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Sample records for gull island shoal

  1. Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting areas were defined by all area within 100-m or 500-m of a plover nest. We argue that this apparent spatial separation between piping plovers and large gulls is due to different habitat preferences among the species. We found that gull removal on South Monomoy Island did not result in increased piping plover reproductive success, and large gulls did not affect breeding piping plovers on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000.

  2. Shoals Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals, Maine: Dedicated to undergraduate education and research in marine science since 1966 Parental indemnification form for ShoalsM arine Laboratory on Appledore Island, M aine

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals, Maine: Dedicated to undergraduate education and research in marine science since 1966 Parental indemnification form for ShoalsM arine Laboratory on Appledore Island, M aine I Hereby Acknowledge and Agree that my child's participation in Shoals Marine

  3. Shoals Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals, Maine: Dedicated to undergraduate education and research in marine science since 1966 Release and hold harmlessform for ShoalsM arine Laboratory on Appledore Island, M aine

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    on Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals, Maine: Dedicated to undergraduate education and research in marine science since 1966 Release and hold harmlessform for ShoalsM arine Laboratory on Appledore Island, M aine on Appledore Island have inherent risks. I understand that the risk of traveling to and from the island via

  4. Shoals Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals, Maine: Dedicated to undergraduate education and research in marine science since 1966 Code of conduct and social ethicsform for ShoalsM arine Laboratory on Appledore Island, M aine

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals, Maine: Dedicated to undergraduate education on Appledore Island, M aine Since 1966, Shoals Marine Lab has been conducting rigorous academic programs our participants, faculty and staff, due to our isolated island environment. You should decide

  5. Helminth communities in Audouin's gulls, Larus audouinii from Chafarinas Islands (western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Roca, V; Lafuente, M; Carbonell, E

    1999-10-01

    A survey of intestinal helminth communities of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii, from their breeding colonies in Chafarinas Islands, western Mediterranean, Spain was conducted to determine the abundance and species diversity of intestinal parasites of these birds. The sample of 58 gulls harbored intestinal helminth infracommunities composed of species that are gull generalists, including the digeneans Cardiocephalus longicollis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Condylocotyla pilodora, and Aporchis massiliensis, and the cestode Tetrabothrius cylindraceus. Two nematodes are waterfowl generalists (Cosmocephalus obvelatus and Paracuaria adunca), whereas the digenean Acanthotrema armata is an Audouin's gull specialist. The relative high values of species richness and diversity of the helminth infracommunities are comparable to those of other gulls (Larus philadelphia, Larus canus), probably reflecting the specialized, nonselective fish diet of L. audouinii. PMID:10577744

  6. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals;...

  7. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals;...

  8. Character of shell beds flanking Herod Point shoal, southeastern Long Island Sound, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Williams, S.J.; Babb, Ivar G.

    2011-01-01

    High biogenic productivity, strong tidal currents, shoal topography, and short transport distances combine to favor shell-bed formation along the lower flanks of a cape-associated shoal off Herod Point on Long Island, New York. This shell bed has a densely packed, clast-supported fabric composed largely of undegraded surf clam (Spisula solidissima) valves. It is widest along the central part of the western flank of the shoal where topographic gradients are steep and a stronger flood tide results in residual flow. The bed is narrower and thinner toward the landward margins where currents are too weak to transport larger valves and topographic gradients are gentle, limiting bed-load transport mechanisms by which the shells are concentrated. Reconnaissance mapping off Roanoke Point suggests that shell beds are also present at the other cape-associated shoals off northeastern Long Island, where relatively similar geomorphic and oceanographic conditions exist. These shell beds are important to the Long Island Sound ecosystem because they provide complex benthic habitats of rough and hard substrates at the boundary between the muddy basin floor and mobile sand of the shoals. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

  9. Selecting islands and shoals for conservation based on biological and aesthetic criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Leopold, D.J.; Smardon, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration of biological quality has long been an important component of rating areas for conservation. Often these same areas are highly valued by people for aesthetic reasons, creating demands for housing and recreation that may conflict with protection plans for these habitats. Most methods of selecting land for conservation purposes use biological factors alone. For some land areas, analysis of aesthetic qualities is also important in describing the scenic value of undisturbed land. A method for prioritizing small islands and shoals based on both biological and visual quality factors is presented here. The study included 169 undeveloped islands and shoals a??0.8 ha in the Thousand Islands Region of the St. Lawrence River, New York. Criteria such as critical habitat for uncommon plant and animal species were considered together with visual quality and incorporated into a rating system that ranked the islands and shoals according to their priority for conservation management and protection from development. Biological factors were determined based on previous research and a field survey. Visual quality was determined by visual diagnostic criteria developed from public responses to photographs of a sample of islands. Variables such as elevation, soil depth, and type of plant community can be used to classify islands into different categories of visual quality but are unsuccessful in classifying islands into categories of overall biological quality.

  10. High prevalence of Salmonella and IMP-4-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the silver gull on Five Islands, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Dobiasova, Hana; Jamborova, Ivana; Karpiskova, Renata; Havlicek, Martin; Carlile, Nicholas; Priddel, David; Cizek, Alois; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to investigate the silver gull as an indicator of environmental contamination by salmonellae and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in south-east Australia. Methods A total of 504 cloacal samples were collected from gull chicks at three nesting colonies in New South Wales, Australia [White Bay (n?=?144), Five Islands (n?=?200) and Montague Island (n?=?160)] and were examined for salmonellae and CPE. Isolates were tested for carbapenemase genes and susceptibility to 14 antibiotics. Clonality was determined by PFGE and MLST. Genetic context and conjugative transfer of the carbapenemase gene were determined. Results A total of 120 CPE of 10 species, mainly Escherichia coli (n?=?85), carrying the gene blaIMP-4, blaIMP-38 or blaIMP-26 were obtained from 80 (40%) gulls from Five Islands. Thirty percent of birds from this colony were colonized by salmonellae. Most isolates contained the gene within a class 1 integron showing a blaIMP-4-qacG-aacA4-catB3 array. The blaIMP gene was carried by conjugative plasmids of variable sizes (80–400 kb) and diverse replicons, including HI2-N (n?=?30), HI2 (11), A/C (17), A/C-Y (2), L/M (5), I1 (1) and non-typeable (6). Despite the overall high genetic variability, common clones and plasmid types were shared by different birds and bacterial isolates, respectively. Conclusions Our data demonstrate a large-scale transmission of carbapenemase-producing bacteria into wildlife, likely as a result of the feeding habits of the birds at a local waste depot. The isolates from gulls showed significant similarities with clinical isolates from Australia, suggesting the human origin of the isolates. The sources of CPE for gulls on Five Islands should be explored and proper measures applied to stop the transmission into the environment. PMID:26472769

  11. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

  12. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

  13. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

  14. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  15. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  16. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  17. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  18. 33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.40 Section 334.40... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles...

  19. NEGATIVE INTERSPECIES INTERACTIONS IN A GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULL COLONY ON PROTECTION ISLAND, WASHINGTON

    E-print Network

    Cowles, David L.

    avoided by 2010. We suggest that predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) may also be affecting colony. Key words: Bald Eagle, competition, Dune Grass, Glaucous-winged Gull, Haliaeetus leucocephalus of the tall grass areas. Together, the tall grass and eagle predation appear to be carrying out a pincer

  20. Offshore sand-shoal development and evolution of Petit Bois Pass, Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Twichell, Gregory C.; Buster, Noreen A.; Baehr, John N.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of recently collected geophysical and sediment-core data identifies an extensive shoal field located off Dauphin and Petit Bois Islands. The shoals are the product of Pleistocene fluvial deposition and Holocene marine-transgressive processes, and their position and orientation oblique to the modern shoreline has been stable over the past century. The underlying stratigraphy has also influenced the evolution of the barrier platform and inlets. Buried distributary channels bisect the platform, creating erosion hotspots that breach during intense and repeated storms. Inlet growth inhibits littoral transport, and over time, reduces the down-drift sand supply. These relations demonstrate the role of the antecedent geologic framework on morphologic evolution. This study is part of the USGS Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project and the USACE Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program. These projects produced a wealth of information regarding coastal geology, geomorphology, and physical resources; some of the initial results are presented here.

  1. Activity periods and questing behavior of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) on Gull Island, Newfoundland: the role of puffin chicks.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Sabir B; Jones, Ian L

    2007-04-01

    Questing behavior of Ixodes uriae and their associated seasonal, host-feeding patterns are crucial to our understanding of tick life history strategies and the ecology of diseases that they transmit. Consequently, we quantified questing behavior of nymphs and adult female I. uriae ticks at Gull Island, a seabird colony in Newfoundland, Canada, to examine seasonal variation of off-host and on-host tick activity. We sampled a total of 133 adult Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica), 152 puffin chicks, and 145 herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks for ticks during the breeding seasons of 2004 and 2005. Questing ticks were sampled by dragging a white flannel cloth across the grassy breeding areas during the mo of May, June, July, and August. Nymph questing activity reached a peak during mid-July (79 and 110 individuals/hr in 2004 and 2005, respectively). The prevalence of nymphs and adult female ticks on different seabird hosts varied between years and during the seasons. Puffin chicks had the highest prevalence (above 70% in July) of nymphs in both years and this was correlated with questing activity. Female ticks rarely fed on puffin chicks, but were prevalent on adult puffins and gulls, although prevalence and questing of ticks were not correlated in these hosts. These patterns of off-host and on-host tick activity suggests that I. uriae ticks likely use a combination of questing and passive waiting, e.g., in puffin burrows, to detect hosts, depending on the tick stage and the host species. PMID:17539407

  2. Aerial estimation of the size of gull breeding colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    Counts on photographs and visual estimates of the numbers of territorial gulls are usually reliable indicators of the number of gull nests, but single visual estimates are not adequate to measure the number of nests in individual colonies. To properly interpret gull counts requires that several islands with known numbers of nests be photographed to establish the ratio of gulls to nests applicable for a given local census. Visual estimates are adequate to determine total breeding gull numbers by regions. Neither visual estimates nor photography will reliably detect annual changes of less than about 2.5 percent.

  3. Hydroacoustic estimation of zooplankton biomass at two shoal complexes in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, B.V.; Hrabik, T.R.; Branstrator, D.K.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroacoustics can be used to assess zooplankton populations, however, backscatter must be scaled to be biologically meaningful. In this study, we used a general model to correlate site-specific hydroacoustic backscatter with zooplankton dry weight biomass estimated from net tows. The relationship between zooplankton dry weight and backscatter was significant (p < 0.001 ) and explained 76% of the variability in the dry weight data. We applied this regression to hydroacoustic data collected monthly in 2003 and 2004 at two shoals in the Apostle Island Region of Lake Superior. After applying the regression model to convert hydroacoustic backscatter to zooplankton dry weight biomass, we used geostatistics to analyze the mean and variance, and ordinary kriging to create spatial zooplankton distribution maps. The mean zooplankton dry weight biomass estimates from plankton net tows and hydroacoustics were not significantly different (p = 0.19) but the hydroacoustic data had a significantly lower coefficient of variation (p < 0.001). The maps of zooplankton distribution illustrated spatial trends in zooplankton dry weight biomass that were not discernable from the overall means.

  4. Phosphorus in seagull colonies and the effect on the habitats. The case of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) in the Atlantic Islands National Park (Galicia-NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Otero, X L; Tejada, O; Martín-Pastor, M; De La Peña, S; Ferreira, T O; Pérez-Alberti, A

    2015-11-01

    During the period 1980-2000, the yellow-legged gull population underwent exponential growth due to an increase in the availability of anthropogenic food resources. The aim of this study was to highlight the effect of the gull colonies on the P soil cycle and the associated effects on coastal ecosystems. Samples of soil, water and faecal material were collected in a colony of yellow-legged gulls (Cíes Islands) and in a control area. Four sampling plots were installed in the study areas, and samples were collected in summer and winter in 1997 and 2011. Sample analysis included soil characterization and determination of the total P content (TP), bioavailable-P and fractionated-P forms in the soils and faecal material. The (31)P NMR technique was also used to determine organic P forms. Clear differences between the gull colony soils and the control soil were observed. The TP was 3 times higher in the gull colony soil, and the bioavailable P was 30 times higher than in the control soil. The P forms present at highest concentrations in the faecal material (P-apatite, P-residual and P-humic acid) were also present at high concentrations in the colony soil. The absence of any seasonal or annual differences in P concentration indicates that the P has remained stable in the soil over time, regardless of the changes in the gull population density. The degree of P saturation indicated that soils are saturated with P due to the low concentration of Fe/Al-hydroxides, which is consistent with a high P concentration in the run-off from the colonies. The P output from the colony soils to coastal waters may cause eutrophication of a nearby lagoon and the disappearance of a Zostera marina seagrass meadow. Similarly, the enrichment of P concentration in dune system of Muxieiro may induce irreversible changes in the plant communities. PMID:26081740

  5. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  6. Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kadlec, J.A.

    1971-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

  7. Retraction of a longevity record for a 36-year-old herring gull

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonkel, G.M.; Pettingill, O.S., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Full text: The longevity record for a 36-year-old Herring Gull, Larus argentatus (Pettingill 1967, Auk 84: 123), is erroneous. Herring Gull with band number A-676871, the basis of the record, was found dead on 20 June 1966 on the shore of Little Traverse Bay near Petoskey, Michigan, and reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. The laboratory then mistakenly advised Pettingill that this gull was banded by him on 29 June 1930 on coastal Maine. He actually banded Herring Gull number A-676871 as a young bird on one of the Beaver Islands in Lake Michigan on 8 July 1948. The gull was thus 18 instead of 36 years old.

  8. 15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL L/S FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. Drawing no. 03-2723, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - Stratford Shoal Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  9. Effects of gulls on Piping Plover nest site selection at Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of Herring and Great Black-backed Gulls on Piping Plover nest site selection on South Monomoy Island, MA, from 1998 to 2000. We compared Piping Plover behavior and nest site selection in a gull-free area to a gull area, and compared Piping Plover nesting area characteristics to areas not used by plovers. We found no difference in the frequency of disturbance by gulls to pre-nesting adult plovers between the two areas. We found fewer gulls near pre-nesting adults than near random points, and fewer gulls in Piping Plover nesting areas than in areas not used by plovers. Proximity to prime foraging habitats and available nesting habitat (wide stretches of open vegetation) may be more important to Piping Plover nest site selection than the presence of gulls.

  10. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  11. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  12. 27 CFR 9.113 - North Fork of Long Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...boundaries consist of all the land (and isolated islands including without limitation, Wicopesset Island, Robins Island, Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, Plum Island, and Shelter Island) in the Townships of Riverhead, Shelter Island, and...

  13. Ship Shoal as a prospective borrow site for barrier island restoration, coastal south-central Louisiana, Usa: Numerical wave modeling and field measurements of hydrodynamics and sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, G.W.; Pepper, D.A.; Xu, Jie; Zhang, X.

    2004-01-01

    Ship Shoal, a transgressive sand body located at the 10 m isobath off south-central Louisiana, is deemed a potential sand source for restoration along the rapidly eroding Isles Dernieres barrier chain and possibly other sites in Louisiana. Through numerical wave modeling we evaluate the potential response of mining Ship Shoal on the wave field. During severe and strong storms, waves break seaward of the western flank of Ship Shoal. Therefore, removal of Ship Shoal (approximately 1.1 billion m3) causes a maximum increase of the significant wave height by 90%-100% and 40%-50% over the shoal and directly adjacent to the lee of the complex for two strong storm scenarios. During weak storms and fair weather conditions, waves do not break over Ship Shoal. The degree of increase in significant wave height due to shoal removal is considerably smaller, only 10%-20% on the west part of the shoal. Within the context of increasing nearshore wave energy levels, removal of the shoal is not significant enough to cause increased erosion along the Isles Dernieres. Wave approach direction exerts significant control on the wave climate leeward of Ship Shoal for stronger storms, but not weak storms or fairweather. Instrumentation deployed at the shoal allowed comparison of measured wave heights with numerically derived wave heights using STWAVE. Correlation coefficients are high in virtually all comparisons indicating the capability of the model to simulate wave behavior satisfactorily at the shoal. Directional waves, currents and sediment transport were measured during winter storms associated with frontal passages using three bottom-mounted arrays deployed on the seaward and landward sides of Ship Shoal (November, 1998-January, 1999). Episodic increases in wave height, mean and oscillatory current speed, shear velocity, and sediment transport rates, associated with recurrent cold front passages, were measured. Dissipation mechanisms included both breaking and bottom friction due to variable depths across the shoal crest and variable wave amplitudes during storms and fair-weather. Arctic surge fronts were associated with southerly storm waves, and southwesterly to westerly currents and sediment transport. Migrating cyclonic fronts generated northerly swell that transformed into southerly sea, and currents and sediment transport that were southeasterly overall. Waves were 36% higher and 9% longer on the seaward side of the shoal, whereas mean currents were 10% stronger landward, where they were directed onshore, in contrast to the offshore site, where seaward currents predominated. Sediment transport initiated by cold fronts was generally directed southeasterly to southwesterly at the offshore site, and southerly to westerly at the nearshore site. The data suggest that both cold fronts and the shoal, exert significant influences on regional hydrodynamics and sediment transport.

  14. Gulls identified as major source of fecal pollution in coastal waters: a microbial source tracking study.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Susana; Henriques, Isabel S; Leandro, Sérgio Miguel; Alves, Artur; Pereira, Anabela; Correia, António

    2014-02-01

    Gulls were reported as sources of fecal pollution in coastal environments and potential vectors of human infections. Microbial source tracking (MST) methods were rarely tested to identify this pollution origin. This study was conducted to ascertain the source of water fecal contamination in the Berlenga Island, Portugal. A total of 169 Escherichia coli isolates from human sewage, 423 isolates from gull feces and 334 water isolates were analyzed by BOX-PCR. An average correct classification of 79.3% was achieved. When an 85% similarity cutoff was applied 24% of water isolates were present in gull feces against 2.7% detected in sewage. Jackknifing resulted in 29.3% of water isolates classified as gull, and 10.8% classified as human. Results indicate that gulls constitute a major source of water contamination in the Berlenga Island. This study validated a methodology to differentiate human and gull fecal pollution sources in a real case of a contaminated beach. PMID:24140684

  15. Patterns of Aggression in Gulls: Asymmetries and Tactics in Different Social Categories

    E-print Network

    Pierotti, Raymond; Annett, Cynthia A.

    1994-08-01

    Farallon Island. This colony has dense nesting territories and appears to be near saturation, making breeding space a limiting and valuable resource. Established, territory-holding male gulls were able to defeat nearly all opponents. The exceptions were a...

  16. Parasitic fauna of a yellow-legged gull colony in the island of Escombreras (South-eastern Mediterranean) in close proximity to a landfill site: potential effects on cohabiting species.

    PubMed

    Parejo, Sandra Hervías; Martínez-Carrasco, Carlos; Diaz, Julia I; Chitimia, Lidia; Ortiz, Juana; Mayo, Elvira; Ybáñez, Rocío Ruiz de

    2015-06-01

    We identified the ectoparasites and helminth fauna of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis michahellis), breeding near to a solid waste landfill, and compared infection levels with those of other yellow-legged gull colonies. Moreover, we analysed correlations between parasites and sex and body condition of yellow-legged gulls, co-infections and the helminth community structure in order to propose the role of this species as reservoir of certain parasites. We also discuss the potential transmission of parasites between the yellow-legged gull and the endangered Audouin's gull, because interactions between these two species, such as kleptoparasitism and predation, occur frequently around colonies. The following species were recorded: Ornithodorus capensis (Arthropoda); Cosmocephalus obvelatus, Paracuaria adunca, Eucoleus contortus, Tetrameres skrjabini and Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda); Tetrabothrius cylindraceus (Cestoda); Acanthotrema armata, Cardiocephaloides longicollis and Ornithobilharzia intermedia (Digenea). Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, A. armata and O. capensis are new parasite records for this host. The dependence of yellow-legged-gulls on fishery discards is supported by the dominance of parasites transmitted through marine intermediate hosts with interest to fisheries in the study area. However, the shift in diet from natural resources to food derived from human activities seems not to affect the parasitic fauna of yellow-legged gull. Besides of direct physical contact between individuals in nesting and resting habitats, the high availability of fishery discards could increase the risk of Audouin's gulls to be infected by common parasites of yellow-legged gull. PMID:26203998

  17. Mercury trends in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from Atlantic Canada, 1972-2008: Temporal change or dietary shift?

    PubMed

    Burgess, Neil M; Bond, Alexander L; Hebert, Craig E; Neugebauer, Ewa; Champoux, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a pervasive contaminant that can adversely affect predatory wildlife. Bird eggs provide insights into breeding females' Hg burdens, and are easily collected and archived. We present data on Hg trends in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from five sites in Atlantic Canada from 1972 to 2008. We found a significant decrease in Hg at Manawagonish Island, New Brunswick and Île du Corossol, Quebec, but after correcting Hg for dietary shifts using stable isotopes (?(15)N), these trends disappeared. Decreasing temporal trends of stable isotopes in gull eggs were observed at four sites, suggesting shifts in gull diets. At Gull Island, Newfoundland, diet-adjusted Hg increased from 1977 to 1992, dropped sharply between 1992 and 1996, and rose again from 1996 to 2008. After adjusting Hg trends for dietary shifts of herring gulls, it appears that environmental Hg in coastal ecosystems has remained relatively constant at most sites in Atlantic Canada over the last 36 years. PMID:23063997

  18. Reductions in Gull Populations Improve Beachwater Quality.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND. Gulls are often cited as an important source of fecal pollution to surface waters, and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations have been shown to be significantly correlated with gull populations. However, it is unclear whether gull contamination poses a risk to...

  19. Annual Movement Patterns of Endangered Ivory Gulls: The Importance of Sea Ice

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nora C.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual variation of post-breeding migratory route selection. Ivory gulls traveled a median of 74 days during post-breeding migration, but only 18 days during pre-breeding migration. In contrast to predictions, ivory gulls did not use the Greenland coast during migratory periods. Ivory gulls overwintered near the ice edge in Davis Strait, but also used the Labrador Sea in late February and March. We suggest that the timing of formation and recession and extent of sea ice plays a large role in ivory gull distribution and migratory timing. PMID:25551556

  20. Annual movement patterns of endangered ivory gulls: the importance of sea ice.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Nora C; Gilchrist, H Grant; Mallory, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is an endangered seabird that spends its entire year in the Arctic environment. In the past three decades, threats from various sources have contributed to a >70% decline in Canada. To assess the annual habitat needs of this species, we attached satellite transmitters to 12 ivory gulls on Seymour Island, Nunavut in 2010, which provided up to four breeding seasons of tracking data. Analysis of migratory behaviour revealed considerable individual variation of post-breeding migratory route selection. Ivory gulls traveled a median of 74 days during post-breeding migration, but only 18 days during pre-breeding migration. In contrast to predictions, ivory gulls did not use the Greenland coast during migratory periods. Ivory gulls overwintered near the ice edge in Davis Strait, but also used the Labrador Sea in late February and March. We suggest that the timing of formation and recession and extent of sea ice plays a large role in ivory gull distribution and migratory timing. PMID:25551556

  1. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  2. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhua; Tizard, Ian; Baroch, John; Shivaprasad, H L; Payne, Susan L

    2015-07-01

    Avian bornaviruses, recently described members of the family Bornaviridae, have been isolated from captive parrots and passerines as well as wild waterfowl in which they may cause lethal neurologic disease. We report detection of avian bornavirus RNA in the brains of apparently healthy gulls. We tested 439 gull brain samples from 18 states, primarily in the northeastern US, using a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay with primers designed to detect a conserved region of the bornavirus M gene. Nine birds yielded a PCR product of appropriate size. Sequencing of PCR products indicated that the virus was closely related to aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1). Viral RNA was detected in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), Ring-billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis), and Laughing Gulls (Leucophaeus atricilla). Eight of the nine positive birds came from the New York/New Jersey area. One positive Herring Gull came from New Hampshire. Histopathologic examination of one well-preserved brain from a Herring Gull from Union County New Jersey, showed a lymphocytic encephalitis similar to that observed in bornavirus-infected parrots and geese. Bornavirus N protein was confirmed in two Herring Gull brains by immunohistochemistry. Thus ABBV-1 can infect gulls and cause encephalitic brain lesions similar to those observed in other birds. PMID:25973630

  3. No. 2 fuel oil decreases embryonic survival of great black-backed gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, N.C.; Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Field study of the effects of No. 2 fuel oil applications to the eggs of great black-backed gulls on an island off the coast of Maine. Fuel oil applied in amounts of either 5 or 20 ul. All eggs opened 8 da later. Measured survival and estimated age of embryo at time of egg oiling.

  4. Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, Lawrence J.; Stafford, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    The breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers (Ryn chops niger) and gull-billed terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) were investigated in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975. With few exceptions, the two species nested together in colonies located on barrier islands. We located 10 colonies, 7 of which were on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (Cape Romain); references were located that described nesting on seven other islands in South Carolina that no longer support colonies. Gull-billed terns nested from early May through July; the skimmers started later (late May) but also continued later (early September). Both species nested in areas subject to tidal flooding, and the two species persisted in nesting in several colonies despite intense predation by rats and gulls. Estimated reproductive success varied greatly from year to year and colony to colony; success in most colonies seemed low, particularly for the gull-billed tern. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in several eggs seemed of sufficient magnitude to induce adverse effects on reproductivity and eggshell thickness: however, the overall effect of organochlorines appeared negligible. Maximum numbers of nests located in a single year were 790 for the skimmer and 340 for the gull-billed tern: the total breeding population in South Carolina is unknown. Although nesting islands at Cape Romain and Deveaux Bank are sanctuaries for nesting birds, both species will continue to lose nesting habitat as additional sea islands are developed and inhabited by man.

  5. Shoal, Nevada Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-01

    The Shoal Site is situated on 2,560 acres of withdrawn federal lands located within the north-central portion of the Sand Springs Range in Churchill County, Nevada. The town of Fallon is the largest populated area in the region and is about 30 miles northwest of the site. The region around the Shoal Site is sparsely populated; military installations, recreation, ranching, and mining provide the dominant commercial interests. The Project Shoal underground nuclear test was part of the Vela Uniform program sponsored jointly by the U.S Department of Defense and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Vela Uniform was a research and development program directed toward locating, detecting, and identifying underground detonations. The objective of Project Shoal was to detonate a nuclear device underground in an active seismic area to improve the United States' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations.

  6. HEALTH HISTORY FORM for PARTICIPANTS attending the Shoals Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Maine. Thank you for taking the time to provide us with your personal, health and insurance information. The information

    E-print Network

    Afshari, Ehsan

    treatment, including x-ray, examination, anesthetic, medical, surgical, or treatment, and /or hospital care of New Hampshire and appropriate medical personnel only. This information will not be released outside: FAX: (607) 255-0742 eMAIL: shoals-lab@cornell.edu PERSONAL INFORMATION SECTION (required) Name

  7. Effects of organochlorine contaminants on thyroid hormone levels in Arctic breeding glaucous gulls, Larus hyperboreus.

    PubMed Central

    Verreault, Jonathan; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2004-01-01

    Studies on glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Barents Sea have reported that high blood levels of halogenated organic contaminants in this species might cause reproductive, behavioral, and developmental stress. However, potential endocrine system modulation caused by contaminant exposure has yet not been reported in this Arctic apical predator. In this present study we aimed to investigate whether the current levels of a selection of organochlorines (OCs) were associated with altered circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in free-ranging adult glaucous gulls breeding at Bear Island in the Barents Sea. Blood concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, and p,p' -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p' -DDE) were quantified, in addition to free and total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), in plasma of 66 glaucous gulls in the spring of 2001. Negative correlations were found between plasma levels of T4 and T4:T3 ratio, and blood levels of OCs in male glaucous gulls. Despite their relatively low contribution to the total OC fraction, HCB and oxychlordane were the most prominent compounds in terms of their negative effect on the variation of the T4:T3 ratio. Moreover, lower T4 levels and T4:T3 ratios were measured in glaucous gulls breeding in a colony exposed to high levels of OCs, compared with a less exposed colony. Levels of T3 were elevated in the high-OC-exposed colony. This may indicate that the glaucous gull is susceptible to changes to TH homeostasis mediated by exposure to halogenated organic contaminants. PMID:15064156

  8. Marine Bird Ecology & Conservation: The Farallon Islands

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    11/19/2014 1 Marine Bird Ecology & Conservation: The Farallon Islands Example Some Historical;11/19/2014 2 Charadriformes: gulls, terns Anseriformes: marine ducks, geese and swans Other birds Location

  9. Dramatic Improvements in Beach Water Quality Following Gull Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, a...

  10. Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, 1972--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Weseloh, D.V.; Koster, M.D.; Ryckman, D.P.; Struger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled for years 1972--1976, 1981--1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site and analyzed for total mercury (ppm, wet weight). Results indicated that eggs from Lake Ontario displayed the highest mercury levels, mean = 0.28 (s.d. = 0.08) to 0.73 (0.23). Lake Erie typically displayed the lowest egg mercury levels, 0.18 (0.08) to 0.24 (0.11). Overall, mercury levels ranged from 0.12 (0.02) in 1985 to 0.88 (0.23) in 1982 for Channel-Shelter Island (Lake Huron) and Pigeon Island (Lake Ontario), respectively. Generally, all colony sites showed peak mercury levels in 1982. A significant decline in egg mercury levels was observed in six colony sites between 1972 and 1992 and in three colony sites between 1981 and 1992. The mean herring gull egg mercury levels observed in the early and mid 1970s and in 1982 for some colony sites were within the range found which potentially reduces hatchability in other fish-eating bird species.

  11. Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in the Aleutians

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Volz, Conrad D.; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Daniel; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Levels of mercury and other contaminants should be lower in birds nesting on isolated oceanic islands and at high latitudes without any local or regional sources of contamination, compared to more urban and industrialized temperate regions. We examined concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling and adult glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) nesting in breeding colonies on Adak, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska in the Bering Sea/North Pacific. We tested the following null hypotheses: 1) There were no differences in metal levels among eggs and feathers of adult and fledgling glaucous-winged gulls, 2) There were no differences in metal levels among gulls nesting near the three underground nuclear test sites (Long Shot 1965, Milrow 1969, Cannikin 1971) on Amchitka, 3) There were no differences in metal levels among the three islands, and 4) There were no gender-related differences in metal levels. All four null hypotheses were rejected at the 0.05 level, although there were few differences among the three test sites on Amchitka. Eggs had the lowest levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury, and the feathers of adults had the lowest levels of selenium. Comparing only adults and fledglings, adults had higher levels of cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury, and fledglings had higher levels of arsenic, manganese and selenium. There were few consistent interisland differences, although levels were generally lower for eggs and feathers from gulls on Amchitka compared to the other islands. Arsenic was higher in both adult feathers and eggs from Amchitka compared to Adak, and chromium and lead were higher in adult feathers and eggs from Adak compared to Amchitka. Mercury and arsenic, and chromium and manganese levels were significantly correlated in the feathers of both adult and fledgling gulls. The feathers of males had significantly higher levels of chromium and manganese than did females. The levels of most metals in feathers are below those known to be associated with adverse effects in the gulls or their predators. However, levels of mercury in some gull eggs are within a range suggesting that several eggs should not be eaten in one day by sensitive humans. PMID:18626778

  12. Depredation of common eider, Somateria mollissima, nests on a central Beaufort Sea barrier island: A case where no one wins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, J.A.; Lacroix, D.L.; Flint, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Along the central Beaufort Sea, Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigra) nest on unvegetated, barrier islands; often near nesting Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Nest-site choice likely reflects a strategy of predator avoidance: nesting on islands to avoid mammalian predators and near territorial gulls to avoid other avian predators. We observed a nesting colony of Common Eiders from first nest initiation through nesting termination on Egg Island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (2002 - 2003). Resident gulls depredated many eider nests, mostly during initiation. All nests failed when an Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) visited the island and flushed hens from their nests, exposing the eggs to depredation by the fox and gulls (resident and non-resident). Common Eiders actively defended nests from gulls, but not from foxes. Likely all three species (i.e., eiders, gulls, and foxes) ultimately achieved negligible benefit from their nest-site selection or predatory activity: (a) island nesting provided no safety from mammalian predators for eiders or gulls, (b) for Common Eiders, nesting near gulls increased egg loss, (c) for Glaucous Gulls, nesting near colonial eiders may have reduced nest success by attracting the fox, and (d) for Arctic Foxes, the depredation was of questionable value, as most eggs were cached and probably not recoverable (due to damage from fall storms). Thus, the predator-prey interactions we observed appear to be a case where little or no fitness advantage was realized by any of the species involved.

  13. Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects of Herring Gull Egg Extracts from Variably Contaminated Colonies of the Laurentian Great Lakes in Chicken Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L; Chiu, Suzanne; Letcher, Robert J; Periard, Luke; Kennedy, Sean W

    2015-08-18

    Determining the effects of complex mixtures of environmental contaminants poses many challenges within the field of ecotoxicology. In this study, graded concentrations of herring gull egg extracts, collected from five Great Lakes breeding colonies with variable burdens of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs), were administered to chicken embryonic hepatocytes to determine effects on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, porphyrin accumulation, and mRNA expression. EROD activity and porphyrin accumulation permitted the ranking of colonies based on the efficacy of eliciting an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated response. An avian ToxChip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array provided more exhaustive coverage in terms of potential toxicity pathways being affected, including xenobiotic and lipid metabolism and the thyroid hormone pathway. Herring gull eggs from Channel Shelter Island (CHSH, Lake Huron) and Gull Island (GULL, Lake Michigan) had among the highest OHC burdens, and extracts elicited a biochemical and transcriptomic response greater than that of extracts from the other three, less polluted colonies. For example, EROD EC50 values and porphyrin ECthreshold values were lower for CHSH and GULL extracts than for the other colonies. Extracts from CHSH and GULL altered 15 and 13 of 27 genes on the PCR array compared to no more than eight genes for the less contaminated sites. The combination of a well-established avian in vitro assay, two well-characterized biochemical assays, and the avian ToxChip PCR array permitted the geographical discrimination of variably contaminated herring gull eggs from the Great Lakes. Such high-throughput assays show potential promise as cost-effective tools for determining toxic potencies of complex mixtures in the environment. PMID:26192021

  14. Created versus natural coastal islands: Atlantic waterbird populations, habitat choices, and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Allen, D.H.; Jenkins, D.

    2003-01-01

    Nesting colonial waterbirds along the Atlantic Coast of the United States face a number of landscape-level threats including human disturbance, mammalian predator expansion, and habitat alteration. There have been changes from 1977 to the mid-1990s in use of nesting habitats and populations of a number of seabird species of concern in the region, including black skimmers Rynchops niger Linnaeaus, common terns Sterna hirundo Linnaeaus, gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica Linnaeaus, least terns Sterna antillarum Lesson, royal terns Sterna maxima Boddaert, and sandwich terns Sterna sandvicensis Cabot. These species form colonies primarily on the following habitat types: large, sandy barrier or shoal islands, natural estuarine or bay islands (mostly marsh), man-made islands of dredged deposition materials (from navigation channels), and the mainland. Significant changes in the use of the dredged material islands have occurred for these species in New Jersey and North Carolina, but not in Virginia. Population declines and changes in bird habitat use appear to be at least partially associated with the conditions and management of the existing dredged material islands, coastal policy changes associated with creating new dredged material islands, and competing demands for sand for beach augmentation by coastal communities. As these and other coastal habitats become less suitable for colonial waterbirds, other manmade sites, such as bridges and buildings have become increasingly more important. In regions with intense recreational demands, coastal wildlife managers need to take a more aggressive role in managing natural and man-made habitats areas and as stakeholders in the decision-making process involving dredged materials and beach sand allocation.

  15. THERMAL ENVIRONMENT AND TOLERANCE O F EMBRYONIC WESTERN GULLS1

    E-print Network

    Bennett, Albert F.

    THERMAL ENVIRONMENT AND TOLERANCE O F EMBRYONIC WESTERN GULLS1 ALBERT F. BENNETT: WILLIAM R. DAWSON/6/80) The thermal environment and tolerance of eggs and embryos of western gulls (Larus occidentalis wymani) on San cycles of heating during the day and cooling at night. Exposed eggs underwent a daily thermal excursion

  16. ORGANOCHLORINE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN HERRING GULLS, RING-BILLED GULLS, AND COMMON TERNS OF WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE, DDT, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed for three age classes (e.g. pre-fledge muscle and blood, and post-fledge muscle) of the herring gull, ring-billed gull, and common tern for samples collected in the western end of La...

  17. Chromosome aberrations and DNA strand breaks in glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs.

    PubMed

    Krøkje, Ase; Bingham, Chris; Tuven, Ruth Husmo; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2006-01-01

    In this present laboratory study, our results suggest that a complex mixture of pollutants found in the marine environment exerts genotoxic effects on glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs. Chromosome aberrations, quantified by cytogenetic analysis of blood cells, and DNA strand breaks, quantified by agarose gel electrophoresis and image data analysis, were determined in glaucous gull chicks fed environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed group) and in chicks fed hen eggs (control group). For both female and male gulls, the fraction of damaged metaphases was quantitatively higher in exposed than in control groups. On the other hand, the differences between the control and the exposed groups were more relevant when the chromosomal aberration data were treated as group totals rather than at the individual level. Consistent results were obtained in the DNA strand break analyses. The control group appeared to display a greater median molecular length (MML) than the exposed group. PMID:16291568

  18. Aerodynamic implications of gull's drooped wing-tips.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S A; Perez, R E; Allan, W D E

    2013-12-01

    When in gliding flight, gulls are observed to adopt a drooped wing-tip configuration. This paper investigates whether this configuration might represent an aerodynamic optimum or if it is the result of constraints imposed by the gull's anatomy. A computational model was developed for the aerodynamic performance of a gull in gliding flight. This model was used in conjunction with both global and local optimizers to determine the most aerodynamically optimal configuration for cases where the gull was constrained to move its wing within its natural flapping cycle as well as when the wing had full freedom of motion. The results of this analysis determined the best wing configuration for a gull in gliding flight and demonstrated that such a configuration not only had the highest lift-to-drag ratio but also could be achieved within the constraints of the kinematics of the gull wing. These results are of interest outside studies of gulls, since the drooped wing-tip configuration could be relevant for new designs of small air vehicles. PMID:24106263

  19. At–Sea Behavior Varies with Lunar Phase in a Nocturnal Pelagic Seabird, the Swallow-Tailed Gull

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase. PMID:23468889

  20. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  1. Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary

    E-print Network

    Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary Clark Richards,1 Daniel 2012; accepted 30 October 2012. [1] The shoaling of horizontally propagating internal waves may energetics, and two main features were studied. First, during a period of shoaling internal waves, turbulence

  2. 18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the apparatus for inserting the piles into the shoal, sheet no. 53", National Archives (8" x 10" print from 4" x 5" negative) - Ship Shoal Light Station, Gulf of Mexico, Theriot, Terrebonne Parish, LA

  3. Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Gull Feces?

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingrang; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lamendella, Regina; Edge, Thomas; Hill, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a gull 16S rRNA gene clone library was developed and analyzed to determine the identities of fecal bacteria. Analysis of 282 16S rRNA gene clones demonstrated that the gull gut bacterial community is mostly composed of populations closely related to Bacilli (37%), Clostridia (17%), Gammaproteobacteria (11%), and Bacteriodetes (1%). Interestingly, a considerable number of sequences (i.e., 26%) were closely related to Catellicoccus marimammalium, a gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterium. To determine the occurrence of C. marimammalium in waterfowl, species-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR and real-time assays were developed and used to test fecal DNA extracts from different bird (n = 13) and mammal (n = 26) species. The results showed that both assays were specific to gull fecal DNA and that C. marimammalium was present in gull fecal samples collected from the five locations in North America (California, Georgia, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Toronto, Canada) tested. Additionally, 48 DNA extracts from waters collected from six sites in southern California, Great Lakes in Michigan, Lake Erie in Ohio, and Lake Ontario in Canada presumed to be impacted with gull feces were positive by the C. marimammalium assay. Due to the widespread presence of this species in gulls and environmental waters contaminated with gull feces, targeting this bacterial species might be useful for detecting gull fecal contamination in waterfowl-impacted waters. PMID:18469128

  4. Diversity patterns in helminth communities in common gulls, Larus canus.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C R; Bakke, T A

    1989-06-01

    The parameters of species richness, abundance and diversity of the intestinal helminth infracommunities of a sample of 269 Common gulls, Larus canus, were examined over one season at Agdenes, Norway. The communities developed rapidly in unfledged gulls and the diversity parameters were of similar magnitude in immature and adult birds. All parameters were low in the early part of the season, reached maxima in June or July and fluctuated erratically or declined thereafter. Comparison of summary parameters with those from other species of gulls indicated that helminth community diversity in Common gulls is fairly typical of gulls in general. in gulls as a group, helminth communities show common features of high species richness, low abundance, few or no core species and a number of species that occur rarely and in low numbers. Expectations of particularly high parasite community diversity were not fully realised because species lists and diversity of the component community are not a very good basis for predicting diversity at the infracommunity level. PMID:2771449

  5. Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Benkaroun, Jessica; Munro, Hannah; Bond, Alexander L; Fifield, David A; Robertson, Gregory J; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2014-05-01

    Gulls are important hosts of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) and gull AIVs often contain gene segments of mixed geographic and host lineage origins. In this study, the prevalence of AIV in gulls of Newfoundland, Canada from 2008 to 2011 was analyzed. Overall prevalence was low (30/1645, 1.8%) but there was a distinct peak of infection in the fall. AIV seroprevalence was high in Newfoundland gulls, with 50% of sampled gulls showing evidence of previous infection. Sequences of 16 gull AIVs were determined and analyzed to shed light on the transmission, reassortment and persistence dynamics of gull AIVs in Atlantic North America. Intercontinental and waterfowl lineage reassortment was prevalent. Of particular note were a wholly Eurasian AIV and another with an intercontinental reassortant waterfowl lineage virus. These patterns of geographic and inter-host group transmission highlight the importance of characterization of gull AIVs as part of attempts to understand global AIV dynamics. PMID:24889254

  6. Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the

    E-print Network

    Social Stimuli, Testosterone, and Aggression in Gull Chicks: Support for the Challenge Hypothesis: testosterone; challenge hypothesis; ag- gression; black-headed gull; territorial behavior; chick; ontogeny; priming; sensitization; organizing effects; ex- ternal stimuli. Testosterone is considered to have

  7. Circumpolar contamination in eggs of the high-Arctic ivory gull Pagophila eburnea.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Magali; Verboven, Nanette; Strøm, Hallvard; Miljeteig, Cecilie; Gavrilo, Maria V; Braune, Birgit M; Boertmann, David; Gabrielsen, Geir W

    2015-07-01

    The ivory gull Pagophila eburnea is a high-Arctic species threatened by climate change and contaminants. The objective of the present study was to assess spatial variation of contaminant levels (organochlorines [OCs], brominated flame retardants [BFRs], perfluorinated alkyl substances [PFASs], and mercury [Hg]) in ivory gulls breeding in different areas across the Arctic region as a baseline for potential future changes associated with climate change. Contaminants were already determined in eggs from Canada (Seymour Island; except PFASs), Svalbard in Norway (Svenskøya), and 3 sites in Russia (Nagurskoe, Cape Klyuv, and Domashny). New data from Greenland allowed the investigation of a possible longitudinal gradient of contamination. The most quantitatively abundant OCs were p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorobiphenyls. Mercury concentrations were higher in Canada compared with other colonies. Eggs from Nagurskoe often were characterized by higher OC and BFR concentrations. Concentrations gradually decreased in colonies situated east of Nagurskoe. In contrast, PFAS concentrations, especially perfluorooctanoate and perfluorononanoate, were higher in Greenland. Some of the contaminants, especially Hg and p,p'-DDE, exceeded published thresholds known to disrupt the reproductive success of avian species. Overall, the levels of OCs, BFRs, and PFASs did not suggest direct lethal exposure to these compounds, but their potential synergetic/additive sublethal effects warrant monitoring. PMID:25677940

  8. Glaucous gull predation of goslings on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowman, T.D.; Stehn, R.A.; Scribner, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) nesting on the Yukon-Kuskokwim (Y-K) Delta frequently prey on juvenile waterfowl. We collected 434 Glaucous Gulls from late June to early August 1994 to examine diet. Identification of undigested prey tissue, based on DNA microsatellite loci, showed three species of goslings in gull stomachs: Emperor Goose (Chen canagica), White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons), and Cackling Canada Goose (Branta canadensis minima). Gulls that nested inland and were collected > 1.6 km from the coast accounted for approximately 70% of the total gull predation on Emperor and Canada Geese, and 96% on White-fronted Geese. Our stratified sample of gull stomachs and aerial survey estimates of population size and distribution of gulls and juvenile geese enabled extrapolation of species-specific predation rates to the entire Y-K Delta. We estimated that a minimum of 21 000 Emperor Goose, 34 000 Canada Goose, and 16 000 White-fronted Goose goslings were consumed by 12 600 Glaucous Gulls during the brood-rearing period on the Y-K Delta in 1994. Minimum estimated take by gulls represented 33% of Cackling Canada Goose, 47% of Emperor Goose, and 39% of White-fronted Goose eggs estimated to have hatched in the same area as gull collections. Gulls selected the three species of geese approximately in proportion to their abundance. Although gull predation caused significant gosling mortality, its role in regulating goose populations on Y-K Delta remains unresolved.

  9. Distribution of Gull Specific Molecular Marker in Coastal Areas of Lake Ontario

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls have been implicated as primary sources of fecal contamination in the Great Lakes, a fact that may have health implications due to the potential spread of microbial pathogens by waterfowl. To better understand the spatial variability of gull fecal contamination, a gull-spe...

  10. Sexing California gulls using morphometrics and discriminant function analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Takekawa, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    A discriminant function analysis (DFA) model was developed with DNA sex verification so that external morphology could be used to sex 203 adult California Gulls (Larus californicus) in San Francisco Bay (SFB). The best model was 97% accurate and included head-to-bill length, culmen depth at the gonys, and wing length. Using an iterative process, the model was simplified to a single measurement (head-to-bill length) that still assigned sex correctly 94% of the time. A previous California Gull sex determination model developed for a population in Wyoming was then assessed by fitting SFB California Gull measurement data to the Wyoming model; this new model failed to converge on the same measurements as those originally used by the Wyoming model. Results from the SFB discriminant function model were compared to the Wyoming model results (by using SFB data with the Wyoming model); the SFB model was 7% more accurate for SFB California gulls. The simplified DFA model (head-to-bill length only) provided highly accurate results (94%) and minimized the measurements and time required to accurately sex California Gulls.

  11. Distribution and textural character of surficial sediments, Isles Dernieres to Ship Shoal region, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.J.; Circe, R. ); Penland, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Since 1986, the US Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have undertaken field studies of the physical processes responsible for the widespread and extremely rapid coastal erosion of Louisiana's barriers along the Mississippi River delta plain coast. The study area encompasses the coastal and inner shelf region from Raccoon Point to Sandy Point and includes a database of 12-m long vibracores, surface grab samples, sidescan sonar, high resolution seismic reflection profiles, and precision hydrographic profiles. This paper presents results in the coastal-shelf sector that includes the Isles Dernieres barrier island chain seaward almost 30 km to Ship Shoal. The surface and near-surface sediments of the region reflect fluvial and nearshore marine origin with pervasive evidence of winnowing and reworking by marine processes associated with frequent tropical storms and the passage of winter cold fronts. Beach sediments are remarkably uniform in grain size (fine quartz sand), except for the often abundant presence of carbonate shell debris, and are generally well to very well sorted. The shoreface and inner shelf are mantled with muddy sands and sandy muds, whereas, Ship Shoal is almost wholly fine quartz sand, similar in many sedimentologic respects to the Isles Dernieres. The results are consistent with the model of coastal evolution, presented in 1988, in which Ship Shoal is the prototypical example of a drowned coastal barrier undergoing submarine reworking and landward migration in pace with the rapid rates of sea level rise and subsidence.

  12. Zoology 110 (2007) 369376 Nutritional state influences shoaling preference for familiars

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    in many animal species, including the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Shoaling; Gasterosteus aculeatus; Hunger; Social interaction; Kin recognition Introduction Shoaling behaviour is a well

  13. [A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].

    PubMed

    Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

    2005-01-01

    The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

  14. POTENTIAL FOR GULLS TO TRANSPORT BACTERIA FROM HUMAN WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed as a first step in assessing whether gulls visiting human waste sites can acquire human microorganisms and distribute them across the coastal landscape. Beaches, landfills, and a lagoon of treated wastewater located in a coastal Lake Michigan county were t...

  15. The herring gull complex is not a ring species.

    PubMed Central

    Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J.

    2004-01-01

    Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America. PMID:15255043

  16. Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Gull Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a gull 16S rDNA fecal clone librar...

  17. Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary

    E-print Network

    Kelley, Dan

    Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary Clark Richards,1 Daniel internal waves may represent an important source of mixing and transport in estuaries and coastal seas of the turbulent energetics, and two main features were studied. First, during a period of shoaling internal waves

  18. Adoption of chicks and the level of relatedness in common gull, Larus canus, colonies: DNA fingerprinting analyses.

    PubMed

    Bukaciński; Bukacińska; Lubjuhn

    2000-02-01

    In common gull colonies on islands of the Vistula River, Poland, adoption of chicks is common. In 1997, we observed 81 chicks from 35 nests. Of these, 19 (23.4%) left their natal broods and were adopted by other pairs. Another 11 (31.4%) were driven from the foreign territory by the owners. Foreign chicks were adopted by 15 pairs (42.9%). Eleven pairs (31.4%) drove foreign chicks from the territory. To test if the frequent adoptions in these colonies could be explained by kin selection or the occurrence of kin groups, we calculated band-sharing coefficients and genetic relatedness (r) between interacting birds (neighbours and non-neighbours). Adults that adopted were most often neighbours of the biological parents of adopted chicks, whereas spatially segregated birds, nesting further away, usually drove off the chicks. Band-sharing coefficients between males, but not females, were higher with decreasing internest distances. The band-sharing coefficients for adopted chicks and foster parents were significantly higher than for adopted chicks and randomly selected, spatially segregated pairs from the same and another colony. Band-sharing coefficients of adopted chicks and adopting neighbours (males: r=0.20; females: r=0.16) also tended to be higher than those of rejected chicks and rejecting neighbours (both sexes: r=0.08). Our results suggest that kin groups of neighbours do occur in common gull colonies. Such social structure might lead to indirect inclusive fitness benefits of adopting pairs. Differences in genetic similarity between chicks and adopting or rejecting neighbours show that at least in common gulls we should consider kin altruism as a factor in adoptions. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10675251

  19. Intersex condition of shoal bass in the Flint River, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Dallas R; Miller, Debra L; Ingram, Travis R; Tannehill, Josh E

    2011-12-01

    We examined male shoal bass Micropterus cataractae from the Flint River, Georgia, to determine the prevalence of intersex. During March and April 2010, we sampled 61 shoal bass from six sites along the Flint River. Testes were examined histologically and classified as intersex if the presence of oocytes was noted. Using a severity index, we compared samples collected on different dates and from different locations according to age and testis weight. No significant variations were noted among any of the groupings. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the intersex condition in shoal bass is severe enough to warrant concern and whether it is a natural phenomenon. PMID:22372246

  20. [Experimental infection caused by influenza A (H5N1) virus in common gull (Larus canus)].

    PubMed

    Za?kovskaia, A V; Sharshov, K A; Sherstkov, E A; Iurlov, A K; Shestopalov, A M

    2012-01-01

    The influenza A/common gull/Chany/P/2006 (HSN1) virus strain Isolated from a clinically healthy common gull (Larus canus) caused no death of Its natural host (a common gull). The virus was shown to be capable for effective replication in the tissues of the lung, spleen, and upper respiratory tract and in the intestinal mucosal cells of the common gull with further environmental virus liberation elimination along with mucinous discharges from the cloaca and fauces for 2 weeks. The potential role of this bird species in the circulation of influenza virus is discussed. PMID:23248859

  1. Genetic affinities within the herring gull Larus argentatus assemblage revealed by AFLP genotyping.

    PubMed

    de Knijff P; Denkers, F; van Swelm, N D; Kuiper, M

    2001-01-01

    To date, the taxonomic status of circumpolar breeding populations of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus, the Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus, and the closely related Yellow-legged Gull Larus cachinnans has been based on differences or similarities in phenotype, morphology, and feeding and premating behavior. To shed some new light on the many taxonomic uncertainties surrounding these taxa, we describe the results of a large DNA study based on comparing the distribution of 209 biallelic markers among 109 gulls, representing 11 gull taxa of the Herring Gull assemblage and the Common Gull Larus canus. A detailed phylogenetic analysis failed to show clustering of individuals into groups representing either geographic origin or phenotype. Alternatively, birds were grouped into taxa defined on the basis of phenotype and geographic origin or phenotype alone. Genetic analyses revealed significantly different genetic distances between all pairs of taxa. However, based on these genetic distances, again no consistent phylogenetic tree could be constructed. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that about 77% of the total genetic variability among these gulls could be explained by within-taxon differences. Only 23% of the total genetic variability was due to genetic differences between taxa, irrespective of their species or subspecies status. Although this seems to challenge the current taxonomic treatment of the herring gull assemblage, our results are too premature and too incomplete to recommend a drastic change. PMID:11139298

  2. DNA fingerprinting reveals elevated mutation rates in herring gulls inhabiting a genotoxically contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Yauk, C.L.; Quinn, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The authors used multi-locus DNA fingerprinting to examine families of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a genotoxically contaminated site (Hamilton Harbour) and from a pristine location (Kent Island, Bay of Fundy) to show significant differences in mutation rates between the locations. Overall the authors identified 17 mutant bands from 15 individuals of the 35 examined from Hamilton Harbour, and 7 mutant fragments from 7 individuals, of the 43 examined from Kent Island; a mutation frequency of 0.429 per nestling for Hamilton Harbour and 0.163 for Kent Island. The total number of individuals with mutant bands was significantly higher at Hamilton Harbour than at Kent Island (X{sup 2}=6.734; df = 1; P < 0.01). Ongoing analysis of other less contaminated sites also reveals lower mutation rates than those seen in Hamilton Harbour. With multi-locus DNA fingerprinting many regions of the genome can be surveyed simultaneously. The tandemly repeated arrays of nucleotides examined with DNA fingerprinting are known to have elevated rates of mutation. Furthermore, the mutations seen with DNA fingerprinting are predominantly heritable. Other biomarkers currently used in situ are not able to monitor direct and heritable DNA mutation, or measure biological endpoints that frequently result in spontaneous abortion creating difficulty in observing significantly elevated levels in viable offspring. The authors suggest that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be used as a biomarker to identify potentially heritable risks before the onset of other types of ecological damage. This approach provides a direct measure of mutation in situ and in vivo in a vertebrate species under ambient conditions.

  3. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves.

    PubMed

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna; Holland, Richard A; Huttunen, Markku J; Juvaste, Risto; Mueller, Inge; Tertitski, Grigori; Thorup, Kasper; Wild, Martin; Alanko, Markku; Bairlein, Franz; Cherenkov, Alexander; Cameron, Alison; Flatz, Reinhard; Hannila, Juhani; Hüppop, Ommo; Kangasniemi, Markku; Kranstauber, Bart; Penttinen, Maija-Liisa; Safi, Kamran; Semashko, Vladimir; Schmid, Heidi; Wistbacka, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    During migratory journeys, birds may become displaced from their normal migratory route. Experimental evidence has shown that adult birds can correct for such displacements and return to their goal. However, the nature of the cues used by migratory birds to perform long distance navigation is still debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to?gulls with the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances. PMID:26597351

  4. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna; Holland, Richard A.; Huttunen, Markku J.; Juvaste, Risto; Mueller, Inge; Tertitski, Grigori; Thorup, Kasper; Wild, Martin; Alanko, Markku; Bairlein, Franz; Cherenkov, Alexander; Cameron, Alison; Flatz, Reinhard; Hannila, Juhani; Hüppop, Ommo; Kangasniemi, Markku; Kranstauber, Bart; Penttinen, Maija-Liisa; Safi, Kamran; Semashko, Vladimir; Schmid, Heidi; Wistbacka, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    During migratory journeys, birds may become displaced from their normal migratory route. Experimental evidence has shown that adult birds can correct for such displacements and return to their goal. However, the nature of the cues used by migratory birds to perform long distance navigation is still debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to?gulls with the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances. PMID:26597351

  5. Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R.C.; Butman, B.; Pineda, J.

    2008-01-01

    The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model. The results are compared with current and temperature observations obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter experiment which took place in September 2001. The model shows how the approaching nonlinear undular bore interacts strongly with a shoaling bottom, offshore of where KdV theory predicts polarity switching should occur. It is shown that the shoaling process is dominated by nonlinearity, and the model results are interpreted with the aid of a two-layer nonlinear but hydrostatic model. After interacting with the shoaling bottom, the undular bore emerges on the shallow shelf inshore of the 30-m isobath as a nonlinear internal tide with a range of possible shapes, all of which are found in the available observational record. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Use of a nesting platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina, K.C.; Ricca, M.A.; Miles, A.K.; Schoneman, C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 Gull-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen islands, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.

  7. Species differences in total mercury concentration in gulls from the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic).

    PubMed

    Szumi?o-Pilarska, Emilia; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Falkowska, Lucyna; Hajdrych, Julia; Meissner, W?odzimierz; Fr?czek, Tomasz; Be?dowska, Magdalena; Bzoma, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic birds occupy a high position in the trophic pyramid of the Baltic Sea. This means that they accumulate the greatest amount of harmful substances, including mercury, in their bodies. This element penetrates into their systems mainly via the alimentary canal. The amount of mercury absorbed from food depends on how badly the environment is polluted with this metal. The aim of this study was to discover the concentrations of total mercury (HgT) in the contour feathers, muscles, brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and blood of four gull species Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Common Gull (Larus canus), Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) and organic mercury (Hgorg) in the liver and brain of Herring Gull. The most important characteristic of the results obtained for the studied gulls was the statistically significant differences between the four species, probably resulting from their different diets-confirmed by stable-isotopes analysis (?(15)N and ?(13)C). A logarithmic dependence was found between HgT in the blood and HgT in the brain of the Herring Gull. The authors suggest that among gulls burdened with the greatest mercury load, it is possible that the brain is protected by higher Hg accumulation in the muscles. The percentage share of Hgorg in the brain and liver of the Herring Gull depended on the concentration of HgT in these tissues and was always higher in the brain. In none of the cases, did the mercury levels assayed in the internal gulls' tissues exceed values associated with adverse health effects. PMID:26653750

  8. Combined effects of flow condition and parasitism on shoaling behaviour of female guppies Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Hockley, F A; Wilson, C A M E; Graham, N; Cable, J

    2014-01-01

    Group living in fish can provide benefits of protection from predators and some parasites, more efficient foraging for food, increased mating opportunities and enhanced energetic benefit when swimming. For riverine species, shoaling behaviour can be influenced by various environmental stressors, yet little is known how flow rate might influence the shoaling of diseased fish shoals. In view of the increasingly unpredictable flow rates in streams and rivers, this study aimed to assess the combined effect of flow condition and parasitism on the shoaling behaviour of a model fish species. Shoal size, shoal cohesion and time spent shoaling of female guppies Poecilia reticulata were compared when infected with the directly transmitted ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli under flow and static conditions. Flow condition was an important factor in influencing shoaling behaviour of guppies with the fish forming larger shoals in the absence of flow. When a shoal member was infected with G. turnbulli, shoal cohesion was reduced, but the magnitude of this effect was dependent on flow condition. In both flow and static conditions, bigger fish formed larger shoals than smaller counterparts. Future changes to stream hydrology with more frequent flooding and drought events will affect the shoaling tendency of fish. During high-flow events, diseased fish may not be able to keep up with shoal mates and therefore have a higher risk of predation. Additionally, these findings may be important for aquaria and farmed species where an increase in flow rate may reduce aggregation in fish. PMID:25152559

  9. Spatial patterns in a bioindicator: heavy metal and selenium concentration in eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in the New York Bight.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M

    1997-07-01

    Concentrations of selenium and five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, chromium, and manganese) in the eggs of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were studied at six breeding colonies in the New York Bight to detect locational differences and to explore their use as a bioindicator of point source or nonpoint source pollution. The herring gull is widespread in North America, Europe, and Asia, and has urban-adapted counterparts in the southern hemisphere as well. We anticipated that the chromium contamination at Jersey City and high levels of manganese in industrial releases to the Passaic River would be reflected in the nearest colony (Shooter's Island), and that lead contamination from bridge remediation would be apparent in the Jamaica Bay colonies. There were significant locational differences in all metal levels, although the patterns were not the same for all metals. Shooter's Island in Newark Bay ranked first or second for five of the elements, but inexplicably had the lowest mercury level. Cadmium levels were highest at Canarsie Pol in Jamaica Bay, but mercury levels were highest at the relatively isolated Lavallette colony in northern Barnegat Bay. Chromium and manganese levels were indeed highest at Shooter's Island, but the lead levels in Jamaica Bay were only intermediate. We predicted that the essential trace elements, manganese, chromium, and selenium, which are known to be present at relatively high concentrations in various animal species, would have relatively low coefficients of variation, reflecting homeostatic mechanisms. This was confirmed. In conclusion, herring gull egg contents can be used to monitor metal concentrations at nearby colonies to indicate areas of concern for particular metals. They may confirm suspected associations or identify hitherto unsuspected problems. PMID:9216872

  10. 75 FR 29574 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ...Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park AGENCY: National Park Service...Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park...gull eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park. The document describes...

  11. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  12. 75 FR 29574 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park. SUMMARY: The National Park... the harvest of glaucous-winged gull eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park....

  13. Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

  14. Male and Female Parental Roles in the Western Gull under Different Environmental Conditions

    E-print Network

    Pierotti, Raymond

    1981-07-01

    (1973), food appeared to be less abundant than usual. During 1973, male gulls spent more time on their territories than did their mates. In 1974, food appeared to be more abundant; male and female gulls spent similar amounts of time on their territories...

  15. What`s normal?: Body condition in Great Lakes herring gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Shutt, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Wildlife Service`s herring gull (Larus argentatus) surveillance program has demonstrated the usefulness of this species as a monitor of spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. However, the effects of environmental contaminants on gulls are difficult to distinguish from the effects of other anthropogenic stressors such as the introduction of exotic species, overfishing and habitat loss. To understand the relative importance of these factors in regulating the success of individual gulls and, hence, gull populations, the authors must first have a better understanding of what constitutes a ``normal`` bird. Improving the ability to differentiate between normal and abnormal birds is crucial in any health assessment of Great Lakes gulls. Body condition has been shown to be an important measure of a bird`s ability to provide energy for egg production, migration etc. Numerous approaches have been used to assess condition, most of which required that the bird be sacrificed. In this study, the authors describe a nonlethal technique to quantify body condition in herring gulls. Multivariate statistics are used to quantify body size, relate body size to total mass and from that, determine relative body condition. Initially, body condition is assessed in gulls from a reference colony where reproductive success is normal and anthropogenic influences are limited. This reference population is then used as a baseline against which other gull populations are compared.

  16. 77 FR 43805 - Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ...APHIS-2006-0035] Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record...for the Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport. DATES...populations and land uses in and around the John F. Kennedy International Airport....

  17. Molecular and epidemiological characterization of avian influenza viruses from gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wild aquatic birds constitute the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Separate Eurasian and American AIV gene pools exist. Here, the prevalence and diversity of AIVs in gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway were described. The influence of host species and temporal changes on AIV prevalence was examined. Five AIVs from Norway, including three from common gull (Larus canus), were analyzed along with 10 available AIV genomes from gulls in Eurasia to search for evidence of intracontinental and intercontinental reassortment of gene segments encoding the internal viral proteins. Methods Swabs collected from 2417 dabbling ducks and gulls in the south-west of Norway during five ordinary hunting seasons (August-December) in the period 2005–2010 were analyzed for presence of AIV. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations between AIV prevalence, host species and sampling time. Five AIVs from mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (H3N8, H9N2) and common gull (H6N8, H13N2, H16N3) were full-length characterized and phylogenetically analyzed together with GenBank reference sequences. Results Low pathogenic AIVs were detected in 15.5% (CI: 14.1–17.0) of the samples. The overall AIV prevalence was lower in December compared to that found in August to November (p = 0.003). AIV was detected in 18.7% (CI: 16.8–20.6) of the dabbling ducks. A high AIV prevalence of 7.8% (CI; 5.9–10.0) was found in gulls. A similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence was found in both bird groups. Thirteen hemagglutinin and eight neuraminidase subtypes were detected. No evidence of intercontinental reassortment was found. Eurasian avian (non H13 and H16) PB2 or PA genes were identified in five reference Eurasian gull (H13 and H16) AIV genomes from GenBank. The NA gene from the Norwegian H13N2 gull isolate was of Eurasian avian origin. Conclusions The similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence found in dabbling ducks and gulls, the relatively high virus prevalence detected in gulls and the evidence of intracontinental reassortment in AIVs from gulls indicate that gulls that interact with dabbling ducks are likely to be mixing vessels for AIVs from waterfowl and gulls. Our results support that intercontinental reassortment is rare in AIVs from gulls in Eurasia. PMID:23575317

  18. Bacteroidales Diversity in Ring-Billed Gulls (Laurus delawarensis) Residing at Lake Michigan Beaches?

    PubMed Central

    Jeter, Sonja N.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Bower, Patricia A.; Kinzelman, Julie L.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Goetz, Giles W.; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence and diversity of Bacteroidales fecal bacteria in gulls residing in the Great Lakes region. Members of this bacterial order have been widely employed as human and bovine host-specific markers of fecal pollution; however, few studies have focused on gulls, which can be a major source of fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens at beaches. We found a low but consistent occurrence of Bacteroidales in gulls at five beaches in three different counties spanning the Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Michigan. The percentages of gulls positive for Bacteroidales were 4 to 8% at beaches in the southern part of the state and 8 to 50% at beaches in the north. Sequencing of 931 clones from seven gull Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed a large amount of diversity in both individual and pooled gull fecal samples. Two libraries constructed from pooled gull fecal samples (n = 5 and n = 6) did not have a greater richness of sequences than individual samples, suggesting that even within a single gull diversity is high and an extensive sequencing effort is needed to characterize the populations. Estimates of the numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the libraries obtained using different similarity levels revealed a large amount of microdiveristy with a limited number of OTUs at the 95% similarity level. Gull sequences were clustered by the beach from which they were collected, suggesting that there were geographic effects on the distribution of Bacteriodales. More than 53% of the 16S rRNA gene sequences from gulls at the southern beaches were associated with the family Porphyromonadaceae, primarily the genus Parabacteroides, whereas sequences from gulls at the northern beaches were comprised of Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae sequences. Comparison of gull sequences with sequences from goose, canine, raccoon, and sewage sources revealed distinct clusters of closely related gull sequences; however, these sequences were widely dispersed across a dendrogram that included all other sources, including previously characterized gull Bacteroidales from other studies, suggesting that geographic influence or simply sample representation plays a greater role in the observed population structure than strictly the host gut environment. PMID:19151182

  19. Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes of Great Round Shoal Channel, offshore Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Foster, David S.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Moser, M.S.; Stewart, H.F.; Glomb, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    The imagery, interpretive data layers, and data presented herein were derived from multibeam echo-sounder and sidescan-sonar data collected in the vicinity of Great Round Shoal Channel, the main passage through shoals located at the eastern entrance to Nantucket Sound, Massachusetts, and from the stations occupied to verify these acoustic data (fig. 1). Basic data layers show sea-floor topography, sun-illuminated shaded relief, and backscatter intensity; interpretive layers show the distributions of surficial sediment, sedimentary environments, and sea-floor features. Presented verification data include sediment grain-size analyses and a gallery of still photographs of the seabed. The multibeam and sidescan data, which together cover an approximately 39.9-km² area of sea floor, were collected during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) hydrographic survey H11079 (fig. 1). Although originally collected for charting purposes, these data provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities along this part of the Massachusetts coastline (Noji and others, 2004), show the composition and terrain of the seabed, and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. This publication is the third in a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital reports describing the sea-floor geology around Cape Cod. The first focused on the area off the eastern shore of the outer Cape (Poppe and others, 2006); the second on a passage through the Elizabeth Islands (Poppe and others, 2007).

  20. Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

  1. Modelling terrestrial and marine foraging habitats in breeding Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii: timing matters.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Juan; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Villero, Dani; Bateman, Santiago; Jover, Lluís; García-Matarranz, Víctor; Sanpera, Carolina; Arcos, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Although the breeding ecology of Audouin's gull has been widely studied, its spatial distribution patterns have received little attention. We assessed the foraging movements of 36 GPS-tracked adult Audouin's gulls breeding at the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean), coinciding with the incubation period (May 2011). This also coincided with a trawling moratorium northwards from the colony. We modelled the distribution of the gulls by combining these tracking data with environmental variables (including fishing activities from Vessel Monitoring System, VMS), using Maxent. The modelling range included both marine and terrestrial areas. Models were produced separately for every 2h time interval across the day, and for 2 fishing activity scenarios (workdays vs. weekends), allowing to assess the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the gulls and the degree of association with fisheries. During workdays, gull distribution at sea fully matched with fishing activities, both trawling (daylight) and purse-seining (nightime). Gulls tended to avoid the area under trawling moratorium, confirming the high influence of fisheries on the distribution patterns of this species. On weekends, gulls made lesser use of the sea and tended to increase the use of rice fields. Overall, Audouin's gull activity was more intense during dailight hours, although birds also showed nocturnal activity, on both workdays and weekends. Nocturnal patterns at sea were more disperse during the latter, probably because these gulls are able to capture small pelagic fish at night in natural conditions, but tend to congregate around purse-seiners (which would enhance their foraging efficiency) in workdays. These results provide important insight for the management of this species. This is of particular relevance under the current scenario of European fisheries policies, since new regulations are aimed at eliminating discards, and this would likely influence Audouin's gull populations. PMID:25875597

  2. Modelling Terrestrial and Marine Foraging Habitats in Breeding Audouin's Gulls Larus audouinii: Timing Matters

    PubMed Central

    Bécares, Juan; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Villero, Dani; Bateman, Santiago; Jover, Lluís; García-Matarranz, Víctor; Sanpera, Carolina; Arcos, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Although the breeding ecology of Audouin’s gull has been widely studied, its spatial distribution patterns have received little attention. We assessed the foraging movements of 36 GPS-tracked adult Audouin’s gulls breeding at the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean), coinciding with the incubation period (May 2011). This also coincided with a trawling moratorium northwards from the colony. We modelled the distribution of the gulls by combining these tracking data with environmental variables (including fishing activities from Vessel Monitoring System, VMS), using Maxent. The modelling range included both marine and terrestrial areas. Models were produced separately for every 2h time interval across the day, and for 2 fishing activity scenarios (workdays vs. weekends), allowing to assess the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the gulls and the degree of association with fisheries. During workdays, gull distribution at sea fully matched with fishing activities, both trawling (daylight) and purse-seining (nightime). Gulls tended to avoid the area under trawling moratorium, confirming the high influence of fisheries on the distribution patterns of this species. On weekends, gulls made lesser use of the sea and tended to increase the use of rice fields. Overall, Audouin’s gull activity was more intense during dailight hours, although birds also showed nocturnal activity, on both workdays and weekends. Nocturnal patterns at sea were more disperse during the latter, probably because these gulls are able to capture small pelagic fish at night in natural conditions, but tend to congregate around purse-seiners (which would enhance their foraging efficiency) in workdays. These results provide important insight for the management of this species. This is of particular relevance under the current scenario of European fisheries policies, since new regulations are aimed at eliminating discards, and this would likely influence Audouin’s gull populations. PMID:25875597

  3. The Efficiency of an Integrated Program Using Falconry to Deter Gulls from Landfills.

    PubMed

    Thiériot, Ericka; Patenaude-Monette, Martin; Molina, Pierre; Giroux, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Gulls are commonly attracted to landfills, and managers are often required to implement cost-effective and socially accepted deterrence programs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive program that integrated the use of trained birds of prey, pyrotechnics, and playback of gull distress calls at a landfill located close to a large ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) colony near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We used long-term survey data on bird use of the landfill, conducted behavioral observations of gulls during one season and tracked birds fitted with GPS data loggers. We also carried out observations at another landfill located farther from the colony, where less refuse was brought and where a limited culling program was conducted. The integrated program based on falconry resulted in a 98% decrease in the annual total number of gulls counted each day between 1995 and 2014. A separate study indicated that the local breeding population of ring-billed gulls increased and then declined during this period but remained relatively large. In 2010, there was an average (±SE) of 59 ± 15 gulls/day using the site with falconry and only 0.4% ± 0.2% of these birds were feeding. At the other site, there was an average of 347 ± 55 gulls/day and 13% ± 3% were feeding. Twenty-two gulls tracked from the colony made 41 trips towards the landfills: twenty-five percent of the trips that passed by the site with falconry resulted in a stopover that lasted 22 ± 7 min compared to 85% at the other landfill lasting 63 ± 15 min. We concluded that the integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than selective culling, was effective in reducing the number of gulls at the landfill. PMID:26479231

  4. Origin of barrier islands on sandy coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F. )

    1990-09-01

    Many barrier islands on the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico contain one or more nuclei; island growth has taken place more or less seaward from these nuclei, which are the oldest parts of the islands. The nuclei were, at one time, separate islands; the oldest beach ridges wrap around them on two or three sides, showing that they were not remnants of spits or earlier larger features. The nuclei grew larger with time because of a local equilibrium of abundance of sand, rather than a regime of erosion. The younger growth areas are commonly marked by sequences, or sets, of beach ridges; such features are not visible in the nuclei. The question of the origin of many barrier islands on sandy coasts must be closely related to the question of the origin of the nuclei. But the nuclei appear to have no distinguishing marks that in themselves might help explain their origin. Johnson Shoal (Lee County, on the lower west coast of the Florida peninsula) may provide some insight into the origin of nuclei. It appeared for the first time, more recently than 1853, in water 2-6 m deep, and has been migrating landward (eastward) ever since. Seven maps and charts from various dates and many sets of black-and-white aerial photographs have been used to produce a history of shoal migration. By December 1988, welding of the remnants of the shoal onto the shore of Cayo Costa island was already under way. The migrating shoal contained more than 10 million m{sup 3} of sand (13 million yd{sup 3}), with a mass of 10 trillion kg. Known nuclei on other islands are commonly about this size, or smaller. The moving shoal did not develop from dredge spoil (there has been no dredging of this magnitude in the area), a spit, a drowned dune, or a fault. It must have been a natural nontectonic event: emergence of a shoal since 1853 without notable changes in sea level or wave climate. Perhaps such events, common a few thousand years ago, account for barrier island nuclei.

  5. THE MYSTERY OF HISTORICAL CHANNEL SHOALING AT HOUSTON-GALVESTON NAVIGATION CHANNEL, TX

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    560 THE MYSTERY OF HISTORICAL CHANNEL SHOALING AT HOUSTON-GALVESTON NAVIGATION CHANNEL, TX JULIE. Herein, we review data for the estuarine reaches of the HGNC and explore the mystery of the shoaling data

  6. Extensive Geographic Mosaicism in Avian Influenza Viruses from Gulls in the Northern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Wille, Michelle; Robertson, Gregory J.; Whitney, Hugh; Bishop, Mary Anne; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Lang, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    Due to limited interaction of migratory birds between Eurasia and America, two independent avian influenza virus (AIV) gene pools have evolved. There is evidence of low frequency reassortment between these regions, which has major implications in global AIV dynamics. Indeed, all currently circulating lineages of the PB1 and PA segments in North America are of Eurasian origin. Large-scale analyses of intercontinental reassortment have shown that viruses isolated from Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) are the major contributor of these outsider events. To clarify the role of gulls in AIV dynamics, specifically in movement of genes between geographic regions, we have sequenced six gull AIV isolated in Alaska and analyzed these along with 142 other available gull virus sequences. Basic investigations of host species and the locations and times of isolation reveal biases in the available sequence information. Despite these biases, our analyses reveal a high frequency of geographic reassortment in gull viruses isolated in America. This intercontinental gene mixing is not found in the viruses isolated from gulls in Eurasia. This study demonstrates that gulls are important as vectors for geographically reassorted viruses, particularly in America, and that more surveillance effort should be placed on this group of birds. PMID:21697989

  7. The distribution and conservation status of the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina, K.C.; Erwin, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) has until recently received little conservation and management attention within North America despite a relatively low overall population size and significant declines in parts of the breeding range. This lack of attention may stem in part from the wide distribution of the species, encompassing parts of six continents, and from its tendency to nest in relatively small, scattered and often ephemeral colonies. Populations of North American subspecies are alarmingly small. The current population of the eastern subspecies aranea in the U.S. is unlikely to exceed 3,600 pairs, with over 60% of these birds occurring in Texas. The Texas population has remained generally stable, but declines of populations in Maryland (where probably extirpated), Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, and possibly Georgia give cause for concern for this subspecies. For the western subspecies vanrossemi, as few as 250 pairs nest at only two locations in the U.S., both in California. When populations in western Mexico are considered, the entire vanrossemi population numbers only 600-800 pairs. Currently the Gull-billed Tern is listed as ?endangered? or ?threatened? in four states, and is considered to be of management concern in five others. The breeding range of the species has contracted and shifted slightly from its known historic range in the middle Atlantic states, but otherwise occupies its historic range in the United States and has expanded slightly to coastal southern California. Some range contraction in Mexico (e.g., in Sonora) may have occurred. In eastern Mexico, historical information is almost non-existent and knowledge of current distribution and abundance is incomplete. Main threats to populations in North America include loss of natural nesting islands through beach erosion or perturbations to estuarine functions, development or modification of upland habitats near breeding areas that may be important for foraging, and disturbances to colonies by humans and feral or human-subsidized predators. This species often nests on man-made substrates suggesting it could be responsive to management of breeding sites. Key research needs include more frequent and refined population monitoring, a better understanding of demographics, metapopulation dynamics and factors limiting populations as well as refinement of subspecies? breeding distributions and wintering ranges.

  8. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  9. Insects, vegetation, and the control of laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at Kennedy International Airport, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; McCarthy, M.

    1994-01-01

    1. In response to a purported 'bird-strike problem' at J.F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, we examined short (5 cm) and long (45 cm) grass heights as gull deterrents, in a randomized-block experiment. 2. Vegetative cover, numbers of adult insects and of larval beetles (suspected on-airport food of the gulls) were sampled in the six-block, 36-plot study area, as well as gut contents of adult and downy young gulls in the immediately adjacent colony in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. 3. We found that (i) Oriental beetle larvae were the most numerous and concentrated in one experimental block; (ii) beetle larvae numbers were uncorrelated with grass height; (iii) adult beetles were also uncorrelated with grass height; (iv) laughing gulls were distributed across blocks irrespective of percentage cover; (v) within blocks, laughing gulls were selecting short grass and avoiding long grass plots; (vi) laughing gull numbers were positively associated with numbers of Oriental beetle larvae; (vii) adult laughing gulls on the airport were eating lower-nutrition food of terrestrial origin (74-83% adult beetles, mostly Oriental plus green June and ground beetles); (viii) on the other hand, gull chicks in the adjacent breeding colony were being fed more easily digested, higher-protein food of marine origin (86-88% fishes, crustacea and molluscs); (ix) laughing gulls on the airport were taking their adult beetles only in short-grass plots, ignoring large numbers in adjacent long grass; (x) during the summer, on-airport gulls shifted from performing largely maintenance activities on pavement to feeding actively for beetles on newly mown short grass, the change coinciding with adult beetle emergence; (xi) standing water on the airport attracted significantly more gulls than dry areas all summer long. 4. We recommend a series of ecologically compatible, but aggressive habitat management actions for controlling laughing gulls on Kennedy Airport by rendering the airport unattractive to them, notably by implementing an airport-wide programme of long-grass encouragement, draining standing water and improving runoff in water-collecting areas, and controlling beetles. 5. We conclude by outlining the necessity for airport-wide bird, vegetation and habitat management programmes fully integrated into airport operation and planning activities.

  10. Geologic framework of sand shoals on muddy Mississippi delta shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, J.R.; Penland, S.; Moslow, T.F.

    1984-04-01

    More than 1000 km (620 mi) of high resolution ore-Boomer and 3.5 kh/sub z/ subbottom seismic profiles correlated to seventeen 10-12 m (33-56 ft) vibracores provide the data base for analyzing the sedimentologic and stratigraphic framework of transgressive sand shoals on the Louisiana inner continental shelf. Trinity and Ship Shoals are comprised of reworked sands of the abandoned Holocene Teche and Maringouin deltas and provide a possible modern analog for some Cretaceous shelf sandstones of the Western Interior.

  11. Dynamic web cache publishing for IaaS clouds using Shoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gable, Ian; Chester, Michael; Armstrong, Patrick; Berghaus, Frank; Charbonneau, Andre; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Paterson, Michael; Prior, Robert; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a highly scalable application, called Shoal, for tracking and utilizing a distributed set of HTTP web caches. Our application uses the Squid HTTP cache. Squid servers advertise their existence to the Shoal server via AMQP messaging by running Shoal Agent. The Shoal server provides a simple REST interface that allows clients to determine their closest Squid cache. Our goal is to dynamically instantiate Squid caches on IaaS clouds in response to client demand. Shoal provides the VMs on IaaS clouds with the location of the nearest dynamically instantiated Squid Cache.

  12. Mercury concentration in 3 species of Gulls, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, from south coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Fateme; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the mercury concentrations of liver, breast feathers and tail feathers in three species of Gull; Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus), Common Gull (Larus canus) and Little Gull (Larus minutus) from the South coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran were assayed. Mercury accumulation in liver, breast feathers and tail feathers of species were 1.69-3.16, 2.88-7.18 and 2.09-5.66 mg/kg, respectively. Mercury concentration hierarchy in tissues we tested was as follows: breast feather > tail feather > and liver. We found that despite its small size, Little Gull had highest (3.85-8.05 mg/kg) and Common Gull lowest (1.69-2.88 mg/kg) level of Hg in their bodies. An inverse relationship between body size and Hg levels in these Gulls was detected. Mercury in Little Gull and Black-headed Gull exceeded the 5 ppm threshold for adverse effect. PMID:20424818

  13. Modeling colony site dynamics: a case study of gull-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a Markov process model for colony site dynamics of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia. We used the model and data on colony site occupation from 1993 to 1996 to estimate model parameters. Each year, we monitored the breeding numbers of Gull-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) at colony sites along about 80 km of the barrier island region of Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony sites over the four-year period. We then used data on annual site occupation by Gull-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and test between different structures reflecting competing hypotheses. Results revealed a dynamic system, but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian , i.e. the probability of occupancy of a site in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied the previous year. Nor did the colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of site occupancy. Site survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the overall annual probability of a site being occupied over the course of the four-year period was estimated to be 0.59 Of the total of 25 sites that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in only one or two years while only three were used all four years.. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of sites. The low colony-site fidelity we demonstrate suggests that an effective management approach is to provide a large number of alternative sand and/or shellpile sites that the terns may use. Sites not used one year may still be used in subsequent years.

  14. Infectious bursal disease virus antibodies in eider ducks and Herring Gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Docherty, D.E.; Kilpi, Mikael; Hario, Martti; Creekmore, L.H.; Petersen, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    We measured antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in blood of nesting Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) females and immature Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in the Baltic Sea, and in blood of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) females nesting in a remote area of western Alaska. Positive (??? 1:16) IBDV titers occurred in 75% of the eiders and 45% of the Herring Gull chicks. In eiders, the prevalence of positive titers differed among locations. We found no evidence that IBDV exposure impaired the immune function of Herring Gull chicks, based on their response to inoculation of sheep red blood cells. We suggest that eider ducks and Herring Gulls have been exposed to IBDV, even in locations where contact with poultry is unlikely. The presence of this virus in wild bird populations is of concern because it causes mortality of up to 30% in susceptible poultry.

  15. Shoaling internal solitary waves B. R. Sutherland,1,2

    E-print Network

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Shoaling internal solitary waves B. R. Sutherland,1,2 K. J. Barrett,1 and G. N. Ivey3 Received 29, 1844]. Within estuaries and the coastal oceans, internal sol- itary waves are manifest as large for their (admit- tedly relatively small) contribution to ocean mixing on a global scale, internal solitary waves

  16. Spatio-Temporal Structure of Hooded Gull Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor’s position in terms of coordinates based on each individual’s motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock. PMID:24339960

  17. Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

  18. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance. PMID:22957123

  19. The Sound of Danger: Threat Sensitivity to Predator Vocalizations, Alarm Calls, and Novelty in Gulls

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Sarah A.; Bonter, David N.

    2013-01-01

    The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

  20. Quantifying fall migration of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) past Point Barrow, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Davis, Shanti E.; Maftei, Mark; Gesmundo, Callie; Suydam, R.S.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a poorly known seabird of the circumpolar Arctic. The only place in the world where Ross's gulls are known to congregate is in the near-shore waters around Point Barrow, Alaska where they undertake an annual passage in late fall. Ross's gulls seen at Point Barrow are presumed to originate from nesting colonies in Siberia, but neither their origin nor their destination has been confirmed. Current estimates of the global population of Ross's gulls are based largely on expert opinion, and the only reliable population estimate is derived from extrapolations from previous counts conducted at Point Barrow, but these data are now over 25 years old. In order to update and clarify the status of this species in Alaska, our study quantified the timing, number, and flight direction of Ross's gulls passing Point Barrow in 2011. We recorded up to two-thirds of the estimated global population of Ross's gulls (? 27,000 individuals) over 39 days with numbers peaking on 16 October when we observed over 7,000 birds during a three-hour period.

  1. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Sarah A; Bonter, David N

    2013-01-01

    The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses. PMID:24324780

  2. The Efficiency of an Integrated Program Using Falconry to Deter Gulls from Landfills

    PubMed Central

    Thiériot, Ericka; Patenaude-Monette, Martin; Molina, Pierre; Giroux, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary We evaluated the long-term effect of an intensive integrated program based on falconry to deter gulls, mostly ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis), from a landfill. Gulls were counted at different periods each day, and the annual sum of the maximum count at any observation period each day declined from over 1.1 million to only 20,300 during the 20 years of the study. This could not be explained by a decline in the local breeding population that remained relatively large throughout this period as determined in a concomitant study. The effectiveness of the falconry program was also confirmed by tracking individual birds fitted with GPS data loggers. The tagged gulls stopped less often and spent less time at the landfill with falconry than at another one where a selective culling program was conducted. We conclude that the use of an integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than culling, can be effective in deterring gulls from landfills. Abstract Gulls are commonly attracted to landfills, and managers are often required to implement cost-effective and socially accepted deterrence programs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive program that integrated the use of trained birds of prey, pyrotechnics, and playback of gull distress calls at a landfill located close to a large ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) colony near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We used long-term survey data on bird use of the landfill, conducted behavioral observations of gulls during one season and tracked birds fitted with GPS data loggers. We also carried out observations at another landfill located farther from the colony, where less refuse was brought and where a limited culling program was conducted. The integrated program based on falconry resulted in a 98% decrease in the annual total number of gulls counted each day between 1995 and 2014. A separate study indicated that the local breeding population of ring-billed gulls increased and then declined during this period but remained relatively large. In 2010, there was an average (±SE) of 59 ± 15 gulls/day using the site with falconry and only 0.4% ± 0.2% of these birds were feeding. At the other site, there was an average of 347 ± 55 gulls/day and 13% ± 3% were feeding. Twenty-two gulls tracked from the colony made 41 trips towards the landfills: twenty-five percent of the trips that passed by the site with falconry resulted in a stopover that lasted 22 ± 7 min compared to 85% at the other landfill lasting 63 ± 15 min. We concluded that the integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than selective culling, was effective in reducing the number of gulls at the landfill. PMID:26479231

  3. Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to reduce nest predators, especially gulls and foxes, likely will have the greatest immediate benefit for island breeding black ducks.

  4. Fluoride exposure and selected characteristics of eggs and bones of the herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the common gull (Larus canus).

    PubMed

    Vikøren, T; Stuve, G

    1996-04-01

    Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shell of 285 herring gull eggs (Larus argentatus) and 120 common gull eggs (Larus canus), collected May 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies exposed to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smelters located at Karmøy and Sunndal, and from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume-index, shell thickness, thickness-index, and fertilization of the eggs also were monitored. In both species, the shell fluorine concentration was significantly increased in eggs collected at sites exposed to fluoride emissions. No effects on other egg characteristics were observed. In both exposed and unexposed sites, the last-laid egg in a clutch, normally containing three eggs, had the highest shell fluorine residue. Fluorine levels also were analyzed in femurs from 42 herring gulls, collected from Karmøy and Sola in May 1993. The relationship between sex and fluoride accumulation, and the relations between fluorine concentration in femurs of laying herring gulls and in the shell of their eggs, were evaluated. Bone morphology also was studied. Bone fluorine concentrations were raised significantly in emission-exposed female birds. Moreover, females from the exposed site had significantly higher fluorine residues than males. There was a positive correlation between fluorine levels in femurs of individual laying birds and those in the shells of their eggs. No changes in bone morphology due to fluoride exposure was found. PMID:8722255

  5. Safety in numbers? Shoaling behaviour of the Amazonian red-bellied piranha

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Helder; Magurran, Anne E

    2005-01-01

    Red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) shoals have a fearsome reputation. However, the variety and abundance of piranha predators in the flooded forests of the Amazon in which they live indicate that an important reason for shoal formation may be predator defence. Experiments using wild-caught piranhas supported the hypothesis that individual perception of risk, as revealed by elevated ventilatory frequency (opercular rate), is greater in small shoals. Moreover, exposure to a simulated predator attack by a model cormorant demonstrated that resting opercular rates are regained more quickly by piranhas in shoals of eight than they are in shoals of two. Together, these results show that shoaling has a cover-seeking function in this species. PMID:17148153

  6. Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy; Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien; Ip, Hon S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of gulls in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American gulls frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed Gull contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American gull and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods: We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results: We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as gulls. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed Gull virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions: This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable "triple reassortant internal gene" core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the need for continued surveillance in gull and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of gull species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI.

  7. 75 FR 71731 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ...Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Legislative Environmental...Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Legislative Environmental...Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. The...

  8. Functional Metagenomics Reveals Previously Unrecognized Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Gulls

    PubMed Central

    Martiny, Adam C.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Weihe, Claudia; Field, Andrew; Ellis, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife may facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) between human-dominated habitats and the surrounding environment. Here, we use functional metagenomics to survey the diversity and genomic context of AR genes in gulls. Using this approach, we found a variety of AR genes not previously detected in gulls and wildlife, including class A and C ?-lactamases as well as six tetracycline resistance gene types. An analysis of the flanking sequences indicates that most of these genes are present in Enterobacteriaceae and various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to finding known gene types, we detected 31 previously undescribed AR genes. These undescribed genes include one most similar to an uncharacterized gene in Verrucomicrobium and another to a putative DNA repair protein in Lactobacillus. Overall, the study more than doubled the number of clinically relevant AR gene types known to be carried by gulls or by wildlife in general. Together with the propensity of gulls to visit human-dominated habitats, this high diversity of AR gene types suggests that gulls could facilitate the spread of AR. PMID:22347872

  9. An outbreak of type C botulism in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Southeastern Sweden

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neimanis, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Leighton, F.; Bollinger, T.; Rocke, T.; Morner, T.

    2007-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  10. Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

  11. First record of Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Acuariidae) in common gulls (Larus canus) from Gangneung, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Min; Park, Bae-Keun; Jung, Bae Dong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-02-01

    A nematode species belonging to the genus Cosmocephalus was collected from the stomach of 2 common gulls, Larus canus. The common gulls were found dead on the seaside of Gangneung City, the Republic of Korea. The worms were identified and classified by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of important taxonomic characters. The nematodes were characterized by a body length 9.1-9.3 mm (males) and 15.5-15.9 mm (females) and cordons recurrent in anterior direction and anastomosing laterally at about the level of anterior quarter of the buccal cavity. The salient bicuspid deirids were located on the posterior to the cordons. Lateral alae were well-developed, extending from the level just posterior of deirids to the level about middle of the body. LM and SEM observations identified the worms as C. obvelatus. This is the first reported case of C. obvelatus infection in common gulls in Korea. PMID:25748715

  12. First Record of Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Acuariidae) in Common Gulls (Larus canus) from Gangneung, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Min; Park, Bae-Keun; Jung, Bae Dong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    A nematode species belonging to the genus Cosmocephalus was collected from the stomach of 2 common gulls, Larus canus. The common gulls were found dead on the seaside of Gangneung City, the Republic of Korea. The worms were identified and classified by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of important taxonomic characters. The nematodes were characterized by a body length 9.1-9.3 mm (males) and 15.5-15.9 mm (females) and cordons recurrent in anterior direction and anastomosing laterally at about the level of anterior quarter of the buccal cavity. The salient bicuspid deirids were located on the posterior to the cordons. Lateral alae were well-developed, extending from the level just posterior of deirids to the level about middle of the body. LM and SEM observations identified the worms as C. obvelatus. This is the first reported case of C. obvelatus infection in common gulls in Korea. PMID:25748715

  13. Identification of human enteric pathogens in gull feces at Southwestern Lake Michigan bathing beaches.

    PubMed

    Kinzelman, Julie; McLellan, Sandra L; Amick, Ashley; Preedit, Justine; Scopel, Caitlin O; Olapade, Ola; Gradus, Steve; Singh, Ajaib; Sedmak, Gerald

    2008-12-01

    Ring-billed (Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815) and herring (Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763) gulls are predominant species of shorebirds in coastal areas. Gulls contribute to the fecal indicator burden in beach sands, which, once transported to bathing waters, may result in water quality failures. The importance of these contamination sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor bathing water quality on human health. This study examined the occurrence of human enteric pathogens in gull populations at Racine, Wisconsin. For 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005, and 7 weeks in 2006, 724 gull fecal samples were examined for pathogen occurrence on traditional selective media (BBL CHROMagar-Salmonella, Remel Campy-BAP, 7% horse blood agar) or through the use of novel isolation techniques (Campylobacter, EC FP5-funded CAMPYCHECK Project), and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogens commonly harbored in gulls. An additional 226 gull fecal samples, collected in the same 12-week period in 2004, from a beach in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were evaluated with standard microbiological methods and PCR. Five isolates of Salmonella (0.7%), 162 (22.7%) isolates of Campylobacter, 3 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila group 2 (0.4%), and 28 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides (3.9%) were noted from the Racine beach. No occurrences of Salmonella and 3 isolates of Campylobacter (0.4%) were found at the Milwaukee beach. A subset of the 2004 samples was also examined for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and was found to be negative. Information as to the occurrence of human pathogens in beach ecosystems is essential to design further studies assessing human health risk and to determine the parameters influencing the fate and transport of pathogens in the nearshore environment. PMID:19096455

  14. Predator-prey relations and competition for food between age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins in the Apostle Island region of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Bronte, Charles R.

    1995-01-01

    Slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) are an important component of the fish community on reefs and adjacent nursery areas of the Great Lakes and overlap spatially with age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Important interactions between these fishes are possible during the lake trout's first year of life, which could include predation on each other's eggs and larvae, and competition for food resources. We investigated the diets of age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins on a lake trout spawning reef (Gull Island Shoal) and adjacent nursery area (near Michigan Island) in the Apostle Island Region of western Lake Superior during June through September from 1988 through 1991. Organisms in stomachs of 511 lake trout and 562 sculpins were identified and counted. Of the 11 major food types found in age-0 lake trout stomachs from both areas, Mysis was the dominant food item (mean volume in stomachs = 68%) and occurred in about 3/4 of the fish analyzed. Copepods, cladocerans, chironomid pupae, fish, and Bythotrephes were also common in the diet (frequency of occurrence > 4%). Diets of lake trout were more diverse on the reef than on the nursery area where Mysis dominated the diet. Slimy sculpins were only found in lake trout greater than 50 mm. Mysis was an important food item of slimy sculpins over the reef but not over the nursery area, where Diporeia was by far the most important taxon. A variety of benthic invertebrates (Asellus, chironomids, benthic copepods, and snails) comprised the bulk of the sculpin diet over the reef. Sculpins also ate lake trout eggs in November. Based on cluster analysis, diets were most similar over the reef where both consumed Mysis, calanoid copepods and chironomid pupae. Diets diverged over the nursery areas where sculpins were strictly benthic feeders and lake trout maintained their planktonic diet. In Lake Superior, where lake trout recruitment through natural reproduction has become well established, the coexistence of the two species appears amicable. However, in other Great Lakes with higher sculpin to lake trout ratios on a reef the coexistence of the two species may be a bottleneck for age-0 lake trout survival beginning with egg deposition and ending when age-0 lake trout move off the reef and the two species no longer compete for a common food resource.

  15. Trace element concentrations in eggshells and egg contents of black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of trace elements (cadmium, lead, copper, manganese and zinc) were examined in eggs of black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) from Hongdo Island, Korea to determine the difference and distribution of trace elements in eggshells and egg contents. Cadmium, lead and manganese concentrations were greater in eggshells than in egg contents. In contrast, zinc concentrations were higher in egg contents than in eggshells. Trace element concentrations followed the order: zinc > lead = manganese = copper > cadmium (eggshells) and zinc > copper > manganese > lead > cadmium (egg contents). Cadmium concentrations were relatively low (<1 ?g/g dw) in egg contents and eggshells. Concentrations of cadmium, lead and copper were significantly correlated between egg contents and eggshells. This indicates that cadmium, lead and copper levels in the eggshell can reflect their levels in the egg contents. There was also a high ratio (3.2) of eggshell/egg content for lead. These results indicate that the eggshell might be useful as a bio-indicator for monitoring cadmium, lead and copper in the egg content. PMID:24859774

  16. APRIL 2008 Shroyer et. al. 1 Observations of Polarity Reversal in Shoaling Nonlinear Internal Waves

    E-print Network

    APRIL 2008 Shroyer et. al. 1 Observations of Polarity Reversal in Shoaling Nonlinear Internal Waves the shoaling of three groups of nonlinear internal waves of depression over 35 km across the shelf. Each wave The role of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) in the coastal ocean has been the study of recent

  17. Response of individual shoaling Atlantic cod to ocean currents on the northeast Newfoundland Shelf

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    Response of individual shoaling Atlantic cod to ocean currents on the northeast Newfoundland Shelf 16 August 1999 Abstract The movements of sonically-tagged Atlantic cod swimming within a large (80 of the shoal. Then, apparently in response to a shoreward current event, the cod moved with the ¯ow. The tagged

  18. ON THE SHOALING OF SOLITARY WAVES IN THE KDV EQUATION Zahra Khorsand1

    E-print Network

    Kalisch, Henrik

    concerns the shoaling of long periodic waves in the linear limit, and Boussinesq's law which applies to the shoaling of solitary waves. Green's law states that the waveheight of a periodic wavetrain experiencing classified as treating either periodic waves oscillating around a mean undisturbed level, or as treating

  19. Gravidity-Associated Shoaling Decisions in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    E-print Network

    Gravidity-Associated Shoaling Decisions in Three-Spined Sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus been investigated. To test this, we gave gravid and non-gravid three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the choice to shoal either with a gravid or a non-gravid conspecific. The results showed

  20. Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Timing and plasticity of shoaling behaviour in the zebrafish, Danio rerio RAYMOND E. ENGESZER; MS. number: A10613R) The zebrafish has become a major model system for biomedical research and is an emerging model for the study of behaviour. Although adult zebrafish express a visually mediated shoaling

  1. Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiser, E.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers' access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  2. LONG-TERM REPRODUCTIVE OUTPUT IN WESTERN GULLS: CONSEQUENCES OF ALTERNATE TACTICS IN DIET CHOICE

    E-print Network

    Annett, Cynthia A.; Pierotti, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    of Western Gulls, Larus occidentalis. Of 112 pairs for which we have either long-term ($5 yr) or lifetime reproductive output, 44% bred for only a single year, and an additional 25% bred for only 2–3 yr. A few pairs bred successfully for 6–12 yr and showed...

  3. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones Jonathan Verreault a,b,*, Claus Bech c , Robert J form 22 March 2006; accepted 25 March 2006 Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively. Abstract Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress

  4. Comparative susceptibility of waterfowl and gulls to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild avian species in the Orders Anseriformes (ducks, geese, swans) and Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, shorebirds) have traditionally been considered the natural reservoirs for avian influenza viruses (AIV) and morbidity or mortality is rarely associated with AIV infection in these hosts. However, ...

  5. Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

    2000-05-01

    Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

  6. Packing list for Shoals Marine Laboratory on Appledore Island, Maine The Shoals Marine Laboratory is located on an isolated island; everyone and everything arrives and

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    is responsible for handling and recycling and all forms of waste and trash, we ask all participants to "pack is recommended. · WATERPROOF your gear by packing everything in plastic bags; then pack the plastic bags inside your luggage; this means all the plastic bags can be reused for your trip home. · LABEL your luggage

  7. Distribution Patterns Predict Individual Specialization in the Diet of Dolphin Gulls

    PubMed Central

    Masello, Juan F.; Wikelski, Martin; Voigt, Christian C.; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many animals show some degree of individual specialization in foraging strategies and diet. This has profound ecological and evolutionary implications. For example, populations containing diverse individual foraging strategies will respond in different ways to changes in the environment, thus affecting the capacity of the populations to adapt to environmental changes and to diversify. However, patterns of individual specialization have been examined in few species. Likewise it is usually unknown whether specialization is maintained over time, because examining the temporal scale at which specialization occurs can prove difficult in the field. In the present study, we analyzed individual specialization in foraging in Dolphin Gulls Leucophaeus scoresbii, a scavenger endemic to the southernmost coasts of South America. We used GPS position logging and stable isotope analyses (SIA) to investigate individual specialization in feeding strategies and their persistence over time. The analysis of GPS data indicated two major foraging strategies in Dolphin Gulls from New I. (Falkland Is./Islas Malvinas). Tagged individuals repeatedly attended either a site with mussel beds or seabird and seal colonies during 5 to 7 days of tracking. Females foraging at mussel beds were heavier than those foraging at seabird colonies. Nitrogen isotope ratios (?15N) of Dolphin Gull blood cells clustered in two groups, showing that individuals were consistent in their preferred foraging strategies over a period of at least several weeks. The results of the SIA as well as the foraging patterns recorded revealed a high degree of specialization for particular feeding sites and diets by individual Dolphin Gulls. Individual differences in foraging behavior were not related to sex. Specialization in Dolphin Gulls may be favored by the advantages of learning and memorizing optimal feeding locations and behaviors. Specialized individuals may reduce search and handling time and thus, optimize their energy gain and/or minimize time spent foraging. PMID:23844073

  8. Distribution patterns predict individual specialization in the diet of dolphin gulls.

    PubMed

    Masello, Juan F; Wikelski, Martin; Voigt, Christian C; Quillfeldt, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many animals show some degree of individual specialization in foraging strategies and diet. This has profound ecological and evolutionary implications. For example, populations containing diverse individual foraging strategies will respond in different ways to changes in the environment, thus affecting the capacity of the populations to adapt to environmental changes and to diversify. However, patterns of individual specialization have been examined in few species. Likewise it is usually unknown whether specialization is maintained over time, because examining the temporal scale at which specialization occurs can prove difficult in the field. In the present study, we analyzed individual specialization in foraging in Dolphin Gulls Leucophaeus scoresbii, a scavenger endemic to the southernmost coasts of South America. We used GPS position logging and stable isotope analyses (SIA) to investigate individual specialization in feeding strategies and their persistence over time. The analysis of GPS data indicated two major foraging strategies in Dolphin Gulls from New I. (Falkland Is./Islas Malvinas). Tagged individuals repeatedly attended either a site with mussel beds or seabird and seal colonies during 5 to 7 days of tracking. Females foraging at mussel beds were heavier than those foraging at seabird colonies. Nitrogen isotope ratios (?(15)N) of Dolphin Gull blood cells clustered in two groups, showing that individuals were consistent in their preferred foraging strategies over a period of at least several weeks. The results of the SIA as well as the foraging patterns recorded revealed a high degree of specialization for particular feeding sites and diets by individual Dolphin Gulls. Individual differences in foraging behavior were not related to sex. Specialization in Dolphin Gulls may be favored by the advantages of learning and memorizing optimal feeding locations and behaviors. Specialized individuals may reduce search and handling time and thus, optimize their energy gain and/or minimize time spent foraging. PMID:23844073

  9. Proximate and Ultimate Causation of Egg Size and the "Third-Chick Disadvantage" in the Western Gull

    E-print Network

    Pierotti, Raymond; Bellrose, Cheryl A.

    1986-04-01

    PROXIMATE AND ULTIMATE CAUSATION OF EGG SIZE AND THE "THIRD-CHICK DISADVANTAGE" IN THE WESTERN GULL RAYMOND PIEROTTI 1 AND CHERYL A. BELLROSE 2'3 Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 USA, and 2...Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, California 95192 USA ABSTRACT.--It is generally observed in gulls (Larus spp.) that produce a typical clutch of three that the third- or last-laid egg is smaller and lighter than its...

  10. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marón, Carina F; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000. PMID:26488493

  11. Abundance and characteristics of the recreational water quality indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in gull faeces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, L.R.; Haack, S.K.; Wolcott, M.J.; Whitman, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the numbers and selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in gull faeces at representative Great Lakes swimming beaches in the United States. Methods and Results: E. coli and enterococci were enumerated in gull faeces by membrane filtration. E. coli genotypes (rep-PCR genomic profiles) and E. coli (Vitek?? GNI+) and enterococci (API?? rapid ID 32 Strep and resistance to streptomycin, gentamicin, vancomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin) phenotypes were determined for isolates obtained from gull faeces both early and late in the swimming season. Identical E. coli genotypes were obtained only from single gull faecal samples but most faecal samples yielded more than one genotype (median of eight genotypes for samples with 10 isolates). E. coli isolates from the same site that clustered at ???85% similarity were from the same sampling date and shared phenotypic characteristics, and at this similarity level there was population overlap between the two geographically isolated beach sites. Enterococcus API?? profiles varied with sampling date. Gull enterococci displayed wide variation in antibiotic resistance patterns, and high-level resistance to some antibiotics. Conclusions: Gull faeces could be a major contributor of E. coli (105-109 CFU g-1) and enterococci (104-108 CFU g-1) to Great Lakes recreational waters. E. coli and enterococci in gull faeces are highly variable with respect to their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and may exhibit temporal or geographic trends in these features. Significance and Impact of the Study: The high degree of variation in genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of E. coli or enterococci populations within gull hosts will require extensive sampling for adequate characterization, and will influence methods that use these characteristics to determine faecal contamination sources for recreational waters.

  12. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Marón, Carina F.; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J.

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales’ backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974–2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003–2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000. PMID:26488493

  13. The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. ); Handley, L. ); Michot, T. ); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

  14. Closure report for CAU No. 416: Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Project Shoal Area (PSA) Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416. CAU 416 consists of a mud pit, muckpile, and housekeeping site. The PSA is located approximately 48.3 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The mud pit was the result of drilling activities at the PSA in 1963. Investigation activities completed in 1996 determined drilling mud in the mud pit was impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons in excess of the State of Nevada 100 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). The muckpile consists of broken granite from emplacement shaft and drift (tunnel) mining activities at the PSA in 1963. The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans.

  15. Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the 2007 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. Requirements for CAU 447, as specified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the State of Nevada, includes groundwater monitoring in support of site closure. This is the first groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the PSA.

  16. Metals and radionuclides in birds and eggs from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Bering Sea/Pacific Ocean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Metals and radionuclide levels in marine birds of the Aleutians are of interest because they are part of subsistence diets of the Aleut people, and can also serve as indicators of marine pollution. We examined geographic and species-specific variations in concentrations of radionuclides in birds and their eggs from Amchitka, the site of underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971, and Kiska Islands (a reference site) in the Aleutians, and the levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in eggs. In 2004 we collected common eiders (Somateria mollissima), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) from Amchitka and Kiska, and eggs from eiders and gulls from the two island. We also collected one runt bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chick from both Amchitka and Kiska Islands. For most species, the levels of radionuclide isotopes were below the minimum detectable activity levels (MDA). Out of 74 cesium-137 analyses, only one composite (gulls) was above the MDA, and out of 14 composites tested for plutonium (Pu-239, 240), only one exceeded the MDA (a guillemots). Three composites out of 14 tested had detectable uranium-238. In all cases, the levels were low and close to the MDAs, and were below those reported for other seabirds. There were significant interspecific differences in metal levels in eggs: gulls had significantly higher levels of cadmium and mercury than the eiders, and eiders had higher levels of lead than gulls. There were few significant differences as a function of island, but eiders had significantly higher levels of cadmium in eggs from Kiska, and gulls had significantly higher levels of mercury on Kiska. The levels of cadmium and mercury in eggs of eiders and gulls from this study were above the median for cadmium and mercury from studies in the literature. The levels of mercury in eggs are within the range known to affect avian predators, but seabirds seem less vulnerable to mercury than other birds. However, the levels of mercury are within the action levels for humans, suggesting some cause for concern if subsistence Aleuts eat a large quantity of eggs. PMID:17206460

  17. Organochlorines in antarctic and arctic avian top predators: a comparison between the South Polar Skua and two species of northern hemisphere gulls.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Henden, John A; Varpe, Oystein; Janssen, Kirstin; Skaare, Janneche U

    2006-04-15

    Different organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in the blood of breeding south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) at Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) and compared to those in two species of northern hemisphere gulls: the Arctic glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) and the subarctic great black-backed gull (Larus marinus). The skuas had 8% and 29% of the SigmaOC levels (45 ng/g, wet weight) of glaucous gulls (591 ng/g) and great black-backed gulls (158 ng/g), respectively. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were very low in skuas compared to northern gulls, but the mean hexachlorobenzene (HCB) level was 1.7 times higher than in great black-backed gulls and one-third of the glaucous gull level. Mirex levels in skuas were among the highest reported in birds, the mean level being 3 and 26 times higher than those in glaucous gull and great black-backed gulls, respectively. In skuas, the mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by about 30% during a 2-week period, and mirex increased by nearly 60%. In glacuous gulls, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by 10-20%. For HCB, mirex, and oxychlordane, only a relatively small proportion of the increase in skuas could be explained by changes in lipid pools and the levels at first sampling, compared to glaucous gulls. Thus, skuas were probably accumulating these compounds when present in Antarctica. p,p'-DDE and PCB levels, in contrast, seemed much more stable in the skuas. Relatively high levels of mirex and HCB in south polar skuas are concerning with regard to potential adverse effects. PMID:16683630

  18. Geologic Framework and Morphology of Diamond Shoals, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieler, E. R.; Foster, D. S.; Himmelstoss, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Carolina Capes (Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain) along the eastern coast of the U.S. are dynamic regions that exert strong influences on large scale coastal evolution, sediment transport, and circulation. Projecting offshore of each Carolina Cape is an active depositional sedimentary feature referred to as a ‘cape-associated shoal’. These shoals have lobate ridges and swales, and typically extend from just seaward of the subaerial cape tip across the inner shelf towards the shelf break. Here we describe results from geophysical surveys of the cape-associated shoal known as Diamond Shoals off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The study area includes approximately 330 km2 and extends from ~400 m seaward of the shoreline comprising the cape tip to 20 km offshore where the shoal terminates in approximately 40 m water depth. Geophysical surveys used sidescan sonar; single-beam and interferometric swath bathymetry; and 3.5 kHz, CHIRP, boomer, and water gun subbottom profiling systems. The main body of the shoal consists of a 7 km2 triangular central platform that extends 8 km SE from the cape tip. The top of the platform is at a depth of 2-5 m and mantled by symmetrical sand waves with crest directions that trend NW-SE. The sand waves have a wavelength of ~300 m, and amplitudes up to 4 m. The central platform is bounded by two large lobate ridges and swales in water depths of 10-20 m. The ridges are ~5 m high, 1.5 km wide, and are more pronounced on the northern side of the shoal. The ridges on the northern side of the shoal are covered by coarse sediment that appears to result from winnowing by currents. Sand waves similar to those on the central platform are superimposed on the ridges, but are asymmetrical and indicate northeastward-directed net sediment transport. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic data suggests that Diamond Shoals consists of unconsolidated Holocene sediment up to 8 m thick overlying a transgressive unconformity. The unconformity has variable relief, up to several meters higher than the adjacent continental shelf, indicating that the position of the shoal may be controlled by the underlying geologic framework. This control could be manifest in a number of ways, such as through bathymetric relief and corresponding flow-sediment interactions, or via sediment source characteristics. Information about the shallow geology and surficial morphology of Diamond Shoals is being integrated into models of coastal dynamics that should strengthen our understanding of the linkage between geologic framework and physical processes, and improve predictions of coastal change at time scales from storm events to millennia.

  19. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  20. Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from Red Sea gulls with new host-parasite records.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohammed; Nasser, Mohamed G E-D

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about chewing lice from marine birds of the Red Sea is minimal. Five species of gulls were examined for chewing lice in three different localities of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast. Two gull species were examined for lice for the first time (Larus armenicus Buturlin, 1934 and Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840) and their lice represent new host-louse associations. Four species and two subspecies of lice were identified from 159 specimens collected. Actornithophilus piceus lari (Packard, 1870) and Austromenopon transversum (Denny, 1842) (suborder: Amblycera), and Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister, 1838) and Saemundssonia lari (O. Fabricius, 1780) (suborder: Ischnocera) were recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia and Red Sea birds. Taxonomic and ecological notes, type hosts, data on specimens examined, collecting localities, an identification key, and photographs of each species and subspecies are given.  PMID:24869888

  1. Sex-Specific Differences in Shoaling Affect Parasite Transmission in Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Richards, E. Loys; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Background Individuals have to trade-off the costs and benefits of group membership during shoaling behaviour. Shoaling can increase the risk of parasite transmission, but this cost has rarely been quantified experimentally. Guppies (Poecilia reticulata) are a model system for behavioural studies, and they are commonly infected by gyrodactylid parasites, notorious fish pathogens that are directly transmitted between guppy hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings Parasite transmission in single sex shoals of male and female guppies were observed using an experimental infection of Gyrodactylus turnbulli. Parasite transmission was affected by sex-specific differences in host behaviour, and significantly more parasites were transmitted when fish had more frequent and more prolonged contact with each other. Females shoaled significantly more than males and had a four times higher risk to contract an infection. Conclusions/Significance Intersexual differences in host behaviours such as shoaling are driven by differences in natural and sexual selection experienced by both sexes. Here we show that the potential benefits of an increased shoaling tendency are traded off against increased risks of contracting an infectious parasite in a group-living species. PMID:20949014

  2. Novel methods for discriminating behavioral differences between stickleback individuals and populations in a laboratory shoaling assay.

    PubMed

    Wark, Abigail R; Wark, Barry J; Lageson, Tessa J; Peichel, Catherine L

    2011-05-01

    Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from different habitats have been observed to differ in shoaling behavior, both in the wild and in laboratory studies. In the present study, we surveyed the shoaling behavior of sticklebacks from a variety of marine, lake, and stream habitats throughout the Pacific Northwest. We tested the shoaling tendencies of 113 wild-caught sticklebacks from 13 populations using a laboratory assay that was based on other published shoaling assays in sticklebacks. Using traditional behavioral measures for this assay, such as time spent shoaling and mean position in the tank, we were unable to find population differences in shoaling behavior. However, simple plotting techniques revealed differences in spatial distributions during the assay. When we collapsed individual trials into population-level data sets and applied information theoretic measurements, we found significant behavioral differences between populations. For example, entropy estimates confirm that populations display differences in the extent of clustering at various tank positions. Using log-likelihood analysis, we show that these population-level observations reflect consistent differences in individual behavioral patterns that can be difficult to discriminate using standard measures. The analytical techniques we describe may help improve the detection of potential behavioral differences between fish groups in future studies. PMID:21804684

  3. Rapidly increasing methyl mercury in endangered ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) feathers over a 130 year record.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alexander L; Hobson, Keith A; Branfireun, Brian A

    2015-04-22

    Mercury (Hg) is increasing in marine food webs, especially at high latitudes. The bioaccumulation and biomagnification of methyl mercury (MeHg) has serious effects on wildlife, and is most evident in apex predators. The MeHg body burden in birds is the balance of ingestion and excretion, and MeHg in feathers is an effective indicator of overall MeHg burden. Ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea), which consume ice-associated prey and scavenge marine mammal carcasses, have the highest egg Hg concentrations of any Arctic bird, and the species has declined by more than 80% since the 1980s in Canada. We used feathers from museum specimens from the Canadian Arctic and western Greenland to assess whether exposure to MeHg by ivory gulls increased from 1877 to 2007. Based on constant feather stable-isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N) values, there was no significant change in ivory gulls' diet over this period, but feather MeHg concentrations increased 45× (from 0.09 to 4.11 µg g(-1) in adults). This dramatic change in the absence of a dietary shift is clear evidence of the impact of anthropogenic Hg on this high-latitude threatened species. Bioavailable Hg is expected to increase in the Arctic, raising concern for continued population declines in high-latitude species that are far from sources of environmental contaminants. PMID:25788594

  4. Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries

    PubMed Central

    Stedt, Johan; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Hernandez, Jorge; McMahon, Barry J.; Hasan, Badrul; Olsen, Björn; Drobni, Mirva; Waldenström, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria. Methods To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine. Results Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ?1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ?1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources. Conclusion We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota. PMID:24427451

  5. Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hassan; J. Chapman

    2008-11-01

    Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of groundwater withdrawal activities in the area. The conceptual and numerical models were developed based upon regional hydrogeologic investigations conducted in the 1960s, site characterization investigations (including ten wells and various geophysical and geologic studies) at Shoal itself prior to and immediately after the test, and two site characterization campaigns in the 1990s for environmental restoration purposes (including eight wells and a year-long tracer test). The new wells are denoted MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3, and are located to the northnortheast of the nuclear test. The groundwater model was generally lacking data in the north-northeastern area; only HC-1 and the abandoned PM-2 wells existed in this area. The wells provide data on fracture orientation and frequency, water levels, hydraulic conductivity, and water chemistry for comparison with the groundwater model. A total of 12 real-number validation targets were available for the validation analysis, including five values of hydraulic head, three hydraulic conductivity measurements, three hydraulic gradient values, and one angle value for the lateral gradient in radians. In addition, the fracture dip and orientation data provide comparisons to the distributions used in the model and radiochemistry is available for comparison to model output. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicates that some of the model realizations correspond well with the newly acquired conductivity, head, and gradient data, while others do not. Other tests indicated that additional model realizations may be needed to test if the model input distributions need refinement to improve model performance. This approach (generating additional realizations) was not followed because it was realized that there was a temporal component to the data disconnect: the new head measurements are on the high side of the model distributions, but the heads at the original calibration locations themselves have also increased over time. This indicates that the steady-state assumption of the groundwater model is in error. To test the robustness of the model d

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in diseased lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus fuscus) chicks from the Gulf of Finland.

    PubMed

    Hario, M; Himberg, K; Hollmén, T; Rudbäck, E

    2000-01-01

    Diseases due to the degeneration of the liver and various other internal organs were the major cause of the exceedingly high chick mortality in lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus fuscus) in the central Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, during 1991-1993. The same symptoms were found in chicks of common gulls (Larus canus) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the same focal area, although at a much lower frequency. We found disproportionately high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver relative to leg muscle in lesser black-backed chicks compared with common gull and herring gull chicks. The causality between PCB residues and chick diseases remains unknown. No signs of chick edema disease or abnormal frequency of embryonic deaths, commonly associated with organochlorines in biota, were found. It is concluded that studies made in a very small geographical area may not give a good correlation between dose and effect due to an even greater variation in tolerance. Another explanation is that the diseases may not have been PCB-induced. PMID:15093008

  7. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. PMID:16564607

  8. Diets of nesting laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia Coast Reserve: observations from stable isotope analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knoff, A.J.; Macko, S.A.; Erwin, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulation dietary variation in top-level consumers. In this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of gull tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the Virginia Coast Reserve estuarine system. As earlier traditional diet studies found evidence of individual dietary specialization within gull populations, this study used stable isotope analysis to assess specialization in a coastal Laughing Gull population. Specifically, blood, muscle, and feather isotope values indicated significant intrapopulation dietary specialization. Some gulls relied more heavily on estuarine prey (mean blood ?13C = -17.5, ?15N = 12.6, and ?34S = 9.3), whereas others appeared to consume more foods of marine origin (mean blood ?13C = -19.4, ?15N = 14.8, and ?34S = 10.4). It is important to account for such dietary variability when assessing trophic linkages in dynamic estuarine systems.

  9. Salmonella enterica resistant to antimicrobials in wastewater effluents and black-headed gulls in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    PubMed

    Masarikova, Martina; Manga, Ivan; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Oravcova, Veronika; Myskova, Petra; Karpiskova, Renata; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the presence and epidemiological relatedness of Salmonella isolates from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brno, Czech Republic and from nestlings of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at the Nove Mlyny waterworks, situated 35km downstream from the WWTP. During 2012, we collected 37 wastewater samples and 284 gull cloacal swabs. From wastewater samples, we obtained 89 Salmonella isolates belonging to 19 serotypes. At least one resistant strain was contained in 89% of those samples. Ten different serotypes of Salmonella were detected in 38 young gulls, among which 14 (37%) were resistant to antimicrobials. Wastewater isolates were mostly resistant to sulphonamides and tetracycline, gull isolates to tetracycline and ampicillin. We detected the occurrence of blaTEM-1,tet(A), tet(B), tet(G), sul1, sul2, sul3, floR and strA resistance genes. For the first time, we identified a class 1 integron with the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette in S. Infantis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we confirmed the presence of identical clusters of S. Agona, S. Enteritidis PT8, S. Infantis and S. Senftenberg in wastewater and black-headed gulls, thus indicating the possibility of resistant Salmonella isolates spreading over long distances in the environment. PMID:26519571

  10. Factors controlling navigation-channel Shoaling in Laguna Madre, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Nava, R.C.; Arhelger, M.

    2001-01-01

    Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.

  11. Tidally-forced flow in a rotating, stratified, shoaling basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Kraig B.

    2015-06-01

    Baroclinic flow of a rotating, stratified fluid in a parabolic basin is computed in response to barotropic tidal forcing using the nonlinear, non-hydrostatic, Boussinesq equations of motion. The tidal forcing is derived from an imposed, boundary-enhanced free-surface deflection that advances cyclonically around a central amphidrome. The tidal forcing perturbs a shallow pycnocline, sloshing it up and down over the shoaling bottom. Nonlinearities in the near-shore internal tide produce an azimuthally independent 'set-up' of the isopycnals that in turn drives an approximately geostrophically balanced, cyclonic, near-shore, sub-surface jet. The sub-surface cyclonic jet is an example of a slowly evolving, nearly balanced flow that is excited and maintained solely by forcing in the fast, super-inertial frequency band. Baroclinic instability of the nearly balanced jet and subsequent interactions between eddies produce a weak transfer of energy back into the inertia-gravity band as swirling motions with super-inertial vorticity stir the stratified fluid and spontaneously emit waves. The sub-surface cyclonic jet is similar in many ways to the poleward flows observed along eastern ocean boundaries, particularly the California Undercurrent. It is conjectured that such currents may be driven by the surface tide rather than by winds and/or along-shore pressure gradients.

  12. hllGRATOKY NONGAME IllHDS OF IMANAGEMENT CONCERN IN T I E NOXTIIEhST 1 GULL-BILLED TERN

    E-print Network

    Duffy, David Cameron

    of the gull-billed tern, including the eyes, to the nape. The rest of the upper parts, wings, and tail predation and competition with gulls, and human disturbance at colonies have also contributed to population the eye to the auriculars, although the extent of this is quite variable (Harrison 1983, Cramp 1985

  13. Regressive and transgressive barrier islands on the North-Central Gulf Coast — Contrasts in evolution, sediment delivery, and island vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otvos, Ervin G.; Carter, Gregory A.

    2013-09-01

    Basic differences between non-deltaic regressive and deltaic transgressive barrier islands reflect major contrasts in geological settings and sediment sources. Two island groups on the N. Gulf of Mexico provide unique perspectives of genetic and geomorphic contrasts applicable in a worldwide context. The near-extinction of the deltaic transgressive Chandeleur barriers and reduction of the sturdier prograded Mississippi-Alabama (MS-AL) chain are related to differences in sediment sources, storm, and anthropogenic impact. 160 years of documentary evidence points to contrasting geological settings, development history, sediment sources, and island morphology as responsible for different island erodibility and life spans. The non-deltaic chain received larger volumes of coarser, less erodible medium sand from the NE Gulf coast. Onshore sand flux from reworked delta deposits received from the retreating delta shoreface initiated the fragile, thin, and isolated transgressive Chandeleur islands. Fine-grained sand from unconsolidated muds of abandoned Mississippi-St. Bernard delta lobes maintained two distinct transgressive barrier island categories. In the absence of quantitative data on cross-shore transport, discrepancies between estimated littoral drift volumes and sand reserves for nourishment remain unexplained. Medium-sandy MS-AL barriers have resisted storm events far better than delta barriers. However, even the former chain did undergo 26 to 53% area reduction since 1848. Anthropogenic intervention stymied island growth. Emerging intertidal berm-basins formed on sandy shoal platforms in storm-eliminated sectors have contributed to partial island recovery. Delta attrition by wave erosion, tectonic, and compactional subsidence had accelerated delta lobe and barrier island decay. Intensive storm erosion culminating in and following Hurricane Katrina came close to eradicate the highly vulnerable Chandeleur barrier chain. Lacking adequate nourishment, after devastating cyclones only small islands reemerge and persist temporarily from the shoal belt. A four-stage barrier evolution model, globally applicable to transgressive deltaic barriers, is based on documented changes in late Holocene Mississippi sub-deltas.

  14. Atlantic Deep-water Response to the Early Pliocene Shoaling of the Central American Seaway

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David B.; Jung, Simon J. A.; Kroon, Dick; Hodell, David A.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Raymo, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    The early Pliocene shoaling of the Central American Seaway (CAS), ~4.7–4.2 million years ago (mega annum-Ma), is thought to have strengthened Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The associated increase in northward flux of heat and moisture may have significantly influenced the evolution of Pliocene climate. While some evidence for the predicted increase in North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation exists in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, similar evidence is missing in the wider Atlantic. Here, we present stable carbon (?13C) and oxygen (?18O) isotope records from the Southeast Atlantic-a key region for monitoring the southern extent of NADW. Using these data, together with other ?13C and ?18O records from the Atlantic, we assess the impact of the early Pliocene CAS shoaling phase on deep-water circulation. We find that NADW formation was vigorous prior to 4.7 Ma and showed limited subsequent change. Hence, the overall structure of the deep Atlantic was largely unaffected by the early Pliocene CAS shoaling, corroborating other evidence that indicates larger changes in NADW resulted from earlier and deeper shoaling phases. This finding implies that the early Pliocene shoaling of the CAS had no profound impact on the evolution of climate. PMID:26193070

  15. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour Period $760... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  16. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo Six-hour period $791... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  17. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-Hour Period $828... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  18. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to...Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East ofSoutheast Shoal) Buffalo Six-Hour Period ...b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or...

  19. 46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port Huron...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast Shoal to Port...a) Area 4 (Undesignated Waters): Service Lake Erie (East of Southeast Shoal) Buffalo 6-hour Period $849... (b) Area 5 (Designated Waters): Any point on or in...

  20. Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact

    PubMed Central

    Pons, J-M; Sonsthagen, S; Dove, C; Crochet, P-A

    2014-01-01

    Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus). Our results show that extensive unidirectional mtDNA introgression from Larus smithsonianus into Larus marinus in North America cannot be explained by ancestral polymorphism but most likely results from ancient hybridization events occurring when Larus marinus invaded the North America. Conversely, our nuclear DNA results based on 12 microsatellites detected very little introgression from Larus smithsonianus into North American Larus marinus. We discuss these results in the framework of demographic and selective mechanisms that have been postulated to explain mito-nuclear discrepancies. We were unable to demonstrate selection as the main cause of mito-nuclear introgression discordance but cannot dismiss the possible role of selection in the observed pattern. Among demographic explanations, only drift in small populations and bias in mate choice in an invasive context may explain our results. As it is often difficult to demonstrate that selection may be the main factor driving the introgression of mitochondrial DNA in natural populations, we advocate that evaluating alternative demographic neutral hypotheses may help to indirectly support or reject hypotheses invoking selective processes. PMID:24105440

  1. Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J

    2012-01-01

    We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed. PMID:22833800

  2. Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J

    2012-06-01

    We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (F(ST)= 0.129), introns (?(ST)= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?(ST)= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed. PMID:22833800

  3. Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Bell, Douglas A.; Dove, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger t estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed.

  4. Observations of Polarity Reversal in Shoaling Nonlinear Internal Waves E. L. SHROYER, J. N. MOUM, AND J. D. NASH

    E-print Network

    Observations of Polarity Reversal in Shoaling Nonlinear Internal Waves E. L. SHROYER, J. N. MOUM coast document the shoaling of three groups of nonlinear internal waves of depression over 35 km across of stratification and velocity. 1. Introduction The role of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) in the coastal ocean

  5. Internal solitary waves of elevation advancing on a shoaling shelf Jody M. Klymak and James N. Moum

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    Internal solitary waves of elevation advancing on a shoaling shelf Jody M. Klymak and James N. Moum: 4544 Oceanography: Physical: Internal and inertial waves; 4219 Oceanography: General: Continental shelf: Klymak, J. M., and J. N. Moum, Internal solitary waves of elevation advancing on a shoaling shelf

  6. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, M.M.; McBride, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf ???5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  7. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  8. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... 18242). Anatahan Island is one of the Northern Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific. These islands are situated along the ... earthquake swarm that suggested the possibility of impending volcanic activity. The Micronesian Megapode is an endangered species of ...

  9. Can seismic character identify lithologies associated with Bluell and Sherwood shorelines and shoals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Several new oil fields have been discovered in the Bluell and Sherwood members of the Mission Canyon Formation, reviving the Mississippian shoreline play in the eastern Williston basin. During periodic regressions, carbonates and evaporites were deposited along the shoreline of a shallow sea. Embayments in the shoreline created traps that contain 3 - 8 million bbl of oil. Carbonate shoals developed offshore. Surrounded by impermeable carbonate mud, they trap 1 - 3 million bbl of oil. The ability of seismic character to distinguish lithologies associated with shorelines and shoals was investigated using sonic logs, models, and seismic data. Shorelines: The gross thickness of the Bluell zone can range between 40 and 70 ft, the Sherwood zone between 35 and 80 ft. Changing thicknesses on geologic models had a distinct effect on seismic character. Also, seismic character varied in response to changing stratigraphy above, within, and below the Bluell and Sherwood zones. Carbonate and anhydrite bulk densities and velocities differ by about 10%. Modeling this difference demonstrated a minimal change in seismic character. Seismic character cannot delineate the shoreline transition from carbonate to anhydrite. Other stratigraphic variations alter seismic character more than this lithologic change. Shoals: Velocity and density variations between shoal carbonates and intershoal mud can differ by 30%. Sonic log seismograms and seismic data show a distinct character change between these lithologies. Seismic character can be used to delineate carbonate shoals and mud. However, the shoal/mud character change can be modified by the seismic response to other stratigraphic variations. Calibration with nearby wells can reduce interpretational uncertainty.

  10. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

  11. Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

  12. Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring gull Larus argentatus

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmetyinen, R.; Rantamaki, P.; Karlin, A.

    1982-01-01

    ..sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring gulls collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring gull. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in newly hatched chicks but the levels were much lower (only 7-12 % in the herring gull) in chicks just before fledgling. The levels in young gulls remained low until the end of August at least. Therefore it is plausible that the high levels found in adult gulls are a consequence of their wintering in the southern Baltic. The levels of ..sigma..DDT and PCB residues were significantly lower in female arctic terns than in male terns. Differences between the sexes were small in the herring gull. Thus it is possible that the female of the arctic tern is able to release pollutants, especially PCB residues, more effectively into eggs than the female of the herring gull. The biochemical mechanisms involved are not clear but a possible explanation may be different lipoprotein structures in the eggs of the species.

  13. HEMATOLOGIC AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF KELP GULLS (LARUS DOMINICANUS) CAPTURED IN THE CITY OF TALCAHUANO, CHILE.

    PubMed

    Doussang, Daniela; Merino, Victoria; Moreno, Lucila; Islas, Armando; Barrientos, Carlos; Mathieu, Christian; Cerda, Fabiola; López, Juana; Ortega, René; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide tools for future health-based monitoring programs, we developed reference intervals for hematology and plasma biochemistry and partitioned data for sex and season (winter and autumn). Ninety-one physically healthy kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) were sampled in the city of Talcahuano, Chile, during winter (July-September) of 2007, autumn (April-June) and winter of 2008, and autumn of 2009. After blood sampling, the kelp gulls were euthanized by cervical dislocation. Packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin, total plasma protein (TPP), and complete blood count were performed. Alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, urea, calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid were analyzed. No significant differences were found between sexes (P>0.05). When a comparison was made between the two seasons, the values of PCV, TPP, white blood cell, heterophils, eosinophils, and monocytes were significantly higher in winter than in autumn (P<0.05) while and urea and uric acid concentrations were higher in autumn. Heterophils were the predominant circulating leukocyte for all birds. There was no significant difference in body condition between autumn and winter nor between sexes. Body condition showed a significant relationship with TPP and basophil concentration and ALP activity. PMID:26352947

  14. Molecular characterization and phylogenetics of a reassortant H13N8 influenza virus isolated from gulls in Mongolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A double reassortant H13N8 influenza A virus was isolated from gulls in Mongolia. The basic virological characteristics were studied. Complete genome sequence analysis indicated the complicated evolutionary history. The PA gene belongs to classical Avian-like lineage and more likely originated fro...

  15. Sources of Food Delivered to Ring-Billed, Herring and Great Black-Backed Gull Chicks in Marine Environments

    E-print Network

    Shutler, Dave

    . Regurgitants of Ring-billed Gull chicks contained freshwater/terrestrial and marine invertebrates and fish. A stable isotope mixing model incorpo- rating both 13 C and 15 N in chick regurgitants and blood estimated their young, whether salt in marine food imposes a physiological cost on these young in comparison to young

  16. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Waldenström, Jonas; Svensson, Lovisa; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin´s gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds. PMID:26496629

  17. Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring gulls from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring gulls and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring gulls. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring gulls, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring gulls. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants. PMID:8880006

  18. THE ARGO MERCHANT OIL SPILL AND THE SEDIMENTS OF NANTUCKET SHOALS: RESEARCH, LITIGATION AND LEGISLATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 15, 1976, the tanker Argo Merchant ran around on Fishing Rip of Nantucket Shoals off the coast of Massachusetts. After several days of stormy weather she broke apart releasing her entire cargo of 28 X 10 to 3rd power metric tons of No. 6 fuel oil into the ocean. Feder...

  19. Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test: An interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.

    1998-07-01

    Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project Shoal Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The Shoal test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project Shoal was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project Shoal Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.

  20. Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay A. Scotti,1

    E-print Network

    Pineda, Jesús

    Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay A. Scotti,1 R. C. Beardsley,2 B. Butman,3 obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter] While modeling and observations of propagating non- linear internal waves (NLIWs) in the ocean (both

  1. Implications of multiple mating for offspring relatedness and shoaling behaviour in juvenile guppies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Kelley, Jennifer L

    2008-12-23

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) can confer important benefits to females, but few studies have considered its potential costs. One such cost may arise through differences in the relatedness of offspring born to females with different mating histories; offspring born to monandrous females are always full siblings, while those produced by polyandrous females may be full or half siblings. These differences may have important consequences for social interactions among offspring. We used artificial insemination in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a promiscuous live-bearing fish, to evaluate shoaling behaviour in polyandrous and monandrous broods. We combined this information with known parentage data for the polyandrous broods to determine whether sibling relatedness influenced offspring shoaling behaviour. While we detected no effect of mating treatment (polyandry/monandry) on shoaling behaviour, we found that pairs of full siblings spent significantly more time shoaling (and in close proximity) than pairs of half siblings. This latter finding confirms the ability of newborn guppies to distinguish brood mates on the basis of kinship, but also suggests an important and hitherto unrealized potential cost of polyandry: a reduction in within-brood relatedness with potentially important implications for offspring social behaviour. PMID:18765351

  2. Shifting reproductive success in a shoal of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua L.

    E-print Network

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    Shifting reproductive success in a shoal of Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua L. Jon Egil Skjæraasen behaviour of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) was examined by studying wild and reared individuals from of male Atlantic Cod. We suggest that this hypothesis merits further study. Keywords Mating system

  3. Tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou offshore waters and changes resulting from the Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Min; Bao, Xianwen; Yu, Huaming; Ding, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project is the core part of Wenzhou Peninsula Engineering which is a big comprehensive development project to expand the city space. The dynamics of the surrounding area was proved to suffer little effect in response to the Lingni north dyke since it was built approximately along the current direction. Therefore, this paper focuses firstly on the tidal characteristics in the Wenzhou and Yueqing bays with the Lingni north dyke being built and then on the changes resulting from the implementation of the on-going Wenzhou Shoal Reclamation Project (WSRP) which will reclaim land from the whole Wenzhou Shoal. To simulate the tidal dynamics, a high-resolution coastal ocean model with unstructured triangular grids was set up for the Wenzhou and Yueqing Bays. The model resolved the complicated tidal dynamics with the simulated tidal elevation and current in good agreement with observations. In the study area, M2 is the predominant tidal component, which means the tide is semidiurnal. The new reclamation project hardly affects the Yueqing Bay and the open ocean, but there are concentrated effects on the mouth of the southern branch of the Oujiang River and the southwest of Wenzhou Shoal. This study provides an indicative reference to the local government and helps to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of the project.

  4. Long-term Monitoring Plan for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed Hassan

    2005-02-01

    The flow and transport model of Shoal is used to design a three-well monitoring network to be part of the long-term monitoring network for the site and achieve two objectives: (1) detect the presence of radionuclides in case they migrate to the monitoring well locations, and (2) provide field data to compare with model predictions as part of the model validation process. Using three different quantitative approaches and the numerical groundwater flow and transport model developed for Shoal, three new monitoring well locations were identified from 176 different networks. In addition to the quantitative analyses using the numerical model, the development of the monitoring network for Shoal will also be subject to qualitative hydrogeologic interpretation during implementation. information will only be available during the fieldwork, it will be incorporated in the monitoring well design at the time of well installation. Finally, it should be noted that the CADD-CAP for Shoal, including the compliance boundary, is not yet approved. Should the compliance boundary change from the 1,000-year MCL contaminant boundary, well locations may also need to change. However, the analysis reported here provides a number of alternatives with reasonable detection efficiency.

  5. Quantification acuity in spontaneous shoaling decisions of three-spined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Mehlis, Marion; Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C M; Frommen, Joachim G

    2015-09-01

    The ability to discriminate between different quantities is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, and the underlying mechanisms of quantity discrimination are currently intensely discussed. In contrast, questions elucidating the limits of quantity estimation received rather little attention so far. Here, we examined fine-tuned quantity estimation in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in a natural context, i.e. during shoaling decisions. Wild-caught focal fish were given the spontaneous choice between two shoals which differed in group size by 1 fish (0 vs. 1, 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5, 5 vs. 6 and 6 vs. 7), based on visual assessment. The results show that sticklebacks generally prefer to shoal with the larger group. They discriminated numerical contrasts up to 6 versus 7, equalling a numerical ratio of 0.86. Preference patterns followed Weber's law, i.e. decreased with increasing numerical ratio. This pattern was found across all numerical conditions as well as within the small number range (ranging from 1 vs. 2 to 3 vs. 4). The results suggest that wild-caught three-spined sticklebacks are spontaneously able (i.e. without prior learning) to detect subtle differences in shoal sizes. Further, they confirm findings of previous studies highlighting the contribution of the analogue magnitude system to quantity estimation in fishes. PMID:26099740

  6. A method for resolving occlusions when multitracking individuals in a shoal.

    PubMed

    Dolado, Ruth; Gimeno, Elisabet; Beltran, Francesc S; Quera, Vicenç; Pertusa, José F

    2015-12-01

    Studying the collective behavior of fishes often requires tracking a great number of individuals. When many fishes move together, it is common for individuals to move so close to each other that some fishes superimpose themselves on others during one or several units of time, which impacts on tracking accuracy (i.e., loss of fish trajectories, interchange of fish identities). Type 1 occlusions arise when two fishes swim so near each other that they look like one long fish, whereas type 2 occlusions occur when the fishes' trajectories cross to create a T- or X-shaped individual. We propose an image processing method for resolving these types of occlusions when multitracking shoals in two dimensions. We assessed processing effectiveness after videorecording shoals of 20 and 40 individuals of two species that exhibit different shoal styles: zebrafish (Danio rerio) and black neon tetras (Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi). Results show that, although the number of occlusions depended on both the number of individuals and the species, the method is able to effectively resolve a great deal of occlusions, irrespective of the species and the number of individuals. It also produces images that can be used in a multitracking system to detect individual fish trajectories. Compared to other methods, our approach makes it possible to study shoals with water depths similar to those seen in the natural conditions of the two species studied. PMID:25294043

  7. Internaltide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides S. M. Kelly1

    E-print Network

    Internaltide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides S. M. Kelly1 and J. D. Nash1. [1] Internaltide generation is usually predicted from local topography, surface tides, and stratification. However, internal tides are often observed to be unrelated to local springneap forcing, appearing

  8. A COMPARISON OF ARGO MERCHANT OIL AND SEDIMENT HYDROCARBONS FROM NANTUCKET SHOALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface sediment samples collected from the Nantucket Shoals Argo Merchant wreck site area in February, 1977, were analyzed for hydrocarbon content by gas chromatography. Analysis of sediment grab subsections revealed no clear trend of hydrocarbon contamination as a function of d...

  9. Effects of Numbers, Sizes, and Previous Exposure of Individuals On Shoaling in Corydoras paleatus (Callichthyidae)

    E-print Network

    Strauss, Richard E.

    : defense of cichlid young by a bagrid catfish in Lake Malawi, Africa. Animal Behaviour 28, 1278: Chapman & Hall. Abstract · The South American armored catfish Corydoras paleatus has been observed to occur in nature in large schools, in smaller shoals, and individually or in pairs. These catfishes

  10. Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-10-01

    The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

  11. Novel flame retardants in urban-feeding ring-billed gulls from the St. Lawrence River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gentes, Marie-Line; Letcher, Robert J; Caron-Beaudoin, Elyse; Verreault, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of a comprehensive suite of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and current-use flame retardants (FRs) in ring-billed gulls breeding in a highly industrialized section of the St. Lawrence River, downstream from Montreal (QC, Canada). Despite major point-sources and diffuse contamination by FRs, nearly no FR data have been reported in birds from this area. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP) was detected in 89% of ring-billed gull livers (mean: 2.16 ng/g ww; max: 17.6 ng/g ww). To our knowledge, this is the highest detection frequency and highest concentrations reported thus far in any avian species or populations. Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were also particularly abundant (anti-DP detected in 100% and syn-DP in 93% of livers). Other detected FR compounds (3-14% detection) included 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), hexachlorocyclopentenyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO) and ?-1,2-dibromo-4-(1.2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (?-TBECH). Mean BDE-209 (57.2 ± 12.2 ng/g ww) in ring-billed gull livers was unexpectedly high for this midtrophic gull species, exceeding levels reported in several apex raptors such as peregrine falcons. BDE-209's relative contribution to ?PBDEs was on average 25% (exceeding BDE-47 and BDE-99) and contrasted with profiles typically reported for fish-eating gull species. The present study highlighted preoccupying gaps in upcoming FR regulations and stressed the need for further investigation of the sources of FR exposure in highly urbanized areas. PMID:22845168

  12. The coastline remote sensing survey for Zhao Shu Island in Xisha Islands based on WorldView-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Zhong, Chang; Kong, Fanping

    2014-11-01

    Due to diastrophism, tide action and human activities, the coastline is always in flux. There are lots of coral islands in the south sea of China. Remote sensing survey for the coastline not only can reassert the necessity and importance of coral protection, but also can provide basic data and scientific basis for island ecologic protection, reasonable utilization of land resources. The study area named Zhao Shu Island lies in Jintong Islands of Xisha. It is a coral island which has people inhabited. Using WorldView-2 satellite remote sensing images as data sources we carry out three phases of coastline investigation and monitoring. The satellite data phases are 2002, 2010 and 2013. Firstly, affirm the bands valuable for color composition on the basis of spectral and correlation analysis. Then extract the coastline by a series of image process, such as image correction, fusion, waterline extraction and coastline revision. Finally determine the coastline types and length by artificial interpretation. The results show that the island length is gradually smaller, which means the island area is reducing. The beach bedrock coast in northern island was eroded seriously especially during the period between 2010 and 2013. In addition, the shoal head shape in the western island changed a lot.

  13. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  14. The value and vulnerability of small estuarine islands for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat 'islands' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small islands may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger islands or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with island area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha island size range and lowest for islands larger than 100 ha. These small islands also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and gulls. Small estuarine islands are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material islands, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these islands and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.

  15. Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Brinker, D.F.; Watts, B.D.; Costanzo, G.R.; Morton, D.D.

    2011-01-01

    Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

  16. Canary Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  The Canary Islands     View Larger Image A multi-angle view of the Canary Islands in a dust storm, February 29, 2000. At left is a true-color ... available at JPL February 29, 2000 - Canary Islands during a dust storm. project:  MISR ...

  17. Interactions between aggression, boldness and shoaling within a brood of convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciatus).

    PubMed

    Moss, Sarah; Tittaferrante, Stephanie; Way, Gregory P; Fuller, Ashlei; Sullivan, Nicole; Ruhl, Nathan; McRobert, Scott P

    2015-12-01

    A behavioral syndrome is considered present when individuals consistently express correlated behaviors across two or more axes of behavior. These axes of behavior are shy-bold, exploration-avoidance, activity, aggression, and sociability. In this study we examined aggression, boldness and sociability (shoaling) within a juvenile convict cichlid brood (Amatitlania nigrofasciatus). Because young convict cichlids are social, we used methodologies commonly used by ethologists studying social fishes. We did not detect an aggression-boldness behavioral syndrome, but we did find that the aggression, boldness, and possibly the exploration behavioral axes play significant roles in shaping the observed variation in individual convict cichlid behavior. While juvenile convict cichlids did express a shoaling preference, this social preference was likely convoluted by aggressive interactions, despite the small size and young age of the fish. There is a need for the development of behavioral assays that allow for more reliable measurement of behavioral axes in juvenile neo-tropical cichlids. PMID:26497098

  18. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A.

    2011-01-01

    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?34S with negative ?33S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

  19. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A

    2011-01-01

    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?(34)S with negative ?(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928

  20. Wave spectra of a shoaling wave field: A comparison of experimental and simulated results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; Grosch, C. E.; Poole, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Wave profile measurements made from an aircraft crossing the North Carolina continental shelf after passage of Tropical Storm Amy in 1975 are used to compute a series of wave energy spectra for comparison with simulated spectra. Results indicate that the observed wave field experiences refraction and shoaling effects causing statistically significant changes in the spectral density levels. A modeling technique is used to simulate the spectral density levels. Total energy levels of the simulated spectra are within 20 percent of those of the observed wave field. The results represent a successful attempt to theoretically simulate, at oceanic scales, the decay of a wave field which contains significant wave energies from deepwater through shoaling conditions.

  1. Multi-laboratory evaluations of the performance of Catellicoccus marimammalium PCR assays developed to target gull fecal sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Ervin, Jared S.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Badgley, Brian D.; Ballestée, Elisenda; Bartkowiaka, Jakob; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Gourmelon, Michèle; Griffith, John; Holden, Patricia A.; Jay, Jenny; Layton, Blythe; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Meijer, Wim G.; Noble, Rachel; Raith, Meredith; Ryu, Hodon; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Schriewer, Alexander; Wang, Dan; Wanless, David; Whitman, Richard; Wuertz, Stefan; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report results from a multi-laboratory (n = 11) evaluation of four different PCR methods targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium originally developed to detect gull fecal contamination in coastal environments. The methods included a conventional end-point PCR method, a SYBR® Green qPCR method, and two TaqMan® qPCR methods. Different techniques for data normalization and analysis were tested. Data analysis methods had a pronounced impact on assay sensitivity and specificity calculations. Across-laboratory standardization of metrics including the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), target detected but not quantifiable (DNQ), and target not detected (ND) significantly improved results compared to results submitted by individual laboratories prior to definition standardization. The unit of measure used for data normalization also had a pronounced effect on measured assay performance. Data normalization to DNA mass improved quantitative method performance as compared to enterococcus normalization. The MST methods tested here were originally designed for gulls but were found in this study to also detect feces from other birds, particularly feces composited from pigeons. Sequencing efforts showed that some pigeon feces from California contained sequences similar to C. marimammalium found in gull feces. These data suggest that the prevalence, geographic scope, and ecology of C. marimammalium in host birds other than gulls require further investigation. This study represents an important first step in the multi-laboratory assessment of these methods and highlights the need to broaden and standardize additional evaluations, including environmentally relevant target concentrations in ambient waters from diverse geographic regions.

  2. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus).

    PubMed

    Ramis, Antonio; van Amerongen, Geert; van de Bildt, Marco; Leijten, Loneke; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Osterhaus, Albert; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental HPAIV H5N1 infection of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) to determine their susceptibility to infection and disease from this virus, pattern of viral shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes and viral tissue distribution. We inoculated sixteen black-headed gulls with 1 × 10(4) median tissue culture infectious dose HPAIV H5N1 (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005) intratracheally and intraesophageally. Birds were monitored daily until 12 days post inoculation (dpi). Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected daily to detect viral shedding. Necropsies from birds were performed at 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 12 dpi. Sampling from selected tissues was done for histopathology, immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen, PCR, and viral isolation. Our study shows that all inoculated birds were productively infected, developed systemic disease, and had a high morbidity and mortality rate. Virus was detected mainly in the respiratory tract on the first days after inoculation, and then concentrated more in pancreas and central nervous system from 4 dpi onwards. Birds shed infectious virus until 7 dpi from the pharynx and 6 dpi from the cloaca. We conclude that black-headed gulls are highly susceptible to disease with a high mortality rate and are thus more likely to act as sentinel species for the presence of the virus than as long-distance carriers of the virus to new geographical areas. PMID:25135340

  3. The effect of the number and size of animated conspecific images on shoaling responses of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Rampersad, Mindy; Jia, Jason; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly utilized in biomedical and psychopharmacological research aimed at modeling human brain disorders. Abnormal social behavior represents the core symptom of several neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. The zebrafish is a highly social species and has been proposed for modeling such disorders. Behavioral paradigms that can induce zebrafish social behavior are of importance. Here, we utilize a paradigm in which zebrafish are presented with computer animated images of conspecifics. We systematically varied the size of these images relative to the body size of the experimental fish and also investigated the potential effect of presenting different number of images in an attempt to optimize the paradigm. We report that images similar in size to the experimental fish induced a strong shoaling response (reduction of distance to the image presentation screen) both when the body size of the experimental fish was varied with the image size being held constant and when the image size was varied with the body size of the experimental fish being held constant. We also report that within the number range studied (from 1 to 8 conspecific stimulus fish), presentation of all animated shoals, but the image of a single conspecific stimulus fish, led to significant reduction of distance to the presentation screen. We conclude that the shoal image presentation paradigm induces robust social responses that are quantifiable in an automated manner, making the paradigm useful for screening of drugs and/or mutations. PMID:25625603

  4. Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

  5. Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) killed and injured by discarded monofilament lines at a marine recreational fishery in northern Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Yorio, Pablo; Marinao, Cristian; Suárez, Nicolás

    2014-08-15

    Among marine debris, monofilament fishing lines often result in negative impacts on marine organisms. We characterized marine debris and incidence of lost and discarded monofilament lines along beaches used by recreational fishers, and report the impact of lines on Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at the Bahía San Blas protected area, site of one of the main shore-based recreational fisheries of the southwestern Atlantic. Over 55% of the marine debris recorded originated from recreational fishing activities. Balls of tangled monofilament lines were found at a rate of 40.5 items per km. A total of 27 adult Kelp Gulls were found entangled with monofilament. All individuals were tangled to vegetation within colony boundaries. Four of the gulls had a monofilament line protruding from the bill, showing that they may be also killed when trying to obtain bait. Our results indicate that lost or discarded monofilament lines in the Bahía San Blas recreational fishing area result in undesired impacts on coastal wildlife. PMID:24951250

  6. Gene expression, glutathione status and indicators of hepatic oxidative stress in laughing gull (Larus atricilla) hatchlings exposed to methylmercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenko, Kathryn; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Hoffman, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive studies of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in birds, molecular effects on birds are poorly characterized. To improve our understanding of toxicity pathways and identify novel indicators of avian exposure to Hg, the authors investigated genomic changes, glutathione status, and oxidative status indicators in liver from laughing gull (Larus atricilla) hatchlings that were exposed in ovo to MeHg (0.05–1.6 µg/g). Genes involved in the transsulfuration pathway, iron transport and storage, thyroid-hormone related processes, and cellular respiration were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization as differentially expressed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) identified statistically significant effects of Hg on cytochrome C oxidase subunits I and II, transferrin, and methionine adenosyltransferase RNA expression. Glutathione-S-transferase activity and protein-bound sulfhydryl levels decreased, whereas glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased dose-dependently. Total sulfhydryl concentrations were significantly lower at 0.4 µg/g Hg than in controls. T ogether, these endpoints provided some evidence of compensatory effects, but little indication of oxidative damage at the tested doses, and suggest that sequestration of Hg through various pathways may be important for minimizing toxicity in laughing gulls. This is the first study to describe the genomic response of an avian species to Hg. Laughing gulls are among the less sensitive avian species with regard to Hg toxicity, and their ability to prevent hepatic oxidative stress may be important for surviving levels of MeHg exposures at which other species succumb.

  7. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  8. The breeding ecology of sea birds on Monito Island, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kepler, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    Monito Island, a 15-ha plateau surrounded by steep undercut cliffs, lies halfway between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Seven of the 9 sea birds are known to breed, and 2 (Blue-faced Booby and Laughing Gull) are here recorded as breeders in Puerto Rico for the first time. The Pelecaniformes are represented by 5 species, the White-tailed Tropicbird, the 3 pan-tropical boobies, and the Magnificent Frigatebird. The boobies all have long but annual breeding seasons, from fall through spring, showing a distinct breeding hiatus in the hot summer months, although some late-nesters may care for chicks during this period. The Magnificent Frigatebird has the most synchronous breeding, with a laying peak from late October to early December, when 70% of the population lay eggs. Four larids (Laughing Gull, Bridled Tern, Sooty Tern, and Brown Noddy) are summer residents vacating the island in August-September, and returning again in March-April. In general, they nest during the pelecaniform non-breeding season. The sea birds show a great range in nest site preference, with little overlap among them. Their diversity results from a combination of isolation, rugged cliffs, and the structural diversity of Monito Island. Although currently one of the outstanding sea bird colonies in the West Indies, Monito is threatened, and the colonies could be lost unless they are legally protected.

  9. Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.

    2006-09-30

    Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the high age 1+ entrainment rate at Desdemona Shoals in June 2002 unusual, or would it be observed again under similar conditions? PNNL and USACE personnel directly measured crab entrainment by the USACE hopper dredge Essayons working in Desdemona Shoals in June 2006. In addition to quantifying crab entrainment of all age classes, bottom salinity was directly measured in as many samples as possible, so that the relationship between crab entrainment and salinity could be further evaluated. All 2006 data were collected and analyzed in a manner consistent with the previous entrainment studies (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003, 2005).

  10. Observations of near-bed sediment convergence processes at Diamond Shoals, NC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. C.; List, J. H.; Voulgaris, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2010-12-01

    Diamond Shoals is a large sedimentary deposit approximately 20 km in length that spans the shelf width from Cape Hatteras, NC to the shelf break. This shoal is part of a series of convergent features associated with the cuspate forelands of the Carolinas coast. The processes that have formed and maintain these shoals are not well understood, however, previous studies have suggested wind, wave, and tidal processes have maintaned these configurations. In this study we present field measurments of waves, bottom orbital velocities, near-bottom mean currents, and near-bed suspended-sediment concentration data from calibrated Acoustic Backscatter Sensors (ABSs) at two different sites on the north and south sides of the shoal. A rotating sonar was also placed at the North Site to measure sea floor bed forms. The instruments were deployed in approoximately 12 m of water from January through April of 2009. The time period is marked with several storms events that last on the order of a few days and reoccurred approximately every 5 days. Results demonstrate a strong correlation between the wind forcing (that reached up to 20 m/s) with the surface waves (up to 4m) demonstrating local generation. Bottom orbital velocities from surface waves exceeded threshold for sediment mobility during storms and correlate with increased sediment concentrations in the water column. Near-bottom currents also generate increased bottom stress capable of locally suspending sediment. Suspended-sediment concentrations reached up to 100 mg/l during high energy events. In addition, sonar images show re-orientation of the sea floor ripples during storm events. Advective sediment fluxes computed from the ABS and near-bottom mean currents show a net transport eastward at the south site and southward at the northern site. These fluxes indicate converging and offshore orientated net sediment transport, providing a mechanism to maintain the shoal. Observations are compared to atmospheric forcings characterized from the regional meteorology that identifies three different types of storms (Cold Fronts, Warm Fronts, and Nor'Easter-Tropical Storms). The passage of these storms dertermines the characteristics of the winds, generated waves, near-bottom currents, and net sediment flux directions.

  11. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  13. Reproductive success in presenescent common gulls (Larus canus): the importance of the last year of life.

    PubMed

    Rattiste, Kalev

    2004-10-01

    Survival selection against individuals of inferior quality (measured as breeding success) has been proposed to account for the increase in average reproductive success with advancing age in presenescent birds. This so-called selection hypothesis relies on quality-dependent survival. In the present breeding performance study of common gulls, Larus canus, this assumption was not verified. In particular, omitting the last breeding year from the analysis resulted in the disappearance of the correlation between breeding success and survival. A positive correlation in the full dataset was thus solely based on the poor breeding success of ultimate breeders. Indeed, presenescent individuals were shown to have a specifically low breeding success in their terminal breeding event. The poor success of ultimate breeders thus reflects an abruptly declined condition rather than the birds' overall quality. A comparison of the survival of poor and good performers, involving last-time breeders, thus needs not to be a proper test of the selection hypothesis. Longitudinal analysis revealed a steady increase of individual breeding success until the tenth breeding year. The results suggest that an increase of breeding success with age often found in cross-sectional analyses is primarily a result of age-related improvements of competence and/or increased reproductive effort. PMID:15451696

  14. Begging as graded signals of need for food in young ring-billed gulls.

    PubMed

    Iacovides; Evans

    1998-07-01

    Recent models suggest that begging vocalizations are honest signals communicating a chick's nutritional needs to its parents. We investigated the effects on begging of short-term food deprivation ('hunger') and long-term reduction in body condition under controlled laboratory conditions in ring-billed gulls, Larus delawarensis. We tested two condition groups (high: fed to satiation; low: fed 75% wet mass of high-condition diet) at three levels of short-term food deprivation (1, 4 and 12 h). Begging call rate, intensity and peck rate were significantly greater in the low-condition chicks. Begging in both high- and low-condition groups increased with short-term deprivation, tending to asymptotic levels by 12 h of deprivation. Overall level of begging was graded according to both short- and long-term need for food, with steep slopes at the beginning of the begging curves providing a strong basis for parental discrimination of signalling level. The system appears to agree with the design requirements of a homeostatic control system, and with predictions of current game-theoretic models of honest signalling. Possible effects of sibling competition and parent-offspring conflict are discussed. These issues require further study under natural conditions in this species. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9710464

  15. Transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus to Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) through intranasal inoculation of virus and ingestion of virus-infected chicken meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate the susceptibility of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus under natural routes of infection, we exposed gulls to two Asian lineage H5N1 HPAI viruses (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/05 and A/duck meat/Anyang/AVL-1/01) via intranasa...

  16. Exposure assessment of groundwater transport of tritium from the Shoal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies are responsible for nuclear weapons research and development as part of the national defense program. These activities include underground nuclear testing, and a small number of such tests have been conducted at sites distant from the Nevada Test Site (NTS). An NTS site-wide Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared in 1995 and includes the two offsite test areas in Nevada: the Shoal site and the Central Nevada Test Area. At the time of these tests, evaluations of project safety and predictions of groundwater transport of contaminants were made, and the tests were deemed safe to the public. These early evaluations were not considered sufficient for the EIS, so DOE decided to perform a new exposure assessment for the Shoal site. The basic scenario evaluated for this exposure assessment is transport of tritium from the Shoal underground nuclear test by groundwater to a receptor well where an individual drinks the contaminated water for 70 years, centered around the time of peak tritium concentration. This scenario is entirely hypothetical because, as of 1995, there are no known occurrences of humans drinking water downgradient from the test. Four specific scenarios are analyzed because of uncertainty in flowpath direction. Two of these presume that wells are drilled at the boundary of the current DOE land withdrawal and are then used for drinking water supply. Wells do not currently exist at these locations and thus the resultant risks do not apply to any current populations; however, there are no controls to prevent such wells from being drilled in the future. The two other scenarios consider transport to the first existing wells along possible flowpaths. These wells are currently used only seasonally to water cattle, and as such, these risks also do not apply to current populations.

  17. Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed Hassan

    2004-09-01

    The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

  18. Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test

    SciTech Connect

    K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

  19. Discovery of probably Tunguska meteorites at the bottom of Khushmo river's shoal

    E-print Network

    Andrei E. Zlobin

    2013-04-29

    The author describes some stones which he found at the bottom of Khushmo River's shoal during 1988 expedition into the region of the Tunguska impact (1908). Photos of stones are presented. Three stones have traces of melting and the author consider these stones as probable Tunguska meteorites. Some arguments are presented to confirm author's opinion. Results of investigation of prospect holes in peat-bogs are briefly described too. New data concerning heat impulse of the Tunguska impact are obtained. There is the assumption that some meteorites which are formed during comet impact looks like stony or glass-like thin plates with traces of melting.

  20. Optical tsunamis: shoaling of shallow water rogue waves in nonlinear fibers with normal dispersion

    E-print Network

    Wabnitz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In analogy with ocean waves running up towards the beach, shoaling of prechirped optical pulses may occur in the normal group-velocity dispersion regime of optical fibers. We present exact Riemann wave solutions of the optical shallow water equations and show that they agree remarkably well with the numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, at least up to the point where a vertical pulse front develops. We also reveal that extreme wave events or optical tsunamis may be generated in dispersion tapered fibers in the presence of higher-order dispersion.

  1. Comparison of lake trout-egg survival at inshore and offshore and shallow-water and deepwater sites in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bronte, Charles R.; Peck, James W.

    1995-01-01

    We incubated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs over winter at shallow (10 m) and deep locations (20 m) on Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior; at a shallow-water (10 m) site off the mainland (bark point); and in flowing great lakes water at two laboratories. Survival to hatch was significantly higher in the laboratories and averaged 80.9%. In Lake Superior, egg survival among incubators at all sites was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) For incubators that remained buried in spawning substrates (15.1-21.0%) than for incubators that were partially or completely exposed to water currents (1.0-12.6%). Egg survival for incubators that remained buried at the shallow-water sites was significantly higher at bark point (44.6%) than at Gull Island Shoal (21.0%). Egg survival among incubators that remained buried at the deep (14.4%) and shallow-water sites (21.0%) on Gull Island Shoal was not significantly different. Because incubators that were completely buried or partially exposed only appeared to differ in their degree of exposure, we concluded that survival of eggs in the lake was reduced by mechanical stress associated with water turbulence. Lower egg survival at Gull Island Shoal, a known lake trout-spawning site, was not expected and appeared to have been caused by a strong gale that occurred when these eggs were in late epiboly, a sensitive embryological stage. We present a hypothesis suggesting that lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes is limited by availability of spawning habitat.

  2. Changing gull diet in a changing world: a 150-year stable isotope (?13C, ?15N) record from feathers collected in the Pacific Northwest of North America.

    PubMed

    Blight, Louise K; Hobson, Keith A; Kyser, T Kurt; Arcese, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The world's oceans have undergone significant ecological changes following European colonial expansion and associated industrialization. Seabirds are useful indicators of marine food web structure and can be used to track multidecadal environmental change, potentially reflecting long-term human impacts. We used stable isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N) analysis of feathers from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in a heavily disturbed region of the northeast Pacific to ask whether diets of this generalist forager changed in response to shifts in food availability over 150 years, and whether any detected change might explain long-term trends in gull abundance. Sampled feathers came from birds collected between 1860 and 2009 at nesting colonies in the Salish Sea, a transboundary marine system adjacent to Washington, USA and British Columbia, Canada. To determine whether temporal trends in stable isotope ratios might simply reflect changes to baseline environmental values, we also analysed muscle tissue from forage fishes collected in the same region over a multidecadal timeframe. Values of ?(13)C and ?(15)N declined since 1860 in both subadult and adult gulls (?(13)C, ~ 2-6‰; ?(15)N, ~4-5‰), indicating that their diet has become less marine over time, and that birds now feed at a lower trophic level than previously. Conversely, forage fish ?(13)C and ?(15)N values showed no trends, supporting our conclusion that gull feather values were indicative of declines in marine food availability rather than of baseline environmental change. Gradual declines in feather isotope values are consistent with trends predicted had gulls consumed less fish over time, but were equivocal with respect to whether gulls had switched to a more garbage-based diet, or one comprising marine invertebrates. Nevertheless, our results suggest a long-term decrease in diet quality linked to declining fish abundance or other anthropogenic influences, and may help to explain regional population declines in this species and other piscivores. PMID:25369474

  3. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of shoaling internal solitary waves at the ASIAEX site in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, K. G.; Warn-Varnas, A.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction of barotropic tides with Luzon Strait topography generates some of the world's largest internal solitary waves which eventually shoal and dissipate on the western side of the northern South China Sea. Two-dimensional numerical simulations of the shoaling of a single internal solitary wave at the site of the Asian Seas International Acoustic Experiment (ASIAEX) have been undertaken in order to investigate the sensitivity of the shoaling process to the stratification and the underlying bathymetry and to explore the influence of rotation. The bulk of the simulations are inviscid; however, exploratory simulations using a vertical eddy-viscosity confined to a near bottom layer, along with a no-slip boundary condition, suggest that viscous effects may become important in water shallower than about 200 m. A shoaling solitary wave fissions into several waves. At depths of 200-300 m the front of the leading waves become nearly parallel to the bottom and develop a very steep back as has been observed. The leading waves are followed by waves of elevation (pedestals) that are conjugate to the waves of depression ahead and behind them. Horizontal resolutions of at least 50 m are required to simulate these well. Wave breaking was found to occur behind the second or third of the leading solitary waves, never at the back of the leading wave. Comparisons of the shoaling of waves started at depths of 1000 and 3000 m show significant differences and the shoaling waves can be significantly non-adiabatic even at depths greater than 2000 m. When waves reach a depth of 200 m, their amplitudes can be more than 50% larger than the largest possible solitary wave at that depth. The shoaling behaviour is sensitive to the presence of small-scale features in the bathymetry: a 200 m high bump at 700 m depth can result in the generation of many mode-two waves and of higher mode waves. Sensitivity to the stratification is considered by using three stratifications based on summer observations. They primarily differ in the depth of the thermocline. The generation of mode-two waves and the behaviour of the waves in shallow water is sensitive to this depth. Rotation affects the shoaling waves by reducing the amplitude of the leading waves via the radiation of long trailing inertia-gravity waves. The nonlinear-dispersive evolution of these inertia-gravity waves results in the formation of secondary mode-one wave packets.

  4. March 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Project Shoal Site (Data Validation Package)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Project Shoal Area (Shoal) in March 2011. Wells HC-1, HC-2, HC-4, HC-5, HC-6, HC-7, MV-1, MV-2 and MV-3 were sampled as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Two extra tritium samples were collected from well HC-4, one sample (HC-4-400) was collected at about 1/3 of the purge volume (135 gallons), the second sample (HC-4-400) was collected at 2/3 of purge volume (270 gallons). These additional samples were collected prior to completing the well purging process to evaluate the effects well purging has on the analytical results. Samples were not collected from locations HC-3 and HC-8 at the direction of the S.M. Stoller Corporation site lead.

  5. On the Shoaling of Solitary Waves in the Presence of Short Random Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, M.; Sheremet, A.; Kaihatu, J. M.; Ma, G.

    2014-12-01

    Overhead video from a small number of laboratory experiments conducted by Kaihatu et al. (2012) at the Tsunami Wave Basin at Oregon State University shows that the breaking point of a shoaling solitary wave shifts to deeper water if random waves are present. The analysis of the laboratory data collected confirms that solitary waves indeed tend to break earlier in the presence of random waves-fields, and suggests that the effect is the result of radiation-stresses induced by the random wave fields. A theoretical approach based on the forced KdV equation is shown to successfully predict the shoaling process of the solitary wave. A statistical ensemble simulated using a state of the art non-hydrostatic model (NHWAVE) is used to test the significance of the process. The results of this study point to a potentially significant oceanographic process that has so far been ignored, and suggest that systematic research into the interaction between tsunami waves and the swell background could increase the accuracy of tsunami forecasting.

  6. 3D, CAEX help independent add reserves inexpensively in ship shoal area of gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, S.C.; Murphy, J.R. ); Mastorsis, S.S. )

    1993-01-18

    New exploration technologies can transform the way an independent oil company explores for hydrocarbons and develops reserves. For one independent, Murphy Exploration and Production Co. (Murphy Expro), a unit of Murphy Oil Corp., the metamorphosis began in 1988 when it launched its first comprehensive project using 3D seismic data and computer aided exploration (CAEX) workstations. In a declining 38 year oil field in the Gulf of Mexico, 3D tools and methods have enabled Murphy to increase oil and gas reserves during the past four years by 21% and 30%, respectively. Many of the new reservoirs were discovered in highly faulted complexes of relatively small, subtle traps. Further, the discoveries were accomplished with a drilling success rate of about 90% in an area where exploratory dry holes had been the rule rather than the exception. Murphy Expro has been able to maintain field production rates by adding new production at remarkably low finding costs for this region. As a result of the project's success, Murphy has committed itself to advanced oil finding technology. Between 1988 and yearend 1992 the company acquired more than 12,000 line miles of 3D seismic in five Gulf of MexIco fields including Ship Shoal 113. This article describes how the change to 3D philosophy and practice took place at Ship Shoal 113 and its impact on Murphy Expro.

  7. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... each summer since 1999, researchers from NASA's Haughton-Mars Project and the Mars Society reside at this "polar desert" location to study the geologic and ...

  8. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  9. Island Panoramic

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A panoramic view taken from an island in the Yellowstone River.  Upstream is to the right side of the picture while downstream is to the left.  The middle of the picture looks straight across to the descending right bank. ...

  10. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  11. Island Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Sourish Dutta; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2009-04-29

    If the observed dark energy is a cosmological constant, the canonical state of the universe is de Sitter spacetime. In such a spacetime, quantum fluctuations that violate the null energy condition will create islands of matter that, if large enough, may resemble our observable universe. Phenomenological approaches to calculating density fluctuations yield a scale invariant spectrum with suitable amplitude. With time, the island of matter that is our observable universe, re-enters the cosmological constant sea.

  12. Immunoreactive cortisone in droppings reflect stress levels, diet and growth rate of gull-billed tern chicks.

    PubMed

    Albano, Noelia; Santiago-Quesada, Francisco; Masero, José A; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Möstl, Erich

    2015-03-01

    Blood levels of corticosterone have been traditionally analyzed to assess stress levels in birds; however, measuring steroid hormone metabolites in feces and droppings has gained much interest as a noninvasive technique successfully used for such purposed in vertebrates. Diet may affect these fecal metabolite levels (e.g., due to nutritional stress), however, this variable has not been taken into account in studies with chicks despite the great dietary flexibility of many avian species. In this study, we addressed for the first time this key issue and validated the technique in wild gull-billed tern chicks (Gelochelidon nilotica). Several enzyme immunoassays were used to determine the most appropriate test to measure the stress response. Subsequently, we performed an experiment in captivity to assess adrenocortical activity in gull-billed tern chicks fed with two diets: piscivorous vs. insectivorous. Finally, the relation between the chicks' growth rate and excreted immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites (EGMs) was also evaluated. We found the immunoreactive cortisone metabolites to be a good index of stress (as being an index of adrenocortical reactivity) in chicks of this species. Fish-fed chicks had higher levels of cortisone metabolites when comparing both concentration and total daily excreted metabolites. Within each treatment diet, cortisone metabolite levels and growth rates were negatively correlated. These findings suggest that the diet should be considered when using this technique for comparative purposes and highlight the trade-off between stress levels and chicks growth rates. PMID:25743158

  13. Genetic structure, diversity and subspecies status of Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) from the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) are among the most widespread, yet scarce, Charadriiformes in the world. Two subspecies are recognized in the United States: G. n. aranea breeds along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and G. n. vanrossemi breeds in the Salton Sea and San Diego Bay of California. Conservation concerns exist for the species due to its low abundance in the United States and apparent declines in some parts of its North American range. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences to assess genetic diversity and differentiation patterns among Gull-billed Tern populations from Virginia, Texas, and California. We also tested for evidence of population bottlenecks, and evaluated the support our data provide for the North American subspecies. Genetic diversity was highest in Texas and underscored the importance of habitat in that large population. Significant population differentiation existed, but could not be consistently identified using various analytical approaches and suggested that the magnitude of differentiation was low. No evidence for bottlenecks was identified. Our data could not distinguish individuals from different subspecies and therefore do not support the current intraspecific taxonomy. Tenable explanations for many findings are related to the low site tenacity demonstrated by the species.

  14. Variation in Immune Parameters and Disease Prevalence among Lesser Black-Backed Gulls (Larus fuscus sp.) with Different Migratory Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Arriero, Elena; Müller, Inge; Juvaste, Risto; Martínez, Francisco Javier; Bertolero, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control infections is a key trait for migrants that must be balanced against other costly features of the migratory life. In this study we explored the links between migration and disease ecology by examining natural variation in parasite exposure and immunity in several populations of Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) with different migratory strategies. We found higher activity of natural antibodies in long distance migrants from the nominate subspecies L.f.fuscus. Circulating levels of IgY showed large variation at the population level, while immune parameters associated with antimicrobial activity showed extensive variation at the individual level irrespective of population or migratory strategy. Pathogen prevalence showed large geographical variation. However, the seroprevalence of one of the gull-specific subtypes of avian influenza (H16) was associated to the migratory strategy, with lower prevalence among the long-distance migrants, suggesting that migration may play a role in disease dynamics of certain pathogens at the population level. PMID:25679797

  15. Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Helgason, Lisa Bjørnsdatter; Arukwe, Augustine; Wolkers, Hans; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Harju, Mikael; Berg, Vidar; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how contaminant exposure and reduced food intake affect tissue distribution and biotransformation of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in Arctic seabirds using herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a model species. Herring gull chicks were exposed for 44 d to cod liver oil containing a typical mixture of contaminants. Following exposure, food intake was reduced for a one-week period in a subgroup of the chicks. Polyclorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and brominated flame retardants, as well as a wide range of hydroxy, methyl sulfone, and methoxy compounds were measured in liver, brain, and plasma samples. Additionally, phase I biotransformation enzyme activities and phase I and II messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were investigated in the liver, brain, or both. Both contaminant exposure and reduced food intake had an increasing effect on the concentrations of HOCs and their metabolites. The HOC exposure and reduced food intake also led to increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) activity, whereas mRNA expression of the biotransformation enzymes increased only following the reduced food intake. Tissue distribution of HOCs and their metabolites was not affected by either contaminant exposure or reduced food intake. In conclusion, the results indicate that biotransformation capacity and formation of HOC metabolites increase during reduced food intake. This finding supports the hypothesis that reduced food intake increases the susceptibility of Arctic animals to the effects of lipophilic HOCs. PMID:23060285

  16. Pressure-gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal shoal system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shi, F.; Hanes, D.M.; Kirby, J.T.; Erikson, L.; Barnard, P.; Eshleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal shoal. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal shoal. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal shoal causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient- forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.

  17. Ship Shoal 113/South Pelto 20 fields: Detection of subtle traps utilizing 3-D technology and detailed development geologic practices

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.H.; Chassaniol, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Ship Shoal Block 113 Field and South Pelto Block 20 Field are located {+-} 100 miles SW of New Orleans, Louisiana in 30--50 ft of water. To date, over 274 wells have yielded 144 MMBO and 446 BCFG from Lower Pleistocene through Upper Miocene Sands (2,000--15,000 ft). Production is primarily from complexity faulted structural traps (domal and interdomal) associated with episodic salt movement throughout the Upper Miocene to Pleistocene time. Detection of these fields was based on gravity data. Development of the fields evolved to include the integration of all well information into fair-good quality 2-D seismic data and ultimately into a state-of-the-art 3-D seismic survey which was acquired April 1988 (Ship Shoal) and January 1991 (South Pelto). Through December 1991, 26 wells have been drilled in Ship Shoal 113/South Pelto 20 Fields based on 3-D interpretation, with a 92% success rate. All wells were amplitude supported and were primarily structurally controlled traps. In November 1991, the Ship Shoal Block 113 ``N-2`` well was successfully drilled and completed in a subtle salt overhang play with no amplitude support. The well encountered 85` net oil in two Upper Pliocene sands prior to penetrating salt. Subsequently, five salt flank locations were drilled in these fields (four successfully). Additional ``domal`` tests will be drilled in the forthcoming year.

  18. Seasonal Timing of Bald Eagle Attendance and Influence on Activity Budgets of Glaucous-winged Gulls in Barkley Sound, British Columbia

    E-print Network

    497 Seasonal Timing of Bald Eagle Attendance and Influence on Activity Budgets of Glaucous the banning of organochlorine pesticide use, there may be consequences for prey populations. While Bald Eagles activity budgets. Here we investigate changes in Bald Eagle abundance in relation to gull breeding

  19. Winter storm-induced hydrodynamics and morphological response of a shallow transgressive shoal complex: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siadatmousavi, S. Mostafa; Jose, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Using extended deployments during seasons of low and high discharge from the Atchafalaya River, meteorological, hydrodynamic and bottom boundary layer parameters were monitored from Tiger and Trinity Shoal complex, off Louisiana coast, USA. During winter storms, the surface current speed measured at both shoals exceeded 0.5 m/s and the entire water column followed the prevailing wind direction. The current speed close to the bottom exceeded 0.3 m/s during high energy northerly winds. The mean water level in the shoal complex increased during southerly winds and decreased during northerly winds, such that the difference between wind set-up and set-down exceeded 0.7 m in Tiger Shoal and 0.6 m in Trinity Shoal during high energy frontal passages. The swell height was inversely correlated with mean water level, and increased during pre-frontal phase and decreased during post-frontal phase of winter storms. The sea (short waves) height responded quickly to wind direction and speed; and within a few hours after the wind shifted and blowing from the north, the sea height increased during both deployments. Bimodal wave frequency spectrum was observed during wind veering from southerly to northerly, when both sea and swell intensities were significant. The Tiger Shoal bed sediment texture transformed drastically, from mud to shell and shell hash assemblage, within a period of two weeks during the December 2008 deployment. Backscatter signal intensity from a Pulse Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP) and its velocity estimates were used to determine the vertical extend and timing of mud resuspension and their eventual flushing out from the shoal environment, when exposed to high energy winter storm passages. The computed time frame for a total transformation of bottom sediment texture (from muddy bottom to shell and shell hash assemblage) was supported by the combined wave and bottom current induced shear stress at shoal bed. The bed samples collected from Tiger Shoal before and after the deployment in spring 2009 consisted of more than 80% shell and shell hash, which again confirmed a stable bottom as predicted from the PCADP data. However, the fine sand and mud dominated bed at Trinity Shoal was highly dynamic and experienced a few cm of ephemeral sediment deposition during the passage of each cold front, as revealed from the analysis of acoustic backscatter data from the PCADP. Suspended sediment concentration estimated from Optical Backscatterance Sensors (OBS) and PCADP were in good agreement during low river discharge events in December 2008; but significantly diverged during the spring 2009 deployment, when a high suspended sediment load was discharged into the shelf from the Atchafalaya River, and subsequently pushed farther offshore into the deployment sites by wind-induced strong currents during the passage of cold fronts.

  20. Characteristics and Mechanisms of Cardiopulmonary Injury Caused by Mine Blasts in Shoals: A Randomized Controlled Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gengfen; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Weixiao; Chen, Jing; Kang, Jianyi; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Aimin; Lai, Xinan

    2013-01-01

    Background Because the characteristics of blast waves in water are different from those in air and because kinetic energy is liberated by a pressure wave at the water-air interface, thoracic injuries from mine blasts in shoals may be serious. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals. Methods To study the characteristics of cardiopulmonary injury, 56 animals were divided randomly into three experimental groups (12 animals in the sham group, 22 animals in the land group and 22 animals in the shoal group). To examine the biomechanics of injury, 20 animals were divided randomly into the land group and the shoal group. In the experimental model, the water surface was at the level of the rabbit's xiphoid process, and paper electric detonators (600 mg RDX) were used to simulate mines. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted, and arterial blood gases, serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB and other physiologic parameters were measured over a 12-hour period after detonation. Pressures in the thorax and abdomen and the acceleration of the thorax were measured. Conclusion The results indicate that severe cardiopulmonary injury and dysfunction occur following exposure to mine blasts in shoals. Therefore, the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury may result from shear waves that produce strain at the water-air interface. Another mechanism of injury includes the propagation of the shock wave from the planta to the thorax, which causes a much higher peak overpressure in the abdomen than in the thorax; as a result, the abdominal organs and diaphragm are thrust into the thorax, damaging the lungs and heart. PMID:24358110

  1. Bathymetry of the Wilderness breach at Fire Island, New York, June 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownell, Andrew T.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Spore, Nicholas J.; McNinch, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, collaborated with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, to collect shallow water bathymetric data of the Wilderness breach on Fire Island, New York, in June 2013. The breach formed in October 2012 during Hurricane Sandy, and the USGS is involved in a post-Sandy effort to map, monitor, and model the morphologic evolution of the breach as part of Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B: Linking Coastal Vulnerability and Process, Fire Island. This publication includes a bathymetric dataset of the breach and the adjacent nearshore on the ocean side of the island. The objective of the data collection and analysis is to map the bathymetry of the primary breach channel, ebb shoal, and nearshore bar system.

  2. Happy Island

    E-print Network

    Larry McLerran

    2011-05-20

    I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, $N_c$ is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy Island in the $\\mu_B$-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy Island.

  3. Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hicks, D.W.; Onuf, C.P.; Tunnell, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

  4. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 located in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended February 2008) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof of concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 447 that were conducted at the site during 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by LM for the PSA

  5. 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

  6. Groundwater Model Validation for the Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-19

    Stoller has examined newly collected water level data in multiple wells at the Shoal site. On the basis of these data and information presented in the report, we are currently unable to confirm that the model is successfully validated. Most of our concerns regarding the model stem from two findings: (1) measured water level data do not provide clear evidence of a prevailing lateral flow direction; and (2) the groundwater flow system has been and continues to be in a transient state, which contrasts with assumed steady-state conditions in the model. The results of DRI's model validation efforts and observations made regarding water level behavior are discussed in the following sections. A summary of our conclusions and recommendations for a path forward are also provided in this letter report.

  7. Consistent nonlinear deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for deep to shallow water wave shoaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrecica, Teodor; Toledo, Yaron

    2015-04-01

    One-dimensional deterministic and stochastic evolution equations are derived for the dispersive nonlinear waves while taking dissipation of energy into account. The deterministic nonlinear evolution equations are formulated using operational calculus by following the approach of Bredmose et al. (2005). Their formulation is extended to include the linear and nonlinear effects of wave dissipation due to friction and breaking. The resulting equation set describes the linear evolution of the velocity potential for each wave harmonic coupled by quadratic nonlinear terms. These terms describe the nonlinear interactions between triads of waves, which represent the leading-order nonlinear effects in the near-shore region. The equations are translated to the amplitudes of the surface elevation by using the approach of Agnon and Sheremet (1997) with the correction of Eldeberky and Madsen (1999). The only current possibility for calculating the surface gravity wave field over large domains is by using stochastic wave evolution models. Hence, the above deterministic model is formulated as a stochastic one using the method of Agnon and Sheremet (1997) with two types of stochastic closure relations (Benney and Saffman's, 1966, and Hollway's, 1980). These formulations cannot be applied to the common wave forecasting models without further manipulation, as they include a non-local wave shoaling coefficients (i.e., ones that require integration along the wave rays). Therefore, a localization method was applied (see Stiassnie and Drimer, 2006, and Toledo and Agnon, 2012). This process essentially extracts the local terms that constitute the mean nonlinear energy transfer while discarding the remaining oscillatory terms, which transfer energy back and forth. One of the main findings of this work is the understanding that the approximated non-local coefficients behave in two essentially different manners. In intermediate water depths these coefficients indeed consist of rapidly oscillating terms, but as the water depth becomes shallow they change to an exponential growth (or decay) behavior. Hence, the formerly used localization technique cannot be justified for the shallow water region. A new formulation is devised for the localization in shallow water, it approximates the nonlinear non-local shoaling coefficient in shallow water and matches it to the one fitting to the intermediate water region. This allows the model behavior to be consistent from deep water to intermediate depths and up to the shallow water regime. Various simulations of the model were performed for the cases of intermediate, and shallow water, overall the model was found to give good results in both shallow and intermediate water depths. The essential difference between the shallow and intermediate nonlinear shoaling physics is explained via the dominating class III Bragg resonances phenomenon. By inspecting the resonance conditions and the nature of the dispersion relation, it is shown that unlike in the intermediate water regime, in shallow water depths the formation of resonant interactions is possible without taking into account bottom components. References Agnon, Y. & Sheremet, A. 1997 Stochastic nonlinear shoaling of directional spectra. J. Fluid Mech. 345, 79-99. Benney, D. J. & Saffman, P. G. 1966 Nonlinear interactions of random waves. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 289, 301-321. Bredmose, H., Agnon, Y., Madsen, P.A. & Schaffer, H.A. 2005 Wave transformation models with exact second-order transfer. European J. of Mech. - B/Fluids 24 (6), 659-682. Eldeberky, Y. & Madsen, P. A. 1999 Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves. Coastal Engineering 38, 1-24. Kaihatu, J. M. & Kirby, J. T. 1995 Nonlinear transformation of waves in infinite water depth. Phys. Fluids 8, 175-188. Holloway, G. 1980 Oceanic internal waves are not weak waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 906-914. Stiassnie, M. & Drimer, N. 2006 Prediction of long forcing waves for harbor agitation studies. J. of waterways, port, coastal and oce

  8. Assateague Island is Changing

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    and deposition of sand toward the island interior--allows the barrier island to migrate or rollover westward barrier island oceanbaymainland barrier island oceanbaymainland barrier island oceanbaymainland Bay Ocean "Barrier islands such as Assateague will be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change and sea

  9. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  10. Estuary and barrier island study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, D. W. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Scan line distortion is apparent in ERTS-1 imagery, imparting a serrated-edge appearance to shorelines. This feature however does not hinder observation and interpretation of broad features such as shoaling areas and sediment plumes. Shoaling in the backshore areas and inlets is easily discernible in spectral bands 4 and 5. Contrast between land and water is especially striking in spectral band 7, allowing easy identification of tidal flat areas.

  11. Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment

    E-print Network

    Gong, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies ...

  12. Nematode diversity, abundance and community structure 50 years after the formation of the volcanic island of Surtsey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva-Makulec, K.; Bjarnadottir, B.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-10-01

    The soil nematode fauna can give important insights into soil development and other habitat changes that occur during primary succession. We investigated the generic composition, density, distribution and community structure of nematodes 50 years after the formation of a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland. Part of the island has received additional nutrient inputs from seagulls breeding there since 1985, while the reminder has been much less affected and is at present found at a different successional sere. In total, 25 genera of nematodes were identified, of which 14 were reported on Surtsey for the first time. Nematode communities were more diverse in the more infertile area outside the gull colony, where 24 genera were found, compared to 18 inside. The trophic structure of the nematode communities showed relatively higher abundance of fungal feeders in the infertile areas, but relatively more bacterial- and plant-feeders inside the colony. Nematode abundance in surface soil was, however, significantly higher within the gull colony, with 16.7 ind. cm-2 compared to 3.6 ind. cm-2 outside. A multivariate analysis indicated that the nematode abundance and distribution on Surtsey were most strongly related to the soil C : N ratio, soil acidity, plant cover and biomass, soil temperature and soil depth.

  13. Lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) consuming swimming crabs: An important link in the food web of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, Henriette; Schwemmer, Philipp; Ehrich, Siegfried; Garthe, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Swimming crabs (Liocarcinus spp.) are one of the most common brachyuran species in the North Sea, and their abundance has substantially increased over the last century. Seabirds such as lesser black-backed gulls (LBBG) commonly feed mainly on higher-trophic-level organisms such as fish. However, intensive use of swimming crabs by LBBGs in the eastern North Sea has been noted over several years. Our investigation of this aspect of the food web by examining food remains from breeding LBBGs showed that swimming crabs accounted for more than half of the nutrition of LBBGs. Gulls selected larger individuals than expected, based on sizes of free-living swimming crabs. A long-term data set (2002-2006) shows that gulls took swimming crabs mainly in the early morning and late evening, suggesting that they might migrate vertically in the water column. Moreover, it shows that although swimming crabs occurred at considerable distances from the shore, LBBGs took this prey item exclusively from near the shore where it was most abundant. This suggests the existence of a possible energy threshold above which gulls experience a net energy loss, if they have to travel too far from their colony, where the abundance of swimming crabs is lower and the energy intake might thus not compensate for the long-distance flights. Swimming-crab abundance did not appear to be the primary factor influencing overall gull distribution. A simple bioenergetic model showed that the 22,000 individual LBBGs in the most important breeding colony in the south-eastern North Sea consumed approximately 35 million swimming crabs annually (i.e. 1590 swimming crabs per individual gull) during the breeding period. However, considering the high numbers of swimming crabs in the south-eastern North Sea (demonstrated by bottom-trawl surveys in 2005 and 2007) LBBGs are unlikely to exert top-down control on this prey. Conversely, a bottom-up effect is more likely, potentially enabling further increases in LBBG populations through increases in their most important prey item in the south-eastern North Sea.

  14. Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), a species demonstrated to move between these regions.

    PubMed

    Wille, Michelle; Robertson, Gregory J; Whitney, Hugh; Ojkic, Davor; Lang, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    The primary hosts for influenza A viruses are waterfowl, although gulls and shorebirds are also important in global avian influenza dynamics. Avian influenza virus genes are separated phylogenetically into two geographic clades, American and Eurasian, which is caused by the geographic separation of the host species between these two regions. We surveyed a gregarious and cosmopolitan species, the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), in Newfoundland, Canada, for the presence of avian influenza viruses. We have isolated and determined the complete genome sequence of an H13N2 virus, A/Great Black-backed Gull/Newfoundland/296/2008(H13N2), from one of these birds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus contained two genes in the American gull clade (PB1, HA), two genes in the American avian clade (PA, NA), and four genes in the Eurasian gull clade (PB2, NP, M, NS). We analyzed bird band recovery information and found the first evidence of trans-Atlantic migration from Newfoundland to Europe (UK, Spain and Portugal) for this species. Thus, great black-backed gulls could be important for movement of avian influenza viruses across the Atlantic Ocean and within North America. PMID:21053031

  15. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. A method for the automated long-term monitoring of three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus shoal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kleinhappel, T K; Al-Zoubi, A; Al-Diri, B; Burman, O; Dickinson, P; John, L; Wilkinson, A; Pike, T W

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a flexible, non-invasive tagging system for the automated identification and long-term monitoring of individual three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. The system is based on barcoded tags, which can be reliably and robustly detected and decoded to provide information on an individual's identity and location. Because large numbers of fish can be individually tagged, it can be used to monitor individual- and group-level dynamics within fish shoals. PMID:24588757

  17. Salt Control on Sedimentary Processes in Early Pleistocene: Ship Shoal South Addition Blocks 349-358, Gulf of Mexico. 

    E-print Network

    Syarif, Munji

    2004-09-30

    The interpretation of 3D seismic data from Ship Shoal South Addition Blocks 349-358, Gulf of Mexico shows a complex interaction between salt, faults, and sedimentary strata. Reconstruction of the geometry of early Pliestocene (about 3.65 Ma) through recent salt... normally in the depocenter area, whereas the strata at the basin margin were deformed by salt movement and faulting. Each systems tract is uniquely associated with a certain seismic facies. Three seismic facies were identified associated with LST, TST...

  18. Adapting to a Changing World: Unraveling the Role of Man-Made Habitats as Alternative Feeding Areas for Slender-Billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Francisco; Navarro, Joan; Afán, Isabel; Hobson, Keith A.; Delgado, Antonio; Forero, Manuela G.

    2012-01-01

    Current rates of wildlife habitat loss have placed increasing demands on managers to develop, validate and implement tools aimed at improving our ability to evaluate such impacts on wildlife. Here, we present a case study conducted at the Natural Area of Doñana (SW Spain) where remote sensing and stable isotope (?13C, ?15N) analyses of individuals were combined to unravel (1) the effect of variations in availability of natural food resources (i.e. from natural marshes) on reproductive performance of a Slender-billed Gull (Chroicocephalus genei) population, and (2) the role of two adjacent, artificial systems (a fish farm and saltmines) as alternate anthropogenic feeding areas. Based on long-term (1983–2004) remote-sensing, we inferred the average extent of flooded area at the marshland (a proxy to natural resource availability) annually. Estimated flooded areas (ranging from extreme drought [ca. 151 ha, 1995] to high moisture [15,049 ha, 2004]) were positively related to reproductive success of gulls (estimated for the 1993–2004 period, and ranging from ca. 0 to 1.7 fledglings per breeding pairs), suggesting that habitat availability played a role in determining their reproductive performance. Based on blood ?13C and ?15N values of fledglings, 2001–2004, and a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, we conclude that saltmines acted as the main alternative foraging habitat for gulls, with relative contributions increasing as the extent of marshland decreased. Although adjacent, anthropogenic systems have been established as the preferred breeding sites for this gull population, dietary switches towards exploitation of alternative (anthropogenic) food resources negatively affected the reproductive output of this species, thus challenging the perception that these man-made systems are necessarily a reliable buffer against loss of natural feeding habitats. The methodology and results derived from this study could be extended to a large suite of threatened natural communities worldwide, thus providing a useful framework for management and conservation. PMID:23094062

  19. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  20. Folly Island Tidal Lines

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lines of debris from tidal action on Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island....

  1. Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Stedt, Johan; Bengtsson, Stina; Porczak, Aleksandra; Granholm, Susanne; González-Acuña, Daniel; Olsen, Björn; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin’s gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin’s gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance. PMID:24098774

  2. Growth, bioluminescence and shoal behavior hormetic responses to inorganic and/or organic chemicals: a review.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Naveedullah; Shen, Hui; Zhu, Shenhai; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng

    2014-03-01

    A biphasic dose response, termed hormesis, is characterized by beneficial effects of a chemical at a low dose and harmful effects at a high dose. This biphasic dose response phenomenon has the potential to strongly alter toxicology in a broad range. The present review focuses on the progress of research into hormetic responses in terms of growth (in plants, birds, algae and humans), bioluminescence, and shoal behavior as end points. The paper describes how both inorganic and organic chemicals at a low dose show stimulatory responses while at higher doses are inhibitory. The article highlights how factors such as symbiosis, density-dependent factors, time, and contrasting environmental factors (availability of nutrients, temperature, light, etc.) affect both the range and amplitude of hormetic responses. Furthermore, the possible underlying mechanisms are also discussed and we suggest that, for every end point, different hormetic mechanisms may exist. The occurrences of varying interacting receptor systems or receptor systems affecting the assessment of hormesis for each endpoint are discussed. The present review suggests that a hormetic model should be adopted for toxicological evaluations instead of the older threshold and linear non-threshold models. PMID:24361513

  3. Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman

    2006-09-01

    This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project Shoal Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.

  4. Field Metabolic Rate Is Dependent on Time-Activity Budget in Ring-Billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis) Breeding in an Anthropogenic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Marteinson, Sarah C.; Giroux, Jean-François; Hélie, Jean-François; Gentes, Marie-Line; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and behavioral factors have long been assumed to affect variation in avian field metabolic rate (FMR). However, due to the difficulties in measuring continuous behavior of birds over prolonged periods of time, complete time-activity budgets have rarely been examined in relation to FMR. Our objective was to determine the effect of activity (measured by detailed time-activity budgets) and a series of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on FMR of the omnivorous ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis). The experiment was conducted during the incubation period when both members of the pair alternate between attending the nest-site and leaving the colony to forage in aquatic and anthropogenic environments (city, agricultural). FMR was determined using the doubly labeled water method. Time-activity budgets were extrapolated from spatio-temporal data (2-5 days) obtained from bird-borne GPS data loggers. Gulls had low FMRs compared to those predicted by allometric equations based on recorded FMRs from several seabird species. Gulls proportioned their time mainly to nest-site attendance (71% of total tracking time), which reduced FMR/g body mass, and was the best variable explaining energy expenditure. The next best variable was the duration of foraging trips, which increased FMR/g; FMR/g was also elevated by the proportion of time spent foraging or flying (17% and 8% of tracking time respectively). Most environmental variables measured did not impact FMR/g, however, the percent of time birds were subjected to temperatures below their lower critical temperature increased FMR. Time-activity budgets varied between the sexes, and with temperature and capture date suggesting that these variables indirectly affected FMR/g. The gulls foraged preferentially in anthropogenic-related habitats, which may have contributed to their low FMR/g due to the high availability of protein- and lipid-rich foods. This study demonstrates that activities were the best predictors of FMR/g in ring-billed gulls, thus providing strong support for this long-standing theory in bioenergetics. PMID:26020626

  5. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  6. Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    Tropical Rain Forest 5 Linear Algebra Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 5 / 26 #12Tropical Islands Jan Verschelde University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Mathematics Algebraic Geometry Seminar Jan Verschelde (UIC) Tropical Islands 16 January 2014 1 / 26 #12;Tropical Islands

  7. Morphological studies of the pineal gland in the common gull (Larus canus) reveal uncommon features of pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Lewçzuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Kalicki, Miroslaw; Zió?kowska, Natalia

    2012-04-01

    The avian pineal is a directly photosensory organ taking part in the organization of the circadian and seasonal rhythms. It plays an important role in regulation of many behavior and physiological phenomena including migration. The aim of the study was to investigate morphology of the pineal organ in the common gull (Larus canus). The light and electron microscopic studies were performed on the pineals of juvenile birds living in natural conditions of the Baltic Sea coast, which have been untreatably injured during strong storms in autumn and qualified for euthanasia. The investigated pineals consisted of a wide, triangular, superficially localized distal part and a narrow, elongated proximal part, attached via the choroid plexus to the intercommissural region of the diencephalon. The accessory pineal tissue was localized caudally to the choroid plexus. Based on the histological criteria, the organ was classified as the solid-follicular type. Two types of cells of fotoreceptory line were distinguished: rudimentary-receptor pinealocytes and secretory pinealocytes. Both types of cells were characterized by unusual features, which have been not previously described in avian pinealocytes: the presence of paracrystalline structures in the basal processes and their endings, the storage of glycogen in the form of large accumulations and the arrangement of mitochondria in clusters. Further studies on other species of wild water birds dwelling in condition of cold seas are necessary to explain if the described features of pinealocytes are specific for genus Larus, family Laridae or a larger group of water birds living in similar environmental conditions. PMID:22262668

  8. Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

    2008-03-22

    Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (GxE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date-temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GxE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880

  9. Seasonal variations in aldrin epoxidase (MFO) activity of yellow-legged herring gulls: the relationship to breeding and PCB residues

    SciTech Connect

    Fossi, C.; Leonzio, C.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A.

    1988-09-01

    The hepatic mixed function oxidases (MFO) constitute a defense mechanism which enables the organism to make xenobiotics more polar and thus render them more readily excretable. The degree of induction of this system is an expression of its exposure to xenobiotics, but it is also a function of endogenous physiological mechanisms. These two forms of induction may lead to mutual interference: foreign compounds may stimulate hepatic hydroxylation and affect the metabolism of steroid hormones; the later may in turn stimulate the activity of the MFO system favoring the degradation of the xenobiotics. Induction and detoxication processes of endogenous and exogenous compounds have been observed in mammals in laboratory experiments. Relationships between MRO activity, the reproductive cycle and variations in tissue levels of liposoluble xenobiotics, have been reported for marine organisms. In birds, seasonal variations of MFO levels have been observed, but the relationship between these enzyme variations and the levels of contaminants in the animal tissues has never been made clear. The authors aim to clarify this relationship by determining the levels of PCBs residues and aldrin epoxidase activities in Yellow-legged Herring gull (Larus cachinnans) specimens from different areas of Italy collected during two phases of the annual cycle, namely those of reproduction (spring) and of sexual inactivity (autumn). This species was chosen because of its wide distribution, its opportunistic feeding habits and its adaptive capacity in polluted environments.

  10. Groundwater flow near the Shoal Site, Sand Springs Range, Nevada: Impact of density-driven flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.; Mihevc, T.; McKay, A.

    1994-09-01

    The nature of flow from a highland recharge area in a mountain range in north-central Nevada to discharge areas on either side of the range is evaluated to refine a conceptual model of contaminant transport from an underground nuclear test conducted beneath the range. The test, known as the Shoal event, was conducted in 1963 in granitic rocks of the Sand Springs Range. Sparse hydraulic head measurements from the early 1960s suggest flow from the shot location to the east to Fairview Valley, while hydrochemistry supports flow to salt pans in Fourmile Flat to the west. Chemical and isotopic data collected from water samples and during well-logging arc best explained by a reflux brine system on the west side of the Sand Springs Range, rather than a typical local flow system where all flow occurs from recharge areas in the highlands to a central discharge area in a playa. Instead, dense saline water from the playa is apparently being driven toward the range by density contrasts. The data collected between the range and Fourmile Flat suggest the groundwater is a mixture of younger, fresher recharge water with older brine. Chemical contrasts between groundwater in the east and west valleys reflect the absence of re-flux water in Fairview Valley because the regional discharge area is distant and thus there is no accumulation of salts. The refluxing hydraulic system probably developed after the end of the last pluvial period and differences between the location of the groundwater divide based on hydraulic and chemical indicators could reflect movement of the divide as the groundwater system adjusts to the new reflux condition.

  11. Oxygen limitations on marine animal distributions and the collapse of epibenthic community structure during shoaling hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jackson W F; Tunnicliffe, Verena

    2015-08-01

    Deoxygenation in the global ocean is predicted to induce ecosystem-wide changes. Analysis of multidecadal oxygen time-series projects the northeast Pacific to be a current and future hot spot of oxygen loss. However, the response of marine communities to deoxygenation is unresolved due to the lack of applicable data on component species. We repeated the same benthic transect (n = 10, between 45 and 190 m depths) over 8 years in a seasonally hypoxic fjord using remotely operated vehicles equipped with oxygen sensors to establish the lower oxygen levels at which 26 common epibenthic species can occur in the wild. By timing our surveys to shoaling hypoxia events, we show that fish and crustacean populations persist even in severe hypoxia (<0.5 mL L(-1) ) with no mortality effects but that migration of mobile species occurs. Consequently, the immediate response to hypoxia expansion is the collapse of community structure; normally partitioned distributions of resident species coalesced and localized densities increased. After oxygen renewal and formation of steep oxygen gradients, former ranges re-established. High frequency data from the nearby VENUS subsea observatory show the average oxygen level at our site declined by ~0.05 mL L(-1) year(-1) over the period of our study. The increased annual duration of the hypoxic (<1.4 mL L(-1) ) and severely hypoxic periods appears to reflect the oxygen dynamics demonstrated in offshore source waters and the adjacent Strait of Georgia. Should the current trajectory of oxygen loss continue, community homogenization and reduced suitable habitat may become the dominant state of epibenthic systems in the northeast Pacific. In situ oxygen occurrences were not congruent with lethal and sublethal hypoxia thresholds calculated across the literature for major taxonomic groups indicating that research biases toward laboratory studies on Atlantic species are not globally applicable. Region-specific hypoxia thresholds are necessary to predict future impacts of deoxygenation on marine biodiversity. PMID:25689932

  12. Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing shoaling induced by global warming

    PubMed Central

    Vallina, S. M.; Simó, R.; Manizza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO2 and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (1000–2000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the “plankton–DMS–clouds–earth albedo feedback” hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere. PMID:17901211

  13. Tracking the History and Ecological Changes of Rising Double-Crested Cormorant Populations Using Pond Sediments from Islands in Eastern Lake Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Emily M.; Michelutti, Neal; Shenstone-Harris, Sarah; Grooms, Christopher; Weseloh, Chip; Kimpe, Linda E.; Blais, Jules M.; Smol, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region, the double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) has seen a thousand-fold population increase in recent decades. These large colonies of birds now often conflict with socioeconomic interests, particularly due to perceived competition with fisheries and the destruction of terrestrial vegetation in nesting habitats. Here we use dated sediment cores from ponds on islands in eastern Lake Ontario that receive waste inputs from dense colonies of cormorants and ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) to chronicle the population rise of these species and assess their long-term ecological impacts. Modern water chemistry sampling from these sites reveals drastically elevated nutrient and major ion concentrations compared to reference ponds not influenced by waterbirds. Geochemical tracers in dated sediment cores, particularly ?15N and chlorophyll-a concentrations, track waterbird influences over time. Fossil diatom assemblages were dominated by species tolerant of hyper-eutrophic and polluted systems, which is in marked contrast to assemblages in reference sites. In addition to establishing long-term ecological impacts, this multi-proxy paleoecological approach can be used to determine whether islands of concern have been long-term nesting sites or were only recently colonized by cormorant or ring-billed gull populations across the Great Lakes, facilitating informed management decisions about controversial culling programs. PMID:26214177

  14. Carolinas Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Diamond Shoals, North Carolina, January-May 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; Voulgaris, George; List, Jeffrey H.; Thieler, E. Robert; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    This Open-File Report provides information collected for an oceanographic field study that occurred during January - May 2009 to investigate processes that control the sediment transport dynamics at Diamond Shoals, North Carolina. The objective of this report is to make the data available in digital form and to provide information to facilitate further analysis of the data. The report describes the background, experimental setup, equipment, and locations of the sensor deployments. The edited data are presented in time-series plots for rapid visualization of the data set, and in data files that are in the Network Common Data Format (netcdf). Supporting observational data are also included.

  15. Suspension and near-bed load sediment transport processes above a migrating, sand-rippled bed under shoaling waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurther, D.; Thorne, Peter D.

    2011-07-01

    The present study focuses on the fine-scale flow and sand transport processes above onshore migrating ripples below skewed surface gravity waves in the shoaling zone. A set of acoustic instruments was deployed in the shoaling region of the large-scale wave channel at Canal d'Investigacío i Experimatacío Marítima, Universitat Poltiècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain, in order to provide high-resolution velocity and sediment concentration profiles with an acoustic concentration and velocity profiler (ACVP). Measurements are analyzed relative to the positions of the measured nonmoving sand bed and the interface separating the suspension from the near-bed load layer. This interface is detected here by the application of a novel acoustic bed echo detection method. Furthermore, the use of the dual-frequency inversion proposed in the work of Hurther et al. (2011) allows for the calculation of the sediment concentration profile across both the suspension and near-bed load layers. The sand bed was covered by quasi-two-dimensional suborbital ripples migrating onshore. As proposed by O'Donoghue et al. (2006), the occurrence of quasi-two-dimensional ripples is attributed to the fine-size sand of D50 = 250 ?m used in the present study under full-scale forcing conditions. In order to determine the effect of shoaled wave skewness on the ripple vortex entrainment and sediment transport, the instantaneous and mean measurements of the flow, sediment concentration, and sediment flux along the ripple profile are discussed in terms of (1) the occurrence of ripple vortex entrainment on either side of the ripple crest; (2) the wave velocity phase lagging driven by the ripple vortex entrainment process and the turbulent bed friction effects in the wave boundary layer; (3) phase lagging between velocity and maximum concentration and sediment flux events; (4) the structure of bed friction and ripple-driven turbulence across the suspension and the near-bed load layers; and (5) the streaming components. The results on these aspects strongly support that the wave velocity skewness effect under shoaling waves is fairly similar to the one obtained in skewed oscillatory water tunnel flows. Furthermore, it is found that the onshore-oriented net bed load sediment transport is at the origin of the onshore ripple migration. This flux is roughly twice as much as the opposite offshore-oriented net suspension flux dominated by the ripple vortex entrainment processes.

  16. Health History form for ShoalsM arine Laboratory on Appledore Island, M aine Please PRINT all of your responses. The information provided below will be only be used by Shoals

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Reactions(required) Allergies to medications: Other allergies (e.g. bee stings, etc.): Food related allergies; please.g. epilepsy, allergies, asthma, handicap, anxiety, depression, etc.). Use additional pages if needed. #12

  17. Perfluorinated sulfonate and carboxylate compounds and precursors in herring gull eggs from across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America: Temporal and recent spatial comparisons and exposure implications.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Su, Guanyong; Moore, Jeremy N; Williams, Lisa L; Martin, Pamela A; de Solla, Shane R; Bowerman, William W

    2015-12-15

    Chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in the basin of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America include per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) classified as perfluoroalkyl acids. We investigated several PFASs, and specifically 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), 4 (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFEtCHxS) and selected precursors (e.g. perfluorobutane sulfonamide and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected in 2012-2013 from 19 Canadian and U.S. colony sites across the Great Lakes. C6, C8 and C10 PFSAs, PFEtCHxS, and C7-14 and C16 PFCAs were quantifiable at >97% of the 114 egg samples. PFEtCHxS concentrations ranged from n.d. to 3.1ng/g ww (highest in Lake Michigan eggs). Mean ?4PFSA (92 to 97% perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and ?9PFCA concentration ranges were 44 to 740 and 4.8 to 118ng/g ww, respectively. ?4PFSA showed a clear increasing concentration trend from the northwest to the southeast colonies. Also, ?4PFCA to ?9PFSA concentration ratios in gull eggs were greater in eggs from Lake Superior relative to colonies in the other lakes. PFOS concentrations in some egg samples were greater than some of the known lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) measured and reported in captive bird model studies. This study showed the increasing complexity of PFAS-CECs, and emphasized the importance of continuing monitoring of bioaccumulative PFAS in Great Lakes herring gulls. PMID:26318684

  18. Ground-nesting waterbirds and mammalian carnivores in the Virginia barrier island region: Running out of options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Truitt, B.R.; Jimenez, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    We examined changing patterns of distribution of two large mammalian predators, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and beach-nesting terns and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) along ca. 80 km of the Virginia barrier island landscape between the periods 1975-1977 and 1998. Based on evidence from trapping, scent stations, den observations and sightings of the two predators, there has been a marked increase in their island ranges. In 1975-77, only 6 of the 11 surveyed barrier islands definitely harbored at least one of the two mammals, but by 1998, 11 of 14 islands showed evidence of one or both during the spring and summer. Concurrently, annual beach-nesting bird surveys have been conducted since the mid 1970s during June. From 1977 to 1998, the number of colonies of terns [Common (Sterna hirundo), Gull-billed (S. nilotica), Least (S. antillarum), Royal (S. maxima), and Sandwich (S. sandvicensis)] and Black Skimmers declined from 23 colonies on 11 barrier islands to 13 colonies on 10 islands. In addition, the populations decreased dramatically for all species except the marginal Sandwich Tern and Least Tern. This pattern suggests that mammalian predation may be a major factor in colony site selection or success, although we have no data on success at most locations. The only consistently large colony over the years has been the Royal Tern colony on Fisherman Island, one of the few with no resident large mammals. Because these declining waterbirds appear to be running out of options for safe colony sites in coastal Virginia, we discuss the prospects of conducting limited predator removals on certain islands. In addition, considerations of strict management and enforcement of protection at critical manmade colony sites that now attract large numbers of certain species, are timely. Lastly, where dredged material disposal projects are planned, providing nesting sites for these colonial species and roosting sites for migrant birds may be appropriate.

  19. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 447

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Nevada was the site of a 12-kiloton underground nuclear test in 1963. Although the surface of the site has been remediated, investigation of groundwater contamination resulting from the test is still in the corrective action process. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted at the site as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of the previous years, with tritium detected only in well HC-4. The tritium concentration in groundwater from well HC-4 remains far below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-established maximum contaminant level of 20,000 picocuries per liter. Concentrations of total uranium and gross alpha were also detected during this monitoring period, with uranium accounting for nearly all the gross alpha activity. The total uranium concentrations obtained from this monitoring period were consistent with previous results and reflect a slightly elevated natural uranium concentration, consistent with the mineralized geologic terrain. Isotopic ratios of uranium also indicate a natural source of uranium in groundwater, as opposed to a nuclear-test-related source. Water level trends obtained from the 2012 water level data were consistent with those of previous years. The corrective action strategy for the PSA is currently focused on revising the site conceptual model (SCM) and evaluating the adequacy of the current monitoring well network. Some aspects of the SCM are known; however, two major concerns are the uncertainty in the groundwater flow direction and the cause of rising water levels in site wells west of the shear zone. Water levels have been rising in the site wells west of the shear zone since the first hydrologic characterization wells were installed in 1996. While water levels in wells west of the shear zone continue to rise, the rate of increase is less than in previous years. The SCM will be revised, and an evaluation of the groundwater monitoring network will be conducted when water levels at the site have stabilized.

  20. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  1. Comparison of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), and comparison with common eider (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba), and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2009-05-01

    There is an abundance of field data for levels of metals from a range of places, but relatively few from the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in feathers from common eiders (Somateria mollissima), glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba), tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Aleutian Chain of Alaska. Our primary objective was to test the hypothesis that there are no trophic levels relationships for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium among these five species of birds breeding in the marine environment of the Aleutians. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels. As predicted bald eagles had the highest levels of arsenic, chromium, lead, and manganese, but puffins had the highest levels of selenium, and pigeon guillemot had higher levels of mercury than eagles (although the differences were not significant). Common eiders, at the lowest trophic level had the lowest levels of some metals (chromium, mercury and selenium). However, eiders had higher levels than all other species (except eagles) for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and manganese. Levels of lead were higher in breast than in wing feathers of bald eagles. Except for lead, there were no significant differences in metal levels in feathers of bald eagles nesting on Adak and Amchitka Island; lead was higher on Adak than Amchitka. Eagle chicks tended to have lower levels of manganese than older eagles. PMID:18521716

  2. The shallow stratigraphy and sand resources offshore of the Mississippi Barrier Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twichell, David; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Baldwin, Wayne; Foster, David; Flocks, James; Kelso, Kyle; DeWitt, Nancy; Pfeiffer, William; Forde, Arnell; Krick, Jason; Baehr, John

    2011-01-01

    Coastal Mississippi is protected by a series of barrier islands ranging in length from 10-25 kilometers that are less than 2 kilometers wide. The majority of these islands comprise the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS), an ecologically diverse shoreline that provides habitat for wildlife including migratory birds and endangered animals. The majority of GUIS is submerged, and aquatic environments include dynamic tidal inlets, ebb-tide deltas, and seagrass beds. The islands are in a state of decline, with land areas severely reduced during the past century by storms, sea-level rise, and human alteration. Morton (2008) estimates that since the mid-1800s up to 64 percent of island surface area has been lost. Heavy damage was inflicted in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina, which passed by as a Category 3 storm and battered the islands with winds of more than 160 kilometers per hour and a storm surge up to 9 meters. Since 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the National Park Service, has been mapping the seafloor and substrate around the islands as part of the USGS Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. The purpose of these investigations is to characterize the near-surface stratigraphy and identify the influence it may have on island evolution and fate. In 2009, this effort provided the basis for a collaborative effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to expand the investigation outside of GUIS boundaries as part of the Mississippi Coastal Improvement Project (MsCIP). The MsCIP program consists of structural, nonstructural, and environmental project elements to restore portions of coastal Mississippi and GUIS affected by storm impact. The project includes the placement of sand along the islands, both on the present beaches and within the littoral zone, to mitigate shoreline erosion and breaching. This action requires the location and assessment of offshore sand or sediment deposits that can provide suitable material for shoreline renourishment. The geophysical and sample information collected by the USGS during geologic investigations provides this information. As part of the MsCIP program, in March 2010 the USGS mapped approximately 300 square kilometers of seafloor around GUIS. Interferometric swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and Chirp sub-bottom profiling were used to characterize seafloor elevations, texture, and the underlying stratigraphy. On the basis of this information, potential sediment resources were identified. The most promising offshore deposits for beach restoration include shoals, lowstand valley fill, tidal delta deposits, abandoned barrier deposits, and dredge spoil. Of these, lowstand valley fill deposits and dredge spoil are less desirable; lowstand deposits are buried under a 2- to 4-meter blanket of mud, and dredge spoil volume is small. A relict tidal delta and submerged shoals are the most desirable deposits; the tidal delta contains a large volume of material still exposed on the seafloor, and parts of submerged shoals have modest volume and thin mud cover.

  3. Bouvet Island near Antarctica

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location:  Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail:  ...

  4. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  5. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. Overwash occurs when waves overtop the main sand dune and redistribute the sand along new patterns. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  6. Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Urgonian) shoal-water deposits: Diachronous changes in carbonate-platform production in the north-western Tethys

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Carbon-isotope stratigraphy of Early Cretaceous (Urgonian) shoal-water deposits: Diachronous changes in carbonate-platform production in the north-western Tethys S. Huck a,c, , U. Heimhofer a , A Northern Tethys Urgonian carbonate platform Carbon isotopes Orbitolinids Carbonate platforms are highly

  7. Low-frequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zheng; Andrews, Mark; Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Patel, Ruben; Jech, J Michael; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima

    2010-01-01

    The low-frequency target strength of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies in the 300-1200 Hz range using (1) a low-frequency ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (OAWRS) system, (2) areal population density calibration with several conventional fish finding sonar (CFFS) systems, and (3) low-frequency transmission loss measurements. The OAWRS system's instantaneous imaging diameter of 100 km and regular updating enabled unaliased monitoring of fish populations over ecosystem scales including shoals of Atlantic herring containing hundreds of millions of individuals, as confirmed by concurrent trawl and CFFS sampling. High spatial-temporal coregistration was found between herring shoals imaged by OAWRS and concurrent CFFS line-transects, which also provided fish depth distributions. The mean scattering cross-section of an individual shoaling herring is found to consistently exhibit a strong, roughly 20 dB/octave roll-off with decreasing frequency in the range of the OAWRS survey over all days of the roughly 2-week experiment, consistent with the steep roll-offs expected for sub-resonance scattering from fish with air-filled swimbladders. PMID:20058955

  8. In: J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 126(3): 305-313, 2000. Reservoir Model of Ebb-Tidal Shoal Evolution and Sand Bypassing

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    of Ebb-Tidal Shoal Evolution and Sand Bypassing By Nicholas C. Kraus,1 Member, ASCE ABSTRACT A mathematical model is presented for calculating the change in volume and sand-bypassing rate at ebb reservoir can fill to a maximum (equilibrium) volume. The ratio of the input longshore sand transport rate

  9. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  11. Overwash on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Overwash on Assateague Island. When waves wash over the main sand dune on the island, that creates a phenomenon called overwash, where the sand is moved along the path of the wave. Overwash has contributed to the gradual movement of Assateague Island to the south....

  12. Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks

    E-print Network

    Jodice, Patrick

    Island Biogeography Gillian Brooks Foundations of Ecology Clemson University #12;Larger the area(c) + zlog(A) Is the relationship between species and area linear? Island Biogeography Theory ­ (1963 Foundation Present ­ Prof. of Entomology at Harvard University #12;Island Biogeography Theory (1963) E

  13. Effects of seagulls on ecosystem respiration, soil nitrogen and vegetation cover on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, B. D.; Magnusson, B.

    2010-03-01

    When Surtsey rose from the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland in 1963, it became a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structures and functions. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate (Re), soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured in 21 permanent research plots distributed among the juvenile communities of the island. The plots were divided into two main groups, inside and outside a seagull (Larus spp.) colony established on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of gull nests. Occurrence of nests and increased vegetation cover also coincided with significant increases in Re, soil carbon, nitrogen and C:N ratio, and with significant reductions in soil pH and soil temperatures. Temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of Re was determined as 5.3. When compared at constant temperature the Re was found to be 59 times higher within the seagull colony, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The amount of soil nitrogen, mainly brought onto the island by the seagulls, was the critical factor that most influenced ecosystem fluxes and vegetation development on Surtsey. The present study shows how ecosystem activity can be enhanced by colonization of animals that transfer resources from a nearby ecosystem.

  14. Desktop Study for La Quinta Project; Shoaling Prediction in La Quinta Navigation Channel and Effect of a Barrier on Siltation in Extended La Quinta Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parchure, Trimbak M.; Sarruff, Soraya; Brown, Ben

    2002-09-01

    The U.S. Army Engineer District, Galveston, proposed two modifications of the La Quinta navigation channel: (1) extension of the navigation channel and providing a new turning basin at the end of the extension, both having the same depth as that of the present navigation channel, namely 13.7 m (45 ft), and (2) constructing a barrier on the south side of the extended channel. The District requested the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Vicksburg, MS, conduct a desktop study for estimation of future shoaling in the navigation channel with these two modifications. The results of a desktop study are given in this report in two parts for the above two problems. Shoaling Prediction in La Quinta Navigation Channel The approach consisted of the following steps. Field data already available as well as those collected by CHL were analyzed and the results of analysis used. Assumptions were made on the spatial and temporal variation in the values of relevant parameters. Runs were conducted on the existing numerical hydrodynamic model for a few selected conditions to determine the effect of channel extension on the currents in the area of interest. A quantitative estimate was provided on future shoaling in the navigation channel based on the field and model data analysis. The following conclusions were drawn. a. Proposed extension of La Quinta navigation channel and provision of a new turning basin will cause an increase in the present tidal currents. This is expected to increase the inflow of sediment in the channel, which would result in increased shoaling. b. Bed sediment in the La Quinta channel consists of mostly fine sediment in the category of silt and clay. This suggests that the major process of shoaling consists of deposition of suspended sediment.

  15. Foraging movements of Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii) in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean: A preliminary satellite-tracking study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christel, Isadora; Navarro, Joan; del Castillo, Marcos; Cama, Albert; Ferrer, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A knowledge of the foraging strategies of marine predators is essential to understand the intrinsic factors controlling their distribution, abundance and their ecological function within the marine ecosystem. Here, we investigated for the first time the foraging movements and activity patterns of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii by using satellite-tracking data from eight breeding adults in the main colony of the species worldwide (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean). Tagged gulls foraged in the marine area close to the breeding colony (62% of foraging locations) and in the terrestrial area of the Ebro Delta (mainly rice fields; 38% of foraging locations). The foraging activity patterns changed significantly throughout the day; lower from dusk through the first half of the night (19-1 h; 32% of active locations) and higher during the rest of the day (1-19 h; 75.5 ± 4.3% of active locations). These results confirm the foraging plasticity of this seabird and, based on previous information about the dietary habits of this species, we hypothesize how its time-dependent activity patterns and habitat use could be associated with variations in the availability of marine food resources (e.g. diel vertical migrations of pelagic fish) and the exploitation of terrestrial resources (e.g. American crayfish Procambarus clarkii).

  16. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

    2014-03-01

    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972. The number of observed species almost doubled between years with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and unlikely to have dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents (Bryum elegans, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Ceratodon heterophyllus and Ulota phyllantha). The establishment of the gull colony also means that leakage of nutrients from the nesting area is, at least locally, downplaying the relative importance of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria growing in bryophyte shoots.

  17. Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingimundardóttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

    2014-08-01

    The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m × 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972: the number of observed species doubled, with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as the presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and are unlikely to have been dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents (Bryum elegans, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Ceratodon heterophyllus and Ulota phyllantha). The establishment of the gull colony also means that leakage of nutrients from the nesting area is, at least locally, downplaying the relative importance of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria growing in bryophyte shoots.

  18. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Findlay

    2006-09-01

    This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

  19. Rapid vertical accretion on a `young' shore-detached turbid zone reef: Offshore Paluma Shoals, central Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Gulliver, P.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the age structure and net accretion rates determined for an open water turbid zone reef, known as Offshore Paluma Shoals, located on the inner central Great Barrier Reef. Twenty-eight radiocarbon dates from 5 cores through the reef structure indicate that this reef began growing ~1,700 years ago and that net vertical accretion through the main phase of reef development was rapid (averaging 7.8 mm yr-1), this despite the reef growing in highly turbid waters. The most rapid growth phases coincided with the accumulation of mud-rich terrigenoclastic sediments within the reef fabric. The study emphasises the capacity of turbid zone reefs to vertically accrete at rates matching or exceeding many clear water reefs despite seemingly detrimental water quality conditions.

  20. Spatial and temporal comparisons of legacy and emerging flame retardants in herring gull eggs from colonies spanning the Laurentian Great Lakes of Canada and United States.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Moore, Jeremy N; Williams, Lisa L; Martin, Pamela A; de Solla, Shane R; Bowerman, William W

    2015-10-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes basin of North America, an increasing number of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) are being investigated, including legacy and replacement flame retardants (FRs). In the present study, 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs) and 16 organophosphate ester FRs (OPE-FRs) were analyzed in 100 individual eggs collected in 2012 and 2013 and in 15 egg pools of herring gulls collected in 2012 from 20 colonies across the entire Laurentian Great Lakes basin. For CEC-FRs in eggs from all colonies, 14 PBDEs, 12 NPHFRs and 9 OPE-FRs were quantifiable in at least one of the 115 analyzed samples. The mean sum PBDE (?14PBDE) concentrations ranged from 244 to 657ng/g wet weight (ww), and on average were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the ?12NPHFR concentrations (13.8-35.6ng/gww), and 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than ?9OPE-FR concentrations (0.31-2.14ng/gww). Mean ?14PBDE and sum of syn- and anti-Dechlorane Plus isomer (?2DDC-CO) concentrations in eggs from colonies within Laurentian Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) were in most cases greater than in eggs from nearby colonies outside of AOCs. Comparing CEC-FR concentrations in eggs collected in 2012-2013 to those previously measured in eggs collected approximately 7 years earlier (2006 and 2008) showed that ?7PBDE (BDE-28, -47, -100, -99, -154,-153 and -183) mean concentrations in eggs from 6 colonies were approximately 30% less than they were in eggs from the same colonies from the earlier time period, whereas 3 current-use FR (BDE-209, HBCDD and ?2DDC-CO) concentrations were significantly greater (p<0.05) than previously measured. Between 2006 and 2013 there were significant changes in individual PBDE patterns for BDE-71, -138, -153, -203, -206 and -207. Among all of the examined CEC-FRs, concentrations of ?4PBDE (BDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) and HBCDD in gull eggs from all colonies were greater than or comparable to their lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) based on in ovo egg injection studies. Overall, the current profiles of a broad suite of FRs in Laurentian Great Lakes herring gull eggs highlights the need to better understand e.g., exposure-effect implications and metabolism of FRs, i.e. OPE-FRs, and emphasizes the importance of continued monitoring of CEC-FRs whose concentrations appear to be increasing, including BDE-209, HBCDD and DDC-COs. PMID:26406977

  1. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near Monkey Bayou at the southern end of the Chandeleur Islands. Numerical simulation of waves and sediment transport supports the geophysical results and indicates that vast areas of the lower shoreface are affected and are undergoing erosion during storm events, that there is little or no fair weather mechanism to rework material into the littoral system, and that as a result, there is a net loss of sediment from the system. Lidar surveys revealed that the island chain immediately after Hurricane Katrina lost about 84 percent of its area and about 92 percent of its prestorm volume. Marsh platforms that supported the islands' sand prior to the storm were reduced in width by more than one-half. Repeated lidar surveys document that in places the shoreline has retreated about 100 m under the relatively low-energy waves since Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; however, this retreat is nonuniform. Recent high-resolution geophysical surveys of the sea floor and subsurface within 5-6 km of the Chandeleur Islands during 2006 and 2007 show that, in addition to the sand that is rebuilding portions of the island chain, a large volume of sand is contained in Hewes Point, in an extensive subtidal spit platform that has formed at the northern end of the Chandeleur Islands. Hewes Point appears to be the depositional terminus of the alongshore transport system. In the southern Chandeleurs, sand is being deposited in a broad tabular deposit near Breton Island called the southern offshore sand sheet. These two depocenters account for approximately 70 percent of the estimated sediment volume located in potential borrow sites. An additional large potential source of sand for restoration lies in the St. Bernard Shoals, which are estimated to contain approximately 200 ? 106 m3 of sand. Successful restoration planning for the Breton National Wildlife Refuge should mimic the natural processes of early stages of barrier island evolution including lateral transport to the flanks of the island chain

  2. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  3. Stewart Head from Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Stewart Head, as seen from Folly Island. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is located in Bartlett Narrows, along the western coast of Mount Desert Island. ...

  4. Reykjavik, Island Praktikumsstelle: Museum, Kunstfestival

    E-print Network

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Reykjavik, Island Praktikumsstelle: Museum, Kunstfestival Praktikumszeitraum: Sommer 2005 Mein in Island lebenden, deutsch-schweizer Künstlers Dieter Roth motiviert, die den Kern des diesjährigen städtische Kultureinrichtung Islands als auch für das landesweit größte Kunstfestival tätig zu sein

  5. Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Emily

    1993-01-01

    This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

  6. Liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of organophosphate diesters in biotic samples including Great Lakes herring gull plasma.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Greaves, Alana K; Gauthier, Lewis; Letcher, Robert J

    2014-12-29

    Environmentally relevant organophosphate (OP) triester flame retardants are known to degrade to OP diester phosphoric acids. In this study, a quantitatively sensitive method was developed for OP diesters in biological samples of varying complexity, bovine serum, chicken egg homogenate and pork liver. Fortified with 1ng or 10ng each of the six OP diester and six OP triester standards, samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction that completely separated OP diesters and triesters. OP diester fractions were cleaned up using weak anion exchange solid phase extraction and eluted with high ionic strength ammonium acetate buffer. Optimal analysis of chlorinated OP diesters was via decamethonium hydroxide dicationic reagent derivatization and by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS, and for all non-chlorinated OP diesters by non-derivatized LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS. Except for derivatization LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of liver, at the 10ng spiking level for the three matrices, recovery efficiencies, matrix effects and method limits of quantification (MLOQs) of OP diesters ranged from 55-116%, 92-119%, and 0.02-0.31ng/g wet weight (ww) respectively. Plasma samples of n=6 herring gulls (2010, Chantry Is., Laurentian Great Lakes) contained triphenyl phosphate and tris(1-3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate ranging from 1.3 to 4.0ng/g ww and gulls. PMID:25476687

  7. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N131; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

  8. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  9. Rhode Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor on the Rhode Island coast and shows a skate on a fine-grained, likely silty or muddy seafloor. This photograph was collected to support research and management activities (e.g., wind farms and fisheries) along the Rhode Island inner continental shelf....

  10. Barnacles on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

  11. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  12. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  13. Japan: Shikoku Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... aircraft, and island stations in the waters surrounding Japan and Korea. They characterized meteorological conditions, measured the ... entire west end of Honshu Island, which crosses the upper half of the images, is covered with broken clouds. Away from the clouds, the ...

  14. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  15. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization is progressing. Data on reservoir production rate and pressure history at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been tabulated, and porosity data from core analysis has been correlated with porosity as observed from well log response. Data integration is on schedule, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database for reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation for the reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs for each of these fields.

  16. Erosion and deterioration of the Isles Dernieres Barrier Island Arc, Louisiana, U.S.A.: 1853 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, Randolph A.; Penland, Shea; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Sallenger, Asbury H., Jr.; Westphal, Karen A.

    1989-01-01

    Using cartographic and aerial photography data from the years 1853, 1890, 1934, 1956, 1978, 1984, and 1988, shoreline change maps of the Isles Dernieres barrier island arc were constructed. These data were accurately superimposed, using a computer mapping system, which removed projection, datum, scale, and other cartographic inconsistencies. Linear, areal, and perimeter measurements indicate that the Isles Dernieres are suffering rapid rates of coastal erosion, land loss, and breakup. Bayside and gulfside erosion, in combination with sediment shortage and subsidence, have caused the Isles Dernieres to narrow through time. In addition, the core of the barrier island arc does not migrate landward and instead, breaks up in place as a result of inlet breaching and development. This is in contrast to other models of landward barrier island migration during transgression. If these trends continue, the Isles Dernieres will likely evolve into a subaqueous inner-shelf shoal by the early 21st century. Loss of the Isles Dernieres barrier island arc will severely impact the Terrebonne parish estuary, resulting in decreased environmental quality and increased public risk from storms and hurricanes.

  17. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  18. Dynamics of seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise at French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Hartzell, Paula; Hatfield, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    and habitat creation may mitigate projected seabird population declines due to habitat loss. We predict substantial losses in seabird nesting habitat across the low-lying Hawaiian Islands by 2100 and emphasize the need to restore higher elevation seabird colonies.

  19. [Biomass and carbon storage of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in Jiuduan Shoal Wetland of Yangtze Estuary, East China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Li, Xiu-zhen; Yan, Zhong-zheng; Chen, Xiu-zhi; He, Yan-long; Guo, Wen-yong; Sun, Pei-ying

    2013-08-01

    By the methods of field survey and laboratory analysis, an investigation was conducted on the seasonal dynamics of biomass and carbon storage of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora dominated vegetation belts in the Jiuduan Shoal Wetland of Yangtze Estuary, East China in 2010-2012. The organic carbon storage of the biomass (including aboveground part, underground part, and standing litter) of the two plants was the highest in autumn and the lowest in spring. The average carbon storage of the biomass of S. alterniflora per unit area (445.81 g x m(-2)) was much higher than that of P. australis (285.52 g x m(-2)), and the average carbon storage of the standing litter of S. alterniflora (315.28 g x m(-2)) was also higher than that of P. australia (203.15 g x m(-2)). However, the organic carbon storage in the surface soil (0-30 cm) under P. australis community (1048.62 g x m(-2)) was almost as twice times as that under S. alterniflora community (583.33 g x m(-2)). Overall, the carbon accumulation ability of P. australis community (3212.96 g x m(-2)) was stronger than that of the S. alterniflora community (2730.42 g x m(-2)). Therefore, it is of significance to protect the P. australis community in terms of carbon sequestration at the salt marsh. PMID:24380329

  20. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  1. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  3. Pine Island Glacier

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... the open water in Pine Island Bay. To the left of the "icebergs" label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of ...

  4. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  5. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  6. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  7. Pacific Islands Regional Office

    E-print Network

    kinds of dolphins and whales that live in the waters around the Hawaiian Islands, one species has become to harass, hunt, capture or kill, or attempt to do any of these activities to a marine mammal. Activities

  8. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  9. Estimates of Cl atom concentrations and hydrocarbon kinetic reactivity in surface air at Appledore Island, Maine (USA), during

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    and Transformation/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals Alexander A. P. Pszenny,1,2 Emily V. Fischer,2 Research on Transport and Transformation/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals, J. Geophys. Res] A major objective of the Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals (CHAiOS) component

  10. The Shark Assemblage at French Frigate Shoals Atoll, Hawai‘i: Species Composition, Abundance and Habitat Use

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Jonathan J.; Stankus, Austin M.; Burns, Michael S.; Meyer, Carl G.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao Mh ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289–1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling. PMID:21347321

  11. The Shoal Arm Formation, north-central Newfoundland: Fe- and Mn-enriched sediments underlying black shales and flysch

    SciTech Connect

    Bruechert, V.; Delano, J.W.; Kidd, J.W.; William, S.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Middle Ordovician Shoal Arm Formation is located in the central volcanic belt of north-central Newfoundland and consists of a sequence of hematitic argillites overlain by grey cherts and then black shales directly underneath a late Ordovician/early Silurian flysch sequence. The hematitic argillites are enriched in Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Co. Geochemically definable components within related lithologic groups were discriminated using principal component analysis and factor analysis. These procedures indicate the presence of (1) biogenic, (2) mixed detrital, (3) hydrothermal, and (4) Mn-carbonate components. The base of the hematitic part is marked by a sharp increase in the hydrothermal component, which then decreases stratigraphically upward. The Mn-carbonate component also decreases upwards, but persists up to the grey cherts. The clastic component changes from mixed mafic/pelagic clay-like detritus to Zr-, Nb- and Y-rich detritus in the top hematitic part. The grey cherts mark a transitional stage between the hematitic sediments (oxic) and the black shales (anoxic). The change to increasingly O[sub 2]-deficient conditions is explained by (a) an increase of biological productivity and related O[sub 2]-drain by C[sub org]-oxidation and/or (b) diachronous subsidence of the basin floor into a deep-water anoxic layer as a result of the loading of the basin floor by an approaching thrust stack. The similar stratigraphic sequence and geochemistry of the Middle Ordovician sediments in the Taconic Allochthon of New York State suggest that these processes also acted at other locations along the continental margin of the Iapetus Ocean. This uniformity may reflect the strong influence of the warm Middle Ordovician climate on the sediment facies or, alternatively, the control by the specific tectonic environment.

  12. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    PubMed

    Dale, Jonathan J; Stankus, Austin M; Burns, Michael S; Meyer, Carl G

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h) ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling. PMID:21347321

  13. Early Silurian (Llandoverian) Leask Point and Charlton Bay bioherms, Manitoulin Island, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Mielczarek, W.; Copper, P.

    1986-08-01

    About 300 bioherms are known in the Llandoverian Manitoulin Formation of eastern Manitoulin Island. In the South Bay area, the large Leask Piont bioherm and Charlton Bay patch-reef complex lack a distinct skeletal growth framework. Bioherms consist of mudstone and wackestone, with isolated lenses of bafflestone, boundstone, floatstone. Fossils are scarce, but crinozoans and bryozoans comprise about 90% of the bioclasts. Other fauna include stromatoporoids, corals, brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and probable algae (algae are difficult to identify and may have played a significant role). Faunal ratios remained relatively constant during mound growth. Soft substrates with sedimentation rates of a few millimeters per year are suggested by bedding type and morphologic dominance of lamellar and tabular corals and stromatoporoids. An increased sedimentation rate, resulting from shoaling, is indicated by more overturned, broadly conical corals in the upper parts of the mounds. Shoaling may be responsible for cessation of mound growth. Lithoclasts are more common in the upper parts of the mounds. They formed when semiconsolidated muds were disturbed and redeposited during storms. Megarippled interreef surface areas, largely devoid of coral growth, indicate mud instability at Charlton Bay. Lack of suitable stable substrates may have hampered coral development. Dolomitization was postdepositional. The diagenetic sequence occurred in three stages: 1)selective pyritization and silicification, formation of an early muddy dolomite replacing the mud fraction of the dolostone, lithification and formation of rare calcite cement and neomorphic syntaxial rims; 2)clear, coarse dolomite replacing pore-filling calcite cement, syntaxial rims, and unaltered macrofossils, stylolitization, grain-to-grain dissolution; and 3)a late dolomite found mainly as fine rhombs in stylolites, solution seams, and intraskeletal pore space.

  14. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice...Long Island Power Authority (Authority), and Long Island Lighting Company (LIPA); (the Authority and LIPA together,...

  15. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been essentially completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The model represents an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic model served as the framework for the simulations. A technology workshop on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields was conducted to transfer the results of the project to the petroleum industry.

  16. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  17. Detection limits and cost comparisons of human- and gull-associated conventional and quantitative PCR assays in artificial and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Timothy E; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Madi, Tania; Hanley, Kaitlyn T; Ebentier, Darcy L; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Layton, Blythe; Raith, Meredith; Boehm, Alexandria B; Griffith, John F; Holden, Patricia A; Shanks, Orin C; Weisberg, Stephen B; Jay, Jennifer A

    2014-04-01

    Some molecular methods for tracking fecal pollution in environmental waters have both PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays available for use. To assist managers in deciding whether to implement newer qPCR techniques in routine monitoring programs, we compared detection limits (LODs) and costs of PCR and qPCR assays with identical targets that are relevant to beach water quality assessment. For human-associated assays targeting Bacteroidales HF183 genetic marker, qPCR LODs were 70 times lower and there was no effect of target matrix (artificial freshwater, environmental creek water, and environmental marine water) on PCR or qPCR LODs. The PCR startup and annual costs were the lowest, while the per reaction cost was 62% lower than the Taqman based qPCR and 180% higher than the SYBR based qPCR. For gull-associated assays, there was no significant difference between PCR and qPCR LODs, target matrix did not effect PCR or qPCR LODs, and PCR startup, annual, and per reaction costs were lower. Upgrading to qPCR involves greater startup and annual costs, but this increase may be justified in the case of the human-associated assays with lower detection limits and reduced cost per sample. PMID:24583609

  18. Trophodynamics of inorganic pollutants in a wide-range feeder: The relevance of dietary inputs and biomagnification in the Yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis).

    PubMed

    Ramos, Raül; Ramírez, Francisco; Jover, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    The suitability of sentinel species to monitor environmental pollution is often hampered by an insufficient knowledge on pollutant trophodynamics. We simultaneously evaluated the influence of individuals' trophic position (as revealed by ?(15)N values) and dietary exploitation of particular systems (using ?(13)C and ?(34)S as proxies) on inorganic pollutant concentrations measured on fledglings' feathers of a wide-range feeder, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis), sampled at four locations throughout the Western Mediterranean. Concentrations of total Hg and Se in fledgling feathers (2.43 ± 1.30 and 1.16 ± 0.43 ?g/g, respectively) were under the threshold points for deleterious effects on seabirds. On the contrary, alarming Pb concentrations were found in one colony (mean: 1.57 ± 2.46 ?g/g, range: 0.16-12.13). With the exception of Pb, pollutant concentrations were positively influenced by consumption of marine resources (as suggested by the positive relationship with ?(34)S values), whereas trophic position played a minor role in determining pollutant body burdens. PMID:23064201

  19. Detection limits and cost comparisons of human- and gull-associated conventional and quantitative PCR assays in artificial and environmental waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G.; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Madi, Tania; Hanley, Kaitlyn T.; Ebentier, Darcy L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Layton, Blythe; Raith, Meredith; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Griffith, John F.; Holden, Patricia A.; Shanks, Orin C.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Some molecular methods for tracking fecal pollution in environmental waters have both PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays available for use. To assist managers in deciding whether to implement newer qPCR techniques in routine monitoring programs, we compared detection limits (LODs) and costs of PCR and qPCR assays with identical targets that are relevant to beach water quality assessment. For human-associated assays targeting Bacteroidales HF183 genetic marker, qPCR LODs were 70 times lower and there was no effect of target matrix (artificial freshwater, environmental creek water, and environmental marine water) on PCR or qPCR LODs. The PCR startup and annual costs were the lowest, while the per reaction cost was 62% lower than the Taqman based qPCR and 180% higher than the SYBR based qPCR. For gull-associated assays, there was no significant difference between PCR and qPCR LODs, target matrix did not effect PCR or qPCR LODs, and PCR startup, annual, and per reaction costs were lower. Upgrading to qPCR involves greater startup and annual costs, but this increase may be justified in the case of the human-associated assays with lower detection limits and reduced cost per sample.

  20. Replication of 2 subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus of duck and gull origins in experimentally infected Mallard ducks.

    PubMed

    Daoust, P-Y; van de Bildt, M; van Riel, D; van Amerongen, G; Bestebroer, T; Vanderstichel, R; Fouchier, R A M; Kuiken, T

    2013-05-01

    Many subtypes of low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus circulate in wild bird reservoirs, but their prevalence may vary among species. We aimed to compare by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, histology, and immunohistochemistry the distribution and pathogenicity of 2 such subtypes of markedly different origins in Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos): H2N3 isolated from a Mallard duck and H13N6 isolated from a Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis). Following intratracheal and intraesophageal inoculation, neither virus caused detectable clinical signs, although H2N3 virus infection was associated with a significantly decreased body weight gain during the period of virus shedding. Both viruses replicated in the lungs and air sacs until approximately day 3 after inoculation and were associated with a locally extensive interstitial, exudative, and proliferative pneumonia. Subtype H2N3, but not subtype H13N6, went on to infect the epithelia of the intestinal mucosa and cloacal bursa, where it replicated without causing lesions until approximately day 5 after inoculation. Larger quantities of subtype H2N3 virus were detected in cloacal swabs than in pharyngeal swabs. The possible clinical significance of LPAI virus-associated pulmonary lesions and intestinal tract infection in ducks deserves further evaluation. PMID:23242805

  1. Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3), far right, Hall of Transportation (Building 2), middle, and The Administration Building (Building 1), far left, Port of Trade Winds is in foreground, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  3. Mosquito Point at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Mosquito Point of Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms....

  4. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  5. Island custom blocking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Carabetta, R.J. )

    1988-03-01

    The technique of Island blocking is being used more frequently since the advent of our new head and neck blocking techniques and the implementation of a newly devised lung protocol. The system presented affords the mould room personnel a quick and accurate means of island block fabrication without the constant remeasuring or subtle shifting to approximate correct placement. The cookie cutter is easily implemented into any department's existing block cutting techniques. The device is easily and inexpensively made either in a machine shop or acquired by contacting the author.

  6. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  7. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all five sampling sites along the 5.7-mi study reach of Shoal Creek, but the trends at successive downstream sites were out of phase and could not be explained by simple advection and dispersion. At base-flow conditions, the travel time of bacteria in Shoal Creek along the 5.7-mi reach between State Highway W (site 2) and the MDNR sampling site (site 3) was about 26 hours. Substantial dispersion and dilution occurs along the upper 4.1 mi of this reach because of inflows from a number of springs and tributaries and the presence of several long pools and channel meanders. Minimal dispersion and dilution occurs along the 1.6-mi reach immediately upstream from the MDNR sampling site. Measurements of fecal bacteria decay in Shoal Creek during July 2001 indicated that about 8 percent of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria decay each hour with an average first-order decay constant of 0.084 h-1 (per hour). Results of field test plots indicated that substantial numbers of fecal bacteria present in poul try litter can survive in fields for as much as 8 weeks after the application of the litter to the land surface. Median densities of fecal coliform and E. coli in slurry-water samples collected from fields increased from less than 60 col/100 mL before the application of turkey and broiler litter, to as large as 420,000 and 290,000 col/100 mL after the application of litter. Bacteria densities in the test plots generally decreased in a exponential manner over time with decay rates ranging from 0.085 to 0.185 d-1 (per day) for fecal coliform to between 0.100 and 0.250 d-1 for E. coli. The apparent survival of significant numbers of fecal bacteria on fields where poultry litter has been applied indicates that runoff from these fields is a potential source of fecal bacteria to vicinity streams for many weeks following litter application.

  8. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  9. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground water; and (3) an increase in primary or secondary porosity and an associated change in mineral assemblage, or decrease in ground water specific conductance, was characterized in two of the boreholes below 300 m.The results of the radar reflection logging indicate that even where data quality is marginal, borehole-radar reflection logging can provide useful information for ground-water characterization studies in fractured rock and insights into the nature and extent of fractures and fracture zones in and near boreholes.

  10. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  11. Ian Cahatol Channel Islands

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    High Cruz, Jessie West Adams Prep Jimmy Du Temple City High Michael Goulis Palos Verdes High Dana HandyStudents Ian Cahatol Channel Islands Chen, Catherine Palos Verdes High Hayward (Adam) Cox Ridgeview Fallbrook High Garrett Hara Mark Keppel High Hill, Timothy Daniel (Danny) Servite High Kenneth Holstad Long

  12. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  13. Block Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Block Island coast and shows a rock crab and several shrimp on a boulder that is covered with bryozoans. Shell fragments and other coarse grained sediment can be seen in the background (upper left corner). This photograph was collected to support research a...

  14. Plum Island Seafloor

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This photograph is of the seafloor off the Plum Island coast and shows spider crabs on seabed characterized by coarse sand, gravelly sediment and shell fragments. This photograph was collected as part of a collaborative seafloor mapping program between the USGS and the Connecticut Department of Envi...

  15. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  16. Introduction Orcas Island

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    (T. ordinoides), and Western Terrestrial (T. elegans) - and the Northern Alligator Lizard (Elgaria of the sharp-tailed snake before and had no idea a rare reptile species was found on the island. Blue (All locations are approximate) Outreach and Public Education In order to better educate the public

  17. Atsena Otie Key Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

  18. LOUISIANA BARRIER ISLAND EROSION STUDY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sallenger,, Asbury H., Jr.; Penland, Shea; Williams, S. Jeffress; Suter, John R.

    1987-01-01

    During 1986, the U. S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey began a five-year cooperative study focused on the processes which cause erosion of barrier islands. These processes must be understood in order to predict future erosion and to better manage our coastal resources. The study area includes the Louisiana barrier islands which serve to protect 41% of the nation's wetlands. These islands are eroding faster than any other barrier islands in the United States, in places greater than 20 m/yr. The study is divided into three parts: geological development of barrier islands, quantitative processes of barrier island erosion and applications of results. The study focuses on barrier islands in Louisiana although many of the results are applicable nationwide.

  19. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  20. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  1. Islands of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, Jonathan

    2004-02-01

    Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its islands, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the islands of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic islands, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.

  2. 75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The...

  3. Safety Evaluation Report for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Plan to Decommission its Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site at Muscle Shoals, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gant, K.S.; Kettelle, R.H.

    1998-11-01

    From 1966 to 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operated a burial site, licensed under the former 10 CFR 20.304, for low-level radioactive waste on its Muscle Shoals, Alabama, reservation. TVA submitted a decommissioning plan for the burial site and requested approval for unrestricted use of the site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate this plan to determine if the site meets the radiological requirements for unrestricted use as specified in 10 CFR 20.1402; that is, an average member of the critical group would not receive more than 25 mrem/y from residual radioactivity at the TVA Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site and the radioactivity has been reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  4. Orgin and significance of geochemical variability among oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.A.; Imbus, S.W.; McKeever, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Geochemical data placed in geological context is key to understanding the processes controlling the variability of oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico. Thermal maturity at generation and phase partitioning are the principal processes accounting for variability in the bulk and molecular properties of the oils and gas-condensates. Quantification of the extent that these processes altered the oils and gas-condensates between fault blocks and among individual sands permits: (1) documentation of the most effective migration conduits, (2) inference of deeper or shallower pay zones, (3) and assessment of vertical and lateral fluid connectivity. Calibration of bulk to molecular properties will permit rapid assessment of the type and extent of alteration using basic parameters such as API gravity and gas oil ratio (GOR). Upon mass balancing with initial reserves data, a detailed risking scheme for remaining prospects within the field can be formulated.

  5. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization has been completed. Porosity and permeability data at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been analyzed, and well performance analysis has been conducted. Data integration is up to date, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database. 3-D geologic modeling of the structures and reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The models represent an integration of geological, petrophysical and seismic data. 3-D reservoir simulation of the reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields has been completed. The 3-D geologic models served as the framework for the simulations. The geologic-engineering models of the Appleton and Vocation Field reservoirs have been developed. These models are being tested. The geophysical interpretation for the paleotopographic feature being tested has been made, and the study of the data resulting from drilling of a well on this paleohigh is in progress. Numerous presentations on reservoir characterization and modeling at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been made at professional meetings and conferences and a short course on microbial reservoir characterization and modeling based on these fields has been prepared.

  6. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on reservoir architecture and geographic distribution of Smackover reservoirs is the fabric and texture of the depositional lithofacies, diagenesis (chiefly dolomitization) is a significant factor that preserves and enhances reservoir quality. The evaporative pumping mechanism is favored to explain the dolomitization of the thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone reservoir flow units at Appleton and Vocation Fields. Geologic modeling, reservoir simulation, and the testing and applying the resulting integrated geologic-engineering models have shown that little oil remains to be recovered at Appleton Field and a significant amount of oil remains to be recovered at Vocation Field through a strategic infill drilling program. The drive mechanisms for primary production in Appleton and Vocation Fields remain effective; therefore, the initiation of a pressure maintenance program or enhanced recovery project is not required at this time. The integrated geologic-engineering model developed for a low-relief paleohigh (Appleton Field) was tested for three scenarios involving the variables of present-day structural elevation and the presence/absence of potential reef thrombolite lithofacies. In each case, the predictions based upon the model were correct. From this modeling, the characteristics of the ideal prospect in the basement ridge play include a low-relief paleohigh associated with dendroidal/chaotic thrombolite doloboundstone and dolostone that has sufficient present-day structural relief so that these carbonates rest above the oil-water contact. Such a prospect was identified from the modeling, and it is located northwest of well Permit No. 3854B (Appleton Field) and south of well No. Permit No.11030B (Northwest Appleton Field).

  7. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations. PMID:25254475

  8. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments. We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.* PMID:22661792

  9. Ecosystem respiration, vegetation development and soil nitrogen in relation to breeding density of seagulls on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdsson, B. D.; Magnusson, B.

    2009-08-01

    Since its birth in 1963 by volcanic eruption in the North Atlantic Ocean off Iceland, Surtsey has been a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structure and function. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate, soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured on 21 plots distributed among the main plant communities found 40 years after the primary succession started. The plots could be divided into two groups, inside and outside seagull (Larus sp.) colonies found on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of seagull nests within and around them. The occurrence of seagull nests and increased vegetation also coincided with significant increase in ecosystem respiration, soil carbon and nitrogen, and with significantly lower soil pH and soil temperatures. The ecosystem respiration was high inside the gull colonies, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The most important factor for vegetation succession and ecosystem function on Surtsey seems to be the amount of nitrogen, which was mainly brought in by the seagulls.

  10. Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands

    E-print Network

    Thematic Review Conservation of Biodiversity on Islands: The contribution of the United Kingdom............................................................................................. 11 3. THE BIODIVERSITY OF ISLANDS INVOLVED WITH DI PROJECTS ........................................................................................... 49 6. THE DARWIN INITIATIVE'S CONTRIBUTION TO THE CBD'S ISLAND BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME OF WORK

  11. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  12. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  13. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  14. 40 CFR 81.356 - Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Virgin Islands. 81.356 Section 81.356 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.356 Virgin Islands. Virgin Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary and...

  15. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  16. 40 CFR 81.340 - Rhode Island.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rhode Island. 81.340 Section 81.340 Protection of Environment...Attainment Status Designations § 81.340 Rhode Island. Rhode Island—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary...

  17. 15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. New York Connecting Railroad: Wards Island Viaduct. Wards Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 7.65. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  18. 19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. New York Connecting Railroad: Randalls Island Viaduct. Randalls Island, New York Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 8.54. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York, New York County, NY

  19. Urban heat island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hongsuk H.

    1991-01-01

    The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

  20. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is visible as an off-vertical dark line in the MISR nadir view. In the multi-angle composite, the crack and other stress fractures show up very clearly in bright orange. Radar observations of Pine Island Glacier in the 1990's showed the glacier to be shrinking, and the newly discovered crack is expected to eventually lead to the calving of a major iceberg.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  1. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack L.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  2. Geologic control on the evolution of the inner shelf morphology offshore of the Mississippi barrier islands, northern Gulf of Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack L.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2015-06-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, high-resolution geophysical surveys were conducted around the Mississippi barrier islands and offshore. The sonar surveys included swath and single-beam bathymetry, sidescan, and chirp subbottom data collection. The geophysical data were groundtruthed using vibracore sediment collection. The results provide insight into the evolution of the inner shelf and the relationship between the near surface geologic framework and the morphology of the coastal zone. This study focuses on the buried Pleistocene fluvial deposits and late Holocene shore-oblique sand ridges offshore of Petit Bois Island and Petit Bois Pass. Prior to this study, the physical characteristics, evolution, and interrelationship of the ridges between both the shelf geology and the adjacent barrier island platform had not been evaluated. Numerous studies elsewhere along the coastal margin attribute shoal origin and sand-ridge evolution to hydrodynamic processes in shallow water (<20 m). Here we characterize the correlation between the geologic framework and surface morphology and demonstrate that the underlying stratigraphy must also be considered when developing an evolutionary conceptual model. It is important to understand this near surface, nearshore dynamic in order to understand how the stratigraphy influences the long-term response of the coastal zone to sea-level rise. The study also contributes to a growing body of work characterizing shore-oblique sand ridges which, along with the related geology, are recognized as increasingly important components to a nearshore framework whose origins and evolution must be understood and inventoried to effectively manage the coastal zone.

  3. Long Island Sound Report Card

    E-print Network

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Long Island Sound Report Card Grading the water quality and ecosystem health of the Urban Sea #12 EasternCentralEastern Narrows The east-west gradient of people and pollution Long Island Sound (100 meters). Both development and density of people increase from east to west along the Sound

  4. Salt Marshes at Chincoteague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Salt marshes at Chincoteague Island. The salt marshes that make up Chincoteague Island are important habitat for migrating waterfowl. In addition, they serve an important role in protecting inland ecosystems and communities from oceanic storms. Mosquito point can be seen in the background where the ...

  5. Tidal Pool on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tidal pool on Folly Island. Tidal pools are small pools of water that are left when the tide recedes. Because these pools have water more or less permanently, distinct ecosystems can develop separate from the surrounding beach. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is a...

  6. Murre Colony on Prince Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A breeding colony of California common murres (Uria aalge californica) on Prince Island off San Miguel Island off Southern California. Ecologists Josh Adams and Jonathan Felis of the USGS Western Ecological Research Center shot this and other high-resolution digital telephotos from a research vessel...

  7. Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

  8. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  9. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, William E.; Pyron, R. Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator–prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards. PMID:24403345

  10. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson... Wildlife Refuges (NWRs, Refuges) for public review and comment. The Draft CCP/WSP/EA describes our...) 457-9778. U.S. Mail: Kevin Ryan, Project Leader, Washington Maritime National Wildlife Refuge...

  11. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule...Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH. This temporary safety zone is necessary...Lake Erie in the vicinity of Port Clinton, OH. The temporary safety zone is...

  12. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,

    E-print Network

    , in its caldera lake. VII. Overview and discussion I. W. B. Thornton1 *, S. Cook2 , J. S. Edwards3 , R. D by volcanic eruption in c. 1645, and Motmot, an emergent island in its caldera lake, was re-created in 1968 species-poor islands. The mid-level caldera plateau, as in 1932, was covered in fairly open forest

  13. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...identified as Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount...

  14. 33 CFR 334.515 - Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island; Jacksonville, Florida...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...515 Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount Island...identified as Blount Island Command and Marine Corps Support Facility-Blount...

  15. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on August 1, 2013, pursuant to Rule...

  16. Marte Valles Crater 'Island'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  17. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  18. PIPS: Pathogenicity Island Prediction Software

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Siomar C.; Abreu, Vinícius A. C.; Ramos, Rommel T. J.; Cerdeira, Louise; Silva, Artur; Baumbach, Jan; Trost, Eva; Tauch, Andreas; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana L.; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2012-01-01

    The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1) deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2) insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS). In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands. PMID:22355329

  19. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    PubMed Central

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  20. The Cambrian of Bennett Island (New Siberian Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danukalova, M. K.; Kuzmichev, A. B.; Korovnikov, I. V.

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents new data on the Cambrian stratigraphy of Bennett Island, one of the least explored East Arctic islands. The section, about 500 m of total thickness, comprises four lithological units that store a record of the deposition history: (1) clastic sediments including storm sandstones; (2) shallow-marine mudstone; (3) lagoonal variegated mudstone and limestone; (4) black shale. It is suggested to classify the units as formations with their proper names. The section spans all epoches of the Cambrian stratigraphy constrained by trilobite fossils. In the Cambrian, territory of the island belonged to Siberia rather than to some exotic terrane, judging by abundant endemic Siberian trilobite species in the Bennett section. This inference is supported by synchronicity in recorded deposition events of Bennett Island and northeastern Siberia (Kharaulakh Mountains). The Cambrian sediments of the two areas were deposited in different parts of a single shallow sea which extended as far as Taimyr.

  1. Natural hazards on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Mullineaux, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The island of Hawaii and the other islands of the Hawaiian chain are products of volcanic eruptions. Lava flows from hundreds of thousands of eruptions through countless centuries have built the Hawaiian Islands. Some volcanoes on the island of Hawaii have been very active during historic time, and similar activity is expected to continue throughout the foreseeable future.

  2. YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    YOU ARE CORDIALLY INVITED 2011 Long Island Leader's Forum Wednesday, March 9, 2011 The Long Island Leader's Forum is a valuable and long standing tradition for the horticulture industry on Long Island and success of the green industry on Long Island. Thanks to Fred Soviero, this year's Leader's Forum

  3. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ...50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast...on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately...

  4. AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 USA 3 4638 14th Street, Boulder, CO 80304 USA July 16, 2002 Report oceanic islands is extremely limited. We photo-identified bottlenose dolphins around the islands of Oahu

  5. Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory of island

    E-print Network

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tree diversity on islands: assembly rules, passive sampling and the theory in a temperate island archipelago. The theory of island biogeography (ToIB) predicts that island area affects species diversity by reducing immigration rates. The passive sampling hypothesis predicts that island area

  6. Spite and Altruism in Gulls

    E-print Network

    Pierotti, Raymond

    1980-02-01

    by accident are obvious. Davis and Dunn (1976, p. 72) note that . . . "in terms of gene frequency, any individual losing its own progeny still stands to gain some selective advantage by eliminating the progeny of conspecifics." This same argument could... Wildlife Service, and I have benefited from a Killam Scholarship at Dalhousie University. This is contribution #134 of the Point Reyes Bird Observatory. LITERATURE CITED Ashmole, N. P. 1971. Sea bird ecology and the marine environment. Pages 223-286 in D...

  7. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  8. Wild Ponies on Assateague Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Wild ponies on Assateague Island. Wild ponies have lived on Assateague since the 1600s, although how they were introduced to Assateague is still debated. There are now around 300 or so wild ponies in Maryland and Virginia....

  9. Island Cosmology in the Landscape

    E-print Network

    Yun-Song Piao

    2008-06-11

    In the eternally inflationary background driven by the metastable vacua of the landscape, it is possible that some local quantum fluctuations with the null energy condition violation can be large enough to stride over the barriers among different vacua, so that create some islands full of radiation in new vacua, and then these emergently thermalized islands will enter into the evolution of standard big bang cosmology. In this paper, we calculate the spectrum of curvature perturbation generated during the emergence of island. We find that generally the spectrum obtained is nearly scale invariant, which can be well related to that of slow roll inflation by a simple duality. This in some sense suggests a degeneracy between their scalar spectra. In addition, we also simply estimate the non-Gaussianity of perturbation, which is naturally large, yet, can lie well in the observational bound. The results shown here indicate that the island emergently thermalized in the landscape can be consistent with our observable universe.

  10. No Company Is An Island 

    E-print Network

    Maddox, A.

    1989-01-01

    No company is an island. Utilities and their industrial customers are discovering that collaboration can breed opportunity while isolation can lead to ruin. Inter company relationships have changed over recent years and HL&P and its customers...

  11. Tsunami trapping near circular islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Vannini, Cesare

    1995-09-01

    Trapping of long water waves that are induced by submarine earthquakes and that attack circular islands is studied by applying a theoretical model ( Tinti and Vannini, 1994) that is based on the linear shallow water approximation. The solution is computed as the superposition of the eigenmodes of the water basin. The tsunami trapping is seen in terms of the capability of the source to excite the “trapped” eigenmodes of the basin. The bottom depth dependence around the island is shown to be quite important in determining the trapping capability of the island: a depth profile that is downwardly concave as the distance from the island coasts increases is substantially more efficient in amplifying the incoming waves and in trapping their energy than a profile exhibiting an upward concavity.

  12. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows the western end of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution.

    Black areas near the top of the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface at the top of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 10 km (6.2 miles) Location: 14.02 deg. North lat., 171.52 deg. West Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  13. Upolu Island, Western Samoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Island nations in the South Pacific Ocean experience natural disasters associated with typhoons, and with their proximity to the Pacific Ocean's 'Ring of Fire.' This radar image shows most of the northern coast of the island of Upolu in the nation of Western Samoa. Disaster managers use digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from radar data to assist in research toward disaster mitigation and management. Geologists also use DEM data of volcanic features, such as the line of circular craters in this image, to study eruption rates and volumes, and volcanic landform evolution. The capital of Western Samoa, Apia, is in the lower left of the image.

    Angular black areas in the image are areas where steep topography causes holes in the data; these holes can be filled in by collecting data at other look directions. Color represents topography and intensity represents across-section of the radar backscatter. Since rough areas return more of the incident signal, they appear brighter on the image than relatively smooth areas, such as the ocean surface , along the left side of the image.

    This image was acquired by the AIRborne Synthetic Aperture (AIRSAR) radar instrument aboard a DC-8 aircraft operated out of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. AIRSAR collects fully polarimetric data at three wavelengths; C-band (0.057 meter), L-band (0.25 meter) and P-band (0.68 meter). AIRSAR also collects cross-track and along track interferometric data that results in topographic measurements and motion detection, respectively.

    This image was collected during the Pacific Rim mission, a three-month mission from July to October 2000 that collected data at over 200 sites in eighteen countries and territories around the Pacific Rim. AIRSAR is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Size: 10 km (6.2 miles) x 63 km (37.3 miles) Location: 14.16 deg. North lat., 171.75 deg. West Orientation: North towards the left side of image Date Acquired: August 10, 2000

  14. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  15. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  16. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  17. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  18. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tybee Island south of the entrance to Buck Hammock Creek. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Little Tybee Island at Beach Hammock to the easternmost extremity of Wassaw Island. (c) A...

  19. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island...vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone...vessels from the hazards associated with fireworks displays. This rule is intended to...

  20. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  1. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  2. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  3. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  4. 33 CFR 80.717 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-westernmost point on Sapelo Island to Wolf Island. (h) A north-south line (longitude 81°17.1? W.) drawn from the south-easternmost point of Wolf Island to the northeasternmost point on Little St. Simons...

  5. 76 FR 19781 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N222; 10137-1265-0000 S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, San Juan, Skagit, Island, and Whatcom Counties, WA; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan,...

  6. 78 FR 63860 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...SUMMARY: This action amends the Kwajalein Island Class D airspace description by amending the...

  7. Colonization of an island volcano, Long Island, Papua New Guinea, and an emergent island,

    E-print Network

    , in its caldera lake. V. Colonization by ®gs (Ficus spp.), their dispersers and pollinators M. Shanahan1 activity in the early 1950s produced a series of temporary islands in the volcano's caldera lake. One

  8. Treeline Dynamics on Southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    Vancouver Island marmot. Keywords: dendroecology, subalpine meadows, seedling establishment, tree rings, Vancouver Island, Vancouver Island marmot. *Corresponding author Western Geography, 10/11(2000/01), pp. 43

  9. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  10. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  11. Refining the model of barrier island formation along a paraglacial coast in the Gulf of Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Carruthers, Emily A.; Stone, Byron D.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Gontz, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Details of the internal architecture and local geochronology of Plum Island, the longest barrier in the Gulf of Maine, have refined our understanding of barrier island formation in paraglacial settings. Ground-penetrating radar and shallow-seismic profiles coupled with sediment cores and radiocarbon dates provide an 8000-year evolutionary history of this barrier system in response to changes in sediment sources and supply rates as well as variability in the rate of sea-level change. The barrier sequence overlies tills of Wisconsinan and Illinoian glaciations as well as late Pleistocene glaciomarine clay deposited during the post-glacial sea-level highstand at approximately 17 ka. Holocene sediment began accumulating at the site of Plum Island at 7–8 ka, in the form of coarse fluvial channel-lag deposits related to the 50-m wide erosional channel of the Parker River that carved into underlying glaciomarine deposits during a lower stand of sea level. Plum Island had first developed in its modern location by ca. 3.6 ka through onshore migration and vertical accretion of reworked regressive and lowstand deposits. The prevalence of southerly, seaward-dipping layers indicates that greater than 60% of the barrier lithosome developed in its modern location through southerly spit progradation, consistent with a dominantly longshore transport system driven by northeast storms. Thinner sequences of northerly, landward-dipping clinoforms represent the northern recurve of the prograding spit. A 5–6-m-thick inlet-fill sequence was identified overlying the lower stand fluvial deposit; its stratigraphy captures events of channel migration, ebb-delta breaching, onshore bar migration, channel shoaling and inlet infilling associated with the migration and eventual closure of the inlet. This inlet had a maximum cross-sectional area of 2800 m2 and was active around 3.5–3.6 ka. Discovery of this inlet suggests that the tidal prism was once larger than at present. Bay infilling, driven by the import of sediment into the backbarrier environment through tidal inlets, as well as minor sediment contribution from local rivers, led to a vast reduction in the bay tidal prism. This study demonstrates that, prior to about 3 ka, Plum Island and its associated marshes, tidal flats, and inlets were in a paraglacial environment; that is, their main source of sediment was derived from the erosion and reworking of glaciogenic deposits. Since that time, Plum Island has been in a state of dynamic equilibrium with its non-glacial sediment sources and therefore can be largely considered to be in a stable, “post-paraglacial” state. This study is furthermore the first in the Gulf of Maine to show that spit accretion and inlet processes were the dominant mechanisms in barrier-island formation and thus serves as a foundation for future investigations of barrier development in response to backbarrier infilling.

  12. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  13. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo–West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  14. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  15. 11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. BASEMENT, SHOWING ORIGINAL OPEN INTERIOR PLAN. DATED APRIL 7, 1942. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  16. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 108, Rodman Avenue between Third & Fourth Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 280, Sylvan Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  18. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 109, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  19. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 61, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED APRIL 18, 1941. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 56, North Avenue & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. 5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR AFTER REMODELING INTO OFFICE SPACE. DATED FEBRUARY 13, 1943. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 67, Rodman Avenue & Fourth Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  2. 4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. LOOKING NORTH AFTER ADDITION OF CONICAL ROOF. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 53, North Avenue North of Midpoint, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH ELEVATON IN UNALTERED CONDITION. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1898. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 68, Rodman Avenue between Fourth Street & East Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  4. 7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS. DATED MARCH 19, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 62, Rodman Avenue between First & Second Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. 3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. NORTH ELEVATION IN UNALTERED CONDITION. DATED NOVEMBER 21, 1944. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 103, Rodman Avenue & First Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  6. 10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. DATED OCTOBER 2, 1945. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 138, Second Avenue between South Avenue & Ramsey Street, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photograph of photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1887. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 90, East Avenue between North Avenue & King Drive, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WAKE ISLAND AIRFIELD TERMINAL, BUILDING 1502 LOOKING EAST WITH PHOTO SCALE CENTERED ON BUILDING (12/30/2008) - Wake Island Airfield, Terminal Building, West Side of Wake Avenue, Wake Island, Wake Island, UM

  9. 3. Light tower, view northwest, south side Ram Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Light tower, view northwest, south side - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  10. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three subembayments--north bay (San Pablo and Suisun Bays), central bay, and south bay--each characterized by a central area of open water surrounded by intertidal mudflats and marshes. Central bay includes Alcatraz and Angel Islands and also a number of submerged bedrock knobs that protrude through the sediment of the bay floor and rise to within about 40 feet (12 m) of the water surface. The most prominent of these are Harding, Shag, Arch, and Blossom Rocks. These rocks have been lowered by blasting several times in the past, but they remain a potential hazard to shipping because newer cargo vessels are designed with increasingly deeper drafts. Central bay's location adjacent to two major population and commerce centers, San Francisco and Oakland, subjects it to greater human influences than less developed parts of the estuary. The western part of central San Francisco Bay is adjacent to the Golden Gate, the estuary's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The changing submarine topography of the west-central bay, as well as its geology, form the main focus of this book.

  11. Atmospheric suspensions of Russky Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golokhvast, Kirill S.; Nikiforov, P. A.; Chaika, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the first in the history of observations the results of studying of atmospheric suspensions contained in snowpacks of Russian Island (Vladivostok) , including the territory of campus of the Far Eastern Federal University (seasons 2011/2012-2013/2014 years). The distribution of airborne particles of different sizes and different genesis in differ by anthropogenic load districts of the island is revealed: the Far Eastern Federal University campus , the bridge over the Eastern Bosphorus Strait and the village Kanal. It is shown that in connection with the increase of anthropogenic load on the Russian island , its ecological condition deteriorates due to the rise in the atmosphere fractions of nano-and micro-sized particles.

  12. Dust Storm Hits Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A thick pall of sand and dust blew out from the Sahara Desert over the Atlantic Ocean yesterday (January 6, 2002), engulfing the Canary Islands in what has become one of the worst sand storms ever recorded there. In this scene, notice how the dust appears particularly thick in the downwind wake of Tenerife, the largest of the Canary Islands. Perhaps the turbulence generated by the air currents flowing past the island's volcanic peaks is churning the dust back up into the atmosphere, rather than allowing it to settle toward the surface. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on January 7, 2002. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Nanoparticle growth following photochemical a-and b-pinene oxidation at Appledore Island during International Consortium for

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Jeffrey

    International Consortium for Research on Transport and Transformation/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles and Transformation/Chemistry of Halogens on the Isles of Shoals (ICARTT/CHAiOS) field campaign from 2 July to 12/Chemistry of Halogens at the Isles of Shoals 2004, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10S21, doi:10.1029/2006JD007736. 1

  14. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Echelard

    2006-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the degree of uncertainty in transport predictions for PSA remained unacceptably large. As a result, a second CAIP was developed by DOE and approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in December 1998 (DOE/NV, 1998a). This plan prescribed a rigorous analysis of uncertainty in the Shoal model and quantification of methods of reducing uncertainty through data collection. This analysis is termed a Data Decision Analysis (Pohll et al., 1999a) and formed the basis for a second major characterization effort at PSA (Pohll et al., 1999b). The details for this second field effort are presented in an Addendum to the CAIP, which was approved by NDEP in April 1999 (DOE/NV, 1999a). Four additional characterization wells were drilled at PSA during summer and fall of 1999; details of the drilling and well installation are in IT Corporation (2000), with testing reported in Mihevc et al. (2000). A key component of the second field program was a tracer test between two of the new wells (Carroll et al., 2000; Reimus et al., 2003). Based on the potential exposure pathways, two corrective action objectives were identified for CAU 447: Prevent or mitigate exposure to groundwater contaminants of concern at concentrations exceeding regulatory maximum contaminant levels or risk-based levels; and Reduce the risk to human health and the environment to the extent practicable. Based on the review of existing data, the results of the modeling, future use, and current operations at PSA, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 447: Alternative 1--No Further Action; Alternative 2--Proof-of-Concept and Monitoring with Institutional Controls; and Alternative 3--Contaminant Control. The corrective action alternatives were evaluated based on the approach outlined in the ''Focused Evaluation of Selected Remedial Alternatives for the Underground Test Area'' (DOE/NV, 1998b). Each alternative was assessed against nine evaluation criteria. These criteria include overall protection of human health and the environment;

  16. Critical island-size, stability and island morphology in nanoparticle island self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amar, Jacques; Hubartt, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle (NP) islands formed at the toluene-air interface during drop-drying are studied using molecular dynamics and energetics calculations. Our calculations were carried out using an empirical potential which takes into account interactions between the dodecanethiol ligands and the toluene solvent, ligand-ligand interactions, and the van der Waals interaction between the Au cores. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on NP diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. The relatively high rate of NP diffusion on an island obtained in our simulations as well as the low calculated activation barrier for interlayer diffusion are also consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete. Supported by NSF CHE-1012896 and DMR-1410840

  17. LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDY CCMP, 1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan for Long Island Sound characterizes the priority problems affecting the Sound and identifies specific commitments and recommendations developed by the Long Island Sound Study (LISS) Management Conference. The CCMP provides a hist...

  18. Bidding the CpG island goodbye

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Experiments on seven vertebrates suggest that identifying the locations of islands of non-methylated DNA provides more insights into evolutionarily-conserved epigenetic regulatory elements than studies of CpG islands. PMID:23467495

  19. Biodiversity on island chains: Neutral model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Patrick B.

    2010-11-01

    A neutral ecology model is simulated on an island chain, in which neighboring islands can exchange individuals but only the first island is able to receive immigrants from a metacommunity. It is found by several measures that ? -diversity decreases along the chain. Subtle changes in taxon abundance distributions can be detected when islands in the chain are compared to diversity-matched single islands. The island chain is found to have unexpectedly rich dynamics. Significant ? -diversity correlations are found between islands in the chain, which are absent between diversity-matched single islands. The results potentially apply to human microbial biodiversity and biogeography and suggest that measurements of interindividual and intraindividual ? -diversity may give insights into microbial community assembly mechanisms.

  20. Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Hillary

    2012-10-19

    Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island...Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island...Island; naval restricted area. (a) The area....

  2. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  3. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  4. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  5. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  6. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  7. 9 CFR 72.3 - Areas quarantined in the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Islands of the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the... Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the Island of Guam. The entire Territories of the... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico are quarantined....

  8. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  9. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  10. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation...Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island)....

  11. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section... Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section...334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted...

  20. Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island

    E-print Network

    Wait, D. Alexander

    Small island biogeography in the Gulf of California: lizards, the subsidized island biogeography the subsidized island biogeography (SIB) hypothesis, which predicts that spatial subsidies may cause insular. Methods To evaluate the SIB hypothesis, we first identified subsidized and unsubsidized islands based