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1

Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7-11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

1995-01-01

2

Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting areas were defined by all area within 100-m or 500-m of a plover nest. We argue that this apparent spatial separation between piping plovers and large gulls is due to different habitat preferences among the species. We found that gull removal on South Monomoy Island did not result in increased piping plover reproductive success, and large gulls did not affect breeding piping plovers on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000.

Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

2002-01-01

3

Mapping islands, reefs and shoals in the oceans surrounding Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Comparisons of the imagery with aerial photography of areas of reefs and island and with 1:250,000 maps of coastlines indicate that the MSS imagery depicts detail to an extent which is satisfactory for 1:250,000 mapping. As the imagery does not have some of the disadvantages of aerial photography, the former should be valuable for mapping reefs, islands, and shoals. The water discoloration problem is significant as the discolored water appears to occur near shallow depths, so that confusion could arise through the misinterpretation of discolored water, when it exists, as shallow water.

Turner, L. G. (principal investigator)

1975-01-01

4

Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).  

PubMed

A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

1999-10-01

5

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals;...

2013-07-01

6

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals;...

2014-07-01

7

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals;...

2011-07-01

8

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334...REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area....

2010-07-01

9

How important are pelagic preys for the kelp gull during chick-rearing at the South Shetland Islands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of pellets regurgitated indicated adult kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) on the South Shetland Islands consumed predominantly intertidal prey, whereas previous studies at Antarctic Peninsula sites\\u000a have reported kelp gulls consuming predominantly pelagic species. The pellets collected at Nelson Island during the chick-rearing\\u000a period indicated that the limpet Nacella concinna was their most frequent prey, followed by carrion, gammariids,

M. Favero; M. P. Silva

1997-01-01

10

Heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of herring gulls ( Larus argentatus ): Differences due to year, gender, and age at Captree, Long Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese) and selenium in the feathers of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a nesting colony at Captree, Long Island, New York were examined from 1989 to 1993 to determine if there were differences from year to year, and between males and females, adult and young, and dead versus live gulls. Variation

Joanna Burger

1995-01-01

11

Effect of interannual variations in sea-surface temperature on egg-laying parameters of black-tailed gulls ( Larus crassirostris ) at Teuri Island, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea-surface temperature (SST) directly and indirectly affects the distribution and abundance of prey species for seabirds,\\u000a so we expect variation in SST to be associated with variation in seabird life history traits. In black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) at Teuri Island in northern Hokkaido, Japan, we investigated the diet of the gulls prior to egg laying in 2004 and 2005,\\u000a and

Naoki Tomita; Yasuaki Niizuma; Masaoki Takagi; Motohiro Ito; Yutaka Watanuki

2009-01-01

12

Trophic relationships between the kelp gull and the Antarctic limpet at King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) during the breeding season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), its foraging behaviour and the consumption rates on the Antarctic limpet (Nacella concinna) were studied during austral spring and summer 1992\\/1993 and 1993\\/1994 at Potter Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica.\\u000a Prey information was obtained by collecting 237 pellets, foraging behaviour was observed by focal and instantaneous scan samplings,\\u000a and consumption rate was

M. Favero; P. Silva; G. Ferreyra

1997-01-01

13

Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.  

PubMed

Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

2007-08-01

14

Reproductive biology of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) at Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored nesting of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus) on Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from 1986 through 1991. Egg oviposition occurred between 26 April and 20 October. Nesting peaked between mid-June and early August. Hatchlings emerged between mid-August and early October. Mean incubation period was 66.0 (range 53-97) days. Mean clutch size was 92.4 (range 33-150) eggs. Mean hatching success was 78.6% when averaged over success of individual nests and 81.1% when calculated as percentage of total number of eggs. Natural hatchling emergence was 71.1%, based on percentage of total number of eggs. Live and dead hatchlings were found when nests were excavated and accounted for 10.0% of the eggs. Incubation periods tended to be longer in early and later portions of the season than in midseason, and incubation periods tended to decrease the farther inland the nest was situated from the high tide line. Maximum hatching success occurred at an incubation length of 66.7 days. Other trends indicated that nesting peaked near 5 July when conditions produced a near optimal incubation period for yielding maximum hatching success.

Niethammer, K.R.; Balazs, G.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nakai, G.L.; Megyesi, J.L.

1997-01-01

15

Shoals Marine Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on 95 acre Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals in the Gulf of Maine, this near-pristine environment allows students to study many aspects of intertidal and sub-tidal ecology. Only open in the warmer months, SML offers a truly unique experience to graduate, undergraduate, and high school students, as well as adults wanting to further their education. Site features information on accessing the island and SML's special programs.

16

Can rats prey on gull eggs? An experimental approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black rat Rattus rattus populations can reach high densities on the Mediterranean islands, as has been the case on the Chafarinas Islands (Western Mediterranean coast) in the last decade. This archipelago holds the second largest breeding population of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii and an important population of yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans. Circumstantial evidences of rat predation upon Audouin's gull eggs

Jordi Prieto; Jacob González-Solís; Xavier Ruiz; Lluís Jover

2003-01-01

17

DIFFERENTIAL PASSERINE DENSITY AND DIVERSITY BETWEEN NEWFOUNDLAND AND OFFSHORE GULL ISLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristically, islands have impoverished hiotas (MacArthur and Wilson 1963, 1967; Diamond 1975; many others). Several reasons have been proposed to account for this depauperate condition. Remoteness of the island (MacArthur and Wilson 1963, 1967; Simberloff and Wilson 1969) and island size (Diamond 1975, MacArthur and Wilson 1967, Power 1976) can both affect the equilibrium number of species, either directly or

MONIQUE I. VASSALLO; JAKE C. RICE

18

Activity periods and questing behavior of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) on Gull Island, Newfoundland: the role of puffin chicks.  

PubMed

Questing behavior of Ixodes uriae and their associated seasonal, host-feeding patterns are crucial to our understanding of tick life history strategies and the ecology of diseases that they transmit. Consequently, we quantified questing behavior of nymphs and adult female I. uriae ticks at Gull Island, a seabird colony in Newfoundland, Canada, to examine seasonal variation of off-host and on-host tick activity. We sampled a total of 133 adult Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica), 152 puffin chicks, and 145 herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks for ticks during the breeding seasons of 2004 and 2005. Questing ticks were sampled by dragging a white flannel cloth across the grassy breeding areas during the mo of May, June, July, and August. Nymph questing activity reached a peak during mid-July (79 and 110 individuals/hr in 2004 and 2005, respectively). The prevalence of nymphs and adult female ticks on different seabird hosts varied between years and during the seasons. Puffin chicks had the highest prevalence (above 70% in July) of nymphs in both years and this was correlated with questing activity. Female ticks rarely fed on puffin chicks, but were prevalent on adult puffins and gulls, although prevalence and questing of ticks were not correlated in these hosts. These patterns of off-host and on-host tick activity suggests that I. uriae ticks likely use a combination of questing and passive waiting, e.g., in puffin burrows, to detect hosts, depending on the tick stage and the host species. PMID:17539407

Muzaffar, Sabir B; Jones, Ian L

2007-04-01

19

Gull eggs--food of high organic pollutant content?  

PubMed

A wide range and occasionally high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are reported in Arctic regions, especially among top predators. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) and some gull species (Larus spp.) often have high levels of these fat-soluble pollutants. Gulls deposit significant levels of these contaminants in their eggs. In northern regions, gull eggs are part of the traditional human diet. In the present study we have investigated the levels of POPs in gull eggs in order to determine the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for humans. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in 214 gull eggs collected in the spring of 2001-02. The eggs were collected from four gull species (herring gulls (Larus argentatus), great black-backed gulls (L. marinus), lesser black-backed gulls (L. fuscus) and glaucous gulls (L. hyperboreus)) at 12 different locations in Northern Norway, on the Faroe Islands and on Svalbard. The pollutant levels in gull eggs were found to be 65.5 +/- 26.9 pg toxic equivalent (TE) for dioxin and PCB g(-1) wet weight. Based on these findings and the TWI-value determined by the EU Scientific Committee on Food it is advised that children, young women and pregnant and nursing women should not eat gull eggs. Other people should limit their intake of eggs to an absolute minimum, considering the health risks associated with gull egg intake. PMID:15931427

Pusch, Kerstin; Schlabach, Martin; Prinzinger, Roland; Wing Gabrielsen, Geir

2005-06-01

20

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island...DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island...36?12?. (b) The regulations. (1) No person...

2012-07-01

21

Heavy Metals and Selenium in Herring Gulls (LARUS ARGENTATUS) NESTING IN COLONIES FROM EASTERN LONG ISLAND TO VIRGINIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing interest in assessing the health or well-being ofcommunities and ecosystems, birds are being used asbioindicators. Coloniallynesting species breed mainly in coastal areas that are alsopreferred for humandevelopment, exposing the birds to various pollutants. Inthis paper concentrations of heavy metal and selenium in the feathers ofHerring Gulls(Larus argentatus) nesting in several colonies fromMassachusetts toDelaware are reported. There were significant

Joanna Burger

1997-01-01

22

15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL L/S FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. Drawing no. 03-2723, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - Stratford Shoal Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

23

Argas (Argas) monolakensis, new species (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae), a parasite of California gulls on islands in Mono Lake, California: description, biology, and life cycle.  

PubMed

Argas (Argas) monolakensis, n. sp., is described from adults, nymphs, and larvae collected from under and around nests of California gulls, Larus californicus Lawrence, on islands in Mono Lake, Mono County, Calif., and from specimens reared in the laboratory. This species is closely related to A. cooleyi Kohls & Hoogstraal, a parasite of cliff swallows, Hirundo pyrrhonota Vieillot, but is easily distinguished by hypostome dentition and roof of Haller's organ in all stages and chaetotaxy of the larvae. This tick was successfully reared and maintained in the laboratory by feeding them on domestic chickens. Larvae require 5-8 d to feed, whereas all postlarval stages feed rapidly within 9-62 min. At Mono Lake, ticks are above ground and seek hosts only at night. The number of nymphal stages varies from 2 to 5 depending on the developmental temperature and sex of the tick. Ticks over winter at Mono Lake as second- to fifth-stage nymphs and adults. Ovarian diapause is common with preoviposition periods in extreme cases lasting up to 20 mo. This tick will readily feed on humans and has the potential to transmit Mono Lake virus, which has been isolated from an estimated 2-8% of ticks on various islands. To date, A. monolakensis is known only from islands in Mono Lake, Calif. PMID:1552533

Schwan, T G; Corwin, M D; Brown, S J

1992-01-01

24

Nanoparticle growth following photochemical ? - and ? -pinene oxidation at Appledore Island during International Consortium for Research on Transport and Transformation\\/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) Nanoparticle events were observed 48 times in particle size distributions at Appledore Island during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation\\/Chemistry of Halogens on the Isles of Shoals (ICARTT\\/CHAiOS) field campaign from 2 July to 12 August of 2004. Eighteen of the nanoparticle events showed particle growth and occurred during mornings when peaks in mixing ratios

L. M. Russell; A. A. Mensah; E. V. Fischer; B. C. Sive; R. K. Varner; W. C. Keene; J. Stutz; A. A. P. Pszenny

2007-01-01

25

Nanoparticle growth following photochemical ?- and ?-pinene oxidation at Appledore Island during International Consortium for Research on Transport and Transformation\\/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticle events were observed 48 times in particle size distributions at Appledore Island during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation\\/Chemistry of Halogens on the Isles of Shoals (ICARTT\\/CHAiOS) field campaign from 2 July to 12 August of 2004. Eighteen of the nanoparticle events showed particle growth and occurred during mornings when peaks in mixing ratios of

L. M. Russell; A. A. Mensah; E. V. Fischer; B. C. Sive; R. K. Varner; W. C. Keene; J. Stutz; A. A. P. Pszenny

2007-01-01

26

DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos  

SciTech Connect

Injection of DDT (1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on Santa Barbara Island in southern California.

Fry, D.M.; Toone, C.K.

1981-08-21

27

Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

1979-01-01

28

Sabine's Gull (Xema sabini), Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) and Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea) Gulls in the Arctic: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest information on Sabine's gull, Ross's gull and Ivory gull was collected by several heroic arctic explorers during the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth. Ross's gull was discovered in northern Canada in 1823 by James C. Ross and Sabine's gull in northwestern Greenland in 1818 by Edward Sabine. S.A. Buturlin was the first to find the

SVEN BLOMQVIST; MAGNUS ELANDER

29

Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

Kadlec, J.A.

1971-01-01

30

Effects of gulls on Piping Plover nest site selection at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the effects of Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls on Piping Plover nest site selection on South Monomoy Island, MA, from 1998 to 2000. We compared Piping Plover behavior and nest site selection in a gull-free area to a gull area, and compared Piping Plover nesting area characteristics to areas not used by plovers. We found no difference in the frequency of disturbance by gulls to pre-nesting adult plovers between the two areas. We found fewer gulls near pre-nesting adults than near random points, and fewer gulls in Piping Plover nesting areas than in areas not used by plovers. Proximity to prime foraging habitats and available nesting habitat (wide stretches of open vegetation) may be more important to Piping Plover nest site selection than the presence of gulls.

Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

2001-01-01

31

Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.  

PubMed

Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

2014-02-01

32

Probable epizootic chlamydiosis in wild California (Larus californicus) and ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) gulls in North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1986, more than 400 California gulls (Larus californicus) and ring-billed gulls (Larvus delawarensis), primarily fledglings, died on an island in Lake Sakakawea near New Town, North Dakota (USA). Mortality was attributed largely to chlamydiosis. Necropsy findings in nine carcasses included splenomegaly (n = 9), hepatomegaly (n = 4), and pericarditis (n = 1). Livers from three California gulls and two ring-billed gulls, and spleens from the same five birds plus a third ring-billed gull were positive for Chlamydia psittaci by the direct immunofluorescence test. Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from separate pools of liver and spleen from one California gull and one ring-billed gull. This is believed to be the first record of epizootic chlamydiosis in gulls and the second report of epizootic chlamydial mortality in wild birds in North America.

Franson, J.C.; Pearson, J.E.

1995-01-01

33

Probable epizootic chlamydiosis in wild California (Larus californicus) and ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) gulls in North Dakota.  

PubMed

During the summer of 1986, more than 400 California gulls (Larus californicus) and ring-billed gulls (Larvus delawarensis), primarily fledglings, died on an island in Lake Sakakawea near New Town, North Dakota (USA). Mortality was attributed largely to chlamydiosis. Necropsy findings in nine carcasses included splenomegaly (n = 9), hepatomegaly (n = 4), and pericarditis (n = 1). Livers from three California gulls and two ring-billed gulls, and spleens from the same five birds plus a third ring-billed gull were positive for Chlamydia psittaci by the direct immunofluorescence test. Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from separate pools of liver and spleen from one California gull and one ring-billed gull. This is believed to be the first record of epizootic chlamydiosis in gulls and the second report of epizootic chlamydial mortality in wild birds in North America. PMID:8592370

Franson, J C; Pearson, J E

1995-07-01

34

TEMPORAL AND GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF AGE-SPECIFIC GULL PLUMAGE IN RELATION TO POTENTIAL EXPOSURE TO  

E-print Network

, Providence, Rhode Island 02918, USA A .--Study skins of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Great Black February 2005. Key words: age-class, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, Larus marinus démonstration de Larus argentatus et L. marinus collectés au cours d'une période d'environ 150 ans dans le nord

Clotfelter, Ethan

35

Seasonal Timing of Bald Eagle Attendance and Influence on Activity Budgets of Glaucous-winged Gulls in Barkley Sound, British Columbia  

E-print Network

phenology over 6 years at Seabird Rocks (Vancouver Island, Canada) and compare activity budgets of gulls and hatching of gull eggs. As Bald Eagle presence increased, gulls showed a strong increase in time allocated reproductive success by impacting time and energy budgets and facilitating egg and chick predation

36

Research on Defence Behaviour in a Common Gull (Larus Canus) Colony during Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research was carried out on the Didžioji Island, Lake Kretuonas (eastern Lithuania). A stuffed Raven (Corvus corax) was displayed in a Common Gull (Larus canus) colony during different breeding stages and attacks on the stuffed Raven made by Common Gulls flying higher and lower than 1 m above it as well as attacks of a direct contact were recorded.

Rimantas R. Budrys; Remigijus Gegelevi?ius

2002-01-01

37

Male and Female Parental Roles in the Western Gull under Different Environmental Conditions  

E-print Network

I examined variation in parental care in the Western Gull (Larus occidentalis), spending two seasons on Southeast Farallon Island (SEFI), where the population was large and competition for breeding space appeared to be high. During the first season...

Pierotti, Raymond

1981-07-01

38

Forster's tern chick survival in response to a managed relocation of predatory California gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gull populations can severely limit the productivity of waterbirds. Relocating gull colonies may reduce their effects on nearby breeding waterbirds, but there are few examples of this management strategy. We examined gull predation and survival of Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks before (2010) and after (2011) the managed relocation of the largest California gull (Larus californicus) colony (24,000 adults) in San Francisco Bay, California. Overall, survival of radio-marked Forster's tern chicks from hatching to fledging was 0.22?±?0.03 (mean?±?SE), and daily survival rates increased with age. Gulls were the predominant predator of tern chicks, potentially causing 54% of chick deaths. Prior to the gull colony relocation, 56% of radio-marked and 20% of banded tern chicks from the nearest tern colony were recovered dead in the gull colony, compared to only 15% of radio-marked and 4% of banded chicks recovered dead from all other tern colonies. The managed relocation of the gull colony substantially increased tern chick survival (by 900%) in the nearby (3.8?km) reference tern colony (0.29?±?0.10 in 2010 and 0.25?±?0.09 in 2011). Among 19 tern nesting islands, fledging success was higher when gull abundance was lower at nearby colonies and when gull colonies were farther from the tern colony. Our results indicate that the managed relocation of gull colonies away from preferred nesting areas of sensitive waterbirds can improve local reproductive success, but this conservation strategy may shift gull predation pressure to other areas or species.

Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herring, Garth

2014-01-01

39

UV matters in shoaling decisions  

PubMed Central

Shoaling behaviour in fish is influenced by numerous factors, such as familiarity, kinship, group size and shoal composition. Grouping decisions are based on both olfactory and visual cues. The visual system of many vertebrates is extended into the ultraviolet (UV) wave range as in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus, L.). We investigated whether the presence or absence of UV wavelengths has an influence on shoaling behaviour in this species. Reproductively non-active three-spined sticklebacks were given the choice between two shoals, equal in numbers of individuals, which could be seen either through a UV-transmitting [UV(+)] or a UV-blocking [UV(?)] filter. Test fish preferred to join the shoal seen under UV(+) conditions. Due to differences in quantal flux between the UV(+) and UV(?) filters used, control experiments with neutral-density optical filters were performed in order to clarify the role of luminance. Here, test fish spent significantly more time near shoals that were seen in a darker environment, suggesting a potential trade-off between UV radiation and lower brightness during shoal choice. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time that shoaling decisions are influenced by UV wavelengths. PMID:16618679

Modarressie, Ricarda; Rick, Ingolf P; Bakker, Theo C.M

2005-01-01

40

Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in: sediment; coral (Porites evermanni); fish (Stegastes fasciolatus, Neoniphon sammara, Acanthurus triostegus and Mulloidichthys vanicolensis); crab (Grapsus tenuicrustatus); lobster (Panulirus marginatus); and eel (Conger cinereus, Gymnothorax flavimarginatus, G. undulatus and G. meleagris) samples collected from Tern Island and the corresponding reference samples from Disappearing Island. The two islands are part of French Frigate Shoals, a

Xiu-Sheng Miao; Chris Swenson; Lee Ann Woodward; Qing X. Li

2000-01-01

41

Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in Ivory Gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs),

Birgit M. Braune; Mark L. Mallory; H. Grant Gilchrist; Robert J. Letcher; Ken G. Drouillard

2007-01-01

42

Mercury trends in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from Atlantic Canada, 1972-2008: Temporal change or dietary shift?  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant that can adversely affect predatory wildlife. Bird eggs provide insights into breeding females' Hg burdens, and are easily collected and archived. We present data on Hg trends in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from five sites in Atlantic Canada from 1972 to 2008. We found a significant decrease in Hg at Manawagonish Island, New Brunswick and Île du Corossol, Quebec, but after correcting Hg for dietary shifts using stable isotopes (?(15)N), these trends disappeared. Decreasing temporal trends of stable isotopes in gull eggs were observed at four sites, suggesting shifts in gull diets. At Gull Island, Newfoundland, diet-adjusted Hg increased from 1977 to 1992, dropped sharply between 1992 and 1996, and rose again from 1996 to 2008. After adjusting Hg trends for dietary shifts of herring gulls, it appears that environmental Hg in coastal ecosystems has remained relatively constant at most sites in Atlantic Canada over the last 36 years. PMID:23063997

Burgess, Neil M; Bond, Alexander L; Hebert, Craig E; Neugebauer, Ewa; Champoux, Louise

2013-01-01

43

Heavy metal concentrations in Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks, Korea.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of heavy metals in livers and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks from two islands in Korea. Iron and manganese concentrations were significantly higher in chick livers at Hongdo Island compared to Rando Islnad. In contrast, zinc, copper and cadmium concentrations were significantly higher at Rando Island than Hongdo Island. On Hongdo Island, Black-tailed Gull chicks at a lighthouse site had higher lead concentrations in livers and stomach contents than at a nearby reference site and stomach contents of Black-tailed Gull chicks had significantly higher lead concentrations than regurgitated diets. In Hongdo Island, manganese, lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly correlated between livers and stomach contents. Essential elements such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper concentrations from the present study were within the range reported for other seabird species including gulls. Livers of four individual gull chicks (13.3%) were at a level considered lead exposed (6-30 ?g g(-1) dry weight), but cadmium concentrations in all specimens were within the background level (<3 ?g g(-1) dry weight) for wild birds. Elevated lead concentrations on lighthouse site may be attributed to ingestion of paint chips and these concentrations may negatively affect chick behavior, growth and survival. PMID:25048929

Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jon-Min

2014-10-01

44

Breeding biology of Sabine’s gull ( Xema sabini ) in the Canadian high Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sabine’s gull (Xema sabini) is a small seabird that breeds in select locations across the circumpolar Arctic, but there have been few studies on its\\u000a breeding biology, particularly from the high Arctic. We studied nesting phenology, breeding effort, and breeding success of\\u000a Sabine’s gulls over 5 years at a colony on a small island (Nasaruvaalik) in the Canadian high Arctic.

Mark L. Mallory; Kelly A. Boadway; Shanti E. Davis; Mark Maftei

45

Nest-site selection in Savannah sparrows: using gulls as scarecrows?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah sparrows,Passerculus sandwichensisbreeding on Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, have two types of nest predators, one of them (herring gulls,Larus argentatus) abundant but relatively ineffective, the other (American crows,Corvus brachyrhynchos) scarce but highly effective. We hypothesized that the net effect for Savannah sparrows of nesting near gulls would be to reduce the overall risk of nest predation. Despite being surrounded

NATHANIEL T WHEELWRIGHT; JOSHUA J LAWLER; JOSHUA H WEINSTEIN

1997-01-01

46

Fish shoal composition: mechanisms and constraints.  

PubMed Central

Observations were made on three fish species (banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) in a temperate lake (New Brunswick, Canada) in order to investigate the relationship between shoal choice behaviour of individual fishes and shoal composition. Encounters between shoals were observed to take place every 1.1 min per shoal and an encounter lasted 3.7 s on average. The duration of shoal encounters was influenced by shoal size but not by differences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. ences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. whether or not an individual changes shoal) was influenced by body length and species differences but not by shoal size. Together, these results suggest that encounter duration itself is unlikely to have an important influence on encounter outcome. The collection of ten entire fish shoals showed that they were assorted by species and body length. A simulation model demonstrated that individual shoal choice behaviour alone could account for the generation and maintenance of the observed levels of size assortedness of shoals without invoking the existence of other sorting mechanisms such as differential swimming speeds. However, the generation of species assortedness was not predicted by the model. Furthermore, our data suggest that fish density acts as a constraint on shoal choice, influencing both shoal size and composition. This work has implications for studies on information transfer and reciprocal altruism within populations. PMID:11075715

Krause, J; Hoare, D J; Croft, D; Lawrence, J; Ward, A; Ruxton, G D; Godin, J G; James, R

2000-01-01

47

Fish shoal composition: mechanisms and constraints.  

PubMed

Observations were made on three fish species (banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni)) in a temperate lake (New Brunswick, Canada) in order to investigate the relationship between shoal choice behaviour of individual fishes and shoal composition. Encounters between shoals were observed to take place every 1.1 min per shoal and an encounter lasted 3.7 s on average. The duration of shoal encounters was influenced by shoal size but not by differences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. ences between shoals in either body length or species. Conversely, the outcome of shoal encounters (i.e. whether or not an individual changes shoal) was influenced by body length and species differences but not by shoal size. Together, these results suggest that encounter duration itself is unlikely to have an important influence on encounter outcome. The collection of ten entire fish shoals showed that they were assorted by species and body length. A simulation model demonstrated that individual shoal choice behaviour alone could account for the generation and maintenance of the observed levels of size assortedness of shoals without invoking the existence of other sorting mechanisms such as differential swimming speeds. However, the generation of species assortedness was not predicted by the model. Furthermore, our data suggest that fish density acts as a constraint on shoal choice, influencing both shoal size and composition. This work has implications for studies on information transfer and reciprocal altruism within populations. PMID:11075715

Krause, J; Hoare, D J; Croft, D; Lawrence, J; Ward, A; Ruxton, G D; Godin, J G; James, R

2000-10-01

48

Organochlorines in Greenland glaucous gulls ( Larus hyperboreus) and Icelandic gulls ( Larus glaucoides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and Icelandic gulls (Larus glaucoides) were sampled in 1994 from four different areas in Greenland, three on the west coast and one on the east coast. Livers of 93 glaucous gulls and seven Icelandic gulls were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, IUPAC Nos. 28, 31, 52, 101, 105, 118, 138, 153, 156 and 180), DDTs (p,p?-DDE,

M Cleemann; F Riget; G. B Paulsen; R Dietz

2000-01-01

49

Reductions in Gull Populations Improve Beachwater Quality.  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND. Gulls are often cited as an important source of fecal pollution to surface waters, and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations have been shown to be significantly correlated with gull populations. However, it is unclear whether gull contamination poses a risk to...

50

The Effects of Diurnal and Tidal Periodicities in the Numbers and Activities of Herring Gulls Larus argentatus in a Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average numbers of Herring Gulls Larus argentatus present in a breeding colony on Walney Island, Cumbria, were found to vary with the tidal cycle but to remain effectively constant with time of day through the breeding season.\\u000aAn activity survey, based on 50 Herring Gulls observed at half-hourly intervals during March and April 1973, showed that sleep and rest

Joseph G. Galusha; Charles J. Amlaner

1978-01-01

51

Annual Movement Patterns of Endangered Ivory Gulls: The Importance of Sea Ice  

PubMed Central

The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual variation of post-breeding migratory route selection. Ivory gulls traveled a median of 74 days during post-breeding migration, but only 18 days during pre-breeding migration. In contrast to predictions, ivory gulls did not use the Greenland coast during migratory periods. Ivory gulls overwintered near the ice edge in Davis Strait, but also used the Labrador Sea in late February and March. We suggest that the timing of formation and recession and extent of sea ice plays a large role in ivory gull distribution and migratory timing. PMID:25551556

Spencer, Nora C.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Mark L.

2014-01-01

52

Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes.  

PubMed Central

Preferential association with familiar shoal mates confers a number of potentially important benefits to individuals, including improved anti-predator effects and the reduction of aggression in competitive interactions. Until now, however, familiarity has been demonstrated purely between conspecifics. Here, we present evidence that familiarity preferences can override natural preferences for conspecifics. Individual focal fishes (chub, Leuciscus cephalus) were given a choice of two stimulus shoals of the same size composed of conspecifics or of heterospecifics (minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus) in a flow tank. A series of four treatments was carried out to investigate the effects of familiarity, induced by a 15 day association between the focal fish and the stimulus fishes, on the choices made by the focal fish. Focal fishes showed a significant preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics when both stimulus shoals were composed of non-familiar individuals. Focal fishes also showed a significant preference for stimulus shoals composed of familiar fishes over stimulus shoals composed of non-familiar fishes when both shoals were conspecific and when both shoals were heterospecific. Finally, the preference of focal fishes for conspecifics disappeared when the alternative, a shoal of heterospecifics, was composed of familiar individuals. The importance of this work is discussed in the context of species interactions in free-ranging shoals. PMID:12816654

Ward, A J W; Axford, S; Krause, J

2003-01-01

53

Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls.  

PubMed

One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties. PMID:6882946

White, D H; Mitchell, C A; Hill, E F

1983-07-01

54

A Second Breeding Site for Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) in Nunavut, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only 15 cases of breeding of Ross's gull Rhodostethia rosea are known outside of Siberia. While numerous birds are regularly seen in the fall at Point Barrow, Alaska, until now only one breeding locality has been known for Nunavut, Canada. We found a second breeding locality in Nunavut in the northwestern corner of Prince Charles Island (Foxe Basin). We observed

ARNAUD BÉCHET; JEAN-LOUIS MARTIN; PETER MEISTER; CORINNE RABOUAM

55

No. 2 fuel oil decreases embryonic survival of great black-backed gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field study of the effects of No. 2 fuel oil applications to the eggs of great black-backed gulls on an island off the coast of Maine. Fuel oil applied in amounts of either 5 or 20 ul. All eggs opened 8 da later. Measured survival and estimated age of embryo at time of egg oiling.

Coon, N.C.; Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

1979-01-01

56

Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers (Ryn chops niger) and gull-billed terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) were investigated in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975. With few exceptions, the two species nested together in colonies located on barrier islands. We located 10 colonies, 7 of which were on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (Cape Romain); references were located that described nesting on seven other islands in South Carolina that no longer support colonies. Gull-billed terns nested from early May through July; the skimmers started later (late May) but also continued later (early September). Both species nested in areas subject to tidal flooding, and the two species persisted in nesting in several colonies despite intense predation by rats and gulls. Estimated reproductive success varied greatly from year to year and colony to colony; success in most colonies seemed low, particularly for the gull-billed tern. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in several eggs seemed of sufficient magnitude to induce adverse effects on reproductivity and eggshell thickness: however, the overall effect of organochlorines appeared negligible. Maximum numbers of nests located in a single year were 790 for the skimmer and 340 for the gull-billed tern: the total breeding population in South Carolina is unknown. Although nesting islands at Cape Romain and Deveaux Bank are sanctuaries for nesting birds, both species will continue to lose nesting habitat as additional sea islands are developed and inhabited by man.

Blus, Lawrence J.; Stafford, Charles J.

1980-01-01

57

Aspects of chick growth in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of concerns about apparent population declines and low productivity of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) along the coast of Virginia, we investigated whether food limitations may result in retarded growth rates of young. Several colonies of Gull-billed Terns were monitored from May to July each year from 1994 to 1996 on both sandy barrier islands and marsh/shellpile islands in coastal Virginia. Nests were visited one to three times a week to monitor clutch size and hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick growth from hatching to at least two weeks of age. When comparing chick growth, we found significant year, habitat and hatch order effects. Chicks from marsh shellpiles had higher mass and culmen growth rates than did those from barrier islands, and first-hatched (A) chicks had significantly higher culmen growth rates than did second-hatched (B) chicks. Year effects were only found for mass growth rates. Growth rates of Gull- billed Terns in these Virginia colonies seem to be low relative to those of six other North American tern species from other geographic areas. These findings suggest that growth rates of young Gull-billed Terns, as well as other reproductive parameters, need to be examined in detail in other coastal areas such as Texas, where the species is more abundant, to determine whether our growth results are species- or region-specific.

Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

1999-01-01

58

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends in mercury in Great Lakes Herring Gull eggs, 1974-2009.  

PubMed

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends of total mercury (Hg) were assessed in eggs of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) over the period 1974-2009 at 15 sites in the Great Lakes: 2-3 sites per lake and one site in each of 3 connecting channels. Current (2009) concentrations ranged from 0.064 ?g/g (wet weight) at Chantry Island (Lake Huron) to 0.246 ?g/g at Middle Island (Lake Erie). There were significant inter-colony differences in mean Hg concentrations (2005-2009). Mercury concentrations at 14 of 15 sites declined from 23 to 86% between when it was first measured (usually 1974) and 2009. Declining temporal trends over the entire period (1974-2009) were significant at 10 of the 15 sites. On the other hand, there were no significant trends in mercury over the last 15 years. In the early years, declines of Hg in Herring Gull eggs tracked those in Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) in most Great Lakes. More recently, declines in gull eggs were more evident than in smelt and may be partially explained by temporal changes in the gull diet. When gull Hg data were adjusted for temporal changes in the gull diet, as inferred from stable nitrogen isotope values in eggs, significant declines in egg mercury levels were found only at 4 of 15 sites. Overall, Hg concentrations have declined in Great Lakes Herring Gull eggs over the period 1974-2009 but changes in the gull diet may be contributing, in part, to those declines. Examination of contaminant temporal trends in multiple indicator species will ensure accurate inferences regarding contaminant availability in the environment. PMID:21833543

Weseloh, D V Chip; Moore, David J; Hebert, Craig E; de Solla, Shane R; Braune, Birgit M; McGoldrick, Daryl J

2011-10-01

59

Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (<= 20 m depth) portions of the Nantucket Shoals, up to 70 km offshore. Diet analyses of ten birds collected in February 1999 and five in December 2006 showed that they fed principally (106.6 +/- 42.0 individuals per crop) on Gammarus annulatus, a pelagic amphipod that often forms large aggregations, and is consumed by several species of fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

2009-01-01

60

Alternate reproductive strategies in the California gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We analysed 6 years of reproduction data for 176 California gulls (Larus californicus) surviving from 1980 to 1988. Using a statistical model adapted from Rao's (1958) and Tucker's (1966) generalized growth curve analysis, we reconstructed the reproductive patterns of gulls aged from 0 to 26 years. Individuals were highly consistent in following one of two patterns of reproduction. In a

B. H. Pugesek; P. Wood

1992-01-01

61

Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During non-migratory flight, gulls (Larids) use a wide variety of flight strategies. We investigate the extent to which the energy balance of a bird explains flight strategy selection. We develop a model based on optimal foraging and aerodynamic theories, to calculate the ground speeds and airspeeds at which a gull is expected to flap or soar during foraging flight. The

Judy Shamoun-Baranes; Emiel van Loon

2006-01-01

62

Is it possible to identify Baltic and Heuglin's Gulls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In 1998 Lars Jonsson wrote a groundbreakingpaper on the identification of Baltic Gull Larus fuscus fuscus. The paper was important because it presented new identification criteria for the separation of fuscus from graellsii and intermedius Lesser Black-backed Gulls. Around the same time, Visa Rauste produced a similarly important paper dealing with the separation of Baltic Gull from Heuglin’s Gull

Chris Gibbins

63

PREDICTING THE BIRDSTRIKE HAZARD FROM GULLS AT LANDFILL SITES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the factors that affect hazardous bird populations associated with landfill sites is crucial to the development of useful and accurate bird avoidance models. Three common species of gulls in the UK that are hazardous to aircraft; Herring gulls (Larus argentatus), Black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), and Lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) were monitored at six UK landfill sites over a

Andy Baxter; Helen Laycock

64

Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.  

PubMed Central

Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

2004-01-01

65

Heavy metal and selenium concentrations in eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) : Temporal differences from 1989 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of five metals and selenium in the eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were examined at a breeding colony on western Long Island, New York from 1989 to 1994. There were significant yearly differences in lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, chromium, and manganese. Chromium and cadmium were significantly higher in 1993 compared to the other years. Lead levels were highest

J. Burger; M. Gochfeld

1995-01-01

66

DDT-Induced Feminization of Gull Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on Santa Barbara

D. Michael Fry; C. Kuehler Toone

1981-01-01

67

DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of DDT (1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on

D. M. Fry; C. K. Toone

1981-01-01

68

Created versus natural coastal islands: Atlantic waterbird populations, habitat choices, and management implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nesting colonial waterbirds along the Atlantic Coast of the United States face a number of landscape-level threats including human disturbance, mammalian predator expansion, and habitat alteration. There have been changes from 1977 to the mid-1990s in use of nesting habitats and populations of a number of seabird species of concern in the region, including black skimmers Rynchops niger Linnaeaus, common terns Sterna hirundo Linnaeaus, gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica Linnaeaus, least terns Sterna antillarum Lesson, royal terns Sterna maxima Boddaert, and sandwich terns Sterna sandvicensis Cabot. These species form colonies primarily on the following habitat types: large, sandy barrier or shoal islands, natural estuarine or bay islands (mostly marsh), man-made islands of dredged deposition materials (from navigation channels), and the mainland. Significant changes in the use of the dredged material islands have occurred for these species in New Jersey and North Carolina, but not in Virginia. Population declines and changes in bird habitat use appear to be at least partially associated with the conditions and management of the existing dredged material islands, coastal policy changes associated with creating new dredged material islands, and competing demands for sand for beach augmentation by coastal communities. As these and other coastal habitats become less suitable for colonial waterbirds, other manmade sites, such as bridges and buildings have become increasingly more important. In regions with intense recreational demands, coastal wildlife managers need to take a more aggressive role in managing natural and man-made habitats areas and as stakeholders in the decision-making process involving dredged materials and beach sand allocation.

Erwin, R.M.; Allen, D.H.; Jenkins, D.

2003-01-01

69

Dynamics of fish shoals: identifying key decision rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social aggregations of fish are extremely common in nature. Pitcher (1983) defines a social aggregation of fish as a shoal, with a highly polarized shoal constituting a school. The ultimate causes of fish shoaling have been extensively studied and are well established, with the main causes being protection from predators and enhanced foraging ability. The proximate mechanisms by which groups

Joseph H. Tien; Simon A. Levin; Daniel I. Rubenstein

2004-01-01

70

Depredation of common eider, Somateria mollissima, nests on a central Beaufort Sea barrier island: A case where no one wins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along the central Beaufort Sea, Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigra) nest on unvegetated, barrier islands; often near nesting Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Nest-site choice likely reflects a strategy of predator avoidance: nesting on islands to avoid mammalian predators and near territorial gulls to avoid other avian predators. We observed a nesting colony of Common Eiders from first nest initiation through nesting termination on Egg Island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (2002 - 2003). Resident gulls depredated many eider nests, mostly during initiation. All nests failed when an Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) visited the island and flushed hens from their nests, exposing the eggs to depredation by the fox and gulls (resident and non-resident). Common Eiders actively defended nests from gulls, but not from foxes. Likely all three species (i.e., eiders, gulls, and foxes) ultimately achieved negligible benefit from their nest-site selection or predatory activity: (a) island nesting provided no safety from mammalian predators for eiders or gulls, (b) for Common Eiders, nesting near gulls increased egg loss, (c) for Glaucous Gulls, nesting near colonial eiders may have reduced nest success by attracting the fox, and (d) for Arctic Foxes, the depredation was of questionable value, as most eggs were cached and probably not recoverable (due to damage from fall storms). Thus, the predator-prey interactions we observed appear to be a case where little or no fitness advantage was realized by any of the species involved.

Reed, J.A.; Lacroix, D.L.; Flint, P.L.

2007-01-01

71

Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection.  

PubMed

During non-migratory flight, gulls (Larids) use a wide variety of flight strategies. We investigate the extent to which the energy balance of a bird explains flight strategy selection. We develop a model based on optimal foraging and aerodynamic theories, to calculate the ground speeds and airspeeds at which a gull is expected to flap or soar during foraging flight. The model results are compared with observed flight speeds, directions, and flight strategies of two species of gulls, the black-headed gull Larus ridibundus and the lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus. The observations were made using a tracking radar over land in The Netherlands. The model suggests that, especially at combinations of low ground speed (approximately 5-10 m s(-1)), high air speed (approximately 20-25 m s(-1)) and low ground and air speed, gulls should favor soaring flight. At intermediate ground and air speeds the predicted net energy gain is similar for soaring and flapping. Hence the ratio of flapping to soaring may be higher than for other air and ground speed combinations. This range of speeds is broadest for black-headed gulls. The model results are supported by the observations. For example, flapping is more prevalent at speeds where the predicted net energy gain is similar for both strategies. Interestingly, combinations of air speed and flight speed that, according to the model, would result in a loss of net energy gain, were not observed. Additional factors that may influence flight strategy selection are also briefly discussed. PMID:16943489

Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; van Loon, Emiel

2006-09-01

72

Wind Effects on Shoaling Wave Shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nearshore, cross-shore winds strongly affect the location of the breakpoint and the breaking-wave height. From casual observation from the beach, wind direction (onshore or offshore) and speed also appears to affect wave shape (\\\\ie skewness and asymmetry), although as of yet this has not been quantified in the nearshore. The effect of wind on shoaling wave shape is

F. Feddersen

2004-01-01

73

Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

74

Data Decision Analysis: Project Shoal  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate field activities in terms of reducing the uncertainty in the groundwater flow and transport model at the Project Shoal area. The data decision analysis relied on well-known tools of statistics and uncertainty analysis. This procedure identified nine parameters that were deemed uncertain. These included effective porosity, hydraulic head, surface recharge, hydraulic conductivity, fracture correlation scale, fracture orientation, dip angle, dissolution rate of radionuclides from the puddle glass, and the retardation coefficient, which describes the sorption characteristics. The parameter uncertainty was described by assigning prior distributions for each of these parameters. Next, the various field activities were identified that would provide additional information on these parameters. Each of the field activities was evaluated by an expert panel to estimate posterior distribution of the parameters assuming a field activity was performed. The posterior distributions describe the ability of the field activity to estimate the true value of the nine parameters. Monte Carlo techniques were used to determine the current uncertainty, the reduction of uncertainty if a single parameter was known with certainty, and the reduction of uncertainty expected from each field activity on the model predictions. The mean breakthrough time to the downgradient land withdrawal boundary and the peak concentration at the control boundary were used to evaluate the uncertainty reduction. The radionuclide 137Cs was used as the reference solute, as its migration is dependent on all of the parameters. The results indicate that the current uncertainty of the model yields a 95 percent confidence interval between 42 and 1,412 years for the mean breakthrough time and an 18 order-of-magnitude range in peak concentration. The uncertainty in effective porosity and recharge dominates the uncertainty in the model predictions, while the other parameters are less important. A two-stage process was used to evaluate the optimal field activities. For all of the field activities combined there were five activities that were found to be "optimal" in terms of uncertainty reduction per unit cost: two-well, natural-gradient, energy budget, and single-well tracer tests, and the vadose zone modeling. A subset of the field activities was chosen such that there would be no duplication in parameter characterization. Of this subset, the vadose zone model, barometric test, energy budget, and the two-well tracer test were found to be optimal for the peak breakthrough time metric, while the single-well tracer test and the hydraulic head measurements are also considered optimal for the peak concentration metric. The environmental tracer activity was not found to be optimal, yet this activity may provide additional information on the transport system. Care must be taken in using this analysis to design a field characterization plan, as many assumptions were required in the analysis. First, many subjective assumptions were required to assess the reliability of the field activities in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty in the mean parameters. Actual field characterization may not result in the same reduction in model output uncertainty as estimated by this analysis. Second, this analysis focused on the reduction in model uncertainty due to the reduction in the uncertainty in the mean parameters. If the uncertainty in the mean parameters is reduced to zero, there still exists uncertainty in the natural heterogeneity that can never be reduced to zero. Therefore, this analysis should be used in combination with expert judgement when designing a field characterization strategy.

Forsgren, Frank; Pohll, Greg; Tracy, John

1999-01-01

75

Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 microg/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 microg/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor alpha-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. PMID:20641170

Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena; Basu, Niladri

2010-08-01

76

Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, 1972--1992  

SciTech Connect

Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled for years 1972--1976, 1981--1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site and analyzed for total mercury (ppm, wet weight). Results indicated that eggs from Lake Ontario displayed the highest mercury levels, mean = 0.28 (s.d. = 0.08) to 0.73 (0.23). Lake Erie typically displayed the lowest egg mercury levels, 0.18 (0.08) to 0.24 (0.11). Overall, mercury levels ranged from 0.12 (0.02) in 1985 to 0.88 (0.23) in 1982 for Channel-Shelter Island (Lake Huron) and Pigeon Island (Lake Ontario), respectively. Generally, all colony sites showed peak mercury levels in 1982. A significant decline in egg mercury levels was observed in six colony sites between 1972 and 1992 and in three colony sites between 1981 and 1992. The mean herring gull egg mercury levels observed in the early and mid 1970s and in 1982 for some colony sites were within the range found which potentially reduces hatchability in other fish-eating bird species.

Weseloh, D.V.; Koster, M.D.; Ryckman, D.P.; Struger, J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada). Canada Centre for Inland Waters

1995-12-31

77

Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in the Aleutians  

PubMed Central

Levels of mercury and other contaminants should be lower in birds nesting on isolated oceanic islands and at high latitudes without any local or regional sources of contamination, compared to more urban and industrialized temperate regions. We examined concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling and adult glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) nesting in breeding colonies on Adak, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska in the Bering Sea/North Pacific. We tested the following null hypotheses: 1) There were no differences in metal levels among eggs and feathers of adult and fledgling glaucous-winged gulls, 2) There were no differences in metal levels among gulls nesting near the three underground nuclear test sites (Long Shot 1965, Milrow 1969, Cannikin 1971) on Amchitka, 3) There were no differences in metal levels among the three islands, and 4) There were no gender-related differences in metal levels. All four null hypotheses were rejected at the 0.05 level, although there were few differences among the three test sites on Amchitka. Eggs had the lowest levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury, and the feathers of adults had the lowest levels of selenium. Comparing only adults and fledglings, adults had higher levels of cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury, and fledglings had higher levels of arsenic, manganese and selenium. There were few consistent interisland differences, although levels were generally lower for eggs and feathers from gulls on Amchitka compared to the other islands. Arsenic was higher in both adult feathers and eggs from Amchitka compared to Adak, and chromium and lead were higher in adult feathers and eggs from Adak compared to Amchitka. Mercury and arsenic, and chromium and manganese levels were significantly correlated in the feathers of both adult and fledgling gulls. The feathers of males had significantly higher levels of chromium and manganese than did females. The levels of most metals in feathers are below those known to be associated with adverse effects in the gulls or their predators. However, levels of mercury in some gull eggs are within a range suggesting that several eggs should not be eaten in one day by sensitive humans. PMID:18626778

Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Volz, Conrad D.; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Daniel; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila

2014-01-01

78

Wind Effects on Shoaling Wave Shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near the shore, cross-shore winds strongly affect the location of the break point and the breaking-wave height. From casual observation from the beach, wind direction (onshore or offshore) and speed also appear to affect wave shape (i.e., skewness and asymmetry), although as of yet this effect has not been quantified near the shore. The effect of wind on shoaling wave

Falk Feddersen; Fabrice Veron

2005-01-01

79

Sleep in the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep postures and eye state of free-ranging herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were studied during the breeding season. Three mutually exclusive behaviours were observed, namely sleep, rest-sleep and rest postures. Arousal thresholds, eye blink rates and eye closure time were obtained during these behaviours. Significant relationships existed between eye blinking, eye closure, and a raised threshold of arousal when birds were

Charles J. Amlaner; David J. McFarland

1981-01-01

80

Ross's Gulls in the Central Arctic Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central Arctic Ocean is difficult to access. As a result, the bird fauna of the area, with its potential input from all around the circumpolar perimeter, is still only little known. The present paper contributes observations on the distribution of Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) made during the Arctic Ocean 96 expedition from mid-July to mid-September 1996, from the Swedish

CHRISTIAN HJORT; GUDMUNDUR A. GUDMUNDSSON; MAGNUS ELANDER

81

SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF LARGE GULLS (LARUS SPP.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

sponsible for maintaining and increasing the dimorphism, although other basic adaptive functions may also be involved. Smith (1966) found for two species of gulls (Larus glaucoides and L. thayeri) that the difference between the sexes was greatest when the species were allopatric with closely similar species. He suggests (p. 85): \\

AGNAR INGOLFSSON

82

THE DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN LARGE GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of investigating the relationships and plumage charac- ters of the large gulls of western North America (Devillets, in prep.) a number of specimens had to be examined, and distributional data checked. Also, field studies, particularly in the San Diego region, northern Baja California, and the Salton Sea, have resulted in a better understanding of the distribution of

Pierre Devillets; Guy McCaskie; Joseph R. Jehl

83

The trypanosome Sue Vaughan and Keith Gull*  

E-print Network

morphogenesis and pathogenicity. However, the tractable cell biology, reverse genetics and advanced genome of eukaryotic flagella and cilia in general. Flagellum functions: morphogenesis to pathogenicity The positioning a pivotal role in morphogenesis of the trypanosome with many functions beyond those of motility (Gull, 1999

Schnaufer, Achim

84

Birds of Bylot Island and Adjacent Baffin Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, 1979 to 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of birds in the Bylot Island region from 1979 to 1997, with emphasis on the southwest part of the island each summer since 1989, revealed an avifauna composed of 63 species, of which 35 were breeding. Thirteen species are new records for the region, including one for the Northwest Territories (black-headed gull Larus ridibundus) and two for the Canadian

DENIS LEPAGE; DAVID N. NETTLESHIP; AUSTIN REED

1998-01-01

85

Distribution and textural character of surficial sediments, Isles Dernieres to Ship Shoal region, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Since 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have undertaken field studies of the physical processes responsible for the widespread and extremely rapid coastal erosion of Louisiana's barriers along the Mississippi River delta plain coast. The study area encompasses the coastal and inner shelf region from Raccoon Point to Sandy Point and includes a database of 12-m long vibracores, surface grab samples, sidescan sonar, high resolution seismic reflection profiles, and precision hydrographic profiles. This paper presents results in the coastal-shelf sector that includes the Isles Dernieres barrier island chain seaward almost 30 km to Ship Shoal. The surface and near-surface sediments of the region reflect fluvial and nearshore marine origin with pervasive evidence of winnowing and reworking by marine processes associated with frequent tropical storms and the passage of winter cold fronts. Beach sediments are remarkably uniform in grain size (fine quartz sand), except for the often abundant presence of carbonate shell debris, and are generally well to very well sorted. The shoreface and inner shelf are mantled with muddy sands and sandy muds, whereas, Ship Shoal is almost wholly fine quartz sand, similar in many sedimentologic respects to the Isles Dernieres. The results are consistent with the model of coastal evolution, presented in 1988, in which Ship Shoal is the prototypical example of a drowned coastal barrier undergoing submarine reworking and landward migration in pace with the rapid rates of sea level rise and subsidence.

Williams, S.J.; Circe, R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Penland, S. (Geological Survey, Baton Rouge, LA (USA))

1989-09-01

86

Modeling of wave shoaling in a 2D-NWT using a spilling breaker model Stephan Guignard and Stephan T. Grilli  

E-print Network

crest areas. The instantaneous power dissipated for each breaking wave by the absorbing pressureModeling of wave shoaling in a 2D-NWT using a spilling breaker model Stephan Guignard and Stephan T. Grilli Department of Ocean Engineering, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI 02882, USA ABSTRACT

Grilli, Stéphan T.

87

A TECHNIQUE TO COLOR-MARK INCUBATING GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of a method used to mark Cattle Egrets (Bubulcus ibis) produced a technique suitable for color-marking Herring (Larus argentatus), Great Black-backed (L. marinus), and Laughing (L. atricilla) Gulls. Gulls marked themselves while incubating artificial eggs treated with a mixture of petroleum jelly and Rhodamine B. Marks persisted on gulls a minimum of 28-42 d. Low levels of mortality (0.05-0.27%)

PAUL M. CAVANAGH; CURTICE R. GRIFFIN; EDWIN M. HOOPES

88

THE PRIMARY MOULT OF THE LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the primary moult of the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus. It is based on moult scores obtained from birds trapped by the Severn Estuary Gull Group in Gloucestershire, Herefordshire and Worcestershire and personal observations by the author. Though a number of papers on the primary moult of Lesser Black-backed Gulls of the subspecies L.f. graellsii already

PETER STEWART

89

Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven

Dariusz Bukaci?ski; Monika Bukaci?ska; Thomas Lubjuhn

2000-01-01

90

Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls ( Larus glaucescens ) in the Aleutians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of mercury and other contaminants should be lower in birds nesting on isolated oceanic islands and at high latitudes\\u000a without any local or regional sources of contamination, compared to more urban and industrialized temperate regions. We examined\\u000a concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling\\u000a and adult glaucous-winged gulls

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld; Christian Jeitner; Sean Burke; Conrad D. Volz; Ronald Snigaroff; Daniel Snigaroff; Tara Shukla; Sheila Shukla

2009-01-01

91

Foraging, timidity and shoal size in minnows and goldfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of individual minnows (Phoxinus phoxinus) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) foraging on an artificial food patch was recorded for single species shoals of 2, 4, 6, 12 and 20 fish. In both species shoal size accounted for most variation in behaviour in the experiments. The behaviour of individual goldfish differed more than that of individual minnows, a result that

A. E. Magurran; T. J. Pitcher

1983-01-01

92

Fully Nonlinear Properties of Periodic Waves Shoaling over Slopes1  

E-print Network

. These effects induce significant changes in wave shape, height H, length L, and phase celerity c, while the waveFully Nonlinear Properties of Periodic Waves Shoaling over Slopes1 St´ephan T. Grilli 2 , M. ASCE, and Juan Horrillo3 ABSTRACT : Shoaling of finite amplitude periodic waves over a sloping bottom

Grilli, Stéphan T.

93

Inner-shelf shoal formation through transgressive barrier submergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shore-parallel sand shoals are common depositional features on the continental shelves of North America and make up a significant component of the stratigraphic record generated by the Holocene transgression. Erosional shoreface retreat and in-place drowning of barrier shorelines are models that have been proposed to explain the generation of these deposits. Sand shoals within the retreat path of the Holocene

S. Penland; J. R. Suter; R. Boyd

1986-01-01

94

ERDCTR-11-4 Erie Harbor, Pennsylvania, Channel Shoaling  

E-print Network

ERDCTR-11-4 Erie Harbor, Pennsylvania, Channel Shoaling Analysis EnvironmentalLaboratory Mansour; distribution is unlimited. #12;ERDC TR-11-4 July 2011 Erie Harbor, Pennsylvania, Channel Shoaling Analysis the federal harbor at Erie, Pennsylvania. The US Army Engineer District, Buffalo (LRB) requested the US Army

US Army Corps of Engineers

95

Trace element contamination in nestling black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) in Korea.  

PubMed

At Hongdo Island, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea, a breeding site of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), we collected nestlings from two locations: a "reference" site (n = 10) with no known source of lead contamination and "lighthouse" site (n = 10) with suspected lead contamination from leaded paint. Iron concentrations in the kidney and bone, manganese in the muscle, copper in the bone, lead in the muscle and bone, and cadmium in the liver, muscle, and bone at the reference site were significantly higher than at the lighthouse. Manganese concentrations in the liver and kidney, and lead in the kidney were significantly greater at the lighthouse than at the reference site. Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, lead and cadmium concentrations had tissue-specific accumulation at both sites. Lead concentrations in 10 % of livers and in 80 % of kidneys at the lighthouse, and in 20 % of livers from the reference were within a range considered toxic (>6.00 ?g/g dw in the liver and kidney). Lead concentrations in 50 % of black-tailed gull nestlings at the reference and 80 % nestlings at the lighthouse were greater in livers than in bones, which is suggestive of acute lead exposure. For cadmium, all liver and kidney concentrations from two sites were at a level considered background in birds. Cadmium concentrations of every sample were higher in kidneys than in livers, suggestive of chronic cadmium exposure. Lead concentrations in gull nestlings in the present study were relatively higher than other gull species worldwide, but cadmium concentrations were relatively lower. PMID:25763522

Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

2015-05-01

96

Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013.  

PubMed

Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed. PMID:25471353

Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

2015-03-01

97

Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) Breeding in Penny Strait, Nunavut, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found a small, previously undiscovered breeding colony of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) in Nunavut, Canada, approximately 80 km from a previous colony location occupied during the 1970s. The birds nested in association with arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea). The collective observations from this region of the High Arctic suggest that Ross's gulls may move colonies each year, or that colony

MARK L. MALLORY; H. GRANT GILCHRIST; CAROLYN L. MALLORY

98

COMPETITION BETWEEN AMERICAN COOTS AND FRANKLIN'S GULLS FOR NEST SITES AND EGG PREDATION BY THE COOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RANKLIN'S Gull (Lams pipixcan) is the only gull that nests exclusively in marshes. It is colonial, and often changes colony sites from year to year. Franklin's Gulls build semi-floating nests in the cattail (Typha sp.) marshes of the northern prairies of North America. I studied the breeding adapta- tions of the Franklin's Gull to a marsh habitat from 1968 to

JOANNA BURGER

99

Intergradation between the Herring Gull Larus argentatus and the Southern Herring Gull Larus cachinnans in European Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five gull populations along a 2000-km transect, running from the Barents Sea coast in the Kola Pen- insula to Nizhegorodskaya oblast, were studied with respect to external morphology, vocalization, and DNA features. The transect crosses the easternmost part of the L. argentatus range, as well as areas of the Middle Volga basin inhabited by the gulls of cachinnans- like type.

E. N. Panov; D. G. Monzikov

100

ORGANOCHLORINE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN HERRING GULLS, RING-BILLED GULLS, AND COMMON TERNS OF WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE, DDT, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed for three age classes (e.g. pre-fledge muscle and blood, and post-fledge muscle) of the herring gull, ring-billed gull, and common tern for samples collected in the western end of La...

101

Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in: sediment; coral (Porites evermanni); fish (Stegastes fasciolatus, Neoniphon sammara, Acanthurus triostegus and Mulloidichthys vanicolensis); crab (Grapsus tenuicrustatus); lobster (Panulirus marginatus); and eel (Conger cinereus, Gymnothoraxflavimarginatus, G. undulatus and G. meleagris) samples collected from Tern Island and the corresponding reference samples from Disappearing Island. The two islands are part of French Frigate Shoals, a national wildlife refuge in the North Pacific Ocean. The dominant congeners 118, 138 and 153 represent 22-25, 32-34, 12-39, 37-46 and 30-55% of the sum of PCBs in the coral, sediment, fish, crab and eel, respectively. In general, high trophic species such as eels were found to highly bioaccumulate PCBs. The total average PCB concentrations were as high as 96 and 29 microg/g dry wt. in eels and damselfish, respectively, from Tern Island. The localized behavior and high bioaccumulation potential for PCBs suggest that damselfish are an excellent species for monitoring PCBs in small areas in the ocean. The high average concentrations of the sum of PCBs in different food chain levels suggest that pollution source(s) are around Tern Island and possibly around Disappearing Island. Aroclor 1254 and its analogs are suspected sources responsible for PCBs in the samples. PMID:10943899

Miao, X S; Swenson, C; Woodward, L A; Li, Q X

2000-07-20

102

Long-term morphological response to dredging including cut-across-shoal in a tidal channel-shoal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines long-term channel-shoal stability in the Tieshan Bay, which is located on the southwest coast of China. A large-scale channel-shoal system has historically existed in the outer Tieshan Bay. A navigation waterway is initiated by cutting and dredging a mid-channel shoal to supply coal to a power plant on the middle coast of the Tieshan Bay. Dredging of the access channel to the Tieshan Port was conducted in two stages followed by land reclamation. It is thus of practical meaning to explore how the channel-shoal system will evolve in long term afterwards. This study uses the process-based finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) to investigate long-term (centennial) morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system. After well calibration of hydrodynamics and sediment transport, the model forecasts morphodynamic evolution in hundred years. The simulations show that continuous erosion in tidal channels and accretion over shoals and intertidal flats occur. However, the cutting and access channels will be subjected to long-term siltation. A secondary channel indicating the reorientation of the access channel will emerge, and a localized channel-ridge system at the junction of the major channels will be formed. The overall erosion/accretion pattern demonstrates the combined effect of bottom friction and advective sediment transport processes to be responsible for the channel-shoal formation. Dredging of the tidal channels will stimulate the stability of the channel-shoal pattern. It suggests that the navigation waterway should be set up following the long-term morphological evolution of the channel-shoal system at a design stage and maintenance dredging volume might thus be minimized.

Wang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Chong-Hao; Tang, Li-Qun; Liu, Da-Bin; Guo, Chuan-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Ming

2014-12-01

103

REPORT ON SIX RECENT SIGHTINGS OF THE ICELAND GULL IN NORTH CAROLINA WITH COMMENTS ON PROBLEMS OF FIELD IDENTIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of six Iceland Gulls, seen in Carteret and Dare Counties in 1980 and 1981, are discussed. Evidence is presented to show that these gulls were not hybrids, or albinistic or leucistic individuals, or Glaucous or Thayer's Gulls. Separation of Iceland Gull and Thayer's Gull can be difficult and some individuals probably cannot be safely identified. Emphasis is placed on

JOHN O. FUSSELL; MICHAEL J. TOVE; HARRY E. LeGRAND

1982-01-01

104

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Laughing Gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for laughing gull (Larus atricilla). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

Zale, Alexander V.; Mulholland, Rosemarie

1985-01-01

105

Polychlorinated biphenyls and metals in marine species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals were analyzed in coral (Porites lobata), fish (Stegastes fasciolatus), crab (Grapsus tenuicrustatus), and sediment samples collected from Tern Island, and the reference samples from Trig and La Perouse Islands. All three islands are part of French Frigate Shoals, a national wildlife refuge in the North Pacific Ocean. Average concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 154 to 274 ng/g in the sediments, from 120 to 267 ng/g in the corals, from 387 to 4,500 ng/g in the crabs, and 1,340 to 46,000 ng/g, dry weight, in the fishes. High concentrations in marine species indicate there is PCB source(s) in French Frigate Shoals, especially Tern Island. Tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls were 64-66% of the total PCB levels in the sediments, and they accounted for 57-65% of total PCBs in the corals. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls were 76-84% of total PCBs in the fishes, and they accounted for 79-85% in the crab samples. The sediment and coral were predominated by lower chlorinated PCB congeners, whereas the fish and crab bioaccumulated mainly higher chlorinated congeners. Selenium concentrations (16-23 microg/g) in sediments were much higher than some reported baseline values (0.4-2.5 microg/g). The average concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium in the coral and fish were about equal to or less than those in the sediments. Concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in the crabs (49-51 and 3-4 microg/g, respectively) were approximately twofold of those in the sediments. PMID:10787097

Miao, X S; Swenson, C; Yanagihara, K; Li, Q X

2000-05-01

106

Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model. The results are compared with current and temperature observations obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter experiment which took place in September 2001. The model shows how the approaching nonlinear undular bore interacts strongly with a shoaling bottom, offshore of where KdV theory predicts polarity switching should occur. It is shown that the shoaling process is dominated by nonlinearity, and the model results are interpreted with the aid of a two-layer nonlinear but hydrostatic model. After interacting with the shoaling bottom, the undular bore emerges on the shallow shelf inshore of the 30-m isobath as a nonlinear internal tide with a range of possible shapes, all of which are found in the available observational record. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.; Pineda, J.

2008-01-01

107

At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-01-01

108

At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull.  

PubMed

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase. PMID:23468889

Cruz, Sebastian M; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Proaño, Carolina B; Anderson, David J; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-01-01

109

At–Sea Behavior Varies with Lunar Phase in a Nocturnal Pelagic Seabird, the Swallow-Tailed Gull  

PubMed Central

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase. PMID:23468889

Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-01-01

110

Shoaling enhances cadmium avoidance by lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the behavioural responses of solitary and shoaling lake whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis, to Cd solutions, testing the hypothesis that fish are more responsive to contaminant gradients when in a shoal than when alone. The movements of individual fish were tracked in a countercurrent-type trough with clean water on one side, and water containing sequentially increasing Cd concentrations (0.2–125 µg

Richard E. McNicol; Eberhard Scherer; John H. Gee

1996-01-01

111

In situ measurements of turbulence in fish shoals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulence was measured in situ within shoals of juvenile perch Perca fluviatilis with a self-contained autonomous microstructure profiler near an artificial reef in Lake Constance, Germany. Depth-averaged dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) correlated with the density of shoaling fish, providing evidence for fish-induced turbulence in a large and stratified lake. The observed range and the depth-averaged values of

Andreas Lorke; W. Nikolaus Probst

112

Aerodynamic implications of gull's drooped wing-tips.  

PubMed

When in gliding flight, gulls are observed to adopt a drooped wing-tip configuration. This paper investigates whether this configuration might represent an aerodynamic optimum or if it is the result of constraints imposed by the gull's anatomy. A computational model was developed for the aerodynamic performance of a gull in gliding flight. This model was used in conjunction with both global and local optimizers to determine the most aerodynamically optimal configuration for cases where the gull was constrained to move its wing within its natural flapping cycle as well as when the wing had full freedom of motion. The results of this analysis determined the best wing configuration for a gull in gliding flight and demonstrated that such a configuration not only had the highest lift-to-drag ratio but also could be achieved within the constraints of the kinematics of the gull wing. These results are of interest outside studies of gulls, since the drooped wing-tip configuration could be relevant for new designs of small air vehicles. PMID:24106263

Andrews, S A; Perez, R E; Allan, W D E

2013-12-01

113

Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.  

PubMed

Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish. PMID:25152559

Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

2014-01-01

114

Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.  

PubMed

European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483pgTEQ/glw, and between 82 and 337pgTEQ/glw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292pg/glw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223pg/glw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185pg/glw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake. PMID:25666281

Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Ko?an, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Va?ková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

2015-05-01

115

Factors affecting egg predation in Black-tailed Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In colonial seabirds, nesting density, egg-laying date and nest microhabitat affect the probability of eggs being taken by\\u000a avian predators. Jungle Crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) are dominant predators of eggs of Black-tailed Gulls (Larus crassirostris). Factors affecting the probability of gulls allowing the crows to attack their nests or depredate their eggs and the probability\\u000a of eggs being taken were studied

Kentaro Kazama

2007-01-01

116

Expansion of the Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981, when the first breeding pair of Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus was recorded in Poland, the population of this gull has increased considerably. Its population size was stable until 1997,\\u000a not exceeding ten pairs annually; thereafter, an increasing number of sightings were made, and during the last 5 years between\\u000a 26 and 39 breeding pairs have been recorded in Poland.

Monika Zieli?ska; Piotr Zieli?ski; Pawe? Ko?odziejczyk; Pawe? Szewczyk; Jacek Betleja

2007-01-01

117

Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes of Great Round Shoal Channel, offshore Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder and sidescan-sonar data collected in the vicinity of Great Round Shoal Channel, the main passage through shoals located at the eastern entrance to Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data (fig. 1). Basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment, sedimentary environments, and sea-floor features. Presented verification data include sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam and sidescan data, which together cover an approximately 39.9-km² area of sea floor, were collected during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hydrographic survey H11079 (fig. 1). Although originally collected for charting purposes, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities along this part of the Massachusetts coastline (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. This publication is the third in a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital reports describing the sea-floor geology around Cape Cod. The first focused on the area off the eastern shore of the outer Cape (Poppe and others, 2006); the second on a passage through the Elizabeth Islands (Poppe and others, 2007).

Poppe, Lawrence J.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Foster, David S.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Moser, M.S.; Stewart, H.F.; Glomb, K.A.

2007-01-01

118

Diversity patterns in helminth communities in common gulls, Larus canus.  

PubMed

The parameters of species richness, abundance and diversity of the intestinal helminth infracommunities of a sample of 269 Common gulls, Larus canus, were examined over one season at Agdenes, Norway. The communities developed rapidly in unfledged gulls and the diversity parameters were of similar magnitude in immature and adult birds. All parameters were low in the early part of the season, reached maxima in June or July and fluctuated erratically or declined thereafter. Comparison of summary parameters with those from other species of gulls indicated that helminth community diversity in Common gulls is fairly typical of gulls in general. in gulls as a group, helminth communities show common features of high species richness, low abundance, few or no core species and a number of species that occur rarely and in low numbers. Expectations of particularly high parasite community diversity were not fully realised because species lists and diversity of the component community are not a very good basis for predicting diversity at the infracommunity level. PMID:2771449

Kennedy, C R; Bakke, T A

1989-06-01

119

Shoaling develops with age in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

The biological mechanisms of human social behavior are complex. Animal models may facilitate the understanding of these mechanisms and may help one to develop treatment strategies for abnormal human social behavior, a core symptom in numerous clinical conditions. The zebrafish is perhaps the most social vertebrate among commonly used laboratory species. Given its practical features and the numerous genetic tools developed for it, it should be a promising tool. Zebrafish shoal, i.e. form tight multimember groups, but the ontogenesis of this behavior has not been described. Analyzing the development of shoaling is a step towards discovering the mechanisms of this behavior. Here we study age-dependent changes of shoaling in zebrafish from day 7 post fertilization to over 5 months of age by measuring the distance between all pairs of fish in freely swimming groups of ten subjects. Our longitudinal (repeated measure within subject) and cross sectional (non-repeated measure between subject) analyses both demonstrated a significant increase of shoaling with age (decreased distance between shoal members). Given the sophisticated genetic and developmental biology methods already available for zebrafish, we argue that our behavioral results open a new avenue towards the understanding of the development of vertebrate social behavior and of its mechanisms and abnormalities. PMID:20837077

Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

2010-01-01

120

Avian paramyxoviruses in shorebirds and gulls.  

PubMed

There are nine serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (APMV), including APMV-1, or Newcastle disease virus. Although free-flying ducks and geese have been extensively monitored for APMV, limited information is available for species in the order Charadriiformes. From 2000 to 2005 we tested cloacal swabs from 9,128 shorebirds and gulls (33 species, five families) captured in 10 states within the USA and in three countries in the Caribbean and South America. Avian paramyxoviruses were isolated from 60 (0.7%) samples by inoculation of embryonating chicken eggs; isolates only included APMV-1 and APMV-2. Two isolates (APMV-2) were made from gulls and 58 isolates (APMV-1 [41 isolates] and APMV-2 [17 isolates]) were made from shorebirds. All of the positive shorebirds were sampled at Delaware Bay (Delaware and New Jersey) and 45 (78%) of these isolates came from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres). The APMV-1 infection rate was higher among Ruddy Turnstones compared with other shorebird species and varied by year. Avian paramyxovirus-2 was isolated from two of 394 (0.5%) Ruddy Turnstones at Delaware Bay in 2001 and from 13 of 735 (1.8%) Ruddy Turnstones during 2002. For both APMV-1 and APMV-2, infection rates were higher among Ruddy Turnstones sampled on the south shore of Delaware Bay compared to north shore populations. This spatial variation may be related to local movements of Ruddy Turnstones within this ecosystem. The higher prevalence of APMV in Ruddy Turnstones mirrors results observed for avian influenza viruses in shorebirds and may suggest similar modes of transmission. PMID:20688640

Coffee, Laura L; Hanson, Britta A; Luttrell, M Page; Swayne, David E; Senne, Dennis A; Goekjian, Virginia H; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

2010-04-01

121

Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate isomer patterns in herring gull eggs from colonial sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Linear and branched (six mono(trifluoromethyl) and four di(trifluoromethyl)) isomers of the bioaccumulative contaminant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed for and the spatial patterns examined in individual herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs (n = 13 per site) collected (in 2007) from 15 colonies across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Linear PFOS (n-perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate (L-PFOS)) consistently dominated the isomer pattern in all eggs, comprising between 95.0% and 98.3% of the summation sigmaPFOS concentration. L-PFOS was highly enriched in the gull eggs as the summation sigmabranched-PFOS to L-PFOS isomer concentration ratios were very constant (overall average 0.038 +/- 0.001) and much lower compared to technical PFOS (range 0.27-0.54). The highest proportions of L-PFOS were generally observed in the eggs from the lower lakes (Erie and Ontario) colonies. All six mono(trifluoromethyl) branched isomers, or perfluoro-n-methyl-heptanesulfonates where n describes the carbon of the hydrocarbon chain were there is trifluoromethyl substitution relative to the sulfonate terminal group, were detected in the eggs from all the colonies. For example, P1MHpS is perfluoro-1-methyl-heptanesulfonate. Comparable to technical PFOS (T-PFOS), the percentage of the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomer to summation sigmaPFOS concentration decreased as the branch substitution was located closer to the sulfonate group, that is, P6MHpS (0%-2.5%), P5MHpS (0.43%-1.18%), P4MHpS (0.25%-0.69%), and P3MHpS (0.32%-0.74%). Although at even lower fractional composition than the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomers, of the di(trifluoromethyl) isomers, detected in >60% of the individual eggs per site was P35DMHxS and P45DMHxS for Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario), P35DMHxS for Chantry (Lake Huron) and Fighting Island (Detroit River), and P45DMHxS for Gull Island (Lake Michigan). Relative to T-PFOS, and independent of colonial location, the high and consistent enrichment of L-PFOS in gull eggs is likely a function of several processes including PFOS or precursor sources, and isomer-specific PFOS or precursor exposure, accumulation, biotransformation, retention and/or elimination. The results of this study suggests that the apparent dilution of the mono(fluoromethyl) isomers from environmental processes that occur prior to final accumulation in herring gull eggs, is independent of the mono(fluoromethyl) isomer structure. PMID:20415439

Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J

2010-05-15

122

Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America.  

PubMed

Gulls are important hosts of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) and gull AIVs often contain gene segments of mixed geographic and host lineage origins. In this study, the prevalence of AIV in gulls of Newfoundland, Canada from 2008 to 2011 was analyzed. Overall prevalence was low (30/1645, 1.8%) but there was a distinct peak of infection in the fall. AIV seroprevalence was high in Newfoundland gulls, with 50% of sampled gulls showing evidence of previous infection. Sequences of 16 gull AIVs were determined and analyzed to shed light on the transmission, reassortment and persistence dynamics of gull AIVs in Atlantic North America. Intercontinental and waterfowl lineage reassortment was prevalent. Of particular note were a wholly Eurasian AIV and another with an intercontinental reassortant waterfowl lineage virus. These patterns of geographic and inter-host group transmission highlight the importance of characterization of gull AIVs as part of attempts to understand global AIV dynamics. PMID:24889254

Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Benkaroun, Jessica; Munro, Hannah; Bond, Alexander L; Fifield, David A; Robertson, Gregory J; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-05-01

123

77 FR 43805 - Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record...Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport. DATES...and land uses in and around the John F. Kennedy International Airport. This...

2012-07-26

124

Delayed capelin (Mallotus villosus) availability influences predatory behaviour of large gulls on  

E-print Network

, the impact of predation by herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus argenté (Larus argentatus) et le Goéland à manteau noir (Larus marinus) sur la succès de la reproduction), and herring gulls (Larus argentatus; Pierotti and Annett 1987). Because of below- normal sea temperatures

Jones, Ian L.

125

Impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of recreational water.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of water. We measured fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and Aeromonas spp. in the gull droppings and the number of fecal coliforms in the water prior to and after attracting these birds to the beach with food. Gulls can contribute to the bacteriological degradation of recreational water. PMID:8489231

Benoît Leévesque; Brousseau, P; Simard, P; Dewailly, E; Meisels, M; Ramsay, D; Joly, J

1993-01-01

126

THE CHANGING STATUS OF THE LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL LARUS FUSCUS IN IRELAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes in the status of the populations of the large gull species in Ireland have taken place over the past fifteen years. While marked declines have occurred in the numbers of breeding herring gulls Larus argentatus, over more or less the same period there has been a sharp increase in the population of lesser black-backed gulls L. fuscus. Moreover,

G. A. Creme; P. M. Walsh; M. O'Callaghan; T. C. Kelly

127

Prevalence of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), Dianchi Lake, China.  

PubMed

Sera from 659 Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) in Dianchi Lake, China were assayed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 131 (19.9%) Black-headed Gulls (MAT titer ? 1 ? 5). These results indicate that T. gondii infection is common in Black-headed Gulls. PMID:24807354

Miao, Qiang; Han, Jiang-qiang; Xiang, Xun; Yuan, Fei-Zhou; Liu, Yong-zhang; Duan, Gang; Zhu, Xing-quan; Zou, Feng-cai

2014-07-01

128

Distribution of Gull Specific Molecular Marker in Coastal Areas of Lake Ontario  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls have been implicated as primary sources of fecal contamination in the Great Lakes, a fact that may have health implications due to the potential spread of microbial pathogens by waterfowl. To better understand the spatial variability of gull fecal contamination, a gull-spe...

129

Glaucous gull predation of goslings on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta frequently prey on juvenile waterfowl. We collected 434 Glaucous Gulls from late June to early August 1994 to examine diet. Identification of undigested prey tissue, based on DNA microsatellite loci, showed three species of goslings in gull stomachs: Emperor Goose (Chen canagica), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), and Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima). Gulls that nested inland and were collected > 1.6 km from the coast accounted for approximately 70% of the total gull predation on Emperor and Canada Geese, and 96% on White-fronted Geese. Our stratified sample of gull stomachs and aerial survey estimates of population size and distribution of gulls and juvenile geese enabled extrapolation of species-specific predation rates to the entire Y-K Delta. We estimated that a minimum of 21 000 Emperor Goose, 34 000 Canada Goose, and 16 000 White-fronted Goose goslings were consumed by 12 600 Glaucous Gulls during the brood-rearing period on the Y-K Delta in 1994. Minimum estimated take by gulls represented 33% of Cackling Canada Goose, 47% of Emperor Goose, and 39% of White-fronted Goose eggs estimated to have hatched in the same area as gull collections. Gulls selected the three species of geese approximately in proportion to their abundance. Although gull predation caused significant gosling mortality, its role in regulating goose populations on Y-K Delta remains unresolved.

Bowman, T.D.; Stehn, R.A.; Scribner, K.T.

2004-01-01

130

Gulls in urban environments: landscape-level management to reduce conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of several species of gulls (Larus spp.) have increased dramatically throughout coastal areas of North America and Europe during the past several decades. These increases have been attributed generally to protection from human disturbance, reduction in environmental contaminants, availability of anthropogenic food, and the ability of gulls to adapt to human-altered environments. Gull abundance in urban areas has resulted

Jerrold L. Belant

1997-01-01

131

Dynamic web cache publishing for IaaS clouds using Shoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a highly scalable application, called Shoal, for tracking and utilizing a distributed set of HTTP web caches. Our application uses the Squid HTTP cache. Squid servers advertise their existence to the Shoal server via AMQP messaging by running Shoal Agent. The Shoal server provides a simple REST interface that allows clients to determine their closest Squid cache. Our goal is to dynamically instantiate Squid caches on IaaS clouds in response to client demand. Shoal provides the VMs on IaaS clouds with the location of the nearest dynamically instantiated Squid Cache.

Gable, Ian; Chester, Michael; Armstrong, Patrick; Berghaus, Frank; Charbonneau, Andre; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Paterson, Michael; Prior, Robert; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan

2014-06-01

132

Sources of Food Delivered to Ring-Billed, Herring and Great Black-Backed Gull Chicks in Marine Environments  

E-print Network

words.--diet, Great Black-backed Gull, Herring Gull, Larus argentatus, Larus delawarensis, Larus marinus.--Beginning in the 1960s, Ring-billed Gulls' (Larus delawarensis) historic breeding range expanded from inland habitats-billed and sympatrically-nesting Her- ring (L. argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gulls (L. marinus) were also compared

Shutler, Dave

133

Distribution, diet and habitat selection by four sympatrically breeding gull species in the south-eastern North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food choice, feeding habitat use and spatial distribution of black-headed gulls ( Larus ridibundus), mew gulls ( L. canus), herring gulls ( L. argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls ( L. fuscus) were studied in the south-eastern North Sea. At-sea distribution during the breeding period was assessed by transect counts from ships. Clear differences could be established between the four species,

U. Kubetzki; S. Garthe

2003-01-01

134

Cestodes of the genus Aploparaksis Clerc, 1903 (Cyclophyllidea, Aploparaksidae) reported from gulls, with a description of new species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen species of Aploparaksis Clerc, 1903 described from gulls or reported to infect gulls are reviewed. The re?examination showed that gulls are parasitised by the following six species: A. borealis, A. brachyphallus, A. diagonalis, A. rissae, A. xemae and A. shigini n. sp. Only the latter species is considered to be a host?specific parasite of gulls, whereas A. borealis is

Svetlana Bondarenko; Vytautas Kontrimavichus

2006-01-01

135

Incipient Sediment Movement by Shoaling Internal Gravity Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

criterion for incipient movement of bottom sediment by shoaling internal waves by equating moments due to fluid force and gravity force acting on an exposed bed particle. Comparison of predicted conditions of incipient sediment movement with mean sediment sizes actually present on the continental shelf and continental slope southeast of New England indicates that shoreward propagation of relatively high frequency

D. A. Cacchione; J. B. Southard

1974-01-01

136

Inferring Environmental Information from SHOALS-1000 Waveform Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the SHOALS-1000 bathymetric laser system, water depth measurements are computed by time differencing the surface and bottom detections in multiple channels of the returned waveform data. The mechanics of this process are well understood and have been implemented in earlier generations of SHOALS technology (Guenther, 2000). Recently, there has been an increase in interest in using these waveforms to infer other environmental parameters. For example, (Wang and Philpot, 2003) have shown that the shape of the bottom return can be used to discriminate between land and water in very shallow water; (Elston, 2003) has shown that shape analysis can be used for benthic classification; and (Lee and Tuell, 2003) have shown that pseudoreflectance (an approximation of bottom reflectance at the laser wavelength) can also be used for classification. These are important innovations in that they contribute to our ability to conduct data fusion studies using decision-level algorithms as demonstrated by (Park, 2002). But other innovations are possible. Because the SHOALS waveforms are digitized at 1-ns intervals, it may soon be possible to use them to infer vertical structure of the water column. Here, we describe the data structure and availability of SHOALS waveform data and show pseudoreflectance imagery generated from recent data acquired at the South Florida Testing Facility.

Tuell, G. H.; Park, J.

2003-12-01

137

Incipient motion of coarse particles under regular shoaling waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incipient motion of coarse particles under regular shoaling waves is examined. Experiments are performed to investigate the effects of bed fluid acceleration on coarse particle stability. By varying wave height, wave period and water depth, combinations of similar peak orbital velocities and weak to strong intra-wave accelerations were created. The particles used in these experiments have two different sizes both

Emanuele Terrile; Ad J. H. M. Reniers; Marcel J. F. Stive; Maarten Tromp; Henk Jan Verhagen

2006-01-01

138

Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary  

E-print Network

. In the deeper part of the study domain, the waves propagated according to the predictions of linear theory losses during propagation [Shroyer et al., 2010a]. Vertical heat flux associated with the wavesMeasurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary Clark Richards,1 Daniel

Kelley, Dan

139

Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary  

E-print Network

of the study domain, the waves propagated according to the predictions of linear theory. In intermediate losses during propagation [Shroyer et al., 2010a]. Vertical heat flux associated with the wavesMeasurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary Clark Richards,1 Daniel

140

Frequency-wavenumber spectra of shoaling ocean waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate knowledge of the kinematics and dynamics of ocean waves as they shoal and break in even the simplest morphological situation is a major challenge of current research. The resulting energy flux and radiation stresses drive nearshore turbulence and currents, and these scour up and transport sediments in prodigious amounts during storms. In addition, the high dynamic forces during breaking

J. P. Dugan

2003-01-01

141

Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

1999-01-01

142

Herring gulls and great black-backed gulls as indicators of contaminants in bald eagles in Lake Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

In 2000, a pair of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nested successfully along the shorelines of Lake Ontario in North America for the first time since 1957. However, it is a continuing question whether bald eagles will be able to reproduce successfully as they return to nest on Lake Ontario. Great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) were selected as surrogate species to predict contaminant levels in eggs of bald eagles nesting on Lake Ontario. Because of the suspected overlap in the diets of great black-backed gulls and bald eagles (i.e., fish, gull chicks, and waterfowl), the two species probably occupy a similar trophic level in the Lake Ontario food web and, thus, may have similar contaminant levels. Fresh great black-backed gull and herring gull eggs were collected from three study sites in eastern Lake Ontario in 1993 and 1994 and analyzed for contaminants. Average contaminant levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dieldrin in great black-backed gull eggs were 12.85, 26.27, and 0.27 microg/g, respectively. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in great black-backed gull eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs for these three contaminants was 2.09 (range of means, 1.73-2.38). Predicted levels of contaminants in bald eagle eggs in Lake Ontario would be expected to be similar to the mean levels reported for great black-backed gull eggs. As a comparison, contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs collected from other Great Lakes nesting sites were compared to mean levels reported for herring gull eggs collected from nearby sites in 1986 to 1995. The mean ratio of contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs to contaminant levels in herring gull eggs from these sites for DDE, total PCBs, and dieldrin was 2.40 (range of means, 1.73-3.28). These ratios are very similar to those reported using great black-backed gull eggs, illustrating the apparent similarity in trophic status shared by the two top predator species at these Great Lakes sites. Predicted levels of contaminants in bald eagle eggs at Lake Ontario are similar to levels reported for bald eagles breeding at other Great Lakes sites, suggesting that bald eagles may be able to breed on the shores of Lake Ontario. However, it is unclear at this time what level of breeding success should be expected, given that productivity at other similarly contaminated Great Lakes sites may be below that required to sustain a successful breeding population. The absence of an inland bald eagle population from which bald eagles may begin to colonize the shorelines of Lake Ontario may be delaying initiation of nesting site selection; other factors such as habitat and prey availability would likely not limit reproductive success. PMID:12013123

Weseloh, D Vaughn; Hughes, Kimberly D; Ewins, Peter J; Best, Dave; Kubiak, Timothy; Shieldcastle, Mark C

2002-05-01

143

[A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].  

PubMed

The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

2005-01-01

144

Sex differences in a shoaling-boldness behavioral syndrome, but no link with aggression.  

PubMed

A behavioral syndrome is observed in a population when specific behaviors overlap at the individual level in different contexts. Here, we explore boldness and aggression personality spectra, the repeatability of shoaling, and possible associated correlations between the behaviors in a population of lab-reared zebrafish (Danio rerio). Our findings describe a sex-specific boldness-shoaling behavioral syndrome, as a link between boldness and shoaling behaviors is detected. The results indicate that bold males are likely to have a stronger shoaling propensity than shy males for unfamiliar conspecifics. Conversely, bold females are more likely to shoal than shy females, but only when presented with heterospecific individuals. Additionally, aggression does not correlate with boldness or shoaling propensity for either sex. A positive relationship between boldness and shoaling that differs by sex is contrary to most of the present literature, but could help to explain population dynamics and may also have evolutionary implications. PMID:25562194

Way, Gregory P; Kiesel, Alexis L; Ruhl, Nathan; Snekser, Jennifer L; McRobert, Scott P

2015-04-01

145

[Morpho-functional changes of cloacal bursa of the herring gull in experimental infection with gull tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, the quantitative changes in the cells of the cloacal bursa of herring gull (Larus argentatus mongolicus) chicks were studied during experimental infection with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum. The area of the follicles within the bursa and the number of eosinophils in the infected chicks were found to increase. In the follicles the number of blast cells and large lymphocytes was elevated. The reduction of small lymphocytes and plasma cells numbers in the infected gulls may be due to a slower cell cycle or cell migration into the inflammatory focus. Overall, the changes in the bursa indicate the suppression of the B-link of the host immune system in tapeworm invasion. PMID:22724332

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2012-01-01

146

Flatfish selection by herring gulls Larus argentatus and lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus scavenging at commercial beamtrawlers in the southern North Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flatfish selection by scavenging herring gulls and lesser black-backed gulls was studied onboard a commercial beamtrawler in the southern North Sea, June2 -August 1993. Dab (median total length 18 cm), plaice (23 cm), sole (22 cm) and solenette (10 cm) dominated the flatfish discard fraction of the catch. The overall consumption amounted to 30.5% of the discarded flatfish. Flatfish were selected on the basis of fish width rather than length or species, with very low consumption rates (percentage consumed of number offered) of flatfish >8 cm width. All discarded solenette, 98% of all sole and 92% of all dab were of suitable size for these gulls, whereas only 12% of all discarded plaice were small enough to be consumed. Consumption rates of discarded flatfish of 'suitable size' for herring gulls and lesser black-backed gulls (<8 cm width) ranged from 25.9% (plaice) to 40.5% (dab). Success indices and selected size classes of flatfish in scavenging herring gulls and lesser black-backed gulls feeding on flatfish were similar, but the first were more efficient than the latter and lost fewer flatfish as a consequence of kleptoparasitism. In contrast to earlier suggestions (based on dietary studies in colonies), there was no evidence that herring gulls were outcompeted by lesser black-backed gulls when feeding on discarded fish.

Camphuysen, C. J.(Kees)

147

Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish has become a major model system for biomedical research and is an emerging model for the study of behaviour. While adult zebrafish express a visually mediated shoaling preference, the onset of shoaling behaviour and of this preference is unknown. To assess the onset of these behaviours, we first manipulated the early social environment of larval zebrafish subjects, giving them three model shoaling partners of the same pigment phenotype. We then assayed the subjects’ preferences using binary preference tests in which we presented subjects with two shoals, one shoal of fish exhibiting the same pigment pattern phenotype as their models and another shoal with a radically different pigment pattern. To determine whether or not the visually mediated preference could be altered once it was established, we further manipulated the social environment of a number of subjects, rearing them with one model shoal and testing them, then changing their social consorts and retesting them. Our results demonstrate that larval zebrafish shoal early in their development, but do not exhibit a shoaling preference until they are juveniles. Moreover, we find that the shoaling preference is stable, as changing the social environment of fish after they had acquired a preference did not change their preference. These data will facilitate investigations into the mechanisms underlying social behaviour in this vertebrate model system. PMID:18978932

ENGESZER, RAYMOND E.; BARBIANO, LAURA ALBERICI DA; RYAN, MICHAEL J.; PARICHY, DAVID M.

2008-01-01

148

THE BIRDS OF SEYMOUR ISLAND, ANTARCTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During January-February 2000, we obtained information on the abundance and distribution of seabirds in Seymour Island, Antarctica. Six species breed in this area: Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae; 28,255 pairs), Wilson's Storm-petrel (Oceanites oceanicus; 22), Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica; 30), South Polar Skua (C. maccormicki; 33), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus; 296) and Antarctic Tern (Sterna vittata; 107). In addition, five non-breeding

Diego Montalti; Guillermo E. Soave

149

The herring gull complex is not a ring species.  

PubMed

Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America. PMID:15255043

Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J

2004-05-01

150

IDENTIFICATION AND MOLT OF HYBRID GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

unpublished data), with the Herring (L. argentatus srnithsonianus) in southern Alaska (Williamson and Peyton 1963, Patten and Weisbrod 1974), and with the Glaucous (L. hyperboreus) in western Alaska (Strang 1977). Probably nowhere else in the world do hybrids constitute such a large proportion of the total gull population as along the west coast of North America. Consequently, birders in this

JON R. KING; STEVE N. G. HOWELL; Shoreline Highway

1998-01-01

151

POTENTIAL FOR GULLS TO TRANSPORT BACTERIA FROM HUMAN WASTE SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was designed as a first step in assessing whether gulls visiting human waste sites can acquire human microorganisms and distribute them across the coastal landscape. Beaches, landfills, and a lagoon of treated wastewater located in a coastal Lake Michigan county were t...

152

The Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus, in Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) became a frequent visitor in Greenland in the mid-1980s. Breeding was confirmed in 1990, and today the species is a common breeder in at least two areas in Southwest Greenland between 60? and 66? N. The current breeding population is estimated at more than 700 pairs. Even though the colonization of Greenland by this

D. BOERTMANN

153

Incipient motion of coarse particles under regular shoaling waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incipient motion of coarse particles under regular shoaling waves is examined. Experiments are performed to investigate the effects of bed fluid acceleration on coarse particle stability. By varying wave height, wave period and water depth, combinations of similar peak orbital velocities and\\u000aweak to strong intra-wave accelerations were created. The particles used in these experiments have two different sizes both

E. Terrile; A. J. H. M. Reniers; M. J. F. Stive; M. Tromp; H. J. Verhagen

2005-01-01

154

Jamaica Bay studies III: Abiotic determinants of distribution and abundance of gulls ( Larus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and abundance of gulls were examined at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (New York) from 31 May 1978 to 31 May 1979. Gulls were found to be affected by tidal, temporal and weather-related factors. The distribution of gulls was affected primarily by tidal factors on the bay, and by temporal (seasonal, circadian) and weather-related factors on the freshwater ponds. The most important weather-related factors were temperature, wind velocity and wind direction. Herring ( L. argentatus), great black-backed ( L. fuscus) and ring-billed gulls ( L. delawarensis) fed on the bay at low tides, and used the ponds at high tide. Laughing gulls ( L. atricilla) fed on the bay at low tide and on rising tides. Herring and great black-backed gulls were present all year, but were most abundant in the winter, ring-billed gulls were abundant in spring and early fall, and laughing gulls were present in the summer following the breeding season but were absent in winter. Gulls used the ponds during high velocity, north winds, when they usually rested or preened. Multiple regression models were used to determine the factors explaining the variability in the numbers of gulls. Temporal variables were important contributors to accounting for the variability in the numbers of great black-backed and herring gulls only; tidal variables were significant for great black-backed and herring gulls on the bay, and for ring-billed and laughing gulls on all areas; and weather variables were significant for all species.

Burger, Joanna

1983-02-01

155

Spatial patterns and rankings of contaminant concentrations in Herring Gull eggs from 15 sites in the Great Lakes and connecting channels, 1998-2002.  

PubMed

Mean values of eight contaminants in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) eggs were calculated for 15 Great Lakes sites for the 5 year period 1998-2002. The sites were ranked according to the concentrations of each of seven compounds relative to fish flesh criteria for the protection of piscivorous wildlife, and a single overall rank of contamination was calculated for each site. Based on this weighted ranking scheme, we found that sum PCBs, dioxin and DDE contributed the most (60.2, 30.5% and 8.5%, respectively) to the overall rankings. The weighted ranking scheme showed that eggs from Channel-Shelter Island (Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron), Strachan Island (St. Lawrence River) and Gull Island (northern Lake Michigan) ranked as the three most contaminated sites, while Agawa Rocks (eastern Lake Superior), Chantry Island (southern Lake Huron) and Port Colborne (eastern Lake Erie) ranked as the three least contaminated sites. Two of the three most contaminated sites are Areas of Concern; none of the three least contaminated sites are Areas of Concern. PMID:16491432

Weseloh, D V Chip; Pekarik, Cynthia; De Solla, Shane R

2006-02-01

156

Comparison of Gull Feces-Specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Genes of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

PubMed Central

Two novel gull-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR green assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (gull3) and a hydrolysis TaqMan assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (gull4). The objectives of this study were to compare the host specificity of a previous C. marimammalium qPCR assay (gull2) with that of the new markers and to examine the presence of the three gull markers in environmental water samples from different geographic locations. Most of the gull fecal samples tested (n = 255) generated positive signals with the gull2 and gull4 assays (i.e., >86%), whereas only 28% were positive with gull3. Low prevalence and abundance of tested gull markers (0.6 to 15%) were observed in fecal samples from six nonavian species (n = 180 fecal samples), whereas the assays cross-reacted to some extent (13 to 31%) with other (nongull) avian fecal samples. The gull3 assay was positive against fecal samples from 11 of 15 avian species, including gull. Of the presumed gull-impacted water samples (n = 349), 86%, 59%, and 91% were positive with the gull2, the gull3, and the gull4 assays, respectively. Approximately 5% of 239 non-gull-impacted water samples were positive with the gull2 and the gull4 assays, whereas 21% were positive witg the gull3 assay. While the relatively high occurrence of gull2 and gull4 markers in waters impacted by gull feces suggests that these assays could be used in environmental monitoring studies, the data also suggest that multiple avian-specific assays will be needed to accurately assess the contribution of different avian sources in recreational waters. PMID:22226950

Ryu, Hodon; Griffith, John F.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Hill, Stephen; Edge, Thomas A.; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel

2012-01-01

157

Circulation on the Ebb Shoal at New River Inlet, NC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of waves, winds, and tides on the spatially variable circulation (Fig. 1) on an ebb shoal offshore of New River Inlet, NC will be examined with observations collected in April and May 2012. Measurements of currents, waves, tides, and sea levels were obtained at 32 locations in the inlet and ebb shoal channels (2- to 10-m water depths) and across and offshore of the ebb shoal (1- to 5-m water depths). Maximum tidal flows in the inlet channel (onshore of the mouth) were +/- 1.5 m/s. In contrast, tidal flows 500 m offshore of the inlet mouth at the end of a channel recently dredged across the ebb shoal were stronger during ebbs (-1.5 m/s) than during floods (+0.5 m/s). Significant wave heights in 9-m water depth ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 m and wind speeds observed near the inlet mouth ranged from 0 to 14 m/s. Preliminary results suggest wave- and wind-forcing had a significant affect on the flows on the ebb shoal, especially during slack tides. The importance of setup gradients, wave-driven radiation stresses, and wind stresses to the circulation will be discussed. Funding was provided by ONR and NSSEFF. We thank David Clark, Danik Forsman, Levi Gorrell, Jeff Hansen, Sean Kilgallin, Christen Rivera, Jenna Walker, Regina Yopak, and Seth Zippel for helping obtain the data, personnel from the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility for providing bathymetric surveys and excellent logistical support, and Jim Thomson for providing wind measurements.Figure 1: One-hour averaged ebb flow vectors (red arrows, scale on bottom right) at a low tide (pressure record shown at the bottom of the figure with a red dot indicating the time period) on May 6, 2012, at 03:00 EDT superposed on a Google Earth image of New River Inlet, NC. Offshore significant wave heights were about 0.5 m and winds were about 2 m/s from the north.

Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

2012-12-01

158

Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses.  

PubMed

In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven pairs (31.4%) drove foreign chicks from the territory. To test if the frequent adoptions in these colonies could be explained by kin selection or the occurrence of kin groups, we calculated band-sharing coefficients and genetic relatedness (r) between interacting birds (neighbours and non-neighbours). Adults that adopted were most often neighbours of the biological parents of adopted chicks, whereas spatially segregated birds, nesting further away, usually drove off the chicks. Band-sharing coefficients between males, but not females, were higher with decreasing internest distances. The band-sharing coefficients for adopted chicks and foster parents were significantly higher than for adopted chicks and randomly selected, spatially segregated pairs from the same and another colony. Band-sharing coefficients of adopted chicks and adopting neighbours (males: r=0.20; females: r=0.16) also tended to be higher than those of rejected chicks and rejecting neighbours (both sexes: r=0.08). Our results suggest that kin groups of neighbours do occur in common gull colonies. Such social structure might lead to indirect inclusive fitness benefits of adopting pairs. Differences in genetic similarity between chicks and adopting or rejecting neighbours show that at least in common gulls we should consider kin altruism as a factor in adoptions. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675251

Bukaciński; Bukacińska; Lubjuhn

2000-02-01

159

Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra) on herring gull (Larus argentatus) reproduction.  

PubMed

Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168

DeFisher, Luke E; Bonter, David N

2013-01-01

160

Effects of Invasive European Fire Ants (Myrmica rubra) on Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168

DeFisher, Luke E.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

161

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from Norway.  

PubMed

Herring gull eggs from two locations in Norway, an island situated in the north (Musvær, 69.88° N, 18.55° E) and an island in the southeast (Reiaren, 59.15° N, 10.46° E) of the country, were analyzed for the presence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. AhR agonist activity was determined using the dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay to calculate the toxic equivalent quotient (TEQ)CALUX. TEQCALUX ranged from 16 to 401 pg TEQ/g lipid in the samples from the north (n = 11) and between 6 and 360 pg TEQ/g lipid (n = 12) in the southeastern samples. The large variance between the individual samples is postulated to be due to different feeding habits of individual birds. The levels of AhR agonists detected might lead to adverse effects for the developing embryo or to a significant increase of contaminant load for human consumers of eggs. PMID:24754391

Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Thomas, Kevin V

2014-01-01

162

DNA fingerprinting reveals elevated mutation rates in herring gulls inhabiting a genotoxically contaminated site  

SciTech Connect

The authors used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting to examine families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a genotoxically contaminated site (Hamilton Harbour) and from a pristine location (Kent Island, Bay of Fundy) to show significant differences in mutation rates between the locations. Overall the authors identified 17 mutant bands from 15 individuals of the 35 examined from Hamilton Harbour, and 7 mutant fragments from 7 individuals, of the 43 examined from Kent Island; a mutation frequency of 0.429 per nestling for Hamilton Harbour and 0.163 for Kent Island. The total number of individuals with mutant bands was significantly higher at Hamilton Harbour than at Kent Island (X{sup 2}=6.734; df = 1; P < 0.01). Ongoing analysis of other less contaminated sites also reveals lower mutation rates than those seen in Hamilton Harbour. With multi-locus DNA fingerprinting many regions of the genome can be surveyed simultaneously. The tandemly repeated arrays of nucleotides examined with DNA fingerprinting are known to have elevated rates of mutation. Furthermore, the mutations seen with DNA fingerprinting are predominantly heritable. Other biomarkers currently used in situ are not able to monitor direct and heritable DNA mutation, or measure biological endpoints that frequently result in spontaneous abortion creating difficulty in observing significantly elevated levels in viable offspring. The authors suggest that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be used as a biomarker to identify potentially heritable risks before the onset of other types of ecological damage. This approach provides a direct measure of mutation in situ and in vivo in a vertebrate species under ambient conditions.

Yauk, C.L.; Quinn, J.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

1995-12-31

163

Genetic Affinities Within the Herring Gull Larus argentatus Assemblage Revealed by AFLP Genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   To date, the taxonomic status of circumpolar breeding populations of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus, and the closely related Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans has been based on differences or similarities in phenotype, morphology, and feeding and premating behavior. To shed some\\u000a new light on the many taxonomic uncertainties surrounding these taxa, we describe

Peter de Knijff; Frank Denkers; Norman D. van Swelm; Martin Kuiper

2001-01-01

164

Organochlorines in the free-ranging Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species found only in the Hawaiian Island chain. The largest subpopulation, at French Frigate Shoals, has been in decline since 1989. In order to assess organochlorine (OC) levels in the Hawaiian monk seals, whole blood and blubber samples were collected in 1999 from 46 free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals at French Frigate Shoals, and were analyzed for eight dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as six other PCB congeners, DDT and DDT metabolites. Average levels of the total PCBs in blood samples from adult male, juvenile and reproductive female groups were 4800, 4000 and 3000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, whereas 3200, 1300 and 1200 ng/g, respectively, in blubber from the three corresponding groups. p,p'-DDE was the only DDT detected in blubber samples, and no DDTs were detected in blood samples. Concentrations of the total PCBs in adult males were significantly higher than the levels measured in either reproductive females or juveniles. There were significant correlations between age and blubber p,p'-DDE, estimated mass and total blood PCBs or blubber p,p'-DDE, and body condition and total blood PCBs. Although it is clear that the Hawaiian monk seal has been exposed to OCs, it is unclear what biological effects, if any, these xenobiotics may have on the animals. PMID:15081740

Willcox, Maia K; Woodward, Lee Ann; Ylitalo, Gina M; Buzitis, Jon; Atkinson, Shannon; Li, Qing X

2004-04-25

165

[Seasonal dynamics of the trematodes fauna in herring gull (Larus argentatus Pontopp.) of Kola Bay].  

PubMed

Trematode fauna of the herring gulls from Kola Bay (Barents Sea) was investigated in March, May, June, and September 2005. The data on the trematode species composition and indices of the invasion of gulls with trematodes are given for each season. It was established, that trematode species composition is increased from spring to summer, and intensity of the gulls' invasion with some trematode species is increased from summer to autumn. Ecological factors causing seasonal differences of the trematode fauna in gulls are discussed. PMID:21061591

Kuklin, V V; Kuklina, M M; Kisova, N E

2010-01-01

166

European H16N3 Gull Influenza Virus Attaches to the Human Respiratory Tract and Eye  

PubMed Central

We explored the attachment of an H16N3 influenza virus to human, mallard, and gull tissues using virus histochemistry applied to tissue microarrays and employing human and mallard viruses as references. Of the viruses tested, the H16N3 gull virus most readily attached to the human respiratory tract and eye. These results underscore the need to assess the potential for gull influenza viruses to replicate in human tissues and further investigate the role of gulls in influenza virus ecology. PMID:23593303

Lindskog, Cecilia; Ellström, Patrik; Olsen, Björn; Pontén, Fredrik; van Riel, Debby; Munster, Vincent J.; González-Acuña, Daniel; Kuiken, Thijs; Jourdain, Elsa

2013-01-01

167

Genetic affinities within the herring gull Larus argentatus assemblage revealed by AFLP genotyping.  

PubMed

To date, the taxonomic status of circumpolar breeding populations of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus, and the closely related Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans has been based on differences or similarities in phenotype, morphology, and feeding and premating behavior. To shed some new light on the many taxonomic uncertainties surrounding these taxa, we describe the results of a large DNA study based on comparing the distribution of 209 biallelic markers among 109 gulls, representing 11 gull taxa of the Herring Gull assemblage and the Common Gull Larus canus. A detailed phylogenetic analysis failed to show clustering of individuals into groups representing either geographic origin or phenotype. Alternatively, birds were grouped into taxa defined on the basis of phenotype and geographic origin or phenotype alone. Genetic analyses revealed significantly different genetic distances between all pairs of taxa. However, based on these genetic distances, again no consistent phylogenetic tree could be constructed. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that about 77% of the total genetic variability among these gulls could be explained by within-taxon differences. Only 23% of the total genetic variability was due to genetic differences between taxa, irrespective of their species or subspecies status. Although this seems to challenge the current taxonomic treatment of the herring gull assemblage, our results are too premature and too incomplete to recommend a drastic change. PMID:11139298

de Knijff P; Denkers, F; van Swelm, N D; Kuiper, M

2001-01-01

168

[Experimental infection caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus in common gull (Larus canus)].  

PubMed

The influenza A/common gull/Chany/P/2006 (HSN1) virus strain Isolated from a clinically healthy common gull (Larus canus) caused no death of Its natural host (a common gull). The virus was shown to be capable for effective replication in the tissues of the lung, spleen, and upper respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosal cells of the common gull with further environmental virus liberation elimination along with mucinous discharges from the cloaca and fauces for 2 weeks. The potential role of this bird species in the circulation of influenza virus is discussed. PMID:23248859

Za?kovskaia, A V; Sharshov, K A; Sherstkov, E A; Iurlov, A K; Shestopalov, A M

2012-01-01

169

Sleeping gulls monitor the vigilance behaviour of their neighbours  

PubMed Central

Individuals in groups are often thought to scan their surroundings for threats independently of one another. Models, however, suggest that foragers should monitor the vigilance level of their neighbours to prevent cheating, and to gather information about incipient predation risk. Evidence for monitoring of vigilance is scant. Here, I examined changes in vigilance levels in sleeping gulls (Larus sp.) surrounded by neighbours in various states of alertness. Controlling for group size and neighbour density, gulls interrupted sleep more often to scan their surroundings, and were therefore more vigilant, when their neighbours were alert rather than sleeping or preening. The results provide evidence for copying of vigilance within groups of birds, suggesting a complex flow of information about predation risk in groups. PMID:18940772

Beauchamp, Guy

2008-01-01

170

Numerical Simulations of Shoaling Internal Solitary Waves of Elevation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The breaking of nonlinear internal waves and the formation of recirculating, or trapped, cores has been considered by a number of authors using numerical simulation, experiment and field measurements. The majority of past work has examined waves of depression as these are commonly observed in the coastal ocean. However, waves of elevation, for which a trapped core forms close to the ocean bottom have a unique feature, since the developing core directly interacts with the bottom boundary layer. We present the results of highly accurate pseudo spectral simulations that begin with a fully nonlinear internal solitary wave and follow this wave as it shoals onto a small amplitude shelf. During shoaling the wave breaks and begins to form a recirculating core. At the edge of the core, a high shear region develops, yielding well developed Kelvin-Helmholtz billows that grow in the downstream direction. At the back of the wave, these billows are swept into the bottom boundary layer, enhancing bottom shear stress and thereby possibly contributing to sediment resuspension. We present results on the manner in which the developing core three-dimensionalizes and discuss the implications for mixing and transport from the bottom boundary layer. Finally we use these results to comment on past numerical studies in the literature. Figure: Three panels of shaded density contours during the wave's shoaling and core development. In the upper panel the core is beginning to overturn toward the left while in the high shear region at the core's edge billows are beginning to develop. In the middle panel the billows have reached their full size, while in the bottom panel the initial billows have begun to be advected out of the rear of the wave (near x=26.7 a billow is interacting with the bottom boundary layer). At the same time further billows have begun to grow on the high shear edge of the core.

Xu, C.; Stastna, M.; Subich, C.

2013-12-01

171

Is asynchronous hatching adaptive in herring gulls ( Larus argentatus )?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatching asynchrony commonly induces a size hierarchy among siblings and the resultant competition for food between siblings\\u000a can often lead to starvation of the smallest chicks within a brood. We created herring gull (Larus argentatus) broods with varying degrees of hatching synchrony by manipulating the timing of incubation while maintaining the originally\\u000a laid eggs. The degree of hatching asynchrony affected

Lars Hillström; Mikael Kilpi; Kai Lindström

2000-01-01

172

Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Gull Feces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a gull 16S rRNA gene clone library was developed and analyzed to determine the identities of fecal bacteria. Analysis of 282 16S rRNA

Jingrang Lu; Regina Lamendella; Thomas Edge; Stephen Hill

2008-01-01

173

Holocene sand shoals offshore of Mississippi River delta plain, Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain lies a series of Holocene sand shoals marking the position of ancient submerged shorelines. These ancient shorelines represent stillstand positions during which the Holocene transgression drove sea level across the former lowstand subaerial erosion surface of the Mississippi River delta plain. Short periods of rapid sea level rise led to the transgressive submergence of these sandy shorelines. Two shoreline trends can be recognized at the {minus}10-m and {minus}20-m isobaths on the continental shelf.

Penland, S.; McBride, R.A. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Suter, J.R. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (USA)); Williams, S.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Kindinger, J.L. (Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Boyd, R. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

1989-09-01

174

Social familiarity and shoal formation in juvenile fishes.  

PubMed

The potential influence of social familiarity in shoal-choice decisions was investigated in two sympatric species of north temperate fishes, juvenile banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus and juvenile bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus. Groups of socially familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics were formed in the laboratory using wild-caught fishes. Juvenile F. diaphanus demonstrated a strong preference for familiar conspecific shoalmates, whereas juvenile L. macrochirus exhibited no preference for either unfamiliar or familiar conspecific shoalmates. The differential influence of familiarity on shoalmate choice in juveniles of these two species could be due to their different ecologies, local population densities and life histories. PMID:20666898

Lee-Jenkins, S S Y; Godin, J-G J

2010-02-01

175

Ionic alkylleads in herring gulls from the Great Lakes region  

SciTech Connect

Herring gull (Larus argentatus) tissues, collected from various breeding colonies in the Great Lakes, were examined to determine alkyllead levels and possible alkyllead sources into the Great Lakes region. Ionic trialkyl- and dialkyllead species (R/sub 3/Pb/sup +/, R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/; R = Me, Et) were quantitated by gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometry. The extraction procedure was tested at trace levels (3-4 ppb as Pb) with four domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues. Trimethyllead was found in two avian species and all examined tissues. Methyllead levels frequently exceeded ethyllead levels with no direct automotive source. Correlation between alkyllead levels in herring gull tissue and lake sediment lead levels suggests possible methylation but not ethylation of inorganic lead. The methyllead concentration trend in gull tissues. Lake Ontario > Lake Huron approx. = Lake Erie > Lake Superior, was opposite to the ethyllead concentration trend, Lake Superior > Lake Huron > Lake Erie approx. = Lake Ontario. 40 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Forsyth, D.S.; Marshall, W.D.

1986-10-01

176

Genotoxicity in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland.  

PubMed

Adult and young herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in Sweden and Iceland were investigated with respect to DNA adducts, analysed with the nuclease-P1 version of the (32)P-postlabelling method, and micronucleated erythrocytes. Three important aims were: (1) to estimate the degree of exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants in the Baltic Sea area and Iceland, (2) to evaluate the utility of the investigated biomarkers in birds, and (3) to investigate if there was any relationship between genotoxic effects and thiamine deficiency. The results demonstrate that both Swedish and Icelandic herring gulls are exposed to genotoxic pollution. Urban specimens have higher levels of DNA adducts than rural specimens, but background exposure to genotoxic environmental pollutants, such as PAHs, is also significant. In the herring gull the general level of DNA adducts in the liver seems to be higher than in fish. DNA adducts were most abundant in the liver, followed by the kidney, intestinal mucosa, and whole blood, in decreasing order. The frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes was probably slightly elevated in all the investigated sites, reflecting a significant background exposure. The level of DNA adducts was unrelated to the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes, and both these variables were unrelated to symptoms of thiamine deficiency. The investigation confirmed the utility of DNA adducts, and probably also micronucleated erythrocytes, as biomarkers of genotoxicity in birds. PMID:20643223

Skarphedinsdottir, Halldora; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Hansson, Tomas; Hägerroth, Per-Ake; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Akerman, Gun; Barsiene, Janina; Balk, Lennart

2010-09-30

177

Reproductive success of herring gulls breeding on Lake Superior  

SciTech Connect

Herring gulls breed in the vicinity of three pulp mills located on the north shore of Lake Superior. The impacts of exposure to effluents produced by these mills on various aspects of the reproductive biology of this species have been monitored since 1992. Reproductive success at these sites has been either zero or below the level necessary to maintain a stable population. Levels of dioxins and furans in the eggs and tissues of herring gulls did not show any consistent trends between the exposed and control sites and were generally low. Additionally, TCDD TEQs calculated for the same colonies, with the inclusion of several non ortho-substituted PCBs, were well below levels thought to result in reproductive impairment of herring gulls. However, plasma and liver concentrations of retinol were depressed and variable at several colonies, indicating potential diet differences between the study sites. Further determination of food types consumed at the control and exposed sites revealed that fish, the traditional diet of this species, was a small or insignificant component of the diet. Food type was also correlated with contaminant burden and reproductive output. Previously collected data as well as current results will be discussed.

Shutt, J.L. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1994-12-31

178

SHOALING OF PERIODIC WAVES OVER BARRED-BEACHES IN A FULLY NONLINEAR NUMERICAL WAVE TANK  

E-print Network

SHOALING OF PERIODIC WAVES OVER BARRED-BEACHES IN A FULLY NONLINEAR NUMERICAL WAVE TANK St is used to calculate changes in local properties of periodic waves shoaling over barred-beaches (wave. INTRODUCTION Bars on beaches are important topographic features for many coastal en- gineering problems

Grilli, Stéphan T.

179

NATURAL SAND BYPASSING AND RESPONSE OF EBB SHOAL TO JETTY REHABILITATION, OCEAN CITY INLET, MARYLAND, USA  

E-print Network

1 NATURAL SAND BYPASSING AND RESPONSE OF EBB SHOAL TO JETTY REHABILITATION, OCEAN CITY INLET, the south jetty was raised and sand tightened, and surveys in 2004 and 2005 show seaward radial migration of the outer ridge of the ebb shoal in response to the jetty rehabilitation. Natural sand bypassing occurs

US Army Corps of Engineers

180

Shoaling as an anti-ectoparasite mechanism in juvenile sticklebacks ( Gasterosteus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that by living in larger shoals, juvenile threespine (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and blackspotted (G. wheatlandi) sticklebacks lower their risk of being parasitized by the crustacean ectoparasite Argulus canadensis. An increase in shoal size resulted in a lower average number of attacks received by individual fish, but had no negative effect on the attack performance

R. Poulin; G. J. FitzGerald

1989-01-01

181

Response of individual shoaling Atlantic cod to ocean currents on the northeast Newfoundland Shelf  

E-print Network

Response of individual shoaling Atlantic cod to ocean currents on the northeast Newfoundland Shelf 16 August 1999 Abstract The movements of sonically-tagged Atlantic cod swimming within a large (80 of the shoal. Then, apparently in response to a shoreward current event, the cod moved with the ¯ow. The tagged

deYoung, Brad

182

Association patterns and foraging behaviour in natural and artificial guppy shoals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal groups are often nonrandom assemblages of individuals that tend to be assorted by factors such as sex, body size, relatedness and familiarity. Laboratory studies using fish have shown that familiarity among shoal members confers a number of benefits to individuals, such as increased foraging success. However, it is unclear whether fish in natural shoals obtain these benefits through association

Lesley J. Morrell; Darren P. Croft; John R. G. Dyer; Ben B. Chapman; Jennifer L. Kelley; Kevin N. Laland; Jens Krause

2008-01-01

183

Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio  

E-print Network

Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio RAYMOND E. ENGESZER; MS. number: A10613R) The zebrafish has become a major model system for biomedical research and is an emerging model for the study of behaviour. Although adult zebrafish express a visually mediated shoaling

Ryan, Michael J.

184

[The reaction of the bursa and thymus eosinophils in the herring gull after the experimental infection with gull-tapeworm].  

PubMed

Using the methods of light microscopy, eosinophil topography, quantitative and qualitative changes (degranulation level of and a cationic protein content) were studied in the thymus and bursa of 36 herring gull nestlings Larus argentatus mongolicus (Suskin, 1925) 2 weeks after experimental infestation with gull-tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitsch, 1824). Eosinophils in the thymus were located in trabecules, mainly close to the blood vessels, thymic (Hassall's) corpuscles and also directly inside them, while in the bursa they were found within the internodular space. As compared with the control bird counts, relative eosinophil count in the birds with an average invasion intensity was increased 3.8 times in the thymus and 2.5 times in the bursa. In birds with high invasion intensity, these counts were increased 4 times in the thymus and 1.2 times in the bursa. PMID:21500430

Fomina, A S; Pronina, S V

2010-01-01

185

Association patterns and shoal fidelity in the three-spined stickleback.  

PubMed Central

We investigated pairwise association patterns and shoal fidelity in free-ranging, individual three-spine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) by capturing entire shoals of sticklebacks and tagging each shoal member with a unique individual mark before releasing the shoal at the point of capture. We recaptured tagged fishes in the study area on five subsequent days, noting their identity, their location and the individuals with which they were associated. Stable partner associations between fishes were observed which might provide the basis for shoal fidelity via social networks. These results suggest the potential for the kinds of inter-individual association patterns assumed by models of predator inspection and 'tit-for-tat' behaviours in free-ranging fishes. PMID:12495488

Ward, Ashley J W; Botham, Marc S; Hoare, Daniel J; James, Richard; Broom, Mark; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Krause, Jens

2002-01-01

186

Design description and field testing of the SHOALS-1000T airborne bathymeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SHOALS-1000T is the first generation of coastal mapping systems which incorporates both airborne lidar bathymetric (ALB) and airborne topographic subsystems. Its predecessor, the SHOALS (Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey) system went operational in 1994 and was retired in 2003 after a history of successful worldwide surveys. The SHOALS-1000T has 2.5 times the data collection rate of the previous SHOALS system and yet is about one-third the size and consumes about half the power. A description of the system design will be given, along with a summary of extensive field testing carried out in Florida in August of 2003. It will be shown that despite the reduction in size and power requirements, the basic system performance matched the previous system very well. The increased collection rate also increases other capabilities such as target detection. The addition of a digital camera has enhanced the SHOALS-1000T system as a premier coastline mapping tool.

LaRocque, Paul E.; Banic, John R.; Cunningham, A. Grant

2004-09-01

187

Multilocus DNA fingerprinting reveals high rate of heritable genetic mutation in herring gulls nesting in an industrialized urban site.  

PubMed Central

Genotoxins, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds, are ubiquitous in urban and industrial environments. Our understanding of the role that these chemicals play in generating DNA sequence mutations is predominantly derived from laboratory studies with specific genotoxins or extracts of contaminants from environmental media. Most assays are not indicative of the germinal effects of exposure in situ to complex mixtures of common environmental mutagens. Using multilocus DNA fingerprinting, we found the mutation rate in herring gulls inhabiting a heavily industrialized urban harbor (Hamilton Harbour, Ontario) to be more than twice as high as three rural sites: Kent Island, Bay of Fundy; Chantry Island, Lake Huron; and Presqu'ile Provincial Park in Lake Ontario. Overall we found a mutation rate of 0.017 +/- 0.004 per offspring band in Hamilton, 0.006 +/- 0.002 at Kent Island, 0.002 +/- 0.002 from Chantry Island, and 0.004 +/- 0.002 from Presqu'ile Provincial Park. The mutation rate from the rural sites (pooled) was significantly lower than the rate observed in Hamilton Harbour (Fisher's exact test, two-tailed; P = 0.0006). These minisatellite DNA mutations may be important biomarkers for heritable genetic changes resulting from in situ exposure to environmental genotoxins in a free-living vertebrate species. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8901546

Yauk, C L; Quinn, J S

1996-01-01

188

Isolation of Salmonella spp. from dead gulls (Larus californicus and Larus delawarensis) from an Idaho irrigation reservoir.  

PubMed

An epizootic of unknown etiology resulting in the death of about 500 sea gulls (Larus californicus and Larus delawarensis) in 24 hr occurred on an irrigation reservoir in southwestern Idaho in April 1975. Salmonella spp. were isolated from necropsy specimens from 2 of 6 gulls examined. No Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal specimens or dead gulls collected at a nesting site. PMID:334150

Hall, R F; Waldhalm, D G; Meinershagen, W A; DuBose, D A

1977-01-01

189

Anatomy and Histochemistry of Spread-Wing Posture in Birds. 2. Gliding Flight in the California Gull, Larus californicus  

E-print Network

in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) (Gold- spink et al., '78) andAmerican kestrels (Falco sparverius) (Meyers Gull, Larus californicus: A Paradox of Fast Fibers and Posture RON A. MEYERS* AND EDWARD MATHIAS in gliding posture were examined in California gulls (Larus californicus) and tested for the presence of slow

Meyers, Ron

190

Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

191

75 FR 29574 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park AGENCY: National Park...Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park...glaucous-winged gull eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park. The document...

2010-05-26

192

VOL. 65, NO. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2012) P. 283288 Breeding Habitats and New Breeding Locations for Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea)  

E-print Network

for Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) in the Canadian High Arctic MARK MAFTEI,1,2 SHANTI E. DAVIS,1 IAN L) ABSTRACT. Published accounts list only four breeding sites for Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) in North poorly known species in North America. Key words: Ross's gull, Rhodostethia rosea, breeding site, High

Jones, Ian L.

193

Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull ( Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases due to the degeneration of the liver and various other internal organs were the major cause of the exceedingly high chick mortality in lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) in the central Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, during 1991–1993. The same symptoms were found in chicks of common gulls (Larus canus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the same

M Hario; K Himberg; T Hollmén; E Rudbäck

2000-01-01

194

Hybridization of glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) in Iceland: mitochondrial and microsatellite data.  

PubMed

Large white-headed gulls provide an interesting group of birds for studies of hybridization. The group is composed of 20 species of recent origin, often with weak reproductive barriers. Here we report the results from a study on the glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, an Arctic species which has been breeding in Iceland for centuries, and the herring gull Larus argentatus which has a wide distribution in Europe but colonized Iceland in 1920s. Previous studies, based on morphological variation indicated hybridization between the two species in Iceland, have been questioned as it may just reflect variation within the species. Here we evaluate whether hybridization has occurred between the two species in Iceland by studying variation in microsatellites and mtDNA. The analysis is based on feathers taken from wings sampled in Iceland over a period of 40 years. The results are compared with samples obtained from East Greenland and published sequences of samples obtained throughout Europe. The genetic analysis reveals a distinctive grouping of the two species, although they present a shallow genealogy and an extensive sharing of the genetic variants between the two species. Several individuals show admixture for molecular markers, which may result from an incomplete lineage sorting although geographical patterns of both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellites strongly indicate a recent hybridization in Iceland. PMID:18508755

Vigfúsdóttir, Freydís; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Ingólfsson, Agnar

2008-09-12

195

The influence of body coloration on shoaling preferences in fish.  

PubMed

Shoaling behaviour provides antipredator benefits that rely, to some extent, on a high degree of phenotypic homogeneity between individuals within the shoal. Therefore, fish should have the ability to discriminate between potential shoalmates, choosing to associate with individuals of similar appearance to themselves. We studied the effects of a single phenotypic character, body coloration, on association choices made by black and white mollies (Poecilia latipinna). When given a choice between a group of mollies of similar coloration and an empty compartment, individual test fish (black or white) spent significantly more time near the fish group. When given a choice between a group of black mollies and a group of white mollies, individual fish (black or white) spent significantly more time near the group of mollies of similar coloration to their own. When given a choice between a group of mollies of dissimilar coloration and an empty compartment, black and white mollies reacted differently. Black mollies spent significantly more time on the side of the central compartment closest to the white mollies, while there was no significant difference between the time spent by white mollies on either side of the test tank. Our results indicate that fish can use visual cues to discriminate actively between potential shoalmates on the basis of body coloration. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9784209

McROBERT; Bradner

1998-09-01

196

Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to reduce nest predators, especially gulls and foxes, likely will have the greatest immediate benefit for island breeding black ducks.

Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

2002-01-01

197

Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

198

ASSORTATIVE MATING WITHOUT COMPLETE REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION IN A ZONE OF RECENT SECONDARY CONTACT BETWEEN HERRING GULLS  

E-print Network

BETWEEN HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS) AND CASPIAN GULLS (L. CACHINNANS) Résumé.--La zone de contact secondaire entre Larus argentatus et L. cachinnans dans le centre de la Pologne se caractérise par des contact secondaire récent entre Larus argentatus et Larus cachinnans. GRZEGORZ NEUBAUER,1,8 M. MAGDALENA

199

Relationship between Egg Size and Post-hatching Chick Mortality in the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN many gull species, the third laid egg of the typical three egg clutch is distinctly smaller than the first two1,2. In the herring gull (Larus argentatus), the chick hatching from this third egg suffers a much higher mortality than either of its siblings3, although the hatching success is the same for all three eggs. In a series of egg

J. Parsons

1970-01-01

200

Age Differences in Metals in the Blood of Herring ( Larus argentatus ) and Franklin's ( Larus pipixcan ) Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Concentrations of heavy metals and selenium were measured in the blood of adult and young herring (Larus argentatus) and Franklin's (Larus pipixcan) gulls collected during the same breeding season in colonies in the New York Bight and in northwestern Minnesota, respectively.\\u000a Concentrations were expected to be higher in young herring gulls collected in an urban, industrialized area, compared to

J. Burger; M. Gochfeld

1997-01-01

201

What`s normal?: Body condition in Great Lakes herring gulls  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the usefulness of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. However, the effects of environmental contaminants on gulls are difficult to distinguish from the effects of other anthropogenic stressors such as the introduction of exotic species, overfishing and habitat loss. To understand the relative importance of these factors in regulating the success of individual gulls and, hence, gull populations, the authors must first have a better understanding of what constitutes a ``normal`` bird. Improving the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal birds is crucial in any health assessment of Great Lakes gulls. Body condition has been shown to be an important measure of a bird`s ability to provide energy for egg production, migration etc. Numerous approaches have been used to assess condition, most of which required that the bird be sacrificed. In this study, the authors describe a nonlethal technique to quantify body condition in herring gulls. Multivariate statistics are used to quantify body size, relate body size to total mass and from that, determine relative body condition. Initially, body condition is assessed in gulls from a reference colony where reproductive success is normal and anthropogenic influences are limited. This reference population is then used as a baseline against which other gull populations are compared.

Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1994-12-31

202

Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull ( Larus argentatus) eggs, 1972–1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled during 1972–1976, 1981–1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site

M. D. Koster; D. P. Ryckman; D. V. C. Weseloh; J. Struger

1996-01-01

203

Differences in mercury contamination and elimination during feather development in gull and tern broods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eggs, feathers (down, body feathers from side\\/shoulder and back) and some dead chicks (liver) from broods of three species, herring gull (Larus argentatus), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) from the German North Sea coast were collected to study intersibling differences in mercury contamination and elimination into the growing feathers. The mercury contamination in eggs, feathers, and

P. H. Becker; D. Henning; R. W. Furness

1994-01-01

204

Migration strategy of a flight generalist, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrating birds are believed to minimize the time spent on migration rather than energy. Birds seem to maximize migration speed in different ways as a noteworthy variation in migration strategies exists. We studied migration strategies of a flight mode and feeding generalist, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus, using GPS-based satellite telemetry. We expected the gulls to achieve very high

R. H. G. Klassen; B. J. Ens; J. Shamoun-Baranes; K. M. Exo; F. Bairlein

2012-01-01

205

The origin of Lesser Black?backed Gulls Larus fuscus wintering in central Iberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin and age of Lesser Black?backed Gulls Larus fuscus wintering inland on the Iberian Peninsula were mapped using sightings of colour?ringed birds. A total of 288 individuals were sighted over a 17 year period. The gulls originated from seven different countries, with the majority being ringed in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The most commonly resighted age group

Ismael Galván; Javier Marchamalo; Vidar Bakken; José M. Traverso

2003-01-01

206

Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of gulls in the Larus cachinnans—fuscus group (Aves: Charadriiformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied mitochondrial genetic differentiation among nine taxa of large gulls of the Larus cachinnans—fuscus group, which form part of the circumpolar Herring Gull complex. Our primary interest was to see if there were unrecognized gene flow barriers, to what extent mitochondrial genetic population structure conformed to current taxonomic boundaries, and what it might reveal about possible differences in population

D. LIEBERS; A. J. HELBIG; P. DE KNIJFF

2001-01-01

207

USE OF TIPS BY NESTING KELP GULLS AT A GROWING COLONY IN PATAGONIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the magnitude of use of waste tips by Kelp Gulls (Larus domini- canus) nesting at Isla de los Pajaros, a large and growing colony in Patagonia, Argentina, and we assessed the difference in use between tips with urban and fishery waste. We marked with color dye 1347 adult breeding Kelp Gulls to determine if they fed in urban

MARCELO BERTELLOTTI; PABLO YORIO; MARICEL GIACCARDI

208

Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

EPA Science Inventory

Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

209

Molecular and epidemiological characterization of avian influenza viruses from gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Wild aquatic birds constitute the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Separate Eurasian and American AIV gene pools exist. Here, the prevalence and diversity of AIVs in gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway were described. The influence of host species and temporal changes on AIV prevalence was examined. Five AIVs from Norway, including three from common gull (Larus canus), were analyzed along with 10 available AIV genomes from gulls in Eurasia to search for evidence of intracontinental and intercontinental reassortment of gene segments encoding the internal viral proteins. Methods Swabs collected from 2417 dabbling ducks and gulls in the south-west of Norway during five ordinary hunting seasons (August-December) in the period 2005–2010 were analyzed for presence of AIV. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations between AIV prevalence, host species and sampling time. Five AIVs from mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (H3N8, H9N2) and common gull (H6N8, H13N2, H16N3) were full-length characterized and phylogenetically analyzed together with GenBank reference sequences. Results Low pathogenic AIVs were detected in 15.5% (CI: 14.1–17.0) of the samples. The overall AIV prevalence was lower in December compared to that found in August to November (p = 0.003). AIV was detected in 18.7% (CI: 16.8–20.6) of the dabbling ducks. A high AIV prevalence of 7.8% (CI; 5.9–10.0) was found in gulls. A similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence was found in both bird groups. Thirteen hemagglutinin and eight neuraminidase subtypes were detected. No evidence of intercontinental reassortment was found. Eurasian avian (non H13 and H16) PB2 or PA genes were identified in five reference Eurasian gull (H13 and H16) AIV genomes from GenBank. The NA gene from the Norwegian H13N2 gull isolate was of Eurasian avian origin. Conclusions The similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence found in dabbling ducks and gulls, the relatively high virus prevalence detected in gulls and the evidence of intracontinental reassortment in AIVs from gulls indicate that gulls that interact with dabbling ducks are likely to be mixing vessels for AIVs from waterfowl and gulls. Our results support that intercontinental reassortment is rare in AIVs from gulls in Eurasia. PMID:23575317

2013-01-01

210

Modelling Terrestrial and Marine Foraging Habitats in Breeding Audouin's Gulls Larus audouinii: Timing Matters  

PubMed Central

Although the breeding ecology of Audouin’s gull has been widely studied, its spatial distribution patterns have received little attention. We assessed the foraging movements of 36 GPS-tracked adult Audouin’s gulls breeding at the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean), coinciding with the incubation period (May 2011). This also coincided with a trawling moratorium northwards from the colony. We modelled the distribution of the gulls by combining these tracking data with environmental variables (including fishing activities from Vessel Monitoring System, VMS), using Maxent. The modelling range included both marine and terrestrial areas. Models were produced separately for every 2h time interval across the day, and for 2 fishing activity scenarios (workdays vs. weekends), allowing to assess the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the gulls and the degree of association with fisheries. During workdays, gull distribution at sea fully matched with fishing activities, both trawling (daylight) and purse-seining (nightime). Gulls tended to avoid the area under trawling moratorium, confirming the high influence of fisheries on the distribution patterns of this species. On weekends, gulls made lesser use of the sea and tended to increase the use of rice fields. Overall, Audouin’s gull activity was more intense during dailight hours, although birds also showed nocturnal activity, on both workdays and weekends. Nocturnal patterns at sea were more disperse during the latter, probably because these gulls are able to capture small pelagic fish at night in natural conditions, but tend to congregate around purse-seiners (which would enhance their foraging efficiency) in workdays. These results provide important insight for the management of this species. This is of particular relevance under the current scenario of European fisheries policies, since new regulations are aimed at eliminating discards, and this would likely influence Audouin’s gull populations. PMID:25875597

Bécares, Juan; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Villero, Dani; Bateman, Santiago; Jover, Lluís; García-Matarranz, Víctor; Sanpera, Carolina; Arcos, José Manuel

2015-01-01

211

FLUORIDE EXPOSURE AND SELECTED CHARACTERISTICS OF EGGS AND BONES OF THE HERRING GULL (LARUS ARGENTATUS) AND THE COMMON GULL (LARUS CANUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shellof 285 herring gull eggs (Laru.s' argentatus) and 120 comnmon gull eggs (Larus canus), collectedMay 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies eXpd)se(l to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smiielters locatedatKarni#{248}y and Sunndai, amid from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume- index,shellthickness,thickness-index,and fertilization of the eggs also were monitore(l. In 1)0th

Turid Vikoren; Gudbrand Stuve

212

Sex biases in kin shoaling and dispersal in a cichlid fish.  

PubMed

Animal dispersal is associated with diverse costs and benefits that vary among individuals based on phenotype and ecological conditions. For example, females may disperse when males benefit more from defending territories in familiar environments. Similarly, size differences in dispersal propensity may occur when dispersal costs are size-dependent. When individuals do disperse, they may adopt behavioral strategies that minimize dispersal costs. Dispersing fish, for example, may travel within shoals to reduce predation risks. Further, kin shoaling may augment inclusive fitness by reducing predation of relatives. However, studies are lacking on the role of kin shoaling in dispersal. We explored how sex and size influence dispersal and kin shoaling in the cichlid Neolamprologus caudopunctatus. We microsatellite genotyped over 900 individuals from two populations separated by a potential dispersal barrier, and documented patterns of population structure, migration and within-shoal relatedness. Genetic differentiation across the barrier was greater for smaller than larger fish, suggesting larger fish had dispersed longer distances. Females exhibited weaker genetic differentiation and 11 times higher migration rates than males, indicating longer-distance female-biased dispersal. Small females frequently shoaled with siblings, possibly offsetting dispersal costs associated with higher predation risks. In contrast, small males appeared to avoid kin shoaling, possibly to avoid local resource competition. In summary, long-distance dispersal in N. caudopunctatus appears to be female-biased, and kin-based shoaling by small females may represent a behavioral adaptation that reduces dispersal costs. Our study appears to be the first to provide evidence that sex differences in dispersal influence sex differences in kin shoaling. PMID:25231372

van Dongen, Wouter F D; Wagner, Richard H; Moodley, Yoshan; Schaedelin, Franziska C

2014-12-01

213

Molecular characterization of novel circoviruses from finch and gull.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to molecularly characterize circoviruses that infect finches and gulls. Circovirus-specific DNAs were isolated using polymerase chain reaction methods from bursa of Fabricius tissues from a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) and a herring gull (Larus argentatus) that were known to be circovirus-infected. Nucleotide sequence determination and analysis of cloned genomic DNAs showed that these circoviruses represented novel members of the genus Circovirus of the family Circoviridae, and have been tentatively named Finch circovirus (FiCV) and Gull Circovirus (GuCV). Both new circoviruses shared genome organizational features with previously characterized circoviruses, such that both contained two major, inversely-arranged open reading frames encoding the putative replication-associated and capsid proteins, and both contained a potential stem-loop and nonanucleotide motif. Phylogenetic analyses based on genome nucleotide sequences and involving the seven additional genus members indicated that FiCV and GuCV were more closely related to canary circovirus, beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus, and that FiCV and canary circovirus were the most closely related avian circoviruses. Pairwise comparisons showed that the capsid proteins of FiCV and GuCV shared highest amino acid identity values with those of canary circovirus (62.0%) and pigeon circovirus (40.6%), respectively. The 5' intergenic region of GuCV was longer (207 nucleotides) and contained more direct and inverse repeated sequences than those of other circoviruses, while the 3' intergenic region of FiCV was notable in being longer (307 nucleotides) than its counterparts in other circoviruses and in containing two long repeats of 77 nucleotides. PMID:17364513

Todd, D; Scott, A N J; Fringuelli, E; Shivraprasad, H L; Gavier-Widen, D; Smyth, J A

2007-02-01

214

Outcrop Mapping at Woodall Shoals, South Carolina-Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mapping of complexly deformed high-grade metamorphic rocks in areas of relatively poor exposure, such as the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge, is very challenging. A traditional mapping project in such areas may be too difficult and frustrating for most undergraduate students and may be ineffective. Mapping parts of the outcrop at Woodall Shoals, with the benefits of 100% exposure and a relatively small area, provides a good alternative. This very large (2,000-square-meter) outcrop contains a full compliment of rock fabric and complex geologic structures typical of such areas. For purposes of the present exercise, it serves as a generic scale model of an exhumed high-grade terrain. The detailed map of the outcrop by Hatcher et. al. (1989, Georgia Geological Society Guidebook, v. 9, n. 3, Plate 3) is used as a solution to the exercise.

Jonathan Mies

215

Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 447, as specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the State of Nevada, includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the PSA.

None

2008-01-01

216

Wetland birds of Hainan Island, China: results from winter waterbird surveys 2003-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four simultaneous winter waterbird surveys were conducted island-wide on Hainan island, China, between 2003 and 2007, during which a total of 83 species of wetland-associated birds were recorded at 57 coastal and freshwater wetlands. The most abundant species were egrets and herons, followed by shorebirds, gulls and terns, and ducks. A new wintering site for the globally Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill

LEE KWOK SHING; BOSCO PUI LOK

2007-01-01

217

Herring gull eggs indicate stabilizing Great Lakes PCB concentrations  

SciTech Connect

The author evaluated the fit of 3 alternative models to herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg PCB concentration data from 1978--1992 to examine whether PCB levels were decreasing or had ceased to decline. The best fit models indicate that, following initial declines, no discernible PCB decreases are occurring in 4 of the 5 lakes. Only Lake Erie indicates a continued PCB decline, though the Erie data may be too noisy to differentiate model fits. These results are consistent with previous analyses indicating stable PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes and suggest that further improvements may be too slow to be of practical importance from a management perspective.

Stow, C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Center for Limnology

1995-12-31

218

Sediment Delivery to Diamond Shoals: a Field Experiment at Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond Shoals is a complex of sand shoals extending more than 20 km seaward from Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina. We conducted a one-month field experiment at Cape Hatteras Point during February 2010, with a primary objective of quantifying the processes that deliver sediment to Diamond Shoals. A leading hypothesis from previous literature, mainly focused on the similar Cape Lookout Shoals, is that wave-driven nearshore currents on the coasts flanking the cape deliver sand to the proximal (near coast) part of the shoal, and flows with the potential to return sand to one of the flanking shorelines have less capacity. The shoal is hypothesized to be a long-term sediment sink because of this transport asymmetry. We deployed wave- and current-measuring instruments in the nearshore and installed several types of remote sensing devices around Cape Hatteras Point. Remote sensing devices included a video camera mounted on the Cape Hatteras lighthouse to measure nearshore surface currents and a VHF (48MHz) WERA (WEllen RAdar) station for measuring wide-area (O: 10 km) surface currents over Diamond Shoals. Ground-based lidar topography, wide-area wave dissipation intensity, wave direction, and bathymetry were measured by the CLARIS (Coastal Lidar And Radar Imaging System) and LARC (Lighter Amphibious Resupply Cargo) surveying systems. A shoreline change analysis is used to quantify the cape’s recent morphologic evolution and previous geophysical surveys provide information on the shoal’s thickness and geologic framework. Wind and wave directions during the experiment were similar to the long-term climatology, with principal components from the north/northeast and west/southwest. Results from the nearshore instrumentation show that north/northeast conditions force mean currents from the north side of the cape toward the shoal and west/southwest conditions force currents from the south side of the cape toward the shoal. The very shallow water over Diamond Shoals (in places less than 1 m at low tide) effectively blocks waves and currents from entering the leeward side of the shoal and thus there is no reversal of flow direction (from the shoal towards the flanking coast) on the sheltered side of the cape. During a short period when the wave direction was from the east, flows were directed from the shoal towards both flanking shorelines; however, this condition is much less common in the long-term climatology than north/northeast and west/southwest conditions. If sand transport direction is assumed to follow the mean current direction, these observations support the hypothesis of long-term net sand deposition in Diamond Shoals derived from the cape’s flanking coasts. These results will be combined with remote sensing and other data to furnish a wider-field examination of potential shoal-building processes.

List, J. H.; Warner, J. C.; Thieler, E. R.; Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; McNinch, J. E.; Brodie, K. L.

2010-12-01

219

The distribution and conservation status of the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) has until recently received little conservation and management attention within North America despite a relatively low overall population size and significant declines in parts of the breeding range. This lack of attention may stem in part from the wide distribution of the species, encompassing parts of six continents, and from its tendency to nest in relatively small, scattered and often ephemeral colonies. Populations of North American subspecies are alarmingly small. The current population of the eastern subspecies aranea in the U.S. is unlikely to exceed 3,600 pairs, with over 60% of these birds occurring in Texas. The Texas population has remained generally stable, but declines of populations in Maryland (where probably extirpated), Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, and possibly Georgia give cause for concern for this subspecies. For the western subspecies vanrossemi, as few as 250 pairs nest at only two locations in the U.S., both in California. When populations in western Mexico are considered, the entire vanrossemi population numbers only 600-800 pairs. Currently the Gull-billed Tern is listed as ?endangered? or ?threatened? in four states, and is considered to be of management concern in five others. The breeding range of the species has contracted and shifted slightly from its known historic range in the middle Atlantic states, but otherwise occupies its historic range in the United States and has expanded slightly to coastal southern California. Some range contraction in Mexico (e.g., in Sonora) may have occurred. In eastern Mexico, historical information is almost non-existent and knowledge of current distribution and abundance is incomplete. Main threats to populations in North America include loss of natural nesting islands through beach erosion or perturbations to estuarine functions, development or modification of upland habitats near breeding areas that may be important for foraging, and disturbances to colonies by humans and feral or human-subsidized predators. This species often nests on man-made substrates suggesting it could be responsive to management of breeding sites. Key research needs include more frequent and refined population monitoring, a better understanding of demographics, metapopulation dynamics and factors limiting populations as well as refinement of subspecies? breeding distributions and wintering ranges.

Molina, K.C.; Erwin, R.M.

2006-01-01

220

Extensive Geographic Mosaicism in Avian Influenza Viruses from Gulls in the Northern Hemisphere  

PubMed Central

Due to limited interaction of migratory birds between Eurasia and America, two independent avian influenza virus (AIV) gene pools have evolved. There is evidence of low frequency reassortment between these regions, which has major implications in global AIV dynamics. Indeed, all currently circulating lineages of the PB1 and PA segments in North America are of Eurasian origin. Large-scale analyses of intercontinental reassortment have shown that viruses isolated from Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) are the major contributor of these outsider events. To clarify the role of gulls in AIV dynamics, specifically in movement of genes between geographic regions, we have sequenced six gull AIV isolated in Alaska and analyzed these along with 142 other available gull virus sequences. Basic investigations of host species and the locations and times of isolation reveal biases in the available sequence information. Despite these biases, our analyses reveal a high frequency of geographic reassortment in gull viruses isolated in America. This intercontinental gene mixing is not found in the viruses isolated from gulls in Eurasia. This study demonstrates that gulls are important as vectors for geographically reassorted viruses, particularly in America, and that more surveillance effort should be placed on this group of birds. PMID:21697989

Wille, Michelle; Robertson, Gregory J.; Whitney, Hugh; Bishop, Mary Anne; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Lang, Andrew S.

2011-01-01

221

Predator-prey relations and competition for food between age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins in the Apostle Island region of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) are an important component of the fish community on reefs and adjacent nursery areas of the Great Lakes and overlap spatially with age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Important interactions between these fishes are possible during the lake trout's first year of life, which could include predation on each other's eggs and larvae, and competition for food resources. We investigated the diets of age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins on a lake trout spawning reef (Gull Island Shoal) and adjacent nursery area (near Michigan Island) in the Apostle Island Region of western Lake Superior during June through September from 1988 through 1991. Organisms in stomachs of 511 lake trout and 562 sculpins were identified and counted. Of the 11 major food types found in age-0 lake trout stomachs from both areas, Mysis was the dominant food item (mean volume in stomachs = 68%) and occurred in about 3/4 of the fish analyzed. Copepods, cladocerans, chironomid pupae, fish, and Bythotrephes were also common in the diet (frequency of occurrence > 4%). Diets of lake trout were more diverse on the reef than on the nursery area where Mysis dominated the diet. Slimy sculpins were only found in lake trout greater than 50 mm. Mysis was an important food item of slimy sculpins over the reef but not over the nursery area, where Diporeia was by far the most important taxon. A variety of benthic invertebrates (Asellus, chironomids, benthic copepods, and snails) comprised the bulk of the sculpin diet over the reef. Sculpins also ate lake trout eggs in November. Based on cluster analysis, diets were most similar over the reef where both consumed Mysis, calanoid copepods and chironomid pupae. Diets diverged over the nursery areas where sculpins were strictly benthic feeders and lake trout maintained their planktonic diet. In Lake Superior, where lake trout recruitment through natural reproduction has become well established, the coexistence of the two species appears amicable. However, in other Great Lakes with higher sculpin to lake trout ratios on a reef the coexistence of the two species may be a bottleneck for age-0 lake trout survival beginning with egg deposition and ending when age-0 lake trout move off the reef and the two species no longer compete for a common food resource.

Hudson, Patrick L.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Bronte, Charles R.

1995-01-01

222

Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface warming since 1950 in the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean (IO) occurs without a consistent surface heat flux trend, and is accompanied by a shoaling thermocline. The associated dynamics have not been fully explored. Using 20th century climate model experiments, we test if the shoaling thermocline is attributable to a transmission from the Pacific, where a similar shoaling occurs, and whether it is climate change-induced. A 22-model average produces no such signal. An average of a subset of models that better simulate El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its transmission produces the right direction of the IO thermocline trends. The shoaling in this subset average, taken as anthropogenically induced, is far weaker than the observed, suggesting a significant multidecadal variability component in the observed changes. The Pacific contribution increases with a stronger model ENSO amplitude and broader meridional structure, highlighting the importance of realistic ENSO simulations in modelling long-term change in the IO.

Cai, Wenju; Sullivan, Arnold; Cowan, Tim

2008-06-01

223

Numerical modeling of boundary layer flow under shoaling and breaking waves  

E-print Network

To investigate the turbulent boundary layer under graphics. shoaling and breaking waves, an existing numerical model was utilized, and in turn a comparison was made with laboratory measurements. The numerical solution to the problem of a wave...

Pattipawaej, Olga Catherina

1998-01-01

224

Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

1998-01-01

225

Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conclusions: This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable "triple reassortant internal gene" core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the need for continued surveillance in gull and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of gull species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI.

Hall, Jeffrey S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy; Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien; Ip, Hon S.

2013-01-01

226

The incidence and significance of salmonella carriage by gulls (Larus spp.) in Scotland.  

PubMed Central

Salmonella carriage in 5888 gulls sampled by cloacal lavage was found to be 7.8%. Marked geographical and seasonal differences in carriage rates were found. These differences appeared to be associated with human population density and seasonal differences in the reported incidence of human salmonellosis. The maximum duration of salmonella excretion in 17 laboratory-maintained gulls was 4 days and the number of salmonellae excreted was never more than 170 per gram of faeces. On the basis of this study it is suggested that gulls are not important factors in the aetiology of human salmonellosis. PMID:4067287

Girdwood, R. W.; Fricker, C. R.; Munro, D.; Shedden, C. B.; Monaghan, P.

1985-01-01

227

Geologic Framework and Morphology of Diamond Shoals, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carolina Capes (Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain) along the eastern coast of the U.S. are dynamic regions that exert strong influences on large scale coastal evolution, sediment transport, and circulation. Projecting offshore of each Carolina Cape is an active depositional sedimentary feature referred to as a ‘cape-associated shoal’. These shoals have lobate ridges and swales, and typically extend from just seaward of the subaerial cape tip across the inner shelf towards the shelf break. Here we describe results from geophysical surveys of the cape-associated shoal known as Diamond Shoals off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The study area includes approximately 330 km2 and extends from ~400 m seaward of the shoreline comprising the cape tip to 20 km offshore where the shoal terminates in approximately 40 m water depth. Geophysical surveys used sidescan sonar; single-beam and interferometric swath bathymetry; and 3.5 kHz, CHIRP, boomer, and water gun subbottom profiling systems. The main body of the shoal consists of a 7 km2 triangular central platform that extends 8 km SE from the cape tip. The top of the platform is at a depth of 2-5 m and mantled by symmetrical sand waves with crest directions that trend NW-SE. The sand waves have a wavelength of ~300 m, and amplitudes up to 4 m. The central platform is bounded by two large lobate ridges and swales in water depths of 10-20 m. The ridges are ~5 m high, 1.5 km wide, and are more pronounced on the northern side of the shoal. The ridges on the northern side of the shoal are covered by coarse sediment that appears to result from winnowing by currents. Sand waves similar to those on the central platform are superimposed on the ridges, but are asymmetrical and indicate northeastward-directed net sediment transport. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic data suggests that Diamond Shoals consists of unconsolidated Holocene sediment up to 8 m thick overlying a transgressive unconformity. The unconformity has variable relief, up to several meters higher than the adjacent continental shelf, indicating that the position of the shoal may be controlled by the underlying geologic framework. This control could be manifest in a number of ways, such as through bathymetric relief and corresponding flow-sediment interactions, or via sediment source characteristics. Information about the shallow geology and surficial morphology of Diamond Shoals is being integrated into models of coastal dynamics that should strengthen our understanding of the linkage between geologic framework and physical processes, and improve predictions of coastal change at time scales from storm events to millennia.

Thieler, E. R.; Foster, D. S.; Himmelstoss, E. A.

2010-12-01

228

Mercury concentration in 3 species of Gulls, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, from south coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran.  

PubMed

In this study, the mercury concentrations of liver, breast feathers and tail feathers in three species of Gull; Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), Common Gull (Larus canus) and Little Gull (Larus minutus) from the South coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran were assayed. Mercury accumulation in liver, breast feathers and tail feathers of species were 1.69-3.16, 2.88-7.18 and 2.09-5.66 mg/kg, respectively. Mercury concentration hierarchy in tissues we tested was as follows: breast feather > tail feather > and liver. We found that despite its small size, Little Gull had highest (3.85-8.05 mg/kg) and Common Gull lowest (1.69-2.88 mg/kg) level of Hg in their bodies. An inverse relationship between body size and Hg levels in these Gulls was detected. Mercury in Little Gull and Black-headed Gull exceeded the 5 ppm threshold for adverse effect. PMID:20424818

Rajaei, Fateme; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

2010-06-01

229

Fish Cam: An Online Tool for Introducing Shoaling Behavior to the Classroom  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fish Cam is an on-line educational resource that enables students to participate in behavioral research projects without ever leaving their classroom. By linking onto the Fish Cam site, students will observe an experimental tank in which fish choose shoal-mates in dichotomous choice tests. In these experiments, a test fish, in the central compartment, displays its shoaling preference by swimming near small shoals of fish in either of two side compartments. Assays are designed to examine the effects of phenotype, shoal size, and other factors known to influence shoaling. Students monitor Fish Cam in real time, and students collect data simply by running timers when the test fish crosses into the preference zones at each end of the central compartment. The times are logged onto data sheets that we provide, and we assist the students with their analysis. The simplicity of shoaling behavior makes it an ideal model system for data collection that is accessible to students of all ages and, in its first few years of operation, Fish Cam studies have been performed by fifth-, seventh- and eleventh-grade students. Sample lesson plans and handouts are available online to enhance the Fish Cam experience. The ultimate goals of this project are to make scientific research accessible in the classroom and promote science education. PMID:23244694

Southwell, Maura; Galassi, Maria

2012-01-01

230

Modeling colony site dynamics: a case study of gull-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a Markov process model for colony site dynamics of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia. We used the model and data on colony site occupation from 1993 to 1996 to estimate model parameters. Each year, we monitored the breeding numbers of Gull-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) at colony sites along about 80 km of the barrier island region of Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony sites over the four-year period. We then used data on annual site occupation by Gull-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and test between different structures reflecting competing hypotheses. Results revealed a dynamic system, but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian , i.e. the probability of occupancy of a site in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied the previous year. Nor did the colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of site occupancy. Site survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the overall annual probability of a site being occupied over the course of the four-year period was estimated to be 0.59 Of the total of 25 sites that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in only one or two years while only three were used all four years.. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of sites. The low colony-site fidelity we demonstrate suggests that an effective management approach is to provide a large number of alternative sand and/or shellpile sites that the terns may use. Sites not used one year may still be used in subsequent years.

Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.

1998-01-01

231

Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of groundwater withdrawal activities in the area. The conceptual and numerical models were developed based upon regional hydrogeologic investigations conducted in the 1960s, site characterization investigations (including ten wells and various geophysical and geologic studies) at Shoal itself prior to and immediately after the test, and two site characterization campaigns in the 1990s for environmental restoration purposes (including eight wells and a year-long tracer test). The new wells are denoted MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3, and are located to the northnortheast of the nuclear test. The groundwater model was generally lacking data in the north-northeastern area; only HC-1 and the abandoned PM-2 wells existed in this area. The wells provide data on fracture orientation and frequency, water levels, hydraulic conductivity, and water chemistry for comparison with the groundwater model. A total of 12 real-number validation targets were available for the validation analysis, including five values of hydraulic head, three hydraulic conductivity measurements, three hydraulic gradient values, and one angle value for the lateral gradient in radians. In addition, the fracture dip and orientation data provide comparisons to the distributions used in the model and radiochemistry is available for comparison to model output. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicates that some of the model realizations correspond well with the newly acquired conductivity, head, and gradient data, while others do not. Other tests indicated that additional model realizations may be needed to test if the model input distributions need refinement to improve model performance. This approach (generating additional realizations) was not followed because it was realized that there was a temporal component to the data disconnect: the new head measurements are on the high side of the model distributions, but the heads at the original calibration locations themselves have also increased over time. This indicates that the steady-state assumption of the groundwater model is in error. To test the robustness of the model d

A. Hassan; J. Chapman

2008-11-01

232

Circulation of a Meaban-Like Virus in Yellow-Legged Gulls and Seabird Ticks in the Western Mediterranean Basin  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. Epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. In this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western Mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird species. For 3 years, we sampled eggs from 19 breeding colonies in Spain, France, Algeria, and Tunisia. First, ELISAs were used to determine if the eggs contained antibodies against flaviviruses. Second, neutralization assays were used to identify the specific flaviviruses present. Finally, for colonies in which ELISA-positive eggs had been found, chick serum samples and potential vectors, culicid mosquitoes and soft ticks (Ornithodoros maritimus), were collected and analyzed using serology and PCR, respectively. The prevalence of flavivirus-specific antibodies in eggs was highly spatially heterogeneous. In northeastern Spain, on the Medes Islands and in the nearby village of L'Escala, 56% of eggs had antibodies against the flavivirus envelope protein, but were negative for neutralizing antibodies against three common flaviviruses: West Nile, Usutu, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Furthermore, little evidence of past flavivirus exposure was obtained for the other colonies. A subset of the Ornithodoros ticks from Medes screened for flaviviral RNA tested positive for a virus whose NS5 gene was 95% similar to that of Meaban virus, a flavivirus previously isolated from ticks of Larus argentatus in western France. All ELISA-positive samples subsequently tested positive for Meaban virus neutralizing antibodies. This study shows that gulls in the western Mediterranean Basin are exposed to a tick-borne Meaban-like virus, which underscores the need of exploring the spatial and temporal distribution of this flavivirus as well as its potential pathogenicity for animals and humans. PMID:24625959

Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Busquets, Núria; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Pagès, Nonito; Vittecoq, Marion; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Garnier, Romain; Ramos, Raül; Selmi, Slaheddine; González-Solís, Jacob; Jourdain, Elsa; Boulinier, Thierry

2014-01-01

233

Circulation of a Meaban-like virus in yellow-legged gulls and seabird ticks in the western Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

In recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. Epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. In this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western Mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird species. For 3 years, we sampled eggs from 19 breeding colonies in Spain, France, Algeria, and Tunisia. First, ELISAs were used to determine if the eggs contained antibodies against flaviviruses. Second, neutralization assays were used to identify the specific flaviviruses present. Finally, for colonies in which ELISA-positive eggs had been found, chick serum samples and potential vectors, culicid mosquitoes and soft ticks (Ornithodoros maritimus), were collected and analyzed using serology and PCR, respectively. The prevalence of flavivirus-specific antibodies in eggs was highly spatially heterogeneous. In northeastern Spain, on the Medes Islands and in the nearby village of L'Escala, 56% of eggs had antibodies against the flavivirus envelope protein, but were negative for neutralizing antibodies against three common flaviviruses: West Nile, Usutu, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Furthermore, little evidence of past flavivirus exposure was obtained for the other colonies. A subset of the Ornithodoros ticks from Medes screened for flaviviral RNA tested positive for a virus whose NS5 gene was 95% similar to that of Meaban virus, a flavivirus previously isolated from ticks of Larus argentatus in western France. All ELISA-positive samples subsequently tested positive for Meaban virus neutralizing antibodies. This study shows that gulls in the western Mediterranean Basin are exposed to a tick-borne Meaban-like virus, which underscores the need of exploring the spatial and temporal distribution of this flavivirus as well as its potential pathogenicity for animals and humans. PMID:24625959

Arnal, Audrey; Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Busquets, Núria; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Pagès, Nonito; Vittecoq, Marion; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Garnier, Romain; Ramos, Raül; Selmi, Slaheddine; González-Solís, Jacob; Jourdain, Elsa; Boulinier, Thierry

2014-01-01

234

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

235

Infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in eider ducks and Herring Gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in blood of nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) females and immature Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in the Baltic Sea, and in blood of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) females nesting in a remote area of western Alaska. Positive (??? 1:16) IBDV titers occurred in 75% of the eiders and 45% of the Herring Gull chicks. In eiders, the prevalence of positive titers differed among locations. We found no evidence that IBDV exposure impaired the immune function of Herring Gull chicks, based on their response to inoculation of sheep red blood cells. We suggest that eider ducks and Herring Gulls have been exposed to IBDV, even in locations where contact with poultry is unlikely. The presence of this virus in wild bird populations is of concern because it causes mortality of up to 30% in susceptible poultry.

Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Docherty, D.E.; Kilpi, M.; Hario, M.; Creekmore, L.H.; Petersen, M.R.

2000-01-01

236

Selenium and mercury concentrations in California gulls breeding on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA.  

PubMed

We examined selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in adult California gulls (Larus californicus) nesting on the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA, during 2006 and 2007. During 2006, the mean Se concentration (+/- standard error) was 18.1 +/- 1.5 microg/g in blood on a dry-weight basis and 8.1 +/- 0.4 microg/g in liver. During 2007, Se concentrations were 15.7 +/- 1.5 microg/g in blood and 8.3 +/- 0.4 microg/g in liver; Hg concentrations were 2.4 +/- 0.3 microg/g in blood and 4.1 +/- 0.5 microg/g in liver. Gulls collected from a freshwater colony located within the watershed of the Great Salt Lake had similar levels of Se in the blood and liver as gulls collected on the Great Salt Lake but lower Hg concentrations. Body mass of adult gulls was not correlated with Se or Hg concentrations in their blood or liver. Selenium concentration in California gull eggs collected during 2006 was 3.0 +/- 0.10 microg/g. Of 72 eggs randomly collected from Great Salt Lake colonies, only one was infertile, and none of the embryos exhibited signs of malposition or deformities. We examined 100 newly hatched California gull chicks from Great Salt Lake colonies for teratogenesis; all chicks appeared normal. Hence, the elevated Se and Hg concentrations in adult gulls nesting on the Great Salt Lake did not appear to impair gulls' health or reproductive ability. PMID:18767915

Conover, Michael R; Vest, Josh L

2009-02-01

237

Impact of Salt Pond Restoration on California Gull Displacement and Predation on Breeding Waterbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California gull (Larus californicus) population in San Francisco Bay has increased from <200 in 1982 to >46,800 in 2008, and may be negatively affecting nesting waterbirds through harassment, encroachment on nesting sites, and predation on eggs and chicks. The California gull colony at Pond A6 is the largest (>26,000) and is expected to be displaced when this salt pond

Josh Ackerman; Jill Bluso-Demers; John Takekawa; Scott Demers; Caitlin Robinson; Collin Eagles-Smith; Nicole Athearn

238

Highly carboxylated porphyrins are good biochemical markers of PCB exposure in herring gulls (Larus argentatus)  

SciTech Connect

The authors have reported that highly carboxylated porphyrins (HCPs) in herring gull livers offer promise as a biochemical marker of exposure of this species to halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Here the authors provide evidence from a new study that supports the previous research. HCP concentrations and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities were determined in livers of adult gulls (n = 47) that were collected from several colonies on the Great Lakes and from two reference sites. Non-polar extracts were prepared from each liver and were tested for porphyrinogenic and EROD induction potency in an in vitro chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) bioassay. The regression between EROD activity in gull livers and EROD induction potency of liver extracts in the CEH bioassay was poor (r{sup 2} = 0.13, p = 0.014); similarly, the regression between EROD activity in gull livers and PCB concentration in liver extracts was poor (r{sup 2} = 0.04, p = 0.19). In contrast, there was a strong linear regression between HCP concentration in gull livers and the porphyrinogenic potency of liver extracts in the CEH bioassay. There was also a strong linear regression between HCP concentration in gull livers and PCB concentration in the extracts. This study, and a large companion study that measured HCPs and chemical residues in herring gulls from 13 colonies (Fox et al., in preparation), indicates that environmental levels of PCBs in several areas of the Great Lakes remain sufficient high to interfere with heme biosynthesis, eliciting elevated HCPs in this species. The authors conclude that HCPs are a good biochemical marker of PCB exposure in herring gulls, but that EROD is not.

Kennedy, S.W.; Fox, G.A.; Trudeau, S.; Bastien, L.J.; Jones, S.P. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

1995-12-31

239

LONG-TERM REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT IN WESTERN GULLS: CONSEQUENCES OF ALTERNATE TACTICS IN DIET CHOICE  

E-print Network

or cultural transmission from parents to offspring. Key words: alternate tactics; foraging; seabird; Larus occidentalis; life history; Western Gull. INTRODUCTION Studies of reproductive performance have long been key elements of evolutionary ecology, because... is correlated with long-term and lifetime, as well as annual, reproductive success. STUDY ORGANISM AND METHODS Starting in 1983, we monitored reproductive output for each Western Gull pair on our subcolony by mark- ing each egg with an indelible marking pen...

Annett, Cynthia A.; Pierotti, Raymond

1999-01-01

240

Sex ratio in lesser black-backed gull in relation to environmental pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In birds, there is ample evidence that the mother can manipulate the sex of the young and produce more of the sex, which gives\\u000a the highest fitness return. This has previously been documented in gulls, Laridae. Gulls are sexually size dimorphic with\\u000a males larger than females, and there is good evidence that parents in poor body condition switch their investment

Kjell Einar Erikstad; Jan Ove Bustnes; Svein-Håkon Lorentsen; Tone Kristin Reiertsen

2009-01-01

241

Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

2003-01-01

242

Factors controlling navigation-channel Shoaling in Laguna Madre, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.

Morton, R.A.; Nava, R.C.; Arhelger, M.

2001-01-01

243

Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates and precursors in relation to dietary source tracers in the eggs of four species of gulls (Larids) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada.  

PubMed

In the present study, we identified and examined the spatial trends, sources and dietary relationships of bioaccumulative perfluorinated sulfonate (PFSA; C(6), C(8), and C(10) chain lengths) and carboxylate (PFCA; C(6) to C(15) chain lengths) contaminants, as well as precursor compounds including several perfluorinated sulfonamides, and fluorotelomer acids and alcohols, in individual eggs (collected in 2008) from four gull species [glaucous-winged (Larus glaucescens), California (Larus californicus), ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) and herring (Larus argentatus) gulls] from 15 marine and freshwater colony sites in provinces across Canada. The pattern of PFSAs was dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS; >89% of ?PFSA concentration) regardless of egg collection location. The highest ?PFSA concentrations were found in the eggs collected in the urbanized areas in the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River area [Big Chicken Island 308 ng/g ww, Toronto Harbour 486 ng/g ww, and Ile Deslauriers (HG) 299 ng/g ww]. Also, eggs from all freshwater colony sites had higher ?PFSA concentrations, which were significant (p<0.05) in many cases, compared to the marine sites with the exception of the Sable Island colony in Atlantic Canada off the coast of Nova Scotia. C(6) to C(15) chain length PFCAs were detected in the eggs, although the pattern was variable among the 15 sites, where PFUnA and PFTrA dominated the pattern for most colonies. Like the ?PFSA, the highest concentrations of ?PFCA were found in the eggs from Big Chicken Island, Toronto Harbour, Ile Deslauriers (HG), and Sable Island, although not all freshwater sites had higher concentrations compared to marine sites. Dietary tracers [?(15)N and ?(13)C stable isotopes (SIs)] revealed that PFSA and PFCA exposure is colony dependent. SI signatures suggested that gulls from most marine colony sites were exposed to PFCs via marine prey. The exception was the Mandarte Island colony in Pacific British Columbia, where PFSA and PFCA exposure appeared to be via terrestrial and/or freshwater prey consumption. The same was true for the freshwater sites where egg SIs suggested both aquatic and terrestrial prey consumption as the source for PFC exposure depending on the colony. Both aquatic (marine and freshwater) and terrestrial prey are likely sources of PFC exposure to gulls but exposure scenarios are colony-specific. PMID:21529948

Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J; Burgess, Neil M; Champoux, Louise; Elliott, John E; Hebert, Craig E; Martin, Pamela; Wayland, Mark; Weseloh, D V Chip; Wilson, Laurie

2011-10-01

244

The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls  

PubMed Central

The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

245

Quantifying fall migration of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) past Point Barrow, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a poorly known seabird of the circumpolar Arctic. The only place in the world where Ross's gulls are known to congregate is in the near-shore waters around Point Barrow, Alaska where they undertake an annual passage in late fall. Ross's gulls seen at Point Barrow are presumed to originate from nesting colonies in Siberia, but neither their origin nor their destination has been confirmed. Current estimates of the global population of Ross's gulls are based largely on expert opinion, and the only reliable population estimate is derived from extrapolations from previous counts conducted at Point Barrow, but these data are now over 25 years old. In order to update and clarify the status of this species in Alaska, our study quantified the timing, number, and flight direction of Ross's gulls passing Point Barrow in 2011. We recorded up to two-thirds of the estimated global population of Ross's gulls (? 27,000 individuals) over 39 days with numbers peaking on 16 October when we observed over 7,000 birds during a three-hour period.

Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Davis, Shanti E.; Maftei, Mark; Gesmundo, Callie; Suydam, R.S.; Mallory, Mark L.

2014-01-01

246

Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

2011-01-01

247

Temporal trend (1988-2008) of hexabromocyclododecane enantiomers in herring gull eggs from the German coastal region.  

PubMed

Levels of ?-, ?-, and ?-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in pooled eggs from herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled on three bird sanctuaries near the German North Sea coast between 1988 and 2008 (Mellum and Trischen) and the German Baltic Sea coast between 1998 and 2008 (Heuwiese) and archived by the German Environmental Specimen Bank. Pressurized fluid extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and LC-MS/MS using (13)C(12)-labelled isotope standards and a chiral column were applied. ?-HBCD was the dominating diastereomer and ranged between 3.7 and 107 ng g(-1)lw while ?- and ?-HBCD were throughout close to LOQ. The highest ?-HBCD concentration was found in eggs from Mellum sampled in the year 2000. Interestingly, HBCD in eggs from the three islands displayed similar time courses with levels increasing to a peak contamination around 2000 and decreasing levels ever since. Chiral signatures of ?-HBCD in eggs differed among the islands but indicated a preferential enrichment of the first eluting enantiomer (-)-?-HBCD. PMID:21216435

Esslinger, Susanne; Becker, Roland; Jung, Christian; Schröter-Kermani, Christa; Bremser, Wolfram; Nehls, Irene

2011-03-01

248

Weathered oil: effect on hatchability of heron and gull eggs  

SciTech Connect

Contact with weathered oil seems more likely for waterbirds than contact with fresh oil; however, the effects of weathered oil on embryo survival have only partially been explored. Results of one study showed that 20 ..mu..L of 4 week-old crude oil applied to the eggshell surface caused a significant decrease in embryo survival of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs. In that study, oil was weathered under laboratory conditions using fresh water. To our knowledge, there have been no tests to determine the effects on egg hatchability of oil naturally weathered in marine habitats. The present study assesses the effects of external applications of naturally weathered crude oil on embryo survival of Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor) and laughing gull (Larus atricilla) eggs.

Macko, S.A. (Port Aransas Marine Lab., TX); King, S.M.

1980-08-01

249

Relationships between heavy metal and metallothionein concentrations in lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus , and Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, copper, and mercury concentrations were measured in adult lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus; and metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, and copper concentrations were measured in fledgling Cory's shearwaters, Calonectris diomedea. In gulls, metallothionein was positively correlated with cadmium (kidney r=0.83, liver r=0.46), zinc (kidney r=0.46, liver r=0.37), and copper (kidney r=0.28, liver r=0.34). Mercury levels in lesser black-backed gulls

F. M. Stewart; R. W. Furness; L. R. Monteiro

1996-01-01

250

Migration patterns of Common Gulls Larus canus ringed in the non?breeding season in Copenhagen and the surrounding area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the greater Copenhagen area (54°59'?56°07'N, 11°55'12°40'E) 4899 Common Gulls were ringed from September to April in 1976 to 1993. Up to 31 December 1993, 11,824 ring?recoveries from 2,388 gulls (49% of the total number ringed) had been received. Copenhagen lies on the Common Gull migration route from northeastern to western Europe. The directions of migration are southwest in autumn

K. T. Pedersen; E. B. Fritze; S. P. Kharitonov

2000-01-01

251

Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and precursor compounds in herring gull eggs from colonies spanning the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.  

PubMed

Environmentally important perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates, as well as per- and polyfluorinated precursor compounds including several sulfonamides, telomer acids, and alcohols were determined in individual herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected (in 2007) from 15 colonies located at Canadian and some American sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The pattern of perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs; C6, C8, C10 chain lengths) was dominated by PFOS (> 90% of sigmaPFSA concentration) regardless of collection location. Concentrations of sigmaPFSA were significantly (p < 0.03) higher in eggs from Middle Island (western Lake Erie; 507 +/- 47 ng/g ww), Toronto Harbour (484 +/- 49 ng/g ww), and Strachan Island (486 +/- 59 ng/g ww) (Lake Ontario) compared to eggs from colonies on Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) ranging in chain length from C8 to C15 were detected in the eggs, with PFUnA and PFTrA being the dominant compounds. PFOA and PFNA were more abundant in the sigmaPFCA in eggs from Lake Superior and Michigan colonies, and PFUnA and longer chain PFCAs were more abundant in the sigmaPFCA in eggs from Lake Erie and Ontario colonies. In contrast to sigmaPFSA, the highest concentrations of sigmaPFCA were found in eggs from Double Island, Lake Huron (113 +/- 12 ng/g ww) followed by eggs from colonies on Lakes Erie and Ontario. Among the PFOS or PFCA precursor compounds assessed (6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohols and acids and PFOSA), none were detectable in eggs from any sampling location. The exception was PFOSA (average concentration < 1 ng/g ww), which suggests that PFOS in the gulls and subsequently in their eggs may be due, in part, to biotransformation of PFOSA to PFOS in the gull and/or in their diet and food web. The accumulation of PFSA and PFCA from mainly aquatic dietary sources was suggested, and were highly lake- and/ or colony-dependent especially showing a northwest and southeast spatial trend and with higher concentrations in eggs from colonies in close proximity to highly urbanized and industrialized sites in Lakes Erie and Ontario. PMID:19848159

Gebbink, Wouter A; Hebert, Craig E; Letcher, Robert J

2009-10-01

252

Impact of benzyl butyl phthalate on shoaling behavior in Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog) populations.  

PubMed

Fundulus heteroclitus preference for association with familiar conspecifics of similar body length was impacted by benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP); this was found to be a statically significant result with a p < 0.0001. When presented with equally sized shoals consisting of either large or small fish, the majority of unexposed (84%) and acetone exposed control (82%) fish selected the shoal of large fish. A small number of control fish chose either the shoal of small fish (6% and 10%) or the neutral zone (10% and 8%) where they were clear morphological outliers. Fish exposed to 0.1 mg/L BBP exposure daily for four weeks selected the shoal of small fish more often than unexposed or acetone controls (7.5- and 4.5-fold respectively). They also remained in the neutral zone and displayed agitation at levels more than twice that of control. Agitation and shoal choice disruption are quantifiable behavioral responses that support the use of F. heteroclitus as a model for detecting sub-lethal BBP exposure. PMID:23541602

Kaplan, Lisa A E; Nabel, Michael; Van Cleef-Toedt, Kathleen; Proffitt, Andrew R; Pylypiw, Harry M

2013-05-01

253

46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to...Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East ofSoutheast Shoal) Buffalo Six-Hour Period ...b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or...

2010-10-01

254

46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour period $791... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

2011-10-01

255

46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour Period $760... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

2012-10-01

256

46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-Hour Period $828... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

2013-10-01

257

46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-hour Period $849... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

2014-10-01

258

Trophic level determines levels of brominated flame-retardants in coastal herring gulls.  

PubMed

Liver concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (?PBDEs: sum of brominated diphenyl ethers [BDE]-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, and -209) ranged from 135 to 985 ngg(-1) lipid weight (lw) in coastal herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the marine Hvaler Archipelago (The Glomma River Estuary), Norway. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations ranged from 10 to 698 ngg(-1)lw. High range in ?(13)C indicates that gulls were subject to a diversity of carbon sources, likely reflecting their mixed feeding on terrestrial and marine organisms, or diversity of autochthonous and allochthonous (watershed) energy sources at the bases of their marine/estuarial food chains. Inverse relationships of HBCD, and to somewhat lesser extent of BDE-209, with ?(13)C values suggest higher abundance of these compounds in the land-derived energy-sources of the gulls. Inverse relationships of BDE-99, BDE-183 and BDE-209 with ?(15)N suggest that trophic relationships affect bioaccumulation of these compounds in the herring gulls, with greater bioaccumulation from lower trophic level prey species. This may be because these PBDE congeners are subject of debromination in higher trophic levels prey species of the gulls (e.g., teleost fish). Levels of BDE-209 (up to 95 ng/g lipid) of these herring gulls from 1998 were in the higher range reported in European birds, and not matched by other reports in North Sea seabirds. The present study suggests that the currently used brominated flame-retardants (BFRs), BDE-209 and HBCD relate to changing nutrient allocation in the herring gulls, and represent a risk to seabirds exploiting near-shore and estuary ecosystems. PMID:21762987

Sørmo, E G; Lie, E; Ruus, A; Gaustad, H; Skaare, J U; Jenssen, B M

2011-10-01

259

Characterization of Escherichia coli populations from gulls, landfill trash, and wastewater using ribotyping.  

PubMed

Due to their opportunistic and gregarious nature, gulls may be important reservoirs and vectors for anthropogenically derived fecal pathogens in coastal areas. We used ribotyping, a genotypic bacterial source tracking method, to compare populations of Escherichia coli among herring gulls Larus argentatus, great black-backed gulls L. marinus, wastewater, and landfill trash in New Hampshire and Maine, USA. Concentrations of E. coli in gull feces varied widely among individuals, but were generally high (6.0 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(9) g(-1) wet weight). Of 39 E. coli isolates from L. argentatus, 67% had banding patterns that were > or = 90% similar to those from wastewater and trash, whereas only 39% of 36 L. marinus isolates exhibited > or = 90% similarity to these sources. Strains of E. coli from gulls matched (> or = 90% similarity) more strains from wastewater (39% matching) than from trash (15% matching). E. coli isolates from L. marinus feces exhibited a greater diversity of banding patterns than did isolates from L. argentatus. There were more unique E. coli banding patterns in trash samples than in wastewater, and higher diversity indices in the former compared to the latter. These findings suggest that both species of gulls, especially L. argentatus, obtain fecal bacteria from wastewater and landfill trash, which they may transport to recreational beaches and waters. Our results also indicate that E. coli populations may vary widely between gull species, and between the anthropogenic habitats that they frequent, i.e. landfills and wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:18828562

Nelson, M; Jones, S H; Edwards, C; Ellis, J C

2008-08-19

260

Fluoride exposure and selected characteristics of eggs and bones of the herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the common gull (Larus canus).  

PubMed

Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shell of 285 herring gull eggs (Larus argentatus) and 120 common gull eggs (Larus canus), collected May 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies exposed to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smelters located at Karmøy and Sunndal, and from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume-index, shell thickness, thickness-index, and fertilization of the eggs also were monitored. In both species, the shell fluorine concentration was significantly increased in eggs collected at sites exposed to fluoride emissions. No effects on other egg characteristics were observed. In both exposed and unexposed sites, the last-laid egg in a clutch, normally containing three eggs, had the highest shell fluorine residue. Fluorine levels also were analyzed in femurs from 42 herring gulls, collected from Karmøy and Sola in May 1993. The relationship between sex and fluoride accumulation, and the relations between fluorine concentration in femurs of laying herring gulls and in the shell of their eggs, were evaluated. Bone morphology also was studied. Bone fluorine concentrations were raised significantly in emission-exposed female birds. Moreover, females from the exposed site had significantly higher fluorine residues than males. There was a positive correlation between fluorine levels in femurs of individual laying birds and those in the shells of their eggs. No changes in bone morphology due to fluoride exposure was found. PMID:8722255

Vikøren, T; Stuve, G

1996-04-01

261

Evidence for Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) and Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) as carriers of Salmonella by real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that two gull species in Talcahuano, Chile, shed Salmonella. Fecal samples from resident Larus dominicanus had prevalences of 51.2% for Salmonella spp. and 26.3% for Salmonella Enteritidis. Prevalences in samples from migratory Leucophaeus pipixcan were 75% and 30% respectively. Risks to public health may exist. PMID:23060519

Rodríguez, Francisco; Moreno, Jessica; Ortega, René; Mathieu, Christian; García, Apolinaria; Cerda-Leal, Fabiola; González-Acuña, Daniel

2012-10-01

262

Journal of Fish Biology (1998) 52, 494501 Is there always an influence of shoal size on predator  

E-print Network

of the British Isles Key words: shoaling behaviour; predation risk; attack distance; Ambloplites rupestris in full view of each other before, during and after an attack. In this study, single rock bass Ambloplites rupestris were given an opportunity to launch surprise attacks at shoals of creek chub Semotilus

Rubenstein, Daniel I.

263

Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

NONE

1996-08-01

264

Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

2004-03-01

265

March 2010 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site, Nevada (Data Validation Package)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2010. Wells HC-4, HC-5, HC-7, HC-8, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled March 10-12, 2010, as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-3, and HC-6 were sampled March 24, 2010, by Desert Research Institute personnel.

None

2011-03-01

266

Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability  

PubMed Central

Background The role of gulls in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American gulls frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed Gull contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American gull and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as gulls. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed Gull virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable “triple reassortant internal gene” core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the need for continued surveillance in gull and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of gull species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI. PMID:23742717

2013-01-01

267

Ultraviolet photopigment sensitivity and ocular media transmittance in gulls, with an evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Gulls (Laridae excluding Sternidae) appear to be the only shorebirds (Charadriiformes) that have a short wavelength sensitive type 1 (SWS1) cone pigment opsin tuned to ultraviolet (UV) instead of violet. However, the apparent UV-sensitivity has only been inferred indirectly, via the interpretation that the presence of cysteine at the key amino acid position 90 in the SWS1 opsin confers UV sensitivity. Unless the cornea and the lens efficiently transmit UV to the retina, gulls might in effect be similar to violet-sensitive birds in spectral sensitivity even if they have an ultraviolet sensitive (UVS) SWS1 visual pigment. We report that the spectral transmission of the cornea and lens of great black-backed Larus marinus and herring gulls L. argentatus allow UV-sensitivity, having a lambda(T0.5) value, 344 nm, similar to the ocular media of UV sensitive birds. By molecular sequencing of the second alpha-helical transmembrane region of the SWS1 opsin gene we could also infer that 15 herring gulls and 16 yellow-legged gulls L. michahellis, all base-pair identical, are genetically UV-sensitive. PMID:19308422

Håstad, Olle; Partridge, Julian C; Odeen, Anders

2009-06-01

268

An outbreak of type C botulism in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Southeastern Sweden  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

Neimanis, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Leighton, F.; Bollinger, T.; Rocke, T.; Morner, T.

2007-01-01

269

Functional metagenomics reveals previously unrecognized diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in gulls.  

PubMed

Wildlife may facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) between human-dominated habitats and the surrounding environment. Here, we use functional metagenomics to survey the diversity and genomic context of AR genes in gulls. Using this approach, we found a variety of AR genes not previously detected in gulls and wildlife, including class A and C ?-lactamases as well as six tetracycline resistance gene types. An analysis of the flanking sequences indicates that most of these genes are present in Enterobacteriaceae and various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to finding known gene types, we detected 31 previously undescribed AR genes. These undescribed genes include one most similar to an uncharacterized gene in Verrucomicrobium and another to a putative DNA repair protein in Lactobacillus. Overall, the study more than doubled the number of clinically relevant AR gene types known to be carried by gulls or by wildlife in general. Together with the propensity of gulls to visit human-dominated habitats, this high diversity of AR gene types suggests that gulls could facilitate the spread of AR. PMID:22347872

Martiny, Adam C; Martiny, Jennifer B H; Weihe, Claudia; Field, Andrew; Ellis, Julie C

2011-01-01

270

An outbreak of type C botulism in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in southeastern Sweden.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. PMID:17699071

Neimanis, A; Gavier-Widén, D; Leighton, F; Bollinger, T; Rocke, T; Mörner, T

2007-07-01

271

Chiral organochlorine contaminants in blood and eggs of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic.  

PubMed

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and their eggs from Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic) have been used as biomonitors of contaminants in the marine environment. In this study, the enantiomer fractions (EFs) of chiral chlordanes and atropisomeric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the blood plasma of adult male and female glaucous gulls from three breeding colonies in Svalbard. Plasma EFs were similar in magnitude and direction to EFs previously reported in glaucous gulls from other arctic food webs, suggesting overall similarities in the biochemical processes influencing the EFs of bioaccumulated organochlorine (OC) contaminants within the food webs at those locations. Additionally, EFs in yolk of eggs collected concurrently from within the same nesting colonies varied with location, laying date, and OC concentrations, and may be influenced by changes in the local feeding ecology between those colonies. No differences were found between the EFs for any analyte in female gulls compared to those found in egg yolk, indicating that processes involved in the maternal transfer of chlordanes and PCBs to eggs do not modulate the stereochemical ratio between enantiomers. Therefore, the use of eggs as a valuable and noninvasive means of OC biomonitoring may also extend to enantiomer compositions in glaucous gulls, and perhaps also in other seabird species from arctic regions. PMID:18939544

Ross, Matthew S; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Wong, Charles S

2008-10-01

272

Differences in mercury contamination and elimination during feather development in gull and tern broods.  

PubMed

Eggs, feathers (down, body feathers from side/shoulder and back) and some dead chicks (liver) from broods of three species, herring full (Larus argentatus), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) from the German North Sea coast were collected to study intersibling differences in mercury contamination and elimination into the growing feathers. The mercury contamination in eggs, feathers, and liver of the terns was about four times that of the gulls; black-headed gulls had lowest mercury concentrations. The body feathers grow when the chicks became older had lower mercury levels than down in the more contaminated species (11% lower in herring gulls, 49% in common terns), indicating the advancing decontamination of the body by the plumage development. The elimination of mercury was greater in chicks with higher mercury levels. Down of the first hatched herring gull and common tern chick contained more mercury than down of the siblings hatched later, because of its higher burden derived from the first laid egg. PMID:8060159

Becker, P H; Henning, D; Furness, R W

1994-08-01

273

Growth and behavioral effects of early postnatal chromium and manganese exposure in herring gull ( Larus argentatus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organisms in marine environments are exposed to chromium and manganese, yet little is known of the effects of these metals on physiology and behavior. In this article we examine the effects of chromium and manganese on early neurobehavioral development in herring gulls, Larus argentatus. Each of 36 2-day-old herring gull chicks was randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1995-01-01

274

TERRITORY SIZE DIFFERENCES IN RELATION TO REPRODUCTIVE STAGE AND TYPE OF INTRUDER IN HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

short period of time during only part of the reproductive cycle rather than from daily observations throughout the cycle. In gulls, territory size has often been ob- tained by measuring the distance to the closest neighbor. This distance may not be a good measure of territory size, because only in dense gull colonies might the nest be located in the

JOANNA BURGER

275

The influence of food availability and competition on the use of a feeding site by Herring Gulls Larus argentatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding distribution of adult and juvenile Herring Gulls at a refuse tip was studied in relation to both spatial and temporal variations in food quality and quantity. The numbers and time of arrival of the gulls at the tip varied in relation to the amount of available food. The extent to which juveniles fed on the high and low

P. Monaghan; N. B. Metcalfe; M. H. Hansell

1986-01-01

276

Recombinant Transthyretin Purification and Competitive Binding with Organohalogen Compounds in Two Gull Species (Larus argentatus and Larus hyperboreus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard, Norway (marine), and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Lau- rentian Great Lakes (freshwater) of North America are differen- tially exposed to persistent and bioaccumulative anthropogenic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and metabolic products. Such compounds can potentially perturb hormone transport via binding interactions with proteins

Francisco Ucan-Marõ; Augustine Arukwe; Anne Mortensen; Geir W. Gabrielsen; Glen A. Fox; Robert J. Letcher

2009-01-01

277

Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls ( Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. Glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven Alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic

Stacy S. Vander Pol; Paul R. Becker; Michael B. Ellisor; Amanda J. Moors; Rebecca S. Pugh; David G. Roseneau

2009-01-01

278

Health of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Relation to Breeding Location in the Early 1990s. I. Biochemical Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissues of 156 adult herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were sampled in the early 1990s from 11 colonies throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes and 2 reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Gulls from 1 or more Great Lakes differed from Lake Winnipeg or the Bay of Fundy for 17 of 19 clinical biochemical measures, whereas the freshwater

Glen A. Fox; Deborah A. Jeffrey; Kim S. Williams; Sean W. Kennedy; Keith A. Grasman

2007-01-01

279

Environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis , and the laughing gull, Larus atricilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) gathered from the Galveston Bay region of Texas were compared, to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. Their levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. Lead levels in bone were comparable, but gulls

Michael Hulse; John S. Mahoney; Gene D. Schroder; Carl S. Hacker; Stanley M. Pier

1980-01-01

280

Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

281

Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after devastating cyclones only small islands reemerge and persist temporarily from the shoal belt. A four-stage barrier evolution model, globally applicable to transgressive deltaic barriers, is based on documented changes in late Holocene Mississippi sub-deltas.

Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.

2013-09-01

282

Sarcocystis sp. from the herring gull (Larus argentatus) identity to Sarcocystis wobeseri based on cyst morphology and DNA results.  

PubMed

Having studied 11 herring gulls (Larus argentatus) Sarcocystis cysts were found in neck and leg muscles of 4 birds. One type of sarcocysts (cyst type I) that have a thin (?1.0 ?m), smooth, or slightly wavy cyst wall without clearly visible protrusions and small (6.0-8.0 ?m) lancet- or banana-shaped cystozoites was identified by the light microscopy. Sarcocysts extracted from one herring gull were used for electron microscopy and DNA analysis. Ultrastructurally, Sarcocystis sp. from the herring gull had the same tissue cyst wall type-1 as S. calchasi, S. columbae, and S. wobeseri parasitizing in birds. According to first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA gene sequences, Sarcocystis sp. from the herring gull belongs to S. wobeseri. Nevertheless, without evidences of cross-transmission experiment sarcocysts extracted from herring gull at present time are named as S. wobeseri-like. PMID:21597959

Prakas, Petras; Kutkien?, Liuda; Sruoga, Aniolas; Butkauskas, Dalius

2011-12-01

283

Metal levels in feathers of cormorants, flamingos and gulls from the coast of Namibia in southern Africa.  

PubMed

Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, selemium, and tin concentrations were measured in the feathers of Cape cormorant (Phalacrocorax capensis), Hartlaub's gull (Larus hartlaubii), kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), and lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) from the coast of Namibia in southern Africa. Metal concentrations in feathers represent the concentrations in the blood supply at the time of feather formation. Cape Cormorants are piscivores; kelp gulls are primarily piscivores; Hartlaub's gull is an omnivore; and lesser flamingos eat primarily blue-green algae and invertebrates filtered from the water and sediment of hypersaline lagoons. We predicted that metal concentrations would reflect these trophic level differences. There were significant species differences in the concentrations of all metals, with flamingos having the lowest levels, and cormorants having the highest levels of 4 metals but not mercury. The gulls had the highest levels of mercury, perhaps reflecting their more scavenging behavior. PMID:11465667

Burger, J; Gochfeld, M

2001-06-01

284

Analysis of the Gull Fecal Microbial Community Reveals the Dominance of Catellicoccus marimammalium in Relation to Culturable Enterococci  

PubMed Central

Gulls are prevalent in beach environments and can be a major source of fecal contamination. Gulls have been shown to harbor a high abundance of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as Escherichia coli and enterococci, which can be readily detected as part of routine beach monitoring. Despite the ubiquitous presence of gull fecal material in beach environments, the associated microbial community is relatively poorly characterized. We generated comprehensive microbial community profiles of gull fecal samples using Roche 454 and Illumina MiSeq platforms to investigate the composition and variability of the gull fecal microbial community and to measure the proportion of FIB. Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were the two most abundant families in our gull samples. Sequence comparisons between short-read data and nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene clones generated from the same samples revealed Catellicoccus marimammalium as the most numerous taxon among all samples. The identification of bacteria from gull fecal pellets cultured on membrane-Enterococcus indoxyl-?-d-glucoside (mEI) plates showed that the dominant sequences recovered in our sequence libraries did not represent organisms culturable on mEI. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing of gull fecal isolates cultured on mEI plates, 98.8% were identified as Enterococcus spp., 1.2% were identified as Streptococcus spp., and none were identified as C. marimammalium. Illumina deep sequencing indicated that gull fecal samples harbor significantly higher proportions of C. marimammalium 16S rRNA gene sequences (>50-fold) relative to typical mEI culturable Enterococcus spp. C. marimammalium therefore can be confidently utilized as a genetic marker to identify gull fecal pollution in the beach environment. PMID:24242244

Koskey, Amber M.; Fisher, Jenny C.; Traudt, Mary F.; Newton, Ryan J.

2014-01-01

285

Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta ? †  

PubMed Central

We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull (Larus californicus) samples using culture-, PCR-, and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based detection assays. Campylobacter prevalence and abundance were relatively high in the gull excreta examined; however, C. jejuni and C. lari were detected in fewer than 2% of the isolates and DNA extracts from the fecal samples that tested positive. Moreover, molecular and sequencing data indicated that most L. californicus campylobacters were novel (<97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to known Campylobacter species) and not closely related to species commonly associated with human illness. Campylobacter estimates were positively related with those of fecal indicators, including a gull fecal marker based on the Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S rRNA gene. PMID:21622785

Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Griffith, John F.; Ashbolt, Nicholas

2011-01-01

286

Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. in California gull (Larus californicus) excreta.  

PubMed

We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull (Larus californicus) samples using culture-, PCR-, and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based detection assays. Campylobacter prevalence and abundance were relatively high in the gull excreta examined; however, C. jejuni and C. lari were detected in fewer than 2% of the isolates and DNA extracts from the fecal samples that tested positive. Moreover, molecular and sequencing data indicated that most L. californicus campylobacters were novel (<97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to known Campylobacter species) and not closely related to species commonly associated with human illness. Campylobacter estimates were positively related with those of fecal indicators, including a gull fecal marker based on the Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S rRNA gene. PMID:21622785

Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Griffith, John F; Ashbolt, Nicholas

2011-07-01

287

Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls.  

PubMed

Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. PMID:23507452

Bodewes, R; van de Bildt, M W G; Schapendonk, C M E; van Leeuwen, M; van Boheemen, S; de Jong, A A W; Osterhaus, A D M E; Smits, S L; Kuiken, T

2013-05-25

288

First Record of Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Acuariidae) in Common Gulls (Larus canus) from Gangneung, Korea  

PubMed Central

A nematode species belonging to the genus Cosmocephalus was collected from the stomach of 2 common gulls, Larus canus. The common gulls were found dead on the seaside of Gangneung City, the Republic of Korea. The worms were identified and classified by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of important taxonomic characters. The nematodes were characterized by a body length 9.1-9.3 mm (males) and 15.5-15.9 mm (females) and cordons recurrent in anterior direction and anastomosing laterally at about the level of anterior quarter of the buccal cavity. The salient bicuspid deirids were located on the posterior to the cordons. Lateral alae were well-developed, extending from the level just posterior of deirids to the level about middle of the body. LM and SEM observations identified the worms as C. obvelatus. This is the first reported case of C. obvelatus infection in common gulls in Korea. PMID:25748715

Kim, Se-Min; Park, Bae-Keun; Jung, Bae Dong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

2015-01-01

289

First record of Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Acuariidae) in common gulls (Larus canus) from Gangneung, Korea.  

PubMed

A nematode species belonging to the genus Cosmocephalus was collected from the stomach of 2 common gulls, Larus canus. The common gulls were found dead on the seaside of Gangneung City, the Republic of Korea. The worms were identified and classified by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of important taxonomic characters. The nematodes were characterized by a body length 9.1-9.3 mm (males) and 15.5-15.9 mm (females) and cordons recurrent in anterior direction and anastomosing laterally at about the level of anterior quarter of the buccal cavity. The salient bicuspid deirids were located on the posterior to the cordons. Lateral alae were well-developed, extending from the level just posterior of deirids to the level about middle of the body. LM and SEM observations identified the worms as C. obvelatus. This is the first reported case of C. obvelatus infection in common gulls in Korea. PMID:25748715

Kim, Se-Min; Park, Bae-Keun; Jung, Bae Dong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

2015-02-01

290

Identification of human enteric pathogens in gull feces at Southwestern Lake Michigan bathing beaches.  

PubMed

Ring-billed (Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815) and herring (Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763) gulls are predominant species of shorebirds in coastal areas. Gulls contribute to the fecal indicator burden in beach sands, which, once transported to bathing waters, may result in water quality failures. The importance of these contamination sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor bathing water quality on human health. This study examined the occurrence of human enteric pathogens in gull populations at Racine, Wisconsin. For 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005, and 7 weeks in 2006, 724 gull fecal samples were examined for pathogen occurrence on traditional selective media (BBL CHROMagar-Salmonella, Remel Campy-BAP, 7% horse blood agar) or through the use of novel isolation techniques (Campylobacter, EC FP5-funded CAMPYCHECK Project), and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogens commonly harbored in gulls. An additional 226 gull fecal samples, collected in the same 12-week period in 2004, from a beach in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were evaluated with standard microbiological methods and PCR. Five isolates of Salmonella (0.7%), 162 (22.7%) isolates of Campylobacter, 3 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila group 2 (0.4%), and 28 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides (3.9%) were noted from the Racine beach. No occurrences of Salmonella and 3 isolates of Campylobacter (0.4%) were found at the Milwaukee beach. A subset of the 2004 samples was also examined for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and was found to be negative. Information as to the occurrence of human pathogens in beach ecosystems is essential to design further studies assessing human health risk and to determine the parameters influencing the fate and transport of pathogens in the nearshore environment. PMID:19096455

Kinzelman, Julie; McLellan, Sandra L; Amick, Ashley; Preedit, Justine; Scopel, Caitlin O; Olapade, Ola; Gradus, Steve; Singh, Ajaib; Sedmak, Gerald

2008-12-01

291

Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.  

PubMed

The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. PMID:14638302

Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

2004-01-01

292

THE ARGO MERCHANT OIL SPILL AND THE SEDIMENTS OF NANTUCKET SHOALS: RESEARCH, LITIGATION AND LEGISLATION  

EPA Science Inventory

On December 15, 1976, the tanker Argo Merchant ran around on Fishing Rip of Nantucket Shoals off the coast of Massachusetts. After several days of stormy weather she broke apart releasing her entire cargo of 28 X 10 to 3rd power metric tons of No. 6 fuel oil into the ocean. Feder...

293

A COMPARISON OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS FROM NANTUCKET SHOALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface sediment samples collected from the Nantucket Shoals Argo Merchant wreck site area in February, 1977, were analyzed for hydrocarbon content by gas chromatography. Analysis of sediment grab subsections revealed no clear trend of hydrocarbon contamination as a function of d...

294

Shifting reproductive success in a shoal of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua L.  

E-print Network

Shifting reproductive success in a shoal of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua L. Jon Egil Skjæraasen behaviour of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) was examined by studying wild and reared individuals from of male Atlantic Cod. We suggest that this hypothesis merits further study. Keywords Mating system

Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

295

Comparative Concentrations of Metals in Marine Species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc were measured in coral, crab, eel, fish, lobster, and sediment samples collected from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean. The sediments contained relatively high concentrations of selenium; moderate concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper and lead; and low concentrations of chromium and zinc. Metal concentrations were also determined in coral

Lee Ann Woodward; Chris Swenson; Qing X Li

2001-01-01

296

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF A COUPLED BEM-NAVIER-STOKES MODEL FOR SOLITARY WAVE SHOALING AND BREAKING  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF A COUPLED BEM-NAVIER-STOKES MODEL FOR SOLITARY WAVE SHOALING on the coupling between a higher- order Boundary Element Method (BEM) and a Volume Of Fluids (VOF) solution model, the BEM solution is used to initialize the VOF-NS computations. The paper reports

Grilli, Stéphan T.

297

A method for resolving occlusions when multitracking individuals in a shoal.  

PubMed

Studying the collective behavior of fishes often requires tracking a great number of individuals. When many fishes move together, it is common for individuals to move so close to each other that some fishes superimpose themselves on others during one or several units of time, which impacts on tracking accuracy (i.e., loss of fish trajectories, interchange of fish identities). Type 1 occlusions arise when two fishes swim so near each other that they look like one long fish, whereas type 2 occlusions occur when the fishes' trajectories cross to create a T- or X-shaped individual. We propose an image processing method for resolving these types of occlusions when multitracking shoals in two dimensions. We assessed processing effectiveness after videorecording shoals of 20 and 40 individuals of two species that exhibit different shoal styles: zebrafish (Danio rerio) and black neon tetras (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi). Results show that, although the number of occlusions depended on both the number of individuals and the species, the method is able to effectively resolve a great deal of occlusions, irrespective of the species and the number of individuals. It also produces images that can be used in a multitracking system to detect individual fish trajectories. Compared to other methods, our approach makes it possible to study shoals with water depths similar to those seen in the natural conditions of the two species studied. PMID:25294043

Dolado, Ruth; Gimeno, Elisabet; Beltran, Francesc S; Quera, Vicenç; Pertusa, José F

2014-10-01

298

Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report  

SciTech Connect

Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

1998-07-01

299

Shoals and valley plugs in the Hatchie River watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Agricultural land use and gully erosion have historically contributed more sediment to the streams of the Hatchie River watershed than those streams can carry. In 1970, the main sedimentation problem in the watershed occurred in the tributary flood plains. This problem motivated channelization projects (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970). By the mid-1980's, concern had shifted to sedimentation in the Hatchie River itself where channelized tributaries were understood to contribute much of the sediment. The Soil Conservation Service [Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) since 1996] estimated that 640,000 tons of bedload (sand) accumulates in the Hatchie River each year and identified roughly the eastern two-thirds of the watershed, where loess is thin or absent, as the main source of sand (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986a). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority (WTRBA), conducted a study of sediment accumulation in the Hatchie River and its tributaries. This report identifies the types of tributaries and evaluates sediment, shoal formation, and valley-plug problems. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of similar problems in West Tennessee and the rest of the southeastern coastal plain. This information also will help the WTRBA manage sedimentation and erosion problems in the Hatchie River watershed.The source of the Mississippi section of the Hatchie River is in the sand hills southwest of Corinth, Mississippi (fig. 1). This section of the Hatchie River flows northward in an artificial drainage canal, gathering water from tributary streams that also are channelized. The drainage canal ends 2 miles south of the Tennessee State line. The Tennessee section of the Hatchie River winds north and west in a meandering natural channel to the Mississippi River. Although most of the Hatchie River tributaries are also drainage canals, the river's main stem has kept most of its natural character. The Hatchie River flows through a wide valley bottom occupied mostly by riverine wetland. Historically, the valley bottom has supported hardwood forests. Since publication of the first Hatchie River report (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970), the channel of the river has become shallower, and flooding has increased (U.S. Department of Agriculture 1986b). These wetter conditions inhibit growth of hardwoods and lead to premature hardwood mortality. The NRCS has predicted that despite efforts to control erosion in the uplands, most of the valley-bottom forest will die. '...swamping may be so prevalent as to change most of the Hatchie River Basin flood plain into a marsh condition, with the only remnants of the present bottomland hardwood timber remaining. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986b) Loss of channel depth has been concentrated in short reaches near tributary mouths. At the mouths of Richland, Porters, Clover, and Muddy Creeks, navigation has become difficult for recreational users (Johnny Carlin, West Tennessee River Basin Authority, oral commun., 1998).As the low-gradient alluvial system of the Hatchie River accumulates sediment, another common outcome has been the formation of valley plugs, areas where 'channels are filled with sediment, and all the additional bedload brought downstream is then spread out over the flood plain until a new channel has been formed' (Happ, 1975). Valley plugs typically form where the slope of a sand-laden tributary decreases downstream, or where the tributary joins its parent stream (Happ and others, 1940; Diehl, 1994, 1997; Smith and Diehl, 2000).

Diehl, Timothy H.

2000-01-01

300

Dynamics of storage of organochlorine pollutants in herring gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several organochlorine pollutants were studied over the period of one annual cycle in caged juvenile and wild-collected adult herring gulls (Lagus argentatus) from Lake Michigan. Fish, mostly alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), comprised the major year-round food items in the wild; alewives were also fed to the caged juveniles. Fish residues averaged around 3 mg/kg of p,p'-DDE, 2 mg/kg p,p'DDT + p,p'-TDE, and 2 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Juvenile body-burdens of DDE and PCBs showed a continual buildup after fledging, then a temporary dynamic equilibrium, related only in part to annual lipid deposition. Maximum body-burdens were reached in both juveniles and adults when winter fat deposits were declining prior to the breeding season?followed by a return to dynamic equilibrium. Residues of DDT and TDE followed closely the annual pattern of lipid deposition in both juveniles and adults. Total body-burdens in both age classes were similar after the buildups to equilibrium in juveniles in their eighth month after fledging. Seasonal variations of residues of DDE and PCBs were characterised by two phases in adults and three in juveniles, which gradually assumed the adult cyclic pattern. The maximum body-burdens attained by caged juveniles fed a diet of Lake Michigan alewives were 290 mg/kg DDE, 19 mg/kg DDT + TDE, and 200 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Residues in wild adults at the same time were 300, 4, and 200 mg/kg of the same residues. Apparent PCBs and DDE were highly accumulative, although DDE levels resulted from dietary DDE, as well as conversion from DDT.

Anderson, D.W.; Hickey, J.J.

1976-01-01

301

Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers' access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

Weiser, E.L.; Powell, A.N.

2011-01-01

302

Haematology and blood chemistry of healthy and clinically abnormal great black?backed gulls (Larus Marinus) and herring gulls (Larus Argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal haematological values and cholesterol values (total, HDL?cholesterol, LDL?cholesterol) were determined in free?living Herring and Great Black?backed Gulls, taking into account species, age and sex. These figures were then used as a basis of comparison with findings on birds with apparent clinical abnormalities (the birds were either oiled, emaciated, extensively infested with endoparasites, had external injuries or organic abnormalities).Species?specific differences

Christiane Averbeck

1992-01-01

303

The efficacy of the colour?ringing system used for herring gulls Larus argentatus and lesser black?backed gulls Larus fuscus in Bristol 1980–1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details of the colour?ringing scheme used for nestlings of the Herring and Lesser Black?backed Gulls which breed on rooftops in Bristol are presented. Mean recovery rates of 61.0% and 55.1% respectively have been achieved, showing that the information return on birds after fledging is significantly higher than that achieved by the use of metal rings alone or by using standard

Peter Rock

1999-01-01

304

Immunological and reproductive health assessment in herring gulls and black-crowned night herons in the Hudson-Raritan Estuary.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown inexplicable declines in breeding waterbirds within western New York/New Jersey Harbor between 1996 and 2002 and elevated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs. The present study assessed associations between immune function, prefledgling survival, and selected organochlorine compounds and metals in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in lower New York Harbor during 2003. In pipping gull embryos, lymphoid cells were counted in the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (sites of T and B lymphocyte maturation, respectively). The phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin response assessed T cell function in gull and heron chicks. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured in vitro in adult and prefledgling gulls. Reference data came from the Great Lakes and Bay of Fundy. Survival of prefledgling gulls was poor, with only 0.68 and 0.5 chicks per nest surviving to three and four weeks after hatch, respectively. Developing lymphoid cells were reduced 51% in the thymus and 42% in the bursa of gull embryos from New York Harbor. In vitro lymphocyte assays demonstrated reduced spontaneous proliferation, reduced T cell mitogen-induced proliferation, and increased B cell mitogen-induced proliferation in gull chicks from New York Harbor. The PHA skin response was suppressed 70 to 80% in gull and heron chicks. Strong negative correlations (r?=?-0.95 to -0.98) between the PHA response and dioxins and PCBs in gull livers was strong evidence suggesting that these chemicals contribute significantly to immunosuppression in New York Harbor waterbirds. PMID:23212976

Grasman, Keith A; Echols, Kathy R; May, Thomas M; Peterman, Paul H; Gale, Robert W; Orazio, Carl E

2013-03-01

305

[Study of protein metabolism of herring gulls (Larus argentatus Pontop.) infected by trematode Himasthla larina (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)].  

PubMed

The values and dynamics of some indices of protein metabolism were studied in herring gulls Larus argentatus infected with trematode Himasthla larina in natural populations and in experiment. These indices were compared in infected and uninfected birds. Trematode infection considerably affected host protein metabolism irrespective of the age; however, the changes were more pronounced in nestlings. Increased concentration of gamma-globulins, modified albumin, and circulating immune complexes was observed in plasma of infected herring gulls. The experiments demonstrated the most significant changes in protein metabolism of herring gulls 8-11 days after infection with trematode H. larina. PMID:18038623

Kuklina, M M; Kuklin, V V

2007-01-01

306

Proximate and Ultimate Causation of Egg Size and the "Third-Chick Disadvantage" in the Western Gull  

E-print Network

significant difference in size occurred between first- and second-laid eggs. This implies that increased costs of territorial defense led to a change in energy partitioning among eggs. In the Her- ring Gull (Larus argentatus) a reduction in nest density... of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) induced by reduction in size and density of the colony. J. Anim. Ecol. 51: 739-756. COULTERß M. C. 1977. Growth, mortality, and the third-chick disadvantage in the Western Gull, Larus occidentalis. Unpublished Ph...

Pierotti, Raymond; Bellrose, Cheryl A.

1986-04-01

307

Heavy metal and selenium levels in Franklin's Gull ( Larus pipixcan ) parents and their eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, selenium, and manganese concentrations were measured in the breast feathers of 25 pairs of Franklin's Gulls (Larus pipixcan) and in their eggs from a breeding colony at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge in Northwestern Minnesota. Metal concentrations in eggs represent metals sequestered in the egg by females at the time of egg formation; while metal concentrations in

J. Burger; M. Gochfeld

1996-01-01

308

Increased Reproductive Effort with Age in the California Gull (Larus californicus).  

PubMed

Comparisons of reproductive behaviors of three age classes of California gulls demonstrate that reproductive effort increases with age in this seabird. These findings contradict the assumption that increased reproductive success with age results from increased experience and social status and demonstrate that selection for increased reproductive effort can occur in long-lived species. PMID:17752279

Pugesek, B H

1981-05-15

309

Determinants of local recruitment in a growing colony of Audouin's gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Local recruitment of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii Payraudeau) was studied between 1988 and 1997 at the Ebro Delta colony (north-western Mediterranean). Since its establishment in 1981, the colony has dramatically grown to include, in 1997, 65% of the total world population. Several hypotheses were tested, involving the eÄects of a badger predatory event in 1994, and sex, age

Daniel Oro; Roger Pradel

2000-01-01

310

The relationship between parental age and reproductive effort in the California Gull ( Larus californicus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproductive effort was compared among California gulls ranging in age from 3 to 18 years old. Results indicated that reproductive effort increased with parental age. Older parents (11–18 years old) invested more in foraging effort and in defense of offspring than did younger parents (<10 years old), and did so over a greater period of time. Increases with age in

Bruce H. Pugesek

1983-01-01

311

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine

Garth Herring; Joshua T. Ackerman

2011-01-01

312

Age-specific survivorship in relation to clutch size and fledging success in California gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a natural population of California gulls (Larus californicus) demonstrated that increasing reproductive effort with age was associated with reduced survivorship. Number of offspring fledged but not clutch size was inversely related to adult survivorhip indicating that reproductively induced mortality resulted from the cumulative effects of the entire breeding season. Agerelated increases in fledging success were correlated with increased

Bruce H. Pugesek

1987-01-01

313

Parental effort in the California gull: tests of parent-offspring conflict theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parental effort was studied among knownaged California gulls (Larus californicus) with a brood size of two. Results supported three of Triver's predictions from parent-offspring conflict theory. First, the amount of time parents withheld food from offspring increased with increasing offspring age. Second, older parents were less likely than younger parents to withhold food from offspring throughout the period of parental

Bruce H. Pugesek

1990-01-01

314

Increased Reproductive Effort with Age in the California Gull (Larus californicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of reproductive behaviors of three age classes of California gulls demonstrate that reproductive effort increases with age in this seabird. These findings contradict the assumption that increased reproductive success with age results from increased experience and social status and demonstrate that selection for increased reproductive effort can occur in long-lived species.

Bruce H. Pugesek

1981-01-01

315

Offspring growth in the California gull: reproductive effort and parental experience hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of adult feeding and foraging behaviour in the California gull, Larus californicus, were related to the growth of their offspring. Offspring showed significantly higher growth when average feeding interval, a measure of the time interval between feedings, and feeding latency following foraging decreased. The amount of time parents foraged was positively related to offspring growth and negatively correlated with

Bruce H. Pugesek

1995-01-01

316

Induced minisatellite germline mutations in herring gulls ( Larus argentatus) living near steel mills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite widespread industrial release of genotoxic contaminants, little is understood of their role in inducing germline mutations in natural populations. We used multilocus DNA fingerprinting to quantify germline minisatellite mutations in families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in three nesting categories: (a) near cities with large steel mills operating coking ovens; (b) near cities without steel mills; and (c) in

Carole L Yauk; Glen A Fox; Brian E McCarry; James S Quinn

2000-01-01

317

Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines

Craig E. Hebert; Keith A. Hobson; J. Laird Shutt

2000-01-01

318

Organochlorines and heavy metals in Herring Gull ( Larus argentatus ) eggs and chicks from the same clutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier paper the authors investigated the intraclutch variability in levels of toxic pollutants and compared this contamination with that of the female Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) after production of the clutch in question. In the present study, they examine the concentrations of contaminants in chicks as compared with one egg of the same clutch. Such studies are important

Peter H. Becker; Hans Sperveslage

1989-01-01

319

effects of varying temporal exposure to lead on behavioral development in herring gull ( Larus argentatus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In humans and other animals, lead exposure in infants and young animals affects anatomic, physiologic, behavioral, and intellectual development. Yet it is largely unknown whether the effects occur gradually or are more pronounced if exposure occurs at particular stages. In this article we examine the effects of temporal differences in lead exposure on early behavioral development in herring gulls (Larus

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1995-01-01

320

Studies on a colony of colour-ringed Herring Gulls Larus argentatus: I. Adult survival rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colour-ringed Herring Gulls breeding in a small colony in NE England were used to estimate the average annual adult survival rates of males and females in 6 successive years. Although the female survival rate was higher than that of the males in most years, the difference was not significant. The average annual survival rate for both sexes combined was 91.7%,

J. C. Coulson; J. Butterfield

1986-01-01

321

Interpreting temporal trends in Great Lakes organochlorine levels: Results from the herring gull surveillance program  

SciTech Connect

The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the utility of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in Great Lakes contaminant levels. Organochlorine concentrations in herring gull eggs decreased significantly in the 1970s and early 1980s as a result of control measures. Since the mid-1980s, however, concentrations of many compounds have been relatively constant. In addition, periodic fluctuations in egg contaminant concentrations hamper the ability to interpret more recent temporal trends in organochlorine levels. To evaluate the progress towards achieving the virtual elimination of organochlorines from the Great Lakes the authors must improve their understanding of the factors which regulate organochlorine bioaccumulation. This is particularly important for those species which have been selected as key indicators of ecosystem contamination, such as the herring gull. The goal of this paper is to examine some of the factors which may be responsible for the temporal fluctuations in herring gull egg contaminant concentrations. The regulation of contaminant bioavailability and transfer by changes in weather patterns and food web dynamics will be examined.

Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.; Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre; Weseloh, D.V. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

322

Notes on the Standard Body Measurements of Two Populations of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 yr many papers concerned with the circumpolar distribution and systematics of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) have been published (e.g. Vouss 1959), with particular reference being paid to northwestern European populations by Barth, who summarized his work in 1975. While large numbers of specimens from Europe have been examined the number from North America has tended

WILLIAM THRELFALL; DAVID D. JEWER

323

Reduced availability of refuse and breeding output in a herring gull (Larus argentatus) colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reproductive performance of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in an old stable colony in SW Finland. Over the period 1993-1997, the colony decreased, and the garbage dumps the birds may have utilised have all closed. This had an effect on the breeding performance of the colony when comparing the year prior to the closing of the last garbage

Mikael Kilpi; Markus Öst

324

Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

2000-05-01

325

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWN-AGE RING-BILLED GULL EMBRYOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes growth and development of Ring-billed Gull (Larus deelawarensis) embryos. It provides a basis for estimating the age of eggs at previously unvisited colonies. The data also supply a way to determine, within a colony, the location of early and later nesting pairs by comparing, during the same sampling time, relative ages of eggs located in different parts

JOHN P. RYDER; LYNN SOMPPI

326

RECRUITMENT AT A BLACK-BILLED GULL COLONY: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INFORMATION CENTER HYPOTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which a flock leader advertises its departure from a colony and recruits flock mates is an important issue of the Information Center hypothesis. At a colony of Black-billed Gulls (Larus bulleri), I found that attractive calls were given by some leaders, that leaders called more often than followers, and that calling leaders recruited followers more often than

ROGER M. EVANS

327

Monitoring organochlorine pollution in Audouin's Gull eggs: the relevance of sampling procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of PCBs, DDT and HCB were determined in 56 eggs belonging to 26 complete clutches of Audouin's Gull (Larus audouinii) breeding in the Ebro Delta (Northeast Spain). DDT levels were comparable to those found in other areas of the region, while those of PCBs were far more variable being more site dependent. Variability in pollutant load was analysed for

D. Pastor; L. Jover; X. Ruiz; J. Albaigés

1995-01-01

328

Age-dependent changes in plasma biochemistry of yellow-legged gulls ( Larus cachinnans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of avian plasma chemistry is providing useful reference values for the management of endangered and game species, supporting veterinarians in their diagnostics, and also bringing to light relevant physiological adaptations during periods of food-shortage. Age is an important source of variability for plasma chemistry. Here I report plasma chemistry of yellow-legged gulls Larus cachinnans from different ages, between

Carlos Alonso-Alvarez

2005-01-01

329

Occurrence and Population Densities of Yeast Species in the Digestive Tracts of Gulls and Terns  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY From the intestinal tracts of 37 out of 69 birds belonging to four species of gulls (Larus fuscus, L. genei, L. argentatus, L. ridibundus) and three species of terns (Sterna sandvicensis, S. hirundo, S. rninuta) 62 yeast isolates belonging to 16 species were obtained. The occurrences of individual yeast species were (yo of positive birds in brackets): Saccharomyces cerevisiae

S. KAWAKITA; N. VAN UDEN

1965-01-01

330

Riding the tide: intriguing observations of gulls resting at sea during breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus were followed during the breeding season using a high-resolution GPS tracking system. Little is known about the foraging movements of these birds and what they do when they are away from the colony. The study revealed intriguing yet infrequent behavioural patterns showing that birds would sit on the sea surface drifting passively with the

J. Shamoun-Baranes; W. Bouten; C. J. Camphuysen; E. Baaij

2011-01-01

331

Aspects of the biology of the common gull larus canus from remains left by predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 224 adult Common Gulls from west Scotland was used to obtain biometric and moult data. 222 of these were dead; about 50% had been killed by North American Mink and 39% by raptors, usually Peregrines. In 71 males and 65 females the sex was identified by inspection of the gonads; these birds were used to show significant

J. C. A. Craik

1997-01-01

332

Long-Term Studies of Common Gulls (Larus Canus) in Estonia: Responses to Environmental Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of Common Gulls has been studied since 1962, making the analysis of longterm changes in the population and the impact of the changing environment possible. Due to the fixed clutch size, the reproductive lifespan and survival of offspring from hatching to maturity, both affected mainly by winter severity, are the prime creators of the variation in lifetime reproductive

Kalev Rattiste; Urmas Tartes

2005-01-01

333

Comparative susceptibility of waterfowl and gulls to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild avian species in the Orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shorebirds) have traditionally been considered the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and morbidity or mortality is rarely associated with AIV infection in these hosts. However, ...

334

Epidemiology of Influenza A Virus among Black-headed Gulls, the Netherlands, 2006–2010  

PubMed Central

We sampled 7,511 black-headed gulls for influenza virus in the Netherlands during 2006–2010 and found that subtypes H13 and H16 caused annual epidemics in fledglings on colony sites. Our findings validate targeted surveillance of wild waterbirds and clarify underlying factors for influenza virus emergence in other species. PMID:24377955

Verhagen, Josanne H.; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Kasemir, Giny; Lutterop, Date; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.

2014-01-01

335

Deconstructing myths on large gulls and their impact on threatened sympatric waterbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to increasing population trends and facultative predatory habits, large gulls have been identified as significant agents of change in the alteration of many ecological communities. Often, they are perceived as negatively impacting the population trends of most sympatric waterbirds. Consequently, culling programs have been implemented to remove adults, chicks and eggs intensively. Here, we review the interactions recorded in

D. Oro; A. Martínez-Abraín

2007-01-01

336

Distribution Patterns Predict Individual Specialization in the Diet of Dolphin Gulls  

PubMed Central

Many animals show some degree of individual specialization in foraging strategies and diet. This has profound ecological and evolutionary implications. For example, populations containing diverse individual foraging strategies will respond in different ways to changes in the environment, thus affecting the capacity of the populations to adapt to environmental changes and to diversify. However, patterns of individual specialization have been examined in few species. Likewise it is usually unknown whether specialization is maintained over time, because examining the temporal scale at which specialization occurs can prove difficult in the field. In the present study, we analyzed individual specialization in foraging in Dolphin Gulls Leucophaeus scoresbii, a scavenger endemic to the southernmost coasts of South America. We used GPS position logging and stable isotope analyses (SIA) to investigate individual specialization in feeding strategies and their persistence over time. The analysis of GPS data indicated two major foraging strategies in Dolphin Gulls from New I. (Falkland Is./Islas Malvinas). Tagged individuals repeatedly attended either a site with mussel beds or seabird and seal colonies during 5 to 7 days of tracking. Females foraging at mussel beds were heavier than those foraging at seabird colonies. Nitrogen isotope ratios (?15N) of Dolphin Gull blood cells clustered in two groups, showing that individuals were consistent in their preferred foraging strategies over a period of at least several weeks. The results of the SIA as well as the foraging patterns recorded revealed a high degree of specialization for particular feeding sites and diets by individual Dolphin Gulls. Individual differences in foraging behavior were not related to sex. Specialization in Dolphin Gulls may be favored by the advantages of learning and memorizing optimal feeding locations and behaviors. Specialized individuals may reduce search and handling time and thus, optimize their energy gain and/or minimize time spent foraging. PMID:23844073

Masello, Juan F.; Wikelski, Martin; Voigt, Christian C.; Quillfeldt, Petra

2013-01-01

337

Living on the Edge: Demography of the Slender-Billed Gull in the Western Mediterranean  

PubMed Central

Small and peripheral populations are typically vulnerable to local extinction processes but important for the metapopulation dynamics of species. The Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei) is a long-lived species breeding in unstable ephemeral coastal habitats. Their Western Mediterranean populations are relatively small and represent the edge of their global geographical distribution. At a local scale, using long-term data (14 years) on annual breeding success and capture-resights of marked individuals, we estimated and compared the vital rates and evaluated the connectivity of two Spanish populations (Ebro Delta and Doñana) varying in their local environmental conditions. At a metapopulation scale, we analyzed 22 years of data on breeding numbers to predict their future prospects by means of population demographic models. Local survival and breeding success of gulls from the Ebro Delta was lower than those from Doñana, which is likely the result of higher permanent emigration and/or winter mortality in the former. Gulls from the Ebro Delta wintered mostly in Mediterranean areas whereas those from Doñana did so in Atlantic coasts, where food availability is higher. Whereas adult local survival was constant, juvenile local survival showed temporal parallel variations between colonies, probably related to natal dispersal to other breeding colonies. Our results suggested that dispersal was higher at the Ebro Delta and gulls emigrating from their natal colonies settled preferentially in close patches. We found large fluctuations in breeding numbers among local populations probably related to the fact that the Slender-billed gull is a species adapted to unstable and unpredictable habitats with high abilities to disperse between suitable patches depending on environmental stochastic conditions during breeding. PMID:24664115

Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Afán, Isabel; Ramírez, Francisco; Doxa, Aggeliki; Bertolero, Albert; Gutiérrez-Expósito, Carlos; Forero, Manuela G.; Oro, Daniel

2014-01-01

338

The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

2014-11-01

339

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) continued environmental investigation of the subsurface Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447. The PSA is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the US' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device deep underground in granitic rock to determine whether seismic waves produced by an underground nuclear test could be differentiated from seismic waves produced by a naturally occurring earthquake. The test was a joint effort conducted by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) in October 1963 (AEC, 1964).

DOE/NV

1998-11-01

340

Comparing wave shoaling methods used in large-scale coastal evolution modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of methods are available to simulate wave propagation from the deep ocean to the surf zone. They range from simple and computationally fast (e.g. linear wave theory applied to shore-parallel bathymetric contours) to complicated and computationally intense (e.g., Delft's ';Simulating WAves Nearshore', or SWAN, model applied to complex bathymetry). Despite their differences, the goal of each method is the same with respect to coastline evolution modeling: to link offshore waves with rates of (and gradients in) alongshore sediment transport. Choosing a shoaling technique for modeling coastline evolution should be partly informed by the spatial and temporal scales of the model, as well as the model's intent (is it simulating a specific coastline, or exploring generic coastline dynamics?). However, the particular advantages and disadvantages of each technique, and how the advantages/disadvantages vary over different model spatial and temporal scales, are not always clear. We present a wave shoaling model that simultaneously computes breaking wave heights and angles using three increasingly complex wave shoaling routines: the most basic approach assuming shore-parallel bathymetric contours, a wave ray tracing method that includes wave energy convergence and divergence and non-shore-parallel contours, and a spectral wave model (SWAN). Initial results show reasonable agreement between wave models along a flat shoreline for small (1 m) wave heights, low wave angles (0 to 10 degrees), and simple bathymetry. But, as wave heights and angles increase, bathymetry becomes more variable, and the shoreline shape becomes sinuous, the model results begin to diverge. This causes different gradients in alongshore sediment transport between model runs employing different shoaling techniques and, therefore, different coastline behavior. Because SWAN does not approximate wave breaking (which drives alongshore sediment transport) we use a routine to extract grid cells from SWAN output where wave height is approximately one-half of the water depth (a standard wave breaking threshold). The goal of this modeling exercise is to understand under what conditions a simple wave model is sufficient for simulating coastline evolution, and when using a more complex shoaling routine can optimize a coastline model. The Coastline Evolution Model (CEM; Ashton and Murray, 2006) is used to show how different shoaling routines affect modeled coastline behavior. The CEM currently includes the most basic wave shoaling approach to simulate cape and spit formation. We will instead couple it to SWAN, using the insight from the comprehensive wave model (above) to guide its application. This will allow waves transformed over complex bathymetry, such as cape-associated shoals and ridges, to be input for the CEM so that large-scale coastline behavior can be addressed in less idealized environments. Ashton, A., and Murray, A.B., 2006, High-angle wave instability and emergent shoreline shapes: 1. Modeling of sand waves, flying spits, and capes: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 111, p. F04011, doi:10.1029/2005JF000422.

Limber, P. W.; Adams, P. N.; Murray, A.

2013-12-01

341

Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction  

PubMed Central

Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?34S with negative ?33S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A.

2011-01-01

342

Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction.  

PubMed

Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?(34)S with negative ?(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A

2011-01-01

343

Feeding efficiency of planktivores under disturbance, the effect of water colour, predation threat and shoal composition.  

PubMed

The consumption of phantom midge Chaoborus flavicans larvae by Perca fluviatilis showed clear response to water colour, predation threat and shoal composition with the most significant negative effect for water colour. In the case of Rutilus rutilus, no similar combined response was observed and the total prey consumption was significantly negatively affected by predation threat of Esox lucius. The results suggest that differences in life-history traits may result in disparity in species-specific responses to disturbance. PMID:24689675

Nurminen, L; Estlander, S; Olin, M; Lehtonen, H

2014-04-01

344

On wind-wave-current interactions during the Shoaling Waves Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of wind-wave-current interaction during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX). Surface current fields off Duck, North Carolina, were measured by a high-frequency Ocean Surface Current Radar (OSCR). Wind, wind stress, and directional wave data were obtained from several Air Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoys moored in the OSCR scanning domain. At several times during the

Fei W. Zhang; William M. Drennan; Brian K. Haus; Hans C. Graber

2009-01-01

345

Accuracy of bathymetry and current retrievals from airborne optical time-series imaging of shoaling waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequence of visual images of shoaling ocean waves collected from an aircraft can be used to retrieve maps of water depth and\\/or currents. The data are mapped to rectilinear coordinates on the mean ocean surface, and three-dimensional (3D) cubes of these data (typically 2-min dwell and 256 m × 256 m square area) are Fourier transformed to provide the

Cynthia C. Piotrowski; John P. Dugan

2002-01-01

346

Pilot study of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and wastewater in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Wildlife may be an important reservoir of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. In this pilot study, the prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli cultured from wild herring gull (Larus argentatus) feces and human wastewater at Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, was compared. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion with seven antimicrobial agents. A high proportion of antimicrobial agent-resistant E. coli isolates (59.2%) were detected in wastewater samples compared with a lower prevalence of 17.5% in gull feces. In addition, there was a large proportion of isolates with intermediate susceptibility (93.0%) in gull feces. Although similar resistance patterns and shared resistance genes suggest possible wastewater contamination of the local environment, the relatively low frequency of resistance and high prevalence of intermediate susceptibility detected in E. coli cultured from gull feces depict a complex model of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli strains of wildlife origin. PMID:22946391

Alroy, Karen; Ellis, Julie C

2011-03-01

347

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

2005-12-16

348

Recombinant albumin and transthyretin transport proteins from two gull species and human: chlorinated and brominated contaminant binding and thyroid hormones.  

PubMed

Environmentally relevant concentrations of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardant congeners and their hydroxylated (OH) and methoxylated (MeO) analogues that can perturb thyroid hormone-dependent processes were comparatively examined with respect to competitive binding with thyroxine (T(4)) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) thyroid hormones (THs) on recombinant human and gull albumin and transthyretin transport proteins. The liver tissue was from glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from Norway and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the Great Lakes of North America. We isolated, cloned, sequenced, purified, and expressed the cDNA (cDNA) of albumin from liver of herring and glaucous gull. Albumin amino acid sequences were identical for both gull species. Concentration-dependent, competitive binding curves were generated for T(4) and T(3) binding alone and for selected substrates using gull and human recombinant albumin (recALB). Human recALB had high preference for T(4) relative to T(3), whereas it was reversed for gull recALB. Binding assays with recALB and recTTR gull proteins showed that relative to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromoDE (BDE-47) and 2,2',3,4',5,5',6-heptaCB (CB-187) and the MeO-substituted (4-MeO-CB187 and 6-MeO-BDE47) analogues, 4-OH-CB187, 6-OH-BDE47, and 4'-OH-BDE49 had the greatest binding affinity and potency, and that competitive binding was greater for T(3) relative to T(4). These results indicate that xenobiotic ligand binding to human ALB or TTR cannot be used as a surrogate for gull binding interactions. The combination of TH-like brominated diphenyl ether backbone (relative to the chlorinated biphenyl backbone), and the presence of OH-group produced a more effective competitive ligand on human and gull recALB and recTTR relative to both T(3) and T(4). This suggests the possibility that OH-substituted organohalogen contaminants may be an exposure concern to the thyroid system in free-ranging gulls as well as for humans. PMID:20039755

Ucán-Marin, Francisco; Arukwe, Augustine; Mortensen, Anne S; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Letcher, Robert J

2010-01-01

349

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

1996-10-01

350

Shoaling of internal solitary waves at the ASIAEX site in the South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates westward propagating internal bores and solitary waves trains which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the South China Sea. Numerical simulations of this shoaling process at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process on a variety of environmental factors. The model parameters of the Luzon Strait region are tuned to yield solitary wave trains similar to those observed in the ASIAEX experiments. The sensitivity to details of the stratification, bathymetry, deep water depth and initial wave amplitude as well as the effects of dissipation in a bottom boundary layer are considered. On the slope secondary solitary waves are generated which propagate towards the shelf. In the vicinity of the shelf break a leading square-shaped wave of depression forms which is followed by a series of square-shaped waves of elevation in inviscid simulation. The presence of a bottom boundary significantly modifies the waves trailing the leading depression resulting in the emergence of many more smaller waves. Comparison against the measurements of Orr and Mignerey (2003) are conducted.

Warn-Varnas, A.; Lamb, K.

2012-04-01

351

Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals  

PubMed Central

Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty ‘control’ patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

Atton, N.; Galef, B. J.; Hoppitt, W.; Webster, M. M.; Laland, K. N.

2014-01-01

352

Sarcocystis sp. from the herring gull ( Larus argentatus ) identity to Sarcocystis wobeseri based on cyst morphology and DNA results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having studied 11 herring gulls (Larus argentatus) Sarcocystis cysts were found in neck and leg muscles of 4 birds. One type of sarcocysts (cyst type I) that have a thin (?1.0 ?m), smooth,\\u000a or slightly wavy cyst wall without clearly visible protrusions and small (6.0–8.0 ?m) lancet- or banana-shaped cystozoites\\u000a was identified by the light microscopy. Sarcocysts extracted from one herring gull

Petras Prakas; Liuda Kutkien?; Aniolas Sruoga; Dalius Butkauskas

353

Geographic Variation in Hematological Variables in Adult and Prefledgling Herring Gulls ( Larus argentatus ) and Possible Associations with Organochlorine Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The objectives of this study were (1) to describe variation in hematological values found in adult and prefledgling herring\\u000a gulls (Larus argentatus) over a large geographic area, (2) to investigate relationships between hematological variables and other physiological indices,\\u000a and (3) to examine potential associations between exposure to organochlorines and hematological variables. During 1991–93,\\u000a we sampled 160 breeding adult gulls

K. A. Grasman; P. F. Scanlon; G. A. Fox

2000-01-01

354

Health of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in relation to breeding location in the early 1990s. I. Biochemical measures.  

PubMed

Tissues of 156 adult herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were sampled in the early 1990s from 11 colonies throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes and 2 reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Gulls from 1 or more Great Lakes differed from Lake Winnipeg or the Bay of Fundy for 17 of 19 clinical biochemical measures, whereas the freshwater and marine reference sites differed in only 3. Three differed with sex. There was little evidence to suggest that these differences reflect genotypic differences. Plasma thyroxine, albumin, calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, triglyceride, bile acids, total protein, uric acid, and urea nitrogen concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity were lower in gulls from one or more Great Lakes than for gulls from one or both reference sites, while those for globulins and glucose were higher. Highly carboxylated porphyrins accumulated in the livers of Great Lakes gulls and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was induced. There was resistance to PCB/TCDD-induced EROD induction in the Lake Erie colonies. Gulls from five colonies were unable to obtain adequate food to maintain average body condition. Body condition was associated with seven biochemical measures. Colonies in designated Areas of Concern as well as those with high liver polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations both differed for 50% of the biochemical measures. Associations between biochemical measures and delta15N-derived trophic position and/or contaminant levels in tissues suggest the effects may be toxicopathic responses. Associations were most frequently with PCBs and dioxin-like contaminants. The health of adult herring gulls varied with breeding location and "lifestyle" in the early 1990s, and Great Lakes gulls suffered from chemical and nutritional stressors that modulated physiological processes and endocrine function. PMID:17687730

Fox, Glen A; Jeffrey, Deborah A; Williams, Kim S; Kennedy, Sean W; Grasman, Keith A

2007-09-01

355

Distributions of the subspecies of Lesser Black?backed Gulls Larus fuscus in sub?Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule The wintering area of the nominate subspecies of Lesser Black?backed Gull Larus fuscus fuscus is from Ethiopia across Uganda and the Congo basin to the Atlantic, while L. f. intermedius and L. f. graellsii winter in westernmost Africa.Aims To clarify the wintering distributions of the subspecies of Lesser Black?backed Gulls.Methods We compiled, mapped, and analysed available data on ring

Henrik Kylin; Henk Bouwman; Michel Louette

2011-01-01

356

Metal Levels in Feathers of Cormorants, Flamingos and Gulls from the Coast of Namibia in Southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, selemium,and tin concentrations were measured in the feathers of Capecormorant (Phalacrocorax capensis), Hartlaub’s gull(Larus hartlaubii), kelp gull (Larus dominicanus), andlesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) from the coast ofNamibia in southern Africa. Metal concentrations in feathers represent the concentrations in the blood supply at the time offeather formation. Cape Cormorants are piscivores; kelp gullsare primarily piscivores;

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

2001-01-01

357

Abundance and characteristics of the recreational water quality indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in gull faeces  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aims: To evaluate the numbers and selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in gull faeces at representative Great Lakes swimming beaches in the United States. Methods and Results: E. coli and enterococci were enumerated in gull faeces by membrane filtration. E. coli genotypes (rep-PCR genomic profiles) and E. coli (Vitek?? GNI+) and enterococci (API?? rapid ID 32 Strep and resistance to streptomycin, gentamicin, vancomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin) phenotypes were determined for isolates obtained from gull faeces both early and late in the swimming season. Identical E. coli genotypes were obtained only from single gull faecal samples but most faecal samples yielded more than one genotype (median of eight genotypes for samples with 10 isolates). E. coli isolates from the same site that clustered at ???85% similarity were from the same sampling date and shared phenotypic characteristics, and at this similarity level there was population overlap between the two geographically isolated beach sites. Enterococcus API?? profiles varied with sampling date. Gull enterococci displayed wide variation in antibiotic resistance patterns, and high-level resistance to some antibiotics. Conclusions: Gull faeces could be a major contributor of E. coli (105-109 CFU g-1) and enterococci (104-108 CFU g-1) to Great Lakes recreational waters. E. coli and enterococci in gull faeces are highly variable with respect to their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and may exhibit temporal or geographic trends in these features. Significance and Impact of the Study: The high degree of variation in genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of E. coli or enterococci populations within gull hosts will require extensive sampling for adequate characterization, and will influence methods that use these characteristics to determine faecal contamination sources for recreational waters.

Fogarty, L.R.; Haack, S.K.; Wolcott, M.J.; Whitman, R.L.

2003-01-01

358

Developing a statistical model for locating bedrock shoal habitat to aid in understanding naturally occurring denitrification processes in a mid-sized river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents results from an ongoing study of denitrification in bedrock shoals of the Cahaba River of Alabama. Previous research suggests that plant macrophytes and their associated microbial communities located in bedrock shoals help reduce DIN concentrations by 50% in the Cahaba River. As a first step in creating a geo-ecological model capable of predicting the location of denitrification 'hotspots,' we have developed a statistical model capable of predicting the location of bedrock shoals. We characterized rock integrity (GSI - Geological Strength Index), streamflow relative to bedrock orientation (perpendicularity index), and channel confinement (channel width/valley width) at shoaled (n=100) and non-shoaled (n=70) sections of the Cahaba River using aerial photography, field data, and geologic maps in a GIS environment. We used these data to develop a binary logistic regression model, which suggested that the two most significant variables for predicting shoal occurrence were rock integrity (p=.000) and perpendicularity index (p=.001). The model correctly predicted whether a location was shoaled or not 92% of the time. When used to predict the status of non-studied sites (i.e., not a part of the model's derivation) the model performed reliably, giving all shoaled locations > 90% probability of being shoaled and assigning < 35% probability of being shoaled to all non-shoaled sites. Though only a first-step in a long process, these results are crucial to creating a geo-ecological model to identify denitrification 'hotspots,' as bedrock-shoals provide a spatially explicit feature through which spatial variability of plant macrophytes and their associated microbial communities can be modeled at a variety of spatial scales.

Davis, L.; Bishop, J. A.

2013-12-01

359

17?-Ethinyl estradiol affects anxiety and shoaling behavior in adult male zebra fish (Danio rerio).  

PubMed

Ethinyl estradiol is a potent endocrine disrupting compound in fish and ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. In this study, we exposed adult zebra fish (Danio rerio) males to 0, 5 or 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol/L for 14 days and analyzed the effects on non-reproductive behavior. Effects of treatment of the exposed males was shown by vitellogenin induction, while brain aromatase (CYP 19B) activity was not significantly altered. Both concentrations of Ethinyl estradiol significantly altered the behavior in the Novel tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to stay at the bottom when introduced into an unfamiliar environment. The effects were, however, opposite for the two concentrations. Fish that were exposed to 5 ng/L had longer latency before upswim, fewer transitions to the upper half and shorter total time spent in the upper half compared with control fish, while 25 ng Ethinyl estradiol treatment resulted in shorter latency and more and longer visits to the upper half. The swimming activity of 25, but not 5 ng-exposed fish were slightly but significantly reduced, and these fish tended to spend a lot of time at the surface. We also studied the shoaling behavior as the tendency to leave a shoal of littermates trapped behind a Plexiglas barrier at one end of the test tank. The fish treated with Ethinyl estradiol had significantly longer latency before leaving shoal mates and left the shoal fewer times. Further, the fish exposed to 5 ng/L also spent significantly less time away from shoal than control fish. Fertilization frequency was higher in males exposed to 5 ng/L Ethinyl estradiol when compared with control males, while no spawning was observed after treatment with 25 ng/L. The testes from both treatment groups contained a normal distribution of spermatogenesis stages, and no abnormality in testis morphology could be observed. In conclusion, we have observed effects on two behaviors not related to reproduction in zebra fish males after treatment with Ethinyl estradiol, adding to the ecological consequences of contamination of aquatic environments with estrogenic substances. PMID:21684240

Reyhanian, Nasim; Volkova, Kristina; Hallgren, Stefan; Bollner, Tomas; Olsson, Per-Erik; Olsén, Håkan; Hällström, Inger Porsch

2011-09-01

360

Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel  

SciTech Connect

Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the high age 1+ entrainment rate at Desdemona Shoals in June 2002 unusual, or would it be observed again under similar conditions? PNNL and USACE personnel directly measured crab entrainment by the USACE hopper dredge Essayons working in Desdemona Shoals in June 2006. In addition to quantifying crab entrainment of all age classes, bottom salinity was directly measured in as many samples as possible, so that the relationship between crab entrainment and salinity could be further evaluated. All 2006 data were collected and analyzed in a manner consistent with the previous entrainment studies (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003, 2005).

Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

2006-09-30

361

Christmas Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING read with much interest the description of Christmas Island by Captain Aldrich and Mr. Lister, I have endeavoured to interpret some of the facts there given in the light of my own examination of similar islands in the Western Pacific. As pointed out by Captain Wharton, the complete casing of an island, 1200 feet in height, with coral rock

H. B. Guppy

1888-01-01

362

Mercury Concentration in 3 Species of Gulls, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, From South Coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the mercury concentrations of liver, breast feathers and tail feathers in three species of Gull; Black-headed\\u000a Gull (Larus ridibundus), Common Gull (Larus canus) and Little Gull (Larus minutus) from the South coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran were assayed. Mercury accumulation in liver, breast feathers and tail feathers\\u000a of species were 1.69–3.16, 2.88–7.18 and 2.09–5.66 mg\\/kg, respectively.

Fateme Rajaei; Abbas Esmaili Sari; Nader Bahramifar; Seyed Mahmoud Ghasempouri

2010-01-01

363

Bathing birds bias beta-diversity: frequent dispersal by gulls homogenizes fauna in a rock-pool metacommunity.  

PubMed

Metacommunity theory generally predicts that regional dispersal of organisms among local habitat patches should influence spatial patterns of species diversity. In particular, increased dispersal rates are generally expected to increase local (alpha) diversity, yet homogenize local communities across the region (decreasing beta-diversity), resulting in no change in regional (gamma) diversity. Although the effect of dispersal on alpha-diversity has garnered much experimental attention, the influence of dispersal rates on diversity at larger spatial scales (beta and gamma) is poorly understood. Furthermore, these theoretical predictions are not well tested in the field, where other environmental factors (e.g., habitat size, resource density) likely also influence species diversity. Here, we used a system of freshwater rock pools on Appledore Island, Maine, USA, to test the effects of dispersal rate on species diversity in metacommunities. The pools exist in clusters (metacommunities) that experience different levels of dispersal imposed by gulls (Larus spp.), which we show to be frequent passive dispersers of rock-pool invertebrates. Although previous research has suggested that waterbirds may disperse aquatic invertebrates, our study is the first to quantify the rate at which such dispersal occurs and determine its effects on species diversity. In accordance with theory, we found that metacommunities experiencing higher dispersal rates had significantly more homogeneous local communities (reduced beta-diversity) and that gamma-diversity was not influenced by dispersal rate. Contrary to theoretical predictions, however, alpha-diversity in the rock pools was not significantly influenced by dispersal. Rather, local diversity was significantly positively related to local habitat size, and both alpha- and gamma-diversity were influenced by the physicochemical environment of the pools. These results provide an important field test of metacommunity theory, highlighting how local and regional factors interact to drive patterns of species diversity in metacommunities, and demonstrate that waterbirds are indeed important dispersal vectors for aquatic invertebrates. PMID:25039219

Simonis, Joseph L; Ellis, Julie C

2014-06-01

364

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels.  

PubMed

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers. PMID:21596043

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T

2011-08-01

365

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

366

Occurrence of acanthocephalans in largemouth bass and smallmouth bass (Centrarchidae) from Gull Lake, Michigan.  

PubMed

A total of 65 largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and 27 smallmouth bass, M. dolomieu, collected in April-September 2000 and April-July 2001 from Gull Lake, Michigan, were examined for acanthocephalans. Leptorhynchoides thecatus and Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus infected all the bass examined. Leptorhynchoides thecatus had the highest mean intensity (258.2 +/- 185.4 in 2000 and 145.0 +/- 61.0 in 2001) of the species infecting smallmouth bass. Although N. cylindratus had higher mean intensities (42.1 +/- 37.9 in 2000 and 68.9 +/- 70.5 in 2001) than did L. thecatus in largemouth bass, the values were not significantly different between bass species. The prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance of Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli in the bass species were below the values for the other acanthocephalan species. Leptorhynchoides thecatus and N. cylindratus are the most abundant intestinal helminths in bass from Gull Lake. PMID:15270122

Muzzall, Patrick M; Gillilland, Merritt G

2004-06-01

367

Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of food availability and nest predation on several life history traits such as adult survival, dispersal, and\\u000a reproductive performance were assessed in an Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) colony during the period 1992–1997. The amounts of fish discarded from trawlers were used as a measure of food availability,\\u000a and a trawling moratorium which partially overlapped with the breeding season

Daniel Oro; Roger Pradel; Jean-Dominique Lebreton

1999-01-01

368

Concentration and Effects of Selenium in California Gulls Breeding on the Great Salt Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined selenium concentrations in California gulls (Larus californicus) nesting on the Great Salt Lake, Utah during 2006 and 2007. During 2006, the mean selenium concentration (+ SE) in adult blood samples was 18.1 + 1.5 µg\\/g (n = 35) on a dry weight basis, 8.1 + 0.4 in adult liver samples (n = 36), and 3.0 + 0.10 µg\\/g

Michael R. Conover; John Luft

369

Effects of lead on growth in young herring gulls (Larus argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One?day?old herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were injected intraperitoneally with lead nitrate solution (0.1 or 0.2 mg Pb\\/g) or sterile saline to examine differences in growth rates. Despite the low levels of lead exposure, by d 8 there were significant differences in growth rates as a function of treatment. There were also, by d 8, significant differences in bill length, tarsus

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1988-01-01

370

Toxicity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its aromatic fractions to nestling herring gulls  

SciTech Connect

The physiological effects of a single ingested dose of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBC), its aromatic fractions, and PBC/Clorexit emulsion were studied in nestling herring gulls (Larus argentatus). The data showed that the high-molecular-weight aromatic compounds were responsible for retardation of growth and increases in adrenal and nasal gland weight. Little difference was found between PBC and the PBC/Clorexit emulsion although the latter did have a somewhat more marked effect on plasma sodium levels.

Peakall, D.B. (Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada); Hallett, D.J.; Bend, J.R.; Foureman, G.L.

1982-02-01

371

Tissue levels of lead in experimentally exposed herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two?day?old herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks were injected with either 0.1 or 0.2 mg lead\\/g body mass and were sacrificed at 45 d of age. Control birds were injected with sterile water. We examined lead and cadmium levels in blood, kidney, liver, muscle, salt glands, breast feathers, and bone. In control birds lead levels were highest in bone, feathers, salt

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

1990-01-01

372

Individual differences in nest defense in the colonial breeding Black-tailed Gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Often in colonial seabirds, all colony members are believed to defend against nest predators and experience equal nest predation\\u000a risk. However, the variation of defense behavior among members and its reproductive consequences are largely unknown. We investigated\\u000a (1) individual variation in the nest defense of breeding Black-tailed Gulls Larus crassirostris against a natural egg predator, the Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos

Kentaro Kazama; Yutaka Watanuki

2010-01-01

373

How costly is clutch formation in the Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Audouin's Gull's breeding season at the Ebro Delta in 1993, 24 fresh eggs from eight three-egg clutches (modal clutch-size) were collected at the peak of the laying period. Eggs were processed to obtain formalin-fixed yolks, which were halved and stained using the potassium dichromate method. Digitized images of the yolks were examined to assess the daily rates of

Xavier Ruiz; Lluis Jover; Vittorio Pedrocchi; Daniel Oro; Jacob Gonzalez-Soli' s

2000-01-01

374

Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria. Methods To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Results Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ?1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ?1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources. Conclusion We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota. PMID:24427451

Stedt, Johan; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Hernandez, Jorge; McMahon, Barry J.; Hasan, Badrul; Olsen, Björn; Drobni, Mirva; Waldenström, Jonas

2014-01-01

375

Rapidly increasing methyl mercury in endangered ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) feathers over a 130 year record.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) is increasing in marine food webs, especially at high latitudes. The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of methyl mercury (MeHg) has serious effects on wildlife, and is most evident in apex predators. The MeHg body burden in birds is the balance of ingestion and excretion, and MeHg in feathers is an effective indicator of overall MeHg burden. Ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea), which consume ice-associated prey and scavenge marine mammal carcasses, have the highest egg Hg concentrations of any Arctic bird, and the species has declined by more than 80% since the 1980s in Canada. We used feathers from museum specimens from the Canadian Arctic and western Greenland to assess whether exposure to MeHg by ivory gulls increased from 1877 to 2007. Based on constant feather stable-isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N) values, there was no significant change in ivory gulls' diet over this period, but feather MeHg concentrations increased 45× (from 0.09 to 4.11 µg g(-1) in adults). This dramatic change in the absence of a dietary shift is clear evidence of the impact of anthropogenic Hg on this high-latitude threatened species. Bioavailable Hg is expected to increase in the Arctic, raising concern for continued population declines in high-latitude species that are far from sources of environmental contaminants. PMID:25788594

Bond, Alexander L; Hobson, Keith A; Branfireun, Brian A

2015-04-22

376

Relationships of metals between feathers and diets of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) chicks.  

PubMed

In birds, metal contaminants in feathers are influenced by prey concentrations and environmental quality. In Black-tailed Gull chicks, Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations were strongly correlated between feathers and stomach contents. Between feathers and livers, Pb, Zn and Fe concentrations were significantly correlated. Cd concentrations were within the range of other seabirds and within the background level for bird feathers (<2 ?g/g dw). At the lighthouse, eight chicks exceeded the background for Pb level in feathers (>4 ?g/g dw). Elevated Pb concentrations might be attributed to ingestion of paint-based chips and natural (soil and rocks) sources. There is evidence that the analyzed birds suffered from acute toxicity, including high levels of pecking from conspecifics and increased mortality from elevated Pb levels. It seems likely that these birds might experience negative health effects from this increased Pb exposure. As a result, Black-tailed Gull chick feathers are a very useful monitoring tool for assessing Cd, Pb and Cu contamination. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu were all within the acceptable range of normal concentrations for seabird species including gulls and may be maintained by normal homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:24414165

Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

2014-03-01

377

Isolation, cryopreservation, and mitogenesis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from chickens (Gallus domesticus) and wild herring gulls (Larus argentatus).  

PubMed

Monitoring the toxicity of environmental contaminants on the physiologic function of wild birds often includes measures of immune function. The purpose of this study was to apply methods of isolation, cryopreservation, and cell culture of chicken lymphocytes to blood samples from herring gulls, which are a sentinel species for biomonitoring studies in the Great Lakes and northern North America. Slow-spin centrifugation and density gradient isolation of lymphocytes were compared using chicken blood. Significant thrombocyte contamination of density gradient isolated samples (40% to 77% thrombocytes) led to the use of slow-spin centrifugation (2% thrombocytes) for blood from herring gulls. Cryopreserved blood samples were collected from adult and prefledgling herring gulls at sites of low environmental contamination around the Great Lakes and the Bay of Fundy between 1999 and 2002. Cryopreservation decreased the viability of lymphocytes from wild birds, but a high proportion of samples yielded enough live lymphocytes to assess function in culture. Cryopreserved lymphocytes from herring gulls proliferated in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin-A, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), PHA plus PMA, and lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Weber and Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI) 1640 media were compared for culture of lymphocytes. Weber medium better supported chicken B-lymphocyte proliferation than RPMI 1640 and supported chicken T-lymphocyte proliferation of a similar magnitude as RPMI. Proliferation responses for lymphocytes from prefledgling herring gulls were stronger in Weber medium than RPMI medium, especially for PHA, for which there was no stimulation in RPMI. Proliferation responses of lymphocytes from adult herring gulls were up to twofold greater than that for prefledgling herring gulls. The magnitudes of proliferation responses were similar to that for chicken lymphocytes. These methods have subsequently proven useful in ecotoxicology studies that involve species in remote locations. PMID:15719198

Lavoie, E T; Grasman, K A

2005-05-01

378

Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

Erwin, R.M.; Brinker, D.F.; Watts, B.D.; Costanzo, G.R.; Morton, D.D.

2011-01-01

379

Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

380

The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.

1995-01-01

381

On the behaviour in an alarm-evoking, constant stimulus situation in a „natural experiment“.—Observations on a pair of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) breeding on the same islet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The behaviour of a pair of herring gulls nesting in a colony of common terns and the reactions of the terns towards the gulls have been observed for eleven days. The terns were found to be highly aggressive to an adult gull flying in an area of about 150×150 meters around the colony and this reaction did not decrease

Olof Rydén

1970-01-01

382

Stratigraphic Heterogeneity of a Holocene Ooid Tidal Sand Shoal: Lily Bank, Bahamas  

E-print Network

sub-bottom profiles (Fig. 3) were acquired on a series of strike- and dip-oriented lines with ~200 m spacing using Edge-Tech X-Star full-spectrum digital subbottom profiler (500 Hz – 12 kHz) mounted on a small catamaran. This wideband FM high... or bump underneath the shoal itself (cf. Purdy, 1961). The overlying reflector, Reflector A, ranges in depths from 8.0 m to 9.3 m. Regionally and locally, this horizon mimics the trends observed in Reflector Z; Reflector A is shallowest in the west...

Sparks, Andrew

2011-08-31

383

Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

2004-03-01

384

Discovery of probably Tunguska meteorites at the bottom of Khushmo river's shoal  

E-print Network

The author describes some stones which he found at the bottom of Khushmo River's shoal during 1988 expedition into the region of the Tunguska impact (1908). Photos of stones are presented. Three stones have traces of melting and the author consider these stones as probable Tunguska meteorites. Some arguments are presented to confirm author's opinion. Results of investigation of prospect holes in peat-bogs are briefly described too. New data concerning heat impulse of the Tunguska impact are obtained. There is the assumption that some meteorites which are formed during comet impact looks like stony or glass-like thin plates with traces of melting.

Zlobin, Andrei E

2013-01-01

385

Discovery of probably Tunguska meteorites at the bottom of Khushmo river's shoal  

E-print Network

The author describes some stones which he found at the bottom of Khushmo River's shoal during 1988 expedition into the region of the Tunguska impact (1908). Photos of stones are presented. Three stones have traces of melting and the author consider these stones as probable Tunguska meteorites. Some arguments are presented to confirm author's opinion. Results of investigation of prospect holes in peat-bogs are briefly described too. New data concerning heat impulse of the Tunguska impact are obtained. There is the assumption that some meteorites which are formed during comet impact looks like stony or glass-like thin plates with traces of melting.

Andrei E. Zlobin

2013-04-29

386

Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

Ahmed Hassan

2004-09-01

387

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

388

Earth Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth Island Web site is maintained by the Earth Island Institute (EII). EII also publishes the Earth Island Journal quarterly. The current issue of the journal can be browsed by section or by subject, and offers current news, world reports, and feature articles on a wide range of environmental subject areas. Earth Island also undertakes a number of projects that are discussed at the site as well as in a portion of the journal. The entire site is searchable. This is an excellent site for those interested in keeping up on environmental issues.

389

Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland.  

PubMed

Diseases due to the degeneration of the liver and various other internal organs were the major cause of the exceedingly high chick mortality in lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) in the central Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, during 1991-1993. The same symptoms were found in chicks of common gulls (Larus canus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the same focal area, although at a much lower frequency. We found disproportionately high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver relative to leg muscle in lesser black-backed chicks compared with common gull and herring gull chicks. The causality between PCB residues and chick diseases remains unknown. No signs of chick edema disease or abnormal frequency of embryonic deaths, commonly associated with organochlorines in biota, were found. It is concluded that studies made in a very small geographical area may not give a good correlation between dose and effect due to an even greater variation in tolerance. Another explanation is that the diseases may not have been PCB-induced. PMID:15093008

Hario, M; Himberg, K; Hollmén, T; Rudbäck, E

2000-01-01

390

Annual Variation in Numbers of Breeding California Gulls at Mono Lake, California: the Importance of Natal Philopatry and Local and Regional Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California Gull (Larus californicus) breeding colony at Mono Lake, California, is the second largest in the world, but its size can fluctuate annually by .45%. We examined six groups of factors that potentially could affect the numbers of pairs nesting each year, including availability of nesting habitat, numbers of potential breeding gulls, environmental conditions along the Pacific coast in

Peter H. Wrege; W. David Shuford; David W. Winkler; Robert Jellison

2006-01-01

391

Will free-ranging predators stop depredating untreated eggs in pulegone-scented gull nests after exposure to pulegone-injected eggs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulegone is a chemical derived from plants of the mint family (Mentha spp.) that irritates the trigeminal nerve of mammals when inhaled and causes gastric distress when consumed. We examined whether free-ranging mammalian predators would stop depredating untreated eggs in gulls’ nests that smelled of pulegone. Prior to the nesting period, we distributed pulegone-injected eggs around a gull colony so

Michael R. Conover; Kimberly S. Lyons

2005-01-01

392

Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring gull Larus argentatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring gulls collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring gull. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in

R. Lemmetyinen; P. Rantamaki; A. Karlin

1982-01-01

393

A QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THYROID HISTOPATHOLOGY OF HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS) FROM THE GREAT LAKES AND A HYPOTHESIS ON THE CAUSAL ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroids from 213 adult herring gulls of both sexes were collected during incubation from nine colonies in the Great Lakes basin of eastern North America between 1974 and 1983, and from a single colony in the Bay of Fundy from 1977 to 1982. Qualitative and quantitative histological assessment revealed that the majority of the gulls from the Great Lakes basin

R. D. Moccia; A. Fox; A. Britton

1986-01-01

394

hllGRATOKY NONGAME IllHDS OF IMANAGEMENT CONCERN IN T I E NOXTIIEhST 1 GULL-BILLED TERN  

E-print Network

hllGRATOKY NONGAME IllHDS OF IMANAGEMENT CONCERN IN T I E NOXTIIEhST 1 GULL-BILLED TERN Sterna). It is similar in size to other medium-sized terns, but lacks the long tail streamers of common terns (Sterna hirundo), Forster's terns (S.forsten), and roseate terns (S. dougallii) terns. The gull-billed tern

Duffy, David Cameron

395

Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, April 1994 to March 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, were collected from April 1994 to March 1995. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace elements, nutrients, methylene blue active substances, and oil and grease. Field measurements were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity. Additional data collected include vertical water profiles of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen collected at 3.3-foot intervals for Gull and Silver Lakes; chlorophyll-a and -b concentrations and Secchi depth for Gull and Silver Lakes; sediment interstitial- water nutrient concentrations in cores from Gull Lake; and lake surface and volume of Gull and Silver Lakes.

Wang, Bronwen; Rockwell, G.L.; Blodgett, J.C.

1995-01-01

396

Nocturnal Fish Use of New Jersey Marsh Creek and Adjacent Bay Shoal Habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Night-time sampling with gill nets in the Little Egg Harbor estuary revealed a component of the estuarine fish fauna, hitherto poorly documented, which is comprised of relatively large size classes of juvenile and adult life history stages. The fishes Mustelus canis, Pomatomus saltatrix, Paralichthys dentatus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Prionotus evolansand Alosa mediocriswere the most abundant fishes captured. These observations suggest that Mid-Atlantic Bight estuaries are important nurseries for juvenile stages beyond the first year, as well as for the young of the year (YOY). Although many other studies emphasise the importance of estuaries as nurseries for YOY stages, the importance of estuaries to later juvenile life stages has been largely overlooked. This component of estuarine fish fauna has been poorly represented in previous North American studies because of probable gear avoidance, and because most studies are conducted primarily during the day. The authors hypothesise that these later juvenile stages are likely to be important estuarine faunal components in other geographic regions, as well as in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. A descriptive comparison of catches between ebb and flood tide stages, and between bay shoal and tidal marsh creek habitats, suggests that later juvenile and adult stages of several species make tidal migrations into shallow estuarine habitats, such as shoals and marsh creeks, during the night hours.

Rountree, R. A.; Able, K. W.

1997-06-01

397

March 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site (Data Validation Package)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2011. Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Two extra tritium samples were collected from well HC-4, one sample (HC-4-400) was collected at about 1/3 of the purge volume (135 gallons), the second sample (HC-4-400) was collected at 2/3 of purge volume (270 gallons). These additional samples were collected prior to completing the well purging process to evaluate the effects well purging has on the analytical results. Samples were not collected from locations HC-3 and HC-8 at the direction of the S.M. Stoller Corporation site lead.

None

2011-07-01

398

MATURATION OF SHOALING IN TWO ZEBRAFISH STRAINS: A BEHAVIORAL AND NEUROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS  

PubMed Central

Abnormal social behavior is a hallmark of several human neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders for which appropriate treatment is lacking. The zebrafish has been proposed as a tool with which these disorders may be modeled and their mechanisms analyzed. A potential starting point of such analyses is the identification of genetic differences between distinct zebrafish strains. Here we compare AB and TU, two well established zebrafish strains, and characterize the developmental trajectories of their shoaling (social) behavior and of the levels of dopamine, serotonin as well as a metabolite of each of these neurotransmitters, DOPAC and 5HIAA from whole brain extracts. Using a novel video-tracking software application, we demonstrate significant strain dependent changes in the maturation of shoaling between day 7 and day 87 post-fertilization. Using high-precision liquid chromatography specifically adapted to zebrafish, we uncover a significant age x strain interaction in dopamine and DOPAC that apparently correlates well with the behavioral differences found between the strains. We also report on strain differences in serotonin and 5HIAA. We discuss possible mechanistic analyses that will address causality and conclude that zebrafish will be a useful tool with which the neurobiological and genetic bases of social behavior may be analyzed in vertebrates. PMID:23518435

Mahabir, Samantha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

2013-01-01

399

Health of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in relation to breeding location in the early 1990s. II. Cellular and histopathological measures.  

PubMed

Organosomatic indices, hematological indicators of stress, and histopathological lesions were quantified for over 150 incubating herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled in 11 colonies throughout the Great Lakes and reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Of 21 parameters assessed, significantly more differed between Great Lakes colonies and reference colonies than between the two reference colonies. Relative adrenal, kidney, and liver masses of gulls from some Great Lakes colonies were reduced and thyroid masses increased relative to gulls from reference colonies. Foci of cellular atypia were observed in the hepatocytes of two Great Lakes gulls. Chronic periportal hepatitis, lipogranulomas and vacuolation of hepatocytes, and chronic granulomatous interstitial nephritis were more prevalent or severe in gulls from Great Lakes colonies and were associated with contaminants. The kidneys of gulls from the three most contaminated locations were damaged and functionally compromised. Interstitial nephritis was likely the most functionally significant histopathological lesion. Portal-tract fibrosis, granulomatous hepatitis, and kidney tubule dilation/obstruction and splenic enlargement were more prevalent or severe at reference sites and were associated with blood-borne parasites. Amyloid deposits were observed in the spleen, kidneys, or liver of nearly half of the gulls. Associations between the prevalence or severity of lesions and contaminant levels in gull tissues or the trophic level of their diet suggest some lesions are toxicopathic. Associations were most frequently found with planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and lead. The stress response, as measured by the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, was attenuated in gulls from Areas of Concern and associated with decreased adrenal mass. Our findings suggest that adult Great Lakes gulls suffered from chronic exposure to chemical stressors in the early 1990s sufficient to modulate endocrine function and physiological processes and induce structural changes in tissues. PMID:17687731

Fox, Glen A; Grasman, Keith A; Campbell, G Douglas

2007-09-01

400

Satellite Tracking on the Flyways of Brown-Headed Gulls and Their Potential Role in the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus  

PubMed Central

Brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus), winter visitors of Thailand, were tracked by satellite telemetry during 2008–2011 for investigating their roles in the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread. Eight gulls negative for influenza virus infection were marked with solar-powered satellite platform transmitters at Bang Poo study site in Samut Prakarn province, Thailand; their movements were monitored by the Argos satellite tracking system, and locations were mapped. Five gulls completed their migratory cycles, which spanned 7 countries (China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) affected by the HPAI H5N1 virus. Gulls migrated from their breeding grounds in China to stay overwinter in Thailand and Cambodia; while Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam were the places of stopovers during migration. Gulls traveled an average distance of about 2400 km between Thailand and China and spent 1–2 weeks on migration. Although AI surveillance among gulls was conducted at the study site, no AI virus was isolated and no H5N1 viral genome or specific antibody was detected in the 75 gulls tested, but 6.6% of blood samples were positive for pan-influenza A antibody. No AI outbreaks were reported in areas along flyways of gulls in Thailand during the study period. Distance and duration of migration, tolerability of the captive gulls to survive the HPAI H5N1 virus challenge and days at viral shedding after the virus challenging suggested that the Brown-headed gull could be a potential species for AI spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries, the epicenter of H5N1 AI outbreak. PMID:23209623

Ratanakorn, Parntep; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Eiamampai, Krairat; Farmer, Adrian H.; Webster, Robert G.; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Pothieng, Duangrat; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

2012-01-01

401

Satellite tracking on the flyways of brown-headed gulls and their potential role in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus.  

PubMed

Brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus), winter visitors of Thailand, were tracked by satellite telemetry during 2008-2011 for investigating their roles in the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread. Eight gulls negative for influenza virus infection were marked with solar-powered satellite platform transmitters at Bang Poo study site in Samut Prakarn province, Thailand; their movements were monitored by the Argos satellite tracking system, and locations were mapped. Five gulls completed their migratory cycles, which spanned 7 countries (China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) affected by the HPAI H5N1 virus. Gulls migrated from their breeding grounds in China to stay overwinter in Thailand and Cambodia; while Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam were the places of stopovers during migration. Gulls traveled an average distance of about 2400 km between Thailand and China and spent 1-2 weeks on migration. Although AI surveillance among gulls was conducted at the study site, no AI virus was isolated and no H5N1 viral genome or specific antibody was detected in the 75 gulls tested, but 6.6% of blood samples were positive for pan-influenza A antibody. No AI outbreaks were reported in areas along flyways of gulls in Thailand during the study period. Distance and duration of migration, tolerability of the captive gulls to survive the HPAI H5N1 virus challenge and days at viral shedding after the virus challenging suggested that the Brown-headed gull could be a potential species for AI spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries, the epicenter of H5N1 AI outbreak. PMID:23209623

Ratanakorn, Parntep; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Eiamampai, Krairat; Farmer, Adrian H; Webster, Robert G; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Pothieng, Duangrat; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

2012-01-01

402

Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska.  

PubMed

Gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. Glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven Alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic contaminants. Concentrations ranged from below detection limits to 322 ng g(-1) wet mass in one egg for 4,4'-DDE and differed among the samples collected in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering and Chukchi Seas. Chick growth and survival rates may be affected by the contaminant levels found in the eggs, but the eggs should be safe for human consumption if they are eaten in small quantities. STAMP plans to continue collecting and banking gull eggs for future real-time and retrospective analyses. PMID:19110348

Vander Pol, Stacy S; Becker, Paul R; Ellisor, Michael B; Moors, Amanda J; Pugh, Rebecca S; Roseneau, David G

2009-03-01

403

Susceptibility of North American Ducks and Gulls to H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses  

PubMed Central

Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been associated with deaths in numerous wild avian species throughout Eurasia. We assessed the clinical response and extent and duration of viral shedding in 5 species of North American ducks and laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) after intranasal challenge with 2 Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Birds were challenged at ?10 to 16 weeks of age, consistent with temporal peaks in virus prevalence and fall migration. All species were infected, but only wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and laughing gulls exhibited illness or died. Viral titers were higher in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs. Duration of viral shedding (1–10 days) increased with severity of clinical disease. Both the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and agar gel precipitin (AGP) tests were able to detect postinoculation antibodies in surviving wood ducks and laughing gulls; the HI test was more sensitive than the AGP in the remaining 4 species PMID:17283615

Stallknecht, David E.; Beck, Joan R.; Suarez, David L.; Swayne, David E.

2006-01-01

404

[On a helminthofauna of seabirds of the Archangelskaya Bay ( Northern island of Novaya Zemlya)].  

PubMed

In the Archangelskaya Bay (North Island of Novaya Zemlya), 25 specimens of sea birds have been collected: 5 kittiwakes, 5 murres, 5 little auks, 4 common eiders, 4 purple sandpipers, and 2 glaucous gulls. Following numbers of helminth parasite species have been recovered in this material: trematodes--1, cestodes--5, proboscic worms--2, and nematodes--2 species. The description of morphological characters of Anomotaenia micracantha micracantha (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from the kittiwake is given. The dependence of helminth fauna composition on the character of bird's feeding is traced. Differences in the infection with parasites of gulls and auks habitating the Archangelskaya Bay are revealed. Data on a life cycle of parasites found and ways of their circulation in the ecosystems of the Barents Sea are given. As for Triaenophorus erostris, which was indicated for gulls of the Barents Sea by Belopolskaya (1952), Galkin e. a. (1994) and Galaktionov e. a. (1997) as a common parasite, it was absent both in the material collected by Markov (1941) and in our material. PMID:11548578

Kuklin, V V

2001-01-01

405

Genetic markers for rapid PCR-based identification of gull, Canada goose, duck, and chicken fecal contamination in water.  

PubMed

Avian feces contaminate waterways but contribute fewer human pathogens than human sources. Rapid identification and quantification of avian contamination would therefore be useful to prevent overestimation of human health risk. We used subtractive hybridization of PCR-amplified gull fecal 16S RNA genes to identify avian-specific fecal rRNA gene sequences. The subtracters were rRNA genes amplified from human, dog, cat, cow, and pig feces. Recovered sequences were related to Enterobacteriaceae (47%), Helicobacter (26%), Catellicoccus (11%), Fusobacterium (11%), and Campylobacter (5%). Three PCR assays, designated GFB, GFC, and GFD, were based on recovered sequence fragments. Quantitative PCR assays for GFC and GFD were developed using SYBR green. GFC detected down to 0.1 mg gull feces/100 ml (corresponding to 2 gull enterococci most probable number [MPN]/100 ml). GFD detected down to 0.1 mg chicken feces/100 ml (corresponding to 13 Escherichia coli MPN/100 ml). GFB and GFC were 97% and 94% specific to gulls, respectively. GFC cross-reacted with 35% of sheep samples but occurred at about 100,000 times lower concentrations in sheep. GFD was 100% avian specific and occurred in gulls, geese, chickens, and ducks. In the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, the three markers differed in their geographic distributions but were found across the range tested. These assays detected four important bird groups contributing to fecal contamination of waterways: gulls, geese, ducks, and chickens. Marker distributions across North America and in New Zealand suggest that they will have broad applicability in other parts of the world as well. PMID:22081573

Green, Hyatt C; Dick, Linda K; Gilpin, Brent; Samadpour, Mansour; Field, Katharine G

2012-01-01

406

Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact  

PubMed Central

Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes. PMID:24105440

Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A

2014-01-01

407

Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene.  

PubMed

We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (F(ST)= 0.129), introns (?(ST)= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?(ST)= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed. PMID:22833800

Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J

2012-06-01

408

Effects of lead on learning in herring gulls: an avian wildlife model for neurobehavioral deficits.  

PubMed

Lead is one of the most common metals in contaminated ecosystems. Although lead poisoning and mortality have long been known, little is known of the neurobehavioral effects produced by low levels of lead in wild animals. Herein we describe the neurobehavioral effects of lead on learning using herring gulls (Larus argentatus) as a model. Doses used in these studies conducted in the laboratory and in nature were sufficient to produce lead concentrations in feathers that were equivalent to those found in gulls living in the wild. The exposure consisted of a single intraperitoneal injection of 0 and 100mg/kg lead acetate on day 2; each experiment involved 20-30 chicks in a lead-exposed group, and 20-30 chicks in a control group. We examined walking, begging, feeding, behavioral thermoregulation, individual recognition, and treadmill learning. There were significant differences between control and lead-exposed gulls chicks on all testing days. Learning, as well as improvement of motor skills, was faster for control chicks than lead-injected chicks for the thermoregulatory test, individual recognition, and behavior on a treadmill. Lead-injected chicks improved faster than control chicks only for walking scores. In a test where chicks were shown food under a cup, and then tested with three overturned cups, lead-exposed chicks did not show much improvement, whereas control chicks quickly learned where the food was located. The greatest differences in improvement were on the behavioral thermoregulation test, where lead-exposed chicks showed no improvement with age. Overall, this series of experiments indicated that for tasks involving learning, the disparity in accuracy and ability remained regardless of the number of days since exposure-control chicks sometimes improved and learned quicker than did lead-exposed chicks. PMID:15941590

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2005-08-01

409

Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed. PMID:22833800

Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J

2012-01-01

410

Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger t estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed.

Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Bell, Douglas A.; Dove, Carla J.

2012-01-01

411

Oolite shoals of the St. Louis Formation, Gray County, Kansas: A guide for oil and gas exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geologists familiar with the Mississippian St. Louis formation in southeastern Kansas have interpreted the productive oolite shoals of the St. Louis in the region as representing linear ramp barrier-type deposits which developed southwest of, and parallel to, a southwesterly trending shoreline. However, examination of available cores and interpretation of electric-log data from the Ingalls field in Gray County suggest that

P. G. Sutterllin; K. D. Parham

1991-01-01

412

Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient-forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

Shi, F.; Hanes, D. M.; Kirby, J. T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

2011-04-01

413

The Role of Phytoplankton from the Ob River in Biological Productivity of the Ob–Yenisei Shoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program of investigations on the taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of planktonic microalgae in the Gulf of Ob and the southern Kara Sea in different seasons was carried out. Throughout the observation period, from July to October, high values of phytoplankton biomass were recorded in the Gulf of Ob and adjacent areas of the Ob–Yenisei shoal. This is evidence

P. R. Makarevich; V. V. Larionov; N. V. Druzhkov; E. I. Druzhkova

2003-01-01

414

Anim. Behav., 1996, 52, 885890 Mixed-species shoals and the maintenance of a sexualasexual mating system  

E-print Network

shoals with P. mexicana, and in Texas with P. latipinna. Poecilia mexicana is known to be the maternal of the sexual­asexual complex of sailfin mollies, Poecilia latipinna, and Amazon mollies, P. formosa, depends Behaviour The Amazon molly, Poecilia formosa (Girard 1859), is an all-female species of fish of hybrid

Ryan, Michael J.

415

Parallel evolution leads to reduced shoaling behavior in two cave dwelling populations of Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoaling behavior protects fishes from avian and piscine predation, but at the same time costs of group living arise due to several mechanisms including increased food competition. Most cave fishes live in an environment in which avian and piscine predators are lacking, and cave environments are often characterized by low food availability, leading to increased food competition. Altogether, this should

2008-01-01

416

Vigilance and feeding behaviour in large feeding flocks of laughing gulls, Larus atricilla, on Delaware Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laughing gulls ( Larus atricilla) forage on horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs during May in Delaware Bay each year. They feed in dense flocks, and foraging rates vary with vigilance, bird density, number of steps and location in the flock, whereas time devoted to vigilance is explained by number of steps, density, location and feeding rates. The time devoted to vigilance decreases with increasing density, increasing foraging rates and decreasing aggression. Birds foraging on the edge of flocks take fewer pecks and more steps, and devote more time to vigilance than those in the intermediate or central parts of a flock.

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

1991-02-01

417

Nihoa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from the NOW-RAMP 2002 Expedition documents a research expedition to Nihoa Island. It showcases Nihoa's unique birds and plants, the threat posed by invading grasshoppers, and restoration efforts.

2007-08-09

418

Island Panoramic  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

419

Siberian Islands  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

2013-04-16

420

Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring gull Larus argentatus  

SciTech Connect

..sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring gulls collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring gull. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in newly hatched chicks but the levels were much lower (only 7-12 % in the herring gull) in chicks just before fledgling. The levels in young gulls remained low until the end of August at least. Therefore it is plausible that the high levels found in adult gulls are a consequence of their wintering in the southern Baltic. The levels of ..sigma..DDT and PCB residues were significantly lower in female arctic terns than in male terns. Differences between the sexes were small in the herring gull. Thus it is possible that the female of the arctic tern is able to release pollutants, especially PCB residues, more effectively into eggs than the female of the herring gull. The biochemical mechanisms involved are not clear but a possible explanation may be different lipoprotein structures in the eggs of the species.

Lemmetyinen, R.; Rantamaki, P.; Karlin, A.

1982-01-01

421

2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the PSA during fiscal year 2009.

None

2010-03-01

422

2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

None

2011-02-01

423

Groundwater Model Validation for the Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

Stoller has examined newly collected water level data in multiple wells at the Shoal site. On the basis of these data and information presented in the report, we are currently unable to confirm that the model is successfully validated. Most of our concerns regarding the model stem from two findings: (1) measured water level data do not provide clear evidence of a prevailing lateral flow direction; and (2) the groundwater flow system has been and continues to be in a transient state, which contrasts with assumed steady-state conditions in the model. The results of DRI's model validation efforts and observations made regarding water level behavior are discussed in the following sections. A summary of our conclusions and recommendations for a path forward are also provided in this letter report.

None

2008-05-19

424

Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

Hicks, D.W.; Onuf, C.P.; Tunnell, J.W.

1998-01-01

425

2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

None

2009-03-01

426

Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

Findlay, Rick

2006-01-01

427

Possible return of Acropora cervicornis at Pulaski Shoal, Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seabed classification is essential to assessing environmental associations and physical status in coral reef ecosystems. At Pulaski Shoal in Dry Tortugas National Park, Florida, nearly continuous underwater-image coverage was acquired in 15.5 hours in 2009 along 70.2 km of transect lines spanning ~0.2 km2. The Along-Track Reef-Imaging System (ATRIS), a boat-based, high-speed, digital imaging system, was used. ATRIS-derived benthic classes were merged with a QuickBird satellite image to create a habitat map that defines areas of senile coral reef, carbonate sand, seagrasses, and coral rubble. This atypical approach of starting with extensive, high-resolution in situ imagery and extrapolating between transect lines using satellite imagery leverages the strengths of each remote-sensing modality. The ATRIS images also captured the spatial distribution of two species once common on now-degraded Florida-Caribbean coral reefs: the stony staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis, a designated threatened species, and the long-spined urchin Diadema antillarum. This article documents the utility of ATRIS imagery for quantifying number and estimating age of A. cervicornis colonies (n = 400, age range, 5–11 y) since the severe hypothermic die-off in the Dry Tortugas in 1976–77. This study is also the first to document the largest number of new colonies of A. cervicornis tabulated in an area of the park where coral-monitoring stations maintained by the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute have not been established. The elevated numbers provide an updated baseline for tracking revival of this species at Pulaski Shoal.

Lidz, Barbara H.; Zawada, David G.

2013-01-01

428

The effects of channels and shoals on exchange between the Chesapeake Bay and the adjacent ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of bathymetric changes in determining the transport of water and salt in the lower Chesapeake Bay (LCB) was investigated using high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and conductivity-temperature-depth profiles. A cross-channel transect was repeated eight times during neap tides on October 6-7, 1993, which illustrated the lateral structure of the longitudinal and transverse flow fields and the intratidal variations in the flow structure across the LCB. Amplitude and phase of the M2 tidal component, as well as the mean flow velocity, were calculated using least squares fitting at every point of a uniform grid obtained from the ADCP data. The results differ from the classical two-layer pattern of estuarine circulation modified by Coriolis effects but are consistent with recent hydrographic observations. Semidiurnal flow was highest over the navigational channels, and lateral gradients were strongest in regions of sharp bathymetric changes. The phase lag of the semidiurnal flow also showed lateral and vertical gradients that represented advances at the bottom with respect to the surface and over the shoals in relation to the channels. The section of the water column measured indicated a mean outflow of 0.7×104 m3/s and a mean inflow of 1.3×104 m3/s. The apparent gain of water by the estuary during the period of observation can be explained by meteorologically forced net barotropic inflow. The depth-averaged mean longitudinal flow consisted of inflow in the navigational channels and outflow over the shoals. The mean transverse flow showed near-surface convergence over the channels. We propose a possible explanation for the observed flow and density structure as follows: the barotropic and baroclinic forcing interact with the bathymetry to extend the inflow from the bottom to the surface, thereby inducing a transverse circulation that yields near-surface convergence over the channels.

Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Lwiza, Kamazima M. M.

1995-09-01

429

Turbulence and mixing generated by internal waves shoaling on a barrier reef.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from an observational study of the turbulent bottom boundary layer on the outer Southeast Florida shelf in July and August 2005. ADCPs and ADVs deployed at 15 m on Conch Reef measured mean and turbulent velocities. Turbulence in the reef bottom boundary layer is highly variable in time and is modified by near bed flow, shear, and stratification driven by shoaling internal waves. In the absence of internal waves on the shelf, currents from 1 to 5 meters above the bed are well described by a logarithmic profile and turbulent dissipation measured 0.6 to 3.0 meters above the bed agrees with classic bottom boundary layer scaling. We examine turbulence in the bottom boundary layer during a typical internal wave event and show that internal waves can induce significant increases in near-bed flow speed, shear, dissipation, and turbulent scalar diffusivity, K?. Estimates of flux Richardson number, calculated directly from measurements of dissipation and buoyancy flux, support the dependence of Rf on Frt and on turbulent intensity, ?/?N2, relationships that have been previously shown in laboratory and numerical work. Results from this study suggest that for reef communities exposed to continental shelf and slope processes, internal waves may play an important role in mass transfer to benthic organisms. In addition to the episodic onshore transport of cool, subthermocline water masses, with elevated nutrient concentrations, we have shown that the bottom-intensified currents from shoaling internal waves can increase turbulent dissipation and mixing in the reef bottom boundary layer.

Davis, K. A.; Monismith, S. G.

2008-12-01

430

Speciation with gene flow in the large white-headed gulls: does selection counterbalance introgression?  

PubMed

We investigated the role of selection in generating and maintaining species distinctness in spite of ongoing gene flow, using two zones of secondary contact between large gull species in Europe (Larus argentatus and Larus cachinnans) and North America (Larus glaucescens and Larus occidentalis). We used the pattern of neutral genetic differentiation at nine microsatellite loci (F(ST)) as an indicator of expected changes under neutral processes and compared it with phenotypic differentiation (P(ST)) for a large number of traits (size, plumage melanism and coloration of bare parts). Even assuming very low heritability, interspecific divergence between L. glaucescens and L. occidentalis in plumage melanism and orbital ring colour clearly exceeded neutral differentiation. Similarly, melanism of the central primaries was highly divergent between L. argentatus and L. cachinnans. Such divergence is unlikely to have arisen randomly and is therefore attributed to spatially varying selection. Variation in plumage melanism in both transects agrees with Gloger's rule, which suggests that latitude (and associated sun and humidity gradients) could be the selective pressure shaping differentiation in plumage melanism. We suggest that strong species differentiation in orbital ring colour results from sexual selection. We conclude that these large gull species, along with other recently diverged species that hybridize after coming into secondary contact, may differ only in restricted regions of the genome that are undergoing strong disruptive selection because of their phenotypic effects. PMID:18813326

Gay, L; Neubauer, G; Zagalska-Neubauer, M; Pons, J-M; Bell, D A; Crochet, P-A

2009-02-01

431

The influence of fasting on blood and plasma composition of herring gulls (Larus argentatus).  

PubMed

Populations of scavenging seabird species in the North Sea may fluctuate with an artificial food source: the availability of fishery waste. To document this impact, it is necessary to assess the birds' nutritional status during periods with decreased fishing activity. Reference data for this purpose was collected from 22 herring gulls investigated during laboratory fasting. After 6 d of food deprivation and body mass losses exceeding 15%, the first birds entered starvation phase 3. Comparatively, this is a rather weak fasting capacity. Plasma levels of total protein and thyroid hormones decreased and beta-hydroxybutyrate increased with fasting duration. The leucocyte proportions were shifted from lymphocytes to heterophils. After 3 d of refeeding, most of the fasting changes were reversed. Plasma enzyme activities increased and hematocrit, hemoglobin, and erythrocyte numbers decreased in both fasting and control birds, most likely as a result of experimental stress and repeated blood sampling. Glucose, cholesterol, monocytes, basophils, and glycosylated hemoglobin remained fairly constant. Triglycerides, free fatty acids, uric acid, and urea varied significantly, but changes were not as clearly a result of fasting. Therefore, total protein, beta-hydroxybutyrate, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and lymphocyte and heterophil percentages may be the most reliable indicators of the nutritional status and the condition of free-living herring gulls. PMID:10438680

Totzke, U; Fenske, M; Hüppop, O; Raabe, H; Schach, N

1999-01-01

432

DNA strand length and EROD activity in relation to two screening measures of genotoxic exposure in Great Lakes herring gulls.  

PubMed

We collected tissues from herring gulls (Larus argentatus) nesting within and outside of the Great Lakes basin. Genotoxin exposure was assessed as fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs) in bile and SOS Chromotest-inducing activity in muscle extracts. We determined whether these exposures were associated with decreased erythrocyte DNA strand length and/or induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. FACs were detected in all bile samples. Most muscle extracts produced a positive or marginal SOS response in the presence of S9. SOS induction potentials were strongly associated with dietary trophic level. The median molecular length of DNA isolated from erythrocytes for 14 of 17 adult and 10 of 11 prefledgling collections was reduced compared to the modal class for their respective age group suggesting widespread DNA damage. DNA damage was greatest in gulls from Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Median EROD activity in both adults and prefledglings from remote locations was significantly lower than that of gulls from the lower Great Lakes and was not associated with concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-like FACs. Our results indicate Great Lakes herring gulls were exposed to genotoxins and Ah-receptor activating agents in biologically significant concentrations in the early 1990s. These agents appear to be persistent bioaccumulative compounds and/or their metabolites. PMID:16220360

Fox, Glen A; White, Paul A; Trudeau, Suzanne; Theodorakis, Chris; Shutt, Laird J; Kennedy, Sean W; Fernie, Kim J

2005-07-01

433

The diet of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) during winter and early spring on the lower Great Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Great Lakes, the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) is a prominent member of the aquatic bird community, and has been used to monitor spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. To understand more fully contaminant loading outside the breeding season, we analysed the contents of 1298 freshly regurgitated pellets and 179 fresh faeces, collected in March and early April

P. J. Ewins; D. V. Weseloh; J. H. Groom; R. Z. Dobos; P. Mineau

1994-01-01

434

Electrical activity of the pectoral muscles during gliding and flapping flight in the herring gull ( Larus argentatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electromyographic recording from the pectoral muscles of the herring gull during flight showed that very little muscle activity is associated with gliding flight. However, the integrated gliding potentials could be increased very considerably by loading the bird. The muscle activity during gliding and flapping flight are in accordance with the known energy requirements for these 2 types of flight.

G. Goldspink; C. Mills; K. Schmidt-Nielsen

1978-01-01

435

A NEW BREEDING SITE FOR THE GULL-BILLED TERN (Gelochelidon nilotica) IN CENTRAL SINALOA, NORTHWESTERN MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t We discovered a new breeding site for the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in central Sinaloa, Mexico. We recorded the presence of this species in an abandoned salt pan at Bahía Ceuta since 2004. A nesting record was made in 2006, an adult incubating among several nest of Least Tern (Sternula antillarum). Our

Erick González-Medina; Miguel Guevara-Medina

2008-01-01

436

Mercury levels in Bonaparte's gulls ( Larus Philadelphia ) during autumn molt in the Quoddy region, New Brunswick, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

No significant between sex differences were detected in Hg concentrations in primary feathers, pectoral muscle, brain, liver, and kidney tissues of fall migrating juvenile and second-year Bonaparte's gulls (Larus Philadelphia) collected in the Quoddy region. Adults showed sexual differences only in the first 5 primary feathers, and in muscle, kidney and brain. Differences in Hg concentrations among age groups were

Birgit M. Braune; David E. Gaskin

1987-01-01

437

Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of a reassortant H13N8 influenza virus isolated from gulls in Mongolia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A double reassortant H13N8 influenza A virus was isolated from gulls in Mongolia. The basic virological characteristics were studied. Complete genome sequence analysis indicated the complicated evolutionary history. The PA gene belongs to classical Avian-like lineage and more likely originated fro...

438

Eggshell thinning and decreased concentrations of vitamin E are associated with contaminants in eggs of ivory gulls.  

PubMed

The ivory gull is a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminant exposure. High levels of contaminants have been reported in ivory gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. The present study investigated associations between high levels of contaminants (organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg)) and three response variables: eggshell thickness, retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E). Negative associations were found between levels of OCPs, PCBs and BFRs and eggshell thickness (p<0.021) and ?-tocopherol (p<0.023), but not with retinol (p>0.1). There were no associations between PFASs and mercury and the three response variables. Furthermore, the eggshell thickness was 7-17% thinner in the present study than in archived ivory gull eggs (?1930). In general, a thinning above 16 to 20% has been associated with a decline in bird populations, suggesting that contaminant-induced eggshell thinning may constitute a serious threat to ivory gull populations globally. PMID:22673175

Miljeteig, Cecilie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Strøm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Lie, Elisabeth; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

2012-08-01

439

Ross's Gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) Breeding in Greenland: A Review, with Special Emphasis on Records from 1979 to 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes breeding records of Ross's gull in Greenland with special emphasis on the period between 1979 and 2007. The review comprises both previously published records (including some published only in Danish) and unpublished reports and breeding records from 2004 and 2006. The majority of the Greenland breeding records fall into two geographically isolated areas that differ in habitat

CARSTEN EGEVANG; DAVID BOERTMANN

440

Relationships between heavy metal and metallothionein concentrations in lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus, and Cory's shearwater, Calonectris diomedea.  

PubMed

Metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, copper, and mercury concentrations were measured in adult lesser black-backed gulls, Larus fuscus; and metallothionein, cadmium, zinc, and copper concentrations were measured in fledgling Cory's shearwaters, Calonectris diomedea. In gulls, metallothionein was positively correlated with cadmium (kidney r = 0.83, liver r = 0.46), zinc (kidney r = 0.46, liver r = 0.37), and copper (kidney r = 0.28, liver r = 0.34). Mercury levels in lesser black-backed gulls showed no correlations with metallothionein or with any other metal. In shearwaters metallothionein was positively correlated with cadmium in the kidney (r = 0.41) but not in liver, zinc in kidney (r = 0.43) and liver (r = 0.52), and copper in kidney (r = 0.55) but not in liver. Cadmium levels were the most important factor determining tissue metallothionein concentrations in adult lesser black-backed gulls demonstrating the role of metallothionein in heavy metal detoxification. In fledgling Cory's shearwaters, the most important factor in determining metallothionein concentrations in kidney was copper concentrations, and in liver, zinc concentrations. During the latter phases of chick growth high levels of zinc are required for feather development, and at this time the binding of cadmium may be masked by the presence of a large amount of zinc- and copper-bound metallothionein. These results illustrate disparate roles of metallothionein, the levels of which will be in a state of flux both seasonally and annually. PMID:8854964

Stewart, F M; Furness, R W; Monteiro, L R

1996-03-01

441

Population biology of eyeflukes in fish from a large fluvial ecosystem: the importance of gulls and habitat characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius) were monitored for eyeflukes monthly at four sites in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, from spring through autumn in 1997 and 1998. In general, mean abundance of Diplostomum spp. in the lens of spottail shiners was highest at sites near large ring-billed gull ( Larus delawarensis) colonies and was higher in 1998 than in 1997. Population

D. J. Marcogliese; S. Compagna; E. Bergeron; J. D. McLaughlin

2001-01-01

442

Low frequency of extra-pair paternity in Common Gulls ( Larus canus ) as revealed by DNA fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the last decade, the mating systems of many bird species have been analysed using molecular genetic methods. Most of these studies were performed on Passeriformes while Non-Passeriformes were rarely investigated. To fill this gap, we analysed blood samples of 24 Common Gull (Larus canus) families from two Polish colonies using DNA fingerprinting. A total of 55 of 56

Monika Bukaeifiska; Dariusz Bukacifiski; Jörg Thomas Epplen; Klaus Peter Sauer; Thomas Lubjuhn

1998-01-01

443

Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

1996-01-01

444

Steroids for free? No metabolic costs of elevated maternal androgen levels in the black-headed gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within- and between-clutch variation in yolk titres of hormones of maternal origin has been found in many avian species. So far, experiments have revealed mainly beneficial effects of maternal androgens. This would also apply to black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus). Previous experiments have shown that chicks benefit from these higher levels since their competitive abilities are improved and growth and survival

Corine M. Eising; G. Henk Visser; Wendt Müller; Ton G. G. Groothuis

2003-01-01

445

Sequence morphodynamics at an emergent barrier island, middle Atlantic coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Delmarva Peninsula is located along the middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. The axial highland of the peninsula formed in four stages of Pleistocene spit progradation. The landward shoreline of the peninsula is on the Chesapeake Bay. The seaside shoreline of the peninsula is on the Atlantic Ocean. The coast of the peninsula is composed of five landscape sections described as a headland, a left-hand spit, a right-hand spit, a wave-dominated barrier island, and tide-dominated barrier islands. Fisherman Island is a barrier island located at the southern end of the southern Delmarva Peninsula. The landscape features on Fisherman Island do not illustrate a direct linkage to (1) the sediment dispersion from the Delaware headland or (2) the influence of local antecedent topography. The island has a bipolar progradational history that is normal to the axis of the southerly sediment dispersion pattern from the Delmarva headlands. During the late Holocene, sea-level rise flooded the low-elevation land at the distal end of the southern Delmarva Peninsula. The submerged area formed a shallow platform in the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. Two sediment dispersion tracts affected the development of this area. On the ocean side of the peninsula, sediment moved southward along the lower shoreface to the Chesapeake Bay entrance. On the west side of the peninsula, southerly moving bay currents also dispersed sediment to the entrance of the bay. The two tracts converged on the northern side of the bay entrance forming a broad sand shoal. Wave diffraction and refraction around the margins of the shoal "swept" sediment into linear sand bars that migrated back toward the peninsula. By the middle of the 19th century, the fusion of sand bars on the shoal surface produced a permanent nucleus for island development. Wave refraction caused wave crests to "wrap around" the island core producing separate easterly and westerly components of shore aggradation. The westerly aggradational history is recorded in closely spaced sets of beach ridges. The easterly aggradational history is recorded in broadly spaced hammocks.

Oertel, G. F.; Overman, Kathleen

2004-03-01

446

Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment  

E-print Network

The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies ...

Gong, Zheng

2010-01-01

447

Diversity and dynamics of an interstitial Tardigrada population in the Meloria Shoals, Ligurian Sea, with a redescription of Batillipes similis (Heterotardigrada, Batillipedidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative samples of sediment for the study of the meiofau?na were collected monthly beweenMar1996 andFeb1997 from a 7?m?deep site in the Meloria Shoals, Livorno Italy. In the Tuscan Shoals, 16 species of tardigrades were found belonging to the families Stygarctidae, Halechiniscidae, and Batillipedidae. Megastygarctides orbiculatus and Actinarctus doryphorus are reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, and a

Maria Gallo DAddabbo; Susanna de Zio Grimaldi; Maria Rosaria de Lucia Morone; Romana Pietanza; Rossana DAddabbo; M. Antonio Todaro

1999-01-01

448

Seasonal enumeration of fecal coliform bacteria from the feces of ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).  

PubMed

Water suppliers have often implicated roosting birds for fecal contamination of their surface waters. Geese and gulls have been the primary targets of this blame although literature documenting the fecal coliform content of these birds is quite limited. To determine the actual fecal coliform concentrations of these birds, fecal samples from 249 ring-billed gulls and 236 Canada geese in Westchester County, N.Y., were analyzed over a 2-year period. Results indicate that gull feces contain a greater average concentration of fecal coliform bacteria per gram (3.68 x 10(8)) than do goose feces (1.53 x 10(4)); however, average fecal sample weights of the geese were more than 15 times higher than those of the gulls. PMID:10584032

Alderisio, K A; DeLuca, N

1999-12-01

449

Proximate and ultimate causes of adoption in ring-billed gulls.  

PubMed

From 1987 to 1994, the annual frequency of adoption by breeding pairs at a Lake Erie ring-billed gull, Larus delawarensis, colony ranged from 3 to 37% (average 8%/year, N=7 years) and, on average, foster parents raised 0.5 fewer of their own chicks to fledging than pairs that did not adopt. The key evolutionary question is: why do some individuals apparently suffer the costs associated with a behaviour that appears to enhance the fitness of others? From 1992 to 1995, I investigated the proximate and ultimate causes of adoption in ring-billed gulls from the perspectives of both the foster parents and adopted chicks, and tested predictions that differentiated between various competing adaptive and nonadaptive hypotheses that have been proposed to explain it. While I was able to demonstrate a breeding cost, I failed to identify any benefits to foster parents. Thus, the adaptive hypotheses that rely on the foster parents benefiting were not supported (e.g. kin selection, reciprocal altruism, acquisition of parenting experience). From the foster parent's perspective, adoption was mediated through errors in parent-offspring recognition. Under natural conditions, most fostering pairs were tending small chicks (<6 days old) at the time of adoptions; in chick-transfer experiments, resident parents did not discriminate against foreign chicks until their own chicks were 7-9 days old. Chicks (N=25) that subsequently abandoned their natal nests were lighter, and grew at a slower rate, than chicks that survived to fledging in their home broods. Thus, departing chicks were at a survival disadvantage in their home broods. Chicks that gained acceptance into foreign broods where they were older/larger than the resident chicks realized high survival at the expense of their foster siblings and parents. Based upon individual growth rates and the corresponding survival probabilities, disadvantaged chicks approximately doubled their survival chances through foster care. Why has selection not eliminated adoption? I argue that adoption is an evolutionary arms race between the two principle actor groups; disadvantaged chicks, which benefit through foster care, and host parents, which avoid providing foster care (e.g. infanticide). In ring-billed gulls, selection has failed to eliminate adoption because the long-term reproductive cost (estimated at 4%, this study) of an occasional adoption is probably offset by the relatively higher costs associated with stricter kin discrimination mechanisms (e.g. parental infanticide). (c) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9933551

Brown

1998-12-01

450

Bathymetry of the Wilderness breach at Fire Island, New York, June 2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, collaborated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, to collect shallow water bathymetric data of the Wilderness breach on Fire Island, New York, in June 2013. The breach formed in October 2012 during Hurricane Sandy, and the USGS is involved in a post-Sandy effort to map, monitor, and model the morphologic evolution of the breach as part of Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B: Linking Coastal Vulnerability and Process, Fire Island. This publication includes a bathymetric dataset of the breach and the adjacent nearshore on the ocean side of the island. The objective of the data collection and analysis is to map the bathymetry of the primary breach channel, ebb shoal, and nearshore bar system.

Brownell, Andrew T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Spore, Nicholas J.; McNinch, Jesse E.

2015-01-01

451

Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

2002-01-01

452

Comparison of lake trout-egg survival at inshore and offshore and shallow-water and deepwater sites in Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We incubated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs over winter at shallow (10 m) and deep locations (20 m) on Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior; at a shallow-water (10 m) site off the mainland (bark point); and in flowing great lakes water at two laboratories. Survival to hatch was significantly higher in the laboratories and averaged 80.9%. In Lake Superior, egg survival among incubators at all sites was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) For incubators that remained buried in spawning substrates (15.1-21.0%) than for incubators that were partially or completely exposed to water currents (1.0-12.6%). Egg survival for incubators that remained buried at the shallow-water sites was significantly higher at bark point (44.6%) than at Gull Island Shoal (21.0%). Egg survival among incubators that remained buried at the deep (14.4%) and shallow-water sites (21.0%) on Gull Island Shoal was not significantly different. Because incubators that were completely buried or partially exposed only appeared to differ in their degree of exposure, we concluded that survival of eggs in the lake was reduced by mechanical stress associated with water turbulence. Lower egg survival at Gull Island Shoal, a known lake trout-spawning site, was not expected and appeared to have been caused by a strong gale that occurred when these eggs were in late epiboly, a sensitive embryological stage. We present a hypothesis suggesting that lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes is limited by availability of spawning habitat.

Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bronte, Charles R.; Peck, James W.

1995-01-01

453

Spatial Patterns in a Bioindicator: Heavy Metal and Selenium Concentration in Eggs of Herring Gulls ( Larus argentatus ) in the New York Bight  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Concentrations of selenium and five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and manganese) in the eggs of herring\\u000a gulls (Larus argentatus) were studied at six breeding colonies in the New York Bight to detect locational differences and to explore their use as\\u000a a bioindicator of point source or nonpoint source pollution. The herring gull is widespread in North America,

M. Gochfeld

1997-01-01

454

The influence of predation by herring gulls Larus argentatus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on a newly established mussel Mytilus edulis bed in autumn and winter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predation by herring gulls Larus argentatus and oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus was evaluated on a newly established mussel Mytilus edulis bed on tidal flats of the German Wadden Sea. The mussel bed covered an area of 2 ha and showed a decrease in biomass of 40% in the most densely covered parts from August to January. Synchronously, the extent of the mussel bed was reduced, resulting in a decrease of average biomass of 98% over the whole mussel bed. From the beginning of August 1994 to mid January 1995, the average size of mussels increased from 10.7 to 20.3 mm. The P/B-ratio was 0.68 in August and 0.18 between September and November. Herring gulls and oystercatchers were the most important mussel predators. On average, 266 herring gulls and 63 oystercatchers were present on the mussel bed during one low tide; 34% of the herring gulls and 78% of the oystercatchers were observed to be feeding. Herring gulls fed at a rate of 4.2 mussels per minute and oystercatchers at a rate of 1.3 mussels per minute. While herring gulls took the most common mussel sizes (mean: 20 mm), oystercatchers searched for the largest mussels available (mean: 25 mm). Herring gulls consumed 13 mussels/m2 (0.3g AFDW) during one day and oystercatchers 1.7 mussels/m2 (0.1 g AFDW). Predation by birds was compensated by 33% of the production. The proportion removed by bird predation amounted to 10% of abundance and to 16% of biomass (including production). Oystercatchers were responsible for 1% of the reduction in abundance and for 3% of biomass. Removal was highest in the most common size classes of mussels, mainly caused by herring gulls. However, the highest proportion of mussels was eaten in the largest size classes, mainly by oystercatchers. *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A03B6035 00004

Hilgerloh, G.; Herlyn, M.; Michaelis, H.

1997-08-01