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1

NEGATIVE INTERSPECIES INTERACTIONS IN A GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL COLONY ON PROTECTION ISLAND, WASHINGTON  

E-print Network

, Larus glaucescens, Leymus mollis, nesting, population, predation, Protection Island Protection Island-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) (Galusha and others 1987). The Glaucous-winged Gull colony on Protection--Protection Island, Washington, is one of the most important nesting sites for Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus

Cowles, David L.

2

Population Trends of Gulls and Arctic Terns Nesting in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information exists on the population trends of gulls and terns nesting in the Arctic. In 1997, we surveyed the number of glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), herring gull (Larus argentatus), and arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) nests on the Belcher Islands (56?00' - 57?30'N, 79?30' - 80?00'W). We compared our results with the mean number of nests per island counted in

H. GRANT GILCHRIST; GREGORY J. ROBERTSON

3

Unforeseen effects of ecosystem restoration on yellow-legged gulls in a small western Mediterranean island  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A conservation project aimed at ecosystem restoration had several unforeseen effects on a colony of the yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis in a small western Mediterranean island (Benidorm Island). The project included regulation of massive tourist visits to help restore the soil and autochthonous vegetation. However, gulls habituated rapidly to regulation of tourist activities, as nests located either close to

A. MARTÍNEZ-ABRAÍN; B. SARZO; E. VILLUENDAS; M. A. BARTOLOMÉ; E. MÍNGUEZ; D. ORO

2004-01-01

4

Character of shell beds flanking Herod Point shoal, southeastern Long Island Sound, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High biogenic productivity, strong tidal currents, shoal topography, and short transport distances combine to favor shell-bed formation along the lower flanks of a cape-associated shoal off Herod Point on Long Island, New York. This shell bed has a densely packed, clast-supported fabric composed largely of undegraded surf clam (Spisula solidissima) valves. It is widest along the central part of the western flank of the shoal where topographic gradients are steep and a stronger flood tide results in residual flow. The bed is narrower and thinner toward the landward margins where currents are too weak to transport larger valves and topographic gradients are gentle, limiting bed-load transport mechanisms by which the shells are concentrated. Reconnaissance mapping off Roanoke Point suggests that shell beds are also present at the other cape-associated shoals off northeastern Long Island, where relatively similar geomorphic and oceanographic conditions exist. These shell beds are important to the Long Island Sound ecosystem because they provide complex benthic habitats of rough and hard substrates at the boundary between the muddy basin floor and mobile sand of the shoals. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

Poppe, L.J.; Williams, S.J.; Babb, I.G.

2011-01-01

5

Selecting islands and shoals for conservation based on biological and aesthetic criteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Consideration of biological quality has long been an important component of rating areas for conservation. Often these same areas are highly valued by people for aesthetic reasons, creating demands for housing and recreation that may conflict with protection plans for these habitats. Most methods of selecting land for conservation purposes use biological factors alone. For some land areas, analysis of aesthetic qualities is also important in describing the scenic value of undisturbed land. A method for prioritizing small islands and shoals based on both biological and visual quality factors is presented here. The study included 169 undeveloped islands and shoals a??0.8 ha in the Thousand Islands Region of the St. Lawrence River, New York. Criteria such as critical habitat for uncommon plant and animal species were considered together with visual quality and incorporated into a rating system that ranked the islands and shoals according to their priority for conservation management and protection from development. Biological factors were determined based on previous research and a field survey. Visual quality was determined by visual diagnostic criteria developed from public responses to photographs of a sample of islands. Variables such as elevation, soil depth, and type of plant community can be used to classify islands into different categories of visual quality but are unsuccessful in classifying islands into categories of overall biological quality.

Knutson, M.G.; Leopold, D.J.; Smardon, R.C.

1993-01-01

6

Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).  

PubMed

A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

1999-10-01

7

Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): from shoaling to emergent stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ustica is a volcanic island located in the southern Tyrrhenian sea, ~60 km NW of Sicily. As usual for volcanic ocean islands, its exposed part (8.6 km2, 248 m max elevation, mostly of Pleistocene age), is a small fraction of the whole edifice which rises from ~2000 m depth. Its 5-pointed-star shape is slightly elongated in a NE direction. A

L. B. Marinoni; G. Pasquaré; L. Vezzoli

2003-01-01

8

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

2013-07-01

9

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

2012-07-01

10

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

2010-07-01

11

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

2011-07-01

12

Heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of herring gulls ( Larus argentatus ): Differences due to year, gender, and age at Captree, Long Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese) and selenium in the feathers of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a nesting colony at Captree, Long Island, New York were examined from 1989 to 1993 to determine if there were differences from year to year, and between males and females, adult and young, and dead versus live gulls. Variation

Joanna Burger

1995-01-01

13

Effect of interannual variations in sea-surface temperature on egg-laying parameters of black-tailed gulls ( Larus crassirostris ) at Teuri Island, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-surface temperature (SST) directly and indirectly affects the distribution and abundance of prey species for seabirds,\\u000a so we expect variation in SST to be associated with variation in seabird life history traits. In black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) at Teuri Island in northern Hokkaido, Japan, we investigated the diet of the gulls prior to egg laying in 2004 and 2005,\\u000a and

Naoki Tomita; Yasuaki Niizuma; Masaoki Takagi; Motohiro Ito; Yutaka Watanuki

2009-01-01

14

SABINE'S GULL FLOCK RESPONSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the breeding biology of Sabine's Gulls (Xema sabini) is very limited. Parmelee et al. (1967) detailed the species' life history on Victoria Island, northern Canada. Abraham (1986) quantified nesting and brood-rearing chronology and success and noted a strong relationship between nesting Sabine's Gulls and Arctic Terns (Sterna paradisaea), while Abraham and Ankney (1984) described partitioning of food resources

MICHAEL R. NORTH

1995-01-01

15

Hydroacoustic estimation of zooplankton biomass at two shoal complexes in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydroacoustics can be used to assess zooplankton populations, however, backscatter must be scaled to be biologically meaningful. In this study, we used a general model to correlate site-specific hydroacoustic backscatter with zooplankton dry weight biomass estimated from net tows. The relationship between zooplankton dry weight and backscatter was significant (p < 0.001 ) and explained 76% of the variability in the dry weight data. We applied this regression to hydroacoustic data collected monthly in 2003 and 2004 at two shoals in the Apostle Island Region of Lake Superior. After applying the regression model to convert hydroacoustic backscatter to zooplankton dry weight biomass, we used geostatistics to analyze the mean and variance, and ordinary kriging to create spatial zooplankton distribution maps. The mean zooplankton dry weight biomass estimates from plankton net tows and hydroacoustics were not significantly different (p = 0.19) but the hydroacoustic data had a significantly lower coefficient of variation (p < 0.001). The maps of zooplankton distribution illustrated spatial trends in zooplankton dry weight biomass that were not discernable from the overall means.

Holbrook, B.V.; Hrabik, T.R.; Branstrator, D.K.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

2006-01-01

16

FIRST RECORD OF THE KELP GULL AND SIGNIFICANT RECORDS OF THE GLAUCOUS-WINGED AND LAUGHING GULLS FOR THE CENTRAL PACIFIC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report three species of gulls on islands in the mid-Pacific Ocean from 1999 to 2004, including the first Pacific Ocean record of the Kelp Gull ( Larus dominicanus) north of the equator, a new southernmost record for the Glaucous- winged Gull (L. glaucescens) on Christmas Island, and Laughing Gulls (L. atricilla) from Wake Atoll, with additional recent sightings and

MARK J. RAUZON; H. LEE JONES

17

VARIATION IN SUMMER DIET OF GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULLS IN THE WESTERN ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: AN ECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), like other gulls, is an omnivorous opportunist. Although the literature contains numerous brief references to feeding habits, including discussions of feeding behavior (Moyle 1966) and selective predation (Mossman 1958) at Alaska salmon streams, no detailed analysis of diet has been published. I report here on 2319 regurgitated pellets examined at 4 locations in the western

JOHN L. TRAPP

1979-01-01

18

Can rats prey on gull eggs? An experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black rat Rattus rattus populations can reach high densities on the Mediterranean islands, as has been the case on the Chafarinas Islands (Western Mediterranean coast) in the last decade. This archipelago holds the second largest breeding population of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii and an important population of yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans. Circumstantial evidences of rat predation upon Audouin's gull eggs

Jordi Prieto; Jacob González-Solís; Xavier Ruiz; Lluís Jover

2003-01-01

19

Activity periods and questing behavior of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) on Gull Island, Newfoundland: the role of puffin chicks.  

PubMed

Questing behavior of Ixodes uriae and their associated seasonal, host-feeding patterns are crucial to our understanding of tick life history strategies and the ecology of diseases that they transmit. Consequently, we quantified questing behavior of nymphs and adult female I. uriae ticks at Gull Island, a seabird colony in Newfoundland, Canada, to examine seasonal variation of off-host and on-host tick activity. We sampled a total of 133 adult Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica), 152 puffin chicks, and 145 herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks for ticks during the breeding seasons of 2004 and 2005. Questing ticks were sampled by dragging a white flannel cloth across the grassy breeding areas during the mo of May, June, July, and August. Nymph questing activity reached a peak during mid-July (79 and 110 individuals/hr in 2004 and 2005, respectively). The prevalence of nymphs and adult female ticks on different seabird hosts varied between years and during the seasons. Puffin chicks had the highest prevalence (above 70% in July) of nymphs in both years and this was correlated with questing activity. Female ticks rarely fed on puffin chicks, but were prevalent on adult puffins and gulls, although prevalence and questing of ticks were not correlated in these hosts. These patterns of off-host and on-host tick activity suggests that I. uriae ticks likely use a combination of questing and passive waiting, e.g., in puffin burrows, to detect hosts, depending on the tick stage and the host species. PMID:17539407

Muzaffar, Sabir B; Jones, Ian L

2007-04-01

20

Gull eggs--food of high organic pollutant content?  

PubMed

A wide range and occasionally high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are reported in Arctic regions, especially among top predators. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) and some gull species (Larus spp.) often have high levels of these fat-soluble pollutants. Gulls deposit significant levels of these contaminants in their eggs. In northern regions, gull eggs are part of the traditional human diet. In the present study we have investigated the levels of POPs in gull eggs in order to determine the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for humans. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in 214 gull eggs collected in the spring of 2001-02. The eggs were collected from four gull species (herring gulls (Larus argentatus), great black-backed gulls (L. marinus), lesser black-backed gulls (L. fuscus) and glaucous gulls (L. hyperboreus)) at 12 different locations in Northern Norway, on the Faroe Islands and on Svalbard. The pollutant levels in gull eggs were found to be 65.5 +/- 26.9 pg toxic equivalent (TE) for dioxin and PCB g(-1) wet weight. Based on these findings and the TWI-value determined by the EU Scientific Committee on Food it is advised that children, young women and pregnant and nursing women should not eat gull eggs. Other people should limit their intake of eggs to an absolute minimum, considering the health risks associated with gull egg intake. PMID:15931427

Pusch, Kerstin; Schlabach, Martin; Prinzinger, Roland; Wing Gabrielsen, Geir

2005-06-01

21

Heavy Metals and Selenium in Herring Gulls (LARUS ARGENTATUS) NESTING IN COLONIES FROM EASTERN LONG ISLAND TO VIRGINIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing interest in assessing the health or well-being ofcommunities and ecosystems, birds are being used asbioindicators. Coloniallynesting species breed mainly in coastal areas that are alsopreferred for humandevelopment, exposing the birds to various pollutants. Inthis paper concentrations of heavy metal and selenium in the feathers ofHerring Gulls(Larus argentatus) nesting in several colonies fromMassachusetts toDelaware are reported. There were significant

Joanna Burger

1997-01-01

22

Argas (Argas) monolakensis, new species (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae), a parasite of California gulls on islands in Mono Lake, California: description, biology, and life cycle.  

PubMed

Argas (Argas) monolakensis, n. sp., is described from adults, nymphs, and larvae collected from under and around nests of California gulls, Larus californicus Lawrence, on islands in Mono Lake, Mono County, Calif., and from specimens reared in the laboratory. This species is closely related to A. cooleyi Kohls & Hoogstraal, a parasite of cliff swallows, Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot, but is easily distinguished by hypostome dentition and roof of Haller's organ in all stages and chaetotaxy of the larvae. This tick was successfully reared and maintained in the laboratory by feeding them on domestic chickens. Larvae require 5-8 d to feed, whereas all postlarval stages feed rapidly within 9-62 min. At Mono Lake, ticks are above ground and seek hosts only at night. The number of nymphal stages varies from 2 to 5 depending on the developmental temperature and sex of the tick. Ticks over winter at Mono Lake as second- to fifth-stage nymphs and adults. Ovarian diapause is common with preoviposition periods in extreme cases lasting up to 20 mo. This tick will readily feed on humans and has the potential to transmit Mono Lake virus, which has been isolated from an estimated 2-8% of ticks on various islands. To date, A. monolakensis is known only from islands in Mono Lake, Calif. PMID:1552533

Schwan, T G; Corwin, M D; Brown, S J

1992-01-01

23

DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos  

SciTech Connect

Injection of DDT (1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on Santa Barbara Island in southern California.

Fry, D.M.; Toone, C.K.

1981-08-21

24

Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

1979-01-01

25

MITE (ACARINA) POPULATIONS IN RING-BILLED GULL NESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can. Ent. 106: 319-327 (1974) Mites collected from 69 Larus delawarensis Ord nests on Granite Island, Lake Superior, northwestern Ontario, during the summers of 1972 and 1973 showed phenological relationships with the breeding cycle of the gulls. The populations of five selected mite genera varied in relation to nest initiation, egg laying, and egg hatching periods of the gulls. Moisture

R. Freitag; J. P. Ryder; P. Wanson

1974-01-01

26

Delayed capelin ( Mallotus villosus ) availability influences predatory behaviour of large gulls on black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla ), causing a reduction in kittiwake breeding success  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1998 and 1999, the impact of predation by herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) on breeding success of black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) at Gull Island, Witless Bay, southeastern Newfoundland, was quantified in relation to the timing of the annual arrival of capelin ( Mallotus villosus) to spawn. The frequency of predation attempts by large gulls

Melanie Massaro; John W. Chardine; Ian L. Jones; Gregory J. Robertson

2000-01-01

27

INTERBREEDING OF THE GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL AND WESTERN GULL IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fifth edition of the A.O.U. Check-list (1957) states that the Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens} breeds from western Alaska south to Copalis Rocks, Washington. In the southern part of its breeding range (Vancouver Island to Copalis Rocks) it is sympatfic with the northernmost populations of the Western Gull (L. occiden- talis} (Pearse, 1946; Jewett et al., 1953). In the summers

J. Michael Scott

1971-01-01

28

Polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes), polybrominated diphenylethers and other halogenated organic pollutants in glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard and Bjørnøya (Bear Island)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes) were investigated in liver samples from 18 glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjørnøya (74°N, 19°E) and four individuals from Longyearbyen (78°N, 15°E). Additionally brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides were investigated in liver and intestinal contents of 15 of the glaucous gulls from Bjørnøya. Of the analysed BFRs only 2,2?,4,4?-tetra- and 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabrominated

Dorte Herzke; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Anita Evenset; Ivan C Burkow

2003-01-01

29

Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

Kadlec, J.A.

1971-01-01

30

Oilfield Development and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) Distribution and Abundance in Central Alaskan Beaufort Sea Lagoons, 1970 - 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated aerial survey data for glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) in central Alaskan Beaufort Sea lagoons near the Prudhoe Bay oilfields during June to September 1978 - 2001 for trends in numbers of glaucous gulls, associations with human activity, and confounding relationships with environmental variables. Most glaucous gulls were in barrier island and mainland shoreline habitats, and the total number

LYNN E. NOEL; STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; WILLIAM J. GAZEY

2006-01-01

31

Effects of gulls on Piping Plover nest site selection at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls on Piping Plover nest site selection on South Monomoy Island, MA, from 1998 to 2000. We compared Piping Plover behavior and nest site selection in a gull-free area to a gull area, and compared Piping Plover nesting area characteristics to areas not used by plovers. We found no difference in the frequency of disturbance by gulls to pre-nesting adult plovers between the two areas. We found fewer gulls near pre-nesting adults than near random points, and fewer gulls in Piping Plover nesting areas than in areas not used by plovers. Proximity to prime foraging habitats and available nesting habitat (wide stretches of open vegetation) may be more important to Piping Plover nest site selection than the presence of gulls.

Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

2001-01-01

32

Probable epizootic chlamydiosis in wild California (Larus californicus) and ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) gulls in North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1986, more than 400 California gulls (Larus californicus) and ring-billed gulls (Larvus delawarensis), primarily fledglings, died on an island in Lake Sakakawea near New Town, North Dakota (USA). Mortality was attributed largely to chlamydiosis. Necropsy findings in nine carcasses included splenomegaly (n = 9), hepatomegaly (n = 4), and pericarditis (n = 1). Livers from three California gulls and two ring-billed gulls, and spleens from the same five birds plus a third ring-billed gull were positive for Chlamydia psittaci by the direct immunofluorescence test. Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from separate pools of liver and spleen from one California gull and one ring-billed gull. This is believed to be the first record of epizootic chlamydiosis in gulls and the second report of epizootic chlamydial mortality in wild birds in North America.

Franson, J. C.; Pearson, J. E.

1995-01-01

33

Probable epizootic chlamydiosis in wild California (Larus californicus) and ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) gulls in North Dakota.  

PubMed

During the summer of 1986, more than 400 California gulls (Larus californicus) and ring-billed gulls (Larvus delawarensis), primarily fledglings, died on an island in Lake Sakakawea near New Town, North Dakota (USA). Mortality was attributed largely to chlamydiosis. Necropsy findings in nine carcasses included splenomegaly (n = 9), hepatomegaly (n = 4), and pericarditis (n = 1). Livers from three California gulls and two ring-billed gulls, and spleens from the same five birds plus a third ring-billed gull were positive for Chlamydia psittaci by the direct immunofluorescence test. Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from separate pools of liver and spleen from one California gull and one ring-billed gull. This is believed to be the first record of epizootic chlamydiosis in gulls and the second report of epizootic chlamydial mortality in wild birds in North America. PMID:8592370

Franson, J C; Pearson, J E

1995-07-01

34

EFFECTS OF NINE YEARS OF FOX PREDATION ON TWO SPECIES OF BREEDING GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTR^CT.--Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) and Herring Gulls (L. argentatus) nesting on South Manitou Island in Lake Michigan were subjected to at least 9 yr of intense fox predation. Both gull species experienced total or nearly total reproductive failure during all but 1 yr between 1975 and 1983. The number of active nests declined significantly during this period, with Ring-bills showing

STEPHEN R. PATTON; LISE A. HANNERS

35

TEMPORAL AND GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF AGE-SPECIFIC GULL PLUMAGE IN RELATION TO POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO  

E-print Network

, Providence, Rhode Island 02918, USA A .--Study skins of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Great Black February 2005. Key words: age-class, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, Larus marinus démonstration de Larus argentatus et L. marinus collectés au cours d'une période d'environ 150 ans dans le nord

Clotfelter, Ethan

36

Shoal, Nevada Site Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The Shoal Site is situated on 2,560 acres of withdrawn federal lands located within the north-central portion of the Sand Springs Range in Churchill County, Nevada. The town of Fallon is the largest populated area in the region and is about 30 miles northwest of the site. The region around the Shoal Site is sparsely populated; military installations, recreation, ranching, and mining provide the dominant commercial interests. The Project Shoal underground nuclear test was part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S Department of Defense and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Vela Uniform was a research and development program directed toward locating, detecting, and identifying underground detonations. The objective of Project Shoal was to detonate a nuclear device underground in an active seismic area to improve the United States' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations.

None

2009-04-01

37

Research on Defence Behaviour in a Common Gull (Larus Canus) Colony during Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was carried out on the Didžioji Island, Lake Kretuonas (eastern Lithuania). A stuffed Raven (Corvus corax) was displayed in a Common Gull (Larus canus) colony during different breeding stages and attacks on the stuffed Raven made by Common Gulls flying higher and lower than 1 m above it as well as attacks of a direct contact were recorded.

Rimantas R. Budrys; Remigijus Gegelevi?ius

2002-01-01

38

Polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes), polybrominated diphenylethers and other halogenated organic pollutants in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard and Bjørnøya (Bear Island).  

PubMed

The levels of polychlorinated camphenes (toxaphenes) were investigated in liver samples from 18 glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjørnøya (74 degrees N, 19 degrees E) and four individuals from Longyearbyen (78 degrees N, 15 degrees E). Additionally brominated flame retardants (BFRs), PCBs and chlorinated pesticides were investigated in liver and intestinal contents of 15 of the glaucous gulls from Bjørnøya. Of the analysed BFRs only 2,2',4,4'-tetra- and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabrominated diphenylethers (PBDE 47 and 99) could be detected. The concentrations ranged between 2 and 25 ng/g ww. In addition, high resolution measurements with GC/HRMS revealed the existence of several, not quantified, PBDEs and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) congeners in the samples. B9-1679 and B8-1413 were the dominating toxaphenes with median concentrations of 8 and 15 ng/g ww. Concentrations of toxaphenes and PBDEs were up to 100-times lower than the concentrations of PCB and some of the pesticides. PCB and p,p/-DDE constituted 90% of the contaminants found. PMID:12521115

Herzke, Dorte; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Evenset, Anita; Burkow, Ivan C

2003-01-01

39

Fish shoal composition: mechanisms and constraints.  

PubMed Central

Observations were made on three fish species (banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) in a temperate lake (New Brunswick, Canada) in order to investigate the relationship between shoal choice behaviour of individual fishes and shoal composition. Encounters between shoals were observed to take place every 1.1 min per shoal and an encounter lasted 3.7 s on average. The duration of shoal encounters was influenced by shoal size but not by differences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. ences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. whether or not an individual changes shoal) was influenced by body length and species differences but not by shoal size. Together, these results suggest that encounter duration itself is unlikely to have an important influence on encounter outcome. The collection of ten entire fish shoals showed that they were assorted by species and body length. A simulation model demonstrated that individual shoal choice behaviour alone could account for the generation and maintenance of the observed levels of size assortedness of shoals without invoking the existence of other sorting mechanisms such as differential swimming speeds. However, the generation of species assortedness was not predicted by the model. Furthermore, our data suggest that fish density acts as a constraint on shoal choice, influencing both shoal size and composition. This work has implications for studies on information transfer and reciprocal altruism within populations. PMID:11075715

Krause, J; Hoare, D J; Croft, D; Lawrence, J; Ward, A; Ruxton, G D; Godin, J G; James, R

2000-01-01

40

Fish shoal composition: mechanisms and constraints.  

PubMed

Observations were made on three fish species (banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) in a temperate lake (New Brunswick, Canada) in order to investigate the relationship between shoal choice behaviour of individual fishes and shoal composition. Encounters between shoals were observed to take place every 1.1 min per shoal and an encounter lasted 3.7 s on average. The duration of shoal encounters was influenced by shoal size but not by differences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. ences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. whether or not an individual changes shoal) was influenced by body length and species differences but not by shoal size. Together, these results suggest that encounter duration itself is unlikely to have an important influence on encounter outcome. The collection of ten entire fish shoals showed that they were assorted by species and body length. A simulation model demonstrated that individual shoal choice behaviour alone could account for the generation and maintenance of the observed levels of size assortedness of shoals without invoking the existence of other sorting mechanisms such as differential swimming speeds. However, the generation of species assortedness was not predicted by the model. Furthermore, our data suggest that fish density acts as a constraint on shoal choice, influencing both shoal size and composition. This work has implications for studies on information transfer and reciprocal altruism within populations. PMID:11075715

Krause, J; Hoare, D J; Croft, D; Lawrence, J; Ward, A; Ruxton, G D; Godin, J G; James, R

2000-10-01

41

Historical Changes in PCB Patterns in Lake Ontario and Green Bay, Lake Michigan, 1971 to 1982, from Herring Gull Egg Monitoring Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of PCB congener bioaccumulation were examined in archived herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected from Big Sister Island in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, and Scotch Bonnet Island in Lake Ontario from 1971 to 1982 as part of the Canadian Wildlife Service's Great Lakes Herring Gull Monitoring Program. Concentrations of 97 PCB congeners were measured. From 1971 to 1982, ecological

Craig E. Hebert; Ross J. Norstrom; Jiping Zhu; Colin R. Macdonald

1999-01-01

42

Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes.  

PubMed

Preferential association with familiar shoal mates confers a number of potentially important benefits to individuals, including improved anti-predator effects and the reduction of aggression in competitive interactions. Until now, however, familiarity has been demonstrated purely between conspecifics. Here, we present evidence that familiarity preferences can override natural preferences for conspecifics. Individual focal fishes (chub, Leuciscus cephalus) were given a choice of two stimulus shoals of the same size composed of conspecifics or of heterospecifics (minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus) in a flow tank. A series of four treatments was carried out to investigate the effects of familiarity, induced by a 15 day association between the focal fish and the stimulus fishes, on the choices made by the focal fish. Focal fishes showed a significant preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics when both stimulus shoals were composed of non-familiar individuals. Focal fishes also showed a significant preference for stimulus shoals composed of familiar fishes over stimulus shoals composed of non-familiar fishes when both shoals were conspecific and when both shoals were heterospecific. Finally, the preference of focal fishes for conspecifics disappeared when the alternative, a shoal of heterospecifics, was composed of familiar individuals. The importance of this work is discussed in the context of species interactions in free-ranging shoals. PMID:12816654

Ward, A J W; Axford, S; Krause, J

2003-06-01

43

Mercury trends in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from Atlantic Canada, 1972-2008: Temporal change or dietary shift?  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant that can adversely affect predatory wildlife. Bird eggs provide insights into breeding females' Hg burdens, and are easily collected and archived. We present data on Hg trends in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from five sites in Atlantic Canada from 1972 to 2008. We found a significant decrease in Hg at Manawagonish Island, New Brunswick and Île du Corossol, Quebec, but after correcting Hg for dietary shifts using stable isotopes (?(15)N), these trends disappeared. Decreasing temporal trends of stable isotopes in gull eggs were observed at four sites, suggesting shifts in gull diets. At Gull Island, Newfoundland, diet-adjusted Hg increased from 1977 to 1992, dropped sharply between 1992 and 1996, and rose again from 1996 to 2008. After adjusting Hg trends for dietary shifts of herring gulls, it appears that environmental Hg in coastal ecosystems has remained relatively constant at most sites in Atlantic Canada over the last 36 years. PMID:23063997

Burgess, Neil M; Bond, Alexander L; Hebert, Craig E; Neugebauer, Ewa; Champoux, Louise

2013-01-01

44

Nest-site selection in Savannah sparrows: using gulls as scarecrows?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah sparrows,Passerculus sandwichensisbreeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, have two types of nest predators, one of them (herring gulls,Larus argentatus) abundant but relatively ineffective, the other (American crows,Corvus brachyrhynchos) scarce but highly effective. We hypothesized that the net effect for Savannah sparrows of nesting near gulls would be to reduce the overall risk of nest predation. Despite being surrounded

NATHANIEL T WHEELWRIGHT; JOSHUA J LAWLER; JOSHUA H WEINSTEIN

1997-01-01

45

Feeding Ecology and the Concentration of Organochlorines in Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the blood concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and the diet of glaucous gulls Larus hyperboreus breeding in two neighbouring areas at Bear Island in the Barents Sea, north-eastern Atlantic. One area was situated on the edge of the large seabird cliff, about 100–150 m above sea level. The second area was about 1–2 km from the seabird cliff, and

J. O. Bustnes; K. E. Erikstad; V. Bakken; F. Mehlum; J. U. Skaare

2000-01-01

46

Organochlorines in Greenland glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus) and Icelandic gulls ( Larus glaucoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and Icelandic gulls (Larus glaucoides) were sampled in 1994 from four different areas in Greenland, three on the west coast and one on the east coast. Livers of 93 glaucous gulls and seven Icelandic gulls were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, IUPAC Nos. 28, 31, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156 and 180), DDTs (p,p?-DDE,

M Cleemann; F Riget; G. B Paulsen; R Dietz

2000-01-01

47

Migration and wintering areas of glaucous-winged Gulls from south-central Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used satellite telemetry to investigate the migration patterns and wintering areas of Glaucouswinged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Middleton Island, Alaska, where this species' population increased tenfold from the 1970s to the 1990s. Fall migration spanned 11 weeks, including numerous stopovers en route, apparently for feeding. Spring migration from wintering sites to Middleton Island was shorter (4 weeks) and more direct. One juvenile spent several months in southern Prince William Sound. An adult spent several months near Craig, southeast Alaska, while three others overwintered in southern British Columbia. For all four wintering adults use of refuse-disposal sites was evident or strongly suggested. Commensalism with humans may have contributed to the increase on Middleton, but a strong case can also be made for a competing explanation-regional recruitment of gulls to high-quality nesting habitat in Alaska created after the earthquake of 1964. An analysis of band returns reveals broad overlap in the wintering grounds of gulls from different Alaska colonies and of gulls banded on the west coast from British Columbia to California. The seasonal movement of many gulls from Alaska is decidedly migratory, whereas gulls from British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon disperse locally in winter. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

Hatch, S.A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

2011-01-01

48

Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (<= 20 m depth) portions of the Nantucket Shoals, up to 70 km offshore. Diet analyses of ten birds collected in February 1999 and five in December 2006 showed that they fed principally (106.6 +/- 42.0 individuals per crop) on Gammarus annulatus, a pelagic amphipod that often forms large aggregations, and is consumed by several species of fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

2009-01-01

49

Reductions in Gull Populations Improve Beachwater Quality.  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND. Gulls are often cited as an important source of fecal pollution to surface waters, and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations have been shown to be significantly correlated with gull populations. However, it is unclear whether gull contamination poses a risk to...

50

The Effects of Diurnal and Tidal Periodicities in the Numbers and Activities of Herring Gulls Larus argentatus in a Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average numbers of Herring Gulls Larus argentatus present in a breeding colony on Walney Island, Cumbria, were found to vary with the tidal cycle but to remain effectively constant with time of day through the breeding season.\\u000aAn activity survey, based on 50 Herring Gulls observed at half-hourly intervals during March and April 1973, showed that sleep and rest

Joseph G. Galusha; Charles J. Amlaner

1978-01-01

51

Determining shoal membership using affinity propagation.  

PubMed

We propose using the affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm for detecting multiple disjoint shoals, and we present an extension of AP, denoted by STAP, that can be applied to shoals that fusion and fission across time. STAP incorporates into AP a soft temporal constraint that takes cluster dynamics into account, encouraging partitions obtained at successive time steps to be consistent with each other. We explore how STAP performs under different settings of its parameters (strength of the temporal constraint, preferences, and distance metric) by applying the algorithm to simulated sequences of collective coordinated motion. We study the validity of STAP by comparing its results to partitioning of the same data obtained from human observers in a controlled experiment. We observe that, under specific circumstances, AP yields partitions that agree quite closely with the ones made by human observers. We conclude that using the STAP algorithm with appropriate parameter settings is an appealing approach for detecting shoal fusion-fission dynamics. PMID:23219963

Quera, Vicenç; Beltran, Francesc S; Givoni, Inmar E; Dolado, Ruth

2013-03-15

52

Response of shoaling fish to the threat of aerial predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Many species of shoaling fish are preyed upon by aerial predators. However, to date there has been no analysis of the evasive\\u000a response of a group of shoaling fish to an aerial threat or attack. The response of a shoal of fish encompasses a suite of\\u000a behaviors starting with a startle response. Shoals of golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas, responded to

Matthew K. Litvak

1993-01-01

53

Are shoals of minnow Phoxinus phoxinus formed by close kin?  

PubMed

A molecular analysis examining the level of relatedness in shoaling minnows Phoxinus phoxinus was conducted. The results revealed that individuals from within the same shoal were not more closely related to each other than to individuals from other shoals. This led to the conclusion that Schreckstoff may be less likely to have evolved in the context of kin selection. PMID:22380565

Bernhardt, B; Lampert, K P; Leese, F; Mayer, C; Tollrian, R

2012-03-01

54

Body length assortative shoaling in the European minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the functional aspects of active shoal choice behaviour and its role in generating body length assortative fish shoals. We presented single European minnows with a choice between two conspecific shoals of equal number, one of which consisted of fish of similar body length and the other of fish that were smaller or larger than the focal fish. The

Ashley J. W. Ward; Jens Krause

2001-01-01

55

Interactions between shoal size and conformity in guppy social foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experimental studies have established that shoaling fish forage more effectively in large than small groups. We investigated how shoal size affects the foraging efficiency of laboratory populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, exposed to different foraging tasks. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that in open water the first fish and focal fish of larger shoals locate food faster than

Rachel L. Day; Tom MacDonald; Culum Brown; Kevin N. Laland; Simon M. Reader

2001-01-01

56

Data Decision Analysis: Project Shoal  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate field activities in terms of reducing the uncertainty in the groundwater flow and transport model at the Project Shoal area. The data decision analysis relied on well-known tools of statistics and uncertainty analysis. This procedure identified nine parameters that were deemed uncertain. These included effective porosity, hydraulic head, surface recharge, hydraulic conductivity, fracture correlation scale, fracture orientation, dip angle, dissolution rate of radionuclides from the puddle glass, and the retardation coefficient, which describes the sorption characteristics. The parameter uncertainty was described by assigning prior distributions for each of these parameters. Next, the various field activities were identified that would provide additional information on these parameters. Each of the field activities was evaluated by an expert panel to estimate posterior distribution of the parameters assuming a field activity was performed. The posterior distributions describe the ability of the field activity to estimate the true value of the nine parameters. Monte Carlo techniques were used to determine the current uncertainty, the reduction of uncertainty if a single parameter was known with certainty, and the reduction of uncertainty expected from each field activity on the model predictions. The mean breakthrough time to the downgradient land withdrawal boundary and the peak concentration at the control boundary were used to evaluate the uncertainty reduction. The radionuclide 137Cs was used as the reference solute, as its migration is dependent on all of the parameters. The results indicate that the current uncertainty of the model yields a 95 percent confidence interval between 42 and 1,412 years for the mean breakthrough time and an 18 order-of-magnitude range in peak concentration. The uncertainty in effective porosity and recharge dominates the uncertainty in the model predictions, while the other parameters are less important. A two-stage process was used to evaluate the optimal field activities. For all of the field activities combined there were five activities that were found to be "optimal" in terms of uncertainty reduction per unit cost: two-well, natural-gradient, energy budget, and single-well tracer tests, and the vadose zone modeling. A subset of the field activities was chosen such that there would be no duplication in parameter characterization. Of this subset, the vadose zone model, barometric test, energy budget, and the two-well tracer test were found to be optimal for the peak breakthrough time metric, while the single-well tracer test and the hydraulic head measurements are also considered optimal for the peak concentration metric. The environmental tracer activity was not found to be optimal, yet this activity may provide additional information on the transport system. Care must be taken in using this analysis to design a field characterization plan, as many assumptions were required in the analysis. First, many subjective assumptions were required to assess the reliability of the field activities in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty in the mean parameters. Actual field characterization may not result in the same reduction in model output uncertainty as estimated by this analysis. Second, this analysis focused on the reduction in model uncertainty due to the reduction in the uncertainty in the mean parameters. If the uncertainty in the mean parameters is reduced to zero, there still exists uncertainty in the natural heterogeneity that can never be reduced to zero. Therefore, this analysis should be used in combination with expert judgement when designing a field characterization strategy.

Forsgren, Frank; Pohll, Greg; Tracy, John

1999-01-01

57

Factors affecting nest-site selection of Sabine's Gulls in the eastern Canadian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of breeding habitat is of prime importance for individual fitness. Among birds, natural selec- tion should favour the ability to recognize and select habitat suitable for nesting and rearing chicks. This study com- pares the characteristics of Sabine's Gull, Xema sabini (Sabine, 1819), nest sites with random points across a coastal tundra environment on Southampton Island, Nunavut, Canada.

Iain J. Stenhouse; H. Grant Gilchrist; William A. Montevecchi

2005-01-01

58

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends in mercury in Great Lakes Herring Gull eggs, 1974-2009.  

PubMed

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends of total mercury (Hg) were assessed in eggs of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) over the period 1974-2009 at 15 sites in the Great Lakes: 2-3 sites per lake and one site in each of 3 connecting channels. Current (2009) concentrations ranged from 0.064 ?g/g (wet weight) at Chantry Island (Lake Huron) to 0.246 ?g/g at Middle Island (Lake Erie). There were significant inter-colony differences in mean Hg concentrations (2005-2009). Mercury concentrations at 14 of 15 sites declined from 23 to 86% between when it was first measured (usually 1974) and 2009. Declining temporal trends over the entire period (1974-2009) were significant at 10 of the 15 sites. On the other hand, there were no significant trends in mercury over the last 15 years. In the early years, declines of Hg in Herring Gull eggs tracked those in Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) in most Great Lakes. More recently, declines in gull eggs were more evident than in smelt and may be partially explained by temporal changes in the gull diet. When gull Hg data were adjusted for temporal changes in the gull diet, as inferred from stable nitrogen isotope values in eggs, significant declines in egg mercury levels were found only at 4 of 15 sites. Overall, Hg concentrations have declined in Great Lakes Herring Gull eggs over the period 1974-2009 but changes in the gull diet may be contributing, in part, to those declines. Examination of contaminant temporal trends in multiple indicator species will ensure accurate inferences regarding contaminant availability in the environment. PMID:21833543

Weseloh, D V Chip; Moore, David J; Hebert, Craig E; de Solla, Shane R; Braune, Birgit M; McGoldrick, Daryl J

2011-10-01

59

Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During non-migratory flight, gulls (Larids) use a wide variety of flight strategies. We investigate the extent to which the energy balance of a bird explains flight strategy selection. We develop a model based on optimal foraging and aerodynamic theories, to calculate the ground speeds and airspeeds at which a gull is expected to flap or soar during foraging flight. The

Judy Shamoun-Baranes; Emiel van Loon

2006-01-01

60

PREDICTING THE BIRDSTRIKE HAZARD FROM GULLS AT LANDFILL SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the factors that affect hazardous bird populations associated with landfill sites is crucial to the development of useful and accurate bird avoidance models. Three common species of gulls in the UK that are hazardous to aircraft; Herring gulls (Larus argentatus), Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), and Lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) were monitored at six UK landfill sites over a

Andy Baxter; Helen Laycock

61

Is it possible to identify Baltic and Heuglin's Gulls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In 1998 Lars Jonsson wrote a groundbreakingpaper on the identification of Baltic Gull Larus fuscus fuscus. The paper was important because it presented new identification criteria for the separation of fuscus from graellsii and intermedius Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Around the same time, Visa Rauste produced a similarly important paper dealing with the separation of Baltic Gull from Heuglin’s Gull

Chris Gibbins

62

Organochlorines in Greenland glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and Icelandic gulls (Larus glaucoides).  

PubMed

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and Icelandic gulls (Larus glaucoides) were sampled in 1994 from four different areas in Greenland, three on the west coast and one on the east coast. Livers of 93 glaucous gulls and seven Icelandic gulls were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, IUPAC Nos. 28, 31, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156 and 180), DDTs (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT), hexachlorocyclohexanes (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and trans-nonachlor (TNC). The overall geometric means of the concentrations found in glaucous gull liver were for sigma PCBs 388 (range 20-5557), for sigma DDTs 363 (17-8604), sigma HCHs 7.4 (1-53), HCB 47 (4-594) and trans-nonachlor 19 (3-187) micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively. The geometric means of concentrations in Icelandic gull liver were for sigma PCBs 112 (24-435), for sigma DDTs 95 (25-298), sigma HCHs 2.9 (1.4-5.2), HCB 22 (8-58) and trans-nonachlor 5.1 (2.4-8.6) micrograms kg-1 wet wt., respectively. Significantly (P = 0.05) higher concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and HCHs were found in glaucous gulls at Ittoqqortoormiit at the east coast than in gulls from Qeqertarsuaq at the west coast of Greenland. This tendency was also seen for HCB and trans-nonachlor, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). A decreasing trend in organochlorine concentrations followed the East Greenland Current, flowing from north to south down the east coast and to the north on the west coast. Gulls taken from the most northerly sampling area of the west coast, however, showed slightly higher concentrations than those from the central west coast. There appeared to be a tendency for higher concentrations to be found in males than females, and in adults compared to young glaucous gulls, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). The concentration ranges found in gulls from Greenland were similar to those reported previously for gulls from northern Norway and Russia. A principal component analysis revealed no obvious link between the presence of higher chlorinated PCBs and higher PCB concentrations in glaucous gulls. Significantly higher proportions of higher chlorinated PCBs were found in glaucous gulls than in Icelandic gulls, and in adult glaucous gulls compared to young gulls of 1-2 calendar years. As no such difference was found between female and male gulls it seems that PCBs of all degrees of chlorination may be passed equally well from mother to offspring. PMID:10682360

Cleemann, M; Riget, F; Paulsen, G B; Dietz, R

2000-01-17

63

Cytochrome P4501A induction and DNA adduct formation in glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus), fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study indicates that complex mixtures of pollutants found in the Arctic marine environment have genotoxic effects in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). DNA adducts were quantified, by the 32P-postlabeling technique, in liver samples from gulls fed with hen eggs (controls) and from gulls fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed). All birds were grown and fed under laboratory conditions. Hepatic

Lene Østby; Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Åse Krøkje

2005-01-01

64

Volcanic Island Appears Near Tonga  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A volcano known as Home Reef is now believed to be the source of a small island that appeared recently in Tonga, accordingto scientists from the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program who had initially placed the location of the eruption and resulting island at nearby Metis Shoal. Mariners onboard the yacht Maiken

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-11-01

65

Created versus natural coastal islands: Atlantic waterbird populations, habitat choices, and management implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nesting colonial waterbirds along the Atlantic Coast of the United States face a number of landscape-level threats including human disturbance, mammalian predator expansion, and habitat alteration. There have been changes from 1977 to the mid-1990s in use of nesting habitats and populations of a number of seabird species of concern in the region, including black skimmers Rynchops niger Linnaeaus, common terns Sterna hirundo Linnaeaus, gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica Linnaeaus, least terns Sterna antillarum Lesson, royal terns Sterna maxima Boddaert, and sandwich terns Sterna sandvicensis Cabot. These species form colonies primarily on the following habitat types: large, sandy barrier or shoal islands, natural estuarine or bay islands (mostly marsh), man-made islands of dredged deposition materials (from navigation channels), and the mainland. Significant changes in the use of the dredged material islands have occurred for these species in New Jersey and North Carolina, but not in Virginia. Population declines and changes in bird habitat use appear to be at least partially associated with the conditions and management of the existing dredged material islands, coastal policy changes associated with creating new dredged material islands, and competing demands for sand for beach augmentation by coastal communities. As these and other coastal habitats become less suitable for colonial waterbirds, other manmade sites, such as bridges and buildings have become increasingly more important. In regions with intense recreational demands, coastal wildlife managers need to take a more aggressive role in managing natural and man-made habitats areas and as stakeholders in the decision-making process involving dredged materials and beach sand allocation.

Erwin, R.M.; Allen, D.H.; Jenkins, D.

2003-01-01

66

RESPONSES OF NESTING COMMON TERNS AND LAUGHING GULLS TO FLYOVERS BY LARGE GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance can reduce productivity by disrupting nesting behavior. We examined responses of nesting Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Laughing Gulls (Lams atricilh) to frequent overhead flights by Herring (L. argentutus) and Great Black-backed (L. murinus) gulls to determine if such flyovers may have contributed to declines in pro- ductivity. Common Terns and Laughing Gulls ignored most flyovers (97.9 and 99.4%

PAUL M. CAVANAGH; CURTICE R. GRIFFIN

67

Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.  

PubMed Central

Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bj?rn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2004-01-01

68

Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.  

PubMed

Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2004-04-01

69

Heavy metal and selenium concentrations in eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) : Temporal differences from 1989 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of five metals and selenium in the eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were examined at a breeding colony on western Long Island, New York from 1989 to 1994. There were significant yearly differences in lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, chromium, and manganese. Chromium and cadmium were significantly higher in 1993 compared to the other years. Lead levels were highest

J. Burger; M. Gochfeld

1995-01-01

70

78 FR 56980 - Muscle Shoals Reservation Redevelopment, Colbert County, Alabama  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...public meeting on February 3, 2011, in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. TVA received 146 comment...manage the property consistent with its 1996 Muscle Shoals/Wilson Dam Reservation Land Use...Preservation Officer to mitigate for the loss of properties eligible for inclusion...

2013-09-16

71

Distribution and textural character of surficial sediments, Isles Dernieres to Ship Shoal region, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have undertaken field studies of the physical processes responsible for the widespread and extremely rapid coastal erosion of Louisiana's barriers along the Mississippi River delta plain coast. The study area encompasses the coastal and inner shelf region from Raccoon Point to Sandy Point and includes a database of 12-m long vibracores, surface grab samples, sidescan sonar, high resolution seismic reflection profiles, and precision hydrographic profiles. This paper presents results in the coastal-shelf sector that includes the Isles Dernieres barrier island chain seaward almost 30 km to Ship Shoal. The surface and near-surface sediments of the region reflect fluvial and nearshore marine origin with pervasive evidence of winnowing and reworking by marine processes associated with frequent tropical storms and the passage of winter cold fronts. Beach sediments are remarkably uniform in grain size (fine quartz sand), except for the often abundant presence of carbonate shell debris, and are generally well to very well sorted. The shoreface and inner shelf are mantled with muddy sands and sandy muds, whereas, Ship Shoal is almost wholly fine quartz sand, similar in many sedimentologic respects to the Isles Dernieres. The results are consistent with the model of coastal evolution, presented in 1988, in which Ship Shoal is the prototypical example of a drowned coastal barrier undergoing submarine reworking and landward migration in pace with the rapid rates of sea level rise and subsidence.

Williams, S.J.; Circe, R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Penland, S. (Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (USA))

1989-09-01

72

Depredation of common eider, Somateria mollissima, nests on a central Beaufort Sea barrier island: A case where no one wins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along the central Beaufort Sea, Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigra) nest on unvegetated, barrier islands; often near nesting Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Nest-site choice likely reflects a strategy of predator avoidance: nesting on islands to avoid mammalian predators and near territorial gulls to avoid other avian predators. We observed a nesting colony of Common Eiders from first nest initiation through nesting termination on Egg Island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (2002 - 2003). Resident gulls depredated many eider nests, mostly during initiation. All nests failed when an Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) visited the island and flushed hens from their nests, exposing the eggs to depredation by the fox and gulls (resident and non-resident). Common Eiders actively defended nests from gulls, but not from foxes. Likely all three species (i.e., eiders, gulls, and foxes) ultimately achieved negligible benefit from their nest-site selection or predatory activity: (a) island nesting provided no safety from mammalian predators for eiders or gulls, (b) for Common Eiders, nesting near gulls increased egg loss, (c) for Glaucous Gulls, nesting near colonial eiders may have reduced nest success by attracting the fox, and (d) for Arctic Foxes, the depredation was of questionable value, as most eggs were cached and probably not recoverable (due to damage from fall storms). Thus, the predator-prey interactions we observed appear to be a case where little or no fitness advantage was realized by any of the species involved.

Reed, J.A.; Lacroix, D.L.; Flint, P.L.

2007-01-01

73

DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of DDT (1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on

D. M. Fry; C. K. Toone

1981-01-01

74

Mercury in Feathers of Audouin's Gull ( Larus audouinii ) Chicks from Northeastern Mediterranean Colonies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feathers of Audouin's gull chicks from three Aegean island areas (north Dodecanese, Cyclades, Kythera) Greece, were sampled\\u000a in 1997 and 1998 and analyzed for mercury. Mean concentrations varied from 0.94 ?g\\/g (Lipsos, Dodecanese, 1998) to 2.14 ?g\\/g\\u000a (Paros, Cyclades, 1998). Significant differences between years occurred in some regions (Lipsos, Fourni) but not in others\\u000a (Paros). Within each year, especially in

V. Goutner; R. W. Furness; K. Papakonstantinou

2000-01-01

75

Organochlorine poisoning of ring-billed gulls in southern Ontario.  

PubMed

Clinical, necropsy, bacteriologic, parasitologic, histopathologic, toxicologic and animal inoculation studies suggest that organochlorine (PBC, dieldrin and DDE) poisoning was an important factor in causing deaths of free-flying ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario in 1969 and 1973. The brains of gulls dying with clinical signs of neurologic involvement, and dead gulls with no other apparent cause of death, contained organochlorine residues of significantly greater levels than those found in healthy gulls shot for comparison. PMID:410957

Sileo, L; Karstad, L; Frank, R; Holdrinet, M V; Addison, E; Braun, H E

1977-07-01

76

Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection.  

PubMed

During non-migratory flight, gulls (Larids) use a wide variety of flight strategies. We investigate the extent to which the energy balance of a bird explains flight strategy selection. We develop a model based on optimal foraging and aerodynamic theories, to calculate the ground speeds and airspeeds at which a gull is expected to flap or soar during foraging flight. The model results are compared with observed flight speeds, directions, and flight strategies of two species of gulls, the black-headed gull Larus ridibundus and the lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus. The observations were made using a tracking radar over land in The Netherlands. The model suggests that, especially at combinations of low ground speed (approximately 5-10 m s(-1)), high air speed (approximately 20-25 m s(-1)) and low ground and air speed, gulls should favor soaring flight. At intermediate ground and air speeds the predicted net energy gain is similar for soaring and flapping. Hence the ratio of flapping to soaring may be higher than for other air and ground speed combinations. This range of speeds is broadest for black-headed gulls. The model results are supported by the observations. For example, flapping is more prevalent at speeds where the predicted net energy gain is similar for both strategies. Interestingly, combinations of air speed and flight speed that, according to the model, would result in a loss of net energy gain, were not observed. Additional factors that may influence flight strategy selection are also briefly discussed. PMID:16943489

Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; van Loon, Emiel

2006-09-01

77

Habitat and Diet Partitioning between Shoal Bass and Largemouth Bass in the Chipola River, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the macrohabitat use, microhabitat use, and food habits of shoal bass Micropterus cataractaeand largemouth bass M. salmoides in the upper Chipola River, Florida. We electrofished two macrohabitats (pools and shoals) during the summer (May-August) and fall (September-December) of 1999 and 2000. The ratio of shoal bass to largemouth bass differed among macrohabitats, being highest in the shoals and

A. P. Wheeler; Michael S. Allen

2003-01-01

78

Habitat and Diet Partitioning between Shoal Bass and Largemouth Bass in the Chipola River, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the macrohabitat use, microhabitat use, and food habits of shoal bass Micropterus cataractae and largemouth bass M. salmoides in the upper Chipola River, Florida. We electrofished two macrohabitats (pools and shoals) during the summer (May–August) and fall (September–December) of 1999 and 2000. The ratio of shoal bass to largemouth bass differed among macrohabitats, being highest in the shoals

A. P. Wheeler; Michael S. Allen

2003-01-01

79

Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

80

Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 microg/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 microg/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor alpha-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. PMID:20641170

Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena; Basu, Niladri

2010-08-01

81

Hybridization of glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) in Iceland: mitochondrial and microsatellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large white-headed gulls provide an interesting group of birds for studies of hybridization. The group is composed of 20 species of recent origin, often with weak reproductive barriers. Here we report the results from a study on the glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, an Arctic species which has been breeding in Iceland for centuries, and the herring gull Larus argentatus which

Freydis Vigfusdottir; Snæbjorn Palsson; Agnar Ingolfsson

2009-01-01

82

Chromosome Aberrations and DNA Strand Breaks in Glaucous Gull (Larus Hyperboreus) Chicks Fed Environmentally Contaminated Gull Eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull

Åse Krøkje; Chris Bingham; Ruth Husmo Tuven; Geir Wing Gabrielsen

2006-01-01

83

Shoaling enhances cadmium avoidance by lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the behavioural responses of solitary and shoaling lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, to Cd solutions, testing the hypothesis that fish are more responsive to contaminant gradients when in a shoal than when alone. The movements of individual fish were tracked in a countercurrent-type trough with clean water on one side, and water containing sequentially increasing Cd concentrations (0.2–125 µg

Richard E. McNicol; Eberhard Scherer; John H. Gee

1996-01-01

84

Flow separation and resuspension beneath shoaling nonlinear internal waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory observations are presented showing the structure and dynamics of the turbulent bottom boundary layer beneath nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) of depression shoaling upon sloping topography. The adverse pressure gradient beneath the shoaling waves causes the rear face to steepen, flow separation to occur, and wave-induced near-bottom vortices to suspend bed material. The resuspension is directly attributed to the near-bed

Leon Boegman; Gregory N. Ivey

2009-01-01

85

Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, 1972--1992  

SciTech Connect

Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled for years 1972--1976, 1981--1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site and analyzed for total mercury (ppm, wet weight). Results indicated that eggs from Lake Ontario displayed the highest mercury levels, mean = 0.28 (s.d. = 0.08) to 0.73 (0.23). Lake Erie typically displayed the lowest egg mercury levels, 0.18 (0.08) to 0.24 (0.11). Overall, mercury levels ranged from 0.12 (0.02) in 1985 to 0.88 (0.23) in 1982 for Channel-Shelter Island (Lake Huron) and Pigeon Island (Lake Ontario), respectively. Generally, all colony sites showed peak mercury levels in 1982. A significant decline in egg mercury levels was observed in six colony sites between 1972 and 1992 and in three colony sites between 1981 and 1992. The mean herring gull egg mercury levels observed in the early and mid 1970s and in 1982 for some colony sites were within the range found which potentially reduces hatchability in other fish-eating bird species.

Weseloh, D.V.; Koster, M.D.; Ryckman, D.P.; Struger, J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Canada Centre for Inland Waters

1995-12-31

86

Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in the Aleutians.  

PubMed

Levels of mercury and other contaminants should be lower in birds nesting on isolated oceanic islands and at high latitudes without any local or regional sources of contamination, compared to more urban and industrialized temperate regions. We examined concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling and adult glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) nesting in breeding colonies on Adak, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska in the Bering Sea/North Pacific. We tested the following null hypotheses: 1) There were no differences in metal levels among eggs and feathers of adult and fledgling glaucous-winged gulls, 2) There were no differences in metal levels among gulls nesting near the three underground nuclear test sites (Long Shot 1965, Milrow 1969, Cannikin 1971) on Amchitka, 3) There were no differences in metal levels among the three islands, and 4) There were no gender-related differences in metal levels. All four null hypotheses were rejected at the 0.05 level, although there were few differences among the three test sites on Amchitka. Eggs had the lowest levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury, and the feathers of adults had the lowest levels of selenium. Comparing only adults and fledglings, adults had higher levels of cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury, and fledglings had higher levels of arsenic, manganese and selenium. There were few consistent interisland differences, although levels were generally lower for eggs and feathers from gulls on Amchitka compared to the other islands. Arsenic was higher in both adult feathers and eggs from Amchitka compared to Adak, and chromium and lead were higher in adult feathers and eggs from Adak compared to Amchitka. Mercury and arsenic, and chromium and manganese levels were significantly correlated in the feathers of both adult and fledgling gulls. The feathers of males had significantly higher levels of chromium and manganese than did females. The levels of most metals in feathers are below those known to be associated with adverse effects in the gulls or their predators. However, levels of mercury in some gull eggs are within a range suggesting that several eggs should not be eaten in one day by sensitive humans. PMID:18626778

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Volz, Conrad D; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Daniel; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila

2009-05-01

87

Birds of Bylot Island and Adjacent Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, 1979 to 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of birds in the Bylot Island region from 1979 to 1997, with emphasis on the southwest part of the island each summer since 1989, revealed an avifauna composed of 63 species, of which 35 were breeding. Thirteen species are new records for the region, including one for the Northwest Territories (black-headed gull Larus ridibundus) and two for the Canadian

DENIS LEPAGE; DAVID N. NETTLESHIP; AUSTIN REED

1998-01-01

88

THE DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN LARGE GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of investigating the relationships and plumage charac- ters of the large gulls of western North America (Devillets, in prep.) a number of specimens had to be examined, and distributional data checked. Also, field studies, particularly in the San Diego region, northern Baja California, and the Salton Sea, have resulted in a better understanding of the distribution of

Pierre Devillets; Guy McCaskie; Joseph R. Jehl

89

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF LARGE GULLS (LARUS SPP.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

sponsible for maintaining and increasing the dimorphism, although other basic adaptive functions may also be involved. Smith (1966) found for two species of gulls (Larus glaucoides and L. thayeri) that the difference between the sexes was greatest when the species were allopatric with closely similar species. He suggests (p. 85): \\

AGNAR INGOLFSSON

90

Sleep in the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep postures and eye state of free-ranging herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were studied during the breeding season. Three mutually exclusive behaviours were observed, namely sleep, rest-sleep and rest postures. Arousal thresholds, eye blink rates and eye closure time were obtained during these behaviours. Significant relationships existed between eye blinking, eye closure, and a raised threshold of arousal when birds were

Charles J. Amlaner; David J. McFarland

1981-01-01

91

THE PRIMARY MOULT OF THE LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the primary moult of the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus. It is based on moult scores obtained from birds trapped by the Severn Estuary Gull Group in Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire and personal observations by the author. Though a number of papers on the primary moult of Lesser Black-backed Gulls of the subspecies L.f. graellsii already

PETER STEWART

92

A TECHNIQUE TO COLOR-MARK INCUBATING GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of a method used to mark Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) produced a technique suitable for color-marking Herring (Larus argentatus), Great Black-backed (L. marinus), and Laughing (L. atricilla) Gulls. Gulls marked themselves while incubating artificial eggs treated with a mixture of petroleum jelly and Rhodamine B. Marks persisted on gulls a minimum of 28-42 d. Low levels of mortality (0.05-0.27%)

PAUL M. CAVANAGH; CURTICE R. GRIFFIN; EDWIN M. HOOPES

93

Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven

Dariusz Bukaci?ski; Monika Bukaci?ska; Thomas Lubjuhn

2000-01-01

94

Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls ( Larus glaucescens ) in the Aleutians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury and other contaminants should be lower in birds nesting on isolated oceanic islands and at high latitudes\\u000a without any local or regional sources of contamination, compared to more urban and industrialized temperate regions. We examined\\u000a concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling\\u000a and adult glaucous-winged gulls

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld; Christian Jeitner; Sean Burke; Conrad D. Volz; Ronald Snigaroff; Daniel Snigaroff; Tara Shukla; Sheila Shukla

2009-01-01

95

Shoaling characteristics of the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway in Texas  

E-print Network

of Advisory Committee: Dr. Wesley James Naintenance dredging records were used to compute average shoal- ing rates in 5000 foot reaches for the entire Texas Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. Environmental data pertinent to the waterway were gathered from... to be 10. 5 inches per year. Shoaling in open bay areas was found to be an average of 3 inches per year greater than in land cut areas. The combination of dredged material mounds, or fetch greater than 5 miles, with water depths less than 6 feet...

Atturio, John Michael

2012-06-07

96

Nutrient transfer from sea to land: the case of gulls and cormorants in the Gulf of Maine.  

PubMed

1. The structure of communities is influenced by the transport of resources across ecosystem boundaries. Seabirds are capable of introducing large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to land, thereby modifying resource availability to terrestrial species. 2. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that variation in nesting densities of great black-backed gulls Larus marinus and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus would modify the effect of these species on soil nutrients and plant species composition on offshore islands in the Gulf of Maine, USA. 3. Our results showed a significant positive correlation between nest density and concentrations of ammonia and nitrate in soils, but no significant relationship between nest density and phosphate. Ammonia and phosphate concentrations were good predictors of plant species composition; there were more annual forbs than perennial grasses in the abandoned cormorant colony compared with the gull colonies. Extremely high concentrations of ammonia in the highest density colony (active cormorant) may have been the main factor inhibiting plant germination at this site. All of the plant species in gull and cormorant colonies showed enriched delta(15)N signatures, indicating substantial input of marine-derived nitrogen from seabirds. 4. Our study demonstrated that gulls and cormorants are effective vectors for the transport of marine nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems. However, transported nutrients occurred in particularly high concentrations in areas with nesting cormorants. Nesting densities and species-specific variation in resource transport should be considered when predicting the effects of seabirds and other biogenic vectors of allochthonous resources. PMID:16638009

Ellis, Julie C; Fariña, Jose Miguel; Witman, Jon D

2006-03-01

97

Indexing winter gull numbers in Great Britain using data from the 1953 to 2004 Winter Gull Roost Surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Winter Gull Roost Survey data spanning 50 years were used to generate population indices.Aims To evaluate how wintering numbers of five gull species have changed in Great Britain over the last five decades.Methods Generalized linear models were used to relate gull numbers to habitat, site and year factors, and so derive species?specific indices for nine regions of Great Britain.

Alexander N. Banks; Niall H. K. Burton; John R. Calladine; Graham E. Austin

2009-01-01

98

Incipient Sediment Movement by Shoaling Internal Gravity Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

criterion for incipient movement of bottom sediment by shoaling internal waves by equating moments due to fluid force and gravity force acting on an exposed bed particle. Comparison of predicted conditions of incipient sediment movement with mean sediment sizes actually present on the continental shelf and continental slope southeast of New England indicates that shoreward propagation of relatively high frequency

D. A. Cacchione; J. B. Southard

1974-01-01

99

Modelling Shoaling Directional Wave Spectra in Shallow Water  

E-print Network

- offshore direction, but no restriction is made on allowed angles of incidence with respect to the shore As ocean surface waves propagate towards shore, they pass through a shoaling zone prior to breaking as applying an FFT to data. Assumptions about stationarity of the 1 Center for Applied Coastal Research

Kirby, James T.

100

Molecular characterization of novel circoviruses from finch and gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to molecularly characterize circoviruses that infect finches and gulls. Circovirus-specific DNAs were isolated using polymerase chain reaction methods from bursa of Fabricius tissues from a Gouldian finch (Chloebiagouldiae) and a herring gull (Larus argentatus) that were known to be circovirus-infected. Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of cloned genomic DNAs showed that these circoviruses represented

D. Todd; A. N. J. Scott; E. Fringuelli; H. L. Shivraprasad; D. Gavier-Widen; J. A. Smyth

2007-01-01

101

Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) Breeding in Penny Strait, Nunavut, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found a small, previously undiscovered breeding colony of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) in Nunavut, Canada, approximately 80 km from a previous colony location occupied during the 1970s. The birds nested in association with arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea). The collective observations from this region of the High Arctic suggest that Ross's gulls may move colonies each year, or that colony

MARK L. MALLORY; H. GRANT GILCHRIST; CAROLYN L. MALLORY

102

Consumption of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids by Gulls Foraging below a Columbia River Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of migrating juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead Salmo gairdneri by gulls was estimated below the turbine area of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 1982. Foraging success of the gulls, chiefly ring-billed gulls Larus delawarensis, averaged 65% during bright light conditions and 51% during the evening. The number of salmonids consumed by gulls ranged from 50

Gregory T. Ruggerone

1986-01-01

103

COMPETITION BETWEEN AMERICAN COOTS AND FRANKLIN'S GULLS FOR NEST SITES AND EGG PREDATION BY THE COOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RANKLIN'S Gull (Lams pipixcan) is the only gull that nests exclusively in marshes. It is colonial, and often changes colony sites from year to year. Franklin's Gulls build semi-floating nests in the cattail (Typha sp.) marshes of the northern prairies of North America. I studied the breeding adapta- tions of the Franklin's Gull to a marsh habitat from 1968 to

JOANNA BURGER

104

Nitrite poisoning in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis).  

PubMed

Landfill disposal of a fertilizer manufacturing waste product was associated with a die-off of gulls in New Hanover County, North Carolina. An estimated 250 herring and ring-billed gulls were found dead at the site following the initial disposal of this material. Chemical analyses revealed that the fertilizer waste contained predominately calcium (12.0 to 22.2%) and nitrite (3.0 to 15.2%). Contents of the proventriculi and gizzards of dead gulls also contained calcium (3.0 to 10.9%) and nitrite (1,730 ppm). Fertilizer waste administered orally to 16-day-old domestic turkeys resulted in acute, progressive signs of depression, respiratory distress, pallor, convulsions and death. The mean percentage methemoglobin in blood from convulsing turkeys (90.6) was significantly increased from that of normal control turkeys (3.6). The ante-mortem signs and increased blood methemoglobin concentrations in the experimental turkeys support the conclusion that the toxic principle in the fertilizer waste was nitrite, and that nitrite poisoning was the cause of the die-off of gulls. PMID:3016349

Ley, D H

1986-07-01

105

CONTROL OF RING-BILLED GULLS AND HERRING GULLS NESTING AT URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL SITES IN ONTARIO, 1987-1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large numbers of ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and much smaller numbers of herring gulls (L. argentatus) have begun to nest at several industrial and urban sites in the Canadian Great Lakes causing a flight safety problem (nesting at end of a runway), disrupting commercial operations (nesting on roads and storage yards), and creating nuisances (noise and smell of the colony

Hans Blokpoel; Gaston D. Tessier

1991-01-01

106

Intergradation between the Herring Gull Larus argentatus and the Southern Herring Gull Larus cachinnans in European Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five gull populations along a 2000-km transect, running from the Barents Sea coast in the Kola Pen- insula to Nizhegorodskaya oblast, were studied with respect to external morphology, vocalization, and DNA features. The transect crosses the easternmost part of the L. argentatus range, as well as areas of the Middle Volga basin inhabited by the gulls of cachinnans- like type.

E. N. Panov; D. G. Monzikov

107

ORGANOCHLORINE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN HERRING GULLS, RING-BILLED GULLS, AND COMMON TERNS OF WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE, DDT, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed for three age classes (e.g. pre-fledge muscle and blood, and post-fledge muscle) of the herring gull, ring-billed gull, and common tern for samples collected in the western end of La...

108

Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.  

PubMed

In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

Krøkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2006-01-01

109

Abundance, diet and Salmonella contamination of gulls feeding at sewage outfalls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance and activity of gulls at sewage outfalls in South Wales and southern England was studied between 1972 and 1999. In winter, the black-headed gull was the most abundant species, followed by herring, common and lesser black-backed gulls. The abundance of black-headed gulls and herring gulls was significantly correlated with the volume of sewage discharged. Sewers supported only a

Peter N. Ferns; Gregory P. Mudge

2000-01-01

110

Relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) population.  

PubMed

The Arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. Recent studies of the glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various OCs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. Here we provide additional evidence that OCs are having ecological effects in the glaucous gull population at Bear Island in the Norwegian Arctic, and compare the effects of the four major OCs found in the glaucous gulls: HCB, oxychlordane, DDE and PCBs, which made up >95% of measured OCs. Firstly; it has previously been shown that gulls with high levels of PCBs in their blood spent more time away from the nest site during incubation than gulls with low levels. Here we reanalyzed the data and found that PCBs (P<0.02) and oxychlordane (P<0.05) were positive and significantly related to time away from the nest site, while DDE and HCB were not related to this trait. Secondly, among females which bred in an area where fish dominated the diet, and thus had high flight costs during feeding, early chick growth was negatively related to maternal levels of all four OCs, especially HCB and DDE (P<0.01). On the contrary, among females breeding in an area where the diet was dominated by eggs and young from nearby seabird colonies, and thus feeding costs were low, there were no effects of OC levels on early chick growth. This indicates that additional stress may be fundamental in causing reproductive effects of OCs in this population. Finally, during three breeding seasons we examined the probability of adults returning to the breeding grounds in the subsequent season, as a function of blood concentration of the four OCs. Overall, return rate from one year to the next was negatively related to blood residues of oxychlordane (P=0.02), but not significantly related to the other three compounds. Further support for the importance of oxychlordane was that a 60% drop in the blood levels between 1997 and 2000 led to a significant increase in return rate between these two years. PMID:15809119

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Miland, Oystein; Fjeld, Magnus; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Skaare, Janneche Utne

2005-07-01

111

REPORT ON SIX RECENT SIGHTINGS OF THE ICELAND GULL IN NORTH CAROLINA WITH COMMENTS ON PROBLEMS OF FIELD IDENTIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of six Iceland Gulls, seen in Carteret and Dare Counties in 1980 and 1981, are discussed. Evidence is presented to show that these gulls were not hybrids, or albinistic or leucistic individuals, or Glaucous or Thayer's Gulls. Separation of Iceland Gull and Thayer's Gull can be difficult and some individuals probably cannot be safely identified. Emphasis is placed on

JOHN O. FUSSELL; MICHAEL J. TOVE; HARRY E. LeGRAND

1982-01-01

112

At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-01-01

113

At-Sea Behavior Varies with Lunar Phase in a Nocturnal Pelagic Seabird, the Swallow-Tailed Gull  

PubMed Central

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase. PMID:23468889

Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proano, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-01-01

114

Nonlinear shoaling of directionally spread waves on a beach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shoaling of directionally spread surface gravity waves on a gently sloping beach with straight and parallel depth contours is examined with weakly dispersive Boussinesq theory. In this second-order theory, energy is transferred from the incident waves to components with both higher and lower frequencies in near-resonant nonlinear triad interactions. Directional spreading of the incident waves causes a weak detuning from resonance that is of the same order as the detuning owing to dispersion. Boussinesq theory predictions of the evolution of a single triad (i.e., two primary wave components shoaling from deep water forcing a secondary wave component) are compared to predictions of dispersive finite depth theory for a typical range of beach slopes, incident wave amplitudes, frequencies, and propagation directions. The dependencies of the predicted secondary wave growth on primary wave incidence angles are in good agreement. Whereas the sum frequency response is insensitive to the (deep water) spreading angle of the primary waves, the difference frequency (infragravity) response is significantly reduced for large spreading angles. A stochastic formulation of Boussinesq wave shoaling evolution equations is derived on the basis of the closure hypothesis that phase coupling between quartets of wave components is weak. In this approximation the second- and third-order statistics of random, directionally spread shoaling waves are described by a coupled set of evolution equations for the frequency alongshore wavenumber spectrum and bispectrum. It is shown that a smooth overlap with solutions of dispersive finite depth theory exists in the limit of small beach slope and weak nonlinearity.

Herbers, T. H. C.; Burton, M. C.

1997-09-01

115

Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish has become a major model system for biomedical research and is an emerging model for the study of behaviour. While adult zebrafish express a visually mediated shoaling preference, the onset of shoaling behaviour and of this preference is unknown. To assess the onset of these behaviours, we first manipulated the early social environment of larval zebrafish subjects, giving them three model shoaling partners of the same pigment phenotype. We then assayed the subjects’ preferences using binary preference tests in which we presented subjects with two shoals, one shoal of fish exhibiting the same pigment pattern phenotype as their models and another shoal with a radically different pigment pattern. To determine whether or not the visually mediated preference could be altered once it was established, we further manipulated the social environment of a number of subjects, rearing them with one model shoal and testing them, then changing their social consorts and retesting them. Our results demonstrate that larval zebrafish shoal early in their development, but do not exhibit a shoaling preference until they are juveniles. Moreover, we find that the shoaling preference is stable, as changing the social environment of fish after they had acquired a preference did not change their preference. These data will facilitate investigations into the mechanisms underlying social behaviour in this vertebrate model system. PMID:18978932

ENGESZER, RAYMOND E.; BARBIANO, LAURA ALBERICI DA; RYAN, MICHAEL J.; PARICHY, DAVID M.

2008-01-01

116

Relational learning in glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens).  

PubMed

An experimental approach was created for the comparative investigation of the cognitive abilities of the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) in their natural habitat. The territoriality of gulls during the breeding period and the fact that the gulls inhabiting the territory of the Komandorsky Reserve are practically not in fear of humans allowed us to work with individually recognized birds directly at their nest sites inside the colony. The possibility of using this approach to investigate their cognitive abilities was demonstrated on 24 gulls, in particular, to investigate their abilities for relative size generalization. The first experiment illustrated that the gulls are able to learn to discriminate two pairs of stimuli according to the feature: 'larger' or 'smaller'. They were then given a test to transfer the discriminative rule in which novel combinations of the same stimuli were used. The gulls successfully coped with only a few of these tests. In the next experiment the birds were taught to discriminate four pairs of similar stimuli. The majority of the birds coped with the tests to transfer the discriminative rule both to the novel combinations of familiar stimuli, and also to the novel stimuli of the familiar category (items of different colour and shape). However, none of the birds transferred the discriminative rule to stimuli of a novel category (sets differing by number of components). Thus, in their ability to generalize at a preconceptual level gulls are more comparable with pigeons, whereas large-brained birds (crows and parrots), are capable of concept formation. PMID:23156897

Obozova, Tatyana A; Smirnova, Anna A; Zorina, Zoya A

2012-11-01

117

Aerodynamic implications of gull's drooped wing-tips.  

PubMed

When in gliding flight, gulls are observed to adopt a drooped wing-tip configuration. This paper investigates whether this configuration might represent an aerodynamic optimum or if it is the result of constraints imposed by the gull's anatomy. A computational model was developed for the aerodynamic performance of a gull in gliding flight. This model was used in conjunction with both global and local optimizers to determine the most aerodynamically optimal configuration for cases where the gull was constrained to move its wing within its natural flapping cycle as well as when the wing had full freedom of motion. The results of this analysis determined the best wing configuration for a gull in gliding flight and demonstrated that such a configuration not only had the highest lift-to-drag ratio but also could be achieved within the constraints of the kinematics of the gull wing. These results are of interest outside studies of gulls, since the drooped wing-tip configuration could be relevant for new designs of small air vehicles. PMID:24106263

Andrews, S A; Perez, R E; Allan, W D E

2013-12-01

118

Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island  

E-print Network

BRISBANE Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island Lady Musgrave Island Wilson Island Heron Island Great Hinchinbrook Island Lizard Island Double Island Green Island Fitzroy Island North and South Stradbroke Islands

Wang, Yan

119

Origin of barrier islands on sandy coasts  

SciTech Connect

Many barrier islands on the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico contain one or more nuclei; island growth has taken place more or less seaward from these nuclei, which are the oldest parts of the islands. The nuclei were, at one time, separate islands; the oldest beach ridges wrap around them on two or three sides, showing that they were not remnants of spits or earlier larger features. The nuclei grew larger with time because of a local equilibrium of abundance of sand, rather than a regime of erosion. The younger growth areas are commonly marked by sequences, or sets, of beach ridges; such features are not visible in the nuclei. The question of the origin of many barrier islands on sandy coasts must be closely related to the question of the origin of the nuclei. But the nuclei appear to have no distinguishing marks that in themselves might help explain their origin. Johnson Shoal (Lee County, on the lower west coast of the Florida peninsula) may provide some insight into the origin of nuclei. It appeared for the first time, more recently than 1853, in water 2-6 m deep, and has been migrating landward (eastward) ever since. Seven maps and charts from various dates and many sets of black-and-white aerial photographs have been used to produce a history of shoal migration. By December 1988, welding of the remnants of the shoal onto the shore of Cayo Costa island was already under way. The migrating shoal contained more than 10 million m{sup 3} of sand (13 million yd{sup 3}), with a mass of 10 trillion kg. Known nuclei on other islands are commonly about this size, or smaller. The moving shoal did not develop from dredge spoil (there has been no dredging of this magnitude in the area), a spit, a drowned dune, or a fault. It must have been a natural nontectonic event: emergence of a shoal since 1853 without notable changes in sea level or wave climate. Perhaps such events, common a few thousand years ago, account for barrier island nuclei.

Tanner, W.F. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA))

1990-09-01

120

Expansion of the Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981, when the first breeding pair of Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus was recorded in Poland, the population of this gull has increased considerably. Its population size was stable until 1997,\\u000a not exceeding ten pairs annually; thereafter, an increasing number of sightings were made, and during the last 5 years between\\u000a 26 and 39 breeding pairs have been recorded in Poland.

Monika Zieli?ska; Piotr Zieli?ski; Pawe? Ko?odziejczyk; Pawe? Szewczyk; Jacek Betleja

2007-01-01

121

Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Gull Feces?  

PubMed Central

In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a gull 16S rRNA gene clone library was developed and analyzed to determine the identities of fecal bacteria. Analysis of 282 16S rRNA gene clones demonstrated that the gull gut bacterial community is mostly composed of populations closely related to Bacilli (37%), Clostridia (17%), Gammaproteobacteria (11%), and Bacteriodetes (1%). Interestingly, a considerable number of sequences (i.e., 26%) were closely related to Catellicoccus marimammalium, a gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterium. To determine the occurrence of C. marimammalium in waterfowl, species-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR and real-time assays were developed and used to test fecal DNA extracts from different bird (n = 13) and mammal (n = 26) species. The results showed that both assays were specific to gull fecal DNA and that C. marimammalium was present in gull fecal samples collected from the five locations in North America (California, Georgia, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Toronto, Canada) tested. Additionally, 48 DNA extracts from waters collected from six sites in southern California, Great Lakes in Michigan, Lake Erie in Ohio, and Lake Ontario in Canada presumed to be impacted with gull feces were positive by the C. marimammalium assay. Due to the widespread presence of this species in gulls and environmental waters contaminated with gull feces, targeting this bacterial species might be useful for detecting gull fecal contamination in waterfowl-impacted waters. PMID:18469128

Lu, Jingrang; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lamendella, Regina; Edge, Thomas; Hill, Stephen

2008-01-01

122

Diversity patterns in helminth communities in common gulls, Larus canus.  

PubMed

The parameters of species richness, abundance and diversity of the intestinal helminth infracommunities of a sample of 269 Common gulls, Larus canus, were examined over one season at Agdenes, Norway. The communities developed rapidly in unfledged gulls and the diversity parameters were of similar magnitude in immature and adult birds. All parameters were low in the early part of the season, reached maxima in June or July and fluctuated erratically or declined thereafter. Comparison of summary parameters with those from other species of gulls indicated that helminth community diversity in Common gulls is fairly typical of gulls in general. in gulls as a group, helminth communities show common features of high species richness, low abundance, few or no core species and a number of species that occur rarely and in low numbers. Expectations of particularly high parasite community diversity were not fully realised because species lists and diversity of the component community are not a very good basis for predicting diversity at the infracommunity level. PMID:2771449

Kennedy, C R; Bakke, T A

1989-06-01

123

Avian paramyxoviruses in shorebirds and gulls.  

PubMed

There are nine serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (APMV), including APMV-1, or Newcastle disease virus. Although free-flying ducks and geese have been extensively monitored for APMV, limited information is available for species in the order Charadriiformes. From 2000 to 2005 we tested cloacal swabs from 9,128 shorebirds and gulls (33 species, five families) captured in 10 states within the USA and in three countries in the Caribbean and South America. Avian paramyxoviruses were isolated from 60 (0.7%) samples by inoculation of embryonating chicken eggs; isolates only included APMV-1 and APMV-2. Two isolates (APMV-2) were made from gulls and 58 isolates (APMV-1 [41 isolates] and APMV-2 [17 isolates]) were made from shorebirds. All of the positive shorebirds were sampled at Delaware Bay (Delaware and New Jersey) and 45 (78%) of these isolates came from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres). The APMV-1 infection rate was higher among Ruddy Turnstones compared with other shorebird species and varied by year. Avian paramyxovirus-2 was isolated from two of 394 (0.5%) Ruddy Turnstones at Delaware Bay in 2001 and from 13 of 735 (1.8%) Ruddy Turnstones during 2002. For both APMV-1 and APMV-2, infection rates were higher among Ruddy Turnstones sampled on the south shore of Delaware Bay compared to north shore populations. This spatial variation may be related to local movements of Ruddy Turnstones within this ecosystem. The higher prevalence of APMV in Ruddy Turnstones mirrors results observed for avian influenza viruses in shorebirds and may suggest similar modes of transmission. PMID:20688640

Coffee, Laura L; Hanson, Britta A; Luttrell, M Page; Swayne, David E; Senne, Dennis A; Goekjian, Virginia H; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

2010-04-01

124

Holocene sand shoals offshore of Mississippi River delta plain, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain lies a series of Holocene sand shoals marking the position of ancient submerged shorelines. These ancient shorelines represent stillstand positions during which the Holocene transgression drove sea level across the former lowstand subaerial erosion surface of the Mississippi River delta plain. Short periods of rapid sea level rise led to the transgressive submergence of these sandy shorelines. Two shoreline trends can be recognized at the {minus}10-m and {minus}20-m isobaths on the continental shelf.

Penland, S.; McBride, R.A. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Suter, J.R. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (USA)); Williams, S.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Kindinger, J.L. (Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Boyd, R. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

1989-09-01

125

Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate isomer patterns in herring gull eggs from colonial sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Linear and branched (six mono(trifluoromethyl) and four di(trifluoromethyl)) isomers of the bioaccumulative contaminant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed for and the spatial patterns examined in individual herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs (n = 13 per site) collected (in 2007) from 15 colonies across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Linear PFOS (n-perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate (L-PFOS)) consistently dominated the isomer pattern in all eggs, comprising between 95.0% and 98.3% of the summation sigmaPFOS concentration. L-PFOS was highly enriched in the gull eggs as the summation sigmabranched-PFOS to L-PFOS isomer concentration ratios were very constant (overall average 0.038 +/- 0.001) and much lower compared to technical PFOS (range 0.27-0.54). The highest proportions of L-PFOS were generally observed in the eggs from the lower lakes (Erie and Ontario) colonies. All six mono(trifluoromethyl) branched isomers, or perfluoro-n-methyl-heptanesulfonates where n describes the carbon of the hydrocarbon chain were there is trifluoromethyl substitution relative to the sulfonate terminal group, were detected in the eggs from all the colonies. For example, P1MHpS is perfluoro-1-methyl-heptanesulfonate. Comparable to technical PFOS (T-PFOS), the percentage of the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomer to summation sigmaPFOS concentration decreased as the branch substitution was located closer to the sulfonate group, that is, P6MHpS (0%-2.5%), P5MHpS (0.43%-1.18%), P4MHpS (0.25%-0.69%), and P3MHpS (0.32%-0.74%). Although at even lower fractional composition than the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomers, of the di(trifluoromethyl) isomers, detected in >60% of the individual eggs per site was P35DMHxS and P45DMHxS for Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario), P35DMHxS for Chantry (Lake Huron) and Fighting Island (Detroit River), and P45DMHxS for Gull Island (Lake Michigan). Relative to T-PFOS, and independent of colonial location, the high and consistent enrichment of L-PFOS in gull eggs is likely a function of several processes including PFOS or precursor sources, and isomer-specific PFOS or precursor exposure, accumulation, biotransformation, retention and/or elimination. The results of this study suggests that the apparent dilution of the mono(fluoromethyl) isomers from environmental processes that occur prior to final accumulation in herring gull eggs, is independent of the mono(fluoromethyl) isomer structure. PMID:20415439

Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J

2010-05-15

126

Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the  

E-print Network

Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the Challenge Hypothesis: testosterone; challenge hypothesis; ag- gression; black-headed gull; territorial behavior; chick; ontogeny; priming; sensitization; organizing effects; ex- ternal stimuli. Testosterone is considered to have

127

Association patterns and foraging behaviour in natural and artificial guppy shoals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal groups are often nonrandom assemblages of individuals that tend to be assorted by factors such as sex, body size, relatedness and familiarity. Laboratory studies using fish have shown that familiarity among shoal members confers a number of benefits to individuals, such as increased foraging success. However, it is unclear whether fish in natural shoals obtain these benefits through association

Lesley J. Morrell; Darren P. Croft; John R. G. Dyer; Ben B. Chapman; Jennifer L. Kelley; Kevin N. Laland; Jens Krause

2008-01-01

128

Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay A. Scotti,1  

E-print Network

Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay A. Scotti,1 R. C. Beardsley,2 B. Butman,3 August 2008. [1] The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter

Pineda, Jesús

129

Can a minority of informed leaders determine the foraging movements of a fish shoal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is no information on whether the daily foraging movements of fish shoals are the result of chance, the collective will of all shoalmates, or the leadership of a few individuals. This study tested the latter possibility. Shoals of 12 golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, were trained to expect food around midday in one of the brightly lit corners of their

Stephan G. Reebs

2000-01-01

130

Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three-spined stickleback.  

PubMed Central

We investigated pairwise association patterns and shoal fidelity in free-ranging, individual three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by capturing entire shoals of sticklebacks and tagging each shoal member with a unique individual mark before releasing the shoal at the point of capture. We recaptured tagged fishes in the study area on five subsequent days, noting their identity, their location and the individuals with which they were associated. Stable partner associations between fishes were observed which might provide the basis for shoal fidelity via social networks. These results suggest the potential for the kinds of inter-individual association patterns assumed by models of predator inspection and 'tit-for-tat' behaviours in free-ranging fishes. PMID:12495488

Ward, Ashley J W; Botham, Marc S; Hoare, Daniel J; James, Richard; Broom, Mark; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Krause, Jens

2002-01-01

131

Distribution of Gull Specific Molecular Marker in Coastal Areas of Lake Ontario  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls have been implicated as primary sources of fecal contamination in the Great Lakes, a fact that may have health implications due to the potential spread of microbial pathogens by waterfowl. To better understand the spatial variability of gull fecal contamination, a gull-spe...

132

Impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of recreational water.  

PubMed

We evaluated the impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of water. We measured fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and Aeromonas spp. in the gull droppings and the number of fecal coliforms in the water prior to and after attracting these birds to the beach with food. Gulls can contribute to the bacteriological degradation of recreational water. PMID:8489231

Benoît Leévesque; Brousseau, P; Simard, P; Dewailly, E; Meisels, M; Ramsay, D; Joly, J

1993-04-01

133

Impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of recreational water.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of water. We measured fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and Aeromonas spp. in the gull droppings and the number of fecal coliforms in the water prior to and after attracting these birds to the beach with food. Gulls can contribute to the bacteriological degradation of recreational water. PMID:8489231

Benoit Leevesque; Brousseau, P; Simard, P; Dewailly, E; Meisels, M; Ramsay, D; Joly, J

1993-01-01

134

Importance of landfills to urban-nesting herring and ring-billed gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information exists on the importance of landfills to urban gulls and the influence landfills have on the establishment of urban-nesting gull colonies. Thus, there is critical need for data to determine factors contributing to increasing populations of urban gulls. Our objectives were to determine the importance of landfills to the reproductive success, diet, and movements (via radio telemetry) of

Jerrold L Belant; Sheri K Ickes; Thomas W Seamans

1998-01-01

135

Net energy versus efficiency maximizing by foraging ring-billed gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) breeding at Dog Lake, Manitoba often feed by following tractors pulling cultivating implements around fields. Tractor-following gulls always land immediately behind the cultivating implement, where they feed on earthworms or grain. Afeer a feeding bout on the ground (patch residence time), gulls fly up, pursue the tractor and repeat the cycle. We use net energy maximizing

C. V. J. Welham; R. C. Ydenberg

1988-01-01

136

THE CHANGING STATUS OF THE LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL LARUS FUSCUS IN IRELAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes in the status of the populations of the large gull species in Ireland have taken place over the past fifteen years. While marked declines have occurred in the numbers of breeding herring gulls Larus argentatus, over more or less the same period there has been a sharp increase in the population of lesser black-backed gulls L. fuscus. Moreover,

G. A. Creme; P. M. Walsh; M. O'Callaghan; T. C. Kelly

137

Genetic Variation in Mitochondrial DNA of North American Herring Gulls, Larus argentatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herring gull (Larus argentatus), which is one of the most abundant gulls in temperate North America, is used as an important bioindicator species, but little is known about its patterns of genetic variation. This study examines DNA sequence diversity in the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes basin and from

Junjian Z. Chen; Carole L. Yauk; Craig Hebert; Paul D. N. Hebert

2001-01-01

138

Glaucous gull predation of goslings on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta frequently prey on juvenile waterfowl. We collected 434 Glaucous Gulls from late June to early August 1994 to examine diet. Identification of undigested prey tissue, based on DNA microsatellite loci, showed three species of goslings in gull stomachs: Emperor Goose (Chen canagica), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), and Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima). Gulls that nested inland and were collected > 1.6 km from the coast accounted for approximately 70% of the total gull predation on Emperor and Canada Geese, and 96% on White-fronted Geese. Our stratified sample of gull stomachs and aerial survey estimates of population size and distribution of gulls and juvenile geese enabled extrapolation of species-specific predation rates to the entire Y-K Delta. We estimated that a minimum of 21 000 Emperor Goose, 34 000 Canada Goose, and 16 000 White-fronted Goose goslings were consumed by 12 600 Glaucous Gulls during the brood-rearing period on the Y-K Delta in 1994. Minimum estimated take by gulls represented 33% of Cackling Canada Goose, 47% of Emperor Goose, and 39% of White-fronted Goose eggs estimated to have hatched in the same area as gull collections. Gulls selected the three species of geese approximately in proportion to their abundance. Although gull predation caused significant gosling mortality, its role in regulating goose populations on Y-K Delta remains unresolved.

Bowman, T.D.; Stehn, R.A.; Scribner, K.T.

2004-01-01

139

Gulls in urban environments: landscape-level management to reduce conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of several species of gulls (Larus spp.) have increased dramatically throughout coastal areas of North America and Europe during the past several decades. These increases have been attributed generally to protection from human disturbance, reduction in environmental contaminants, availability of anthropogenic food, and the ability of gulls to adapt to human-altered environments. Gull abundance in urban areas has resulted

Jerrold L. Belant

1997-01-01

140

Plastic consumption and diet of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).  

PubMed

We analyzed dietary habits and presence of plastic in 589 boluses of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) as one of two studies on the impact of plastics on marine life in the US Salish Sea. Volunteers dissected boluses collected (2007-2010) from Protection Island, Washington. Components were separated into 23 food and non-food categories. Plastic was found in 12.2% of boluses, with plastic film being the most common plastic form. No diet specialization was observed. Vegetation was the most abundant component, found in 91.3% of boluses. No relationship was observed between any dietary items and occurrence or type of plastic found. Load and potential ecological impact in the marine environment can be expected to increase concurrently with increasing plastic use and number and variety of plastic sources. Future studies are necessary to understand the impacts of plastic ingestion on this species. PMID:22995785

Lindborg, Valerie A; Ledbetter, Julia F; Walat, Jean M; Moffett, Cinamon

2012-11-01

141

Distribution, diet and habitat selection by four sympatrically breeding gull species in the south-eastern North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food choice, feeding habitat use and spatial distribution of black-headed gulls ( Larus ridibundus), mew gulls ( L. canus), herring gulls ( L. argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls ( L. fuscus) were studied in the south-eastern North Sea. At-sea distribution during the breeding period was assessed by transect counts from ships. Clear differences could be established between the four species,

U. Kubetzki; S. Garthe

2003-01-01

142

Sources of Food Delivered to Ring-Billed, Herring and Great Black-Backed Gull Chicks in Marine Environments  

E-print Network

words.--diet, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, Larus delawarensis, Larus marinus.--Beginning in the 1960s, Ring-billed Gulls' (Larus delawarensis) historic breeding range expanded from inland habitats-billed and sympatrically-nesting Her- ring (L. argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gulls (L. marinus) were also compared

Shutler, Dave

143

Cestodes of the genus Aploparaksis Clerc, 1903 (Cyclophyllidea, Aploparaksidae) reported from gulls, with a description of new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen species of Aploparaksis Clerc, 1903 described from gulls or reported to infect gulls are reviewed. The re?examination showed that gulls are parasitised by the following six species: A. borealis, A. brachyphallus, A. diagonalis, A. rissae, A. xemae and A. shigini n. sp. Only the latter species is considered to be a host?specific parasite of gulls, whereas A. borealis is

Svetlana Bondarenko; Vytautas Kontrimavichus

2006-01-01

144

[A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].  

PubMed

The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

2005-01-01

145

THE BIRDS OF SEYMOUR ISLAND, ANTARCTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During January-February 2000, we obtained information on the abundance and distribution of seabirds in Seymour Island, Antarctica. Six species breed in this area: Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae; 28,255 pairs), Wilson's Storm-petrel (Oceanites oceanicus; 22), Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica; 30), South Polar Skua (C. maccormicki; 33), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus; 296) and Antarctic Tern (Sterna vittata; 107). In addition, five non-breeding

Diego Montalti; Guillermo E. Soave

146

Herring gulls and great black-backed gulls as indicators of contaminants in bald eagles in Lake Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

In 2000, a pair of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nested successfully along the shorelines of Lake Ontario in North America for the first time since 1957. However, it is a continuing question whether bald eagles will be able to reproduce successfully as they return to nest on Lake Ontario. Great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) were selected as surrogate species to predict contaminant levels in eggs of bald eagles nesting on Lake Ontario. Because of the suspected overlap in the diets of great black-backed gulls and bald eagles (i.e., fish, gull chicks, and waterfowl), the two species probably occupy a similar trophic level in the Lake Ontario food web and, thus, may have similar contaminant levels. Fresh great black-backed gull and herring gull eggs were collected from three study sites in eastern Lake Ontario in 1993 and 1994 and analyzed for contaminants. Average contaminant levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin in great black-backed gull eggs were 12.85, 26.27, and 0.27 microg/g, respectively. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in great black-backed gull eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs for these three contaminants was 2.09 (range of means, 1.73-2.38). Predicted levels of contaminants in bald eagle eggs in Lake Ontario would be expected to be similar to the mean levels reported for great black-backed gull eggs. As a comparison, contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs collected from other Great Lakes nesting sites were compared to mean levels reported for herring gull eggs collected from nearby sites in 1986 to 1995. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs from these sites for DDE, total PCBs, and dieldrin was 2.40 (range of means, 1.73-3.28). These ratios are very similar to those reported using great black-backed gull eggs, illustrating the apparent similarity in trophic status shared by the two top predator species at these Great Lakes sites. Predicted levels of contaminants in bald eagle eggs at Lake Ontario are similar to levels reported for bald eagles breeding at other Great Lakes sites, suggesting that bald eagles may be able to breed on the shores of Lake Ontario. However, it is unclear at this time what level of breeding success should be expected, given that productivity at other similarly contaminated Great Lakes sites may be below that required to sustain a successful breeding population. The absence of an inland bald eagle population from which bald eagles may begin to colonize the shorelines of Lake Ontario may be delaying initiation of nesting site selection; other factors such as habitat and prey availability would likely not limit reproductive success. PMID:12013123

Weseloh, D Vaughn; Hughes, Kimberly D; Ewins, Peter J; Best, Dave; Kubiak, Timothy; Shieldcastle, Mark C

2002-05-01

147

Cytochrome P4501A induction and DNA adduct formation in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs.  

PubMed

This study indicates that complex mixtures of pollutants found in the Arctic marine environment have genotoxic effects in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). DNA adducts were quantified, by the (32)P-postlabeling technique, in liver samples from gulls fed with hen eggs (controls) and from gulls fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed). All birds were grown and fed under laboratory conditions. Hepatic homologues to mammalian cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) proteins were also determined by Western blotting. DNA adducts were detected in all but one liver sample, but the exposed birds had a significantly increased level of DNA adducts relative to that of the controls. There was no clear significant correlation between the DNA adduct level and the level of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in blood. The level of CYP1A protein was significantly higher in the liver of exposed male gulls than in the liver of control males and positively correlated, with significance, to the level of OC compounds measured in blood. There was no significant correlation between the level of DNA adducts and the CYP1A protein content. PMID:16216630

Østby, Lene; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Krøkje, Ase

2005-11-01

148

Outcrop Mapping at Woodall Shoals, South Carolina-Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mapping of complexly deformed high-grade metamorphic rocks in areas of relatively poor exposure, such as the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge, is very challenging. A traditional mapping project in such areas may be too difficult and frustrating for most undergraduate students and may be ineffective. Mapping parts of the outcrop at Woodall Shoals, with the benefits of 100% exposure and a relatively small area, provides a good alternative. This very large (2,000-square-meter) outcrop contains a full compliment of rock fabric and complex geologic structures typical of such areas. For purposes of the present exercise, it serves as a generic scale model of an exhumed high-grade terrain. The detailed map of the outcrop by Hatcher et. al. (1989, Georgia Geological Society Guidebook, v. 9, n. 3, Plate 3) is used as a solution to the exercise.

Mies, Jonathan

149

Quorum Decision-Making in Foraging Fish Shoals  

PubMed Central

Quorum responses provide a means for group-living animals to integrate and filter disparate social information to produce accurate and coherent group decisions. A quorum response may be defined as a steep increase in the probability of group members performing a given behaviour once a threshold minimum number of their group mates already performing that behaviour is exceeded. In a previous study we reported the use of a quorum response in group decision-making of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) under a simulated predation threat. Here we examine the use of quorum responses by shoals of sticklebacks in first locating and then leaving a foraging patch. We show that a quorum rule explains movement decisions by threespine sticklebacks toward and then away from a food patch. Following both to and from a food patch occurred when a threshold number of initiators was exceeded, with the threshold being determined by the group size. PMID:22412869

Ward, Ashley J. W.; Krause, Jens; Sumpter, David J. T.

2012-01-01

150

Closure report for CAU No. 416: Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Project Shoal Area (PSA) Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416. CAU 416 consists of a mud pit, muckpile, and housekeeping site. The PSA is located approximately 48.3 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The mud pit was the result of drilling activities at the PSA in 1963. Investigation activities completed in 1996 determined drilling mud in the mud pit was impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons in excess of the State of Nevada 100 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). The muckpile consists of broken granite from emplacement shaft and drift (tunnel) mining activities at the PSA in 1963. The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans.

NONE

1998-01-01

151

Sex biases in kin shoaling and dispersal in a cichlid fish.  

PubMed

Animal dispersal is associated with diverse costs and benefits that vary among individuals based on phenotype and ecological conditions. For example, females may disperse when males benefit more from defending territories in familiar environments. Similarly, size differences in dispersal propensity may occur when dispersal costs are size-dependent. When individuals do disperse, they may adopt behavioral strategies that minimize dispersal costs. Dispersing fish, for example, may travel within shoals to reduce predation risks. Further, kin shoaling may augment inclusive fitness by reducing predation of relatives. However, studies are lacking on the role of kin shoaling in dispersal. We explored how sex and size influence dispersal and kin shoaling in the cichlid Neolamprologus caudopunctatus. We microsatellite genotyped over 900 individuals from two populations separated by a potential dispersal barrier, and documented patterns of population structure, migration and within-shoal relatedness. Genetic differentiation across the barrier was greater for smaller than larger fish, suggesting larger fish had dispersed longer distances. Females exhibited weaker genetic differentiation and 11 times higher migration rates than males, indicating longer-distance female-biased dispersal. Small females frequently shoaled with siblings, possibly offsetting dispersal costs associated with higher predation risks. In contrast, small males appeared to avoid kin shoaling, possibly to avoid local resource competition. In summary, long-distance dispersal in N. caudopunctatus appears to be female-biased, and kin-based shoaling by small females may represent a behavioral adaptation that reduces dispersal costs. Our study appears to be the first to provide evidence that sex differences in dispersal influence sex differences in kin shoaling. PMID:25231372

van Dongen, Wouter F D; Wagner, Richard H; Moodley, Yoshan; Schaedelin, Franziska C

2014-12-01

152

Characterization of a novel haemagglutinin subtype (H13) of influenza A viruses from gulls*  

PubMed Central

Influenza A virus strains isolated in the United States of America from ring-billed and Franklin gulls (Larus delawarensis, L. pipixcan) were found to possess a haemagglutinin (HA) antigen distinct from those of the twelve previously designated haemagglutinin subtypes of influenza A virus. Serological assays with antisera to reference strains representing the HA subtypes 1-12 and to a gull isolate, A/gull/Maryland/704/77, showed that the haemagglutinin of the gull virus was not related antigenically to the previously designated subtypes. In addition, comparison of the nucleotide sequences, and deduced amino acid sequences, of the 3? region of the RNA genes coding for haemagglutinin indicated that the gull viruses represent a genetically distinct group. We propose that this new HA antigen, which has so far been detected only in gulls, be designated H13 and that A/gull/Maryland/704/77 (H13N6) be designated the reference strain for this subtype. PMID:6194911

Hinshaw, V. S.; Air, G. M.; Schild, G. C.; Newman, R. W.

1983-01-01

153

Characterization of a novel haemagglutinin subtype (H13) of influenza A viruses from gulls.  

PubMed

Influenza A virus strains isolated in the United States of America from ring-billed and Franklin gulls (Larus delawarensis, L. pipixcan) were found to possess a haemagglutinin (HA) antigen distinct from those of the twelve previously designated haemagglutinin subtypes of influenza A virus. Serological assays with antisera to reference strains representing the HA subtypes 1-12 and to a gull isolate, A/gull/Maryland/704/77, showed that the haemagglutinin of the gull virus was not related antigenically to the previously designated subtypes. In addition, comparison of the nucleotide sequences, and deduced amino acid sequences, of the 3' region of the RNA genes coding for haemagglutinin indicated that the gull viruses represent a genetically distinct group. We propose that this new HA antigen, which has so far been detected only in gulls, be designated H13 and that A/gull/Maryland/704/77 (H13N6) be designated the reference strain for this subtype. PMID:6194911

Hinshaw, V S; Air, G M; Schild, G C; Newman, R W

1983-01-01

154

Flatfish selection by herring gulls Larus argentatus and lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus scavenging at commercial beamtrawlers in the southern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flatfish selection by scavenging herring gulls and lesser black-backed gulls was studied onboard a commercial beamtrawler in the southern North Sea, June2 -August 1993. Dab (median total length 18 cm), plaice (23 cm), sole (22 cm) and solenette (10 cm) dominated the flatfish discard fraction of the catch. The overall consumption amounted to 30.5% of the discarded flatfish. Flatfish were selected on the basis of fish width rather than length or species, with very low consumption rates (percentage consumed of number offered) of flatfish >8 cm width. All discarded solenette, 98% of all sole and 92% of all dab were of suitable size for these gulls, whereas only 12% of all discarded plaice were small enough to be consumed. Consumption rates of discarded flatfish of 'suitable size' for herring gulls and lesser black-backed gulls (<8 cm width) ranged from 25.9% (plaice) to 40.5% (dab). Success indices and selected size classes of flatfish in scavenging herring gulls and lesser black-backed gulls feeding on flatfish were similar, but the first were more efficient than the latter and lost fewer flatfish as a consequence of kleptoparasitism. In contrast to earlier suggestions (based on dietary studies in colonies), there was no evidence that herring gulls were outcompeted by lesser black-backed gulls when feeding on discarded fish.

Camphuysen, C. J.(Kees)

155

[Morpho-functional changes of cloacal bursa of the herring gull in experimental infection with gull tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, the quantitative changes in the cells of the cloacal bursa of herring gull (Larus argentatus mongolicus) chicks were studied during experimental infection with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum. The area of the follicles within the bursa and the number of eosinophils in the infected chicks were found to increase. In the follicles the number of blast cells and large lymphocytes was elevated. The reduction of small lymphocytes and plasma cells numbers in the infected gulls may be due to a slower cell cycle or cell migration into the inflammatory focus. Overall, the changes in the bursa indicate the suppression of the B-link of the host immune system in tapeworm invasion. PMID:22724332

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2012-01-01

156

Stratigraphic Heterogeneity of a Holocene Ooid Tidal Sand Shoal: Lily Bank, Bahamas  

E-print Network

, but heterogeneous type of carbonate deposit. Whereas the processes influencing the deposition of ooid shoals are well examined and understood, the means by which distinct processes are recorded in the rock record are less constrained. The purpose of this thesis...

Sparks, Andrew

2011-08-31

157

Shoaling of internal solitary waves at the ASIAEX site in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates westward propagating internal bores and solitary waves trains which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the South China Sea. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of this shoaling process at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process to the stratification and the underlying bathymetry, and to explore the influence of rotation. A range of wave amplitudes are considered. Comparisons with adiabatic shoaling waves are also made and the potential impact of a non-slip boundary condition are briefly explored. On the slope secondary solitary waves and mode-two wave packets are generated which propagate towards the shelf. Comparisons with observations made during the ASIAEX experiment are made.

Lamb, K. G.; Warn-Varnas, A.

2014-07-01

158

Geologic Framework and Morphology of Diamond Shoals, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carolina Capes (Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain) along the eastern coast of the U.S. are dynamic regions that exert strong influences on large scale coastal evolution, sediment transport, and circulation. Projecting offshore of each Carolina Cape is an active depositional sedimentary feature referred to as a ‘cape-associated shoal’. These shoals have lobate ridges and swales, and typically extend from just seaward of the subaerial cape tip across the inner shelf towards the shelf break. Here we describe results from geophysical surveys of the cape-associated shoal known as Diamond Shoals off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The study area includes approximately 330 km2 and extends from ~400 m seaward of the shoreline comprising the cape tip to 20 km offshore where the shoal terminates in approximately 40 m water depth. Geophysical surveys used sidescan sonar; single-beam and interferometric swath bathymetry; and 3.5 kHz, CHIRP, boomer, and water gun subbottom profiling systems. The main body of the shoal consists of a 7 km2 triangular central platform that extends 8 km SE from the cape tip. The top of the platform is at a depth of 2-5 m and mantled by symmetrical sand waves with crest directions that trend NW-SE. The sand waves have a wavelength of ~300 m, and amplitudes up to 4 m. The central platform is bounded by two large lobate ridges and swales in water depths of 10-20 m. The ridges are ~5 m high, 1.5 km wide, and are more pronounced on the northern side of the shoal. The ridges on the northern side of the shoal are covered by coarse sediment that appears to result from winnowing by currents. Sand waves similar to those on the central platform are superimposed on the ridges, but are asymmetrical and indicate northeastward-directed net sediment transport. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic data suggests that Diamond Shoals consists of unconsolidated Holocene sediment up to 8 m thick overlying a transgressive unconformity. The unconformity has variable relief, up to several meters higher than the adjacent continental shelf, indicating that the position of the shoal may be controlled by the underlying geologic framework. This control could be manifest in a number of ways, such as through bathymetric relief and corresponding flow-sediment interactions, or via sediment source characteristics. Information about the shallow geology and surficial morphology of Diamond Shoals is being integrated into models of coastal dynamics that should strengthen our understanding of the linkage between geologic framework and physical processes, and improve predictions of coastal change at time scales from storm events to millennia.

Thieler, E. R.; Foster, D. S.; Himmelstoss, E. A.

2010-12-01

159

The cost of reproduction in the glaucous-winged gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental enlargement of brood size in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) resulted in increased adult foraging time, decreased adult body weight at the end of the breeding season, and decreased over-winter adult survival. The decreased survival of breeding adults was associated with reduced body condition at the end of breeding (resulting from physiological costs of reproduction). Decreased survival was not

W. V. Reid

1987-01-01

160

The herring gull complex is not a ring species.  

PubMed Central

Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America. PMID:15255043

Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J.

2004-01-01

161

The Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus, in Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) became a frequent visitor in Greenland in the mid-1980s. Breeding was confirmed in 1990, and today the species is a common breeder in at least two areas in Southwest Greenland between 60? and 66? N. The current breeding population is estimated at more than 700 pairs. Even though the colonization of Greenland by this

D. BOERTMANN

162

The herring gull complex is not a ring species.  

PubMed

Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America. PMID:15255043

Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J

2004-05-01

163

COMPLEX INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CLAPPER RAILS AND LAUGHING GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEN two species nest in the same habitat it is of interest to study their interactions, since ecological competition, predator-prey relationships and simple propinquity may lead to interspecific aggression. Clapper Rails (RaZZus Zongirostris) nest within a large colony of Laughing Gulls (Lams atricilh) in coastal Spartina marshes of the Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge north of Atlantic City, New Jersey. In

AMELIA SEGRI; JACK P. HAILMAN; C. G. BEER

164

POTENTIAL FOR GULLS TO TRANSPORT BACTERIA FROM HUMAN WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed as a first step in assessing whether gulls visiting human waste sites can acquire human microorganisms and distribute them across the coastal landscape. Beaches, landfills, and a lagoon of treated wastewater located in a coastal Lake Michigan county were t...

165

IDENTIFICATION AND MOLT OF HYBRID GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

unpublished data), with the Herring (L. argentatus srnithsonianus) in southern Alaska (Williamson and Peyton 1963, Patten and Weisbrod 1974), and with the Glaucous (L. hyperboreus) in western Alaska (Strang 1977). Probably nowhere else in the world do hybrids constitute such a large proportion of the total gull population as along the west coast of North America. Consequently, birders in this

JON R. KING; STEVE N. G. HOWELL; Shoreline Highway

1998-01-01

166

Immune Function and Organochlorine Pollutants in Arctic Breeding Glaucous Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000

J. O. Bustnes; S. A. Hanssen; I. Folstad; K. E. Erikstad; D. Hasselquist; J. U. Skaare

2004-01-01

167

Jamaica Bay studies III: Abiotic determinants of distribution and abundance of gulls ( Larus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and abundance of gulls were examined at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (New York) from 31 May 1978 to 31 May 1979. Gulls were found to be affected by tidal, temporal and weather-related factors. The distribution of gulls was affected primarily by tidal factors on the bay, and by temporal (seasonal, circadian) and weather-related factors on the freshwater ponds. The most important weather-related factors were temperature, wind velocity and wind direction. Herring ( L. argentatus), great black-backed ( L. fuscus) and ring-billed gulls ( L. delawarensis) fed on the bay at low tides, and used the ponds at high tide. Laughing gulls ( L. atricilla) fed on the bay at low tide and on rising tides. Herring and great black-backed gulls were present all year, but were most abundant in the winter, ring-billed gulls were abundant in spring and early fall, and laughing gulls were present in the summer following the breeding season but were absent in winter. Gulls used the ponds during high velocity, north winds, when they usually rested or preened. Multiple regression models were used to determine the factors explaining the variability in the numbers of gulls. Temporal variables were important contributors to accounting for the variability in the numbers of great black-backed and herring gulls only; tidal variables were significant for great black-backed and herring gulls on the bay, and for ring-billed and laughing gulls on all areas; and weather variables were significant for all species.

Burger, Joanna

1983-02-01

168

Seasonal Timing of Bald Eagle Attendance and Influence on Activity Budgets of Glaucous-winged Gulls in Barkley Sound, British Columbia  

E-print Network

(Haliaeetus leucocephalus) actively prey on Glaucous-winged Gulls and their offspring (Larus glaucescens-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) in colonies. While predation of adults by Bald Eagles certainly impacts gull

169

Spatial patterns and rankings of contaminant concentrations in Herring Gull eggs from 15 sites in the Great Lakes and connecting channels, 1998-2002.  

PubMed

Mean values of eight contaminants in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs were calculated for 15 Great Lakes sites for the 5 year period 1998-2002. The sites were ranked according to the concentrations of each of seven compounds relative to fish flesh criteria for the protection of piscivorous wildlife, and a single overall rank of contamination was calculated for each site. Based on this weighted ranking scheme, we found that sum PCBs, dioxin and DDE contributed the most (60.2, 30.5% and 8.5%, respectively) to the overall rankings. The weighted ranking scheme showed that eggs from Channel-Shelter Island (Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron), Strachan Island (St. Lawrence River) and Gull Island (northern Lake Michigan) ranked as the three most contaminated sites, while Agawa Rocks (eastern Lake Superior), Chantry Island (southern Lake Huron) and Port Colborne (eastern Lake Erie) ranked as the three least contaminated sites. Two of the three most contaminated sites are Areas of Concern; none of the three least contaminated sites are Areas of Concern. PMID:16491432

Weseloh, D V Chip; Pekarik, Cynthia; De Solla, Shane R

2006-02-01

170

Factors controlling navigation-channel Shoaling in Laguna Madre, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.

Morton, R. A.; Nava, R. C.; Arhelger, M.

2001-01-01

171

Comparison of Gull Feces-Specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Genes of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

PubMed Central

Two novel gull-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR green assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (gull3) and a hydrolysis TaqMan assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (gull4). The objectives of this study were to compare the host specificity of a previous C. marimammalium qPCR assay (gull2) with that of the new markers and to examine the presence of the three gull markers in environmental water samples from different geographic locations. Most of the gull fecal samples tested (n = 255) generated positive signals with the gull2 and gull4 assays (i.e., >86%), whereas only 28% were positive with gull3. Low prevalence and abundance of tested gull markers (0.6 to 15%) were observed in fecal samples from six nonavian species (n = 180 fecal samples), whereas the assays cross-reacted to some extent (13 to 31%) with other (nongull) avian fecal samples. The gull3 assay was positive against fecal samples from 11 of 15 avian species, including gull. Of the presumed gull-impacted water samples (n = 349), 86%, 59%, and 91% were positive with the gull2, the gull3, and the gull4 assays, respectively. Approximately 5% of 239 non-gull-impacted water samples were positive with the gull2 and the gull4 assays, whereas 21% were positive witg the gull3 assay. While the relatively high occurrence of gull2 and gull4 markers in waters impacted by gull feces suggests that these assays could be used in environmental monitoring studies, the data also suggest that multiple avian-specific assays will be needed to accurately assess the contribution of different avian sources in recreational waters. PMID:22226950

Ryu, Hodon; Griffith, John F.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Hill, Stephen; Edge, Thomas A.; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel

2012-01-01

172

Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses.  

PubMed

In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven pairs (31.4%) drove foreign chicks from the territory. To test if the frequent adoptions in these colonies could be explained by kin selection or the occurrence of kin groups, we calculated band-sharing coefficients and genetic relatedness (r) between interacting birds (neighbours and non-neighbours). Adults that adopted were most often neighbours of the biological parents of adopted chicks, whereas spatially segregated birds, nesting further away, usually drove off the chicks. Band-sharing coefficients between males, but not females, were higher with decreasing internest distances. The band-sharing coefficients for adopted chicks and foster parents were significantly higher than for adopted chicks and randomly selected, spatially segregated pairs from the same and another colony. Band-sharing coefficients of adopted chicks and adopting neighbours (males: r=0.20; females: r=0.16) also tended to be higher than those of rejected chicks and rejecting neighbours (both sexes: r=0.08). Our results suggest that kin groups of neighbours do occur in common gull colonies. Such social structure might lead to indirect inclusive fitness benefits of adopting pairs. Differences in genetic similarity between chicks and adopting or rejecting neighbours show that at least in common gulls we should consider kin altruism as a factor in adoptions. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675251

Bukaciński; Bukacińska; Lubjuhn

2000-02-01

173

Antigenic and genetic characterization of a novel hemagglutinin subtype of influenza A viruses from gulls.  

PubMed Central

Influenza A virus isolates from ring-billed, Franklin, blackback, and herring gulls in the United States possess a hemagglutinin (HA) distinct from the 12 reference HA subtypes. Serological assays (hemagglutination inhibition and double-immunodiffusion) with specific antisera to reference strains and to a representative gull isolate showed that the HA of the gull virus was not antigenically related to that of any known subtype. The gull virus did not replicate in ducks or chickens but did replicate in ferrets. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences (and deduced amino acid sequences) of the 3' 20% of the HA genes of these viruses indicates that the gull viruses represent a genetically distinct group. We propose that this HA, which has been detected only in gull isolates thus far, be called the H13 subtype. PMID:7097861

Hinshaw, V S; Air, G M; Gibbs, A J; Graves, L; Prescott, B; Karunakaran, D

1982-01-01

174

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from Norway.  

PubMed

Herring gull eggs from two locations in Norway, an island situated in the north (Musvær, 69.88° N, 18.55° E) and an island in the southeast (Reiaren, 59.15° N, 10.46° E) of the country, were analyzed for the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. AhR agonist activity was determined using the dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay to calculate the toxic equivalent quotient (TEQ)CALUX. TEQCALUX ranged from 16 to 401 pg TEQ/g lipid in the samples from the north (n = 11) and between 6 and 360 pg TEQ/g lipid (n = 12) in the southeastern samples. The large variance between the individual samples is postulated to be due to different feeding habits of individual birds. The levels of AhR agonists detected might lead to adverse effects for the developing embryo or to a significant increase of contaminant load for human consumers of eggs. PMID:24754391

Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Thomas, Kevin V

2014-01-01

175

Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra) on herring gull (Larus argentatus) reproduction.  

PubMed

Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168

DeFisher, Luke E; Bonter, David N

2013-01-01

176

DNA fingerprinting reveals elevated mutation rates in herring gulls inhabiting a genotoxically contaminated site  

SciTech Connect

The authors used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting to examine families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a genotoxically contaminated site (Hamilton Harbour) and from a pristine location (Kent Island, Bay of Fundy) to show significant differences in mutation rates between the locations. Overall the authors identified 17 mutant bands from 15 individuals of the 35 examined from Hamilton Harbour, and 7 mutant fragments from 7 individuals, of the 43 examined from Kent Island; a mutation frequency of 0.429 per nestling for Hamilton Harbour and 0.163 for Kent Island. The total number of individuals with mutant bands was significantly higher at Hamilton Harbour than at Kent Island (X{sup 2}=6.734; df = 1; P < 0.01). Ongoing analysis of other less contaminated sites also reveals lower mutation rates than those seen in Hamilton Harbour. With multi-locus DNA fingerprinting many regions of the genome can be surveyed simultaneously. The tandemly repeated arrays of nucleotides examined with DNA fingerprinting are known to have elevated rates of mutation. Furthermore, the mutations seen with DNA fingerprinting are predominantly heritable. Other biomarkers currently used in situ are not able to monitor direct and heritable DNA mutation, or measure biological endpoints that frequently result in spontaneous abortion creating difficulty in observing significantly elevated levels in viable offspring. The authors suggest that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be used as a biomarker to identify potentially heritable risks before the onset of other types of ecological damage. This approach provides a direct measure of mutation in situ and in vivo in a vertebrate species under ambient conditions.

Yauk, C.L.; Quinn, J.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1995-12-31

177

Genetic Affinities Within the Herring Gull Larus argentatus Assemblage Revealed by AFLP Genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   To date, the taxonomic status of circumpolar breeding populations of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus, and the closely related Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans has been based on differences or similarities in phenotype, morphology, and feeding and premating behavior. To shed some\\u000a new light on the many taxonomic uncertainties surrounding these taxa, we describe

Peter de Knijff; Frank Denkers; Norman D. van Swelm; Martin Kuiper

2001-01-01

178

Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to reduce nest predators, especially gulls and foxes, likely will have the greatest immediate benefit for island breeding black ducks.

Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

2002-01-01

179

[Experimental infection caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus in common gull (Larus canus)].  

PubMed

The influenza A/common gull/Chany/P/2006 (HSN1) virus strain Isolated from a clinically healthy common gull (Larus canus) caused no death of Its natural host (a common gull). The virus was shown to be capable for effective replication in the tissues of the lung, spleen, and upper respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosal cells of the common gull with further environmental virus liberation elimination along with mucinous discharges from the cloaca and fauces for 2 weeks. The potential role of this bird species in the circulation of influenza virus is discussed. PMID:23248859

Za?kovskaia, A V; Sharshov, K A; Sherstkov, E A; Iurlov, A K; Shestopalov, A M

2012-01-01

180

Genetic affinities within the herring gull Larus argentatus assemblage revealed by AFLP genotyping.  

PubMed

To date, the taxonomic status of circumpolar breeding populations of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus, and the closely related Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans has been based on differences or similarities in phenotype, morphology, and feeding and premating behavior. To shed some new light on the many taxonomic uncertainties surrounding these taxa, we describe the results of a large DNA study based on comparing the distribution of 209 biallelic markers among 109 gulls, representing 11 gull taxa of the Herring Gull assemblage and the Common Gull Larus canus. A detailed phylogenetic analysis failed to show clustering of individuals into groups representing either geographic origin or phenotype. Alternatively, birds were grouped into taxa defined on the basis of phenotype and geographic origin or phenotype alone. Genetic analyses revealed significantly different genetic distances between all pairs of taxa. However, based on these genetic distances, again no consistent phylogenetic tree could be constructed. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that about 77% of the total genetic variability among these gulls could be explained by within-taxon differences. Only 23% of the total genetic variability was due to genetic differences between taxa, irrespective of their species or subspecies status. Although this seems to challenge the current taxonomic treatment of the herring gull assemblage, our results are too premature and too incomplete to recommend a drastic change. PMID:11139298

de Knijff P; Denkers, F; van Swelm, N D; Kuiper, M

2001-01-01

181

[Seasonal dynamics of the trematodes fauna in herring gull (Larus argentatus Pontopp.) of Kola Bay].  

PubMed

Trematode fauna of the herring gulls from Kola Bay (Barents Sea) was investigated in March, May, June, and September 2005. The data on the trematode species composition and indices of the invasion of gulls with trematodes are given for each season. It was established, that trematode species composition is increased from spring to summer, and intensity of the gulls' invasion with some trematode species is increased from summer to autumn. Ecological factors causing seasonal differences of the trematode fauna in gulls are discussed. PMID:21061591

Kuklin, V V; Kuklina, M M; Kisova, N E

2010-01-01

182

European H16N3 Gull Influenza Virus Attaches to the Human Respiratory Tract and Eye  

PubMed Central

We explored the attachment of an H16N3 influenza virus to human, mallard, and gull tissues using virus histochemistry applied to tissue microarrays and employing human and mallard viruses as references. Of the viruses tested, the H16N3 gull virus most readily attached to the human respiratory tract and eye. These results underscore the need to assess the potential for gull influenza viruses to replicate in human tissues and further investigate the role of gulls in influenza virus ecology. PMID:23593303

Lindskog, Cecilia; Ellstrom, Patrik; Olsen, Bjorn; Ponten, Fredrik; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel; Kuiken, Thijs; Jourdain, Elsa

2013-01-01

183

Seasonal movements, migration, and range sizes of subadult and adult Bamforth Lake California Gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated seasonal migration patterns of three age classes of California Gulls (Larus californicus). Using band recovery data and reported sightings of patagially marked gulls, we constructed location maps for fledglings, one to two-year-old gulls, and breeding-age adult gulls during five time periods: spring migration, breeding season, early and late fall migration, and winter. Using repeated observations, we also produced a location map with directional vector plots. Gulls followed a triangular pattern of movements. At the conclusion of breeding, gulls migrated west and northwest to the Pacific coast, distributing themselves mainly between San Francisco and British Columbia. During winter, gulls moved south along the Pacific coast and by spring were concentrated in southern California and northern Mexico. The range size was largest among fledgings which provided the northernmost and southernmost observations for the population. Few subadult gulls migrated to the breeding colony. During the breeding season, a substantial portion of breeding-aged adults remained on the Pacific coast and throughout the intermountain west but were not observed at other California gull colonies. While fledgings moved directly toward the Pacific coast at the end of the breeding season, many adults lingered near the colony site at aquatic habitats south of the colony. We suggest that adults remain longer in the area to feed and to rejuvenate before attempting migration.

Pugesek, B.H.; Diem, K.L.; Cordes, C.L.

1999-01-01

184

Use of a nesting platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 Gull-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen islands, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.

Molina, K.C.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Schoneman, C.

2009-01-01

185

Sleeping gulls monitor the vigilance behaviour of their neighbours  

PubMed Central

Individuals in groups are often thought to scan their surroundings for threats independently of one another. Models, however, suggest that foragers should monitor the vigilance level of their neighbours to prevent cheating, and to gather information about incipient predation risk. Evidence for monitoring of vigilance is scant. Here, I examined changes in vigilance levels in sleeping gulls (Larus sp.) surrounded by neighbours in various states of alertness. Controlling for group size and neighbour density, gulls interrupted sleep more often to scan their surroundings, and were therefore more vigilant, when their neighbours were alert rather than sleeping or preening. The results provide evidence for copying of vigilance within groups of birds, suggesting a complex flow of information about predation risk in groups. PMID:18940772

Beauchamp, Guy

2008-01-01

186

Methyl anthranilate formulations repel gulls and mallards from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two formulations of methyl anthranilate (MA), one (ReJex-iT™ TP-40 [TP-40]) containing a surfactant, the other (ReJex-iT™ AP-50 [AP-50]) a miscible, free-flowing powder, effectively repelled captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from pools of water in pen tests, and\\/or free-ranging gulls (Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) from pools of water in field trials for 4–11 days. With one exception, pool entries and bill

Jerrold L. Belant; Steven W. Gabrey; Richard A. Dolbeer; Thomas W. Seamans

1995-01-01

187

Nocturnal behavior of gulls in coastal New Jersey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the behavior of gulls at night with an image intensifier telescope to determine whether they were active at night,\\u000a and the extent of their foraging in coastal habitats of New Jersey in the summer, fall, and winter of 1989–1990. Regression\\u000a models and Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that date, time of day, tide, cloud cover, moon phase, and study location

Joanna Burger; Kevin J. Staine

1993-01-01

188

Is asynchronous hatching adaptive in herring gulls ( Larus argentatus )?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatching asynchrony commonly induces a size hierarchy among siblings and the resultant competition for food between siblings\\u000a can often lead to starvation of the smallest chicks within a brood. We created herring gull (Larus argentatus) broods with varying degrees of hatching synchrony by manipulating the timing of incubation while maintaining the originally\\u000a laid eggs. The degree of hatching asynchrony affected

Lars Hillström; Mikael Kilpi; Kai Lindström

2000-01-01

189

Immune function and organochlorine pollutants in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls.  

PubMed

Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are known to affect the immune systems of wildlife, and in this study we assessed the relationship between blood concentration of different OCs and measurements relevant to immune status and function in arctic breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). In 1997 and 2001, we counted white blood cells (heterophils and lymphocytes) from blood smears, and in 2000 and 2001 we injected two novel nonpathogenic antigens (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids) into the pectoral muscle of gulls and measured the primary antibody responses. We then related these measurements to the blood concentrations of three pesticides (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], oxychlordane, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and seven different polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB 101, 99, 118, 153, 138, 180, and 170). There were significant or near significant positive relationships (0.1 > p > 0.001) between most persistent OCs and the levels of heterophils in the blood for both sexes in 1997 and for male gulls in 2001. Similarly, levels of all persistent OCs and lymphocytes were positively related (0.1 > p > 0.001) in both sexes in 1997. This suggests that OCs are causing alterations to immune systems, which may decrease their efficiency and make the birds more susceptible to parasites and diseases. In female gulls, the antibody response to the diphtheria toxoid was significant and negative for HCB (p < 0.01) and weaker, but significant, for oxychlordane (p < 0.05), suggesting that OCs were causing an impairment of the humoral immunity. Various OCs have been linked to negative effects in our study population, including decreased survival and reproduction, and this study suggests that such compounds also affect immune status and function. PMID:15499504

Bustnes, J O; Hanssen, S A; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E; Hasselquist, D; Skaare, J U

2004-11-01

190

Reproductive success of herring gulls breeding on Lake Superior  

SciTech Connect

Herring gulls breed in the vicinity of three pulp mills located on the north shore of Lake Superior. The impacts of exposure to effluents produced by these mills on various aspects of the reproductive biology of this species have been monitored since 1992. Reproductive success at these sites has been either zero or below the level necessary to maintain a stable population. Levels of dioxins and furans in the eggs and tissues of herring gulls did not show any consistent trends between the exposed and control sites and were generally low. Additionally, TCDD TEQs calculated for the same colonies, with the inclusion of several non ortho-substituted PCBs, were well below levels thought to result in reproductive impairment of herring gulls. However, plasma and liver concentrations of retinol were depressed and variable at several colonies, indicating potential diet differences between the study sites. Further determination of food types consumed at the control and exposed sites revealed that fish, the traditional diet of this species, was a small or insignificant component of the diet. Food type was also correlated with contaminant burden and reproductive output. Previously collected data as well as current results will be discussed.

Shutt, J.L. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1994-12-31

191

Ionic alkylleads in herring gulls from the Great Lakes region  

SciTech Connect

Herring gull (Larus argentatus) tissues, collected from various breeding colonies in the Great Lakes, were examined to determine alkyllead levels and possible alkyllead sources into the Great Lakes region. Ionic trialkyl- and dialkyllead species (R/sub 3/Pb/sup +/, R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/; R = Me, Et) were quantitated by gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometry. The extraction procedure was tested at trace levels (3-4 ppb as Pb) with four domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues. Trimethyllead was found in two avian species and all examined tissues. Methyllead levels frequently exceeded ethyllead levels with no direct automotive source. Correlation between alkyllead levels in herring gull tissue and lake sediment lead levels suggests possible methylation but not ethylation of inorganic lead. The methyllead concentration trend in gull tissues. Lake Ontario > Lake Huron approx. = Lake Erie > Lake Superior, was opposite to the ethyllead concentration trend, Lake Superior > Lake Huron > Lake Erie approx. = Lake Ontario. 40 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Forsyth, D.S.; Marshall, W.D.

1986-10-01

192

Genotoxicity in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland.  

PubMed

Adult and young herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland were investigated with respect to DNA adducts, analysed with the nuclease-P1 version of the (32)P-postlabelling method, and micronucleated erythrocytes. Three important aims were: (1) to estimate the degree of exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area and Iceland, (2) to evaluate the utility of the investigated biomarkers in birds, and (3) to investigate if there was any relationship between genotoxic effects and thiamine deficiency. The results demonstrate that both Swedish and Icelandic herring gulls are exposed to genotoxic pollution. Urban specimens have higher levels of DNA adducts than rural specimens, but background exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants, such as PAHs, is also significant. In the herring gull the general level of DNA adducts in the liver seems to be higher than in fish. DNA adducts were most abundant in the liver, followed by the kidney, intestinal mucosa, and whole blood, in decreasing order. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was probably slightly elevated in all the investigated sites, reflecting a significant background exposure. The level of DNA adducts was unrelated to the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, and both these variables were unrelated to symptoms of thiamine deficiency. The investigation confirmed the utility of DNA adducts, and probably also micronucleated erythrocytes, as biomarkers of genotoxicity in birds. PMID:20643223

Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Hansson, Tomas; Hägerroth, Per-Ake; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Akerman, Gun; Barsiene, Janina; Balk, Lennart

2010-09-30

193

Estimate of removal rate of Nereis virens (Polychaeta: Nereidae) from an intertidal mudflat by gulls ( Larus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), ringed-billed gulls (L. delawarensis) and great blackbacked gulls (L. marinus) on an intertidal mudflat in Maine, USA, was investigated. Remains of fish, mussels, crabs, insects, and the polychaeteNereis virens were recovered from gull feces. Forty-three percent of the fecal samples containedN. virens jaws, setae, or both. A comparison of jaws from fecal

W. G. Ambrose

1986-01-01

194

Newly discovered methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes have been contaminants in the Great Lakes herring gull eggs for thirty years.  

PubMed

We recently reported the discovery and identification of novel methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes (MeO-PBDPBs) in herring gulls eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. We presently investigated the temporal changes (1982-2010) in MeO-PBDPB concentrations and congener patterns, as well as chemical tracers of diet (ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes), in egg pool homogenates from five selected colony sites across the Great Lakes. Egg pool homogenates from the Channel-Shelter (C-S) Island (Lake Huron) contained ?MeO-PBDPB concentrations orders of magnitude greater than those from other colonies, suggesting potential point contamination sources nearby. In the C-S Island egg pools, concentrations increased from the initial study year (31 ng/g wet weight) and peaked around the late 1990s, followed by a general decline until 2010. Over the period, concentrations generally increased in eggs from Fighting Island (Lake Erie), Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario) and Big Sister Island (Lake Michigan) colonies, whereas the levels in Agawa Rock (Lake Superior) declined. Although other factors likely exist, changes over time in the carbon and nitrogen isotope tracers reflected a shift of the gull diet from aquatic to more terrestrial origins, and suggested this diet shift partially accounted for the temporal changes of ?MeO-PBDPB levels in eggs from most colonies. The ratio of Br(6)- to Br(5)-MeO-PBDPB congeners generally decreased over time in the colonies at Channel-Shelter Island, Fighting Island and Agawa Rock. This suggested that Br(5)- versus Br(6)-MeO-PBDPB congeners and/or possibly their nonmethoxylated and higher brominated precursors may have been more abundant in diets of terrestrial origin. Notably, these MeO-PBDPB congeners are not "emerging" brominated substances, but rather "recently discovered" contaminants since, as of 2011, ?MeO-PBDPB concentrations have been constantly in the range of 30-100 ng/g ww for at least the last 30 years. PMID:22889009

Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Chu, Shaogang; McCrindle, Robert

2012-09-01

195

[The reaction of the bursa and thymus eosinophils in the herring gull after the experimental infection with gull-tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, eosinophil topography, quantitative and qualitative changes (degranulation level of and a cationic protein content) were studied in the thymus and bursa of 36 herring gull nestlings Larus argentatus mongolicus (Suskin, 1925) 2 weeks after experimental infestation with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitsch, 1824). Eosinophils in the thymus were located in trabecules, mainly close to the blood vessels, thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles and also directly inside them, while in the bursa they were found within the internodular space. As compared with the control bird counts, relative eosinophil count in the birds with an average invasion intensity was increased 3.8 times in the thymus and 2.5 times in the bursa. In birds with high invasion intensity, these counts were increased 4 times in the thymus and 1.2 times in the bursa. PMID:21500430

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2010-01-01

196

Isolation of Salmonella spp. from dead gulls (Larus californicus and Larus delawarensis) from an Idaho irrigation reservoir.  

PubMed

An epizootic of unknown etiology resulting in the death of about 500 sea gulls (Larus californicus and Larus delawarensis) in 24 hr occurred on an irrigation reservoir in southwestern Idaho in April 1975. Salmonella spp. were isolated from necropsy specimens from 2 of 6 gulls examined. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal specimens or dead gulls collected at a nesting site. PMID:334150

Hall, R F; Waldhalm, D G; Meinershagen, W A; DuBose, D A

1977-01-01

197

Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull ( Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases due to the degeneration of the liver and various other internal organs were the major cause of the exceedingly high chick mortality in lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) in the central Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, during 1991–1993. The same symptoms were found in chicks of common gulls (Larus canus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the same

M Hario; K Himberg; T Hollmén; E Rudbäck

2000-01-01

198

Anatomy and Histochemistry of Spread-Wing Posture in Birds. 2. Gliding Flight in the California Gull, Larus californicus  

E-print Network

in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) (Gold- spink et al., '78) andAmerican kestrels (Falco sparverius) (Meyers Gull, Larus californicus: A Paradox of Fast Fibers and Posture RON A. MEYERS* AND EDWARD MATHIAS in gliding posture were examined in California gulls (Larus californicus) and tested for the presence of slow

Meyers, Ron

199

Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

200

Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus) displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their

Viviane Sternkopf; Dorit Liebers-Helbig; Markus S Ritz; Jun Zhang; Andreas J Helbig; Peter de Knijff

2010-01-01

201

Energy balance, wave shoaling and group celerity in Boussinesq-type wave propagation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the analysis of the linear shoaling performance of low order Boussinesq-type equations. Departing from the equation of the energy balance, a new velocity, vg, is obtained so that A?2vg is constant in space, being A? the wave height amplitude. The results are valid for a wide variety of low order Boussinesq-type equations. The new obtained velocity vg, which is in general different to the group celerity cg???/?k, allows a simple and analytical evaluation of the errors in linear shoaling, avoiding the numerical integration of the errors in the linear shoaling gradient. The general results are particularized for well known sets of Boussinesq-type equations.

Simarro, Gonzalo

2013-12-01

202

Hybridization of glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) in Iceland: mitochondrial and microsatellite data.  

PubMed

Large white-headed gulls provide an interesting group of birds for studies of hybridization. The group is composed of 20 species of recent origin, often with weak reproductive barriers. Here we report the results from a study on the glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, an Arctic species which has been breeding in Iceland for centuries, and the herring gull Larus argentatus which has a wide distribution in Europe but colonized Iceland in 1920s. Previous studies, based on morphological variation indicated hybridization between the two species in Iceland, have been questioned as it may just reflect variation within the species. Here we evaluate whether hybridization has occurred between the two species in Iceland by studying variation in microsatellites and mtDNA. The analysis is based on feathers taken from wings sampled in Iceland over a period of 40 years. The results are compared with samples obtained from East Greenland and published sequences of samples obtained throughout Europe. The genetic analysis reveals a distinctive grouping of the two species, although they present a shallow genealogy and an extensive sharing of the genetic variants between the two species. Several individuals show admixture for molecular markers, which may result from an incomplete lineage sorting although geographical patterns of both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellites strongly indicate a recent hybridization in Iceland. PMID:18508755

Vigfúsdóttir, Freydís; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Ingólfsson, Agnar

2008-09-12

203

Bacteroidales Diversity in Ring-Billed Gulls (Laurus delawarensis) Residing at Lake Michigan Beaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the occurrence and diversity of Bacteroidales fecal bacteria in gulls residing in the Great Lakes region. Members of this bacterial order have been widely employed as human and bovine host-specific markers of fecal pollution; however, few studies have focused on gulls, which can be a major source of fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens at beaches. We found

Sonja N. Jeter; Colleen M. McDermott; Patricia A. Bower; Julie L. Kinzelman; Melinda J. Bootsma; Giles W. Goetz; Sandra L. McLellan

2009-01-01

204

USE OF TIPS BY NESTING KELP GULLS AT A GROWING COLONY IN PATAGONIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the magnitude of use of waste tips by Kelp Gulls (Larus domini- canus) nesting at Isla de los Pajaros, a large and growing colony in Patagonia, Argentina, and we assessed the difference in use between tips with urban and fishery waste. We marked with color dye 1347 adult breeding Kelp Gulls to determine if they fed in urban

MARCELO BERTELLOTTI; PABLO YORIO; MARICEL GIACCARDI

205

Effect of blood removal and infusion on gull salt gland secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The effect of blood removal and addition on salt gland secretion was studied in freshwater and seawater acclimated gulls,Larus glaucescens.2.In contrast to published reports that blood removal decreased and blood infusion increased salt gland secretion in ducks, neither blood removal nor addition had an effect on concentration or volume of salt gland secretion in gulls.

Maryanne R. Hughes

1987-01-01

206

Simulating the Effects of Predation and Egg-harvest at a Gull Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an individual-based simulation model to explore the effects of harvesting eggs from a glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) colony that also experiences egg loss from avian predators. The model has direct application to Glacier Bay National Park, where resource managers are interested in the potential effects of traditional harvesting of gull eggs at colonies within the park. This model

Stephani Zador; John F. Piatt

207

CLAM DROPPING BEHAVIOR OF THE GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL (LARUS GLAUCESCENS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tinbergen (1961) and Oldham (1930) h ave reported that Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) commonly drop whelks (Baccinum undatum) and other hard-shelled molluscs in order to break them open, but that their selection of substrate appears to be random, with the birds as likely to drop potential food objects on soft surfaces (sand) as on hard (rocks). The European Gull (Lurus

DAVID P. BARASH; PATRICK DONOVAN; RINDA MYRICK

208

GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION, GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION AND HYBRIDIZATION IN GULLS OF THE LARUS GLA UCESCENS-OCCIDENTALIS COMPLEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survey of morphometric, calorimetric, and allozymic variation in the Glau- cous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), the Western Gull (L. occidentalis) and their hybrids is based on 706 specimens taken from 33 colony areas located throughout the breeding range of both species. Whereas most morphometric characters overlap between taxa, col- orimetric characters exhibited significant intraspecific and interspecific clinal variation. Ca- nonical discriminant

DOUGLAS A. BELLY

209

Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of gulls in the Larus cachinnans—fuscus group (Aves: Charadriiformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mitochondrial genetic differentiation among nine taxa of large gulls of the Larus cachinnans—fuscus group, which form part of the circumpolar Herring Gull complex. Our primary interest was to see if there were unrecognized gene flow barriers, to what extent mitochondrial genetic population structure conformed to current taxonomic boundaries, and what it might reveal about possible differences in population

D. LIEBERS; A. J. HELBIG; P. DE KNIJFF

2001-01-01

210

The origin of Lesser Black?backed Gulls Larus fuscus wintering in central Iberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and age of Lesser Black?backed Gulls Larus fuscus wintering inland on the Iberian Peninsula were mapped using sightings of colour?ringed birds. A total of 288 individuals were sighted over a 17 year period. The gulls originated from seven different countries, with the majority being ringed in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The most commonly resighted age group

Ismael Galván; Javier Marchamalo; Vidar Bakken; José M. Traverso

2003-01-01

211

Migration strategy of a flight generalist, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrating birds are believed to minimize the time spent on migration rather than energy. Birds seem to maximize migration speed in different ways as a noteworthy variation in migration strategies exists. We studied migration strategies of a flight mode and feeding generalist, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus, using GPS-based satellite telemetry. We expected the gulls to achieve very high

R. H. G. Klassen; B. J. Ens; J. Shamoun-Baranes; K. M. Exo; F. Bairlein

2012-01-01

212

What`s normal?: Body condition in Great Lakes herring gulls  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the usefulness of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. However, the effects of environmental contaminants on gulls are difficult to distinguish from the effects of other anthropogenic stressors such as the introduction of exotic species, overfishing and habitat loss. To understand the relative importance of these factors in regulating the success of individual gulls and, hence, gull populations, the authors must first have a better understanding of what constitutes a ``normal`` bird. Improving the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal birds is crucial in any health assessment of Great Lakes gulls. Body condition has been shown to be an important measure of a bird`s ability to provide energy for egg production, migration etc. Numerous approaches have been used to assess condition, most of which required that the bird be sacrificed. In this study, the authors describe a nonlethal technique to quantify body condition in herring gulls. Multivariate statistics are used to quantify body size, relate body size to total mass and from that, determine relative body condition. Initially, body condition is assessed in gulls from a reference colony where reproductive success is normal and anthropogenic influences are limited. This reference population is then used as a baseline against which other gull populations are compared.

Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1994-12-31

213

Age Differences in Metals in the Blood of Herring ( Larus argentatus ) and Franklin's ( Larus pipixcan ) Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Concentrations of heavy metals and selenium were measured in the blood of adult and young herring (Larus argentatus) and Franklin's (Larus pipixcan) gulls collected during the same breeding season in colonies in the New York Bight and in northwestern Minnesota, respectively.\\u000a Concentrations were expected to be higher in young herring gulls collected in an urban, industrialized area, compared to

J. Burger; M. Gochfeld

1997-01-01

214

Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull ( Larus argentatus) eggs, 1972–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled during 1972–1976, 1981–1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site

M. D. Koster; D. P. Ryckman; D. V. C. Weseloh; J. Struger

1996-01-01

215

ASSORTATIVE MATING WITHOUT COMPLETE REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION IN A ZONE OF RECENT SECONDARY CONTACT BETWEEN HERRING GULLS  

E-print Network

BETWEEN HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS) AND CASPIAN GULLS (L. CACHINNANS) Résumé.--La zone de contact secondaire entre Larus argentatus et L. cachinnans dans le centre de la Pologne se caractérise par des contact secondaire récent entre Larus argentatus et Larus cachinnans. GRZEGORZ NEUBAUER,1,8 M. MAGDALENA

216

Validation of Water Flux and Body Composition in Glaucous Gulls ( Larus hyperboreus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water influx rates (WIR) measured with tritiated water dilution were compared with direct measures of water and energy intake in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Total body water (TBW) measured isotopically was also compared with TBW deter- mined by body composition analysis (BCA) of the same birds. Seventeen wild gulls were captured and studied in outdoor

Scott A. Shaffer; Geir W. Gabrielsen; Jonathan Verreault; Daniel P. Costa

2006-01-01

217

Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

218

77 FR 43805 - Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record of Decision...Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport. DATES: Effective...and land uses in and around the John F. Kennedy International Airport. This action...

2012-07-26

219

Relationship between Egg Size and Post-hatching Chick Mortality in the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN many gull species, the third laid egg of the typical three egg clutch is distinctly smaller than the first two1,2. In the herring gull (Larus argentatus), the chick hatching from this third egg suffers a much higher mortality than either of its siblings3, although the hatching success is the same for all three eggs. In a series of egg

J. Parsons

1970-01-01

220

March 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site, Nevada (Data Validation Package)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2010. Wells HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled March 10-12, 2010, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-3, and HC-6 were sampled March 24, 2010, by Desert Research Institute personnel.

None

2011-03-01

221

Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

NONE

1996-08-01

222

Prolific Overton field gas reservoirs within large transverse oolite shoals, Upper Jurassic Haynesville, Eastern Margin East Texas basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Triassic rifting along a northeast-southwest spreading center in east Texas resulted in basement highs along the eastern margin of the East Texas basin that became sites of extensive ooid shoal deposition during Late Jurassic time. Reservoirs within oolite facies at Overton field contain over 1 tcf of natural gas. These large shoals, each approximately 15 mi (24 km) long

T. E. Covington; R. G. Lighty; W. M. Ahr

1985-01-01

223

Wetland birds of Hainan Island, China: results from winter waterbird surveys 2003-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four simultaneous winter waterbird surveys were conducted island-wide on Hainan island, China, between 2003 and 2007, during which a total of 83 species of wetland-associated birds were recorded at 57 coastal and freshwater wetlands. The most abundant species were egrets and herons, followed by shorebirds, gulls and terns, and ducks. A new wintering site for the globally Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill

LEE KWOK SHING; BOSCO PUI LOK

2007-01-01

224

Seabirds drive plant species turnover on small Mediterranean islands at the expense of native taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of long-term floristic changes was conducted on nine west-Mediterranean limestone islands (size range: 2–95 ha)\\u000a which have recently undergone a severe demographic explosion in their yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans colonies. A comparison of past and present plant inventories was used to quantify extinction-colonization events, both from\\u000a a classical biogeographical perspective (per island approach) and a metapopulational perspective (per

Eric Vidal; Frédéric Médail; Thierry Tatoni; Véronique Bonnet

2000-01-01

225

Molecular and epidemiological characterization of avian influenza viruses from gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Wild aquatic birds constitute the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Separate Eurasian and American AIV gene pools exist. Here, the prevalence and diversity of AIVs in gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway were described. The influence of host species and temporal changes on AIV prevalence was examined. Five AIVs from Norway, including three from common gull (Larus canus), were analyzed along with 10 available AIV genomes from gulls in Eurasia to search for evidence of intracontinental and intercontinental reassortment of gene segments encoding the internal viral proteins. Methods Swabs collected from 2417 dabbling ducks and gulls in the south-west of Norway during five ordinary hunting seasons (August-December) in the period 2005–2010 were analyzed for presence of AIV. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations between AIV prevalence, host species and sampling time. Five AIVs from mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (H3N8, H9N2) and common gull (H6N8, H13N2, H16N3) were full-length characterized and phylogenetically analyzed together with GenBank reference sequences. Results Low pathogenic AIVs were detected in 15.5% (CI: 14.1–17.0) of the samples. The overall AIV prevalence was lower in December compared to that found in August to November (p = 0.003). AIV was detected in 18.7% (CI: 16.8–20.6) of the dabbling ducks. A high AIV prevalence of 7.8% (CI; 5.9–10.0) was found in gulls. A similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence was found in both bird groups. Thirteen hemagglutinin and eight neuraminidase subtypes were detected. No evidence of intercontinental reassortment was found. Eurasian avian (non H13 and H16) PB2 or PA genes were identified in five reference Eurasian gull (H13 and H16) AIV genomes from GenBank. The NA gene from the Norwegian H13N2 gull isolate was of Eurasian avian origin. Conclusions The similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence found in dabbling ducks and gulls, the relatively high virus prevalence detected in gulls and the evidence of intracontinental reassortment in AIVs from gulls indicate that gulls that interact with dabbling ducks are likely to be mixing vessels for AIVs from waterfowl and gulls. Our results support that intercontinental reassortment is rare in AIVs from gulls in Eurasia. PMID:23575317

2013-01-01

226

Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf ???5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

Robinson, M.M.; McBride, R.A.

2008-01-01

227

Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

2008-01-01

228

FLUORIDE EXPOSURE AND SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF EGGS AND BONES OF THE HERRING GULL (LARUS ARGENTATUS) AND THE COMMON GULL (LARUS CANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shellof 285 herring gull eggs (Laru.s' argentatus) and 120 comnmon gull eggs (Larus canus), collectedMay 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies eXpd)se(l to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smiielters locatedatKarni#{248}y and Sunndai, amid from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume- index,shellthickness,thickness-index,and fertilization of the eggs also were monitore(l. In 1)0th

Turid Vikoren; Gudbrand Stuve

229

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

230

THE ARGO MERCHANT OIL SPILL AND THE SEDIMENTS OF NANTUCKET SHOALS: RESEARCH, LITIGATION AND LEGISLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On December 15, 1976, the tanker Argo Merchant ran around on Fishing Rip of Nantucket Shoals off the coast of Massachusetts. After several days of stormy weather she broke apart releasing her entire cargo of 28 X 10 to 3rd power metric tons of No. 6 fuel oil into the ocean. Feder...

231

Depth inversion for nonlinear waves shoaling over a barred-beach 1  

E-print Network

is predicted using properties of waves measured on the ocean surface. Such properties are typically obtained consist, in their raw form, in spatial and temporal variations of wave phases. Multiple phase diagramsDepth inversion for nonlinear waves shoaling over a barred-beach 1 St´ephan T. Grilli 2 , M. ASCE

Grilli, Stéphan T.

232

ADULT THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACKS PREFER TO SHOAL WITH FAMILIAR KIN  

E-print Network

C.M. BAKKER2) (Institut für Evolutionsbiologie und �kologie, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 1, 2004 Behaviour 141, 1401-1409 Also available online - #12;1402 FROMMEN & BAKKER individuals and thus- and out- side the breeding-season also occur in shoals (Bakker, 1994), theory predicts similar advantages

233

Molecular characterization of novel circoviruses from finch and gull.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to molecularly characterize circoviruses that infect finches and gulls. Circovirus-specific DNAs were isolated using polymerase chain reaction methods from bursa of Fabricius tissues from a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) and a herring gull (Larus argentatus) that were known to be circovirus-infected. Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of cloned genomic DNAs showed that these circoviruses represented novel members of the genus Circovirus of the family Circoviridae, and have been tentatively named Finch circovirus (FiCV) and Gull Circovirus (GuCV). Both new circoviruses shared genome organizational features with previously characterized circoviruses, such that both contained two major, inversely-arranged open reading frames encoding the putative replication-associated and capsid proteins, and both contained a potential stem-loop and nonanucleotide motif. Phylogenetic analyses based on genome nucleotide sequences and involving the seven additional genus members indicated that FiCV and GuCV were more closely related to canary circovirus, beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus, and that FiCV and canary circovirus were the most closely related avian circoviruses. Pairwise comparisons showed that the capsid proteins of FiCV and GuCV shared highest amino acid identity values with those of canary circovirus (62.0%) and pigeon circovirus (40.6%), respectively. The 5' intergenic region of GuCV was longer (207 nucleotides) and contained more direct and inverse repeated sequences than those of other circoviruses, while the 3' intergenic region of FiCV was notable in being longer (307 nucleotides) than its counterparts in other circoviruses and in containing two long repeats of 77 nucleotides. PMID:17364513

Todd, D; Scott, A N J; Fringuelli, E; Shivraprasad, H L; Gavier-Widen, D; Smyth, J A

2007-02-01

234

Herring gull eggs indicate stabilizing Great Lakes PCB concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The author evaluated the fit of 3 alternative models to herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg PCB concentration data from 1978--1992 to examine whether PCB levels were decreasing or had ceased to decline. The best fit models indicate that, following initial declines, no discernible PCB decreases are occurring in 4 of the 5 lakes. Only Lake Erie indicates a continued PCB decline, though the Erie data may be too noisy to differentiate model fits. These results are consistent with previous analyses indicating stable PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes and suggest that further improvements may be too slow to be of practical importance from a management perspective.

Stow, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Center for Limnology

1995-12-31

235

The distribution and conservation status of the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) has until recently received little conservation and management attention within North America despite a relatively low overall population size and significant declines in parts of the breeding range. This lack of attention may stem in part from the wide distribution of the species, encompassing parts of six continents, and from its tendency to nest in relatively small, scattered and often ephemeral colonies. Populations of North American subspecies are alarmingly small. The current population of the eastern subspecies aranea in the U.S. is unlikely to exceed 3,600 pairs, with over 60% of these birds occurring in Texas. The Texas population has remained generally stable, but declines of populations in Maryland (where probably extirpated), Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, and possibly Georgia give cause for concern for this subspecies. For the western subspecies vanrossemi, as few as 250 pairs nest at only two locations in the U.S., both in California. When populations in western Mexico are considered, the entire vanrossemi population numbers only 600-800 pairs. Currently the Gull-billed Tern is listed as ?endangered? or ?threatened? in four states, and is considered to be of management concern in five others. The breeding range of the species has contracted and shifted slightly from its known historic range in the middle Atlantic states, but otherwise occupies its historic range in the United States and has expanded slightly to coastal southern California. Some range contraction in Mexico (e.g., in Sonora) may have occurred. In eastern Mexico, historical information is almost non-existent and knowledge of current distribution and abundance is incomplete. Main threats to populations in North America include loss of natural nesting islands through beach erosion or perturbations to estuarine functions, development or modification of upland habitats near breeding areas that may be important for foraging, and disturbances to colonies by humans and feral or human-subsidized predators. This species often nests on man-made substrates suggesting it could be responsive to management of breeding sites. Key research needs include more frequent and refined population monitoring, a better understanding of demographics, metapopulation dynamics and factors limiting populations as well as refinement of subspecies? breeding distributions and wintering ranges.

Molina, K.C.; Erwin, R.M.

2006-01-01

236

Extensive Geographic Mosaicism in Avian Influenza Viruses from Gulls in the Northern Hemisphere  

PubMed Central

Due to limited interaction of migratory birds between Eurasia and America, two independent avian influenza virus (AIV) gene pools have evolved. There is evidence of low frequency reassortment between these regions, which has major implications in global AIV dynamics. Indeed, all currently circulating lineages of the PB1 and PA segments in North America are of Eurasian origin. Large-scale analyses of intercontinental reassortment have shown that viruses isolated from Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) are the major contributor of these outsider events. To clarify the role of gulls in AIV dynamics, specifically in movement of genes between geographic regions, we have sequenced six gull AIV isolated in Alaska and analyzed these along with 142 other available gull virus sequences. Basic investigations of host species and the locations and times of isolation reveal biases in the available sequence information. Despite these biases, our analyses reveal a high frequency of geographic reassortment in gull viruses isolated in America. This intercontinental gene mixing is not found in the viruses isolated from gulls in Eurasia. This study demonstrates that gulls are important as vectors for geographically reassorted viruses, particularly in America, and that more surveillance effort should be placed on this group of birds. PMID:21697989

Wille, Michelle; Robertson, Gregory J.; Whitney, Hugh; Bishop, Mary Anne; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Lang, Andrew S.

2011-01-01

237

Prevalence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis).  

PubMed

Cloacal swabs collected from 264 ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) at four sites near Montréal, Canada were cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. All birds were apparently healthy when captured or killed. Of all birds examined, 8.7%, 15.9% and 9.5%, respectively, were infected with Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Overall, 29.9% of gulls sampled harbored one or more of these bacteria. Gulls probably play only a minor role in the epizootiology of these bacteria. PMID:1474648

Quessy, S; Messier, S

1992-10-01

238

Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conclusions: This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable "triple reassortant internal gene" core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the need for continued surveillance in gull and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of gull species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI.

Hall, Jeffrey S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy; Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien; Ip, Hon S.

2013-01-01

239

Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

1998-01-01

240

Mercury concentration in 3 species of Gulls, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, from south coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, the mercury concentrations of liver, breast feathers and tail feathers in three species of Gull; Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), Common Gull (Larus canus) and Little Gull (Larus minutus) from the South coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran were assayed. Mercury accumulation in liver, breast feathers and tail feathers of species were 1.69-3.16, 2.88-7.18 and 2.09-5.66 mg/kg, respectively. Mercury concentration hierarchy in tissues we tested was as follows: breast feather > tail feather > and liver. We found that despite its small size, Little Gull had highest (3.85-8.05 mg/kg) and Common Gull lowest (1.69-2.88 mg/kg) level of Hg in their bodies. An inverse relationship between body size and Hg levels in these Gulls was detected. Mercury in Little Gull and Black-headed Gull exceeded the 5 ppm threshold for adverse effect. PMID:20424818

Rajaei, Fateme; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

2010-06-01

241

Circulation of a Meaban-like virus in yellow-legged gulls and seabird ticks in the western Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

In recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. Epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. In this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western Mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird species. For 3 years, we sampled eggs from 19 breeding colonies in Spain, France, Algeria, and Tunisia. First, ELISAs were used to determine if the eggs contained antibodies against flaviviruses. Second, neutralization assays were used to identify the specific flaviviruses present. Finally, for colonies in which ELISA-positive eggs had been found, chick serum samples and potential vectors, culicid mosquitoes and soft ticks (Ornithodoros maritimus), were collected and analyzed using serology and PCR, respectively. The prevalence of flavivirus-specific antibodies in eggs was highly spatially heterogeneous. In northeastern Spain, on the Medes Islands and in the nearby village of L'Escala, 56% of eggs had antibodies against the flavivirus envelope protein, but were negative for neutralizing antibodies against three common flaviviruses: West Nile, Usutu, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Furthermore, little evidence of past flavivirus exposure was obtained for the other colonies. A subset of the Ornithodoros ticks from Medes screened for flaviviral RNA tested positive for a virus whose NS5 gene was 95% similar to that of Meaban virus, a flavivirus previously isolated from ticks of Larus argentatus in western France. All ELISA-positive samples subsequently tested positive for Meaban virus neutralizing antibodies. This study shows that gulls in the western Mediterranean Basin are exposed to a tick-borne Meaban-like virus, which underscores the need of exploring the spatial and temporal distribution of this flavivirus as well as its potential pathogenicity for animals and humans. PMID:24625959

Arnal, Audrey; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Busquets, Núria; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Pagès, Nonito; Vittecoq, Marion; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Garnier, Romain; Ramos, Raül; Selmi, Slaheddine; González-Solís, Jacob; Jourdain, Elsa; Boulinier, Thierry

2014-01-01

242

Circulation of a Meaban-Like Virus in Yellow-Legged Gulls and Seabird Ticks in the Western Mediterranean Basin  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. Epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. In this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western Mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird species. For 3 years, we sampled eggs from 19 breeding colonies in Spain, France, Algeria, and Tunisia. First, ELISAs were used to determine if the eggs contained antibodies against flaviviruses. Second, neutralization assays were used to identify the specific flaviviruses present. Finally, for colonies in which ELISA-positive eggs had been found, chick serum samples and potential vectors, culicid mosquitoes and soft ticks (Ornithodoros maritimus), were collected and analyzed using serology and PCR, respectively. The prevalence of flavivirus-specific antibodies in eggs was highly spatially heterogeneous. In northeastern Spain, on the Medes Islands and in the nearby village of L'Escala, 56% of eggs had antibodies against the flavivirus envelope protein, but were negative for neutralizing antibodies against three common flaviviruses: West Nile, Usutu, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Furthermore, little evidence of past flavivirus exposure was obtained for the other colonies. A subset of the Ornithodoros ticks from Medes screened for flaviviral RNA tested positive for a virus whose NS5 gene was 95% similar to that of Meaban virus, a flavivirus previously isolated from ticks of Larus argentatus in western France. All ELISA-positive samples subsequently tested positive for Meaban virus neutralizing antibodies. This study shows that gulls in the western Mediterranean Basin are exposed to a tick-borne Meaban-like virus, which underscores the need of exploring the spatial and temporal distribution of this flavivirus as well as its potential pathogenicity for animals and humans. PMID:24625959

Cerda-Cuellar, Marta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Busquets, Nuria; Garcia-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Pages, Nonito; Vittecoq, Marion; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Samraoui, Boudjema; Garnier, Romain; Ramos, Raul; Selmi, Slaheddine; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob; Jourdain, Elsa; Boulinier, Thierry

2014-01-01

243

SHOALING OF SOLITARY WAVES ON PLANE BEACHES By S. T. Gr'dli,1Member, ASCE, R. Subramanya, 2  

E-print Network

, beach erosion, and design of coastal structures used for beach protection. The shoaling, breaking, and runup of solitary waves on a sloping bottom is of interest both for the study of tsunami propagation

Grilli, Stéphan T.

244

Endocrine disrupting effects of environmental contaminants in herring gull embryos and cultured avian hepatocytes.  

E-print Network

??The effects of non-polar environmental contaminants on components of the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis were examined in herring gull (Larus… (more)

Lorenzen, Angela.

2009-01-01

245

Infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in eider ducks and Herring Gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in blood of nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) females and immature Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in the Baltic Sea, and in blood of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) females nesting in a remote area of western Alaska. Positive (??? 1:16) IBDV titers occurred in 75% of the eiders and 45% of the Herring Gull chicks. In eiders, the prevalence of positive titers differed among locations. We found no evidence that IBDV exposure impaired the immune function of Herring Gull chicks, based on their response to inoculation of sheep red blood cells. We suggest that eider ducks and Herring Gulls have been exposed to IBDV, even in locations where contact with poultry is unlikely. The presence of this virus in wild bird populations is of concern because it causes mortality of up to 30% in susceptible poultry.

Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Docherty, D.E.; Kilpi, M.; Hario, M.; Creekmore, L.H.; Petersen, M.R.

2000-01-01

246

Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction  

PubMed Central

Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?34S with negative ?33S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A.

2011-01-01

247

Wave spectra of a shoaling wave field: A comparison of experimental and simulated results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wave profile measurements made from an aircraft crossing the North Carolina continental shelf after passage of Tropical Storm Amy in 1975 are used to compute a series of wave energy spectra for comparison with simulated spectra. Results indicate that the observed wave field experiences refraction and shoaling effects causing statistically significant changes in the spectral density levels. A modeling technique is used to simulate the spectral density levels. Total energy levels of the simulated spectra are within 20 percent of those of the observed wave field. The results represent a successful attempt to theoretically simulate, at oceanic scales, the decay of a wave field which contains significant wave energies from deepwater through shoaling conditions.

Morris, W. D.; Grosch, C. E.; Poole, L. R.

1982-01-01

248

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) continued environmental investigation of the subsurface Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447. The PSA is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the US' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device deep underground in granitic rock to determine whether seismic waves produced by an underground nuclear test could be differentiated from seismic waves produced by a naturally occurring earthquake. The test was a joint effort conducted by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) in October 1963 (AEC, 1964).

DOE/NV

1998-11-01

249

Sediment resuspension and nepheloid layers induced by long internal solitary waves shoaling orthogonally on uniform slopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional, nonlinear and nonhydrostatic field-scale numerical simulations are used to examine the resuspension, dispersal and transport of mud-like sediment caused by the shoaling and breaking of long internal solitary waves on uniform slopes. The patterns of erosion and transport are both examined, in a series of test cases with varying conditions. Shoreward sediment movement is mainly within boluses, while seaward movement is within intermediate nepheloid layers. Several relationships between properties of the suspended sediment and control parameters are determined such as the horizontal extent of the nehpeloid layers, the total mass of resuspended sediment and the point of maximum bed erosion. The numerical results provide a plausible explanation for acoustic backscatter patterns observed during and after the shoaling of internal solitary wavetrains in a natural coastal environment. The results may be useful in the interpretation of some sedimentary structures, and suggest an effective mechanism for offshore dispersal of muddy sediments.

Bourgault, D.; Morsilli, M.; Richards, C.; Neumeier, U.; Kelley, D. E.

2014-01-01

250

Disentangling the effects of group size and density on shoaling decisions of three-spined sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus aculeatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many animals live in groups most of their life. One function of this behaviour is an increased predator protection whereas\\u000a larger groups provide better protection than smaller ones. A causal explanation is that due to a higher number of shoal members\\u000a the individual risk of being predated will decrease (“dilution effect”). Additionally, shoaling leads to increased predator\\u000a confusion. This “confusion

Joachim G. Frommen; Meike Hiermes; Theo C. M. Bakker

2009-01-01

251

Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates and precursors in relation to dietary source tracers in the eggs of four species of gulls (Larids) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada.  

PubMed

In the present study, we identified and examined the spatial trends, sources and dietary relationships of bioaccumulative perfluorinated sulfonate (PFSA; C(6), C(8), and C(10) chain lengths) and carboxylate (PFCA; C(6) to C(15) chain lengths) contaminants, as well as precursor compounds including several perfluorinated sulfonamides, and fluorotelomer acids and alcohols, in individual eggs (collected in 2008) from four gull species [glaucous-winged (Larus glaucescens), California (Larus californicus), ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) and herring (Larus argentatus) gulls] from 15 marine and freshwater colony sites in provinces across Canada. The pattern of PFSAs was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; >89% of ?PFSA concentration) regardless of egg collection location. The highest ?PFSA concentrations were found in the eggs collected in the urbanized areas in the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River area [Big Chicken Island 308 ng/g ww, Toronto Harbour 486 ng/g ww, and Ile Deslauriers (HG) 299 ng/g ww]. Also, eggs from all freshwater colony sites had higher ?PFSA concentrations, which were significant (p<0.05) in many cases, compared to the marine sites with the exception of the Sable Island colony in Atlantic Canada off the coast of Nova Scotia. C(6) to C(15) chain length PFCAs were detected in the eggs, although the pattern was variable among the 15 sites, where PFUnA and PFTrA dominated the pattern for most colonies. Like the ?PFSA, the highest concentrations of ?PFCA were found in the eggs from Big Chicken Island, Toronto Harbour, Ile Deslauriers (HG), and Sable Island, although not all freshwater sites had higher concentrations compared to marine sites. Dietary tracers [?(15)N and ?(13)C stable isotopes (SIs)] revealed that PFSA and PFCA exposure is colony dependent. SI signatures suggested that gulls from most marine colony sites were exposed to PFCs via marine prey. The exception was the Mandarte Island colony in Pacific British Columbia, where PFSA and PFCA exposure appeared to be via terrestrial and/or freshwater prey consumption. The same was true for the freshwater sites where egg SIs suggested both aquatic and terrestrial prey consumption as the source for PFC exposure depending on the colony. Both aquatic (marine and freshwater) and terrestrial prey are likely sources of PFC exposure to gulls but exposure scenarios are colony-specific. PMID:21529948

Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J; Burgess, Neil M; Champoux, Louise; Elliott, John E; Hebert, Craig E; Martin, Pamela; Wayland, Mark; Weseloh, D V Chip; Wilson, Laurie

2011-10-01

252

PELAGIC RECORDS OF GLAUCOUS-WINGED AND HERRING GULLS IN THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULLS (Larus glaucescens) and Herring Gulls (L. argentatus) have been sighted sometimes hundreds of miles offshore in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Yocom (1947) saw both species out to 500 miles off California and Sanger (1965, 1970) noted them to nearly 600 miles off Washington and Oregon, but no pelagic specimens of either species existed (A.O.U., 1957). This paper

GERALD A. SANGER

253

Effect of melatonin on salt gland and kidney function of gulls, Larus glaucescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined effects of exogenous melatonin on osmoregulatory hormones and water and sodium secretion by salt glands and excretion via the kidneys of Glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens). Six saline acclimated gulls were injected with inulin and paraminohippuric acid and then infused with 500mM NaCl to stimulate salt gland secretion. Each bird was given infusions of NaCl alone and NaCl

Maryanne R. Hughes; Nobu Kitamura; Darin C. Bennett; David A. Gray; Peter J. Sharp; Angela M. S. Poon

2007-01-01

254

Sex ratio in lesser black-backed gull in relation to environmental pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds, there is ample evidence that the mother can manipulate the sex of the young and produce more of the sex, which gives\\u000a the highest fitness return. This has previously been documented in gulls, Laridae. Gulls are sexually size dimorphic with\\u000a males larger than females, and there is good evidence that parents in poor body condition switch their investment

Kjell Einar Erikstad; Jan Ove Bustnes; Svein-Håkon Lorentsen; Tone Kristin Reiertsen

2009-01-01

255

Highly carboxylated porphyrins are good biochemical markers of PCB exposure in herring gulls (Larus argentatus)  

SciTech Connect

The authors have reported that highly carboxylated porphyrins (HCPs) in herring gull livers offer promise as a biochemical marker of exposure of this species to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Here the authors provide evidence from a new study that supports the previous research. HCP concentrations and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities were determined in livers of adult gulls (n = 47) that were collected from several colonies on the Great Lakes and from two reference sites. Non-polar extracts were prepared from each liver and were tested for porphyrinogenic and EROD induction potency in an in vitro chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) bioassay. The regression between EROD activity in gull livers and EROD induction potency of liver extracts in the CEH bioassay was poor (r{sup 2} = 0.13, p = 0.014); similarly, the regression between EROD activity in gull livers and PCB concentration in liver extracts was poor (r{sup 2} = 0.04, p = 0.19). In contrast, there was a strong linear regression between HCP concentration in gull livers and the porphyrinogenic potency of liver extracts in the CEH bioassay. There was also a strong linear regression between HCP concentration in gull livers and PCB concentration in the extracts. This study, and a large companion study that measured HCPs and chemical residues in herring gulls from 13 colonies (Fox et al., in preparation), indicates that environmental levels of PCBs in several areas of the Great Lakes remain sufficient high to interfere with heme biosynthesis, eliciting elevated HCPs in this species. The authors conclude that HCPs are a good biochemical marker of PCB exposure in herring gulls, but that EROD is not.

Kennedy, S.W.; Fox, G.A.; Trudeau, S.; Bastien, L.J.; Jones, S.P. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

256

Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

2003-01-01

257

The herring gull Larus argentatus as a likely transmitting agent of Salmonella montevideo to sheep and cattle.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents evidence for the involvement of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) as vectors in the recent outbreaks of Salmonella montevideo in sheep and cattle in Scotland and suggests that the transfer can take place over considerable distances. The breeding area in Scotland of herring gulls which overwinter in N.E. England is remarkably similar to the geographical distribution of the outbreaks. This pattern, together with the feeding behaviour of herring gulls on farmland, the presence of S. montevideo in herring gulls just before their departure from the wintering area and the timing of the return just before the peak of outbreaks are all circumstantial evidence implicating this gull in the outbreaks. The rapid return of these gulls to their breeding areas means that S. montevideo can be transported long distances in one day and raises the possibility that the original source of S. montevideo could have been in N.E. England rather than in Scotland. PMID:6663059

Coulson, J. C.; Butterfield, J.; Thomas, C.

1983-01-01

258

Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.  

PubMed

The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. PMID:24689675

Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

2014-04-01

259

Can a minority of informed leaders determine the foraging movements of a fish shoal?  

PubMed

There is no information on whether the daily foraging movements of fish shoals are the result of chance, the collective will of all shoalmates, or the leadership of a few individuals. This study tested the latter possibility. Shoals of 12 golden shiners, Notemigonus crysoleucas, were trained to expect food around midday in one of the brightly lit corners of their tank. They displayed daily food-anticipatory activity by leaving the shady area of their tank and spending more and more time in the food corner up to the normal time of feeding. Past this normal time they remained in the shade, even on test days when no food was delivered. Most of these experienced individuals were then replaced by naïve ones. The resulting ratio of experienced:naïve fish could be 5:7, 3:9 or 1:11. On their own, naïve individuals would normally spend the whole day in the shade, but in all tests the experienced individual(s) were able to entrain these more numerous naïve fish out of the shade and into the brightly lit food corner at the right time of day. Entrainment was stronger in the 5:7 than in the 1:11 experiment. The test shoals never split up and were always led by the same fish, presumably the experienced individuals. These results indicate that in a strongly gregarious species, such as the golden shiner, a minority of informed individuals can lead a shoal to food, either through social facilitation of foraging movements or by eliciting following behaviour. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675263

Reebs

2000-02-01

260

A cellular automata model for population expansion of Spartina alterniflora at Jiuduansha Shoals, Shanghai, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological invasion has received considerable attention recently because of increasing impacts on local ecosystems. Expansion of Spartina alterniflora, a non-native species, on the intertidal mudflats of Jiuduansha Shoals at the Yangtze River Estuary is a prime example of a spatially-structured invasion in a relatively simple habitat, for which strategic control efforts can be modeled and applied. Here, we developed a Cellular Automata (CA) model, in conjunction with Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems, to simulate the expanding process of S. alterniflora for a period of 8 years after being introduced to the new shoals, and to study the interactions between spatial pattern and ecosystem processes for the saltmarsh vegetation. The results showed that the CA model could simulate the population dynamics of S. alterniflora and Phragmites australis on the Jiuduansha Shoals successfully. The results strongly support the hypothesis of space pre-emption as well as range expansion with simple advancing wave fronts for these two species. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the native species P. australis shares the same niche with the exotic species S. alterniflora. However, the range expansion rate of P. australis was much slower than that of S. alterniflora. With the accretion of the Jiuduansha Shoals due to the large quantity of sediments deposited by the Yangtze River, a rapid range expansion of S. alterniflora is predicted to last for a long period into future. This study indicated the potential for this approach to provide valuable insights into population and community ecology of invasive species, which could be very important for wetland biodiversity conservation and resource management in the Yangtze River Estuary and other such impacted areas.

Huang, Hua-mei; Zhang, Li-quan; Guan, Yu-juan; Wang, Dong-hui

2008-03-01

261

Temporal trend (1988-2008) of hexabromocyclododecane enantiomers in herring gull eggs from the German coastal region.  

PubMed

Levels of ?-, ?-, and ?-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in pooled eggs from herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled on three bird sanctuaries near the German North Sea coast between 1988 and 2008 (Mellum and Trischen) and the German Baltic Sea coast between 1998 and 2008 (Heuwiese) and archived by the German Environmental Specimen Bank. Pressurized fluid extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and LC-MS/MS using (13)C(12)-labelled isotope standards and a chiral column were applied. ?-HBCD was the dominating diastereomer and ranged between 3.7 and 107 ng g(-1)lw while ?- and ?-HBCD were throughout close to LOQ. The highest ?-HBCD concentration was found in eggs from Mellum sampled in the year 2000. Interestingly, HBCD in eggs from the three islands displayed similar time courses with levels increasing to a peak contamination around 2000 and decreasing levels ever since. Chiral signatures of ?-HBCD in eggs differed among the islands but indicated a preferential enrichment of the first eluting enantiomer (-)-?-HBCD. PMID:21216435

Esslinger, Susanne; Becker, Roland; Jung, Christian; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Bremser, Wolfram; Nehls, Irene

2011-03-01

262

Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after devastating cyclones only small islands reemerge and persist temporarily from the shoal belt. A four-stage barrier evolution model, globally applicable to transgressive deltaic barriers, is based on documented changes in late Holocene Mississippi sub-deltas.

Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.

2013-09-01

263

Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

2011-01-01

264

Organochlorines and possible biochemical effects in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea.  

PubMed

To study possible biochemical effects of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), 40 adult individuals were collected from colonies on Bjornoya in the Barents Sea. OCs (four pesticides and nine PCB congeners), microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, microsomal testosterone hydroxylation, highly carboxylated porphyrins (HCPs), retinol, and retinyl palmitate were quantified in liver samples. The hepatic vitamin A stores in glaucous gulls were larger than in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from other studies conducted in contaminated locations in North America. No significant relationships were found between liver retinoid concentrations and OC levels. The hepatic EROD activity was low compared to other studies on fish-eating birds and only marginally associated with PCB levels. Microsomal testosterone hydroxylase activity was only observed at the 6beta-position and could not be related to OC levels. The low P450-associated enzyme activities in the glaucous gull suggests that they have a low capacity for metabolizing OCs, which may contribute to the high accumulation of OCs in this species. HCPs were only elevated (138 pmol g(-1)) in the sample with highest OC levels, whereas the remaining samples contained low levels of HCPs (<30 pmol g(-1)). The weak association between EROD activity and PCB levels and the low level of HCPs suggest that these biochemical parameters were unaffected by OCs in most of the sampled gulls. Thus, the glaucous gull seems not to be particularly sensitive toward Ah-receptor mediated effects. PMID:10629287

Henriksen, E O; Gabrielsen, G W; Trudeau, S; Wolkers, J; Sagerup, K; Skaare, J U

2000-02-01

265

The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls  

PubMed Central

The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

266

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

1996-10-01

267

Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals.  

PubMed

Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty 'control' patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

Atton, N; Galef, B J; Hoppitt, W; Webster, M M; Laland, K N

2014-08-22

268

Observations of nonlinear interactions in directionally spread shoaling surface gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shoaling wave fields generated in laboratory experiments were analyzed to determine the sensitivity of nonlinear interactions to the directional distributions of incident waves. Peaks in the directional spectra observed in shallow water were consistent with near-resonant, quadratic interactions between two primary waves transferring energy to a third wave with the sum frequency and vector sum wavenumber of the primary waves. Directionally colinear waves forced a higher-frequency wave propagating in the same direction as the primary waves, while directionally spread (i.e., noncolinear) primary waves forced a higher-frequency wave that propagated in a direction between those of the interacting primary waves. Deepwater wave fields with similar frequency spectra but different directional spectra evolved to different shallow-water directional spectra, yet their shallow-water frequency spectra were remarkably similar. This result suggests that the shape of the directional spectrum of the incident wave field has only a small effect on the magnitudes of nonlinear energy transfers during shoaling. The principal effect of directionality in the incident wave field is on the directions, not the amplitudes, of the nonlinearly generated waves. The laboratory data demonstrate clearly the importance of triad interactions between noncolinear and colinear shoaling waves.

Elgar, Steve; Guza, R. T.; Freilich, M. H.

1993-01-01

269

Migration patterns of Common Gulls Larus canus ringed in the non?breeding season in Copenhagen and the surrounding area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the greater Copenhagen area (54°59'?56°07'N, 11°55'12°40'E) 4899 Common Gulls were ringed from September to April in 1976 to 1993. Up to 31 December 1993, 11,824 ring?recoveries from 2,388 gulls (49% of the total number ringed) had been received. Copenhagen lies on the Common Gull migration route from northeastern to western Europe. The directions of migration are southwest in autumn

K. T. Pedersen; E. B. Fritze; S. P. Kharitonov

2000-01-01

270

Relationships between heavy metal and metallothionein concentrations in lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus , and Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, copper, and mercury concentrations were measured in adult lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus; and metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, and copper concentrations were measured in fledgling Cory's shearwaters, Calonectris diomedea. In gulls, metallothionein was positively correlated with cadmium (kidney r=0.83, liver r=0.46), zinc (kidney r=0.46, liver r=0.37), and copper (kidney r=0.28, liver r=0.34). Mercury levels in lesser black-backed gulls

F. M. Stewart; R. W. Furness; L. R. Monteiro

1996-01-01

271

Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of a reassortant H13N8 influenza virus isolated from gulls in Mongolia.  

PubMed

Double reassortant H13N8 influenza A virus was isolated from gull in Mongolia. The basic virological characteristics were studied. Complete genome sequence analysis indicated the complicated evolutionary history. The PA gene belongs to classical Avian-like lineage and more likely originated from non-gull avian virus pool. Data confirm the state of extensive geographic mosaicism in AIV from gulls in the Northern Hemisphere. PMID:24839173

Sharshov, K; Sivay, M; Liu, D; Pantin-Jackwood, M; Marchenko, V; Durymanov, A; Alekseev, A; Damdindorj, T; Gao, G F; Swayne, D E; Shestopalov, A

2014-10-01

272

Spatio-Temporal Structure of Hooded Gull Flocks  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor’s position in terms of coordinates based on each individual’s motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock. PMID:24339960

Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

273

Weathered oil: effect on hatchability of heron and gull eggs  

SciTech Connect

Contact with weathered oil seems more likely for waterbirds than contact with fresh oil; however, the effects of weathered oil on embryo survival have only partially been explored. Results of one study showed that 20 ..mu..L of 4 week-old crude oil applied to the eggshell surface caused a significant decrease in embryo survival of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs. In that study, oil was weathered under laboratory conditions using fresh water. To our knowledge, there have been no tests to determine the effects on egg hatchability of oil naturally weathered in marine habitats. The present study assesses the effects of external applications of naturally weathered crude oil on embryo survival of Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor) and laughing gull (Larus atricilla) eggs.

Macko, S.A. (Port Aransas Marine Lab., TX); King, S.M.

1980-08-01

274

Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel  

SciTech Connect

Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the high age 1+ entrainment rate at Desdemona Shoals in June 2002 unusual, or would it be observed again under similar conditions? PNNL and USACE personnel directly measured crab entrainment by the USACE hopper dredge Essayons working in Desdemona Shoals in June 2006. In addition to quantifying crab entrainment of all age classes, bottom salinity was directly measured in as many samples as possible, so that the relationship between crab entrainment and salinity could be further evaluated. All 2006 data were collected and analyzed in a manner consistent with the previous entrainment studies (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003, 2005).

Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

2006-09-30

275

Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and precursor compounds in herring gull eggs from colonies spanning the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.  

PubMed

Environmentally important perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates, as well as per- and polyfluorinated precursor compounds including several sulfonamides, telomer acids, and alcohols were determined in individual herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected (in 2007) from 15 colonies located at Canadian and some American sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The pattern of perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs; C6, C8, C10 chain lengths) was dominated by PFOS (> 90% of sigmaPFSA concentration) regardless of collection location. Concentrations of sigmaPFSA were significantly (p < 0.03) higher in eggs from Middle Island (western Lake Erie; 507 +/- 47 ng/g ww), Toronto Harbour (484 +/- 49 ng/g ww), and Strachan Island (486 +/- 59 ng/g ww) (Lake Ontario) compared to eggs from colonies on Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) ranging in chain length from C8 to C15 were detected in the eggs, with PFUnA and PFTrA being the dominant compounds. PFOA and PFNA were more abundant in the sigmaPFCA in eggs from Lake Superior and Michigan colonies, and PFUnA and longer chain PFCAs were more abundant in the sigmaPFCA in eggs from Lake Erie and Ontario colonies. In contrast to sigmaPFSA, the highest concentrations of sigmaPFCA were found in eggs from Double Island, Lake Huron (113 +/- 12 ng/g ww) followed by eggs from colonies on Lakes Erie and Ontario. Among the PFOS or PFCA precursor compounds assessed (6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohols and acids and PFOSA), none were detectable in eggs from any sampling location. The exception was PFOSA (average concentration < 1 ng/g ww), which suggests that PFOS in the gulls and subsequently in their eggs may be due, in part, to biotransformation of PFOSA to PFOS in the gull and/or in their diet and food web. The accumulation of PFSA and PFCA from mainly aquatic dietary sources was suggested, and were highly lake- and/ or colony-dependent especially showing a northwest and southeast spatial trend and with higher concentrations in eggs from colonies in close proximity to highly urbanized and industrialized sites in Lakes Erie and Ontario. PMID:19848159

Gebbink, Wouter A; Hebert, Craig E; Letcher, Robert J

2009-10-01

276

[The "diseased" or "dead" guillemots (Uria aalge), three-toed gulls (Rissa tridactyla), silver gulls (Larus argentatus) and laughing gulls (Larus ridibundus) found in the area of the German Bay, 1982-1985].  

PubMed

Between 1982 and 1985 the cadavers of 50 Guillemots (Uria aalge), 41 Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), 26 Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and 34 Black-headed Gulls (Larus ridibundus) were examined pathological, bacteriological and virological. The probable cause of death was established. Parasitosis were particularly prevalent in Herring Gulls (49%), where the main infection--as in Black-headed Gulls--was with Cestoides. In Kittiwakes and Guillemots mainly Spiruroideae were recorded. The commonest bacterium isolated in organs and intestinal tract was Escherichia coli, followed by Aeromonas hydrophila and Clostridium perfringens. Salmonella were found in the organs of 5% and in the intestinal tract of 3% of the birds. The species of Salmonella most frequently isolated was Salmonella typhimurium varieties copenhagen. Also recorded were Yersinia intermedia Serovar 0:17 (1x), Pseudomonas spp. (2x), bacteria of the Haemophilus-Pasteurella-Actinobacillus group (1x), Pasteurella multocida (2x), Moraxella septicaemiae (1x), Campylobacter spec. (1x), Mycoplasma spec. (6x), DNase positive Staphylococcus spec. (4x) and Streptococcus spec. (6x). Less in evidence among the birds examined were fungus diseases with Aspergillus spec. (4x) and Blastomyces spec. (4x). As for viruses one Guillemot was found to have an Adenovirus and another one to have a Paramyxovirus. From one of the Herring Gulls there also was isolated a Paramyxovirus, from a second one to a Reovirus. Three other species isolated have get to be identified. The chief cause of sickness and death in the Guillemots was oil-contamination. The majority of the examined Kittiwakes and Herring Gulls were victims of pathogenic agents. Many of the Black-headed Gulls died through traumata as gunshots or road traffic etc. In order to establish the causes of sickness and death in seabirds and to ascertain the importance of the various species as possible carriers of infectious diseases, a systematic series of investigation will be necessary. Without this it will not be possible to assess their epidemiological relevance for other wild birds, domestic poultry and humans. PMID:2752934

Petermann, S; Glünder, G; Heffels-Redmann, U; Hinz, K H

1989-05-01

277

Trophic level determines levels of brominated flame-retardants in coastal herring gulls.  

PubMed

Liver concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (?PBDEs: sum of brominated diphenyl ethers [BDE]-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, and -209) ranged from 135 to 985 ngg(-1) lipid weight (lw) in coastal herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the marine Hvaler Archipelago (The Glomma River Estuary), Norway. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations ranged from 10 to 698 ngg(-1)lw. High range in ?(13)C indicates that gulls were subject to a diversity of carbon sources, likely reflecting their mixed feeding on terrestrial and marine organisms, or diversity of autochthonous and allochthonous (watershed) energy sources at the bases of their marine/estuarial food chains. Inverse relationships of HBCD, and to somewhat lesser extent of BDE-209, with ?(13)C values suggest higher abundance of these compounds in the land-derived energy-sources of the gulls. Inverse relationships of BDE-99, BDE-183 and BDE-209 with ?(15)N suggest that trophic relationships affect bioaccumulation of these compounds in the herring gulls, with greater bioaccumulation from lower trophic level prey species. This may be because these PBDE congeners are subject of debromination in higher trophic levels prey species of the gulls (e.g., teleost fish). Levels of BDE-209 (up to 95 ng/g lipid) of these herring gulls from 1998 were in the higher range reported in European birds, and not matched by other reports in North Sea seabirds. The present study suggests that the currently used brominated flame-retardants (BFRs), BDE-209 and HBCD relate to changing nutrient allocation in the herring gulls, and represent a risk to seabirds exploiting near-shore and estuary ecosystems. PMID:21762987

Sørmo, E G; Lie, E; Ruus, A; Gaustad, H; Skaare, J U; Jenssen, B M

2011-10-01

278

Characterization of Escherichia coli populations from gulls, landfill trash, and wastewater using ribotyping.  

PubMed

Due to their opportunistic and gregarious nature, gulls may be important reservoirs and vectors for anthropogenically derived fecal pathogens in coastal areas. We used ribotyping, a genotypic bacterial source tracking method, to compare populations of Escherichia coli among herring gulls Larus argentatus, great black-backed gulls L. marinus, wastewater, and landfill trash in New Hampshire and Maine, USA. Concentrations of E. coli in gull feces varied widely among individuals, but were generally high (6.0 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(9) g(-1) wet weight). Of 39 E. coli isolates from L. argentatus, 67% had banding patterns that were > or = 90% similar to those from wastewater and trash, whereas only 39% of 36 L. marinus isolates exhibited > or = 90% similarity to these sources. Strains of E. coli from gulls matched (> or = 90% similarity) more strains from wastewater (39% matching) than from trash (15% matching). E. coli isolates from L. marinus feces exhibited a greater diversity of banding patterns than did isolates from L. argentatus. There were more unique E. coli banding patterns in trash samples than in wastewater, and higher diversity indices in the former compared to the latter. These findings suggest that both species of gulls, especially L. argentatus, obtain fecal bacteria from wastewater and landfill trash, which they may transport to recreational beaches and waters. Our results also indicate that E. coli populations may vary widely between gull species, and between the anthropogenic habitats that they frequent, i.e. landfills and wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:18828562

Nelson, M; Jones, S H; Edwards, C; Ellis, J C

2008-08-19

279

Metals and radionuclides in birds and eggs from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Bering Sea/Pacific Ocean ecosystem.  

PubMed

Metals and radionuclide levels in marine birds of the Aleutians are of interest because they are part of subsistence diets of the Aleut people, and can also serve as indicators of marine pollution. We examined geographic and species-specific variations in concentrations of radionuclides in birds and their eggs from Amchitka, the site of underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971, and Kiska Islands (a reference site) in the Aleutians, and the levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in eggs. In 2004 we collected common eiders (Somateria mollissima), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Amchitka and Kiska, and eggs from eiders and gulls from the two island. We also collected one runt bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chick from both Amchitka and Kiska Islands. For most species, the levels of radionuclide isotopes were below the minimum detectable activity levels (MDA). Out of 74 cesium-137 analyses, only one composite (gulls) was above the MDA, and out of 14 composites tested for plutonium (Pu-239, 240), only one exceeded the MDA (a guillemots). Three composites out of 14 tested had detectable uranium-238. In all cases, the levels were low and close to the MDAs, and were below those reported for other seabirds. There were significant interspecific differences in metal levels in eggs: gulls had significantly higher levels of cadmium and mercury than the eiders, and eiders had higher levels of lead than gulls. There were few significant differences as a function of island, but eiders had significantly higher levels of cadmium in eggs from Kiska, and gulls had significantly higher levels of mercury on Kiska. The levels of cadmium and mercury in eggs of eiders and gulls from this study were above the median for cadmium and mercury from studies in the literature. The levels of mercury in eggs are within the range known to affect avian predators, but seabirds seem less vulnerable to mercury than other birds. However, the levels of mercury are within the action levels for humans, suggesting some cause for concern if subsistence Aleuts eat a large quantity of eggs. PMID:17206460

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2007-04-01

280

Fluoride exposure and selected characteristics of eggs and bones of the herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the common gull (Larus canus).  

PubMed

Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shell of 285 herring gull eggs (Larus argentatus) and 120 common gull eggs (Larus canus), collected May 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies exposed to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smelters located at Karmøy and Sunndal, and from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume-index, shell thickness, thickness-index, and fertilization of the eggs also were monitored. In both species, the shell fluorine concentration was significantly increased in eggs collected at sites exposed to fluoride emissions. No effects on other egg characteristics were observed. In both exposed and unexposed sites, the last-laid egg in a clutch, normally containing three eggs, had the highest shell fluorine residue. Fluorine levels also were analyzed in femurs from 42 herring gulls, collected from Karmøy and Sola in May 1993. The relationship between sex and fluoride accumulation, and the relations between fluorine concentration in femurs of laying herring gulls and in the shell of their eggs, were evaluated. Bone morphology also was studied. Bone fluorine concentrations were raised significantly in emission-exposed female birds. Moreover, females from the exposed site had significantly higher fluorine residues than males. There was a positive correlation between fluorine levels in femurs of individual laying birds and those in the shells of their eggs. No changes in bone morphology due to fluoride exposure was found. PMID:8722255

Vikøren, T; Stuve, G

1996-04-01

281

Evidence for Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) and Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) as carriers of Salmonella by real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that two gull species in Talcahuano, Chile, shed Salmonella. Fecal samples from resident Larus dominicanus had prevalences of 51.2% for Salmonella spp. and 26.3% for Salmonella Enteritidis. Prevalences in samples from migratory Leucophaeus pipixcan were 75% and 30% respectively. Risks to public health may exist. PMID:23060519

Rodríguez, Francisco; Moreno, Jessica; Ortega, René; Mathieu, Christian; García, Apolinaria; Cerda-Leal, Fabiola; González-Acuña, Daniel

2012-10-01

282

TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF ABUNDANCE AND WASTE USE BY KELP GULLS (LARUS DOMINICANUS) AT AN URBAN AND FISHERY WASTE SITE IN NORTHERN COASTAL PATAGONIA, ARGENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified the use by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) of urban and fishery waste sites at Puerto Madryn, Argentina, during 1996 and 1997. Kelp Gulls were present at all monthly counts made at both waste sites throughout the two years of the study. Total numbers of gulls in each month were high and variable, with a mean of 4724 and

Micel Giaccardi; Pablo Yorio

2004-01-01

283

Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability  

PubMed Central

Background The role of gulls in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American gulls frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed Gull contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American gull and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as gulls. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed Gull virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable “triple reassortant internal gene” core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the need for continued surveillance in gull and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of gull species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI. PMID:23742717

2013-01-01

284

Comparative tissue and body compartment accumulation and maternal transfer to eggs of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates and carboxylates in Great Lakes herring gulls.  

PubMed

The comparative accumulation of C(4)-C(15) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) and carboxylates (PFCAs), and several precursors (e.g., perfluorooctane sulfonamide, N-methyl-FOSA, and fluorotelomer unsaturated acids and alcohols) was examined in tissues (liver, brain, muscle, and adipose), plasma/red blood cells (RBCs) and whole egg clutches (yolk and albumen) of female herring gulls collected in 2010 from Chantry Island, Lake Huron of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Highest mean ?PFSA concentrations were in yolk, followed by adipose, liver, plasma, muscle, RBCs, and brain. Highest mean ?PFCA concentrations were in yolk, followed by brain, plasma, liver, RBC, adipose and muscle. PFOS accounted for >88% of ?PFSA in all samples; the liver, plasma/RBCs, muscle and adipose PFCA patterns were dominated by C(8)-C(11) PFCAs, whereas C(10)-C(15) PFCAs in brain and yolk. Among PFSAs and PFCAs there is tissue-specific accumulation, which could be due to a number of pharmacokinetic processes. PMID:22243845

Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J

2012-03-01

285

Diets of Nesting Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia Coast Reserve: Observations from Stable Isotope Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulation dietary variation in top-level consumers. In this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of gull tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the Virginia Coast Reserve estuarine system. As

A. J. Knoff; S. A. Macko; R. M. Erwin

2001-01-01

286

EGG-LAYING, EGG SIZE, AND SUCCESS IN RELATION TO IMMATURE-MATURE PLUMAGE OF RING-BILLED GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important direct relationships between the age of parents and their success at hatching eggs and rearing young are known for the Kittiwake (Rissa tri- dactyla) (Coulson and White 1958)) H erring Gull (Larus argentatus) (Par- sons 1971)) and Red-billed Gull (L. novaehollandiue) (Mills 1973). Addi- tionally, egg size, calculated from length and width (Stonehouse 1966) correlates positively with hatchability of

JOHN P. RYDER

287

Comparing the retinal structures and functions in two species of gulls ( Larus delawarensis and Larus modestus) with significant nocturnal behaviours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and gray gulls (Larus modestus) are two species active both by day and night. We have investigated the retinal adaptations that allow the diurnal and nocturnal behaviours of these two species. Electroretinograms and histological analyses show that both species have a duplex retina in which cones outnumber rods, but the number of rods appears sufficient to

M. P. Emond; R. McNeil; T. Cabana; C. G. Guerra; P. Lachapelle

2006-01-01

288

Health of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Relation to Breeding Location in the Early 1990s. I. Biochemical Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissues of 156 adult herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were sampled in the early 1990s from 11 colonies throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes and 2 reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Gulls from 1 or more Great Lakes differed from Lake Winnipeg or the Bay of Fundy for 17 of 19 clinical biochemical measures, whereas the freshwater

Glen A. Fox; Deborah A. Jeffrey; Kim S. Williams; Sean W. Kennedy; Keith A. Grasman

2007-01-01

289

Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls ( Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. Glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven Alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic

Stacy S. Vander Pol; Paul R. Becker; Michael B. Ellisor; Amanda J. Moors; Rebecca S. Pugh; David G. Roseneau

2009-01-01

290

Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The

Jan Ove Bustnes; Morten Helberg; Karl-Birger Strann; Janneche Utne Skaare

2006-01-01

291

TERRITORY SIZE DIFFERENCES IN RELATION TO REPRODUCTIVE STAGE AND TYPE OF INTRUDER IN HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

short period of time during only part of the reproductive cycle rather than from daily observations throughout the cycle. In gulls, territory size has often been ob- tained by measuring the distance to the closest neighbor. This distance may not be a good measure of territory size, because only in dense gull colonies might the nest be located in the

JOANNA BURGER

292

Growth and behavioral effects of early postnatal chromium and manganese exposure in herring gull ( Larus argentatus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms in marine environments are exposed to chromium and manganese, yet little is known of the effects of these metals on physiology and behavior. In this article we examine the effects of chromium and manganese on early neurobehavioral development in herring gulls, Larus argentatus. Each of 36 2-day-old herring gull chicks was randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1995-01-01

293

Recombinant Transthyretin Purification and Competitive Binding with Organohalogen Compounds in Two Gull Species (Larus argentatus and Larus hyperboreus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard, Norway (marine), and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Lau- rentian Great Lakes (freshwater) of North America are differen- tially exposed to persistent and bioaccumulative anthropogenic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and metabolic products. Such compounds can potentially perturb hormone transport via binding interactions with proteins

Francisco Ucan-Marõ; Augustine Arukwe; Anne Mortensen; Geir W. Gabrielsen; Glen A. Fox; Robert J. Letcher

2009-01-01

294

The influence of food availability and competition on the use of a feeding site by Herring Gulls Larus argentatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding distribution of adult and juvenile Herring Gulls at a refuse tip was studied in relation to both spatial and temporal variations in food quality and quantity. The numbers and time of arrival of the gulls at the tip varied in relation to the amount of available food. The extent to which juveniles fed on the high and low

P. Monaghan; N. B. Metcalfe; M. H. Hansell

1986-01-01

295

Screening of thyroid gland histology in organohalogen-contaminated glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations between blood organohalogen contaminant (OHC) concentrations and thyroid gland histology were studied in 10 adult female glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic (Bjørnøya) during the incubation period. This histological investigation was undertaken as previous glaucous gull studies from the same area reported negative relationships between circulating OHC concentrations and thyroid hormone levels. Organohalogen concentrations have previously

Christian Sonne; Jonathan Verreault; Geir W. Gabrielsen; Robert J. Letcher; Pall S. Leifsson; Tine Iburg

2010-01-01

296

Intraspecific Variation in Trophic Feeding Levels and Organochlorine Concentrations in Glaucous Gulls ( Larus hyperboreus ) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomagnification contributes to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines (OC) in some Arctic vertebrates. Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) on Bjørnøya in the western Barents Sea were studied to compare the intraspecific variation in OC concentration with variation in trophic feeding levels, estimated from ratios of nitrogen isotopes. Liver tissue samples from 40 adult glaucous gulls were analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane,

Kjetil Sagerup; Espen O. Henriksen; Janneche U. Skaare; Geir W. Gabrielsen

2002-01-01

297

Environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis , and the laughing gull, Larus atricilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) gathered from the Galveston Bay region of Texas were compared, to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. Their levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. Lead levels in bone were comparable, but gulls

Michael Hulse; John S. Mahoney; Gene D. Schroder; Carl S. Hacker; Stanley M. Pier

1980-01-01

298

Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

299

Shoaling behaviour enhances risk of predation from multiple predator guilds in a marine fish.  

PubMed

Predicting the consequences of predator biodiversity loss on prey requires an understanding of multiple predator interactions. Predators are often assumed to have independent and additive effects on shared prey survival; however, multiple predator effects can be non-additive if predators foraging together reduce prey survival (risk enhancement) or increase prey survival through interference (risk reduction). In marine communities, juvenile reef fish experience very high mortality from two predator guilds with very different hunting modes and foraging domains-benthic and pelagic predator guilds. The few previous predator manipulation studies have found or assumed that mortality is independent and additive. We tested whether interacting predator guilds result in non-additive prey mortality and whether the detection of such effects change over time as prey are depleted. To do so, we examined the roles of benthic and pelagic predators on the survival of a juvenile shoaling zooplanktivorous temperate reef fish, Trachinops caudimaculatus, on artificial patch reefs over 2 months in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We observed risk enhancement in the first 7 days, as shoaling behaviour placed prey between predator foraging domains with no effective refuge. At day 14 we observed additive mortality, and risk enhancement was no longer detectable. By days 28 and 62, pelagic predators were no longer significant sources of mortality and additivity was trivial. We hypothesize that declines in prey density led to reduced shoaling behaviour that brought prey more often into the domain of benthic predators, resulting in limited mortality from pelagic predators. Furthermore, pelagic predators may have spent less time patrolling reefs in response to declines in prey numbers. Our observation of the changing interaction between predators and prey has important implications for assessing the role of predation in regulating populations in complex communities. PMID:23124272

Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

2013-06-01

300

Osmoregulatory responses of glucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) to dehydration and hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The effects of dehydration and hemorrhage on plasma ionic, osmotic, and antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasotocin) concentrations and of hemorrhage on salt gland secretion and glomerular filtration rate were evaluated in glaucous-winged gulls, Larus glaucescens. Dehydration for 24 h did not affect plasma ionic, osmotic or arginine vasotocin concentrations; 72 h dehydration significantly elevated plasma osmolality, plasma sodium and chloride concentrations, and plasma arginine vasotocin concentration, but did not affect plasma potassium concentration. Constant infusion of 0.8 mol.1-1 NaCl increased plasma arginine vasotocin concentration and produced salt gland secretion in seven gulls; four secreted well, while three secreted less well. Removal of 20% blood volume during saline infusion immediately reduced (P<0.001) salt gland secretion rate in all gulls. After bleeding, good secretors maintained glomerular filtration rate and urine flow rate; the poorer secretors increased glomerular filtration rate and became diuretic. Blood replacement returned salt gland secretion rate to the prebleeding level (P<0.05) without affecting salt gland secretions sodium concentration in gulls which secreted well, but did not restimulate salt gland secretion in gulls which secreted poorly. Reinfusion of blood had no effect on glomerular filtration rate. Bleeding and blood replacement did not affect plasma arginine vasotocin concentration. PMID:8071468

Hughes, M R; Goldstein, D L; Raveendran, L

1993-01-01

301

Does garbage in the diet improve reproductive output of Glaucous Gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

Weiser, E.L.; Powell, A.N.

2010-01-01

302

An outbreak of type C botulism in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Southeastern Sweden  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

Neimanis, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Leighton, F.; Bollinger, T.; Rocke, T.; Morner, T.

2007-01-01

303

Functional Metagenomics Reveals Previously Unrecognized Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Gulls  

PubMed Central

Wildlife may facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) between human-dominated habitats and the surrounding environment. Here, we use functional metagenomics to survey the diversity and genomic context of AR genes in gulls. Using this approach, we found a variety of AR genes not previously detected in gulls and wildlife, including class A and C ?-lactamases as well as six tetracycline resistance gene types. An analysis of the flanking sequences indicates that most of these genes are present in Enterobacteriaceae and various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to finding known gene types, we detected 31 previously undescribed AR genes. These undescribed genes include one most similar to an uncharacterized gene in Verrucomicrobium and another to a putative DNA repair protein in Lactobacillus. Overall, the study more than doubled the number of clinically relevant AR gene types known to be carried by gulls or by wildlife in general. Together with the propensity of gulls to visit human-dominated habitats, this high diversity of AR gene types suggests that gulls could facilitate the spread of AR. PMID:22347872

Martiny, Adam C.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Weihe, Claudia; Field, Andrew; Ellis, Julie C.

2011-01-01

304

Ultraviolet photopigment sensitivity and ocular media transmittance in gulls, with an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Gulls (Laridae excluding Sternidae) appear to be the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) that have a short wavelength sensitive type 1 (SWS1) cone pigment opsin tuned to ultraviolet (UV) instead of violet. However, the apparent UV-sensitivity has only been inferred indirectly, via the interpretation that the presence of cysteine at the key amino acid position 90 in the SWS1 opsin confers UV sensitivity. Unless the cornea and the lens efficiently transmit UV to the retina, gulls might in effect be similar to violet-sensitive birds in spectral sensitivity even if they have an ultraviolet sensitive (UVS) SWS1 visual pigment. We report that the spectral transmission of the cornea and lens of great black-backed Larus marinus and herring gulls L. argentatus allow UV-sensitivity, having a lambda(T0.5) value, 344 nm, similar to the ocular media of UV sensitive birds. By molecular sequencing of the second alpha-helical transmembrane region of the SWS1 opsin gene we could also infer that 15 herring gulls and 16 yellow-legged gulls L. michahellis, all base-pair identical, are genetically UV-sensitive. PMID:19308422

Håstad, Olle; Partridge, Julian C; Odeen, Anders

2009-06-01

305

Functional metagenomics reveals previously unrecognized diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in gulls.  

PubMed

Wildlife may facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) between human-dominated habitats and the surrounding environment. Here, we use functional metagenomics to survey the diversity and genomic context of AR genes in gulls. Using this approach, we found a variety of AR genes not previously detected in gulls and wildlife, including class A and C ?-lactamases as well as six tetracycline resistance gene types. An analysis of the flanking sequences indicates that most of these genes are present in Enterobacteriaceae and various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to finding known gene types, we detected 31 previously undescribed AR genes. These undescribed genes include one most similar to an uncharacterized gene in Verrucomicrobium and another to a putative DNA repair protein in Lactobacillus. Overall, the study more than doubled the number of clinically relevant AR gene types known to be carried by gulls or by wildlife in general. Together with the propensity of gulls to visit human-dominated habitats, this high diversity of AR gene types suggests that gulls could facilitate the spread of AR. PMID:22347872

Martiny, Adam C; Martiny, Jennifer B H; Weihe, Claudia; Field, Andrew; Ellis, Julie C

2011-01-01

306

An outbreak of type C botulism in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in southeastern Sweden.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. PMID:17699071

Neimanis, A; Gavier-Widén, D; Leighton, F; Bollinger, T; Rocke, T; Mörner, T

2007-07-01

307

Differences in mercury contamination and elimination during feather development in gull and tern broods.  

PubMed

Eggs, feathers (down, body feathers from side/shoulder and back) and some dead chicks (liver) from broods of three species, herring full (Larus argentatus), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) from the German North Sea coast were collected to study intersibling differences in mercury contamination and elimination into the growing feathers. The mercury contamination in eggs, feathers, and liver of the terns was about four times that of the gulls; black-headed gulls had lowest mercury concentrations. The body feathers grow when the chicks became older had lower mercury levels than down in the more contaminated species (11% lower in herring gulls, 49% in common terns), indicating the advancing decontamination of the body by the plumage development. The elimination of mercury was greater in chicks with higher mercury levels. Down of the first hatched herring gull and common tern chick contained more mercury than down of the siblings hatched later, because of its higher burden derived from the first laid egg. PMID:8060159

Becker, P H; Henning, D; Furness, R W

1994-08-01

308

Chiral organochlorine contaminants in blood and eggs of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic.  

PubMed

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and their eggs from Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic) have been used as biomonitors of contaminants in the marine environment. In this study, the enantiomer fractions (EFs) of chiral chlordanes and atropisomeric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the blood plasma of adult male and female glaucous gulls from three breeding colonies in Svalbard. Plasma EFs were similar in magnitude and direction to EFs previously reported in glaucous gulls from other arctic food webs, suggesting overall similarities in the biochemical processes influencing the EFs of bioaccumulated organochlorine (OC) contaminants within the food webs at those locations. Additionally, EFs in yolk of eggs collected concurrently from within the same nesting colonies varied with location, laying date, and OC concentrations, and may be influenced by changes in the local feeding ecology between those colonies. No differences were found between the EFs for any analyte in female gulls compared to those found in egg yolk, indicating that processes involved in the maternal transfer of chlordanes and PCBs to eggs do not modulate the stereochemical ratio between enantiomers. Therefore, the use of eggs as a valuable and noninvasive means of OC biomonitoring may also extend to enantiomer compositions in glaucous gulls, and perhaps also in other seabird species from arctic regions. PMID:18939544

Ross, Matthew S; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Wong, Charles S

2008-10-01

309

Discovery of probably Tunguska meteorites at the bottom of Khushmo river's shoal  

E-print Network

The author describes some stones which he found at the bottom of Khushmo River's shoal during 1988 expedition into the region of the Tunguska impact (1908). Photos of stones are presented. Three stones have traces of melting and the author consider these stones as probable Tunguska meteorites. Some arguments are presented to confirm author's opinion. Results of investigation of prospect holes in peat-bogs are briefly described too. New data concerning heat impulse of the Tunguska impact are obtained. There is the assumption that some meteorites which are formed during comet impact looks like stony or glass-like thin plates with traces of melting.

Andrei E. Zlobin

2013-04-29

310

Sarcocystis sp. from the herring gull (Larus argentatus) identity to Sarcocystis wobeseri based on cyst morphology and DNA results.  

PubMed

Having studied 11 herring gulls (Larus argentatus) Sarcocystis cysts were found in neck and leg muscles of 4 birds. One type of sarcocysts (cyst type I) that have a thin (?1.0 ?m), smooth, or slightly wavy cyst wall without clearly visible protrusions and small (6.0-8.0 ?m) lancet- or banana-shaped cystozoites was identified by the light microscopy. Sarcocysts extracted from one herring gull were used for electron microscopy and DNA analysis. Ultrastructurally, Sarcocystis sp. from the herring gull had the same tissue cyst wall type-1 as S. calchasi, S. columbae, and S. wobeseri parasitizing in birds. According to first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA gene sequences, Sarcocystis sp. from the herring gull belongs to S. wobeseri. Nevertheless, without evidences of cross-transmission experiment sarcocysts extracted from herring gull at present time are named as S. wobeseri-like. PMID:21597959

Prakas, Petras; Kutkien?, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Butkauskas, Dalius

2011-12-01

311

Nesting biology of laughing gulls Larus atricilla in relation to agricultural chemicals in south Texas USA 1978-1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various aspects of the breeding biology of Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) have been studied extensively in Florida (Dinsmore and Schreiber 1974, Schreiber et al. 1979, Schreiber and Schreiber 1980), New Jersey (Bongiorno 1970, Burger and Beer 1976, Burger 1976, Montevecchi 1978), and Massachusetts (Noble and Wurm 1943), but little is known of their yearly fledging success in Texas or elsewhere. The Laughing Gull is a common colonial nester along most of the Texas coast, second only to the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in breeding abundance; however, the Laughing Gull may be threatened in Texas because of suspected declines at certain traditional nesting locales (Blacklock et al. 1979). Since Laughing Gulls often nest in proximity to agricultural and industrial areas, we were concerned that environmental pollutants might be adversely affecting productivity. In 1978-1981 we conducted studies along the south Texas coast to learn more about the nesting ecology of Laughing Gulls and to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants on reproduction.

White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Prouty, R.M.

1983-01-01

312

Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

Ahmed Hassan

2004-09-01

313

Heavy metals in laughing gulls: Gender, age and tissue differences  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, manganese, selenium, and chromium in feathers, liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of known-aged laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) that hatched in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey and were collected at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York 1 to 7 years later. Concentrations differed significantly among tissues, and tissue entered all the regression models explaining the greatest variation in metal levels. Age of bird contributed significantly to the models for lead, cadmium, selenium, and chromium. Although there were significant gender differences in all body measurements except wing length, there were few differences in metal levels. Males had significantly higher lead levels in feathers, and females had significantly higher selenium levels in heart and muscle tissue. For lead, 3-year olds had the highest levels in the heart, liver, and kidney, and levels were lower thereafter. Mercury levels in feathers and heart decreased significantly with age. Cadmium levels increased significantly with age for feathers, heart, liver, and muscle, although there was a slight decrease in the 7-year olds. Selenium levels decreased significantly with age for all tissues. Chromium levels increased with age for liver and heart.

Gochfeld, M. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Robert Wood Johnson Medical School]|[Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Belant, J.L. [Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission, Duluth, MN (United States); Shukla, T.; Benson, T. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Burger, J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Nelson Biological Lab.

1996-12-01

314

Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta ? †  

PubMed Central

We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull (Larus californicus) samples using culture-, PCR-, and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based detection assays. Campylobacter prevalence and abundance were relatively high in the gull excreta examined; however, C. jejuni and C. lari were detected in fewer than 2% of the isolates and DNA extracts from the fecal samples that tested positive. Moreover, molecular and sequencing data indicated that most L. californicus campylobacters were novel (<97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to known Campylobacter species) and not closely related to species commonly associated with human illness. Campylobacter estimates were positively related with those of fecal indicators, including a gull fecal marker based on the Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S rRNA gene. PMID:21622785

Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Griffith, John F.; Ashbolt, Nicholas

2011-01-01

315

Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls.  

PubMed

Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. PMID:23507452

Bodewes, R; van de Bildt, M W G; Schapendonk, C M E; van Leeuwen, M; van Boheemen, S; de Jong, A A W; Osterhaus, A D M E; Smits, S L; Kuiken, T

2013-05-25

316

Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen.  

PubMed

The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. An elevated ratio of PCB-118 was found, suggesting that local contamination from the settlement was detectable in the glaucous gull. Eight cestodes, four nematodes, two acanthocephalan and three trematode helminth species were found in the intestine. A positive correlation was found between cestode intensities and selenium levels and between acanthocephalan intensities and mercury levels. No correlation was found between parasite intensities and POP concentrations. It is concluded that the contaminant levels found in glaucous gulls do not cause immune suppression severe enough to affect parasite intensity. PMID:19364623

Sagerup, Kjetil; Savinov, Vladimir; Savinova, Tatiana; Kuklin, Vadim; Muir, Derek C G; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2009-01-01

317

Trace element concentrations in eggshells and egg contents of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) from Korea.  

PubMed

Concentrations of trace elements (cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and zinc) were examined in eggs of black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) from Hongdo Island, Korea to determine the difference and distribution of trace elements in eggshells and egg contents. Cadmium, lead and manganese concentrations were greater in eggshells than in egg contents. In contrast, zinc concentrations were higher in egg contents than in eggshells. Trace element concentrations followed the order: zinc > lead = manganese = copper > cadmium (eggshells) and zinc > copper > manganese > lead > cadmium (egg contents). Cadmium concentrations were relatively low (<1 ?g/g dw) in egg contents and eggshells. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and copper were significantly correlated between egg contents and eggshells. This indicates that cadmium, lead and copper levels in the eggshell can reflect their levels in the egg contents. There was also a high ratio (3.2) of eggshell/egg content for lead. These results indicate that the eggshell might be useful as a bio-indicator for monitoring cadmium, lead and copper in the egg content. PMID:24859774

Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

2014-09-01

318

Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).  

PubMed

Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species. PMID:24882099

Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

2014-06-01

319

Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.  

PubMed

The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. PMID:14638302

Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

2004-01-01

320

Identification of human enteric pathogens in gull feces at Southwestern Lake Michigan bathing beaches.  

PubMed

Ring-billed (Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815) and herring (Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763) gulls are predominant species of shorebirds in coastal areas. Gulls contribute to the fecal indicator burden in beach sands, which, once transported to bathing waters, may result in water quality failures. The importance of these contamination sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor bathing water quality on human health. This study examined the occurrence of human enteric pathogens in gull populations at Racine, Wisconsin. For 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005, and 7 weeks in 2006, 724 gull fecal samples were examined for pathogen occurrence on traditional selective media (BBL CHROMagar-Salmonella, Remel Campy-BAP, 7% horse blood agar) or through the use of novel isolation techniques (Campylobacter, EC FP5-funded CAMPYCHECK Project), and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogens commonly harbored in gulls. An additional 226 gull fecal samples, collected in the same 12-week period in 2004, from a beach in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were evaluated with standard microbiological methods and PCR. Five isolates of Salmonella (0.7%), 162 (22.7%) isolates of Campylobacter, 3 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila group 2 (0.4%), and 28 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides (3.9%) were noted from the Racine beach. No occurrences of Salmonella and 3 isolates of Campylobacter (0.4%) were found at the Milwaukee beach. A subset of the 2004 samples was also examined for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and was found to be negative. Information as to the occurrence of human pathogens in beach ecosystems is essential to design further studies assessing human health risk and to determine the parameters influencing the fate and transport of pathogens in the nearshore environment. PMID:19096455

Kinzelman, Julie; McLellan, Sandra L; Amick, Ashley; Preedit, Justine; Scopel, Caitlin O; Olapade, Ola; Gradus, Steve; Singh, Ajaib; Sedmak, Gerald

2008-12-01

321

Validation of water flux and body composition in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus).  

PubMed

Water influx rates (WIR) measured with tritiated water dilution were compared with direct measures of water and energy intake in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Total body water (TBW) measured isotopically was also compared with TBW determined by body composition analysis (BCA) of the same birds. Seventeen wild gulls were captured and studied in outdoor enclosures at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, in July 2002. Gulls were hand-fed known quantities of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) or given water on the basis of one of four experimental treatments: (A) fasting, (B) fish only, (C) water only, or (D) fish and water. Water and energy content of Arctic cod was also determined. WIR of gulls (after subtracting metabolic water production) in treatments A, B, C, and D were 0, 101 +/- 5, 62 +/- 19, and 122 +/- 21 SD g d(-1), respectively. Measured water intake in each group was 0, 111 +/- 2, 64 +/- 3, and 134 +/- 15 SD g d(-1), respectively. On average, WIR underestimated measured water intake in each group. Errors were lowest but most variable for gulls fed water only (-2.2% +/- 32.8%) compared with gulls fed fish only (-9.0% +/- 5.4%) or fish and water (-9.0% +/- 7.0%). Compared with measured water intake, errors in WIR were relatively low overall (-6.9% +/- 17.4%) and comparable to previous validation studies. The difference in TBW determined by BCA versus isotopic dilution ranged between -1.02% and +8.59% of mass. On average, TBW measured isotopically (632 +/- 24 g kg(-1)) overestimated true body water by a factor of 1.033. PMID:16826510

Shaffer, Scott A; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Verreault, Jonathan; Costa, Daniel P

2006-01-01

322

Changes in prolactin in a highly organohalogen contaminated Arctic top predator seabird, the glaucous gull.  

PubMed

The factors influencing prolactin (PRL) variation in birds and in wildlife in general have rarely been investigated with respect to the physiological impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the associations between circulating baseline PRL levels and concentrations of eight persistent organohalogen contaminant (OHC) classes (i.e., major organochlorines and brominated flame retardants, and associated metabolic products) in blood (plasma) of free-ranging glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), a top predator in the Norwegian Arctic, engaged in the process of incubation. We further examined whether plasma OHC concentrations were associated with the variation of PRL in glaucous gulls exposed to a standardized capture/restraint protocol. Plasma OHC concentrations in male glaucous gulls were 2- to 3-fold higher relative to females. Baseline PRL levels tended to be higher in females compared to males, although not significantly (p=0.20). In both males and females, the 30-min capture/restraint protocol led on average to a 26% decrease in PRL levels, which resulted in a rate of PRL decrease of 0.76 ng/mL/min. The baseline PRL levels and the rate of decrease in PRL levels tended to vary negatively with plasma OHC concentrations in males, but not in females, although several of these associations did not adhere with the criterion of significance (alpha=0.05). Present results suggest that in highly OHC-exposed male glaucous gulls, the control of PRL release may be affected by the direct or indirect modulating actions of OHCs and/or their metabolically derived products. We conclude that potentially OHC-mediated impact on PRL secretion in glaucous gulls (males) may be a contributing factor to the adverse effects observed on the reproductive behavior, development and population size of glaucous gulls breeding in the Norwegian Arctic. PMID:18374920

Verreault, Jonathan; Verboven, Nanette; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Letcher, Robert J; Chastel, Olivier

2008-05-01

323

Organohalogen contaminants and reproductive hormones in incubating glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic.  

PubMed

Organohalogen contaminants detected globally in avian wildlife, including populations from the Arctic, have been related to various reproductive hormone potencies, and altered hormonal balance and functions. Besides legacy organochlorine (OC) substances, that is, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and OC pesticides and by-products, endocrine-disruptive properties have been defined for chemicals of new and emerging environmental concern, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolically derived products like methylsulfonyl (MeSO2)- and hydroxyl (OH)-PCBs. We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of selected legacy OCs, PBDEs, and MeSO2- and OH-PCB metabolites and the circulating reproductive hormones testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) in incubating male and female glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Principal component and regression analyses demonstrated that P4 levels in male glaucous gulls were associated positively with variations of sum (Y) PCB, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (sigmaDDT), chlordane (sigmaCHL), and sigmaPBDE concentrations, which were the most recalcitrant organohalogens determined in glaucous gulls. No such relationship was found for female glaucous gulls as well as between concentrations of any of the selected organohalogens and levels of T for both sexes. The E2 was not detected in any plasma samples. Present results were highly suggestive that exposure to high organohalogen concentrations in glaucous gulls, particularly the most persistent compound classes, may have the potential to interfere with steroidogenesis and impinge on circulating P4 homeostasis. Because significant effects were found in males exclusively, it cannot be completely ruled out that male glaucous gulls are more sensitive than females to organohalogen-mediated alteration of P4 synthesis and breakdown. PMID:17089723

Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Ropstad, Erik; Dahl, Ellen; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2006-11-01

324

MATURATION OF SHOALING IN TWO ZEBRAFISH STRAINS: A BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders for which appropriate treatment is lacking. The zebrafish has been proposed as a tool with which these disorders may be modeled and their mechanisms analyzed. A potential starting point of such analyses is the identification of genetic differences between distinct zebrafish strains. Here we compare AB and TU, two well established zebrafish strains, and characterize the developmental trajectories of their shoaling (social) behavior and of the levels of dopamine, serotonin as well as a metabolite of each of these neurotransmitters, DOPAC and 5HIAA from whole brain extracts. Using a novel video-tracking software application, we demonstrate significant strain dependent changes in the maturation of shoaling between day 7 and day 87 post-fertilization. Using high-precision liquid chromatography specifically adapted to zebrafish, we uncover a significant age x strain interaction in dopamine and DOPAC that apparently correlates well with the behavioral differences found between the strains. We also report on strain differences in serotonin and 5HIAA. We discuss possible mechanistic analyses that will address causality and conclude that zebrafish will be a useful tool with which the neurobiological and genetic bases of social behavior may be analyzed in vertebrates. PMID:23518435

Mahabir, Samantha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

2013-01-01

325

Nocturnal Fish Use of New Jersey Marsh Creek and Adjacent Bay Shoal Habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Night-time sampling with gill nets in the Little Egg Harbor estuary revealed a component of the estuarine fish fauna, hitherto poorly documented, which is comprised of relatively large size classes of juvenile and adult life history stages. The fishes Mustelus canis, Pomatomus saltatrix, Paralichthys dentatus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Prionotus evolansand Alosa mediocriswere the most abundant fishes captured. These observations suggest that Mid-Atlantic Bight estuaries are important nurseries for juvenile stages beyond the first year, as well as for the young of the year (YOY). Although many other studies emphasise the importance of estuaries as nurseries for YOY stages, the importance of estuaries to later juvenile life stages has been largely overlooked. This component of estuarine fish fauna has been poorly represented in previous North American studies because of probable gear avoidance, and because most studies are conducted primarily during the day. The authors hypothesise that these later juvenile stages are likely to be important estuarine faunal components in other geographic regions, as well as in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. A descriptive comparison of catches between ebb and flood tide stages, and between bay shoal and tidal marsh creek habitats, suggests that later juvenile and adult stages of several species make tidal migrations into shallow estuarine habitats, such as shoals and marsh creeks, during the night hours.

Rountree, R. A.; Able, K. W.

1997-06-01

326

Scents and scents-ability: pollution disrupts chemical social recognition and shoaling in fish  

PubMed Central

Chemical cues are of enormous importance in mediating the behaviour of animals, enabling them to navigate throughout their habitats, to detect the presence of predators or prey and for social recognition—identifying and discriminating between conspecifics. In many species of freshwater fish, social recognition is known to be based primarily on chemical cues. Such recognition mechanisms are vulnerable to disruption by the presence of anthropogenic contaminants in the aquatic environment. Here we show that acute exposure to low, environmentally relevant dosages of the ubiquitous contaminant, 4-nonylphenol, can seriously affect social recognition and ultimately social organization in fishes. A 1 hour 0.5??g?l?1 dose was sufficient to alter the response of members of a shoaling fish species (juvenile banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus) to conspecific chemical cues. Dosages of 1–2??g?l?1 caused killifish to orient away from dosed conspecifics, in both a flow channel and an arena. Given the overall importance of shoaling as an adaptive strategy against predators and for locating food, it is likely that its disruption by anthropogenic contaminants would have serious implications for fishes' fitness. PMID:17956844

Ward, Ashley J.W; Duff, Alison J; Horsfall, Jennifer S; Currie, Suzanne

2007-01-01

327

New organochlorine contaminants and metabolites in plasma and eggs of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic.  

PubMed

The present study investigated new or lesser-studied and legacy organochlorine (OC) contaminants and metabolites in plasma and eggs of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) collected from major breeding colonies on Bear Island in the Norwegian Arctic. Hexachlorobutadiene was below the method limit of detection (< 0.07 ng/g lipid wt) in all samples. The sum (sum) of 20 chlorobornane congener concentrations ranged between 294 and 986 ng/g lipid weight and 104 and 1,121 ng/g lipid weight in plasma and eggs, respectively, whereas those of sum 20polychlorinated naphthalene ranged between 1.34 and 126 ng/g lipid weight in plasma and 1.82 and 162 ng/g lipid weight in eggs. Bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone concentrations ranged between 5.24 and 143 ng/ g lipid weight plasma, which is the first report of this contaminant in arctic biota north of Sweden. Based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs), partial dioxin-like toxicity varied between 3.04 and 20.8 ng TEQ/g lipid weight in plasma and 0.94 and 46.5 ng TEQ/g lipid weight in eggs, and largely was due to concentrations of non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with a very minor contribution from mono-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated naphthalenes. The major aryl sulfone metabolite in plasma was an unidentified hexachlorinated MeSO2-PCB congener (range: 13.5-551 ng/g lipid wt), whereas the pentachlorinated congeners 3'- and 4'-MeSO2-CB101 (range: 4.49-38.1 ng/g lipid wt) dominated in eggs. The predominant halogenated phenolic compound (HPC) in plasma was consistently the PCB metabolite 4-OH-CB187 (range: 0.29-17.5 ng/g wet wt), whereas in eggs, detectable HPCs were at very low and transient concentrations. As part of a complex profile of contaminant exposure, these chemical classes and metabolites may be contributing factors to enhance physiological stress in breeding glaucous gulls. PMID:16268150

Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Chu, Shaogang; Gebbink, Wouter A; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2005-10-01

328

Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers' access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

Weiser, E.L.; Powell, A.N.

2011-01-01

329

Dynamics of storage of organochlorine pollutants in herring gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several organochlorine pollutants were studied over the period of one annual cycle in caged juvenile and wild-collected adult herring gulls (Lagus argentatus) from Lake Michigan. Fish, mostly alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), comprised the major year-round food items in the wild; alewives were also fed to the caged juveniles. Fish residues averaged around 3 mg/kg of p,p'-DDE, 2 mg/kg p,p'DDT + p,p'-TDE, and 2 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Juvenile body-burdens of DDE and PCBs showed a continual buildup after fledging, then a temporary dynamic equilibrium, related only in part to annual lipid deposition. Maximum body-burdens were reached in both juveniles and adults when winter fat deposits were declining prior to the breeding season?followed by a return to dynamic equilibrium. Residues of DDT and TDE followed closely the annual pattern of lipid deposition in both juveniles and adults. Total body-burdens in both age classes were similar after the buildups to equilibrium in juveniles in their eighth month after fledging. Seasonal variations of residues of DDE and PCBs were characterised by two phases in adults and three in juveniles, which gradually assumed the adult cyclic pattern. The maximum body-burdens attained by caged juveniles fed a diet of Lake Michigan alewives were 290 mg/kg DDE, 19 mg/kg DDT + TDE, and 200 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Residues in wild adults at the same time were 300, 4, and 200 mg/kg of the same residues. Apparent PCBs and DDE were highly accumulative, although DDE levels resulted from dietary DDE, as well as conversion from DDT.

Anderson, D.W.; Hickey, J.J.

1976-01-01

330

The efficacy of the colour?ringing system used for herring gulls Larus argentatus and lesser black?backed gulls Larus fuscus in Bristol 1980–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of the colour?ringing scheme used for nestlings of the Herring and Lesser Black?backed Gulls which breed on rooftops in Bristol are presented. Mean recovery rates of 61.0% and 55.1% respectively have been achieved, showing that the information return on birds after fledging is significantly higher than that achieved by the use of metal rings alone or by using standard

Peter Rock

1999-01-01

331

Haematology and blood chemistry of healthy and clinically abnormal great black?backed gulls (Larus Marinus) and herring gulls (Larus Argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal haematological values and cholesterol values (total, HDL?cholesterol, LDL?cholesterol) were determined in free?living Herring and Great Black?backed Gulls, taking into account species, age and sex. These figures were then used as a basis of comparison with findings on birds with apparent clinical abnormalities (the birds were either oiled, emaciated, extensively infested with endoparasites, had external injuries or organic abnormalities).Species?specific differences

Christiane Averbeck

1992-01-01

332

Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown inexplicable declines in breeding waterbirds within western New York/New Jersey Harbor between 1996 and 2002 and elevated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs. The present study assessed associations between immune function, prefledgling survival, and selected organochlorine compounds and metals in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in lower New York Harbor during 2003. In pipping gull embryos, lymphoid cells were counted in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (sites of T and B lymphocyte maturation, respectively). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response assessed T cell function in gull and heron chicks. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured in vitro in adult and prefledgling gulls. Reference data came from the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy. Survival of prefledgling gulls was poor, with only 0.68 and 0.5 chicks per nest surviving to three and four weeks after hatch, respectively. Developing lymphoid cells were reduced 51% in the thymus and 42% in the bursa of gull embryos from New York Harbor. In vitro lymphocyte assays demonstrated reduced spontaneous proliferation, reduced T cell mitogen-induced proliferation, and increased B cell mitogen-induced proliferation in gull chicks from New York Harbor. The PHA skin response was suppressed 70 to 80% in gull and heron chicks. Strong negative correlations (r?=?-0.95 to -0.98) between the PHA response and dioxins and PCBs in gull livers was strong evidence suggesting that these chemicals contribute significantly to immunosuppression in New York Harbor waterbirds. PMID:23212976

Grasman, Keith A; Echols, Kathy R; May, Thomas M; Peterman, Paul H; Gale, Robert W; Orazio, Carl E

2013-03-01

333

Z .ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 54 1999 123129 Scanning laser mapping of the coastal zone: the SHOALS system  

E-print Network

Z .ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry & Remote Sensing 54 1999 123­129 Scanning laser mapping a scanning, pulsed, Z . Z .infrared 1064 nm and blue-green 532 nm laser transmitter with five receiver survey; lidar; remote sensing; Saco River; SHOALS 1. Introduction Z .Airborne lidar LIght Detection

Lefsky, Michael

334

[Study of protein metabolism of herring gulls (Larus argentatus Pontop.) infected by trematode Himasthla larina (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)].  

PubMed

The values and dynamics of some indices of protein metabolism were studied in herring gulls Larus argentatus infected with trematode Himasthla larina in natural populations and in experiment. These indices were compared in infected and uninfected birds. Trematode infection considerably affected host protein metabolism irrespective of the age; however, the changes were more pronounced in nestlings. Increased concentration of gamma-globulins, modified albumin, and circulating immune complexes was observed in plasma of infected herring gulls. The experiments demonstrated the most significant changes in protein metabolism of herring gulls 8-11 days after infection with trematode H. larina. PMID:18038623

Kuklina, M M; Kuklin, V V

2007-01-01

335

PARENTAL INDEMNIFICATION FORM FOR ALL MINORS IN USER PROGRAMS at the Shoals Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Maine.  

E-print Network

Cornell University and The University of New Hampshire, their Trustees, officers, agents, and employees, and as such the chance of injury associated with immersion in water or the hazards of the shoreline are present. I agree

336

Northerly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND  

E-print Network

of the Chicago Loop, is a peninsula sur- rounded by Lake Michigan and Burnham Harbor. The four teams were groupedNortherly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs CUPPA FALL 2005 NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs

Illinois at Chicago, University of

337

Why do snakes have eyes? The (non-)effect of blindness in island tiger snakes ( Notechis scutatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large (to >1?m), diurnally active tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) are abundant on Carnac Island, near the coast of Western Australia. Our behavioural and mark-recapture studies provide the\\u000a first ecological data on this population, and reveal a surprising phenomenon. Many adult tiger snakes have had their eyes\\u000a destroyed, apparently during nest defence, by silver gulls (Larus novaehollandiae). This loss of vision

Xavier Bonnet; Don Bradshaw; Richard Shine; David Pearson

1999-01-01

338

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWN-AGE RING-BILLED GULL EMBRYOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes growth and development of Ring-billed Gull (Larus deelawarensis) embryos. It provides a basis for estimating the age of eggs at previously unvisited colonies. The data also supply a way to determine, within a colony, the location of early and later nesting pairs by comparing, during the same sampling time, relative ages of eggs located in different parts

JOHN P. RYDER; LYNN SOMPPI

339

Genetic and morphological differentiation between the two largest breeding colonies of Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the genetic and morphological differences between the two largest breeding colonies of Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii , an endemic seabird species of the Mediterranean region. The two colonies comprise c. 75% of the total world population and are 655 km apart. The Ebro Delta colony was formed recently and, after dramatic growth mainly due to high rates of

Meritxell Genovart; Daniel Oro; Francois Bonhomme

2003-01-01

340

Heavy metal and selenium levels in Franklin's Gull ( Larus pipixcan ) parents and their eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, selenium, and manganese concentrations were measured in the breast feathers of 25 pairs of Franklin's Gulls (Larus pipixcan) and in their eggs from a breeding colony at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in Northwestern Minnesota. Metal concentrations in eggs represent metals sequestered in the egg by females at the time of egg formation; while metal concentrations in

J. Burger; M. Gochfeld

1996-01-01

341

Aspects of the biology of the common gull larus canus from remains left by predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 224 adult Common Gulls from west Scotland was used to obtain biometric and moult data. 222 of these were dead; about 50% had been killed by North American Mink and 39% by raptors, usually Peregrines. In 71 males and 65 females the sex was identified by inspection of the gonads; these birds were used to show significant

J. C. A. Craik

1997-01-01

342

Long-Term Studies of Common Gulls (Larus Canus) in Estonia: Responses to Environmental Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of Common Gulls has been studied since 1962, making the analysis of longterm changes in the population and the impact of the changing environment possible. Due to the fixed clutch size, the reproductive lifespan and survival of offspring from hatching to maturity, both affected mainly by winter severity, are the prime creators of the variation in lifetime reproductive

Kalev Rattiste; Urmas Tartes

2005-01-01

343

Unequal sex ratios and their consequences in Herring Gulls ( Larus argentatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed the sex ratios and age composition of courting, nesting, and nonbreeding birds (in clubs) in four breeding colonies of Herring Gulls in Maine and New York. Breeding pairs, with eggs or chicks, often contained an immature male, but rarely contained an immature female. Similarly, courting pairs contained immature males, but rarely immature females. A higher proportion of courting

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1981-01-01

344

Do young Ring-billed Gulls Larus delawarensis participate in territorial defence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The participation of Ring-billed Gulls and their young in ejecting intruders was compared by observing 13 families in the periphery of a colony in southern Quebec. The frequency of assaults suffered by chicks increased as they got older and the frequency of their jabs, charges and attacks against others also increased with age. Actual fights were less frequent than other

Anne-Marie Dulude; Raymond McNeil; Georg Baron

1988-01-01

345

Osmoregulatory responses of glaucous-winged gulls ( Larus glaucescens ) to dehydration and hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dehydration and hemorrhage on plasma ionic, osmotic, and antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasotocin) concentrations and of hemorrhage on salt gland secretion and glomerular filtration rate were evaluated in glaucous-winged gulls, Larus glaucescens. Dehydration for 24 h did not affect plasma ionic, osmotic or arginine vasotocin concentrations; 72 h dehydration significantly elevated plasma osmolality, plasma sodium and chloride concentrations,

M. R. Hughes; D. L. Goldstein; L. Raveendran

1993-01-01

346

Speciation with gene flow in the large white-headed gulls: does selection counterbalance introgression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of selection in generating and maintaining species distinctness in spite of ongoing gene flow, using two zones of secondary contact between large gull species in Europe (Larus argentatus and Larus cachinnans) and North America (Larus glaucescens and Larus occidentalis). We used the pattern of neutral genetic differentiation at nine microsatellite loci (FST) as an indicator of

L Gay; G Neubauer; M Zagalska-Neubauer; J-M Pons; D A Bell; P-A Crochet

2009-01-01

347

Riding the tide: intriguing observations of gulls resting at sea during breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus were followed during the breeding season using a high-resolution GPS tracking system. Little is known about the foraging movements of these birds and what they do when they are away from the colony. The study revealed intriguing yet infrequent behavioural patterns showing that birds would sit on the sea surface drifting passively with the

J. Shamoun-Baranes; W. Bouten; C. J. Camphuysen; E. Baaij

2011-01-01

348

Occurrence and Population Densities of Yeast Species in the Digestive Tracts of Gulls and Terns  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY From the intestinal tracts of 37 out of 69 birds belonging to four species of gulls (Larus fuscus, L. genei, L. argentatus, L. ridibundus) and three species of terns (Sterna sandvicensis, S. hirundo, S. rninuta) 62 yeast isolates belonging to 16 species were obtained. The occurrences of individual yeast species were (yo of positive birds in brackets): Saccharomyces cerevisiae

S. KAWAKITA; N. VAN UDEN

1965-01-01

349

effects of varying temporal exposure to lead on behavioral development in herring gull ( Larus argentatus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans and other animals, lead exposure in infants and young animals affects anatomic, physiologic, behavioral, and intellectual development. Yet it is largely unknown whether the effects occur gradually or are more pronounced if exposure occurs at particular stages. In this article we examine the effects of temporal differences in lead exposure on early behavioral development in herring gulls (Larus

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1995-01-01

350

Organochlorines and heavy metals in Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus ) eggs and chicks from the same clutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper the authors investigated the intraclutch variability in levels of toxic pollutants and compared this contamination with that of the female Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) after production of the clutch in question. In the present study, they examine the concentrations of contaminants in chicks as compared with one egg of the same clutch. Such studies are important

Peter H. Becker; Hans Sperveslage

1989-01-01

351

Reduced availability of refuse and breeding output in a herring gull (Larus argentatus) colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive performance of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in an old stable colony in SW Finland. Over the period 1993-1997, the colony decreased, and the garbage dumps the birds may have utilised have all closed. This had an effect on the breeding performance of the colony when comparing the year prior to the closing of the last garbage

Mikael Kilpi; Markus Öst

352

Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines

Craig E. Hebert; Keith A. Hobson; J. Laird Shutt

2000-01-01

353

Studies on a colony of colour-ringed Herring Gulls Larus argentatus: I. Adult survival rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour-ringed Herring Gulls breeding in a small colony in NE England were used to estimate the average annual adult survival rates of males and females in 6 successive years. Although the female survival rate was higher than that of the males in most years, the difference was not significant. The average annual survival rate for both sexes combined was 91.7%,

J. C. Coulson; J. Butterfield

1986-01-01

354

Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre; Weseloh, D.V. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

355

Induced minisatellite germline mutations in herring gulls ( Larus argentatus) living near steel mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite widespread industrial release of genotoxic contaminants, little is understood of their role in inducing germline mutations in natural populations. We used multilocus DNA fingerprinting to quantify germline minisatellite mutations in families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in three nesting categories: (a) near cities with large steel mills operating coking ovens; (b) near cities without steel mills; and (c) in

Carole L Yauk; Glen A Fox; Brian E McCarry; James S Quinn

2000-01-01

356

Notes on the Standard Body Measurements of Two Populations of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 yr many papers concerned with the circumpolar distribution and systematics of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) have been published (e.g. Vouss 1959), with particular reference being paid to northwestern European populations by Barth, who summarized his work in 1975. While large numbers of specimens from Europe have been examined the number from North America has tended

WILLIAM THRELFALL; DAVID D. JEWER

357

Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

2000-05-01

358

ORIGINAL PAPER The diet of Atlantic Yellow-legged Gulls (Larus michahellis  

E-print Network

-petrels (Hydrobatidae; e.g., Vidal et al. 1998; Stenhouse and Montevecchi 1999; Oro et al. 2005). During the last population increase in large gulls (e.g., Spaans 1971; Furness et al. 1992; Oro et al. 1995; Duhem et al and other seabird prey (e.g., Stenhouse and Montevecchi 1999; Oro et al. 2005 and references therein

359

Chlorinated hydrocarbons in glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus) in the southern part of Svalbard  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1989, a number of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were found dead near a seabird cliff at south Svalbard. In an effort to clucidate the course of death, 12 individuals were sent to the Central Veterinary Institute for autopsy and analysis of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in samples of liver, kidney, brain and muscle. Eggs of common and

Geir Wing Gabrielsen; Janneche Utne Skaare; Anuschka Polder; Vidar Bakken

1995-01-01

360

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus) at Bjørnøya (Svalbard)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were collected on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Autopsies of the seabirds only explained a clear cause of death for three (14%) of the 21 birds. A total of 71% of the birds were emaciated. Liver and brain samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),

Kjetil Sagerup; Lisa B. Helgason; Anuschka Polder; Hallvard Strøm; Terje D. Josefsen; Janneche U. Skåre; Geir W. Gabrielsen

2009-01-01

361

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying glaucous gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were collected on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Autopsies ofthe seabirds only explained a clear death cause for three (14%) of the 21 birds. A total of 71% of the birds were emaciated. Liver and brain samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated

Kjetil Sagerup; Lisa B. Helgason; Anuschka Polder; Hallvard Strøm; Janneche U. Skåre; Geir W. Gabrielsen

362

Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Cupper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc

Kjetil Sagerup; Vladimir Savinov; Tatiana Savinova; Vadim Kuklin; Derek C. G. Muir; Geir W. Gabrielsen

2009-01-01

363

Relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus) population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. Recent studies of the glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various OCs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. Here we

Jan Ove Bustnes; Øystein Miland; Magnus Fjeld; Kjell Einar Erikstad; Janneche Utne Skaare

2005-01-01

364

2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

None

2010-03-01

365

2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

None

2009-03-01

366

Groundwater Model Validation for the Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

Stoller has examined newly collected water level data in multiple wells at the Shoal site. On the basis of these data and information presented in the report, we are currently unable to confirm that the model is successfully validated. Most of our concerns regarding the model stem from two findings: (1) measured water level data do not provide clear evidence of a prevailing lateral flow direction; and (2) the groundwater flow system has been and continues to be in a transient state, which contrasts with assumed steady-state conditions in the model. The results of DRI's model validation efforts and observations made regarding water level behavior are discussed in the following sections. A summary of our conclusions and recommendations for a path forward are also provided in this letter report.

None

2008-05-19

367

2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

None

2011-02-01

368

Prolific Overton field gas reservoirs within large transverse oolite shoals, Upper Jurassic Haynesville, Eastern Margin East Texas basin  

SciTech Connect

Late Triassic rifting along a northeast-southwest spreading center in east Texas resulted in basement highs along the eastern margin of the East Texas basin that became sites of extensive ooid shoal deposition during Late Jurassic time. Reservoirs within oolite facies at Overton field contain over 1 tcf of natural gas. These large shoals, each approximately 15 mi (24 km) long and 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, trend north-south as a group and northeast-southwest individually. They are oblique to the basin margin but parallel with Jurassic diffracted tidal currents within the East Texas embayment. Modern Bahamian ooid shoals of similar size, trend, and depositional setting occur at the terminus of the deep Tongue-Of-The-Ocean platform reentrant. Overton field reservoirs are in ooid grainstone shoal facies and in transitional shoal margins of skeletal-oolitic-peloidal grainstones and packstones. Adjacent nonreservoir facies are peloidal-skeletal-siliciclastic wackestones and mudstones. Early diagenesis of grainstone reservoir facies included meteoric dissolution and grain stabilization, resulting in abundant chalky intraparticle porosity and equant and bladed calcite cements filling interparticle porosity. Subsequent burial diagenesis resulted in intense solution compaction and coarse equant calcite and saddle crystal dolomite that occluded remaining interparticle porosity. Whole-rock trace element analysis indicates greatest diagenetic flushing (less magnesium, strontium) in porous zones. Stable isotopes for grains and cements show strong overprint of later burial diagenesis, with greater depletion of delta/sup 18/O in reservoir facies. However, hydrocarbons were emplaced prior to late cementation, and unlike other Jurassic Gulf Coast reservoirs, deep burial diagenesis provided no late-stage formation of porosity.

Glynn, W.G.; Covington, T.E.; Lighty, R.G.; Ahr, W.M.

1985-02-01

369

Characteristics and Mechanisms of Cardiopulmonary Injury Caused by Mine Blasts in Shoals: A Randomized Controlled Study in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Background Because the characteristics of blast waves in water are different from those in air and because kinetic energy is liberated by a pressure wave at the water-air interface, thoracic injuries from mine blasts in shoals may be serious. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals. Methods To study the characteristics of cardiopulmonary injury, 56 animals were divided randomly into three experimental groups (12 animals in the sham group, 22 animals in the land group and 22 animals in the shoal group). To examine the biomechanics of injury, 20 animals were divided randomly into the land group and the shoal group. In the experimental model, the water surface was at the level of the rabbit's xiphoid process, and paper electric detonators (600 mg RDX) were used to simulate mines. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted, and arterial blood gases, serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB and other physiologic parameters were measured over a 12-hour period after detonation. Pressures in the thorax and abdomen and the acceleration of the thorax were measured. Conclusion The results indicate that severe cardiopulmonary injury and dysfunction occur following exposure to mine blasts in shoals. Therefore, the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury may result from shear waves that produce strain at the water-air interface. Another mechanism of injury includes the propagation of the shock wave from the planta to the thorax, which causes a much higher peak overpressure in the abdomen than in the thorax; as a result, the abdominal organs and diaphragm are thrust into the thorax, damaging the lungs and heart. PMID:24358110

Han, Gengfen; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Weixiao; Chen, Jing; Kang, Jianyi; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Aimin; Lai, Xinan

2013-01-01

370

Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect

This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project Shoal Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project Shoal Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.

NONE

1997-07-01

371

Distribution Patterns Predict Individual Specialization in the Diet of Dolphin Gulls  

PubMed Central

Many animals show some degree of individual specialization in foraging strategies and diet. This has profound ecological and evolutionary implications. For example, populations containing diverse individual foraging strategies will respond in different ways to changes in the environment, thus affecting the capacity of the populations to adapt to environmental changes and to diversify. However, patterns of individual specialization have been examined in few species. Likewise it is usually unknown whether specialization is maintained over time, because examining the temporal scale at which specialization occurs can prove difficult in the field. In the present study, we analyzed individual specialization in foraging in Dolphin Gulls Leucophaeus scoresbii, a scavenger endemic to the southernmost coasts of South America. We used GPS position logging and stable isotope analyses (SIA) to investigate individual specialization in feeding strategies and their persistence over time. The analysis of GPS data indicated two major foraging strategies in Dolphin Gulls from New I. (Falkland Is./Islas Malvinas). Tagged individuals repeatedly attended either a site with mussel beds or seabird and seal colonies during 5 to 7 days of tracking. Females foraging at mussel beds were heavier than those foraging at seabird colonies. Nitrogen isotope ratios (?15N) of Dolphin Gull blood cells clustered in two groups, showing that individuals were consistent in their preferred foraging strategies over a period of at least several weeks. The results of the SIA as well as the foraging patterns recorded revealed a high degree of specialization for particular feeding sites and diets by individual Dolphin Gulls. Individual differences in foraging behavior were not related to sex. Specialization in Dolphin Gulls may be favored by the advantages of learning and memorizing optimal feeding locations and behaviors. Specialized individuals may reduce search and handling time and thus, optimize their energy gain and/or minimize time spent foraging. PMID:23844073

Masello, Juan F.; Wikelski, Martin; Voigt, Christian C.; Quillfeldt, Petra

2013-01-01

372

Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls.  

PubMed

Sandwich terns, Sterna sandvicensis, often nest in association with black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus. The gulls provide protection against predators, but can also adversely affect the terns' reproductive success through predation and piracy of fish. To test whether leading the chicks away from the nest site is an evasive strategy used by the parents to reduce the incidence of robbery by the gulls, we kept one group of Sandwich tern chicks at their original breeding site, while, with a wire-netting enclosure, we moved another group away from the gulls. The rate of kleptoparasitism was greatly reduced when the tern chicks were moved away from the original nest site, resulting in faster growth and earlier fledging. The rate of food parasitism and chick condition were affected only during the first 5 days of the experiment. After that, the rate of kleptoparasitism no longer differed between chicks that we moved away and those remaining in the colony. A second shift of the chicks again led to less kleptoparasitism and better chick condition. In line with these findings, the condition of free-living chicks that were lured away from their nesting site by their parents also improved. In particular, chicks initially in poor condition, which apparently suffered from high rates of kleptoparasitism, left the colony site. Free-living chicks are often lured away from the robbing gulls. However, not all subcolonies provided suitable escape routes and subsequently chicks in such subcolonies suffered from high mortality rates. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328801

Stienen; Brenninkmeijer

1999-05-01

373

Pilot study of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and wastewater in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Wildlife may be an important reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. In this pilot study, the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli cultured from wild herring gull (Larus argentatus) feces and human wastewater at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, was compared. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion with seven antimicrobial agents. A high proportion of antimicrobial agent-resistant E. coli isolates (59.2%) were detected in wastewater samples compared with a lower prevalence of 17.5% in gull feces. In addition, there was a large proportion of isolates with intermediate susceptibility (93.0%) in gull feces. Although similar resistance patterns and shared resistance genes suggest possible wastewater contamination of the local environment, the relatively low frequency of resistance and high prevalence of intermediate susceptibility detected in E. coli cultured from gull feces depict a complex model of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli strains of wildlife origin. PMID:22946391

Alroy, Karen; Ellis, Julie C

2011-03-01

374

Bahama Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This beautiful photograph from space shows the contrast between islands, clouds, shallow water and deep water of the Bahamas (25.0N, 76.5E). The Bahama Islands of Nassau (the smaller island) and Eleuthera are at the edge of the Bahama Bank where the water is shallow revealing the bottom in pale blue detail contrasted to the dark depths of the Exuma Sound where the bottom is over a thousand feet deep.

1983-01-01

375

Recombinant albumin and transthyretin transport proteins from two gull species and human: chlorinated and brominated contaminant binding and thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Environmentally relevant concentrations of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardant congeners and their hydroxylated (OH) and methoxylated (MeO) analogues that can perturb thyroid hormone-dependent processes were comparatively examined with respect to competitive binding with thyroxine (T(4)) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) thyroid hormones (THs) on recombinant human and gull albumin and transthyretin transport proteins. The liver tissue was from glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Norway and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Great Lakes of North America. We isolated, cloned, sequenced, purified, and expressed the cDNA (cDNA) of albumin from liver of herring and glaucous gull. Albumin amino acid sequences were identical for both gull species. Concentration-dependent, competitive binding curves were generated for T(4) and T(3) binding alone and for selected substrates using gull and human recombinant albumin (recALB). Human recALB had high preference for T(4) relative to T(3), whereas it was reversed for gull recALB. Binding assays with recALB and recTTR gull proteins showed that relative to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromoDE (BDE-47) and 2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptaCB (CB-187) and the MeO-substituted (4-MeO-CB187 and 6-MeO-BDE47) analogues, 4-OH-CB187, 6-OH-BDE47, and 4'-OH-BDE49 had the greatest binding affinity and potency, and that competitive binding was greater for T(3) relative to T(4). These results indicate that xenobiotic ligand binding to human ALB or TTR cannot be used as a surrogate for gull binding interactions. The combination of TH-like brominated diphenyl ether backbone (relative to the chlorinated biphenyl backbone), and the presence of OH-group produced a more effective competitive ligand on human and gull recALB and recTTR relative to both T(3) and T(4). This suggests the possibility that OH-substituted organohalogen contaminants may be an exposure concern to the thyroid system in free-ranging gulls as well as for humans. PMID:20039755

Ucán-Marin, Francisco; Arukwe, Augustine; Mortensen, Anne S; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Letcher, Robert J

2010-01-01

376

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

377

Sources of Food Delivered to Ring-Billed, Herring and Great Black-Backed Gull Chicks in Marine Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in the 1960s, Ring-billed Gulls' (Larus delawarensis) historic breeding range expanded from inland habitats and freshwater wetlands to marine sites in Atlantic North America. Adults winter on salt water but salt tolerance may entail costs (e.g. maintenance of salt glands) and favor reduced parental use of marine re- sources for feeding chicks. Diets of Ring-billed Gull chicks nesting on

Nicolas R. McLellan; Dave Shutler

2009-01-01

378

Distribution and Abundance of Roof-Nesting Gulls in the Great Lakes Region of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1994, we conducted aerial, mail, and telephone surveys to determine the distribution and abundance of roof-nesting gulls in states bordering the Great Lakes. We documented more than 7,922 nesting pairs of gulls at 30 colonies in four states; species composition was 71% ring-billed (Larus delawarensis^, 24% herring (Z. argentatus^, and 5% unknown. Colony size ranged from 1 to 1,003

Chris P. Dwyer; Jerrod L. Belant; Richard A. Dolbeer

1996-01-01

379

Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus) displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of gull species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed gull (L. marinus) we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring gull complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic gull species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring gull complex is still impossible, and requires detailed autosomal sequence information, a topic of our future studies. PMID:21067625

2010-01-01

380

Distributions of the subspecies of Lesser Black?backed Gulls Larus fuscus in sub?Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule The wintering area of the nominate subspecies of Lesser Black?backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus is from Ethiopia across Uganda and the Congo basin to the Atlantic, while L. f. intermedius and L. f. graellsii winter in westernmost Africa.Aims To clarify the wintering distributions of the subspecies of Lesser Black?backed Gulls.Methods We compiled, mapped, and analysed available data on ring

Henrik Kylin; Henk Bouwman; Michel Louette

2011-01-01

381

Health of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in relation to breeding location in the early 1990s. I. Biochemical measures.  

PubMed

Tissues of 156 adult herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were sampled in the early 1990s from 11 colonies throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes and 2 reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Gulls from 1 or more Great Lakes differed from Lake Winnipeg or the Bay of Fundy for 17 of 19 clinical biochemical measures, whereas the freshwater and marine reference sites differed in only 3. Three differed with sex. There was little evidence to suggest that these differences reflect genotypic differences. Plasma thyroxine, albumin, calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, triglyceride, bile acids, total protein, uric acid, and urea nitrogen concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were lower in gulls from one or more Great Lakes than for gulls from one or both reference sites, while those for globulins and glucose were higher. Highly carboxylated porphyrins accumulated in the livers of Great Lakes gulls and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was induced. There was resistance to PCB/TCDD-induced EROD induction in the Lake Erie colonies. Gulls from five colonies were unable to obtain adequate food to maintain average body condition. Body condition was associated with seven biochemical measures. Colonies in designated Areas of Concern as well as those with high liver polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations both differed for 50% of the biochemical measures. Associations between biochemical measures and delta15N-derived trophic position and/or contaminant levels in tissues suggest the effects may be toxicopathic responses. Associations were most frequently with PCBs and dioxin-like contaminants. The health of adult herring gulls varied with breeding location and "lifestyle" in the early 1990s, and Great Lakes gulls suffered from chemical and nutritional stressors that modulated physiological processes and endocrine function. PMID:17687730

Fox, Glen A; Jeffrey, Deborah A; Williams, Kim S; Kennedy, Sean W; Grasman, Keith A

2007-09-01

382

Geographic Variation in Hematological Variables in Adult and Prefledgling Herring Gulls ( Larus argentatus ) and Possible Associations with Organochlorine Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objectives of this study were (1) to describe variation in hematological values found in adult and prefledgling herring\\u000a gulls (Larus argentatus) over a large geographic area, (2) to investigate relationships between hematological variables and other physiological indices,\\u000a and (3) to examine potential associations between exposure to organochlorines and hematological variables. During 1991–93,\\u000a we sampled 160 breeding adult gulls

K. A. Grasman; P. F. Scanlon; G. A. Fox

2000-01-01

383

Abundance and characteristics of the recreational water quality indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in gull faeces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aims: To evaluate the numbers and selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in gull faeces at representative Great Lakes swimming beaches in the United States. Methods and Results: E. coli and enterococci were enumerated in gull faeces by membrane filtration. E. coli genotypes (rep-PCR genomic profiles) and E. coli (Vitek?? GNI+) and enterococci (API?? rapid ID 32 Strep and resistance to streptomycin, gentamicin, vancomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin) phenotypes were determined for isolates obtained from gull faeces both early and late in the swimming season. Identical E. coli genotypes were obtained only from single gull faecal samples but most faecal samples yielded more than one genotype (median of eight genotypes for samples with 10 isolates). E. coli isolates from the same site that clustered at ???85% similarity were from the same sampling date and shared phenotypic characteristics, and at this similarity level there was population overlap between the two geographically isolated beach sites. Enterococcus API?? profiles varied with sampling date. Gull enterococci displayed wide variation in antibiotic resistance patterns, and high-level resistance to some antibiotics. Conclusions: Gull faeces could be a major contributor of E. coli (105-109 CFU g-1) and enterococci (104-108 CFU g-1) to Great Lakes recreational waters. E. coli and enterococci in gull faeces are highly variable with respect to their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and may exhibit temporal or geographic trends in these features. Significance and Impact of the Study: The high degree of variation in genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of E. coli or enterococci populations within gull hosts will require extensive sampling for adequate characterization, and will influence methods that use these characteristics to determine faecal contamination sources for recreational waters.

Fogarty, L. R.; Haack, S. K.; Wolcott, M. J.; Whitman, R. L.

2003-01-01

384

Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

Erwin, R.M.; Brinker, D.F.; Watts, B.D.; Costanzo, G.R.; Morton, D.D.

2011-01-01

385

Comparing the retinal structures and functions in two species of gulls (Larus delawarensis and Larus modestus) with significant nocturnal behaviours.  

PubMed

Ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and gray gulls (Larus modestus) are two species active both by day and night. We have investigated the retinal adaptations that allow the diurnal and nocturnal behaviours of these two species. Electroretinograms and histological analyses show that both species have a duplex retina in which cones outnumber rods, but the number of rods appears sufficient to provide vision at night. Their retinas respond over the same scotopic dynamic range of 3.4logcdm(-2), which encompasses all of the light levels occurring at night in their photic environment. The amplitudes of the scotopic saturated a- and b-wave responses as well as the photopic saturated b-wave response and the photopic sensitivity parameter S are however higher in ring-billed gulls than in gray gulls. Moreover, the process of dark adaptation is about 30min faster in gray gulls than in ring-billed gulls. Our results suggest that both species have acquired in the course of their evolution functional adaptations that can be related to their specific photic environment. PMID:16647740

Emond, M P; McNeil, R; Cabana, T; Guerra, C G; Lachapelle, P

2006-09-01

386

Organochlorines in antarctic and arctic avian top predators: a comparison between the South Polar Skua and two species of northern hemisphere gulls.  

PubMed

Different organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in the blood of breeding south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) at Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) and compared to those in two species of northern hemisphere gulls: the Arctic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and the subarctic great black-backed gull (Larus marinus). The skuas had 8% and 29% of the SigmaOC levels (45 ng/g, wet weight) of glaucous gulls (591 ng/g) and great black-backed gulls (158 ng/g), respectively. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were very low in skuas compared to northern gulls, but the mean hexachlorobenzene (HCB) level was 1.7 times higher than in great black-backed gulls and one-third of the glaucous gull level. Mirex levels in skuas were among the highest reported in birds, the mean level being 3 and 26 times higher than those in glaucous gull and great black-backed gulls, respectively. In skuas, the mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by about 30% during a 2-week period, and mirex increased by nearly 60%. In glacuous gulls, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by 10-20%. For HCB, mirex, and oxychlordane, only a relatively small proportion of the increase in skuas could be explained by changes in lipid pools and the levels at first sampling, compared to glaucous gulls. Thus, skuas were probably accumulating these compounds when present in Antarctica. p,p'-DDE and PCB levels, in contrast, seemed much more stable in the skuas. Relatively high levels of mirex and HCB in south polar skuas are concerning with regard to potential adverse effects. PMID:16683630

Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Henden, John A; Varpe, Oystein; Janssen, Kirstin; Skaare, Janneche U

2006-04-15

387

The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.

1995-01-01

388

Island Hopping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

Bennett, Gayle

2009-01-01

389

Siberian Islands  

... East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya Sibir, are portrayed in these views from data acquired on May ... Ocean and is ice-covered most of the year. The New Siberian Islands are almost always covered by snow and ice, and tundra vegetation is ...

2013-04-16

390

Mercury Concentration in 3 Species of Gulls, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, From South Coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the mercury concentrations of liver, breast feathers and tail feathers in three species of Gull; Black-headed\\u000a Gull (Larus ridibundus), Common Gull (Larus canus) and Little Gull (Larus minutus) from the South coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran were assayed. Mercury accumulation in liver, breast feathers and tail feathers\\u000a of species were 1.69–3.16, 2.88–7.18 and 2.09–5.66 mg\\/kg, respectively.

Fateme Rajaei; Abbas Esmaili Sari; Nader Bahramifar; Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri

2010-01-01

391

Low-frequency Target Strength and Abundance of Shoaling Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies in the 300 1200 Hz range using (1)...

J. M. Jech, M. Andrews, R. Patel, S. Jagannathan, Z. Gong

2010-01-01

392

46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...  

...Southeast Shoal to Port Huron, MI. 401.407 Section 401.407 Shipping COAST GUARD (GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE), DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GREAT LAKES PILOTAGE REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services §...

2014-10-01

393

Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment  

E-print Network

The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies ...

Gong, Zheng

2010-01-01

394

Bathing birds bias beta-diversity: frequent dispersal by gulls homogenizes fauna in a rock-pool metacommunity.  

PubMed

Metacommunity theory generally predicts that regional dispersal of organisms among local habitat patches should influence spatial patterns of species diversity. In particular, increased dispersal rates are generally expected to increase local (alpha) diversity, yet homogenize local communities across the region (decreasing beta-diversity), resulting in no change in regional (gamma) diversity. Although the effect of dispersal on alpha-diversity has garnered much experimental attention, the influence of dispersal rates on diversity at larger spatial scales (beta and gamma) is poorly understood. Furthermore, these theoretical predictions are not well tested in the field, where other environmental factors (e.g., habitat size, resource density) likely also influence species diversity. Here, we used a system of freshwater rock pools on Appledore Island, Maine, USA, to test the effects of dispersal rate on species diversity in metacommunities. The pools exist in clusters (metacommunities) that experience different levels of dispersal imposed by gulls (Larus spp.), which we show to be frequent passive dispersers of rock-pool invertebrates. Although previous research has suggested that waterbirds may disperse aquatic invertebrates, our study is the first to quantify the rate at which such dispersal occurs and determine its effects on species diversity. In accordance with theory, we found that metacommunities experiencing higher dispersal rates had significantly more homogeneous local communities (reduced beta-diversity) and that gamma-diversity was not influenced by dispersal rate. Contrary to theoretical predictions, however, alpha-diversity in the rock pools was not significantly influenced by dispersal. Rather, local diversity was significantly positively related to local habitat size, and both alpha- and gamma-diversity were influenced by the physicochemical environment of the pools. These results provide an important field test of metacommunity theory, highlighting how local and regional factors interact to drive patterns of species diversity in metacommunities, and demonstrate that waterbirds are indeed important dispersal vectors for aquatic invertebrates. PMID:25039219

Simonis, Joseph L; Ellis, Julie C

2014-06-01

395

Shell damage and shell repair in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna from King George Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nacella concinna is the most conspicuous macroinvertebrate in the intertidal of King George Island. An important predator, the Kelp gull Larus dominicanus, feeds on Nacella during spring low tides. The gulls deposit empty Nacella shells as regurgitates mainly on roosts on coastal rocks. The regurgitates were found to consist of 40% shell fragments by weight and 60% intact shells. Faeces of Kelp gulls contained much smaller fragments than the regurgitates. Some of the Nacella, particularly those too large to ingest, are handled in the intertidal. The middens are, therefore, inadequate to study size selection by Kelp gulls: the largest Nacella are underrepresented. Seventy-five per cent of the intact Nacella shells from the Larus middens showed one or more shell repairs. Such repairs may be due to unsuccessful attacks by gulls, but more probably they indicate damage caused by rolling ice blocks and stones in the intertidal and shallow subtidal. A number of living Nacella were found stranded on the beach, detached from the rocks. They showed damage along the shell margin and even one Nacella was collected without any shell left. The observed repair frequency of 75% in Nacella was much higher than in other (smaller) intertidal gastropods at Potter Peninsula (3-11%, av. 8%). Comparably high frequencies are observed for instance in tropical intertidal gastropods, where repair is due to heavy unsuccessful crab predation; however, shell-crushing crabs are absent on King George Island. This indicates that palaeontologists should be cautious in ascribing all shell repairs in fossil shells (particularly from tidal environments) to predators. Shell repair in the related Nacella deaurata, collected in a less exposed site at Port Stanley (Falkland Islands), occurred only in 13% of the specimens. Another conspicuous form of shell damage was due to grazing by Nacella on the boring algae living in other Nacella shells. Epigrowth of crustose calcareous algae inhibited such grazing, but in the absence of epigrowth deep hollows were scraped in the shells, the parallel scratches by the radula clearly visible, urging Nacella to repair its shell by producing more shelly material on the inside.

Cadée, Gerhard C.

1999-03-01

396

Stable isotope analysis of temporal variation in the diets of pre-fledged Laughing Gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The *13C, *15N, and *34S stable isotopic values of feathers from pre-fledged Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) in coastal Virginia and Jamaica Bay, New York were used to examine dietary variation during the nestling period. The tip portions of the feathers were used to indicate diet during the initiation of primary feather growth, whereas the base portions indicated diet during the period immediately prior to fledging. The results indicate that diets of the nestlings in Virginia moved to a higher trophic level during the period prior to fledging, however the New York nestlings did not appear to undergo any appreciable dietary change during this period. Overall, nestlings from both colonies consumed proportionately more foods of marine origin than freshwater or terrestrial. Therefore, the results do not support those of earlier studies that suggested that partially developed salt glands in young gulls might restrict the diet to more terrestrial or freshwater prey in the early stages of nestling growth.

Knoff, A.J.; Macko, S.A.; Erwin, R.M.; Brown, K.M.

2002-01-01

397

Salmonellae in gulls and other free-living birds in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Cloacal swabs, collected from 756 wild synanthropic and exoanthropic birds of 57 species in the Czech Republic, yielded 32 strains of Salmonella typhimurium [phage types (PT) 141, 104 and 41], six isolates of S. enteritidis (PT 8, 4 and 6e), and one each of S. panama and S. anatum. Except for one S. enteritidis isolate from a grey-lag goose (Anser anser) and one S. typhimurium isolate from a coot (Fulica atra), all of the other strains were derived from black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), of which 24.7% were found to be infected. The black-headed gull might play a role in the dispersal of pathogenic salmonellae. PMID:7787820

Hubálek, Z; Sixl, W; Mikuláskova, M; Sixl-Voigt, B; Thiel, W; Halouzka, J; Juricová, Z; Rosický, B; Mátlová, L; Honza, M

1995-02-01

398

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

399

Shoaling and mate choice of wild-type Tanichthys albonubes in the presence of the red fluorescent transgenic conspecifics.  

PubMed

Shoaling and sexual behaviour of wild-type male and female white cloud mountain minnow Tanichthys albonubes were measured in the presence of the red fluorescent transgenic conspecifics under laboratory conditions. Wild-type female test fish showed no significant preference, whereas wild-type male test fish preferred to be near a shoal of red transgenic fish rather than wild-type fish. When placed in a potentially reproductive context, wild-type males had a higher competitive ability over transgenic males; wild-type females spent more time with wild-type males in visually mediated experiments, but wild-type males performed more courtship displays towards transgenic females. These results suggest that the red body colouration does not appear to disturb signal communication between wild-type and transgenic T. albonubes in shoaling behaviour; transgenic males have no mating advantage over wild-type males, but the red body colouration of transgenic females may affect mate choice of wild-type males. PMID:21235550

Jiang, P; Bai, J J; Ye, X; Jian, Q; Chen, M; Chen, X Q

2011-01-01

400

Evaluating gull diets: A comparison of conventional methods and stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples such as regurgitated pellets and food remains have traditionally been used in studies of bird diets, but these can produce biased estimates depending on the digestibility of different foods. Stable isotope analysis has been developed as a method for assessing bird diets that is not biased by digestibility. These two methods may provide complementary or conflicting information on diets of birds, but are rarely compared directly. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of feathers of Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks from eight breeding colonies in northern Alaska, and used a Bayesian mixing model to generate a probability distribution for the contribution of each food group to diets. We compared these model results with probability distributions from conventional diet samples (pellets and food remains) from the same colonies and time periods. Relative to the stable isotope estimates, conventional analysis often overestimated the contributions of birds and small mammals to gull diets and often underestimated the contributions of fish and zooplankton. Both methods gave similar estimates for the contributions of scavenged caribou, miscellaneous marine foods, and garbage to diets. Pellets and food remains therefore may be useful for assessing the importance of garbage relative to certain other foods in diets of gulls and similar birds, but are clearly inappropriate for estimating the potential impact of gulls on birds, small mammals, or fish. However, conventional samples provide more species-level information than stable isotope analysis, so a combined approach would be most useful for diet analysis and assessing a predator's impact on particular prey groups. ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

Weiser, E.L.; Powell, A.N.

2011-01-01

401

Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of food availability and nest predation on several life history traits such as adult survival, dispersal, and\\u000a reproductive performance were assessed in an Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) colony during the period 1992–1997. The amounts of fish discarded from trawlers were used as a measure of food availability,\\u000a and a trawling moratorium which partially overlapped with the breeding season

Daniel Oro; Roger Pradel; Jean-Dominique Lebreton

1999-01-01

402

Proximate and ultimate causes of adoption in ring-billed gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1987 to 1994, the annual frequency of adoption by breeding pairs at a Lake Erie ring-billed gull,Larus delawarensis, colony ranged from 3 to 37% (average 8%\\/year,N=7 years) and, on average, foster parents raised 0.5 fewer of their own chicks to fledging than pairs that did not adopt. The key evolutionary question is: why do some individuals apparently suffer the

KEVIN M BROWN

1998-01-01

403

Begging as graded signals of need for food in young ring-billed gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent models suggest that begging vocalizations are honest signals communicating a chick's nutritional needs to its parents. We investigated the effects on begging of short-term food deprivation (‘hunger’) and long-term reduction in body condition under controlled laboratory conditions in ring-billed gulls,Larus delawarensis. We tested two condition groups (high: fed to satiation; low: fed 75% wet mass of high-condition diet) at

STAVROS IACOVIDES; ROGER M EVANS

1998-01-01

404

Sublethal toxicity of the Prestige oil spill on yellow-legged gulls.  

PubMed

The Prestige oil spill in November 2002 is considered the biggest large-scale catastrophe of its type in Europe, thousands of seabirds dying in the subsequent months. Here, the total concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) was measured in the blood cell fraction of adult and chick yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) from unoiled and oiled coastal areas in North Western Spain. In addition, hematocrit, plasma metabolites, electrolytes and enzymes, as well as body mass were determined in the same individuals. Our results strongly suggest the presence of health damages of sublethal nature in adult gulls breeding in oiled colonies 17 months after the Prestige oil spill. This is supported by the following evidences: (1) gulls sampled in unoiled and oiled colonies differed in blood TPAH levels, (2) gulls sampled in unoiled and oiled colonies differed in several blood parameters indicative of physiological disorders, and (3) TPAH in blood was significantly related to several of these parameters. Differences in the level of asparatate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total protein, glucose and inorganic phosphorus suggest damages on some vital organs (i.e. liver and kidney) in adult birds from oiled areas. Meanwhile, chicks presented weaker effects than adults, showing only between-area differences in hematocrit. Since TPAH levels in blood did not differ between both age-groups, the stronger effects on adults should be due to their longer exposure to these pollutants and/or to severe exposure in the months following the spill. The presence of PAHs in chicks indicates that these pollutants were incorporated into the food chain because nestlings would have been only exposed to contaminated organisms in the diet (e.g. fishes and crustaceans). Our findings support the view that PAHs may deeply alter the physiology of seabirds, and emphasize the necessity of quantifying the circulating levels of these compounds in order to evaluate the sublethal effects associated to large oil spills. PMID:17383727

Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Munilla, Ignacio; López-Alonso, Marta; Velando, Alberto

2007-08-01

405

How costly is clutch formation in the Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Audouin's Gull's breeding season at the Ebro Delta in 1993, 24 fresh eggs from eight three-egg clutches (modal clutch-size) were collected at the peak of the laying period. Eggs were processed to obtain formalin-fixed yolks, which were halved and stained using the potassium dichromate method. Digitized images of the yolks were examined to assess the daily rates of

Xavier Ruiz; Lluis Jover; Vittorio Pedrocchi; Daniel Oro; Jacob Gonzalez-Soli' s

2000-01-01

406

ROLE OF THE LOWER INTESTINE IN THE ADAPTATION OF GULLS (LARUS GLAUCESCENS) TO SEA WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We used in vivo perfusion of the lower intestine (colon plus coprodeum) to examine the osmoregulatory role of that organ in glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens Naum.) drinking sea water and fresh water. The area of the lower intestine was small, 0-59 cm2 100g~' body mass. Its electrolyte and water transport rates were unaffected by salt water acclimation. Sodium and

DAVID L. GOLDSTEIN; MARYANNE R. HUGHES

407

Tissue levels of lead in experimentally exposed herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two?day?old herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks were injected with either 0.1 or 0.2 mg lead\\/g body mass and were sacrificed at 45 d of age. Control birds were injected with sterile water. We examined lead and cadmium levels in blood, kidney, liver, muscle, salt glands, breast feathers, and bone. In control birds lead levels were highest in bone, feathers, salt

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1990-01-01

408

Toxicity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its aromatic fractions to nestling herring gulls  

SciTech Connect

The physiological effects of a single ingested dose of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), its aromatic fractions, and PBC/Clorexit emulsion were studied in nestling herring gulls (Larus argentatus). The data showed that the high-molecular-weight aromatic compounds were responsible for retardation of growth and increases in adrenal and nasal gland weight. Little difference was found between PBC and the PBC/Clorexit emulsion although the latter did have a somewhat more marked effect on plasma sodium levels.

Peakall, D.B. (Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada); Hallett, D.J.; Bend, J.R.; Foureman, G.L.

1982-02-01

409

Effects of lead on growth in young herring gulls (Larus argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One?day?old herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were injected intraperitoneally with lead nitrate solution (0.1 or 0.2 mg Pb\\/g) or sterile saline to examine differences in growth rates. Despite the low levels of lead exposure, by d 8 there were significant differences in growth rates as a function of treatment. There were also, by d 8, significant differences in bill length, tarsus

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1988-01-01

410

Stealing bivalves from common eiders: kleptoparasitism by glaucous gulls in spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here I report on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), an opportunistic, generalist predator, stealing bivalves from a diving duck, the common eider (Somateria mollissima). The study took place in spring, the pre-breeding period of the common eider, in an Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden) at western\\u000a Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Eiders were abundant, their presence predictable, and they fed on large prey requiring surface handling—all

Øystein Varpe

2010-01-01

411

Organochlorines and Possible Biochemical Effects in Glaucous Gulls ( Larus hyperboreus ) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   To study possible biochemical effects of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), 40 adult individuals were collected from colonies on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea. OCs (four pesticides and nine PCB congeners),\\u000a microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, microsomal testosterone hydroxylation, highly carboxylated porphyrins\\u000a (HCPs), retinol, and retinyl palmitate were quantified in liver samples. The hepatic vitamin A

E. O. Henriksen; G. W. Gabrielsen; S. Trudeau; J. Wolkers; K. Sagerup; J. U. Skaare

2000-01-01

412

Relationships between PCB levels, hepatic EROD activity and plasma retinol in glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen adult glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus, were captured in the vicinity of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. The birds were kept captured and fed a diet of polar cod, Boreogadus saida, caught off the coast of Spitsbergen. After 40 days of captivity, the birds were killed. The presence of hepatic homologues to mammalian CYP1A and CYP2B proteins was demonstrated by Western blotting. High

E. O. Henriksen; G. W. Gabrielsen; J. U. Skaare; N. Skjegstad; B. M. Jenssen

1998-01-01

413

Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at Bjørnøya (Svalbard).  

PubMed

Dead and dying glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) were collected on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea in 2003, 2004 and 2005. Autopsies of the seabirds only explained a clear cause of death for three (14%) of the 21 birds. A total of 71% of the birds were emaciated. Liver and brain samples were analysed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and mercury (Hg). High levels of SigmaOCPs, SigmaPCBs, SigmaPBDEs and alpha-HBCD were found in liver and brain. Compared to the dead and dying glaucous gulls found 1989, the congeners' composition tended to change toward more persistent compounds in the 2003-2005 samples. The brain levels of OCPs and PCBs did not differ between 1989 and 2003-2005, while the liver levels were significantly lower. The brain/liver ratio for PCB and PBDE significantly decreased with halogenations of the molecule, indicating a clear discrimination of highly halogenated PCBs and PBDEs entering the brain. There was further a clear negative correlation between contaminant concentrations and body condition. The brain levels were not as high as earlier published lethal levels of p,p'-DDE or PCB. However, more recent studies reported a range of sub-lethal OCP- and PCB-related effects in randomly sampled glaucous gulls. An additional elevation of pollutants due to emaciation may increase the stress of the already affected birds. The high brain levels of OCP, PCB and PBDE of present study might therefore have contributed to the death of weakened individuals of glaucous gull. PMID:19735935

Sagerup, Kjetil; Helgason, Lisa B; Polder, Anuschka; Strøm, Hallvard; Josefsen, Terje D; Skåre, Janneche U; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2009-11-15

414

Egg antimicrobials, embryo sex and chick phenotype in the yellow-legged gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal effects through albumen quality are largely unexplored, despite the fundamental role that albumen exerts as source\\u000a of proteins and water, as well as for antimicrobial defence of the embryo. We analysed the variation of two major albumen\\u000a antimicrobials, avidin and lysozyme, by extracting samples from freshly laid eggs of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) and by correlating their levels

Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati; Diego Rubolini; Maria Romano; Marco Cucco; Mauro Fasola; Manuela Caprioli; Nicola Saino

2010-01-01

415

Bottom-side wave solder process compatibility for 14 and 16-pin gull wing SOICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are summarized on the process compatibility for bottom-side wave soldering of eleven different 14 and 16-pin plastic encapsulated Small Outline Integrated Circuits (SOICs) in a Gull Wing foot print (SOGs). Devices were preconditioned to a saturated moisture exposure of 85°C\\/85%RH for 168 hours (to simulate a worst case storage environment equivalent to 30°C\\/90%RH) before exposure to a total molten

C. M. Yang; R. L. Shook

1995-01-01

416

Individual differences in nest defense in the colonial breeding Black-tailed Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often in colonial seabirds, all colony members are believed to defend against nest predators and experience equal nest predation\\u000a risk. However, the variation of defense behavior among members and its reproductive consequences are largely unknown. We investigated\\u000a (1) individual variation in the nest defense of breeding Black-tailed Gulls Larus crassirostris against a natural egg predator, the Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos

Kentaro Kazama; Yutaka Watanuki

2010-01-01

417

Growth, bioluminescence and shoal behavior hormetic responses to inorganic and/or organic chemicals: a review.  

PubMed

A biphasic dose response, termed hormesis, is characterized by beneficial effects of a chemical at a low dose and harmful effects at a high dose. This biphasic dose response phenomenon has the potential to strongly alter toxicology in a broad range. The present review focuses on the progress of research into hormetic responses in terms of growth (in plants, birds, algae and humans), bioluminescence, and shoal behavior as end points. The paper describes how both inorganic and organic chemicals at a low dose show stimulatory responses while at higher doses are inhibitory. The article highlights how factors such as symbiosis, density-dependent factors, time, and contrasting environmental factors (availability of nutrients, temperature, light, etc.) affect both the range and amplitude of hormetic responses. Furthermore, the possible underlying mechanisms are also discussed and we suggest that, for every end point, different hormetic mechanisms may exist. The occurrences of varying interacting receptor systems or receptor systems affecting the assessment of hormesis for each endpoint are discussed. The present review suggests that a hormetic model should be adopted for toxicological evaluations instead of the older threshold and linear non-threshold models. PMID:24361513

Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Naveedullah; Shen, Hui; Zhu, Shenhai; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng

2014-03-01

418

Observations of nonlinear effects in directional spectra of shoaling gravity waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial evolution of a directionally spread wave field on a near-planar natural beach is examined using data from longshore arrays of pressure sensors and wave staffs at 10.3 m and 4.1 m depth. High-resolution frequency-directional spectra from the deeper array are used to initialize a linear refraction model, and the resulting model predictions are compared with frequency-directional measurements at the shallow array. Linear theory inaccurately predicts both the shapes of directional spectra in shallow water and the total variances in some frequency bands. The discrepancies are largest for frequencies associated with maxima in the bicoherence spectrum, suggesting the importance of nonlinear effects. Furthermore, the measured directional spectrum at energetic low frequencies (0.05-0.11 Hz) and the vector resonance conditions for triads of long waves can be used to predict accurately the directions of observed peaks in directional spectra at higher frequencies (0.12-0.21 Hz). Prominent features in the measured directional spectra at the shallow array are thus consistent with energy transfers resulting from near-resonant triad interactions in the shoaling wave field.

Freilich, M. H.; Guza, R. T.; Elgar, S. L.

1990-06-01

419

Express your personality or go along with the group: what determines the behaviour of shoaling perch?  

PubMed Central

Behavioural syndromes, defined as correlated behaviours in different contexts, have been studied across species and taxa including humans as part of a personality concept. While most studies have focused on solitary individuals, less is known on how shoaling fish compromise between own personality and group behaviour. Risk-taking behaviour in 1-year-old perch (Perca fluviatilis) was observed to compare individual behaviour when in a group and when alone. An experimental design gave the fish the choice between foraging in an open area in the presence of a piscivore and hiding in the vegetation. We quantified the variation accountable by the effect of individuals being in a group, individuals alone and repeated measurements, using hierarchical mixed effects models. Within-group variances were low, but when individuals were later tested alone, individual differences explained most of the variation. Still, the individual best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) of time spent in the open area, extracted from the random effects of the mixed effects model, were positively correlated with the corresponding BLUPs when alone. The results indicate that individual behavioural traits are to some degree expressed also within groups. Most fish showed a shyer behaviour when alone, but bolder individuals changed less between treatments than did shyer ones, suggesting a more influential role of bold fish in the group. PMID:19586948

Magnhagen, Carin; Bunnefeld, Nils

2009-01-01

420

Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

2006-09-01

421

Relationships of metals between feathers and diets of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks.  

PubMed

In birds, metal contaminants in feathers are influenced by prey concentrations and environmental quality. In Black-tailed Gull chicks, Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations were strongly correlated between feathers and stomach contents. Between feathers and livers, Pb, Zn and Fe concentrations were significantly correlated. Cd concentrations were within the range of other seabirds and within the background level for bird feathers (<2 ?g/g dw). At the lighthouse, eight chicks exceeded the background for Pb level in feathers (>4 ?g/g dw). Elevated Pb concentrations might be attributed to ingestion of paint-based chips and natural (soil and rocks) sources. There is evidence that the analyzed birds suffered from acute toxicity, including high levels of pecking from conspecifics and increased mortality from elevated Pb levels. It seems likely that these birds might experience negative health effects from this increased Pb exposure. As a result, Black-tailed Gull chick feathers are a very useful monitoring tool for assessing Cd, Pb and Cu contamination. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu were all within the acceptable range of normal concentrations for seabird species including gulls and may be maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:24414165

Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

2014-03-01

422

Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria. Methods To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Results Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ?1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ?1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources. Conclusion We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota. PMID:24427451

Stedt, Johan; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Hernandez, Jorge; McMahon, Barry J.; Hasan, Badrul; Olsen, Björn; Drobni, Mirva; Waldenström, Jonas

2014-01-01

423

Adrenocortical function of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls in relation to persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

Unpredictable changes in the environment stimulate the avian hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to produce corticosterone, which induces behavioural and metabolic changes that enhance survival in the face of adverse environmental conditions. In addition to profound environmental perturbations, such as severe weather conditions and unpredictable food shortages, many Arctic-breeding birds are also confronted with chronic exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of which are known to disrupt endocrine processes. This study investigated the adrenocortical function of a top predator in the Arctic marine environment, the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus). High concentrations of organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and metabolically-derived products in blood plasma of incubating glaucous gulls were associated with high baseline corticosterone concentrations in both sexes and a reduced stress response in males. Contaminant-related changes in corticosterone concentration occurred over and above differences in body condition and seasonal variation. Chronically high corticosterone concentrations and/or a compromised adrenocortical response to stress can have negative effects on the health of an individual. The results of the present study suggest that exposure to POPs may increase the vulnerability of glaucous gulls to environmental stressors and thus could potentially compromise their ability to adapt to the rapidly changing environmental conditions associated with climate change that are currently seen in the Arctic. PMID:19932109

Verboven, Nanette; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Evans, Neil P

2010-03-01

424

Isolation, cryopreservation, and mitogenesis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from chickens (Gallus domesticus) and wild herring gulls (Larus argentatus).  

PubMed

Monitoring the toxicity of environmental contaminants on the physiologic function of wild birds often includes measures of immune function. The purpose of this study was to apply methods of isolation, cryopreservation, and cell culture of chicken lymphocytes to blood samples from herring gulls, which are a sentinel species for biomonitoring studies in the Great Lakes and northern North America. Slow-spin centrifugation and density gradient isolation of lymphocytes were compared using chicken blood. Significant thrombocyte contamination of density gradient isolated samples (40% to 77% thrombocytes) led to the use of slow-spin centrifugation (2% thrombocytes) for blood from herring gulls. Cryopreserved blood samples were collected from adult and prefledgling herring gulls at sites of low environmental contamination around the Great Lakes and the Bay of Fundy between 1999 and 2002. Cryopreservation decreased the viability of lymphocytes from wild birds, but a high proportion of samples yielded enough live lymphocytes to assess function in culture. Cryopreserved lymphocytes from herring gulls proliferated in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin-A, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), PHA plus PMA, and lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Weber and Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI) 1640 media were compared for culture of lymphocytes. Weber medium better supported chicken B-lymphocyte proliferation than RPMI 1640 and supported chicken T-lymphocyte proliferation of a similar magnitude as RPMI. Proliferation responses for lymphocytes from prefledgling herring gulls were stronger in Weber medium than RPMI medium, especially for PHA, for which there was no stimulation in RPMI. Proliferation responses of lymphocytes from adult herring gulls were up to twofold greater than that for prefledgling herring gulls. The magnitudes of proliferation responses were similar to that for chicken lymphocytes. These methods have subsequently proven useful in ecotoxicology studies that involve species in remote locations. PMID:15719198

Lavoie, E T; Grasman, K A

2005-05-01

425

On the behaviour in an alarm-evoking, constant stimulus situation in a „natural experiment“.—Observations on a pair of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) breeding on the same islet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The behaviour of a pair of herring gulls nesting in a colony of common terns and the reactions of the terns towards the gulls have been observed for eleven days. The terns were found to be highly aggressive to an adult gull flying in an area of about 150×150 meters around the colony and this reaction did not decrease

Olof Rydén

1970-01-01

426

[On a helminthofauna of seabirds of the Archangelskaya Bay ( Northern island of Novaya Zemlya)].  

PubMed

In the Archangelskaya Bay (North Island of Novaya Zemlya), 25 specimens of sea birds have been collected: 5 kittiwakes, 5 murres, 5 little auks, 4 common eiders, 4 purple sandpipers, and 2 glaucous gulls. Following numbers of helminth parasite species have been recovered in this material: trematodes--1, cestodes--5, proboscic worms--2, and nematodes--2 species. The description of morphological characters of Anomotaenia micracantha micracantha (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from the kittiwake is given. The dependence of helminth fauna composition on the character of bird's feeding is traced. Differences in the infection with parasites of gulls and auks habitating the Archangelskaya Bay are revealed. Data on a life cycle of parasites found and ways of their circulation in the ecosystems of the Barents Sea are given. As for Triaenophorus erostris, which was indicated for gulls of the Barents Sea by Belopolskaya (1952), Galkin e. a. (1994) and Galaktionov e. a. (1997) as a common parasite, it was absent both in the material collected by Markov (1941) and in our material. PMID:11548578

Kuklin, V V

2001-01-01

427

Gulf and Caribbean Research Vol 22, 71-75, 2010 Manuscript received October 30, 2009; accepted December 15, 2009 GrowtH PattErNS of SHoal GraSS hALodULE wRiGhTii  

E-print Network

December 15, 2009 GrowtH PattErNS of SHoal GraSS hALodULE wRiGhTii aNd MaNatEE GraSS SYRiNGodiUM Fi (Halodule wrightii), manatee grass (Syrin- godium filiforme), and turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum depends on shoal grass in the LM for food during the winter season (Cornelius 1977). Shoal and manatee

Smee, Lee

428

Will free-ranging predators stop depredating untreated eggs in pulegone-scented gull nests after exposure to pulegone-injected eggs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulegone is a chemical derived from plants of the mint family (Mentha spp.) that irritates the trigeminal nerve of mammals when inhaled and causes gastric distress when consumed. We examined whether free-ranging mammalian predators would stop depredating untreated eggs in gulls’ nests that smelled of pulegone. Prior to the nesting period, we distributed pulegone-injected eggs around a gull colony so

Michael R. Conover; Kimberly S. Lyons

2005-01-01

429

Health of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Relation to Breeding Location in the Early 1990s. III. Effects on the Bone Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health effects associated with the Great Lakes environment were assessed in adult herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in the early 1990s, including the size and quality of their bones. Femurs were excised from 140 individuals from 10 colonies distributed throughout the Great Lakes and 2 reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg (freshwater) and the Bay of Fundy (marine). Femurs of gulls from

Glen A. Fox; Rebecca Lundberg; Carolina Wejheden; Lars Lind; Sune Larsson; Jan Örberg; P. Monica Lind

2008-01-01

430

Seasonal Timing of Bald Eagle Attendance and Influence on Activity Budgets of Glaucous-winged Gulls in Barkley Sound, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As raptor populations recover following the banning of organochlorine pesticide use, there may be consequences for prey populations. While Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) actively prey on Glaucous-winged Gulls and their offspring ( Larus glaucescens ), their presence at colonies and roost sites may also influence reproduc- tive success of gulls by impacting activity budgets. Here we investigate changes

A IJA F. W HITE; J OEL P. H EATH; B RIAN G ISBORNE

431

A QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THYROID HISTOPATHOLOGY OF HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS) FROM THE GREAT LAKES AND A HYPOTHESIS ON THE CAUSAL ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroids from 213 adult herring gulls of both sexes were collected during incubation from nine colonies in the Great Lakes basin of eastern North America between 1974 and 1983, and from a single colony in the Bay of Fundy from 1977 to 1982. Qualitative and quantitative histological assessment revealed that the majority of the gulls from the Great Lakes basin

R. D. Moccia; A. Fox; A. Britton

1986-01-01

432

hllGRATOKY NONGAME IllHDS OF IMANAGEMENT CONCERN IN T I E NOXTIIEhST 1 GULL-BILLED TERN  

E-print Network

hllGRATOKY NONGAME IllHDS OF IMANAGEMENT CONCERN IN T I E NOXTIIEhST 1 GULL-BILLED TERN Sterna). It is similar in size to other medium-sized terns, but lacks the long tail streamers of common terns (Sterna hirundo), Forster's terns (S.forsten), and roseate terns (S. dougallii) terns. The gull-billed tern

Duffy, David Cameron

433

Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring gull Larus argentatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring gulls collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring gull. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in

R. Lemmetyinen; P. Rantamaki; A. Karlin

1982-01-01

434

Diets of nesting laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia Coast Reserve: observations from stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulation dietary variation in top-level consumers. In this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of gull tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the Virginia Coast Reserve estuarine system. As earlier traditional diet studies found evidence of individual dietary specialization within gull populations, this study used stable isotope analysis to assess specialization in a coastal Laughing Gull population. Specifically, blood, muscle, and feather isotope values indicated significant intrapopulation dietary specialization. Some gulls relied more heavily on estuarine prey (mean blood ?13C = -17.5, ?15N = 12.6, and ?34S = 9.3), whereas others appeared to consume more foods of marine origin (mean blood ?13C = -19.4, ?15N = 14.8, and ?34S = 10.4). It is important to account for such dietary variability when assessing trophic linkages in dynamic estuarine systems.

Knoff, A.J.; Macko, S.A.; Erwin, R.M.

2001-01-01

435

Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast.  

PubMed

Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. PMID:16564607

Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne

2006-12-01

436

Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland.  

PubMed

Diseases due to the degeneration of the liver and various other internal organs were the major cause of the exceedingly high chick mortality in lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) in the central Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, during 1991-1993. The same symptoms were found in chicks of common gulls (Larus canus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the same focal area, although at a much lower frequency. We found disproportionately high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver relative to leg muscle in lesser black-backed chicks compared with common gull and herring gull chicks. The causality between PCB residues and chick diseases remains unknown. No signs of chick edema disease or abnormal frequency of embryonic deaths, commonly associated with organochlorines in biota, were found. It is concluded that studies made in a very small geographical area may not give a good correlation between dose and effect due to an even greater variation in tolerance. Another explanation is that the diseases may not have been PCB-induced. PMID:15093008

Hario, M; Himberg, K; Hollmén, T; Rudbäck, E

2000-01-01

437

Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing shoaling induced by global warming  

PubMed Central

The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO2 and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (1000–2000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the “plankton–DMS–clouds–earth albedo feedback” hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere. PMID:17901211

Vallina, S. M.; Simo, R.; Manizza, M.

2007-01-01

438

The breeding ecology of sea birds on Monito Island, Puerto Rico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Monito Island, a 15-ha plateau surrounded by steep undercut cliffs, lies halfway between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Seven of the 9 sea birds are known to breed, and 2 (Blue-faced Booby and Laughing Gull) are here recorded as breeders in Puerto Rico for the first time. The Pelecaniformes are represented by 5 species, the White-tailed Tropicbird, the 3 pan-tropical boobies, and the Magnificent Frigatebird. The boobies all have long but annual breeding seasons, from fall through spring, showing a distinct breeding hiatus in the hot summer months, although some late-nesters may care for chicks during this period. The Magnificent Frigatebird has the most synchronous breeding, with a laying peak from late October to early December, when 70% of the population lay eggs. Four larids (Laughing Gull, Bridled Tern, Sooty Tern, and Brown Noddy) are summer residents vacating the island in August-September, and returning again in March-April. In general, they nest during the pelecaniform non-breeding season. The sea birds show a great range in nest site preference, with little overlap among them. Their diversity results from a combination of isolation, rugged cliffs, and the structural diversity of Monito Island. Although currently one of the outstanding sea bird colonies in the West Indies, Monito is threatened, and the colonies could be lost unless they are legally protected.

Kepler, C.B.

1978-01-01

439

Health of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in relation to breeding location in the early 1990s. II. Cellular and histopathological measures.  

PubMed

Organosomatic indices, hematological indicators of stress, and histopathological lesions were quantified for over 150 incubating herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled in 11 colonies throughout the Great Lakes and reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Of 21 parameters assessed, significantly more differed between Great Lakes colonies and reference colonies than between the two reference colonies. Relative adrenal, kidney, and liver masses of gulls from some Great Lakes colonies were reduced and thyroid masses increased relative to gulls from reference colonies. Foci of cellular atypia were observed in the hepatocytes of two Great Lakes gulls. Chronic periportal hepatitis, lipogranulomas and vacuolation of hepatocytes, and chronic granulomatous interstitial nephritis were more prevalent or severe in gulls from Great Lakes colonies and were associated with contaminants. The kidneys of gulls from the three most contaminated locations were damaged and functionally compromised. Interstitial nephritis was likely the most functionally significant histopathological lesion. Portal-tract fibrosis, granulomatous hepatitis, and kidney tubule dilation/obstruction and splenic enlargement were more prevalent or severe at reference sites and were associated with blood-borne parasites. Amyloid deposits were observed in the spleen, kidneys, or liver of nearly half of the gulls. Associations between the prevalence or severity of lesions and contaminant levels in gull tissues or the trophic level of their diet suggest some lesions are toxicopathic. Associations were most frequently found with planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and lead. The stress response, as measured by the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, was attenuated in gulls from Areas of Concern and associated with decreased adrenal mass. Our findings suggest that adult Great Lakes gulls suffered from chronic exposure to chemical stressors in the early 1990s sufficient to modulate endocrine function and physiological processes and induce structural changes in tissues. PMID:17687731

Fox, Glen A; Grasman, Keith A; Campbell, G Douglas

2007-09-01

440

Susceptibility of North American Ducks and Gulls to H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been associated with deaths in numerous wild avian species throughout Eurasia. We assessed the clinical response and extent and duration of viral shedding in 5 species of North American ducks and laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) after intranasal challenge with 2 Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Birds were challenged at ?10 to 16 weeks of age, consistent with temporal peaks in virus prevalence and fall migration. All species were infected, but only wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and laughing gulls exhibited illness or died. Viral titers were higher in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs. Duration of viral shedding (1–10 days) increased with severity of clinical disease. Both the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and agar gel precipitin (AGP) tests were able to detect postinoculation antibodies in surviving wood ducks and laughing gulls; the HI test was more sensitive than the AGP in the remaining 4 species PMID:17283615

Stallknecht, David E.; Beck, Joan R.; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

2006-01-01

441

Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska.  

PubMed

Gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. Glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven Alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic contaminants. Concentrations ranged from below detection limits to 322 ng g(-1) wet mass in one egg for 4,4'-DDE and differed among the samples collected in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering and Chukchi Seas. Chick growth and survival rates may be affected by the contaminant levels found in the eggs, but the eggs should be safe for human consumption if they are eaten in small quantities. STAMP plans to continue collecting and banking gull eggs for future real-time and retrospective analyses. PMID:19110348

Vander Pol, Stacy S; Becker, Paul R; Ellisor, Michael B; Moors, Amanda J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Roseneau, David G

2009-03-01

442

ABAM, a model for bioaccumulation of POPs in birds: validation for adult herring gulls and their eggs in Lake Ontario.  

PubMed

An Avian BioAccumulation Model (ABAM) of persistent organic pollutant (POP) uptake and elimination in adult life-stage of birds was validated by simulation of concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, mirex, and HCB in herring gull eggs in Lake Ontario for the years 1985, 1990, and 1992. These chemicals represented a range of whole-body half-lives of 82-265 days in the gull. Dietary intake of POPs by a female gull was simulated by a dynamic bioenergetics model which included dependence on temperature, photoperiod, egg production, and feeding chicks. Concentrations in the two main prey fish of the gull in Lake Ontario were used for POP exposure. Clearance from the female was based on a two compartment toxicokinetic model. Egg concentrations were estimated from egg/whole body female concentration ratios. Simulated concentrations were compared to measured concentrations in gull eggs from 4 different colonies in the northern part of Lake Ontario. Simulations using a diet of 81% fish and 19% uncontaminated food resulted in the best fit with least variance among predicted and measured data. The mean ratio of predicted to measured concentrations in eggs was 1.0 +/- 0.27 among chemicals, years, and colonies for this exposure scenario. This result was in excellent agreement with field assessments of herring gull diet composition in Lake Ontario of 80-82% fish. The ability to perform accurate a priorisimulations for the range of test conditions employed in the validation constituted a rigorous test of the soundness of the model's structure and parameterization. With species-specific adjustments, ABAM can be regarded as a general model for lipophilic POPs bioaccumulation in birds. PMID:17626434

Norstrom, Ross J; Clark, Thomas P; Enright, Michael; Leung, Brian; Drouillard, Ken G; Macdonald, Colin R

2007-06-15

443

Genetic Markers for Rapid PCR-Based Identification of Gull, Canada Goose, Duck, and Chicken Fecal Contamination in Water  

PubMed Central

Avian feces contaminate waterways but contribute fewer human pathogens than human sources. Rapid identification and quantification of avian contamination would therefore be useful to prevent overestimation of human health risk. We used subtractive hybridization of PCR-amplified gull fecal 16S RNA genes to identify avian-specific fecal rRNA gene sequences. The subtracters were rRNA genes amplified from human, dog, cat, cow, and pig feces. Recovered sequences were related to Enterobacteriaceae (47%), Helicobacter (26%), Catellicoccus (11%), Fusobacterium (11%), and Campylobacter (5%). Three PCR assays, designated GFB, GFC, and GFD, were based on recovered sequence fragments. Quantitative PCR assays for GFC and GFD were developed using SYBR green. GFC detected down to 0.1 mg gull feces/100 ml (corresponding to 2 gull enterococci most probable number [MPN]/100 ml). GFD detected down to 0.1 mg chicken feces/100 ml (corresponding to 13 Escherichia coli MPN/100 ml). GFB and GFC were 97% and 94% specific to gulls, respectively. GFC cross-reacted with 35% of sheep samples but occurred at about 100,000 times lower concentrations in sheep. GFD was 100% avian specific and occurred in gulls, geese, chickens, and ducks. In the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, the three markers differed in their geographic distributions but were found across the range tested. These assays detected four important bird groups contributing to fecal contamination of waterways: gulls, geese, ducks, and chickens. Marker distributions across North America and in New Zealand sugges