regional seismic network. The quality factor Qc was estimated using the single backscattering model modified by Sato (J\\u000a Phys Earth 25:27–41, 1977), in the frequency range 1–18 Hz. The attenuation and frequency dependence for different paths and the correlation of the

Devajit Hazarika; Saurabh Baruah; Naba Kumar Gogoi

2009-01-01

310

India Network Gopher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The India Network Gopher: The network of the Asian Indian Community, the India Network of mailing lists and gopher and Web sites was established to discuss and provide information about issues related to India facing Indians living abroad. The India Network and Research Foundation was established in 1993 to provide stable network resources and to fund a graduate assistantship to work on network related chores. The 'welcome' file includes detailed information about joining their mailing lists, such as the India News Digest and the list for faculty of Indian origin.

311

Charles Darwin's earthquake reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked, volcanoes awoke and giant ocean waves attacked the coast. Darwin was the first geologist to observe and describe the effects of the great earthquake during and immediately after. These effects sometimes repeated during severe earthquakes; but great earthquakes, like Chile 1835, and giant earthquakes, like Chile 1960, are rare and remain completely unpredictable. This is one of the few areas of science, where experts remain largely in the dark. Darwin suggested that the effects were a result of ‘ …the rending of strata, at a point not very deep below the surface of the earth…' and ‘…when the crust yields to the tension, caused by its gradual elevation, there is a jar at the moment of rupture, and a greater movement...'. Darwin formulated big ideas about the earth evolution and its dynamics. These ideas set the tone for the tectonic plate theory to come. However, the plate tectonics does not completely explain why earthquakes occur within plates. Darwin emphasised that there are different kinds of earthquakes ‘...I confine the foregoing observations to the earthquakes on the coast of South America, or to similar ones, which seem generally to have been accompanied by elevation of the land. But, as we know that subsidence has gone on in other quarters of the world, fissures must there have been formed, and therefore earthquakes...' (we cite the Darwin's sentences following researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474). These thoughts agree with results of the last publications (see Nature 461, 870-872; 636-639 and 462, 42-43; 87-89). About 200 years ago Darwin gave oneself airs by the problems which began to discuss only during the last time. Earthquakes often precede volcanic eruptions. According to Darwin, the earthquake-induced shock may be a common mechanism of the simultaneous eruptions of the volcanoes separated by long distances. In particular, Darwin wrote that ‘… the elevation of many hundred square miles of territory near Concepcion is part of the same phenomenon, with that splashing up, if I may so call it, of volcanic matter through the orifices in the Cordillera at the moment of the shock;…'. According to Darwin the crust is a system where fractured zones, and zones of seismic and volcanic activities interact. Darwin formulated the task of considering together the processes studied now as seismology and volcanology. However the difficulties are such that the study of interactions between earthquakes and volcanoes began only recently and his works on this had relatively little impact on the development of geosciences. In this report, we discuss how the latest data on seismic and volcanic events support the Darwin's observations and ideas about the 1835 Chilean earthquake. The material from researchspace. auckland. ac. nz/handle/2292/4474 is used. We show how modern mechanical tests from impact engineering and simple experiments with weakly-cohesive materials also support his observations and ideas. On the other hand, we developed the mathematical theory of the earthquake-induced catastrophic wave phenomena. This theory allow to explain the most important aspects the Darwin's earthquake reports. This is achieved through the simplification of fundamental governing equations of considering problems to strongly-nonlinear wave equations. Solutions of these equations are constructed with the help of analytic and numerical techniques. The solutions can model different strongly-nonlinear wave phenomena which generate in a variety of physical context. A comparison with relevant experimental observations is also presented.

Galiev, Shamil

2010-05-01

312

Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of an earthquake- and tsunami-resistant structure in Sumatra to house a tsunami museum, a community training center, and offices of a local NGO that is preparing Padang for the next tsunami. This facility would be designed and built by a team of US and Indonesian academics, architects, engineers and students. Another initiative would launch a collaborative research program on school earthquake safety with the scientists and engineers from the US and the ten Islamic countries that comprise the Economic Cooperation Organization. Finally, GHI hopes to develop internet and satellite communication techniques that will allow earthquake risk managers in the US to interact with masons, government officials, engineers and architects in remote communities of vulnerable developing countries, closing the science and engineering divide.

Tucker, B. E.

2008-12-01

313

India's security partnership with Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, India and Singapore have developed a strong bilateral security and economic partnership that has assumed a central position in India's strategic engagement in Southeast Asia. Having sought strategic engagement with India for many decades, Singapore has now successfully positioned itself as India's leading political partner and economic gateway to the region. At the same time, India and

David Brewster

2009-01-01

314

Earthquake impact scale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With the advent of the USGS prompt assessment of global earthquakes for response (PAGER) system, which rapidly assesses earthquake impacts, U.S. and international earthquake responders are reconsidering their automatic alert and activation levels and response procedures. To help facilitate rapid and appropriate earthquake response, an Earthquake Impact Scale (EIS) is proposed on the basis of two complementary criteria. On the basis of the estimated cost of damage, one is most suitable for domestic events; the other, on the basis of estimated ranges of fatalities, is generally more appropriate for global events, particularly in developing countries. Simple thresholds, derived from the systematic analysis of past earthquake impact and associated response levels, are quite effective in communicating predicted impact and response needed after an event through alerts of green (little or no impact), yellow (regional impact and response), orange (national-scale impact and response), and red (international response). Corresponding fatality thresholds for yellow, orange, and red alert levels are 1, 100, and 1,000, respectively. For damage impact, yellow, orange, and red thresholds are triggered by estimated losses reaching $1M, $100M, and $1B, respectively. The rationale for a dual approach to earthquake alerting stems from the recognition that relatively high fatalities, injuries, and homelessness predominate in countries in which local building practices typically lend themselves to high collapse and casualty rates, and these impacts lend to prioritization for international response. In contrast, financial and overall societal impacts often trigger the level of response in regions or countries in which prevalent earthquake resistant construction practices greatly reduce building collapse and resulting fatalities. Any newly devised alert, whether economic- or casualty-based, should be intuitive and consistent with established lexicons and procedures. Useful alerts should also be both specific (although allowably uncertain) and actionable. In this analysis, an attempt is made at both simple and intuitive color-coded alerting criteria; yet the necessary uncertainty measures by which one can gauge the likelihood for the alert to be over- or underestimated are preserved. The essence of the proposed impact scale and alerting is that actionable loss information is now available in the immediate aftermath of significant earthquakes worldwide on the basis of quantifiable loss estimates. Utilizing EIS, PAGER's rapid loss estimates can adequately recommend alert levels and suggest appropriate response protocols, despite the uncertainties; demanding or awaiting observations or loss estimates with a high level of accuracy may increase the losses. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.S.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.

2011-01-01

315

Earthquake and Geothermal Energy  

E-print Network

The origin of earthquake has long been recognized as resulting from strike-slip instability of plate tectonics along the fault lines. Several events of earthquake around the globe have happened which cannot be explained by this theory. In this work we investigated the earthquake data along with other observed facts like heat flow profiles etc... of the Indian subcontinent. In our studies we found a high-quality correlation between the earthquake events, seismic prone zones, heat flow regions and the geothermal hot springs. As a consequence, we proposed a hypothesis which can adequately explain all the earthquake events around the globe as well as the overall geo-dynamics. It is basically the geothermal power, which makes the plates to stand still, strike and slip over. The plates are merely a working solid while the driving force is the geothermal energy. The violent flow and enormous pressure of this power shake the earth along the plate boundaries and also triggers the intra-plate seismicity. In the light o...

Kapoor, Surya Prakash

2013-01-01

316

Mid-continent earthquakes:Mid continent earthquakes: the need for a system  

E-print Network

the rupture zone #12;In general we assume: Past large earthquakes indicate where large earthquakes will occur earthquakes indicate where Past large earthquakes indicate where large earthquakes will occurMid-continent earthquakes:Mid continent earthquakes: the need for a system approach Mian Liu

317

Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows earthquake and volcanic activity corresponds to plate boundaries. This interactive topographical map with the ocean water removed shows the boundaries of major plates and the locations of major volcanic eruptions and earthquakes worldwide.

318

Investigating Earthquakes with Google Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will explore the relationship between earthquakes and the tectonic plate boundaries using Google Earth. Students will track earthquakes noting location, magnitude and date. Students will apply their findings to formulate an understanding the processes that shape the earth.

Molledo, Maggie

2012-07-25

319

Earthquake Education Environment (E3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthquake Education Environment (E3) supports high-quality K-12 and undergraduate education by providing up-to-date earthquake information, authoritative technical sources, and educational resources for the classroom.

2007-07-16

320

Sand boils without earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

Holzer, T.L.; Clark, M.M.

1993-01-01

321

Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

322

Earthquakes! Amplitude and Magnitude Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interdisciplinary learning activity illustrates the differences between the amplitude and magnitude of earthquakes in a mathematical context. Students will express earthquake magnitude as a logarithmic function of amplitude and express earthquake amplitude as an exponential function of magnitude. Worksheets are also included in the document.

2010-12-13

323

Staying Safe in Earthquake Country  

E-print Network

two of the largest earthquakes in the history of the State of California, including the famous event; some of the intervals between geologically recorded earthquakes are as short as 30 years, while othersStaying Safe in Earthquake Country David Bowman On July 29 of this year, Mother Nature sent Cal

de Lijser, Peter

324

Can earthquakes be Karen Felzer  

E-print Network

to duck and cover! >99% chance that a M 6.7 earthquake will occur in CA within 30 years. 2008 Working another large quake can occur #12;The Seismic Gap Model Earthquakes occur periodically or quasi from Bakun and Lindh, 1985 Like Old Faithful! Earthquake supposed to occur 1985 - 1993 with 95

Felzer, Karen

325

March 13, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake  

E-print Network

March 13, 2011 Tohoku Earthquake I extend my sincere sympathies to the many people affected by the Tohoku earthquake. I pray that those affected are able to return to a peaceful existence as quickly staff have been affected by this earthquake. The situation remains unpredictable, with aftershocks

Miyashita, Yasushi

326

Turkish Children's Ideas about Earthquakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Earthquake, a natural disaster, is among the fundamental problems of many countries. If people know how to protect themselves from earthquake and arrange their life styles in compliance with this, damage they will suffer will reduce to that extent. In particular, a good training regarding earthquake to be received in primary schools is considered…

Simsek, Canan Lacin

2007-01-01

327

PAGER--Rapid assessment of an earthquake?s impact  

USGS Publications Warehouse

PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system that produces content concerning the impact of significant earthquakes around the world, informing emergency responders, government and aid agencies, and the media of the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER rapidly assesses earthquake impacts by comparing the population exposed to each level of shaking intensity with models of economic and fatality losses based on past earthquakes in each country or region of the world. Earthquake alerts--which were formerly sent based only on event magnitude and location, or population exposure to shaking--now will also be generated based on the estimated range of fatalities and economic losses.

Wald, D.J.; Jaiswal, K.; Marano, K.D.; Bausch, D.; Hearne, M.

2010-01-01

328

Earthquake Word Searches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finding the words in these word searches will help you learn about earthquakes. The words in the puzzles may be hidden horizontally, vertically, diagonally, forward, or backward. To circle a discovered word, mouse-click on one end of the word and mouse-drag to the other end of the word. Once a word is found, it will be taken off the list. There are nine word searches that you can play: famous seismologists, general earthquake terms, magnitude, Mercalli Intensity Scale, plate names, plate tectonics, Richter Magnitude Scale, seismic waves, and tsunamis.

Harshbarger, Eric

2009-10-27

329

Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes have claimed approximately 8 million lives over the last 2,000 years (Dunbar, Lockridge and others, 1992) and fatality rates are likely to continue to rise with increased population and urbanizations of global settlements especially in developing countries. More than 75% of earthquake-related human casualties are caused by the collapse of buildings or structures (Coburn and Spence, 2002). It is disheartening to note that large fractions of the world's population still reside in informal, poorly-constructed & non-engineered dwellings which have high susceptibility to collapse during earthquakes. Moreover, with increasing urbanization half of world's population now lives in urban areas (United Nations, 2001), and half of these urban centers are located in earthquake-prone regions (Bilham, 2004). The poor performance of most building stocks during earthquakes remains a primary societal concern. However, despite this dark history and bleaker future trends, there are no comprehensive global building inventories of sufficient quality and coverage to adequately address and characterize future earthquake losses. Such an inventory is vital both for earthquake loss mitigation and for earthquake disaster response purposes. While the latter purpose is the motivation of this work, we hope that the global building inventory database described herein will find widespread use for other mitigation efforts as well. For a real-time earthquake impact alert system, such as U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER), (Wald, Earle and others, 2006), we seek to rapidly evaluate potential casualties associated with earthquake ground shaking for any region of the world. The casualty estimation is based primarily on (1) rapid estimation of the ground shaking hazard, (2) aggregating the population exposure within different building types, and (3) estimating the casualties from the collapse of vulnerable buildings. Thus, the contribution of building stock, its relative vulnerability, and distribution are vital components for determining the extent of casualties during an earthquake. It is evident from large deadly historical earthquakes that the distribution of vulnerable structures and their occupancy level during an earthquake control the severity of human losses. For example, though the number of strong earthquakes in California is comparable to that of Iran, the total earthquake-related casualties in California during the last 100 years are dramatically lower than the casualties from several individual Iranian earthquakes. The relatively low casualties count in California is attributed mainly to the fact that more than 90 percent of the building stock in California is made of wood and is designed to withstand moderate to large earthquakes (Kircher, Seligson and others, 2006). In contrast, the 80 percent adobe and or non-engineered masonry building stock with poor lateral load resisting systems in Iran succumbs even for moderate levels of ground shaking. Consequently, the heavy death toll for the 2003 Bam, Iran earthquake, which claimed 31,828 lives (Ghafory-Ashtiany and Mousavi, 2005), is directly attributable to such poorly resistant construction, and future events will produce comparable losses unless practices change. Similarly, multistory, precast-concrete framed buildings caused heavy casualties in the 1988 Spitak, Armenia earthquake (Bertero, 1989); weaker masonry and reinforced-concrete framed construction designed for gravity loads with soft first stories dominated losses in the Bhuj, India earthquake of 2001 (Madabhushi and Haigh, 2005); and adobe and weak masonry dwellings in Peru controlled the death toll in the Peru earthquake of 2007 (Taucer, J. and others, 2007). Spence (2007) after conducting a brief survey of most lethal earthquakes since 1960 found that building collapses remains a major cause of earthquake mortality and unreinforced masonry buildings are one of the mos

Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

2008-01-01

330

Archaeological Survey of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Taj Mahal. Hawa Mahal. Mysore Palace. Sanchi Stupa. The historical monuments of India are some of the grandest and most beautiful in the world. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), which oversees IndiaâÂÂs ancient monuments and archaeological sites, hosts a useful page for exploring IndiaâÂÂs methods of preserving its cultural heritage. After reading About Us, where you can learn about the organization itself, have a look at Monuments, Excavations, Conservation and Preservation, each of which provides important insights into the managing of essential subcontinental sites. Site visitors should also peruse the beautiful Photo Gallery, providing numerous images of both World Monuments and Excavations.

331

Documentary reconstruction of monsoon rainfall variability over western India, 1781-1860  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations into the climatic forcings that affect the long-term variability of the Indian summer monsoon are constrained by a lack of reliable rainfall data prior to the late nineteenth century. Extensive qualitative and quantitative meteorological information for the pre-instrumental period exists within historical documents, although these materials have been largely unexplored. This paper presents the first reconstruction of monsoon variability using documentary sources, focussing on western India for the period 1781-1860. Three separate reconstructions are generated, for (1) Mumbai, (2) Pune and (3) the area of Gujarat bordering the Gulf of Khambat. A composite chronology is then produced from the three reconstructions, termed the Western India Monsoon Rainfall reconstruction (WIMR). The WIMR exhibits four periods of generally deficient monsoon rainfall (1780-1785, 1799-1806, 1830-1838 and 1845-1857) and three of above-normal rainfall (1788-1794, 1813-1828 and 1839-1844). The WIMR shows good correspondence with a dendroclimatic drought reconstruction for Kerala, although agreement with the western Indian portion of the tree-ring derived Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas is less strong. The reconstruction is used to examine the long-term relationship between the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and monsoon rainfall over western India. This exhibits peaks and troughs in correlation over time, suggesting a regular long-term fluctuation. This may be an internal oscillation in the ENSO-monsoon system or may be related to volcanic aerosol forcings. Further reconstructions of monsoon rainfall are necessary to validate this. The study highlights uncertainties in existing published rainfall records for 1817-1846 for western India.

Adamson, George C. D.; Nash, David J.

2014-02-01

332

Road Damage Following Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ground shaking triggered liquefaction in a subsurface layer of water-saturated sand, producing differential lateral and vertical movement in a overlying carapace of unliquified sand and slit, which moved from right to left towards the Pajaro River. This mode of ground failure, termed lateral spreading, is a principal cause of liquefaction-related earthquake damage caused by the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: S.D. Ellen, U.S. Geological Survey

1989-01-01

333

Fractal dynamics of earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D {approx} 1--1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function of time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth`s crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).

Bak, P.; Chen, K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-05-01

334

Homogeneous catalogs of earthquakes.  

PubMed

The usual bias in earthquake catalogs against shocks of small magnitudes can be removed by testing the randomness of the magnitudes of successive shocks. The southern California catalog, 1933-1967, is found to be unbiased in the sense of the test at magnitude 4 or above; the cutoff is improved to M = 3 for the subcatalog 1953-1967. PMID:16578700

Knopoff, L; Gardner, J K

1969-08-01

335

Charles Darwin's earthquake reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As it is the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, 2009 has also been marked as 170 years since the publication of his book Journal of Researches. During the voyage Darwin landed at Valdivia and Concepcion, Chile, just before, during, and after a great earthquake, which demolished hundreds of buildings, killing and injuring many people. Land was waved, lifted, and cracked,

Shamil Galiev

2010-01-01

336

Fragments, Combustion and Earthquakes  

E-print Network

This paper is devoted to show the advantages of introducing a geometric viewpoint and a non extensive formulation in the description of apparently unrelated phenomena: combustion and earthquakes. Here, it is shown how the introduction of a fragmentation analysis based on that formulation leads to find a common point for description of these phenomena

Oscar Sotolongo-Costa; Antonio Posadas

2005-03-16

337

San Franciscso Earthquake Aftermath  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of films hosted by Internet Archive that show the aftermath of the earthquake and efforts to rebuild. The films are available in a variety of file formats of varying quality, and are digitized from period silent films of the disaster. Included in the collection is an Edison newsreel from the period, as well as footage of trolley rides through the destruction.

various

338

Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the theory of plate tectonics and its relation to earthquakes and seismic zones. Materials include an overview of plate tectonics, a description of Earth's crustal plates and their motions, and descriptions of the four types of seismic zones.

339

Earthquake Prediction is Coming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes (1) several methods used in earthquake research, including P:S ratio velocity studies, dilatancy models; and (2) techniques for gathering base-line data for prediction using seismographs, tiltmeters, laser beams, magnetic field changes, folklore, animal behavior. The mysterious Palmdale (California) bulge is discussed. (CS)

MOSAIC, 1977

1977-01-01

340

Seismic hazard assessment and mitigation in India: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian subcontinent is characterized by various tectonic units viz., Himalayan collision zone in North, Indo-Burmese arc in north-east, failed rift zones in its interior in Peninsular Indian shield and Andaman Sumatra trench in south-east Indian Territory. During the last about 100 years, the country has witnessed four great and several major earthquakes. Soon after the occurrence of the first great earthquake, the Shillong earthquake ( M w: 8.1) in 1897, efforts were started to assess the seismic hazard in the country. The first such attempt was made by Geological Survey of India in 1898 and since then considerable progress has been made. The current seismic zonation map prepared and published by Bureau of Indian Standards, broadly places seismic risk in different parts of the country in four major zones. However, this map is not sufficient for the assessment of area-specific seismic risks, necessitating detailed seismic zoning, that is, microzonation for earthquake disaster mitigation and management. Recently, seismic microzonation studies are being introduced in India, and the first level seismic microzonation has already been completed for selected urban centres including, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Delhi, Bangalore, Ahmadabad, Dehradun, etc. The maps prepared for these cities are being further refined on larger scales as per the requirements, and a plan has also been firmed up for taking up microzonation of 30 selected cities, which lie in seismic zones V and IV and have a population density of half a million. The paper highlights the efforts made in India so far towards seismic hazard assessment as well as the future road map for such studies.

Verma, Mithila; Bansal, Brijesh K.

2013-07-01

341

Association between earthquake and equatorial waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation over South East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, efforts has been made to correlate the equatorial planetary waves in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and to seismic activities in South East Asian region. The OLR data has been obtained from NOAA Climate Prediction Centre web site. The earthquake information has been obtained from USGS earthquake information centre. This paper present observations for the two earthquakes, i.e., 26 January 2001, Bhuj, India and 26 December 2004, Sumatra, Indonesia. The normal days OLR has been compared to the OLR recorded during the seismic events. It has been observed that there is significant enhancement in OLR, few days before the earthquake event. The Morlet 6.6 wavelet analysis shows the presence of planetary waves in equatorial OLR for period about 6 days, during and about 80 days before the earthquake. The OLR data were analysed in such a way that the other possible effects are minimized. The anomalous increase and presence of planetary waves before 80 days of seismic event shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake. It should be noted that planetary waves is generated only in the equatorial region irrespective of strong/severe earthquake location.

Yadav, Manohar Lal

342

The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

2013-12-01

343

Precursory signatures in the radon and geohydrological borehole data for M4.9 Kharsali earthquake of Garhwal Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous recording of different geophysical parameters incorporated at a single location as a unified effort for earthquake precursory through geodynamical changes initiated for the first time in the Garhwal Himalaya, India. A 68m deep borehole, penetrating into the water table is operated for continuous radon monitoring along with meteorological\\/geohydrological observations at two points, one at 10m (in the air column)

V. M. Choubey; Naresh Kumar; B. R. Arora

2009-01-01

344

The Skovorodino, 2011, earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 14, 2011, an earthquake with the magnitude Mw = 6.0 occurred 15 km northwest of the town of Skovorodino in East Siberia. This earthquake aroused interest among geophysicists. In this paper, we present some results on the prior seismicity in the region, which are based on the macroseismic and instrumental data. The assessment of the seismic regime immediately before the main shock and the analysis of the aftershock sequence rely on the data provided by the field network of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The network was in operation from the end of July 2011 to January 2012. The analysis of the entire dataset suggests that the Skovorodino earthquake was outstanding in a vast region: only seismic events with low magnitudes (at most 4) occurred in the epicentral zone of this earthquake and its nearest neighborhood. The positions of the source of the main shock and the hypocenters of the after-shocks (more than 1300 events) are determined. The aftershock sequence is anomalous—it lacks sufficiently strong seismic events ( M ? 3.5). The spatiotemporal distribution of the aftershocks shows two clusters of the epicenters to the west and east of the epicentral zone. These clusters drastically differ in their parameters, indicating that the source has a complex structure. Generally, the source can be understood as a shear displacement on the subvertical fault plane trending approximately along the latitude. The size of the source is 17 × 17 km; the average slip is 63 cm, which is at least 30% larger than the characteristic values for the earthquakes with M = 6.0.

Bykova, V. V.; Tatevossian, R. E.; Nikolaev, L. D.; Mikhin, A. G.; Mokrushina, N. G.

2015-01-01

345

The 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance: A Case Study - Using an Earthquake Anniversary to Promote Earthquake Preparedness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last October 21st marked the 140th anniversary of the M6.8 1868 Hayward Earthquake, the last damaging earthquake on the southern Hayward Fault. This anniversary was used to help publicize the seismic hazards associated with the fault because: (1) the past five such earthquakes on the Hayward Fault occurred about 140 years apart on average, and (2) the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault system is the most likely (with a 31 percent probability) fault in the Bay Area to produce a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the next 30 years. To promote earthquake awareness and preparedness, over 140 public and private agencies and companies and many individual joined the public-private nonprofit 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance (1868alliance.org). The Alliance sponsored many activities including a public commemoration at Mission San Jose in Fremont, which survived the 1868 earthquake. This event was followed by an earthquake drill at Bay Area schools involving more than 70,000 students. The anniversary prompted the Silver Sentinel, an earthquake response exercise based on the scenario of an earthquake on the Hayward Fault conducted by Bay Area County Offices of Emergency Services. 60 other public and private agencies also participated in this exercise. The California Seismic Safety Commission and KPIX (CBS affiliate) produced professional videos designed forschool classrooms promoting Drop, Cover, and Hold On. Starting in October 2007, the Alliance and the U.S. Geological Survey held a sequence of press conferences to announce the release of new research on the Hayward Fault as well as new loss estimates for a Hayward Fault earthquake. These included: (1) a ShakeMap for the 1868 Hayward earthquake, (2) a report by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasting the number of employees, employers, and wages predicted to be within areas most strongly shaken by a Hayward Fault earthquake, (3) new estimates of the losses associated with a Hayward Fault earthquake, (4) new ground motion simulations of a Hayward Fault earthquake, (5) a new USGS Fact Sheet about the earthquake and the Hayward Fault, (6) a virtual tour of the 1868 earthquake, and (7) a new online field trip guide to the Hayward Fault using locations accessible by car and public transit. Finally, the California Geological Survey and many other Alliance members sponsored the Third Conference on Earthquake Hazards in the East Bay at CSU East Bay in Hayward for the three days following the 140th anniversary. The 1868 Alliance hopes to commemorate the anniversary of the 1868 Hayward Earthquake every year to maintain and increase public awareness of this fault, the hazards it and other East Bay Faults pose, and the ongoing need for earthquake preparedness and mitigation.

Brocher, T. M.; Garcia, S.; Aagaard, B. T.; Boatwright, J. J.; Dawson, T.; Hellweg, M.; Knudsen, K. L.; Perkins, J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Stoffer, P. W.; Zoback, M.

2008-12-01

346

Nuclear Tests in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Week's In the News discusses the recent nuclear tests in India and the world's reaction to those tests. The ten resources discussed offer analysis, commentary, and background information from a variety of perspectives. On May 11, 1998, India confirmed what the world already knew by conducting three underground nuclear tests in the Pokhran Mountain Range in the Rajasthan Province. On May 13 two more sub-kiloton devices were exploded and the government announced that the planned series of tests was complete. Although India has indicated it may now be ready to sign on to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), reaction from the world community has been extremely negative. In the vanguard of this chorus of dissaproval has been the US, which announced over $20 billion in economic sanctions against India on May 13. The strongest critic of the tests, however, has been India's neighbor and rival Pakistan, which has fought three wars with India since 1947. Domestic pressure on Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif to respond has been enormous and many commentators believe a Pakistani nuclear test is imminent. In India, however, the BJP-dominated government has been widely lauded. Many Indians have expressed pride and dismiss foreign criticism as a hypocritical holdover of colonial mentalities. While US sanctions are unlikely to have any large-scale effect on India, the end results of these tests on Indo-Pakistani relations and their ongoing missile race is yet to be seen.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

347

ADULT EDUCATION IN INDIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AGAINST A BACKGROUND OF MASS ILLITERACY, POOR PAY AND STATUS OF TEACHERS, AND AN ALIEN EDUCATION PATTERN, THE STATE GOVERNMENTS OF INDIA HAVE PROVIDED SOCIAL EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP AS WELL AS LITERACY. INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP METHODS HAVE BEEN USED, VIDYAPEETHS (RESIDENTIAL COLLEGES) AND EDUCATIONAL CENTERS HAVE BEEN SET UP, AND ALL INDIA RADIO…

STYLER, W.E.

348

Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India IBM Research India  

E-print Network

Energy Usage Attitudes of Urban India Mohit Jain IBM Research India mohitjain@in.ibm.com Deepika@cs.cmu.edu Amarjeet Singh IIIT Delhi, India amarjeet@iiitd.ac.in Abstract-- Though rapid increase in energy factors affecting energy consumption in urban India. However, the small numbers of participants in those

Toronto, University of

349

ETHNOBOTANICAL ASPECTS OF SOME PLANTS OF ARAVALLI HILLS IN NORTH GUJARAT  

PubMed Central

The Aravalli ranges run along the Sabarkantha district is the ancient region of India, inhibited by tribals living in close vicinity of enriched forest. The present paper contains various ethnobotanical aspects of some plant species used by the tribals for their day-to day requirement. The paper includes the first hand information collected through tribal informants, medicinemen and tribal people of several villages during the field trips in the region for last three years in different seasons. The paper provides an account of the ethnobotanical uses for basic necessities and welfare of tribal life, medicine and hygiene, fuel fodder, fibres food, shelter, dye, oil and other miscellaneous purposes. PMID:22557066

Punjani, Bhasker L.

2002-01-01

350

Earthquake Machine Lite: Activity 2 of 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity continues and compliments the previous Earthquake Machine activity by pointing out the advantages and limitations of the Earthquake Machine model, explaining the causes of earthquakes and extending students' understanding about earthquake generation, occurrence, and prediction through the collection and interpretation of data. It addresses the following questions: How frequently do earthquakes occur?; Are all earthquakes large events?; How frequently do large events occur?; Can earthquakes be predicted?; How does the Earthquake Machine model compare to global data?; and How do scientists strive for objectivity in their results? It uses the Earthquake Machine models and slide presentation from the previous activity and includes homework exercises, teacher background materials, standards alignments, and references.

Michael Hubenthal

351

Listening to Earthquakes with Infrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tripartite infrasound array was installed to listen to earthquakes occurring along the Guy-Greenbrier fault in Arkansas. The active earthquake swarm is believed to be caused by deep waste water injections and will allow us to explain the mechanisms causing earthquake "booms" that have been heard during an earthquake. The array has an aperture of 50 meters and is installed next to the X301 seismograph station run by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI). This arrangement allows simultaneous recording of seismic and acoustic changes from the arrival of an earthquake. Other acoustic and seismic sources that have been found include thunder from thunderstorms, gunshots, quarry explosions and hydraulic fracturing activity from the local gas wells. The duration of the experiment is from the last week of June to the last week of September 2011. During the first month and a half, seven local earthquakes were recorded, along with numerous occurrences of the other infrasound sources. Phase arrival times of the recorded waves allow us to estimate wave slowness and azimuth of infrasound events. Using these two properties, we can determine whether earthquake "booms" occur at a site from the arrival of the P-wave or whether the earthquake "booms" occur elsewhere and travel through the atmosphere. Preliminary results show that the infrasound correlates well to the ground motion during an earthquake for frequencies below 15 Hertz.

Mucek, A. E.; Langston, C. A.

2011-12-01

352

The Earthquake That Tweeted  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in mobile technology and social networking are enabling new behaviors that were not possible even a few short years ago. When people experience a tiny earthquake, it's more likely they're going to reach for their phones and tell their friends about it than actually take cover under a desk. With 175 million Twitter accounts, 750 million Facebook users and more than five billion mobile phones in the world today, people are generating terrific amounts of data simply by going about their everyday lives. Given the right tools and guidance these connected individuals can act as the world's largest sensor network, doing everything from reporting on earthquakes to anticipating global crises. Drawing on the author's experience as a user researcher and experience designer, this presentation will discuss these trends in crowdsourcing the collection and analysis of data, and consider their implications for how the public encounters the earth sciences in their everyday lives.

Petersen, D.

2011-12-01

353

Earthquake Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work in a jigsaw format, they start in an expert group analyzing one particular aspect of the earthquake that occurred (e.g., tsunami, geologic maps, damage assessment). After analyzing the data/information provided, students get into their new groups, which are a "consulting team" to make recommendations to key governmental officials about the earthquake they studied and implications for future development. These are presented in a poster session style event, which then leads to individual papers that are written about the same topic, which are peer reviewed and revised. Students are asked to reflect on their strengths and weaknesses in the process and to consider changes for future opportunities, as well as connect the curriculum to the overall process of science.

Kaatje Kraft

354

Written in Stone Earthquake Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This group of brief animations shows destructive phenomena related to earthquakes and provides some advice on mitigating their effects. The collection includes an animation of Rayleigh waves, showing the reverse elliptical motion that makes them especially damaging; a demonstration of the difference in wave propagation and amplitude between hard rock and unconsolidated sediment; and an animation showing the relationship between earthquake magnitude and fault movement on the San Andreas Fault. For homeowners, there are animations depicting an unsecured cripple wall and chimney failure, with suggestions for strengthening these components. There are also animations of fault movement that occurred during specific earthquakes, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the 1992 Landers earthquake, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The animations were developed for the educational video "Written in Stone," a project funded by and developed for the California Seismic Safety Commission.

Jeff Sale, Edcenter S.

355

Extending earthquakes' reach through cascading.  

PubMed

Earthquakes, whatever their size, can trigger other earthquakes. Mainshocks cause aftershocks to occur, which in turn activate their own local aftershock sequences, resulting in a cascade of triggering that extends the reach of the initial mainshock. A long-lasting difficulty is to determine which earthquakes are connected, either directly or indirectly. Here we show that this causal structure can be found probabilistically, with no a priori model nor parameterization. Large regional earthquakes are found to have a short direct influence in comparison to the overall aftershock sequence duration. Relative to these large mainshocks, small earthquakes collectively have a greater effect on triggering. Hence, cascade triggering is a key component in earthquake interactions. PMID:18292339

Marsan, David; Lengliné, Olivier

2008-02-22

356

Pain after earthquake  

PubMed Central

Introduction On 6 April 2009, at 03:32 local time, an Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzi region of central Italy causing widespread damage in the City of L Aquila and its nearby villages. The earthquake caused 308 casualties and over 1,500 injuries, displaced more than 25,000 people and induced significant damage to more than 10,000 buildings in the L'Aquila region. Objectives This observational retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and drug treatment of pain in the five weeks following the L'Aquila earthquake (April 6, 2009). Methods 958 triage documents were analysed for patients pain severity, pain type, and treatment efficacy. Results A third of pain patients reported pain with a prevalence of 34.6%. More than half of pain patients reported severe pain (58.8%). Analgesic agents were limited to available drugs: anti-inflammatory agents, paracetamol, and weak opioids. Reduction in verbal numerical pain scores within the first 24 hours after treatment was achieved with the medications at hand. Pain prevalence and characterization exhibited a biphasic pattern with acute pain syndromes owing to trauma occurring in the first 15 days after the earthquake; traumatic pain then decreased and re-surged at around week five, owing to rebuilding efforts. In the second through fourth week, reports of pain occurred mainly owing to relapses of chronic conditions. Conclusions This study indicates that pain is prevalent during natural disasters, may exhibit a discernible pattern over the weeks following the event, and current drug treatments in this region may be adequate for emergency situations. PMID:22747796

2012-01-01

357

Seismic hazard evaluation of the Oman India pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Oman India pipeline will traverse approximately 1,135 km of the northern Arabian Sea floor and adjacent continental shelves at depths of over 3 km on its route from Ra`s al Jifan, Oman, to Rapar Gadhwali, India. The western part of the route crosses active faults that form the transform boundary between the Arabian and Indian tectonic plates. The eastern terminus of the route lies in the vicinity of the great (M {approximately} 8) 1829 Kutch, India earthquake. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis was used to estimate the values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) with return periods of 200, 500 and 1,000 years at selected locations along the pipeline route and the submarine Indus Canyon -- a possible source of large turbidity flows. The results defined the ground-shaking hazard along the pipeline route and Indus Canyon for evaluation of risks to the pipeline from potential earthquake-induced geologic hazards such as liquefaction, slope instability, and turbidity flows. 44 refs.

Campbell, K.W.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Mullee, J.E.; Preston, R.

1996-12-31

358

Sand Volcano Following Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

1989-01-01

359

Housing Damage Following Earthquake  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automobile lies crushed under the third story of this apartment building in the Marina District after the Oct. 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. The ground levels are no longer visible because of structural failure and sinking due to liquefaction. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: J.K. Nakata, U.S. Geological Survey.

1989-01-01

360

Earthquakes and plate tectonics.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes occur at the following three kinds of plate boundary: ocean ridges where the plates are pulled apart, margins where the plates scrape past one another, and margins where one plate is thrust under the other. Thus, we can predict the general regions on the earth's surface where we can expect large earthquakes in the future. We know that each year about 140 earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater will occur within this area which is 10% of the earth's surface. But on a worldwide basis we cannot say with much accuracy when these events will occur. The reason is that the processes in plate tectonics have been going on for millions of years. Averaged over this interval, plate motions amount to several mm per year. But at any instant in geologic time, for example the year 1982, we do not know, exactly where we are in the worldwide cycle of strain build-up and strain release. Only by monitoring the stress and strain in small areas, for instance, the San Andreas fault, in great detail can we hope to predict when renewed activity in that part of the plate tectonics arena is likely to take place. -from Author

Spall, H.

1982-01-01

361

Proceedings of lifeline earthquake engineering  

SciTech Connect

This book contains the proceedings of the Lifeline Earthquake Engineering Conference. Topics covered include: Overview of Lifeline Earthquake Engineering; Transportation Lifelines; Seismic Retrofit and Strengthening of Transportation Lifelines; Electric Power Lifelines; Communications Lifelines; Water Delivery and Sewer Lifelines; Seismic Hazards Evaluation; Risk and Reliability Analysis of Lifelines; Lifeline Experience During Earthquakes and System Behavior; Seismic Analysis and Design of Lifelines; Vulnerability of Lifelines; and Vulnerability Reduction, Mitigation Planning, and Emergency Response.

Cassaro, M.A.

1991-01-01

362

Comparing Ground Motion from Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use data provided in REV (Rapid Earthquake Viewer) to compare the amplitude of the seismic waves recorded as a result of ground shaking from recent earthquakes. They explore the concept of a logarithmic scale, and create a graph using a logarithmic axis. By graphing and comparing data for earthquakes of different magnitudes recorded at similar distances from the epicenter, students discover that the amount of ground motion recorded by a seismometer is a measure of magnitude.

363

EQInfo - earthquakes world-wide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EQInfo is a free Android app providing recent earthquake information from various earthquake monitoring centers as GFZ, EMSC, USGS and others. It allows filtering of agency, region and magnitude as well as controlling update interval, institute priority and alarm types. Used by more than 25k active users and beeing in the top ten list of Google Play, EQInfo is one of the most popular apps for earthquake information.

Weber, Bernd; Herrnkind, Stephan

2014-05-01

364

Tectonic Plates, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to theory of plate tectonics, Earth is an active planet -- its surface is composed of many individual plates that move and interact, constantly changing and reshaping Earth's outer layer. Volcanoes and earthquakes both result from the movement of tectonic plates. This interactive feature shows the relationship between earthquakes and volcanoes and the boundaries of tectonic plates. By clicking on a map, viewers can superimpose the locations of plate boundaries, volcanoes and earthquakes.

365

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2010-01-01

366

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2014-01-01

367

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2011-01-01

368

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2012-01-01

369

13 CFR 120.174 - Earthquake hazards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake hazards. 120.174 Section 120...Other Laws and Orders § 120.174 Earthquake hazards. When loan proceeds are...construction must conform with the “National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program...

2013-01-01

370

Census of India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

India's richly diverse population of more than 975 million people, growing at a rate of over 43,000 persons per day, provides a wealth of fascinating data when its decennial census is taken by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Although the last Indian census was conducted in 1991, new data are still being released every month. This Website provides access to Census Publications; India and State Maps; State Publications; District Census Handbooks; Special Studies; India at a Glance; Key Population Statistics; Vital Statistics; State Census Directorates; and New Book Releases.

371

Earthquake forecasting: Statistics and Information  

E-print Network

We present an axiomatic approach to earthquake forecasting in terms of multi-component random fields on a lattice. This approach provides a method for constructing point estimates and confidence intervals for conditional probabilities of strong earthquakes under conditions on the levels of precursors. Also, it provides an approach for setting multilevel alarm system and hypothesis testing for binary alarms. We use a method of comparison for different earthquake forecasts in terms of the increase of Shannon information. 'Forecasting' and 'prediction' of earthquakes are equivalent in this approach.

Gertsik, V; Krichevets, A

2013-01-01

372

An ongoing earthquake sequence near Dhaka, Bangladesh, from regional recordings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes in and around the syntaxial region between the continent-continent collision of the Himalayan arc and oceanic subduction of the Sunda arc result primarily from the convergence of India and Eurasia-Sunda plates along two fronts. The northern front, the convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates, has produced the Himalayas. The eastern front, the convergence of the Indian and Sunda plates, ranges from ocean-continent subduction at the Andaman Arc and Burma Arc, and transitions to continent-continent collision to the north at the Assam Syntaxis in northeast India. The India-Sunda convergence at the Burma Arc is extremely oblique. The boundary-normal convergence rate is ~17 mm/yr while the boundary-parallel rate is ~45 mm/yr including the well-known Sagaing strike-slip fault, which accommodates about half the shear component. This heterogeneous tectonic setting produces multiple earthquake sources that need to be considered when assessing seismic hazard and risk in this region. The largest earthquakes, just as in other subduction systems, are expected to be interplate events that occur on the low-angle megathrusts, such as the Mw 9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the 1762 earthquake along the Arakan margin. These earthquakes are known to produce large damage over vast areas, but since they account for large fault motions they are relatively rare. The majority of current seismicity in the study area is intraplate. Most of the seismicity associated with the Burma Arc subduction system is in the down-going slab, including the shallow-dipping part below the megathrust flooring the accretionary wedge. The strike of the wedge is ~N-S and Dhaka lies at its outer limit. One particular source relevant to seismic risk in Dhaka is illuminated by a multi-year sequence of earthquakes in Bangladesh less than 100 km southeast of Dhaka. The population in Dhaka (now at least 15 million) has been increasing dramatically due to rapid urbanization. The vulnerability of this population to earthquakes is amplified by poor infrastructure and building codes. The only event in this sequence included in the global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) catalog is a Mw 5.1 strike-slip event 18 km deep. At least 10 events in this sequence have been recorded globally (ISC). Many more events from the sequence have been recorded by a regional array of seismographs we have operated in Bangladesh since 2007. We apply several techniques to these data to explore source parameters and dimensions of seismogenesis in this sequence. We present both double-difference relocations and waveform modeling, which provide constraints on the source characteristics. Using the Mw 5.1 and other regional events as calibration, we obtain source parameters for several other events in the sequence. This sequence is ideal for double-difference relocation techniques because the source-receiver paths of the events in the sequence, recorded regionally, are very similar. The event relocation enables us to obtain accurate estimates of fault dimensions of this source. By combining accurate spatial dimensions of the source, the depth range of seismogenesis for the source zone, and well-constrained source parameters of events within the sequence, it we assess the maximum size of possible ruptures in this source.

Howe, M.; Mondal, D. R.; Akhter, S. H.; Kim, W.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

2013-12-01

373

Earthquakes Forces of Nature: What Causes Earthquakes? (Frame Three)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation shows the relationship between plate tectonics and earthquakes (click on Tab 3). A world map shows the location of the San Andreas Fault and a cut away close up view of the fault area. Informational text about plate tectonics describes the causes of earthquakes.

374

The Distribution of Earthquakes: Where Do Large Earthquakes Occur?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students investigate the distribution of large earthquakes (magnitude greater than 6) in Southern California. Using online maps of earthquake epicenters in Southern California and the Los Angeles Basin, they will compare these distributions with historic distributions (1932-1996), and with respect to the locations of major fault traces.

Marquis, John

375

Arsenic in India's Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In "humanity's biggest mass poisoning," millions of residents of South Asia, including India's West Bengal, live with arsenic-contaminated water -- and the response to the problem has been a sluggish one.

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (AAAS;); Dimascio Jen (AAAS;)

2007-03-23

376

Television Training in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general discussion of training programs which resulted from India's decision to expand television as a nationwide network and a vastly expanded use of educational technology within the educational system. (Author/HB)

Malik, Iqbal

1973-01-01

377

Large Chilean earthquakes and tsunamis of 1730 and 1751: new analysis of historical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large collection of contemporary documents from the Archivo de Indias (Seville, Spain) concerning the large Chilean earthquakes and tsunamis of 1730 and 1751 has been studied for the first time. The documents include official and private letters to the King of Spain, and proceedings, memorials and reports of the colonial administration. They provide detailed information about the characteristics and the damage produced by these two mega earthquakes. The 1730, the largest of the two earthquakes, with an estimated magnitude close to Mw = 9, affected a large region of more than 900 km length from Copiapó in the north to Concepción in the south, causing important damage in the capital Santiago. It was followed by a large tsunami which affected especially the two coastal cities of Valparaiso and Concepción. Twenty one years later in 1751, another earthquake caused damage to the region from Santiago to Valdivia. The tsunami destroyed again the city of Concepción and made necessary its relocation from the site at the town of Penco to its present site on the BioBio river. We suggest that this event was very similar in size and extent to that of Maule in 27 February 2010. It is estimated that the two earthquakes together broke the entire plate boundary in central Chile, along almost 900 km, from 30°S to 38°S. A possible repeat of the 1730 earthquake in the future presents a major risk for Central Chile.

Udias, Agustin; Buforn, Elisa; Madariaga, Raul

2013-04-01

378

Cognitive psychiatry in India  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been shown to exist in various psychiatric disorders. Though most Indian studies pertaining to cognition have been replication studies, well designed original studies have also been conducted. This article traces the evolution of cognitive psychiatry in India. Cognitive research has huge potential in India and can help us unravel mysteries of the human mind, identify etiopathogenesis and facilitate treatment of psychiatric disorders. PMID:21836668

Dalal, P. K.; Sivakumar, T.

2010-01-01

379

BBC News: Italy's Earthquake History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This BBC News article lists the long line of earthquake history in Italy from the year 1693 to 1997. The article describes the intensity and also the damages caused by each earthquake. Images and links for further information are included as well.

2009-04-14

380

Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes  

PubMed Central

The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1?MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10?MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

2014-01-01

381

The Maupin, Oregon Earthquake Swarm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The area near Maupin, Oregon has experienced over 300 earthquakes since December 2006. The events, located by the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN), occurred ~10 km SE of the town in central Oregon and ~50 km E-SE of Mount Hood. The temporal event pattern and lack of a distinct main shock are characteristic of an earthquake swarm with the event-size

J. Braunmiller; M. Williams; A. M. Trehu; J. Nabelek

2008-01-01

382

Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

2014-08-01

383

Make an Earthquake: Ground Shaking!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purposes of this activity are to help students explore possible factors affecting the extent of the damage of earthquakes and learn the ways to reduce earthquake damages. In these inquiry-based activities, students have opportunities to develop science process skills and to build an understanding of the relationship among science,…

Savasci, Funda

2011-01-01

384

Magnitude and Energy of Earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a paper presented at a meeting of the Seismological Society of America on April 29, 19551, we have revised previous work2 on the relation of earthquake magnitude M to energy E (in ergs). Methods formerly used to extend the magnitude scale for local earthquakes to teleseisms lead to inconsistencies, so that in effect three different magnitude scales are in

B. Gutenberg; C. F. Richter

1955-01-01

385

Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.  

PubMed

The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1?MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10?MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

2014-01-01

386

Earthquakes Threaten Many American Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millions of U.S. children attend schools that are not safe from earthquakes, even though they are in earthquake-prone zones. Several cities and states have worked to identify and repair unsafe buildings, but many others have done little or nothing to fix the problem. The reasons for ignoring the problem include political and financial ones, but…

Bailey, Nancy E.

2010-01-01

387

Earthquake swarms in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We searched for earthquake swarms in South America between 1973 and 2009 using the global Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) catalogue. Seismicity rates vary greatly over the South American continent, so we employ a manual search approach that aims to be insensitive to spatial and temporal scales or to the number of earthquakes in a potential swarm. We identify 29

S. G. Holtkamp; M. E. Pritchard; R. B. Lohman

2011-01-01

388

Recurrence statistics of great earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the sequence of great earthquakes over the past century. To examine whether the earthquake record includes temporal clustering, we identify aftershocks and remove those from the record. We focus on the recurrence time, defined as the time between two consecutive earthquakes. We study the variance in the recurrence time and the maximal recurrence time. Using these quantities, we compare the earthquake record with sequences of random events, generated by numerical simulations, while systematically varying the minimal earthquake magnitude Mmin. Our analysis shows that the earthquake record is consistent with a random process for magnitude thresholds 7.0?Mmin?8.3, where the number of events is larger. Interestingly, the earthquake record deviates from a random process at magnitude threshold 8.4?Mmin?8.5, where the number of events is smaller; however, this deviation is not strong enough to conclude that great earthquakes are clustered. Overall, the findings are robust both qualitatively and quantitatively as statistics of extreme values and moment analysis yield remarkably similar results.

Ben-Naim, E.; Daub, E. G.; Johnson, P. A.

2013-06-01

389

Temporal Clustering of Great Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decade has seen a surge in the number of great earthquakes (magnitude M ? 8), including three of the six largest events on record in the past century. These events have prompted speculation that large events are not random in time on a global scale, implying that global seismic hazard is currently elevated. Recent studies have addressed this question by applying several statistical tests that compare the earthquake catalogue to a process that is random in time (i.e. event times are uncorrelated). These studies show that the earthquake data do not deviate from a random process. We study the statistics of inter-event times between earthquakes, using the standard measure for fluctuations, the variance. Here we show significant deviations from a random process among earthquakes above magnitude 8.4-8.5 after removing aftershocks, which are known to cluster spatially and temporally near an earthquake. At other magnitude ranges, the data are consistent with a random process. If we only consider data since 1950, when instrumentation worldwide improved and event magnitudes become better constrained, the likelihood that the earthquake catalogue is random becomes remarkably small (~1/1000). We attribute the nonrandom behaviour to clustering in time of large earthquakes, as there are two clusters of events (one in the 1950s-1960s, and one from 2004-present) separated by a long period with no large events.

Daub, E. G.; Ben-Naim, E.; Johnson, P. A.

2012-12-01

390

Earthquakes: Los Angeles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the San Andreas Fault is the longest and one of the most active fault zones in California, it is not responsible for every earthquake in the state. This video segment describes the geologic setting of the San Andreas fault and a network of other active faults, particularly thrust faults, closer to Los Angeles, and explains why these may present a greater danger to the city than the San Andreas Fault. The segment is five minutes fifteen seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included. Running time for the video is 5:15.

2012-08-28

391

Earthquake Loss Estimation Uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses the reliability issues of strong earthquakes loss assessment following strong earthquakes with worldwide Systems' application in emergency mode. Timely and correct action just after an event can result in significant benefits in saving lives. In this case the information about possible damage and expected number of casualties is very critical for taking decision about search, rescue operations and offering humanitarian assistance. Such rough information may be provided by, first of all, global systems, in emergency mode. The experience of earthquakes disasters in different earthquake-prone countries shows that the officials who are in charge of emergency response at national and international levels are often lacking prompt and reliable information on the disaster scope. Uncertainties on the parameters used in the estimation process are numerous and large: knowledge about physical phenomena and uncertainties on the parameters used to describe them; global adequacy of modeling techniques to the actual physical phenomena; actual distribution of population at risk at the very time of the shaking (with respect to immediate threat: buildings or the like); knowledge about the source of shaking, etc. Needless to be a sharp specialist to understand, for example, that the way a given building responds to a given shaking obeys mechanical laws which are poorly known (if not out of the reach of engineers for a large portion of the building stock); if a carefully engineered modern building is approximately predictable, this is far not the case for older buildings which make up the bulk of inhabited buildings. The way population, inside the buildings at the time of shaking, is affected by the physical damage caused to the buildings is not precisely known, by far. The paper analyzes the influence of uncertainties in strong event parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys, of simulation models used at all stages from, estimating shaking intensity to assessing the damage to different elements at risk, of the databases on different elements at risk, such as population and building stock distribution, as well critical facilities characteristics, on the reliability of expected loss estimations at regional and global scale.

Frolova, Nina; Bonnin, Jean; Larionov, Valery; Ugarov, Aleksander

2013-04-01

392

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A national, nonprofit technical society, the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) was founded in 1949 and aims to "reduce earthquake risk by advancing the science and practice of earthquake engineering." EERI's searchable site contains news, timely information, and documents pertaining to earthquakes and related engineering issues. Highlights include the reconnaissance reports with in-depth coverage of current and past quakes. The Web exclusives section contains photos and testimonies, such as a slide show and text of an accompanying testimony made to the US House of Representatives Committee on Science on lessons learned from the Turkey, Taiwan, and Mexico City earthquakes. On the site's main page, users may browse through the links of highlights, such as the one to the EERI newsletter.

393

Stresses of pipelines during earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

Construction of submarine pipelines plays an important role in offshore development. Japan is famous for earthquake country. It is very important to estimate the earthquake proof of the submarine pipelines. An oil leakage causes the contamination of ocean if the submarine pipelines are damaged by earthquakes. Pipe stresses during earthquakes are closely related to the relative displacement of the ground. Field observation has been carried out to know the ground deformation. Steel pipe is assumed to be buried along the observation line and pipe stresses are calculated from the ground deformation obtained by the field observation. The stresses calculated by seismic deformation method that has been used for earthquake resistant design in Japan and by dynamic response analysis are compared with those from the observation.

Kiyomiya, O.

1983-05-01

394

Plateau 'pop-up' in the great 1897 Assam earthquake.  

PubMed

The great Assam earthquake of 12 June 1897 reduced to rubble all masonry buildings within a region of northeastern India roughly the size of England, and was felt over an area exceeding that of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Hitherto it was believed that rupture occurred on a north-dipping Himalayan thrust fault propagating south of Bhutan. But here we show that the northern edge of the Shillong plateau rose violently by at least 11 m during the Assam earthquake, and that this was due to the rupture of a buried reverse fault approximately 110 km in length and dipping steeply away from the Himalaya. The stress drop implied by the rupture geometry and the prodigious fault slip of 18 +/- 7 m explains epicentral accelerations observed to exceed 1g vertically and surface velocities exceeding 3 m s-1 (ref. 1). This quantitative observation of active deformation of a 'pop-up' structure confirms that faults bounding such structures can penetrate the whole crust. Plateau uplift in the past 2-5 million years has caused the Indian plate to contract locally by 4 +/- 2 mm yr-1, reducing seismic risk in Bhutan but increasing the risk in northern Bangladesh. PMID:11298446

Bilham, R; England, P

2001-04-12

395

GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004, however, the two plates moved by a distance of several meters, releasing the stress accumulated over hundreds of years. The result was a devastating tsunami that hit coastlines across the Indian Ocean, killing about 300,000 people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Somalia, and other countries (Guardian, 29 January 2005, http://www.guardian.co.uk/tsunami/story/0,15671,1380895,00.html).

Khan, S. A.; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

2005-03-01

396

Ground observation of electromagnetic emissions related to clusters of earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ULF-VLF data obtained from three ground based experiments working at Agra station (geograph. Lat. 27.20N, Long. 780E) in India namely measurement of ultra low frequency (ULF) magnetic field emissions using a 3-component search coil magnetometer, vertical component of very low frequency (VLF) electric field emissions with a borehole antenna, and phase and amplitude of fixed frequency VLF transmitter signals using AbsPAL receiver are analysed in search of possible precursors of two major seismic activities that occurred in Sumatra (Indonesia) during post-tsunami period between January and April, 2005. These two major seismic events occurred as clusters of earthquakes during 27-29 January and 28-30 March, 2005. The results show that barring borehole all the experiments showed precursors due to these clusters of earthquakes. Such precursors were not seen in the case of isolated large magnitude earthquakes. Further, the precursory duration was influenced by the magnetic storm which occurred about a week before the clusters. The mechanism of ULF propagation to long distances between Sumatra and Agra, and perturbations in the ionosphere before the clusters are discussed.

Singh, Vikram; Singh, Birbal

2010-05-01

397

Plateau `pop-up' in the great 1897 Assam earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The great Assam earthquake of 12 June 1897 reduced to rubble all masonry buildings within a region of northeastern India roughly the size of England, and was felt over an area exceeding that of the great 1755 Lisbon earthquake. Hitherto it was believed that rupture occurred on a north-dipping Himalayan thrust fault propagating south of Bhutan. But here we show that the northern edge of the Shillong plateau rose violently by at least 11m during the Assam earthquake, and that this was due to the rupture of a buried reverse fault approximately 110km in length and dipping steeply away from the Himalaya. The stress drop implied by the rupture geometry and the prodigious fault slip of 18 +/- 7m explains epicentral accelerations observed to exceed 1g vertically and surface velocities exceeding 3ms-1 (ref. 1). This quantitative observation of active deformation of a `pop-up' structure confirms that faults bounding such structures can penetrate the whole crust. Plateau uplift in the past 2-5 million years has caused the Indian plate to contract locally by 4 +/- 2mmyr-1, reducing seismic risk in Bhutan but increasing the risk in northern Bangladesh.

Bilham, Roger; England, Philip

2001-04-01

398

Regional Seismic Amplitude Modeling and Tomography for Earthquake-Explosion Discrimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirically explosions have been discriminated from natural earthquakes using regional amplitude ratio techniques such as P/S in a variety of frequency bands. We demonstrate that such ratios discriminate nuclear tests from earthquakes using closely located pairs of earthquakes and explosions recorded on common, publicly available stations at test sites around the world (e.g. Nevada, Novaya Zemlya, Semipalatinsk, Lop Nor, India, Pakistan, and North Korea). We are examining if there is any relationship between the observed P/S and the point source variability revealed by longer period full waveform modeling. For example, regional waveform modeling shows strong tectonic release from the May 1998 India test, in contrast with very little tectonic release in the October 2006 North Korea test, but the P/S discrimination behavior appears similar in both events using the limited regional data available. While regional amplitude ratios such as P/S can separate events in close proximity, it is also empirically well known that path effects can greatly distort observed amplitudes and make earthquakes appear very explosion-like. Previously we have shown that the MDAC (Magnitude Distance Amplitude Correction, Walter and Taylor, 2001) technique can account for simple 1-D attenuation and geometrical spreading corrections, as well as magnitude and site effects. However in some regions 1-D path corrections are a poor approximation and we need to develop 2-D path corrections. Here we demonstrate a new 2-D attenuation tomography technique using the MDAC earthquake source model applied to a set of events and stations in both the Middle East and the Yellow Sea Korean Peninsula regions. We believe this new 2-D MDAC tomography has the potential to greatly improve earthquake-explosion discrimination, particularly in tectonically complex regions such as the Middle East.

Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E.; Gok, R.; Sweeney, J.; Ford, S. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

2008-12-01

399

Spatial Pattern of Temporal Trend of Crop Phenology Matrices Over India Using Timeseries Gimms Ndvi Data (19826ndash;2006)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAA-AVHRR bi-monthly NDVI data of 8×8 km for the period of 1982-2006 were used to analyze the trend of crop phenology matrices over Indian region. Time series principal component analysis of NDVI was performed to produce six calibration zones for fitting equations of temporal NDVI profile. Savitzky-Golay filter with different seasonality parameters, adaptation strengths and window sizes for different calibration zones were use to smoothen the NDVI profile. Three crop phenology matrices i.e. start of the growing season (SGS), Seasonal NDVI amplitude (AMP), Seasonally Integrated NDVI (SiNDVI) were extracted using TIMESAT software. Direction and magnitude of trends of these crop phenology matrices were analyzed at pixel level using Mann-Kendall test. Further the trends was assessed at meteorological subdivisional level using "Field significance test". Significant advancement of SGS was observed over Punjab, Haryana, Marathwada, Vidarbha and Madhya Maharashtra where as delay was found over Rayalaseema, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gangetic West Bengal and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal. North, West and central India covering Punjab, Haryana, West & East Uttar Pradesh, West & East Rajasthan, West & East Madhya Pradesh, Sourastra & Kutch, Rayalaseema, Marathwada, Vidarbha, Bihar and Sub-Himalayan West Bengal showed significant greening trend of kharif season. Most of the southern and eastern part of India covering Tamilnadu, South Interior Karnataka, Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Maharashtra, Gujarat region, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Gangetic West Bengal showed significant browning trend during kharif season.

Chakraborty, A.; Das, P. Kumar; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Behera, G.

2011-08-01

400

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering  

E-print Network

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July earthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodologies for simulated ground

Baker, Jack W.

401

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture Gilead Wurman  

E-print Network

Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture By Gilead Wurman 2010 #12; #12; 1 Abstract Earthquake Early Warning and the Physics of Earthquake Rupture of whether earthquake ruptures are self-similar, cascading failures, or whether their size is somehow

Allen, Richard M.

402

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering  

E-print Network

Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering July EARTHQUAKE CHARACTERISTICS WITH TWEETS L. Burks1 *, M. Miller1 *, and R. Zadeh2 ABSTRACT Here we demonstrate a model that combines Tweets following significant earthquakes with basic site and earthquake

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

403

Seismicity Changes During Earthquake Preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismicity changes play an important role not only in intermediate-term earthquake prediction, but also in studies on earthquake preparation and hazard estimation. Thus, a close investigation on the seismicity changes associated with a strong earthquake would be useful for understanding the seismo-tectonics in the epicentral region and the preparation process of this strong earthquake. Recently, a statistical method has been developed to reveal the seismicity changes associated with strong earthquakes [Sobolev and Tyupkin, 1997]. This method is called the RTL algorithm, where the RTL is a parameter reflecting the combination of three functions of distance, time and rupture length, respectively. Previous studies indicated that similar variations of seismicity patterns were detected during the preparation of some strong earthquakes in Russia and Japan [Sobolev and Tyupkin, 1997; Huang et al., 2001]. As a case study, we investigated the seismicity changes associated with the M = 7.3 Tottori earthquake by applying the RTL algorithm to the earthquake catalog of the Japan Meteorological Agency [Huang and Nagao, 2002]. We also present an idea of improving the reliability of a precursor (e.g., seismicity anomaly in this study). The preliminary results indicated that a seismic quiescence started in 1999 and reached its minimum in May 2000. Further analyses indicated that this quiescence is unlikely an artifact due to the changes of model parameters. The close investigation showed that the quiescence, which appeared around the epicenter during 1999-2000, is the only alarm group in study space and time. The random test indicated that the revealed seismicity anomaly is a significant one. Therefore, the detected anomaly is most probably a precursor of the Tottori earthquake. The seismicity changes revealed in this study may give better understanding of the seismo-tectonics in the region and the preparation process of the Tottori earthquake. Sobolev, G. A., and Tyupkin, Y. S., Low-seismicity precursors of large earthquakes in Kamchatka, Volc. Seis., 18, 433-446, 1997. Huang, Q., Sobolev, G. A., and Nagao, T., Characteristics of the seismic quiescence and activation patterns before the M=7.2 Kobe earthquake, Tectonophysics, 337, 99-116, 2001. Huang, Q.,Nagao, T., Seismic quiescence before the 2000 M=7.3 Tottori earthquake. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 29, No. 12, 10.1029/2001GL013835, 2002.

Huang, Q.

2002-12-01

404

Prediction of a subsequent large earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many large earthquakes come in pairs separated by relatively small times and distances. The subsequent earthquake may be a large aftershock of the first one, or another main shock. The prediction of a subsequent large earthquake is important for reducing the great hazard caused by destabilization of buildings, lifelines, and other constructions, mountain slopes, etc., after the first large earthquake.

I. A. Vorobieva

1999-01-01

405

Lesson 4: Earthquakes Introduc4on  

E-print Network

Lesson 4: Earthquakes #12;Introduc4on · Earthquakes have had devasta4ng effects of history. · Socie4es at risk of earthquakes have responded to them in a number in regions of seismic ac4vity, earthquakes will exact a toll in both lives

Chen, Po

406

Introduction Earthquake prediction research is based on  

E-print Network

126 Introduction Earthquake prediction research is based on understanding the long-term behaviour a fault is showing a series of earthquakes at regular time intervals and similar in size. These are called characteristic earthquakes and are studied in detail. One example of a characteristic earthquake sequence

Haak, Hein

407

Recent Earthquakes in the Intermountain West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides up-to-date information on recent earthquakes in the Intermountain West, including the greater Yellowstone area. Earthquakes for the past 7 days are shown. Symbols on the map indicate earthquake location, time, and magnitude. Users may select from a clickable map or choose from a linked list to obtain more in-depth information about an earthquake.

Stations, University O.

408

Does Fault Length Limit Earthquake Size?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the hypothesis that earthquake size is limited by fault length. Large earthquakes generally have longer and wider rupture surfaces and greater displacement than small ones. Several publications (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith, 1995) present regression relationships between earthquake size and extent of faulting. In these studies, earthquake size is generally measured by the seismic moment and faulting extent is

A. Holt; D. D. Jackson

2001-01-01

409

Application of Ocean Colour Monitor chlorophyll and AVHRR SST for fishery forecast: Preliminary validation results off Gujarat coast, northwest coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 20 September 2000, revised 27 April 2001 Quantitative analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll improve our understanding of circulation and distribution of phytoplankton population in water masses. In this study near synchronous IRS P4 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) derived chlorophyll and NOAA AVHRR derived SST are used for exploring fishery resources. Ocean Colour Moni- tor data were

H U Solanlki; R M Dwivedi; S R Nayak; J V Jadeja; D B Thakar; H B Dave; M I Patel

2001-01-01

410

National Resources Canada: National Earthquake Hazards Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Natural Resources Canada comes the National Earthquake Hazards Program Web site. Those interested in earthquakes in general or specifically about physical science topics in Canada will appreciate the many informational offerings on the site. Readers can learn about historical earthquakes in Canada and how frequent they are, find out how earthquake hazards are evaluated, how to survive an earthquake, earthquake research in Canada, and much more. The Products and Publications link contains several interesting downloadable reports including monthly earthquake summaries, among others. All of these culminate in an interesting accumulation of seismic information and facts presented in a straightforward and easily read format.

411

VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA  

PubMed Central

Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

2011-01-01

412

2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since 1906? Since the number of M>7.0 aftershocks has been low, does the distribution of large-magnitude aftershocks differ from previous events of this size? What is the origin of the extensional-type aftershocks at shallow depths within the upper plate? The international seismological community (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.A.) in collaboration with the Chilean seismological community responded with a total of 140 portable seismic stations to deploy in order to record aftershocks. This combined with the Chilean permanent seismic network, in the area results in 180 stations now in operation recording continuous at 100 cps. The seismic equipment is a mix of accelerometers, short -period and broadband seismic sensors deployed along the entire length of the aftershock zone that will record the aftershock sequence for three to six months. The collected seismic data will be merged and archived to produce an international data set open to the entire seismological community immediately after archiving. Each international group will submit their data as soon as possible in standard (mini seed) format with accompanying meta data to the IRIS DMC where the data will be merged into a combined data set and available to individuals and other data centers. This will be by far the best-recorded aftershock sequence of a large megathrust earthquake. This outstanding international collaboration will provide an open data set for this important earthquake as well as provide a model for future aftershock deployments around the world.

Barientos, Sergio

2010-05-01

413

Stochastic synthesis of earthquake catalogs  

SciTech Connect

A model of earthquake occurrence is proposed that is based on results of statistical studies of earthquake catalogs. We assume that each earthquake generates additional shocks with a probability that depends on time as t/sup() -1+q/. This assumption together with one regarding the independence of branching events on adjacent branches of the event 'tree,' is sufficient to permit the generation of complete catalogs of earthquakes that have the same time-magnitude statistical properties as real earthquake catalogs. If q is about 0.5, the process generates sequences that have statistical properties similar to those for shallow earthquakes: many well-known relations are reproduced including the magnitude-frequency law, Omori's law of the rate of aftershock and foreshock occurrence, the duration of a recorded seismic event versus its magnitude, the self-similarity or lack of scale of rate of earthquake occurrence in different magnitude ranges, etc. A value of q closer to 0.8 or 0.9 seems to simulate the statistical properties of the occurrence of intermediate and deep shocks. A formula for seismic risk prediction is proposed, and the implications of the model for risk evaluation are outlined. The possibilities of the determination of long-term risk from real or synthetic catalogs that have the property of self-similarity are dim.

Kagan, Y.Y.; Knopoff, L.

1981-04-10

414

The physics of an earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 (Boxing Day 2004) and its tsunami will endure in our memories as one of the worst natural disasters of our time. For geophysicists, the scale of the devastation and the likelihood of another equally destructive earthquake set out a series of challenges of how we might use science not only to understand the earthquake and its aftermath but also to help in planning for future earthquakes in the region. In this article a brief account of these efforts is presented. Earthquake prediction is probably impossible, but earth scientists are now able to identify particularly dangerous places for future events by developing an understanding of the physics of stress interaction. Having identified such a dangerous area, a series of numerical Monte Carlo simulations is described which allow us to get an idea of what the most likely consequences of a future earthquake are by modelling the tsunami generated by lots of possible, individually unpredictable, future events. As this article was being written, another earthquake occurred in the region, which had many expected characteristics but was enigmatic in other ways. This has spawned a series of further theories which will contribute to our understanding of this extremely complex problem.

McCloskey, John

2008-03-01

415

Gravity drives Great Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most violent of Great Earthquakes are driven by ruptures on giant megathrusts adjacent to actively forming mountain belts. Current theory suggests that the seismic rupture harvests (and thus releases) elastic energy that has been previously stored in locked segments of the megathrust. The general belief, however, is that this energy was accumulated as the result of relative motion of the adjacent stiff elastic tectonic plates. This mechanism fails to explain many first order aspects of large earthquakes, however. The energy source for strain accumulation must also include gravitational collapse of orogenic crust and/or in the foundering (or roll-back) of an adjacent subducting lithospheric slab. Therefore we have conducted an analysis of the geometry of aftershocks, and report that this allows distinction of two types of failure on giant megathrusts. Mode I failure involves horizontal shortening, and is consistent with the classic view that megathrusts fail in compression, with motion analogous to that expected if accretion takes place against a rigid (or elastic) backstop. Mode II failure involves horizontal extension, and requires the over-riding plate to stretch during an earthquake. This process is likely to continue during the subsequent period of afterslip, and therefore will again be evident in aftershock patterns. Mode I behaviour may well have applied to the southern segment of the Sumatran megathrust, from whence emanated the rupture that drove the 2004 Great Earthquake. Mode II behaviour appears to apply to the northern segment of the same rupture, however. The geometry of aftershocks beneath the Andaman Sea suggest that the crust above the initial rupture failed in an extensional mode. The edge of the Indian plate is foundering, with slab-hinge roll-back in a direction orthogonal to its motion vector. The only possible cause for this extension therefore is westward roll-back of the subducting Indian plate, and the consequent gravity-driven movement of the over-riding crust and mantle. This is possible for the crust and mantle above major subduction zones is mechanically weakened by the flux of heat and water associated with subduction zone processes. In consequence the lithosphere of the over-riding orogens can act more like a fluid than a rigid plate. Such fluid-like behaviour has been noted for the Himalaya and for the crust of the uplifted adjacent Tibetan Plateau, which appear to be collapsing. Similar conclusions as to the fluid-like behaviour of an orogen can also be reached for the crust and mantle of Myanmar and Indonesia, since here again, there is evidence for arc-normal motion adjacent to rolling-back subduction zones. Prior to the Great Sumatran Earthquake of 2004 we had postulated such movements on geological time-scales, describing them as ‘surges‘ driven by the gravitational potential energy of the adjacent orogen. But we considered time-scales that were very different to those that apply in the lead up, or during and subsequent to a catastrophic seismic event. The Great Sumatran Earthquake taught us quite differently. Data from satellites support the hypothesis that extension took place in a discrete increment, which we interpret to be the result of a gravitationally driven surge of the Indonesian crust westward over the weakened rupture during and after the earthquake. Mode II megathrusts are tsunamigenic for one very simple reason: the crust has been attenuated as the result of ongoing extension, so they can be overlain by large tracts of water, and they have a long rupture run time, allowing a succession of stress accumulations to be harvested. The after-slip beneath the Andaman Sea was also significant (in terms of moment) although non-seismogenic in its character. Operation of a Mode II megathrust prior to catastrophic failure may involve relatively quiescent motion with a mixture of normal faults and reverse faults, much like south of Java today. Ductile yield may produce steadily increasing (and accelerating) subsidence (on decadal time scales) as roll-back deepens the trench an

Lister, Gordon; Forster, Marnie

2010-05-01

416

The 1957 great Aleutian earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 9 March 1957 Aleutian earthquake has been estimated as the third largest earthquake this century and has the longest aftershock zone of any earthquake ever recorded—1200 km. However, due to a lack of high-quality seismic data, the actual source parameters for this earthquake have been poorly determined. We have examined all the available waveform data to determine the seismic moment, rupture area, and slip distribution. These data include body, surface and tsunami waves. Using body waves, we have estimated the duration of significant moment release as 4 min. From surface wave analysis, we have determined that significant moment release occurred only in the western half of the aftershock zone and that the best estimate for the seismic moment is 50 100×1020 Nm. Using the tsunami waveforms, we estimated the source area of the 1957 tsunami by backward propagation. The tsunami source area is smaller than the aftershock zone and is about 850 km long. This does not include the Unalaska Island area in the eastern end of the aftershock zone, making this area a possible seismic gap and a possible site of a future large or great earthquake. We also inverted the tsunami waveforms for the slip distribution. Slip on the 1957 rupture zone was highest in the western half near the epicenter. Little slip occurred in the eastern half. The moment is estimated as 88×1020 Nm, or M w =8.6, making it the seventh largest earthquake during the period 1900 to 1993. We also compare the 1957 earthquake to the 1986 Andreanof Islands earthquake, which occurred within a segment of the 1957 rupture area. The 1986 earthquake represents a rerupturing of the major 1957 asperity.

Johnson, Jean M.; Tanioka, Yuichiro; Ruff, Larry J.; Satake, Kenji; Kanamori, Hiroo; Sykes, Lynn R.

1994-03-01

417

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the home page of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), a consortium of universities and research institutions dedicated to gathering information about earthquakes in Southern California, integrate that knowledge into a comprehensive and predictive understanding of earthquake phenomena, and communicate this understanding to end-users and the general public in order to increase earthquake awareness, reduce economic losses, and save lives. News of recent earthquake research, online resources and educational information is available here.

418

Prevalence of ?-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies in six cities in India: a multicentre study.  

PubMed

The population of India is extremely diverse comprising of more than 3,000 ethnic groups who still follow endogamy. Haemoglobinopathies are the commonest hereditary disorders in India and pose a major health problem. The data on the prevalence of ?-thalassemias and other haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups of India is scarce. Therefore the present multicentre study was undertaken in six cities of six states of India (Maharashtra, Gujarat, West Bengal, Assam, Karnataka and Punjab) to determine the prevalence of haemoglobinopathies in different caste/ethnic groups using uniform methodology. Fifty-six thousand seven hundred eighty individuals (college students and pregnant women) from different caste/ethnic groups were screened. RBC indices were measured on an automated haematology counter while the percentage of HbA(2), HbF and other abnormal Hb variants were estimated by HPLC on the Variant Hemoglobin Testing System. The overall prevalence of ?-thalassemia trait was 2.78 % and varied from 1.48 to 3.64 % in different states, while the prevalence of ?-thalassemia trait in 59 ethnic groups varied from 0 to 9.3 %. HbE trait was mainly seen in Dibrugarh in Assam (23.9 %) and Kolkata in West Bengal (3.92 %). In six ethnic groups from Assam, the prevalence of HbE trait varied from 41.1 to 66.7 %. Few subjects with ??-thalassemia, HPFH, HbS trait, HbD trait, HbE homozygous and HbE ?-thalassemia as well as HbS homozygous and HbS-?-thalassemia (<1 %) were also identified. This is the first large multicentre study covering cities from different regions of the country for screening for ?-thalassemia carriers and other haemoglobinopathies where uniform protocols and methodology was followed and quality control ensured by the co-ordinating centre. This study also shows that establishment of centres for screening for ?-thalassemia and other haemoglobinopathies is possible in medical colleges. Creating awareness, screening and counselling can be done at these centres. This experience will help to formulate a national thalassemia control programme in India. PMID:23086467

Mohanty, D; Colah, R B; Gorakshakar, A C; Patel, R Z; Master, D C; Mahanta, J; Sharma, S K; Chaudhari, U; Ghosh, M; Das, S; Britt, R P; Singh, S; Ross, C; Jagannathan, L; Kaul, R; Shukla, D K; Muthuswamy, V

2013-01-01

419

Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

2013-01-31

420

Earthquake damage to transportation systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

McCullough, Heather

1994-01-01

421

Rupture Velocities of Small Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whether the rupture process of small earthquakes differs from those of large earthquakes has been a long- standing question in seismology. Recent proposals as to whether and how the physics of rupture may change with earthquake size have sparked interest in the energy budget, which depends strongly on the rupture velocity (Vr). Small earthquake rupture velocities have proved difficult to determine due to the strong attenuation of high-frequency waves. We analyze P and S waves of small earthquakes to detect rupture directivity and constrain Vr. We apply the projected Landweber deconvolution (PLD) method to a data set of 30 earthquakes 3.6earthquakes and the stations. Variation in RSTFs with azimuth yields estimates of Vr for 6 earthquakes from 0.4 to 0.9?. Our results are broadly consistent with those of Yamada and Mori (JGR, 2005) and McGuire (BSSA, 2004). We now explore the implications of the range in Vr for static stress drop (??), and the ratio of radiated energy to seismic moment, which are interrelated. Kanamori and Rivera (BSSA, 2004) discuss how Vr and ?? must change with earthquake moment, if the ratio of energy to moment ? increases with moment, as has been suggested by various studies. There is currently no consensus that such a change in this ratio truly occurs. The increase in the energy-to- moment ratio is controlled by the relation between moment and corner frequency, which has moment inversely proportional to corner frequency raised to the power (3 + ?). Data compiled in Kanamori and Rivera suggests ? of 0.5. Then Vr of 0.4 to 0.9? for M3 events require that ?? of M3 events range from 1 to 0.1 respectively, of that of M7 events. More constraints on rupture velocities of small earthquakes will help to resolve possible changes in the energy budget, and thus earthquake physics, with earthquake size.

Tomic, J.; Houston, H.

2006-12-01

422

The paleoposition of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal similarity is extremly poor between India-Antarctica and India-Australia. This suggests that India cannot be placed alongside Antarctica or Australia in a pre-drift assembly. Moreover, the distribution of marine rocks indicates that India faced an open sea at its eastern margin during Proterozoic, Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Before the drift, India probably occupied the position between Somalia and Asia, and the Tethys was narrow and intracontinental. With the spreading of the Carlsberg Ridge in the Upper Cretaceous, the Indian block rotated counter-clockwise in relation to Africa to converge to Asia, with the opening up of the Arabian Sea. The rotational movement of India is supported by hot spot trajectory and reversal of paleoslopes of the ancient Gondwana rivers. There is a possible genetic relation between the Arabian sphenochasm and the origin of the Himalaya. With continued convergence of India to Asia, limited subduction occured at the Indus Suture along the axis of the Tethys; the further compression led to the closure of the Tethys followed by foldings, faultings and large-scale intracratonic subductions to form the Himalaya. The Himalayan uplift probably began in the Miocene, but went more actively in the Quaternary.

Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

423

Critical care in India.  

PubMed

India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

1997-04-01

424

Earthquake Clusters over Multi-dimensional Space, Visualization of E 2347 Earthquake Clusters over  

E-print Network

Earthquake Clusters over Multi-dimensional Space, Visualization of E 2347 E Earthquake Clusters of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA 4 Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA Article Outline Glossary Definition of the Subject Introduction Earthquakes Clustering

Ben-Zion, Yehuda

425

Earthquake Breccias (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault breccias are one of the fundamental classes of fault rocks and are observed in many exhumed faults. Some breccias have long been assumed to form co-seismically, but textural or mechanistic evidence for the association with earthquakes has never been documented. For example, at dilational jogs in brittle faults, it is common to find small bodies of chaotic breccia in lenticular or rhombohedral voids bounded by main slip surfaces and linking segments. Sibson interpreted these 'implosion breccias' as evidence of wall rock fracturing during sudden unloading when the dilational jogs open during earthquake slip (Sibson 1985, PAGEOPH v. 124, n. 1, 159-175). However, the role of dynamic fracturing in forming these breccias has not been tested. Moreover, the criteria for identifying implosion breccia have not been defined - do all breccias in dilational jogs or step-overs represent earthquake slip? We are building a database of breccia and microbreccia textures to develop a strictly observational set of criteria for distinction of breccia texture classes. Here, we present observations from the right-lateral Pofadder Shear Zone, South Africa, and use our textural criteria to identify the relative roles of dynamic and quasi-static fracture patterns, comminution/grinding and attrition, hydrothermal alteration, dissolution, and cementation. Nearly 100% exposure in the hyper-arid region south of the Orange River allowed very detailed mapping of frictional fault traces associated with rupture events, containing one or more right-steps in each rupture trace. Fracture patterns characteristic of on- and off-fault damage associated with propagation of dynamic rupture are observed along straight segments of the faults. The wall rock fractures are regularly spaced, begin at the fault trace and propagate at a high angle to the fault, and locally branch into subsidiary fractures before terminating a few cm away. This pattern of fractures has been previously linked to dynamic fracture tip propagation in both field studies and analog experiments. In dilational jogs, these fractures interact and intersect the wall rock foliation to cut the wall rock into distinctive clast shapes and sizes, giving the breccia a characteristic texture that can be defined quantitatively by image analysis. Breccia clast morphology, size distribution and angularity are markers for dynamic fracture patterns. Older microbreccias are cemented, and interfingering grain boundaries between quartz in clasts and quartz in cement show that crystal plastic deformation of quartz has occurred after breccia cementation. These deformed breccias are cut by younger breccias, establishing cyclicity of brittle and ductile slip on the Pofadder Shear Zone. Our results distinguish between fault breccias that could have formed quasi-statically, and those that are the result of dynamic processes and therefore define a new tool for recognizing earthquakes in the rock record.

Rowe, C. D.; Melosh, B. L.; Lamothe, K.; Schnitzer, V.; Bate, C.

2013-12-01

426

Earthquakes - on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information obtained with the Apollo lunar seismic stations is discussed. The four types of natural seismic sources that have been identified are described, viz., thermal moonquakes, deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts, and shallow moonquakes. It is suggested that: (1) the thermal quakes represent the slow cracking and movement of surface rocks; (2) the deep quakes are induced by the tide-generating force of the earth's gravity; (3) the meteoroids responsible for most of the observed impacts are in the mass range from 1 to 100 kg and are clustered in groups near the earth's orbit; and (4) the shallow quakes are similar to intraplate earthquakes and indicate that the moon is as seismically active as the interior regions of the earth's tectonic plates. The structure of the lunar interior as inferred from seismic signals due to both the last three natural sources and 'artificial' impacts of used spacecraft is examined in detail.

Nakamura, Y.

1981-01-01

427

Devastating Earthquake in Turkey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The death toll will pass 10,000 today from Tuesday's earthquake, which measured 7.4 on the Richter scale and shattered a 400-mile stretch from northwestern Turkey to areas near central Ankara. Relief officials have publicly stated that they fear the worst for the estimated 35,000 people who remain trapped beneath rubble, as most will now have been without water for more than 72 hours. In addition to locating and rescuing survivors, the Turkish Government and international aid workers are working feverishly to organize relief efforts, prevent the spread of disease, repair damaged infrastructure, and contain a massive fire at the country's largest oil refinery. The sites listed provide information about this horrible act of nature

de Nie, Michael Willem.

428

Urology in ancient India  

PubMed Central

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

Das, Sakti

2007-01-01

429

India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

430

Visualizing Global Earthquakes â Where and Why do Earthquakes Occur?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This screenshot from this visualization shows a map of tectonic plate boundaries. The visualization transitions between global earthquake distribution to a map of plate boundaries, to clearly illustrate how they are related. This visualization also includes an overview of the distribution and magnitude of earthquakes at different types of plate boundaries. Click the image to enlarge or view the MP4 movie ( 31.1MB Jul27 11). The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to the distribution of earthquakes at and below the surface of earth and how their distribution is related to the geometry and type of plate boundaries. Because the depth of earthquakes can be difficult for students to visualize in 2D representations, this activity allows students to visualize the 3D distribution of earthquakes within Earth's surface, which is essential for understanding how different types of earthquakes occur in different tectonic settings. Talking points and questions are included to use this visualization as part of an interactive lecture. In addition to playing back the visualization, instructors can also download the visualization software and data set and explore it themselves.

Cara Harwood

431

Sichuan Earthquake in China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sichuan earthquake in China occurred on May 12, 2008, along faults within the mountains, but near and almost parallel the mountain front, northwest of the city of Chengdu. This major quake caused immediate and severe damage to many villages and cities in the area. Aftershocks pose a continuing danger, but another continuing hazard is the widespread occurrence of landslides that have formed new natural dams and consequently new lakes. These lakes are submerging roads and flooding previously developed lands. But an even greater concern is the possible rapid release of water as the lakes eventually overflow the new dams. The dams are generally composed of disintegrated rock debris that may easily erode, leading to greater release of water, which may then cause faster erosion and an even greater release of water. This possible 'positive feedback' between increasing erosion and increasing water release could result in catastrophic debris flows and/or flooding. The danger is well known to the Chinese earthquake response teams, which have been building spillways over some of the new natural dams.

This ASTER image, acquired on June 1, 2008, shows two of the new large landslide dams and lakes upstream from the town of Chi-Kua-Kan at 32o12'N latitude and 104o50'E longitude. Vegetation is green, water is blue, and soil is grayish brown in this enhanced color view. New landslides appear bright off-white. The northern (top) lake is upstream from the southern lake. Close inspection shows a series of much smaller lakes in an elongated 'S' pattern along the original stream path. Note especially the large landslides that created the dams. Some other landslides in this area, such as the large one in the northeast corner of the image, occur only on the mountain slopes, so do not block streams, and do not form lakes.

2008-01-01

432

A LIFE CRISIS AND ITS MANAGEMENT A CASE STUDY FROM NORTH INDIA  

PubMed Central

The behaviour of so called traditional patients has been the topic of anthropological research for the last thirty years. Myths have been and constructed and rejected, one being that patients with chronic and less incapacitating illness see rather traditional healers than allopathic medical treatment. The case study with which we are concerned in this paper is the illness of a young girl who is the age in which she is expected to accept a marriage contract. Since she is obviously not willing to do she adopts an illness behaviour which enables her to postpone all role expectations of her age group. She performs a behaviour which is socially accepted and guarantees all the support from her family which she needs and requires. The paper investigates the causes, reason and development of her spirit possession and relates it to the cultural grammar of the patient's group of reference. The data of this case study were obtained at a Muslim shrine in Gujarat, India. PMID:22557510

Pfleiderer, Beatrix

1985-01-01

433

Geochemical challenge to earthquake prediction.  

PubMed

The current status of geochemical and groundwater observations for earthquake prediction in Japan is described. The development of the observations is discussed in relation to the progress of the earthquake prediction program in Japan. Three major findings obtained from our recent studies are outlined. (i) Long-term radon observation data over 18 years at the SKE (Suikoen) well indicate that the anomalous radon change before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake can with high probability be attributed to precursory changes. (ii) It is proposed that certain sensitive wells exist which have the potential to detect precursory changes. (iii) The appearance and nonappearance of coseismic radon drops at the KSM (Kashima) well reflect changes in the regional stress state of an observation area. In addition, some preliminary results of chemical changes of groundwater prior to the 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken nanbu) earthquake are presented. PMID:11607665

Wakita, H

1996-04-30

434

Geochemical challenge to earthquake prediction.  

PubMed Central

The current status of geochemical and groundwater observations for earthquake prediction in Japan is described. The development of the observations is discussed in relation to the progress of the earthquake prediction program in Japan. Three major findings obtained from our recent studies are outlined. (i) Long-term radon observation data over 18 years at the SKE (Suikoen) well indicate that the anomalous radon change before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake can with high probability be attributed to precursory changes. (ii) It is proposed that certain sensitive wells exist which have the potential to detect precursory changes. (iii) The appearance and nonappearance of coseismic radon drops at the KSM (Kashima) well reflect changes in the regional stress state of an observation area. In addition, some preliminary results of chemical changes of groundwater prior to the 1995 Kobe (Hyogo-ken nanbu) earthquake are presented. PMID:11607665

Wakita, H

1996-01-01

435

Earthquakes in stable continental crust  

SciTech Connect

Earthquakes can strike even in stable crust, well away from the familiar earthquake zones at the edges of tectonic plates, but their mere occurrence is both a source of concern in planning critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. The authors sought answers to two major questions: Just how much seismic activity does take place within the stable parts of continents And are there specific geologic features that make some areas of stable crust particularly susceptible to earthquakes They began by studying North America alone, but it soon became clear that the fairly short record of these rare events on a single continent would not provide enough data for reliable analysis. Hence, they decided to substitute space for time--to survey earthquake frequency and distribution in stable continental areas worldwide. This paper discusses their findings.

Johnson, A.C.; Kanter, L.R. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))

1990-03-01

436

Kobe earthquake: An urban disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The January 17,1995, Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was the most damaging to strike Japan since the great Kanto earthquake destroyed large areas of Tokyo and Yokohama and killed 143,000 people in 1923. As of January 30, the toll from the earthquake in Kobe and adjacent cities had reached 5,096 dead, 13 missing, and 26,797 injured. One-fifth of the city's 1.5 million population was left homeless and more than 103,521 buildings were destroyed. The HyogoPrefectural Government estimated the cost of restoring basic functions to be about $100 billion dollars; the total losses including losses of privately owned property and reduction in business activity may be twice this amount, which would be 10 times higher than losses resulting from the 1994 Northridge, Calif., earthquake.

Somerville, Paul

437

1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

438

Big Trouble in Earthquake Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use online earthquake hazard maps and other relevant geological information to assess hazards to life and property associated with hypothetical earthquakes of differing magnitude. Students working in small groups use this information to develop strategies to reduce damage and loss of life in the area near their home or school. This lesson will help students gain an understanding of the effect of earthquakes on natural and man-made systems and afford them a better understanding of the complex consequences of earthquakes for human beings. The background information is structured to cater to both San Franciso area residents and non-residents. Students can be encouraged to work in groups to glean, process, and discuss information pertinent to their particular home or school locations from various public access world-wide-web sites.

439

Rating the Size of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes how the work of K. Wadati, Charles F. Richter, Harry O. Wood, and Beno Gutenberg resulted in a way of rating earthquakes in southern California according to an instrumental analysis of the amount of energy they released in the form of seismic waves. This work resulted in the first use of the term "magnitude" for describing the amount of energy released by an earthquake, and in the development of the now-famous Richter Scale for quantifying earthquake magnitudes. Topics include the original definition of Richter magnitude and a brief synopsis of how Richter used earthquake data from southern California to graphically represent trace amplitude and develop a table of values that could be used to calculate magnitudes.

440

Record Breaking Earthquakes and Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A record-breaking event is the largest (smallest) event to occur during a specified time window in a specified region. In this paper we consider the record-breaking statistics of global earthquakes and temperatures at a specified observatory. For the record-breaking earthquakes we consider the global CMT catalog for the period 1977 to 2007. We determine the numbers and magnitudes of the

D. L. Turcotte; B. D. Malamud; J. D. van Aalsburg; W. I. Newman; J. B. Rundle

2009-01-01

441

Earthquake Terms Word Search Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a word search for basic earthquake terms. This site has multiple versions of the word search which can be viewed by refreshing the page, or hitting the restart button. The word search can be completed online or can be printed out. When completed online, the words are links to their definitions. The words used are magnitude, intensity, epicenter, waves, shaking, fault, strike, slip, thrust, landslide, liquefaction, tsunami, and earthquake.

442

Progress in Understanding the Pre-Earthquake Associated Events by Analyzing IR Satellite Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present latest result in understanding the potential relationship between tectonic stress, electro-chemical and thermodynamic processes in the Earths crust and atmosphere with an increase in IR flux as a potential signature of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that are related to earthquake activity, either pre-, co- or post seismic. Thermal infra-red (TIR) surveys performed by the polar orbiting (NOAA/AVHRR MODIS) and geosynchronous weather satellites (GOES, METEOSAT) gave an indication of the appearance (from days to weeks before the event) of "anomalous" space-time TIR transients that are associated with the location (epicenter and local tectonic structures) and time of a number of major earthquakes with M>5 and focal depths less than 50km. We analyzed broad category of associated pre-earthquake events, which provided evidence for changes in surface temperature, surface latent heat flux, chlorophyll concentrations, soil moisture, brightness temperature, emissivity of surface, water vapour in the atmosphere prior to the earthquakes occurred in Algeria, India, Iran, Italy, Mexico and Japan. The cause of such anomalies has been mainly related to the change of near-surface thermal properties due to complex lithosphere-hydrosphere-atmospheric interactions. As final results we present examples from the most recent (2000-2004) worldwide strong earthquakes and the techniques used to capture the tracks of EM emission mid-IR anomalies and a methodology for practical future use of such phenomena in the early warning systems.

Ouzounov, Dimitar; Taylor, Patrick; Bryant, Nevin

2004-01-01

443

Mapping Tectonic Stress Using Earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

An earthquakes occurs when the forces acting on a fault overcome its intrinsic strength and cause it to slip abruptly. Understanding more specifically why earthquakes occur at particular locations and times is complicated because in many cases we do not know what these forces actually are, or indeed what processes ultimately trigger slip. The goal of this study is to develop, test, and implement a Bayesian method of reliably determining tectonic stresses using the most abundant stress gauges available - earthquakes themselves.Existing algorithms produce reasonable estimates of the principal stress directions, but yield unreliable error bounds as a consequence of the generally weak constraint on stress imposed by any single earthquake, observational errors, and an unavoidable ambiguity between the fault normal and the slip vector.A statistical treatment of the problem can take into account observational errors, combine data from multiple earthquakes in a consistent manner, and provide realistic error bounds on the estimated principal stress directions.We have developed a realistic physical framework for modelling multiple earthquakes and show how the strong physical and geometrical constraints present in this problem allow inference to be made about the orientation of the principal axes of stress in the earth's crust.

Arnold, Richard; Townend, John; Vignaux, Tony [Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand)

2005-11-23

444

Two models for earthquake forerunners  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Similar precursory phenomena have been observed before earthquakes in the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. Two quite different physical models are used to explain these phenomena. According to a model developed by US seismologists, the so-called dilatancy diffusion model, the earthquake occurs near maximum stress, following a period of dilatant crack expansion. Diffusion of water in and out of the dilatant volume is required to explain the recovery of seismic velocity before the earthquake. According to a model developed by Soviet scientists growth of cracks is also involved but diffusion of water in and out of the focal region is not required. With this model, the earthquake is assumed to occur during a period of falling stress and recovery of velocity here is due to crack closure as stress relaxes. In general, the dilatancy diffusion model gives a peaked precursor form, whereas the dry model gives a bay form, in which recovery is well under way before the earthquake. A number of field observations should help to distinguish between the two models: study of post-earthquake recovery, time variation of stress and pore pressure in the focal region, the occurrence of pre-existing faults, and any changes in direction of precursory phenomena during the anomalous period. ?? 1975 Birkha??user Verlag.

Mjachkin, V.I.; Brace, W.F.; Sobolev, G.A.; Dieterich, J.H.

1975-01-01

445

Hydrological signatures of earthquake strain  

SciTech Connect

The character of the hydrological changes that follow major earthquakes has been investigated and found to be dependent on the style of faulting. The most significant response is found to accompany major normal fault earthquakes. Increases in spring and river discharges peak a few days after the earthquake, and typically, excesss flow is sustained for a period of 6-12 months. In contrast, hydrological changes accompanying pure reverse fault earthquakes are either undetected or indicate lowering of well levels and spring flows. Strike-slip and oblique-slip fault movements are associated with a mixture of responses but appear to release no more than 10% of the water volume of the same sized normal fault event. For two major normal fault earthquakes in the western United States (those of Hebgen Lake on August 17, 1959, and Borah Peak on October 28, 1983), there is sufficient river flow information to allow the magnitude and extent of the postseismic discharge to be quantified. The discharge has been converted to a rainfall equivalent, which is found to exceed 100 mm close to the fault and to remain above 10 mm at distances greater than 50 km. Results suggest that water-filled craks are ubiquitous throughout the brittle continental crust and that these cracks open and close throughout the earthquake cycle. The existence of tectonically induced fluid flows on the scale that we demonstrate has major implications for our understanding of the mechanical and chemical behavior of crustal rocks.

Muir-Wood, R.; King, G.C.P. [EQE International, Clapton (United Kingdom)]|[Inst. de Physique du Globe, Strasbourg (France)

1993-12-01

446

Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

2014-11-01

447

Managing India's environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written about the accident at Bhopal and the inadequacies of the Indian legislation for protecting the public health and safety against industrial hazards. India, however, has problems that loom much larger than those of insufficient legislation. First, the institutional and technological infrastructures required to make legal instruments function more effectively are missing in many parts of this

Jasanoff

1986-01-01

448

Marine Archaeology in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine archaeology, also known as maritime, nautical or underwater archaeology deals with the 'scientific study of the material remains of man and his past activities on the sea'. Marine archaeol- ogy has made tremendous progress in India. Over the years, the National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, in collaboration with other Government agencies has undertaken the exploration and excava- tion of

Sila Tripati; A. S. Gaur

449

Can India's "Literate" Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

2010-01-01

450

Electrifying rural India  

SciTech Connect

NREL personnel team with the Indian and US governments and an Indian NGO to bring photovoltaic electricity to rural residents of the Sundarbans in India. India is the world's second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion people. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many residents have little or no access to electricity and the benefits associated with it. Many rural areas, for example, are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra. The region lies partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative in Sundarbans. The initiative was designed to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics (PV) to provide limited supplies of electricity for applications such as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications and economic development activities.

Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S.

1999-12-01

451

History of Nuclear India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and

Ram Chaturvedi

2000-01-01

452

The Ramayana: India's Odyssey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide demonstrates how the "Ramayana," one of India's epic literary treasures, can be used in a literature unit in English classes for ninth-grade students. The unit incorporates a useful comparison to the Greek epic, the "Odyssey." Included in this curriculum guide are the following sections: the text (an English version of the…

Fuchs, Gaynell M.; Lynn, Thomas J.

453

Asbestos problem in India.  

PubMed

Primary exposure to asbestos in India can be encountered in the form of asbestos mining, asbestos cement industries, asbestos processing unit and during renovation and demolition of old asbestos cemented roof or other structures as well as modern electrical as well as mechanical appliances in which asbestos is still found. Ultimately construction workers, electricians, vehicle mechanics and other workers in the building trades who are exposed to asbestos inhale hundreds and thousands of amphiboles, which causes lung damage. It is being mined in India at places such as Andhra Pradesh (Pulivendla), Jharkand (Roro), Rajasthan (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Udaipur, Rajsamand) and the common problem faced by the locals are asbestosis through air and fluorosis through drinking water. The problem continues to be in India as well as other developing countries. Also, India import and re-export asbestos to other countries and workers at shipyard, transport of the hazardous material on road and roadside residents all are vulnerable to this uncommon disease. The signs and symptoms generally found with the workers are shortness of breath, persistent and productive cough due to pulmonary fibrosis can show up many years after the asbestos exposure. PMID:15950810

Subramanian, V; Madhavan, N

2005-07-01

454

The Impact of India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the experiences of Maria Montessori and her son, Mario, during their internment in India during World War II. Discusses how their observations of communities of Buddhists, Christians, Hindus, Muslims, and Zoroastrians at the Theosophical Society contributed to ideas related to the absorbent mind, and enabled the extension of the…

Montessori, Mario M.

1998-01-01

455

[Demographic trends in India].  

PubMed

A summary of the first results of the 1981 census of India is presented. Consideration is given to the sex ratio and to the effect on fertility of various factors, including female education, religion, and age at marriage. The effectiveness of the national family planning program is also considered, and the role of natural family planning methods is assessed. PMID:12265737

Fonseca, A

1982-12-18

456

Self-Organization in Models Sandpiles, Earthquakes, and Flashing Fireflies.  

E-print Network

Self-Organization in Models of Sandpiles, Earthquakes, and Flashing Fireflies. Kim Christensen.2 The earthquake mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1 #12;2 CONTENTS 4.2.1 Measurements of earthquakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.3 Self-similarities in earthquakes

Christensen, Kim

457

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electronic Encyclopedia of Earthquakes is a collaborative project of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), the Consortia of Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS). This digital library organizes earthquake information online as a partner with the NSF-funded National Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Digital Library (NSDL) and the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). When complete, information and resources for over 500 Earth science and engineering topics will be included, with connections to curricular materials useful for teaching Earth Science, engineering, physics and mathematics. Although conceived primarily as an educational resource, the Encyclopedia is also a valuable portal to anyone seeking up-to-date earthquake information and authoritative technical sources. "E3" is a unique collaboration among earthquake scientists and engineers to articulate and document a common knowledge base with a shared terminology and conceptual framework. It is a platform for cross-training scientists and engineers in these complementary fields and will provide a basis for sustained communication and resource-building between major education and outreach activities. For example, the E3 collaborating organizations have leadership roles in the two largest earthquake engineering and earth science projects ever sponsored by NSF: the George E. Brown Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (CUREE) and the EarthScope Project (IRIS and SCEC). The E3 vocabulary and definitions are also being connected to a formal ontology under development by the SCEC/ITR project for knowledge management within the SCEC Collaboratory. The E3 development system is now fully operational, 165 entries are in the pipeline, and the development teams are capable of producing 20 new, fully reviewed encyclopedia entries each month. Over the next two years teams will complete 450 entries, which will populate the E3 collection to a level that fully spans earthquake science and engineering. Scientists, engineers, and educators who have suggestions for content to be included in the Encyclopedia can visit www.earthquake.info now to complete the "Suggest a Web Page" form.

Benthien, M.; Marquis, J.; Jordan, T.

2003-12-01

458

IDEERS: Introducing and Demonstrating Earthquake Engineering Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introducing and Demonstrating Earthquake Engineering Research in Schools (IDEERS) is a program of the University of Bristol "to communicate the challenge and excitement of earthquake engineering research to young people." Beginning with a detailed explanation of earthquake causes and effects, the Web site provides motivation for designing structurally reinforced buildings. Five recent earthquake disasters are outlined and related to the general impact of earthquakes on society. The material then describes building dynamics, such as vibration and resonance,