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1

Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7-11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

1995-01-01

2

Population recovery and natural recruitment of lake trout at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior, 1964-1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We documented an increase in the abundance of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior and examined the relationship between parental-stock size and recruitment of age-0 fish in 1964-1992. Abundance of adult wild female lake trout and densities of age-0 fish both increased during the 28-year period. A significant positive, linear relationship (p = 0.0002) was found between the abundance of wild females on the spawning reef in the fall and density of age-0 lake trout on adjacent nursery grounds in August and September of the following year. The abundance of hatchery-origin females did not explain significant amounts (p = 0.107) of variation in recruitment. We concluded that most recruitment in 1965-1992 was the result of natural reproduction of wild females. After 28 years of recovery the Gull Island Shoal lake trout population appears to have additional capacity to increase because the stock-recruitment relationship is still linear. Therefore, restoration periods on the order of 30 years may be needed for other lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. We recommend that the refuge established to protect this population be maintained to allow further study of the relationship between parental stock and recruitment, and to provide a major source of recruitment to the lake trout population in the surrounding waters.

Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Swanson, Bruce L.

1995-01-01

3

Channel Shoaling with Deepening of Houma Navigation Channel at Cat Island Pass, Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluated the potential increase in shoaling and associated sources of sediment as a result of proposed channel improvements for the Houma Navigation Channel in the vicinity of Cat Island Pass, Louisiana. Using morphologic change data and histo...

C. Lawton J. D. Rosati

2011-01-01

4

Soldado Virus from 'Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) maritimus' (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) Infesting Herring Gull Nests on Puffin Island, Northern Wales.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three strains of Soldado (SOL) virus (Hughes sero-group) were isolated from nymphal and adult Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) maritimus Vermeil et Marquet collected in and near nests of the Herring Gull, Larus a. argentatus Pontoppidan, on Puffin Island, nort...

J. D. Converse H. Hoogstraal M. I. Moussa D. E. Evans

1975-01-01

5

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...

2009-07-01

6

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft...RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...

2010-07-01

7

Character of shell beds flanking Herod Point shoal, southeastern Long Island Sound, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High biogenic productivity, strong tidal currents, shoal topography, and short transport distances combine to favor shell-bed formation along the lower flanks of a cape-associated shoal off Herod Point on Long Island, New York. This shell bed has a densely packed, clast-supported fabric composed largely of undegraded surf clam (Spisula solidissima) valves. It is widest along the central part of the western flank of the shoal where topographic gradients are steep and a stronger flood tide results in residual flow. The bed is narrower and thinner toward the landward margins where currents are too weak to transport larger valves and topographic gradients are gentle, limiting bed-load transport mechanisms by which the shells are concentrated. Reconnaissance mapping off Roanoke Point suggests that shell beds are also present at the other cape-associated shoals off northeastern Long Island, where relatively similar geomorphic and oceanographic conditions exist. These shell beds are important to the Long Island Sound ecosystem because they provide complex benthic habitats of rough and hard substrates at the boundary between the muddy basin floor and mobile sand of the shoals. ?? 2011, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

Poppe, L. J.; Williams, S. J.; Babb, I. G.

2011-01-01

8

A group of bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) shoal above a reef at St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A group of bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) shoal (group together) above a reef at St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Shoaling is a common anti-predator behavior for reef fishes such as the bluehead wrasse. Many reef fish species form large, very dense shoals as juveniles. A recent study found that there is safety in numbers at small spatial scales: solitary bluehead wrasse had higher mortality rates than conspecifics in groups. The same study also found that the inverse is true for wrasse morality when measured at larger spatial scales. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (88:12) in December of 2007.

White, J. W.

2010-02-12

9

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of...

2013-07-01

10

Soldado virus from Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) maritimus (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) infesting herring gull nests on Puffin Island, Northern Wales.  

PubMed

Three strains of Soldado (SOL) virus (Hughes serogroup) were isolated from nymphal and adult Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) maritimus Vermeil et Marguet collected in and near nests of the Herring Gull, Larus a. argentatus Pontoppidan, on Puffin Island, northern Wales. Reciprocal complement fixation (CF) titration results demonstrated recovered virus strains to be SOL virus and antigenically distinct from other Hughes serogroup members. All isolates killed mice and guinea pigs, and 1-2 day old domestic chicks when inoculated intracerebrally. PMID:9805

Converse, J D; Hoogstraal, H; Moussa, M I; Evans, D E

1976-06-01

11

Reproductive biology of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) at Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored nesting of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus) on Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from 1986 through 1991. Egg oviposition occurred between 26 April and 20 October. Nesting peaked between mid-June and early August. Hatchlings emerged between mid-August and early October. Mean incubation period was 66.0 (range 53-97) days. Mean clutch size was 92.4 (range 33-150) eggs. Mean hatching success was 78.6% when averaged over success of individual nests and 81.1% when calculated as percentage of total number of eggs. Natural hatchling emergence was 71.1%, based on percentage of total number of eggs. Live and dead hatchlings were found when nests were excavated and accounted for 10.0% of the eggs. Incubation periods tended to be longer in early and later portions of the season than in midseason, and incubation periods tended to decrease the farther inland the nest was situated from the high tide line. Maximum hatching success occurred at an incubation length of 66.7 days. Other trends indicated that nesting peaked near 5 July when conditions produced a near optimal incubation period for yielding maximum hatching success.

Niethammer, K.R.; Balazs, G.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nakai, G.L.; Megyesi, J.L.

1997-01-01

12

Hydroacoustic estimation of zooplankton biomass at two shoal complexes in the Apostle Islands Region of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydroacoustics can be used to assess zooplankton populations, however, backscatter must be scaled to be biologically meaningful. In this study, we used a general model to correlate site-specific hydroacoustic backscatter with zooplankton dry weight biomass estimated from net tows. The relationship between zooplankton dry weight and backscatter was significant (p < 0.001 ) and explained 76% of the variability in the dry weight data. We applied this regression to hydroacoustic data collected monthly in 2003 and 2004 at two shoals in the Apostle Island Region of Lake Superior. After applying the regression model to convert hydroacoustic backscatter to zooplankton dry weight biomass, we used geostatistics to analyze the mean and variance, and ordinary kriging to create spatial zooplankton distribution maps. The mean zooplankton dry weight biomass estimates from plankton net tows and hydroacoustics were not significantly different (p = 0.19) but the hydroacoustic data had a significantly lower coefficient of variation (p < 0.001). The maps of zooplankton distribution illustrated spatial trends in zooplankton dry weight biomass that were not discernable from the overall means.

Holbrook, B. V.; Hrabik, T. R.; Branstrator, D. K.; Yule, D. L.; Stockwell, J. D.

2006-01-01

13

Gull eggs--food of high organic pollutant content?  

PubMed

A wide range and occasionally high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are reported in Arctic regions, especially among top predators. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) and some gull species (Larus spp.) often have high levels of these fat-soluble pollutants. Gulls deposit significant levels of these contaminants in their eggs. In northern regions, gull eggs are part of the traditional human diet. In the present study we have investigated the levels of POPs in gull eggs in order to determine the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for humans. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in 214 gull eggs collected in the spring of 2001-02. The eggs were collected from four gull species (herring gulls (Larus argentatus), great black-backed gulls (L. marinus), lesser black-backed gulls (L. fuscus) and glaucous gulls (L. hyperboreus)) at 12 different locations in Northern Norway, on the Faroe Islands and on Svalbard. The pollutant levels in gull eggs were found to be 65.5 +/- 26.9 pg toxic equivalent (TE) for dioxin and PCB g(-1) wet weight. Based on these findings and the TWI-value determined by the EU Scientific Committee on Food it is advised that children, young women and pregnant and nursing women should not eat gull eggs. Other people should limit their intake of eggs to an absolute minimum, considering the health risks associated with gull egg intake. PMID:15931427

Pusch, Kerstin; Schlabach, Martin; Prinzinger, Roland; Wing Gabrielsen, Geir

2005-06-01

14

Activity periods and questing behavior of the seabird tick Ixodes uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) on Gull Island, Newfoundland: the role of puffin chicks.  

PubMed

Questing behavior of Ixodes uriae and their associated seasonal, host-feeding patterns are crucial to our understanding of tick life history strategies and the ecology of diseases that they transmit. Consequently, we quantified questing behavior of nymphs and adult female I. uriae ticks at Gull Island, a seabird colony in Newfoundland, Canada, to examine seasonal variation of off-host and on-host tick activity. We sampled a total of 133 adult Atlantic puffins (Fratercula arctica), 152 puffin chicks, and 145 herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks for ticks during the breeding seasons of 2004 and 2005. Questing ticks were sampled by dragging a white flannel cloth across the grassy breeding areas during the mo of May, June, July, and August. Nymph questing activity reached a peak during mid-July (79 and 110 individuals/hr in 2004 and 2005, respectively). The prevalence of nymphs and adult female ticks on different seabird hosts varied between years and during the seasons. Puffin chicks had the highest prevalence (above 70% in July) of nymphs in both years and this was correlated with questing activity. Female ticks rarely fed on puffin chicks, but were prevalent on adult puffins and gulls, although prevalence and questing of ticks were not correlated in these hosts. These patterns of off-host and on-host tick activity suggests that I. uriae ticks likely use a combination of questing and passive waiting, e.g., in puffin burrows, to detect hosts, depending on the tick stage and the host species. PMID:17539407

Muzaffar, Sabir B; Jones, Ian L

2007-04-01

15

Aerial estimation of the size of gull breeding colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Counts on photographs and visual estimates of the numbers of territorial gulls are usually reliable indicators of the number of gull nests, but single visual estimates are not adequate to measure the number of nests in individual colonies. To properly interpret gull counts requires that several islands with known numbers of nests be photographed to establish the ratio of gulls to nests applicable for a given local census. Visual estimates are adequate to determine total breeding gull numbers by regions. Neither visual estimates nor photography will reliably detect annual changes of less than about 2.5 percent.

Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

1968-01-01

16

Heavy metal and selenium levels in feathers of herring gulls (Larus argentatus): Differences due to year, gender, and age at Captree, Long Island.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium, manganese) and selenium in the feathers of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from a nesting colony at Captree, Long Island, New York were examined from 1989 to 1993 to determine if there were differences from year to year, and between males and females, adult and young, and dead versus live gulls. Variation in metal levels in regression models was explained by age (all metals), year (all except manganese), and whether the feathers were from live or dead birds (all except lead and chromium). The feathers of adults had significantly higher levels of mercury, lead and manganese than those of young, but lower levels of selenium and cadmium than those of young. Levels in down and fledgling feathers were similar for lead, cadmium and selenium, but fledgling feathers had higher levels for mercury, chromium, and manganese. There were no gender differences in metal levels for adult feathers except for lead (females had higher levels). Levels of mercury and manganese were higher in feathers of live adults whereas levels of cadmium and selenium were higher in the feathers of dead adults. PMID:24197911

Burger, J

1995-10-01

17

DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos  

SciTech Connect

Injection of DDT (1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on Santa Barbara Island in southern California.

Fry, D.M.; Toone, C.K.

1981-08-21

18

15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Photo copy of drawing, May, 3, 1963. STRATFORD SHOAL L/S FIRE DETECTION AND FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. Drawing no. 03-2723, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - Stratford Shoal Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

19

Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

Kadlec, J.A.

1971-01-01

20

Gulls Are Not "Seagulls"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The word "seagull" is included in the dictionary because the term is so often applied by the lay persons to almost any gull they notice. However, this is a generalized term which ignores the wide and facinating variety of the species. This article discusses some of the species of gulls. (NQ)

Wheat, Maxwell Corydon, Jr.

1976-01-01

21

Retraction of a longevity record for a 36-year-old herring gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Full text: The longevity record for a 36-year-old Herring Gull, Larus argentatus (Pettingill 1967, Auk 84: 123), is erroneous. Herring Gull with band number A-676871, the basis of the record, was found dead on 20 June 1966 on the shore of Little Traverse Bay near Petoskey, Michigan, and reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. The laboratory then mistakenly advised Pettingill that this gull was banded by him on 29 June 1930 on coastal Maine. He actually banded Herring Gull number A-676871 as a young bird on one of the Beaver Islands in Lake Michigan on 8 July 1948. The gull was thus 18 instead of 36 years old.

Jonkel, G.M.; Pettingill, O.S., Jr.

1974-01-01

22

Dioxins, furans and AHH-active PCB congeners in eggs of two gull species from the Western Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans were analysed in eggs of a protected gull species, the Audouin's Gull (Larus audouinii) and compared to those of the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus cachinnans), both breeding in the Western Mediterranean (Ebro Delta and Medes Islands, respectively). Differences in concentrations as well as in congener profiles reflected differences in both habitat and diet of the two

D. Pastor; X. Ruiz; D. Barcel; J. Albaigs

1995-01-01

23

Probable epizootic chlamydiosis in wild California (Larus californicus) and ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) gulls in North Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the summer of 1986, more than 400 California gulls (Larus californicus) and ring-billed gulls (Larvus delawarensis), primarily fledglings, died on an island in Lake Sakakawea near New Town, North Dakota (USA). Mortality was attributed largely to chlamydiosis. Necropsy findings in nine carcasses included splenomegaly (n = 9), hepatomegaly (n = 4), and pericarditis (n = 1). Livers from three California gulls and two ring-billed gulls, and spleens from the same five birds plus a third ring-billed gull were positive for Chlamydia psittaci by the direct immunofluorescence test. Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from separate pools of liver and spleen from one California gull and one ring-billed gull. This is believed to be the first record of epizootic chlamydiosis in gulls and the second report of epizootic chlamydial mortality in wild birds in North America.

Franson, J. C.; Pearson, J. E.

1995-01-01

24

Forster's tern chick survival in response to a managed relocation of predatory California gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gull populations can severely limit the productivity of waterbirds. Relocating gull colonies may reduce their effects on nearby breeding waterbirds, but there are few examples of this management strategy. We examined gull predation and survival of Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) chicks before (2010) and after (2011) the managed relocation of the largest California gull (Larus californicus) colony (24,000 adults) in San Francisco Bay, California. Overall, survival of radio-marked Forster's tern chicks from hatching to fledging was 0.22??0.03 (mean??SE), and daily survival rates increased with age. Gulls were the predominant predator of tern chicks, potentially causing 54% of chick deaths. Prior to the gull colony relocation, 56% of radio-marked and 20% of banded tern chicks from the nearest tern colony were recovered dead in the gull colony, compared to only 15% of radio-marked and 4% of banded chicks recovered dead from all other tern colonies. The managed relocation of the gull colony substantially increased tern chick survival (by 900%) in the nearby (3.8?km) reference tern colony (0.29??0.10 in 2010 and 0.25??0.09 in 2011). Among 19 tern nesting islands, fledging success was higher when gull abundance was lower at nearby colonies and when gull colonies were farther from the tern colony. Our results indicate that the managed relocation of gull colonies away from preferred nesting areas of sensitive waterbirds can improve local reproductive success, but this conservation strategy may shift gull predation pressure to other areas or species.

Ackerman, Josh T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herring, Garth

2014-01-01

25

Gulls and USAF Aircraft Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gulls are often identified in bird-aircraft collisions in the United States Air Force. A study was performed to determine the impact of gulls on the air mission and to determine the effective means available to reduce the number of strikes. Review of the ...

G. E. Meyer R. C. Wooten R. J. Sobieralski

1973-01-01

26

Breeding biology of Sabines gull ( Xema sabini ) in the Canadian high Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sabines gull (Xema sabini) is a small seabird that breeds in select locations across the circumpolar Arctic, but there have been few studies on its\\u000a breeding biology, particularly from the high Arctic. We studied nesting phenology, breeding effort, and breeding success of\\u000a Sabines gulls over 5years at a colony on a small island (Nasaruvaalik) in the Canadian high Arctic.

Mark L. Mallory; Kelly A. Boadway; Shanti E. Davis; Mark Maftei

27

UV matters in shoaling decisions.  

PubMed

Shoaling behaviour in fish is influenced by numerous factors, such as familiarity, kinship, group size and shoal composition. Grouping decisions are based on both olfactory and visual cues. The visual system of many vertebrates is extended into the ultraviolet (UV) wave range as in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus, L.). We investigated whether the presence or absence of UV wavelengths has an influence on shoaling behaviour in this species. Reproductively non-active three-spined sticklebacks were given the choice between two shoals, equal in numbers of individuals, which could be seen either through a UV-transmitting [UV(+)] or a UV-blocking [UV(-)] filter. Test fish preferred to join the shoal seen under UV(+) conditions. Due to differences in quantal flux between the UV(+) and UV(-) filters used, control experiments with neutral-density optical filters were performed in order to clarify the role of luminance. Here, test fish spent significantly more time near shoals that were seen in a darker environment, suggesting a potential trade-off between UV radiation and lower brightness during shoal choice. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time that shoaling decisions are influenced by UV wavelengths. PMID:16618679

Modarressie, Ricarda; Rick, Ingolf P; Bakker, Theo C M

2006-04-01

28

Late Holocene chronology, origin, and evolution of the St. Bernard Shoals, Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several shore-parallel marine sand bodies lie on the Louisiana continental shelf. They are Trinity Shoal, Ship Shoal, Outer Shoal, and the St. Bernard Shoals. These shoals mark the submerged positions of ancient shorelines associated with abandoned deltas. Three of these shoals are single elongate deposits. The fourth shoal, the St. Bernard Shoals, consists of a group of discrete sand bodies ranging in size from 44 to 0.05 km2, 25 km southeast of the Chandeleur Islands in 15-18 m of water. The St. Bernard Shoals are stratigraphically above the St. Bernard delta complex, which was active 2,500-1,800 years b. p. Understanding the evolution of the St. Bernard Shoals is necessary to reconstruct the Holocene chronology of the St. Bernard delta complex and the eastern Louisiana continental shelf. For this study, 47 vibracores and 400 km of shallow seismic reflection data collected in 1987 across the Louisiana shelf were analyzed. In June 2008, 384 km of higher-resolution seismic reflection data were acquired across the study area and appended to the preexisting datasets. Vibracores were integrated with seismic profiles to identify facies and their regional distribution. Our results demonstrate that the deltaic package stratigraphically below the St. Bernard Shoals is chronologically younger than the northern distributaries, but derived from the same trunk distributary channel (Bayou la Loutre). The river eventually bypassed the northern distributaries, and began to deposit sediment further onto the continental shelf. After abandonment, the overextended delta lobe was rapidly transgressed, creating a transgressive shoreline that eventually coalesced with earlier shorelines in the region to form the Chandeleur Islands. The St. Bernard Shoals formed by the reworking of the relict distributary deposits exposed on the inner to mid shelf during and subsequent to shoreface ravinement.

Rogers, Bryan E.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.

2009-12-01

29

Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

1983-01-01

30

Landfill sites, botulism and gulls.  

PubMed Central

Botulism due to Clostridium botulinum type C causes considerable mortality in gulls in the UK, and refuse disposal sites are suspected as a major source of toxin. C. botulinum types B, C and D were each found in 12 (63.2%) of 19 landfill sites examined. Type E was detected in only one (5.2%) and types A, F and G were not found. The prevalence of type C spores was much higher than that demonstrated in the UK environment by earlier surveys. The presence of these spores, together with the rotting organic matter and generated heat associated with landfill sites, undoubtedly leads to bacterial proliferation and toxigenesis. This is likely to result in botulism in scavenging gulls unless skilled landfill management prevents the ingestion of toxic material. Type D spores were previously shown to be rare in the UK environment and their high prevalence on landfill sites was therefore surprising. Four composite samples of refuse collected before distribution on a landfill gave negative results for C. botulinum and it seems likely that the gulls themselves play a major role in introducing contamination.

Ortiz, N. E.; Smith, G. R.

1994-01-01

31

No. 2 fuel oil decreases embryonic survival of great black-backed gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field study of the effects of No. 2 fuel oil applications to the eggs of great black-backed gulls on an island off the coast of Maine. Fuel oil applied in amounts of either 5 or 20 ul. All eggs opened 8 da later. Measured survival and estimated age of embryo at time of egg oiling.

Coon, N.C.; Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

1979-01-01

32

Density-independent survival of wild lake trout in the Apostle Islands area of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stock at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior was one of only a few stocks of lean lake trout in the Great Lakes that survived overfishing and predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). Since the mid 1960s, the abundance of wild recruits measured at age 0 and the number of age-7 to -11 wild fish recruited to the fishable stock have increased. We used the Varley-Gradwell method to test for density-dependent survival between these life stages. Survival from age-0 to ages 7-11 was not affected by increasing density, which suggests that further increases in recruitment and stock size are still possible. We suggest that testing for the existence of density-dependent survival can be used to indicate when lake trout populations are rehabilitated.

Bronte, Charles R.; Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Swanson, Bruce L.

1995-01-01

33

Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers (Ryn chops niger) and gull-billed terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) were investigated in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975. With few exceptions, the two species nested together in colonies located on barrier islands. We located 10 colonies, 7 of which were on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (Cape Romain); references were located that described nesting on seven other islands in South Carolina that no longer support colonies. Gull-billed terns nested from early May through July; the skimmers started later (late May) but also continued later (early September). Both species nested in areas subject to tidal flooding, and the two species persisted in nesting in several colonies despite intense predation by rats and gulls. Estimated reproductive success varied greatly from year to year and colony to colony; success in most colonies seemed low, particularly for the gull-billed tern. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in several eggs seemed of sufficient magnitude to induce adverse effects on reproductivity and eggshell thickness: however, the overall effect of organochlorines appeared negligible. Maximum numbers of nests located in a single year were 790 for the skimmer and 340 for the gull-billed tern: the total breeding population in South Carolina is unknown. Although nesting islands at Cape Romain and Deveaux Bank are sanctuaries for nesting birds, both species will continue to lose nesting habitat as additional sea islands are developed and inhabited by man.

Blus, Lawrence J.; Stafford, Charles J.

1980-01-01

34

Mercury in feathers of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) chicks from northeastern Mediterranean colonies.  

PubMed

Feathers of Audouin's gull chicks from three Aegean island areas (north Dodecanese, Cyclades, Kythera) Greece, were sampled in 1997 and 1998 and analyzed for mercury. Mean concentrations varied from 0. 94 microg/g (Lipsos, Dodecanese, 1998) to 2.14 microg/g (Paros, Cyclades, 1998). Significant differences between years occurred in some regions (Lipsos, Fourni) but not in others (Paros). Within each year, especially in 1998, mean mercury concentrations differed among colonies. Results did not support the prediction that mercury levels would be higher in the north Dodecanese area due to the proximity of the polluted Menderes delta. There was no relationship between estimated chick age and feather mercury contents (r = -0.04, NS). Detected mercury levels do not seem to pose any toxic hazard to the Aegean Audouin's gull populations. However, the ease of sampling from gulls indicates that they may be a useful biomonitor of mercury contamination in this region. PMID:10871423

Goutner, V; Furness, R W; Papakonstantinou, K

2000-08-01

35

Aspects of chick growth in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of concerns about apparent population declines and low productivity of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) along the coast of Virginia, we investigated whether food limitations may result in retarded growth rates of young. Several colonies of Gull-billed Terns were monitored from May to July each year from 1994 to 1996 on both sandy barrier islands and marsh/shellpile islands in coastal Virginia. Nests were visited one to three times a week to monitor clutch size and hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick growth from hatching to at least two weeks of age. When comparing chick growth, we found significant year, habitat and hatch order effects. Chicks from marsh shellpiles had higher mass and culmen growth rates than did those from barrier islands, and first-hatched (A) chicks had significantly higher culmen growth rates than did second-hatched (B) chicks. Year effects were only found for mass growth rates. Growth rates of Gull- billed Terns in these Virginia colonies seem to be low relative to those of six other North American tern species from other geographic areas. These findings suggest that growth rates of young Gull-billed Terns, as well as other reproductive parameters, need to be examined in detail in other coastal areas such as Texas, where the species is more abundant, to determine whether our growth results are species- or region-specific.

Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

1999-01-01

36

Late Holocene chronology, origin, and evolution of the St. Bernard Shoals, Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several shore-parallel marine sand bodies lie on the Louisiana continental shelf. They are Trinity Shoal, Ship Shoal, Outer Shoal, and the St. Bernard Shoals. These shoals mark the submerged positions of ancient shorelines associated with abandoned deltas. Three of these shoals are single elongate deposits. The fourth shoal, the St. Bernard Shoals, consists of a group of discrete sand bodies

Bryan E. Rogers; Mark A. Kulp; Michael D. Miner

2009-01-01

37

Dramatic improvements in beach water quality following gull removal.  

PubMed

Gulls are often cited as important contributors of fecal contamination to surface waters, and some recreational beaches have used gull control measures to improve microbial water quality. In this study, gulls were chased from a Lake Michigan beach using specially trained dogs, and water quality improvements were quantified. Fecal indicator bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria were measured before and during gull control using culture methods and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Harassment by dogs was an effective method of gull control: average daily gull populations fell from 665 before to 17 during intervention; and a significant reduction in the density of a gull-associated marker was observed (p < 0.001). Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli densities were also significantly reduced during gull control (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively for culture methods; p = 0.012 and p = 0.034, respectively for qPCR). Linear regression results indicate that a 50% reduction in gulls was associated with a 38% and 29% decrease in Enterococcus spp. and E. coli densities, respectively. Potentially human pathogenic bacteria were detected on 64% of days prior to gull control and absent during gull intervention, a significant reduction (p = 0.005). This study demonstrates that gull removal can be a highly successful beach remedial action to improve microbial water quality. PMID:22913457

Converse, Reagan R; Kinzelman, Julie L; Sams, Elizabeth A; Hudgens, Edward; Dufour, Alfred P; Ryu, Hodon; Santo-Domingo, Jorge W; Kelty, Catherine A; Shanks, Orin C; Siefring, Shawn D; Haugland, Richard A; Wade, Timothy J

2012-09-18

38

Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (<= 20 m depth) portions of the Nantucket Shoals, up to 70 km offshore. Diet analyses of ten birds collected in February 1999 and five in December 2006 showed that they fed principally (106.6 +/- 42.0 individuals per crop) on Gammarus annulatus, a pelagic amphipod that often forms large aggregations, and is consumed by several species of fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

2009-01-01

39

Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in the Aleutians.  

PubMed

Levels of mercury and other contaminants should be lower in birds nesting on isolated oceanic islands and at high latitudes without any local or regional sources of contamination, compared to more urban and industrialized temperate regions. We examined concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling and adult glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) nesting in breeding colonies on Adak, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska in the Bering Sea/North Pacific. We tested the following null hypotheses: 1) There were no differences in metal levels among eggs and feathers of adult and fledgling glaucous-winged gulls, 2) There were no differences in metal levels among gulls nesting near the three underground nuclear test sites (Long Shot 1965, Milrow 1969, Cannikin 1971) on Amchitka, 3) There were no differences in metal levels among the three islands, and 4) There were no gender-related differences in metal levels. All four null hypotheses were rejected at the 0.05 level, although there were few differences among the three test sites on Amchitka. Eggs had the lowest levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury, and the feathers of adults had the lowest levels of selenium. Comparing only adults and fledglings, adults had higher levels of cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury, and fledglings had higher levels of arsenic, manganese and selenium. There were few consistent interisland differences, although levels were generally lower for eggs and feathers from gulls on Amchitka compared to the other islands. Arsenic was higher in both adult feathers and eggs from Amchitka compared to Adak, and chromium and lead were higher in adult feathers and eggs from Adak compared to Amchitka. Mercury and arsenic, and chromium and manganese levels were significantly correlated in the feathers of both adult and fledgling gulls. The feathers of males had significantly higher levels of chromium and manganese than did females. The levels of most metals in feathers are below those known to be associated with adverse effects in the gulls or their predators. However, levels of mercury in some gull eggs are within a range suggesting that several eggs should not be eaten in one day by sensitive humans. PMID:18626778

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Volz, Conrad D; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Daniel; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila

2009-05-01

40

Depredation of common eider, Somateria mollissima, nests on a central Beaufort Sea barrier island: A case where no one wins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along the central Beaufort Sea, Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigra) nest on unvegetated, barrier islands; often near nesting Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Nest-site choice likely reflects a strategy of predator avoidance: nesting on islands to avoid mammalian predators and near territorial gulls to avoid other avian predators. We observed a nesting colony of Common Eiders from first nest initiation through nesting termination on Egg Island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (2002 - 2003). Resident gulls depredated many eider nests, mostly during initiation. All nests failed when an Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) visited the island and flushed hens from their nests, exposing the eggs to depredation by the fox and gulls (resident and non-resident). Common Eiders actively defended nests from gulls, but not from foxes. Likely all three species (i.e., eiders, gulls, and foxes) ultimately achieved negligible benefit from their nest-site selection or predatory activity: (a) island nesting provided no safety from mammalian predators for eiders or gulls, (b) for Common Eiders, nesting near gulls increased egg loss, (c) for Glaucous Gulls, nesting near colonial eiders may have reduced nest success by attracting the fox, and (d) for Arctic Foxes, the depredation was of questionable value, as most eggs were cached and probably not recoverable (due to damage from fall storms). Thus, the predator-prey interactions we observed appear to be a case where little or no fitness advantage was realized by any of the species involved.

Reed, J. A.; Lacroix, D. L.; Flint, P. L.

2007-01-01

41

Determining shoal membership using affinity propagation.  

PubMed

We propose using the affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm for detecting multiple disjoint shoals, and we present an extension of AP, denoted by STAP, that can be applied to shoals that fusion and fission across time. STAP incorporates into AP a soft temporal constraint that takes cluster dynamics into account, encouraging partitions obtained at successive time steps to be consistent with each other. We explore how STAP performs under different settings of its parameters (strength of the temporal constraint, preferences, and distance metric) by applying the algorithm to simulated sequences of collective coordinated motion. We study the validity of STAP by comparing its results to partitioning of the same data obtained from human observers in a controlled experiment. We observe that, under specific circumstances, AP yields partitions that agree quite closely with the ones made by human observers. We conclude that using the STAP algorithm with appropriate parameter settings is an appealing approach for detecting shoal fusion-fission dynamics. PMID:23219963

Quera, Vicen; Beltran, Francesc S; Givoni, Inmar E; Dolado, Ruth

2013-03-15

42

Late Holocene chronology, origin, and evolution of the St. Bernard Shoals, Northern Gulf of Mexico, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several shore-parallel marine sand bodies lie on the Louisiana continental shelf. They are Trinity Shoal, Ship Shoal, Outer\\u000a Shoal, and the St. Bernard Shoals. These shoals mark the submerged positions of ancient shorelines associated with abandoned\\u000a deltas. Three of these shoals are single elongate deposits. The fourth shoal, the St. Bernard Shoals, consists of a group\\u000a of discrete sand bodies

Bryan E. Rogers; Mark A. Kulp; Michael D. Miner

2009-01-01

43

Landscape changes and colony site dynamics: How gull-billed terns cope at the sea's edge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gull-billed Terns have declined dramatically in coastal Virginia over the past 20 years, with apparently low reproductive success. They nest, usually in mixed-species colonies, in two discrete habitat types: large, sandy barrier islands or shell/sandbars on the edges of marsh islands in the lagoon systems. The smaller shell/sandbars seem to provide more consistent nestling habitat and predation pressures than do barrier islands among years. We hypothesize that colony site turnover (between years) should be higher in the more uncertain barrier island habitats than among the shell/sandbar colonies. Our results do not corroborate the prediction. We postulate that social (and other) factors may explain these differences.

Erwin, R. M.; Williams, B.; Watts, B.; Truitt, B.; Stotts, D.; Eyler, B.

1996-01-01

44

Created versus natural coastal islands: Atlantic waterbird populations, habitat choices, and management implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nesting colonial waterbirds along the Atlantic Coast of the United States face a number of landscape-level threats including human disturbance, mammalian predator expansion, and habitat alteration. There have been changes from 1977 to the mid-1990s in use of nesting habitats and populations of a number of seabird species of concern in the region, including black skimmers Rynchops niger Linnaeaus, common terns Sterna hirundo Linnaeaus, gull-billed terns Sterna nilotica Linnaeaus, least terns Sterna antillarum Lesson, royal terns Sterna maxima Boddaert, and sandwich terns Sterna sandvicensis Cabot. These species form colonies primarily on the following habitat types: large, sandy barrier or shoal islands, natural estuarine or bay islands (mostly marsh), man-made islands of dredged deposition materials (from navigation channels), and the mainland. Significant changes in the use of the dredged material islands have occurred for these species in New Jersey and North Carolina, but not in Virginia. Population declines and changes in bird habitat use appear to be at least partially associated with the conditions and management of the existing dredged material islands, coastal policy changes associated with creating new dredged material islands, and competing demands for sand for beach augmentation by coastal communities. As these and other coastal habitats become less suitable for colonial waterbirds, other manmade sites, such as bridges and buildings have become increasingly more important. In regions with intense recreational demands, coastal wildlife managers need to take a more aggressive role in managing natural and man-made habitats areas and as stakeholders in the decision-making process involving dredged materials and beach sand allocation.

Erwin, R.M.; Allen, D.H.; Jenkins, D.

2003-01-01

45

18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the apparatus for inserting the piles into the shoal, sheet no. 53", National Archives (8" x 10" print from 4" x 5" negative) - Ship Shoal Light Station, Gulf of Mexico, Theriot, Terrebonne Parish, LA

46

The impact of gulls on puffin reproductive performance: an experimental test of two management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulls frequently predate eggs and young and kleptoparasitise other seabirds during the breeding season. This has lead to the implementation of gull control programmes at many colonies. However, few studies have been carried out to assess the effectiveness of different management options. We investigated the impact of (1) maintaining gull-free areas and (2) delaying gull breeding, on the foraging economics

Suzanne K. Finney; Sarah Wanless; Michael P. Harris; Pat Monaghan

2001-01-01

47

ORGANOCHLORINE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN HERRING GULLS, RING-BILLED GULLS, AND COMMON TERNS OF WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDE, DDT, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analyzed for three age classes (e.g. pre-fledge muscle and blood, and post-fledge muscle) of the herring gull, ring-billed gull, and common tern for samples collected in the western end of La...

48

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Laughing Gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for laughing gull (Larus atricilla). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

Zale, Alexander V.; Mulholland, Rosemarie

1985-01-01

49

At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galpagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proao, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-01-01

50

Oolite shoals of the St. Louis Formation, Gray County, Kansas: A guide for oil and gas exploration  

SciTech Connect

Geologists familiar with the Mississippian St. Louis formation in southeastern Kansas have interpreted the productive oolite shoals of the St. Louis in the region as representing linear ramp barrier-type deposits which developed southwest of, and parallel to, a southwesterly trending shoreline. However, examination of available cores and interpretation of electric-log data from the Ingalls field in Gray County suggest that production is from an oolite shoal that is situated leeward of small island developed on a carbonate mud flat. Positive magnetic and gravity anomalies associated with the Ingalls field imply deep structures which might have resulted in subtle perturbations on the Mississippian seafloor that in turn provided loci for ooid shoal formation. Classified lithologically as an oolitic grainstone, the most productive facies of the shoal exhibits primary intergranular porosity with evidence of only minor diagenetic porosity enhancement. An important implication for future exploration in that St. Louis formation oolitic buildups in this area could be present in pairs, occurring on both the leeward and basinward side of coastal plain islands that might have formed an archipelago extending into the Hugoton embayment of the Anadarko basin.

Sutterllin, P.G. (Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)); Parham, K.D. (Kansas Geological Survey, Lawrence (United States))

1991-08-01

51

Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Gull Feces?  

PubMed Central

In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a gull 16S rRNA gene clone library was developed and analyzed to determine the identities of fecal bacteria. Analysis of 282 16S rRNA gene clones demonstrated that the gull gut bacterial community is mostly composed of populations closely related to Bacilli (37%), Clostridia (17%), Gammaproteobacteria (11%), and Bacteriodetes (1%). Interestingly, a considerable number of sequences (i.e., 26%) were closely related to Catellicoccus marimammalium, a gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterium. To determine the occurrence of C. marimammalium in waterfowl, species-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR and real-time assays were developed and used to test fecal DNA extracts from different bird (n = 13) and mammal (n = 26) species. The results showed that both assays were specific to gull fecal DNA and that C. marimammalium was present in gull fecal samples collected from the five locations in North America (California, Georgia, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Toronto, Canada) tested. Additionally, 48 DNA extracts from waters collected from six sites in southern California, Great Lakes in Michigan, Lake Erie in Ohio, and Lake Ontario in Canada presumed to be impacted with gull feces were positive by the C. marimammalium assay. Due to the widespread presence of this species in gulls and environmental waters contaminated with gull feces, targeting this bacterial species might be useful for detecting gull fecal contamination in waterfowl-impacted waters.

Lu, Jingrang; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lamendella, Regina; Edge, Thomas; Hill, Stephen

2008-01-01

52

A laboratory study of irregular shoaling waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research aims to investigate the dynamics of a single laboratory irregular wave, characterized by a narrow-banded spectrum and developing on a sloping sand bottom, in intermediate waters up to the surf zone. Experiments focused on the wave shoaling region, in order to examine how the wave is affected by breaking induced turbulence offshore the surf zone. A 3D acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used to measure the three wave velocity components, which were all processed to evaluate the time-averaged vertical distributions of orbital velocities, wave and turbulent Reynolds shear stresses and turbulent intensities. The vertical distributions of the phase-averaged velocity components, turbulent kinetic energy and transport of turbulence were also analysed. The adopted phase-averaging technique was applied to each investigated measurement point. Therefore, the crucial element of the study is that all the analysed values derive directly from real measurements and are not approximated by any kind of interpolation. The study confirmed some dynamic behaviour in the shoaling zone already known in the literature, such as the typical cell-type flow pattern of the mean flow and the necessity to evaluate the turbulent kinetic energy with all the three velocity components, when available, which would otherwise be underestimated. Referring to the time-averaged wave and Reynolds shear stresses, a contribution was added to the open debate on their order of magnitude. The measured wave Reynolds shear stresses were also compared with the results of the model by Zou et al. (J Geophys Res 111:C09032, 2006), confirming the behaviour typical of dissipative breaking waves. The analysis of turbulence transport in the shoaling zone revealed that it is seaward directed close to the surface and landward directed close to the bottom. The results presented in the paper can be extended only to other analogous flow conditions.

De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

2013-06-01

53

Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America.  

PubMed

Gulls are important hosts of avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) and gull AIVs often contain gene segments of mixed geographic and host lineage origins. In this study, the prevalence of AIV in gulls of Newfoundland, Canada from 2008 to 2011 was analyzed. Overall prevalence was low (30/1645, 1.8%) but there was a distinct peak of infection in the fall. AIV seroprevalence was high in Newfoundland gulls, with 50% of sampled gulls showing evidence of previous infection. Sequences of 16 gull AIVs were determined and analyzed to shed light on the transmission, reassortment and persistence dynamics of gull AIVs in Atlantic North America. Intercontinental and waterfowl lineage reassortment was prevalent. Of particular note were a wholly Eurasian AIV and another with an intercontinental reassortant waterfowl lineage virus. These patterns of geographic and inter-host group transmission highlight the importance of characterization of gull AIVs as part of attempts to understand global AIV dynamics. PMID:24889254

Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Benkaroun, Jessica; Munro, Hannah; Bond, Alexander L; Fifield, David A; Robertson, Gregory J; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

2014-05-01

54

Paleoenvironments of the mid-Ordovician (Upper Caradocian) Trenton limestones of southern Ontario, Canada: Storm sedimentation on a shoal-basin shelf model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mid-Ordovician (Caradocian) limestones of southern Ontario were deposited on a shelf undergoing collision with a magmatic arc. Within the general deepening-upwards sequence, shoals and islands complicate the facies patterns. Around these shoals and islands, carbonate sediments can be divided into nine lithotypes reflecting shallow agitated, to deep, quiet marine environments. Many of these lithotypes show good evidence of storm deposition. The lithotypes can be grouped into natural associations which define shoal, intershoal, slope and basinal faciesthough the basins were probably less than 100 m deep. The closest recent analogues of these Ordovician environments occur on the Arabian shelf of the Persian Gulf, and on the Sahul shelf of northern Australia which is undergoing collision with the Banda arc. In both these environments, local shoal-basin shelf topography controls the detailed carbonate shelf sedimentation, which on a large scale is controlled by storm and tsunami effects on a seaward sloping ramp. Such shoal-basin and ramp models now seem more suitable in explaining carbonate facies in epeiric seas, than the flat slope models previously proposed. Glacio-eustatic sea-level changes may have controlled the larger aspects of carbonate sedimentation on the Ordovician shelf, as they did and continue to do now, on the recent shelves. Such changes may explain the localization of the variety of Ordovician hardgrounds which we previously described.

Brookfield, M. E.; Brett, C. E.

1988-05-01

55

AN OUTBREAK OF TYPE C BOTULISM IN HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS) IN SOUTHEASTERN SWEDEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as

A. Neimanis; D. Gavier-Widen; F. Leighton; T. Bollinger; T. Rocke; T. Morner

56

Prevalence of Antibody to Toxoplasma gondii in Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), Dianchi Lake, China.  

PubMed

Abstract Sera from 659 Black-headed Gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) in Dianchi Lake, China were assayed for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Specific T. gondii antibodies were detected in 131 (19.9%) Black-headed Gulls (MAT titer?1?5). These results indicate that T. gondii infection is common in Black-headed Gulls. PMID:24807354

Miao, Qiang; Han, Jiang-Qiang; Xiang, Xun; Yuan, Fei-Zhou; Liu, Yong-Zhang; Duan, Gang; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zou, Feng-Cai

2014-07-01

57

Sexing California gulls using morphometrics and discriminant function analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A discriminant function analysis (DFA) model was developed with DNA sex verification so that external morphology could be used to sex 203 adult California Gulls (Larus californicus) in San Francisco Bay (SFB). The best model was 97% accurate and included head-to-bill length, culmen depth at the gonys, and wing length. Using an iterative process, the model was simplified to a single measurement (head-to-bill length) that still assigned sex correctly 94% of the time. A previous California Gull sex determination model developed for a population in Wyoming was then assessed by fitting SFB California Gull measurement data to the Wyoming model; this new model failed to converge on the same measurements as those originally used by the Wyoming model. Results from the SFB discriminant function model were compared to the Wyoming model results (by using SFB data with the Wyoming model); the SFB model was 7% more accurate for SFB California gulls. The simplified DFA model (head-to-bill length only) provided highly accurate results (94%) and minimized the measurements and time required to accurately sex California Gulls.

Herring, G.; Ackerman, J. T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Takekawa, J. Y.

2010-01-01

58

Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate isomer patterns in herring gull eggs from colonial sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Linear and branched (six mono(trifluoromethyl) and four di(trifluoromethyl)) isomers of the bioaccumulative contaminant perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were analyzed for and the spatial patterns examined in individual herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs (n = 13 per site) collected (in 2007) from 15 colonies across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Linear PFOS (n-perfluoro-1-octanesulfonate (L-PFOS)) consistently dominated the isomer pattern in all eggs, comprising between 95.0% and 98.3% of the summation sigmaPFOS concentration. L-PFOS was highly enriched in the gull eggs as the summation sigmabranched-PFOS to L-PFOS isomer concentration ratios were very constant (overall average 0.038 +/- 0.001) and much lower compared to technical PFOS (range 0.27-0.54). The highest proportions of L-PFOS were generally observed in the eggs from the lower lakes (Erie and Ontario) colonies. All six mono(trifluoromethyl) branched isomers, or perfluoro-n-methyl-heptanesulfonates where n describes the carbon of the hydrocarbon chain were there is trifluoromethyl substitution relative to the sulfonate terminal group, were detected in the eggs from all the colonies. For example, P1MHpS is perfluoro-1-methyl-heptanesulfonate. Comparable to technical PFOS (T-PFOS), the percentage of the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomer to summation sigmaPFOS concentration decreased as the branch substitution was located closer to the sulfonate group, that is, P6MHpS (0%-2.5%), P5MHpS (0.43%-1.18%), P4MHpS (0.25%-0.69%), and P3MHpS (0.32%-0.74%). Although at even lower fractional composition than the mono(trifluoromethyl) isomers, of the di(trifluoromethyl) isomers, detected in >60% of the individual eggs per site was P35DMHxS and P45DMHxS for Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario), P35DMHxS for Chantry (Lake Huron) and Fighting Island (Detroit River), and P45DMHxS for Gull Island (Lake Michigan). Relative to T-PFOS, and independent of colonial location, the high and consistent enrichment of L-PFOS in gull eggs is likely a function of several processes including PFOS or precursor sources, and isomer-specific PFOS or precursor exposure, accumulation, biotransformation, retention and/or elimination. The results of this study suggests that the apparent dilution of the mono(fluoromethyl) isomers from environmental processes that occur prior to final accumulation in herring gull eggs, is independent of the mono(fluoromethyl) isomer structure. PMID:20415439

Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J

2010-05-15

59

Aspects of hatching success and chick survival in Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because of a long-term population decline in Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) nesting along the coast of Virginia, we began a three year study in 1994 to monitor hatching success and survival of Gull-billed Tern chicks at several Virginia colony sites. Colonies were located on either small, storm-deposited shellpiles along marsh fringes or large, sandshell overwash fans of barrier islands. Nests were monitored one to three times a week for hatching success, and enclosures were installed around selected nests to monitor chick survival from hatching to about two weeks of age. Hatching success was lower in marsh colonies than island colonies, and was lower in 1995 than in 1994 and 1996, primarily because of flooding. The average brood size of nests where at least one chick hatched was 1.99 chicks. Survival rates of chicks to 14 days depended on hatch order and year but not brood size (one vs. two or more) or time of season. A-chicks had higher survival rates than B-chicks and third-hatched C-chicks (0.661 compared to 0.442 and 0.357, respectively). The year effect was significant only for A-chicks, with lower survival in 1994 (0.50) than in 1995 (0.765) or 1996 (0.758). Overall, productivity was low (0.53 chick per nest) compared to estimates for colonies in Denmark, and was attributable to nest flooding by spring and storm-driven high tides and chick predation, presumably mostly by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus).

Eyler, T.B.; Erwin, R.M.; Stotts, D.B.; Hatfield, J.S.

1999-01-01

60

Shoaling of nonlinear internal waves in Massachusetts Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The shoaling of the nonlinear internal tide in Massachusetts Bay is studied with a fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic model. The results are compared with current and temperature observations obtained during the August 1998 Massachusetts Bay Internal Wave Experiment and observations from a shorter experiment which took place in September 2001. The model shows how the approaching nonlinear undular bore interacts strongly with a shoaling bottom, offshore of where KdV theory predicts polarity switching should occur. It is shown that the shoaling process is dominated by nonlinearity, and the model results are interpreted with the aid of a two-layer nonlinear but hydrostatic model. After interacting with the shoaling bottom, the undular bore emerges on the shallow shelf inshore of the 30-m isobath as a nonlinear internal tide with a range of possible shapes, all of which are found in the available observational record. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

Scotti, A.; Beardsley, R. C.; Butman, B.; Pineda, J.

2008-01-01

61

[A comparative analysis of the helminth fauna of kittiwake Rissa tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus Gunnerus, 1767 from different parts of the Barents Sea].  

PubMed

The article is based on the results of helminthological observations made on kittiwake Rissa tridactyla and glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus in 1991-2001 in different areas of the Barents Sea (Eastern Murman coast, Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, Spitzbergen). 18 helminth species (2 trematodes, 11 cestodes, 4 nematodes, and 2 acanthocephalans) were recorded in the kittiwakes and 19 (3 trematodes, 9 cestodes, 5 nematodes and 2 acanthocephalans) species were recorded in the glaucous gulls. Trematodes were absent in the birds collected at the Franz Josef Land and the northern island of Novaya Zemlya. 3 trematode species, namely Gymnophallus sp. (somateria?), Microphallus sp. 1 (M. pseudopygmaeus), and Cryptocotyle lingua were found in the glaucous gulls of western Spitzbergen. It was supposed that the life cycles of these parasites can be completed there. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems of Arctic archipelagoes turn out to be favourable for the transmission of some cestodes. This is closely connected with the regional traits in the marine bird diet, namely the increase of the amphipod (intermediate hosts of hymenolepidids and some dilepidids) and polar cod (supposed second intermediate host for some tetrabothriids) portion in Arctic. As a result, cestodes are the base of the helminth fauna of kittiwakes and glaucous gulls of the Barents Sea, by their species richness, prevalence and abundance. Nematodes and acanthocephalans were represented by a few species with low infection intensity. The main ecological factors affected the regional difference in the species richness and abundance of the helminths parasitising kittiwakes and glaucous gulls in the Barents Sea are proposed. Those are regional climatic features and regional traits in the behaviour and food priorities of birds, and also the distribution of the helminths intermediate hosts, invertebrates and fishes. The phenomenon of host specificity lowering with respect to the definitive host was recorded in some cestode species (Microsomacanthus diorchis, M. microsoma, and Arctotaenia tetrabothrioides) on the border of their distribution ranges, the coastal ecosystems of Arctic. PMID:16396393

Kuklin, V V; Galaktionov, K V; Galkin, A K; Marasaev, S F

2005-01-01

62

Numerical modeling of 2D wave refraction and shoaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As waves propagate into shallow water area they undergo shoaling and refraction. Refraction is a bending wave phenomenon that leads the wave crest arriving at beach directed parallel to the shoreline. Shoaling is a phenomenon of increasing wave height with decreasing water depth. Shoaling and refraction are both direct consequence of energy conservation. In this paper we solve the 2D shallow water equations using the conservative finite volume method. This scheme is non dissipative, therefore it can produce shoaling coefficient correctly. Simulation of 2D plane wave above a parallel bottom contours shows that numerical wave refraction confirms the analytical wave refraction. In this way we are convinced that our scheme can produce shoaling and refraction correctly. When a wave travels over a continental shelf and further to the beach, before breaking, the wave will experience shoaling and refraction which is not homogeneous along the beach. Numerical simulation shows that a bottom sill may induce wave focusing. This wave focusing governed by offshore topography may explain the striking differences from the adjacent coastal damage.

Magdalena, I.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

2014-03-01

63

Sedimentology of the Ekwan Shoal, Akimiski Strait, James Bay, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the steepest depositional coasts of western James Bay is found along the west shores of Akimiski Strait, north of the mouth of the Ekwan River. This shore receives considerable amounts of sediment during the spring break-up of the rivers. The sediments are stored on the steep narrow tidal flats and marshes, and in thinner (up to 80 cm) drapes on till-cored shoals that parallel and protect the coast. The low areas between the shoals and the mainland are swept and reworked by relatively powerful (2 m s -1) reversing currents due to flooding and ebbing of tides into the strait. A series of distinct environments and sedimentary facies develop on this western coast and its antecedent longshore shoal. The outer part of the shoal is characterized by tidal bedding, Macoma balthica burrows and considerable ice scour. The inner part of the shoal has winnowed sand, the greatest abundance of Macoma, and well-developed flaser bedding. The longshore tidal channel separating the shoal from the mainland has coarse sand lags in the shallower parts and silty sand in deeper protected areas. The steep tidal flats develop laminated silty sands locally saturated and slumping toward the channel. The high saturation of the sediments inhibits colonization of the flats by Macoma. The narrow marshes have characteristic vegetation zonation, with Puccinellia phryganodes colonizing the lower marsh. The sedimentary sequence of the marsh displays irregular, bioturbated laminated sequences of silt, silty sand and organic matter.

Grinham, D. F.; Martini, I. P.

1984-02-01

64

Comparison of Gull Feces-Specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Genes of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

PubMed Central

Two novel gull-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR green assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (gull3) and a hydrolysis TaqMan assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (gull4). The objectives of this study were to compare the host specificity of a previous C. marimammalium qPCR assay (gull2) with that of the new markers and to examine the presence of the three gull markers in environmental water samples from different geographic locations. Most of the gull fecal samples tested (n = 255) generated positive signals with the gull2 and gull4 assays (i.e., >86%), whereas only 28% were positive with gull3. Low prevalence and abundance of tested gull markers (0.6 to 15%) were observed in fecal samples from six nonavian species (n = 180 fecal samples), whereas the assays cross-reacted to some extent (13 to 31%) with other (nongull) avian fecal samples. The gull3 assay was positive against fecal samples from 11 of 15 avian species, including gull. Of the presumed gull-impacted water samples (n = 349), 86%, 59%, and 91% were positive with the gull2, the gull3, and the gull4 assays, respectively. Approximately 5% of 239 non-gull-impacted water samples were positive with the gull2 and the gull4 assays, whereas 21% were positive witg the gull3 assay. While the relatively high occurrence of gull2 and gull4 markers in waters impacted by gull feces suggests that these assays could be used in environmental monitoring studies, the data also suggest that multiple avian-specific assays will be needed to accurately assess the contribution of different avian sources in recreational waters.

Ryu, Hodon; Griffith, John F.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Hill, Stephen; Edge, Thomas A.; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel

2012-01-01

65

Methyl anthranilate formulations repel gulls and mallards from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two formulations of methyl anthranilate (MA), one (ReJex-iT TP-40 [TP-40]) containing a surfactant, the other (ReJex-iT AP-50 [AP-50]) a miscible, free-flowing powder, effectively repelled captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from pools of water in pen tests, and\\/or free-ranging gulls (Larus delawarensis and L. argentatus) from pools of water in field trials for 411 days. With one exception, pool entries and bill

Jerrold L. Belant; Steven W. Gabrey; Richard A. Dolbeer; Thomas W. Seamans

1995-01-01

66

Oscillations in shoal cohesion in zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

In many species, group cohesion may be the result of a compromise between opposing forces (e.g. predator avoidance and competition for food). However, little empirical data exists on the dynamics of group cohesion. We present moment-to-moment positional data on zebrafish shoals and analyze temporal changes in inter-individual distances. We demonstrate that the distance between shoal members does not settle at any given value, as has previously been assumed, but oscillates with a period between 5 and 15 s.

Miller, Noam Y.; Gerlai, Robert

2009-01-01

67

Ionic alkylleads in herring gulls from the Great Lakes region  

SciTech Connect

Herring gull (Larus argentatus) tissues, collected from various breeding colonies in the Great Lakes, were examined to determine alkyllead levels and possible alkyllead sources into the Great Lakes region. Ionic trialkyl- and dialkyllead species (R/sub 3/Pb/sup +/, R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/; R = Me, Et) were quantitated by gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometry. The extraction procedure was tested at trace levels (3-4 ppb as Pb) with four domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues. Trimethyllead was found in two avian species and all examined tissues. Methyllead levels frequently exceeded ethyllead levels with no direct automotive source. Correlation between alkyllead levels in herring gull tissue and lake sediment lead levels suggests possible methylation but not ethylation of inorganic lead. The methyllead concentration trend in gull tissues. Lake Ontario > Lake Huron approx. = Lake Erie > Lake Superior, was opposite to the ethyllead concentration trend, Lake Superior > Lake Huron > Lake Erie approx. = Lake Ontario. 40 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Forsyth, D.S.; Marshall, W.D.

1986-10-01

68

Effects of Invasive European Fire Ants (Myrmica rubra) on Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Reproduction  

PubMed Central

Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities.

DeFisher, Luke E.; Bonter, David N.

2013-01-01

69

Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra) on herring gull (Larus argentatus) reproduction.  

PubMed

Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168

DeFisher, Luke E; Bonter, David N

2013-01-01

70

A multiple instrument approach to quantifying the movement patterns and habitat use of tiger ( Galeocerdo cuvier ) and Galapagos sharks ( Carcharhinus galapagensis ) at French Frigate Shoals, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

We equipped individual tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier Pron and Lesueur, 1822) and Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis Snodgrass and Heller, 1905) sharks with both acoustic and satellite transmitters to quantify their long-term movements in\\u000a the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands). Tiger sharks exhibited two broad patterns\\u000a of behavior. Some individuals were detected at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) year round, whereas others

Carl G. Meyer; Yannis P. Papastamatiou; Kim N. Holland

2010-01-01

71

Shoaling of the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean thermocline: Is it driven by anthropogenic forcing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface warming since 1950 in the off-equatorial south Indian Ocean (IO) occurs without a consistent surface heat flux trend, and is accompanied by a shoaling thermocline. The associated dynamics have not been fully explored. Using 20th century climate model experiments, we test if the shoaling thermocline is attributable to a transmission from the Pacific, where a similar shoaling occurs, and

Wenju Cai; Arnold Sullivan; Tim Cowan

2008-01-01

72

DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF THREE ENDEMIC FISHES IN SHOALS OF THE UPPER FLINT RIVER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many shoal habitats in the Piedmont of Georgia have been destroyed by reservoir construction, and the remaining are still threatened. To understand relations between aquatic biota and habitat conditions in shoals, we estimated fish densities in shoals differing in physical characteristics (e.g. size and bed material) throughout a 50 km reach of the upper Flint River (Meriwether, Pike, Upson, and

Paula A. Marcinek; Mary C. Freeman; Byron J. Freeman

73

Numerical Simulation of Sediment Pathways at an Idealized Inlet and EBB Shoal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bypassing at inlets can occur across the ebb shoal, through tidal exchange, and by episodic collapse of shoals. To examine ebb-shoal and tidal exchange bypassing in a systematic way, we investigated sediment pathways at an idealized inlet with a coupled t...

A. Militello N. C. Kraus

2003-01-01

74

Estimate of removal rate of Nereis virens (Polychaeta: Nereidae) from an intertidal mudflat by gulls ( Larus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behavior of herring gulls (Larus argentatus), ringed-billed gulls (L. delawarensis) and great blackbacked gulls (L. marinus) on an intertidal mudflat in Maine, USA, was investigated. Remains of fish, mussels, crabs, insects, and the polychaeteNereis virens were recovered from gull feces. Forty-three percent of the fecal samples containedN. virens jaws, setae, or both. A comparison of jaws from fecal

W. G. Ambrose

1986-01-01

75

Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

76

77 FR 43805 - Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record of Decision  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2006-0035] Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport; Record...for the Gull Hazard Reduction Program at John F. Kennedy International Airport. DATES...populations and land uses in and around the John F. Kennedy International Airport....

2012-07-26

77

Acute poisoning of silver gulls (Larus novaehollandiae) following urea fertilizer spillage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two episodes of accidental urea toxicosis are described in wild silver gulls (Larus novaehollandiae) following spillage of fertilizer grade urea at a commercial shipping facility near Perth, Western Australia. In both cases, urea spillage had been seen to contaminate freshwater wash-down pools on the wharves where ships were being unloaded and gulls were seen to be drinking and washing in

Shane R. Raidal; Susan M. Jaensch

2006-01-01

78

Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California Gull (Larus californicus) Excreta  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull samples using PCR and qPCR based detection assays. While Campylobacter prevalence and abundance was relatively high in the gull excreta examined, molecular data ind...

79

Dynamic web cache publishing for IaaS clouds using Shoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a highly scalable application, called Shoal, for tracking and utilizing a distributed set of HTTP web caches. Our application uses the Squid HTTP cache. Squid servers advertise their existence to the Shoal server via AMQP messaging by running Shoal Agent. The Shoal server provides a simple REST interface that allows clients to determine their closest Squid cache. Our goal is to dynamically instantiate Squid caches on IaaS clouds in response to client demand. Shoal provides the VMs on IaaS clouds with the location of the nearest dynamically instantiated Squid Cache.

Gable, Ian; Chester, Michael; Armstrong, Patrick; Berghaus, Frank; Charbonneau, Andre; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Paterson, Michael; Prior, Robert; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan

2014-06-01

80

Molecular and epidemiological characterization of avian influenza viruses from gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Wild aquatic birds constitute the natural reservoir for avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Separate Eurasian and American AIV gene pools exist. Here, the prevalence and diversity of AIVs in gulls and dabbling ducks in Norway were described. The influence of host species and temporal changes on AIV prevalence was examined. Five AIVs from Norway, including three from common gull (Larus canus), were analyzed along with 10 available AIV genomes from gulls in Eurasia to search for evidence of intracontinental and intercontinental reassortment of gene segments encoding the internal viral proteins. Methods Swabs collected from 2417 dabbling ducks and gulls in the south-west of Norway during five ordinary hunting seasons (August-December) in the period 20052010 were analyzed for presence of AIV. Multivariate linear regression was used to identify associations between AIV prevalence, host species and sampling time. Five AIVs from mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) (H3N8, H9N2) and common gull (H6N8, H13N2, H16N3) were full-length characterized and phylogenetically analyzed together with GenBank reference sequences. Results Low pathogenic AIVs were detected in 15.5% (CI: 14.117.0) of the samples. The overall AIV prevalence was lower in December compared to that found in August to November (p = 0.003). AIV was detected in 18.7% (CI: 16.820.6) of the dabbling ducks. A high AIV prevalence of 7.8% (CI; 5.910.0) was found in gulls. A similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence was found in both bird groups. Thirteen hemagglutinin and eight neuraminidase subtypes were detected. No evidence of intercontinental reassortment was found. Eurasian avian (non H13 and H16) PB2 or PA genes were identified in five reference Eurasian gull (H13 and H16) AIV genomes from GenBank. The NA gene from the Norwegian H13N2 gull isolate was of Eurasian avian origin. Conclusions The similar temporal pattern in AIV prevalence found in dabbling ducks and gulls, the relatively high virus prevalence detected in gulls and the evidence of intracontinental reassortment in AIVs from gulls indicate that gulls that interact with dabbling ducks are likely to be mixing vessels for AIVs from waterfowl and gulls. Our results support that intercontinental reassortment is rare in AIVs from gulls in Eurasia.

2013-01-01

81

Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

EPA Science Inventory

Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

82

Multilocus DNA fingerprinting reveals high rate of heritable genetic mutation in herring gulls nesting in an industrialized urban site.  

PubMed Central

Genotoxins, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds, are ubiquitous in urban and industrial environments. Our understanding of the role that these chemicals play in generating DNA sequence mutations is predominantly derived from laboratory studies with specific genotoxins or extracts of contaminants from environmental media. Most assays are not indicative of the germinal effects of exposure in situ to complex mixtures of common environmental mutagens. Using multilocus DNA fingerprinting, we found the mutation rate in herring gulls inhabiting a heavily industrialized urban harbor (Hamilton Harbour, Ontario) to be more than twice as high as three rural sites: Kent Island, Bay of Fundy; Chantry Island, Lake Huron; and Presqu'ile Provincial Park in Lake Ontario. Overall we found a mutation rate of 0.017 +/- 0.004 per offspring band in Hamilton, 0.006 +/- 0.002 at Kent Island, 0.002 +/- 0.002 from Chantry Island, and 0.004 +/- 0.002 from Presqu'ile Provincial Park. The mutation rate from the rural sites (pooled) was significantly lower than the rate observed in Hamilton Harbour (Fisher's exact test, two-tailed; P = 0.0006). These minisatellite DNA mutations may be important biomarkers for heritable genetic changes resulting from in situ exposure to environmental genotoxins in a free-living vertebrate species. Images Fig. 1

Yauk, C L; Quinn, J S

1996-01-01

83

Internal-tide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal-tide generation is usually predicted from local topography, surface tides, and stratification. However, internal tides are often observed to be unrelated to local spring-neap forcing, appearing intermittently in 35 day bursts. Here we suggest a source of this intermittency by illustrating how remotely-generated shoaling internal tides induce first-order changes in local internal-tide generation. Theory, numerical simulations, and observations show that

S. M. Kelly; J. D. Nash

2010-01-01

84

Extensive Geographic Mosaicism in Avian Influenza Viruses from Gulls in the Northern Hemisphere  

PubMed Central

Due to limited interaction of migratory birds between Eurasia and America, two independent avian influenza virus (AIV) gene pools have evolved. There is evidence of low frequency reassortment between these regions, which has major implications in global AIV dynamics. Indeed, all currently circulating lineages of the PB1 and PA segments in North America are of Eurasian origin. Large-scale analyses of intercontinental reassortment have shown that viruses isolated from Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) are the major contributor of these outsider events. To clarify the role of gulls in AIV dynamics, specifically in movement of genes between geographic regions, we have sequenced six gull AIV isolated in Alaska and analyzed these along with 142 other available gull virus sequences. Basic investigations of host species and the locations and times of isolation reveal biases in the available sequence information. Despite these biases, our analyses reveal a high frequency of geographic reassortment in gull viruses isolated in America. This intercontinental gene mixing is not found in the viruses isolated from gulls in Eurasia. This study demonstrates that gulls are important as vectors for geographically reassorted viruses, particularly in America, and that more surveillance effort should be placed on this group of birds.

Wille, Michelle; Robertson, Gregory J.; Whitney, Hugh; Bishop, Mary Anne; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Lang, Andrew S.

2011-01-01

85

Integrating Ecology and Geomorphology in Etowah River Shoal Restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Designs of stream restoration projects are typically based primarily on geomorphic data. However, these data may not be comprehensive enough to design ecologically successful restoration projects. In summer 2004 Georgia Ecological Services (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) surveyed nearly 80 km of the Etowah River, GA. The goal of this survey was to identify sediment sources and potential restoration techniques that would benefit imperiled, shoal-inhabiting fishes in the Etowah River. An essential and unique part of this survey was to collect both ecological and geomorphic data to build a more holistic understanding of how and why shoal habitats vary. One ecological measure included was the density and length of river weed Podostemum ceratophyllum, a submerged aquatic macrophyte. Other studies have shown that the imperiled "Coosa" madtom (Noturus sp. cf. N. munitus) and freckled darter (Percina lenticula) occur more frequently in the presence of Podostemum. Results indicate that the density and length of Podostemum increases with shoal width and particle size, highlighting the importance of geomorphology in its growth. Restoration activities that focus on these habitat characteristics will facilitate Podostemum growth and will probably aid in the recovery of the "Coosa" madtom and freckled darter in the Etowah River.

Duncan, W. W.; Meyer, J. L.; Leigh, D.; Goodloe, R.

2005-05-01

86

Evolution of a reassortant North American gull influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Conclusions: This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable "triple reassortant internal gene" core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus gulls may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the need for continued surveillance in gull and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of gull species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI.

Hall, Jeffrey S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy; Wentworth, David E.; Dugan, Vivien; Ip, Hon S.

2013-01-01

87

Insects, vegetation, and the control of laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at Kennedy International Airport, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. In response to a purported 'bird-strike problem' at J.F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City, we examined short (5 cm) and long (45 cm) grass heights as gull deterrents, in a randomized-block experiment. 2. Vegetative cover, numbers of adult insects and of larval beetles (suspected on-airport food of the gulls) were sampled in the six-block, 36-plot study area, as well as gut contents of adult and downy young gulls in the immediately adjacent colony in the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. 3. We found that (i) Oriental beetle larvae were the most numerous and concentrated in one experimental block; (ii) beetle larvae numbers were uncorrelated with grass height; (iii) adult beetles were also uncorrelated with grass height; (iv) laughing gulls were distributed across blocks irrespective of percentage cover; (v) within blocks, laughing gulls were selecting short grass and avoiding long grass plots; (vi) laughing gull numbers were positively associated with numbers of Oriental beetle larvae; (vii) adult laughing gulls on the airport were eating lower-nutrition food of terrestrial origin (74-83% adult beetles, mostly Oriental plus green June and ground beetles); (viii) on the other hand, gull chicks in the adjacent breeding colony were being fed more easily digested, higher-protein food of marine origin (86-88% fishes, crustacea and molluscs); (ix) laughing gulls on the airport were taking their adult beetles only in short-grass plots, ignoring large numbers in adjacent long grass; (x) during the summer, on-airport gulls shifted from performing largely maintenance activities on pavement to feeding actively for beetles on newly mown short grass, the change coinciding with adult beetle emergence; (xi) standing water on the airport attracted significantly more gulls than dry areas all summer long. 4. We recommend a series of ecologically compatible, but aggressive habitat management actions for controlling laughing gulls on Kennedy Airport by rendering the airport unattractive to them, notably by implementing an airport-wide programme of long-grass encouragement, draining standing water and improving runoff in water-collecting areas, and controlling beetles. 5. We conclude by outlining the necessity for airport-wide bird, vegetation and habitat management programmes fully integrated into airport operation and planning activities.

Buckley, P. A.; McCarthy, M.

1994-01-01

88

Circulation on the Ebb Shoal at New River Inlet, NC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of waves, winds, and tides on the spatially variable circulation (Fig. 1) on an ebb shoal offshore of New River Inlet, NC will be examined with observations collected in April and May 2012. Measurements of currents, waves, tides, and sea levels were obtained at 32 locations in the inlet and ebb shoal channels (2- to 10-m water depths) and across and offshore of the ebb shoal (1- to 5-m water depths). Maximum tidal flows in the inlet channel (onshore of the mouth) were +/- 1.5 m/s. In contrast, tidal flows 500 m offshore of the inlet mouth at the end of a channel recently dredged across the ebb shoal were stronger during ebbs (-1.5 m/s) than during floods (+0.5 m/s). Significant wave heights in 9-m water depth ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 m and wind speeds observed near the inlet mouth ranged from 0 to 14 m/s. Preliminary results suggest wave- and wind-forcing had a significant affect on the flows on the ebb shoal, especially during slack tides. The importance of setup gradients, wave-driven radiation stresses, and wind stresses to the circulation will be discussed. Funding was provided by ONR and NSSEFF. We thank David Clark, Danik Forsman, Levi Gorrell, Jeff Hansen, Sean Kilgallin, Christen Rivera, Jenna Walker, Regina Yopak, and Seth Zippel for helping obtain the data, personnel from the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility for providing bathymetric surveys and excellent logistical support, and Jim Thomson for providing wind measurements.Figure 1: One-hour averaged ebb flow vectors (red arrows, scale on bottom right) at a low tide (pressure record shown at the bottom of the figure with a red dot indicating the time period) on May 6, 2012, at 03:00 EDT superposed on a Google Earth image of New River Inlet, NC. Offshore significant wave heights were about 0.5 m and winds were about 2 m/s from the north.

Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.

2012-12-01

89

Safety in numbers? Shoaling behaviour of the Amazonian red-bellied piranha  

PubMed Central

Red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) shoals have a fearsome reputation. However, the variety and abundance of piranha predators in the flooded forests of the Amazon in which they live indicate that an important reason for shoal formation may be predator defence. Experiments using wild-caught piranhas supported the hypothesis that individual perception of risk, as revealed by elevated ventilatory frequency (opercular rate), is greater in small shoals. Moreover, exposure to a simulated predator attack by a model cormorant demonstrated that resting opercular rates are regained more quickly by piranhas in shoals of eight than they are in shoals of two. Together, these results show that shoaling has a cover-seeking function in this species.

Queiroz, Helder; Magurran, Anne E

2005-01-01

90

Safety in numbers? Shoaling behaviour of the Amazonian red-bellied piranha.  

PubMed

Red-bellied piranha (Pygocentrus nattereri) shoals have a fearsome reputation. However, the variety and abundance of piranha predators in the flooded forests of the Amazon in which they live indicate that an important reason for shoal formation may be predator defence. Experiments using wild-caught piranhas supported the hypothesis that individual perception of risk, as revealed by elevated ventilatory frequency (opercular rate), is greater in small shoals. Moreover, exposure to a simulated predator attack by a model cormorant demonstrated that resting opercular rates are regained more quickly by piranhas in shoals of eight than they are in shoals of two. Together, these results show that shoaling has a cover-seeking function in this species. PMID:17148153

Queiroz, Helder; Magurran, Anne E

2005-06-22

91

Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used gull-specific PCR and qPCR assays against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58% of the water samples tested positive for the gull-assay. Locations observed to have higher numbers of gulls and their fecal droppings had a higher frequency of occurrence of the gull marker and a higher gull marker qPCR signal than areas observed to be less impacted by gulls. Lower gull marker occurrence and lower qPCR signals were associated with municipal wastewater (7.4%) and urban stormwater effluents (29.5%). Overall, there were no statistically significant differences in gull marker occurrence at beach sites for pore water, ankle, and chest-depth samples, although signals were generally higher in interstitial beach sand pore water and ankle-depth water than in chest-depth water samples. Overall, the results indicated that gull fecal pollution is widespread in urban coastal and riverine areas in southern Ontario and that it significantly contributes to fecal indicator bacterial loads. PMID:21640368

Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Hill, Stephen; Schoen, Mary; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Edge, Thomas A; Domingo, Jorge Santo

2011-07-01

92

Anatomy of the grainstone shoal facies of the Salem Limestone (Mississippian) of southern Indiana  

SciTech Connect

In 1990 M.A. Brown described the middle Mississippian (Valmeyeran) Salem Limestone exposed on the eastern side of the Illinois Basin as consisting of a massive grainstone shoal facies behind which developed a sand flat, an open lagoon, and a restricted lagoon facies. Smaller intrashoal channels provided limited exchange between lagoon and open ocean. The authors have made detailed studies of sedimentary structures and petrography of the shoal facies in three settings: the shoal proper, an intrashoal channel, and an intershoal channel. The shoal and channel facies consists of tabular-planar and trough cross-stratified beds of grainstone containing echinoderm and fenestrate bryozoan grains as their primary constituents. Prominent hardgrounds that have up to 1 m of erosional relief occur in two of the sections. Despite the apparent uniformity of composition of the shoal, porosity and especially permeability varies over a wide range, suggesting a range of cementation patterns within the shoal. Most of the cement in the shoal consists of syntaxial overgrowths on echinoderm grains. Cementation is less and thus porosity and permeability greater, in portions of the shoals containing a lower concentration of echinoderm grains and grains with thick micrite envelopes. However, some portions of the intershoal channel facies that contain a high percentage of ooids have reduced porosity and permeability due to crushing of ooids, producing micrite that clogged the pores. Primary sedimentary features of the shoal facies were produced predominantly by storm reworking of carbonate grains produced in situ and perhaps in part washed in from surrounding environments.

Dodd, J.R.; Petzold, D.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Thompson, T.A. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States))

1993-03-01

93

Modeling colony site dynamics: a case study of gull-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed a Markov process model for colony site dynamics of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia. We used the model and data on colony site occupation from 1993 to 1996 to estimate model parameters. Each year, we monitored the breeding numbers of Gull-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) at colony sites along about 80 km of the barrier island region of Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony sites over the four-year period. We then used data on annual site occupation by Gull-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and test between different structures reflecting competing hypotheses. Results revealed a dynamic system, but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian , i.e. the probability of occupancy of a site in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied the previous year. Nor did the colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of site occupancy. Site survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the overall annual probability of a site being occupied over the course of the four-year period was estimated to be 0.59 Of the total of 25 sites that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in only one or two years while only three were used all four years.. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of sites. The low colony-site fidelity we demonstrate suggests that an effective management approach is to provide a large number of alternative sand and/or shellpile sites that the terns may use. Sites not used one year may still be used in subsequent years.

Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.

1998-01-01

94

Spatio-Temporal Structure of Hooded Gull Flocks  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbors position in terms of coordinates based on each individuals motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock.

Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori

2013-01-01

95

Effects of lead and exercise on endurance and learning in young herring gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report the use of young herring gulls, Larus argentatus, to examine the effect of lead and exercise on endurance, performance, and learning on a treadmill. Eighty 1-day-old herring gull chicks were randomly assigned to either a control group or a lead treatment group that received a single dose of lead acetate solution (100mg\\/kg) at day 2.

Joanna Burger; Michael Gochfeld

2004-01-01

96

Geographic, temporal, and age-specific variation in diets of Glaucous Gulls in western Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We collected boluses and food remains of adult Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at or near nests and chicks, and digestive tracts from adults at three sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska that differed in proximity to marine and terrestrial foods. We observed both geographic and temporal variation in diet; gulls consumed proportionately more terrestrial prey after peak hatch in late June, and gulls near the coast consumed proportionately more marine prey than gulls at two inland areas. Goslings occurred in > 60% of all samples from these inland areas. We compared these data to those from a previous study in western Alaska and found no marked differences. Evidence for similar patterns of geographic and temporal variation in diet was found using measurements of stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes in gull and prey tissues. Stable isotope analysis further revealed that adult gulls consumed proportionately more marine prey (saffron cod, Eleginus gracilis) than they fed to their young. Using isotopic models, we estimated that 7-22% and 10-23% of the diet of adult and juvenile Glaucous Gulls, respectively, was comprised of terrestrial species. In addition to significant age-related variation, dietary estimates varied among geographic areas and between pre- and post-hatch periods. Overall, our isotopic estimates of the contribution of terrestrial prey to the diet of Glaucous Gulls was less than what may be inferred from conventional methods of diet analysis. Our study emphasizes the benefit of combining stable-isotope and conventional analyses to infer temporal and geographic changes in diet of wild birds and other organisms.

Schmutz, J. A.; Hobson, K. A.

1998-01-01

97

Diets of nestling gull-billed terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the diets of nestling Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) at colonies in coastal Virginia during the breeding seasons of 1995 and 1996 as part of a long-term study of the species. No previous quantitative assessments had been made of diets of this species anywhere along the Atlantic Coast, and only a few observations had been reported from other coastal areas in the southern United States. During 80 h of observations over the two seasons, 757 feeding observations were made, primarily at two colony sites. We examined how prey type (fish, marine invertebrates, terrestrial prey) and size were influenced by year, tide cycle, season (early and late) and age of the young (small chicks 7 d). We did not find significant year differences, but all other factors revealed statistically significant results. Older (>7 d) chicks were fed relatively more terrestrial and marine invertebrate prey than were younger chicks. In June (early season), fewer fish and terrestrial prey were fed to chicks than later (July-August). Most prey were less than one bill length in size, with the majority of the smallest prey being marine invertebrates. Tide cycle influenced prey delivered with terrestrial prey becoming relatively more important during high and ebb periods than during low and flood tides when aquatic prey dominated. The major marine invertebrate prey taken was the fiddler crab (Uca spp.). Terrestrial prey consisted mostly of large odonates and orthopterans. Unlike earlier reports from Europe, we found no regurgitated food pellets in any of the colonies in either year. This study confirms that the Gull-billed Tern is an extremely opportunistic feeder and has adapted to a variety of habitats, helping to explain its cosmopolitan distribution.

Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Hatfield, J.S.; McGary, S.

1998-01-01

98

Diets of nestling Gull-billed Terns in coastal Virginia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the diets of nestling Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) at colonies in coastal Virginia during the breeding seasons of 1995 and 1996 as part of a long-term study of the species. No previous quantitative assessments had been made of diets of this species anywhere along the Atlantic Coast, and only a few observations had been reported from other coastal areas in the southern United States. During 80 h of observations over the two seasons, 757 feeding observations were made, primarily at two colony sites. We examined how prey type (fish, marine invertebrates, terrestrial prey) and size were influenced by year, tide cycle, season (early and late) and age of the young (small chicks 7 d). We did not find significant year differences, but all other factors revealed statistically significant results. Older (>7 d) chicks were fed relatively more terrestrial and marine invertebrate prey than were younger chicks. In June (early season), fewer fish and terrestrial prey were fed to chicks than later (July-August). Most prey were less than one bill length in size, with the majority of the smallest prey being marine invertebrates. Tide cycle influenced prey delivered with terrestrial prey becoming relatively more important during high and ebb periods than during low and flood tides when aquatic prey dominated. The major marine invertebrate prey taken was the fiddler crab (Uca spp.). Terrestrial prey consisted mostly of large odonates and orthopterans. Unlike earlier reports from Europe, we found no regurgitated food pellets in any of the colonies in either year. This study confirms that the Gull-billed Tern is an extremely opportunistic feeder and has adapted to a variety of habitats, helping to explain its cosmopolitan distribution.

Erwin, R. M.; Eyler, T. B.; Hatfield, J. S.; McGary, S.

1998-01-01

99

Circulation of a Meaban-like virus in yellow-legged gulls and seabird ticks in the western Mediterranean basin.  

PubMed

In recent years, a number of zoonotic flaviviruses have emerged worldwide, and wild birds serve as their major reservoirs. Epidemiological surveys of bird populations at various geographical scales can clarify key aspects of the eco-epidemiology of these viruses. In this study, we aimed at exploring the presence of flaviviruses in the western Mediterranean by sampling breeding populations of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), a widely distributed, anthropophilic, and abundant seabird species. For 3 years, we sampled eggs from 19 breeding colonies in Spain, France, Algeria, and Tunisia. First, ELISAs were used to determine if the eggs contained antibodies against flaviviruses. Second, neutralization assays were used to identify the specific flaviviruses present. Finally, for colonies in which ELISA-positive eggs had been found, chick serum samples and potential vectors, culicid mosquitoes and soft ticks (Ornithodoros maritimus), were collected and analyzed using serology and PCR, respectively. The prevalence of flavivirus-specific antibodies in eggs was highly spatially heterogeneous. In northeastern Spain, on the Medes Islands and in the nearby village of L'Escala, 56% of eggs had antibodies against the flavivirus envelope protein, but were negative for neutralizing antibodies against three common flaviviruses: West Nile, Usutu, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Furthermore, little evidence of past flavivirus exposure was obtained for the other colonies. A subset of the Ornithodoros ticks from Medes screened for flaviviral RNA tested positive for a virus whose NS5 gene was 95% similar to that of Meaban virus, a flavivirus previously isolated from ticks of Larus argentatus in western France. All ELISA-positive samples subsequently tested positive for Meaban virus neutralizing antibodies. This study shows that gulls in the western Mediterranean Basin are exposed to a tick-borne Meaban-like virus, which underscores the need of exploring the spatial and temporal distribution of this flavivirus as well as its potential pathogenicity for animals and humans. PMID:24625959

Arnal, Audrey; Gmez-Daz, Elena; Cerd-Cullar, Marta; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Busquets, Nria; Garca-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Pags, Nonito; Vittecoq, Marion; Hammouda, Abdessalem; Samraoui, Boudjma; Garnier, Romain; Ramos, Ral; Selmi, Slaheddine; Gonzlez-Sols, Jacob; Jourdain, Elsa; Boulinier, Thierry

2014-01-01

100

Tissue tropism and pathology of natural influenza virus infection in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus).  

PubMed

Black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) are a suitable host species to study the epidemiology of low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in wild waterbirds because they are a common colony-breeding species in which LPAIV infection is detected frequently, limited mainly to the H13 and H16 subtypes. However, the sites of virus replication and associated lesions are poorly understood. We therefore performed virological and pathological analyses on tissues of black-headed gulls naturally infected with LPAIV. We found that 24 of 111 black-headed gulls collected from breeding colonies were infected with LPAIV (10 birds with H16N3, one bird with H13N8, 13 birds undetermined), based on virus and viral genome detection in pharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Of these 24 gulls, 15 expressed virus antigen in their tissues. Virus antigen expression was limited to epithelial cells of intestine and cloacal bursa. No histological lesions were detected in association with virus antigen expression. Our findings show that LPAIV replication in the intestinal tract of black-headed gulls is mainly a superficial infection in absence of detectable lesions, as determined recently for natural LPAIV infection in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). These findings imply that LPAIV in black-headed gulls has adapted to minimal pathogenicity to its host and that potentially the primary transmission route is faecal-oral. PMID:23237367

Hfle, Ursula; Van de Bildt, Marco W G; Leijten, Lonneke M; Van Amerongen, Geert; Verhagen, Josanne H; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

2012-12-01

101

A biochemical study of fasting, subfeeding, and recovery processes in yellow-legged gulls.  

PubMed

An investigation of the effects of fasting, subfeeding, and refeeding on plasma biochemistry was carried out on 22 captive yellow-legged gulls Larus cachinnans Pallas. These birds showed the same fasting endurance model described in other species, but with an important decrease in glucose plasma concentration and very great differences between individuals when reaching the deterioration limit, suggesting a moderate physiological adaptation to long periods of fasting. A different model was proposed in subfed gulls in relation to fasted gulls, based on lipid and protein use, which could be reflected by changes in nitrogen wastes and triglyceride levels in this experiment. Thus, the subfed gulls might use protein directly from the diet as an energy source, thereby reducing the use of fat stores. The gulls quickly recovered body mass during the refeeding period, but while some plasma substances quickly reached their initial values, others showed many changes before the end of the experiment, which could reflect a process of metabolic restabilization. These results contribute to a better knowledge of fasting, subfeeding, and refeeding processes in birds and can be added to a recent study about fasting in gulls. PMID:11517455

Alonso-Alvarez, C; Ferrer, M

2001-01-01

102

Gull contributions of phosphorus and nitrogen to a Cape Cod kettle pond  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrient excretion rates and the annual contribution of P from the feces of the gulls Larus argentatus and L. marinus (and of N from L. argentatus) to the nutrient budget of Gull Pond (Wellfleet), a soft water seepage lake, have been estimated. Intensive year-round gull counts by species were combined with determinations of defecation rate and the nutrient content of feces to quantitatively assess the P loading rates associated with regular gull use of this coastal pond on a seasonal and annual basis. Total P loading from gulls was estimated to be 52 kg yr?1, with 17 kg from L. argentatus and 35 kg from L. marinus, resulting from about 5.0 ? 106 h yr?1 and 1.7 ? 106 h yr?1 of pond use. This compares with P loading estimates of 67 kg yr?1 from upgradient septic systems, 2 kg yr?1 from precipitation and 3 kg yr?1 from unpolluted ground water. Fifty-six percent of annual gull P loading was associated with migratory activity in late fall. Estimated annual N loading by L. argentatus was 14 kg TKN, 206 g NO3-N, and 1.85 g g NH3-N.

Portnoy, J. W.; Soukup, M. A.

1990-01-01

103

Extended spectrum beta-lactamases detected in Escherichia coli from gulls in Stockholm, Sweden  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate if bacterial antibiotic resistance was present in gull populations in urbanised areas, we conducted a study in which faecal samples from gulls were collected in central Stockholm, Sweden in April and May 2010 and screened for extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-type antibiotic resistance. Eighteen of 194 randomly selected Escherichia coli isolates harboured ESBL of CTX-M phenotype. Since the bacteria are unlikely to have developed the resistance in gulls, it may indicate leakage of resistant bacteria to the environment. As many gulls find food and shelter in cities around the world and thereby share their habitat with dense human populations, the finding that as many as 9% of gulls carry ESBL-type antibiotic resistance may imply that zoonotic transmission between gulls, humans, and other animals is likely to occur in such places. This study illustrates how ecologically widespread the problem of antibiotic resistance has become and this has implications for future policy making to reduce the spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance.

Wallensten, Anders; Hernandez, Jorge; Ardiles, Karen; Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel; Drobni, Mirva; Olsen, Bjorn

2011-01-01

104

How much did Glacial North Atlantic Water shoal?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of ?13C and Cd/Ca from benthic foraminifera have been interpreted to reflect a shoaling of northern source waters by about 1000 m during the Last Glacial Maximum, with the degree of shoaling being significant enough for the water mass to be renamed Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water. These nutrient tracers, however, may not solely reflect changes in water mass distributions. To quantify the distribution of Glacial North Atlantic Water, we perform a glacial water mass decomposition where the sparsity of data, geometrical constraints, and nonconservative tracer effects are taken into account, and the extrapolation for the unknown water mass end-members is guided by the modern-day circulation. Under the assumption that the glacial sources of remineralized material are similar to that of the modern day, we find a steady solution consistent with 241 ?13C, 87 Cd/Ca, and 174 ?18O observations and their respective uncertainties. The water mass decomposition indicates that the core of Glacial North Atlantic Water shoals and southern source water extends in greater quantities into the abyssal North Atlantic, as previously inferred. The depth of the deep northern-southern water mass interface and the volume of North Atlantic Water, however, are not grossly different from that of the modern day. Under this scenario, the vertical structure of glacial ?13C and Cd/Ca is primarily due to the greater accumulation of nutrients in lower North Atlantic Water, which may be a signal of the hoarding of excess carbon from the atmosphere by the glacial Atlantic.

Gebbie, Geoffrey

2014-03-01

105

[The "diseased" or "dead" guillemots (Uria aalge), three-toed gulls (Rissa tridactyla), silver gulls (Larus argentatus) and laughing gulls (Larus ridibundus) found in the area of the German Bay, 1982-1985].  

PubMed

Between 1982 and 1985 the cadavers of 50 Guillemots (Uria aalge), 41 Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), 26 Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) and 34 Black-headed Gulls (Larus ridibundus) were examined pathological, bacteriological and virological. The probable cause of death was established. Parasitosis were particularly prevalent in Herring Gulls (49%), where the main infection--as in Black-headed Gulls--was with Cestoides. In Kittiwakes and Guillemots mainly Spiruroideae were recorded. The commonest bacterium isolated in organs and intestinal tract was Escherichia coli, followed by Aeromonas hydrophila and Clostridium perfringens. Salmonella were found in the organs of 5% and in the intestinal tract of 3% of the birds. The species of Salmonella most frequently isolated was Salmonella typhimurium varieties copenhagen. Also recorded were Yersinia intermedia Serovar 0:17 (1x), Pseudomonas spp. (2x), bacteria of the Haemophilus-Pasteurella-Actinobacillus group (1x), Pasteurella multocida (2x), Moraxella septicaemiae (1x), Campylobacter spec. (1x), Mycoplasma spec. (6x), DNase positive Staphylococcus spec. (4x) and Streptococcus spec. (6x). Less in evidence among the birds examined were fungus diseases with Aspergillus spec. (4x) and Blastomyces spec. (4x). As for viruses one Guillemot was found to have an Adenovirus and another one to have a Paramyxovirus. From one of the Herring Gulls there also was isolated a Paramyxovirus, from a second one to a Reovirus. Three other species isolated have get to be identified. The chief cause of sickness and death in the Guillemots was oil-contamination. The majority of the examined Kittiwakes and Herring Gulls were victims of pathogenic agents. Many of the Black-headed Gulls died through traumata as gunshots or road traffic etc. In order to establish the causes of sickness and death in seabirds and to ascertain the importance of the various species as possible carriers of infectious diseases, a systematic series of investigation will be necessary. Without this it will not be possible to assess their epidemiological relevance for other wild birds, domestic poultry and humans. PMID:2752934

Petermann, S; Glnder, G; Heffels-Redmann, U; Hinz, K H

1989-05-01

106

Estimation of the water optical properties and bottom reflectance from SHOALS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier work, we have proposed a concept for estimation of ocean optical properties with a mutliple field of view bathymetric lidar. In this paper we consider and implementation of this idea using the Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey (SHOALS) system. The SHOALS design uses two receivers for depth measurement: a shallow-water, APD receiver with and 18 mrad FOV;

V. I. Feygels; Y. Kopilevich; G. H. Tuell; A. Surkov; P. LaRocque; A. G. Cunningham

2007-01-01

107

Global warming and oil spills could cool shoaling reefs  

SciTech Connect

High water temperature generated on reef flats have been implicated as one of the factors determining the ecological patterns and structural morphologies peculiar to shoaling reefs. In approximately ten years of water temperature and water level data from a shoaling reef flat at Punta Galeta (Caribbean Panama), water temperatures were dependent on water levels. Water temperatures ranged up to 38[degrees]C when daily minimum water depths over the reef crest were < 12 cm, but never exceeded 30[degrees]C when the minimum water levels were > 12 cm. If conservative predictions of sea level rise caused by global warming are correct, normal vertical accretion rates of the reef flat could keep pace with rising sea level until the middle of the next century; after that the occurrence of high water temperatures would be rapidly reduced. However, damage from an oil spill at Punta Galeta in 1986 was concentrated at the seaward margin of the reef flat, where biogenic processes control the overall vertical accretion of the reef platform. By slowing rates of vertical accretion, oil impact could potentially accelerate the effects of global warming on the ecology and morphology of the reef.

Cubit, J.D. (Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst., Apdo (Panama))

1990-01-09

108

Trophic level determines levels of brominated flame-retardants in coastal herring gulls.  

PubMed

Liver concentrations of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (?PBDEs: sum of brominated diphenyl ethers [BDE]-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, and -209) ranged from 135 to 985 ngg(-1) lipid weight (lw) in coastal herring gulls (Larus argentatus) from the marine Hvaler Archipelago (The Glomma River Estuary), Norway. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) concentrations ranged from 10 to 698 ngg(-1)lw. High range in ?(13)C indicates that gulls were subject to a diversity of carbon sources, likely reflecting their mixed feeding on terrestrial and marine organisms, or diversity of autochthonous and allochthonous (watershed) energy sources at the bases of their marine/estuarial food chains. Inverse relationships of HBCD, and to somewhat lesser extent of BDE-209, with ?(13)C values suggest higher abundance of these compounds in the land-derived energy-sources of the gulls. Inverse relationships of BDE-99, BDE-183 and BDE-209 with ?(15)N suggest that trophic relationships affect bioaccumulation of these compounds in the herring gulls, with greater bioaccumulation from lower trophic level prey species. This may be because these PBDE congeners are subject of debromination in higher trophic levels prey species of the gulls (e.g., teleost fish). Levels of BDE-209 (up to 95 ng/g lipid) of these herring gulls from 1998 were in the higher range reported in European birds, and not matched by other reports in North Sea seabirds. The present study suggests that the currently used brominated flame-retardants (BFRs), BDE-209 and HBCD relate to changing nutrient allocation in the herring gulls, and represent a risk to seabirds exploiting near-shore and estuary ecosystems. PMID:21762987

Srmo, E G; Lie, E; Ruus, A; Gaustad, H; Skaare, J U; Jenssen, B M

2011-10-01

109

Breeding productivity of Smith Island black ducks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the breeding performance of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) on Smith Island, Chesapeake Bay, to improve our understanding of island black duck breeding ecology and to make management recommendations to enhance productivity. During 1995-96, we implanted 56 female black ducks with 20-g radio transmitters and tracked 35 of the individuals through the breeding season to locate nests, determine nest fate, and identify brood habitat. We also increased preseason banding efforts and compared capture characteristics over 12 years with those from the Deal Island Wildlife Management Area, a banding site on the mainland of Tangier Sound. A low rate of nesting (37%), lack of renesting, and poor hatching success (31%) indicated that island salt marsh habitats present a harsh environment for breeding black ducks. Black ducks located 11 of 13 nests (85%) in black needlerush (Juncus roemerianus) marsh where they were vulnerable to flooding from extreme tides and to egg predators. No nests were found on forested tree hammocks, a feature that distinguishes Smith Island from nearby South Marsh and Bloodsworth Islands. Nest predators included red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), herring gulls (Larus argentams), fish crows (Corvus ossifragus), and, potentially, Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Unlike mainland red foxes, foxes radio tracked on Smith Island were found to be capable swimmers and effective low marsh predators. We found shoreline meadows of widgeon grass (Ruppia maritima) to be important foraging sites for black ducks and suspected that the virtual absence of fresh water in this high salinity environment (1217+ ppt) to incur some cost in terms of growth and survival of ducklings. Preseason bandings revealed a high proportion of banded adults and a strong positive correlation in age ratios with the Deal Island banding site. This latter finding strongly suggests a negative universal effect of storm tides on nest success for Tangier Sound black ducks. Management to reduce nest predators, especially gulls and foxes, likely will have the greatest immediate benefit for island breeding black ducks.

Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Olsen, G.H.; Stotts, D.B.; Harrison, M.K.

2002-01-01

110

Determination of non-halogenated, chlorinated and brominated organophosphate flame retardants in herring gull eggs based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Numerous triester organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been used for several decades and continue to be used in a variety of commercial products. We developed a sensitive quantitative method for the analysis of, seven non-halogenated, three chlorinated and two brominated OPFRs of known or possible environmental relevance in herring gull eggs. This method is based on a simple two-step sample extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization(+)-tandem mass spectrometry. Instrumental detection limits and method limits of quantification (MLOQs) among the 12 OPFRs ranged from 0.01 to 0.12 ng/mL and 0.06 to 0.20 ng/g, respectively. The mean OPFR recovery efficiencies of replicate analyses (n=6) were very quantitative and ranged from 89% to 104%, with the two brominated OPFRs being somewhat lower but reproducible, i.e., 67% and 72%, respectively. Essentially negligible matrix effects were indicated by a standard addition approach that revealed mean percent signal recoveries (n=5 replicates) of 89-106% for most OPFRs. In the analysis of n=13 herring gull eggs from the Channel-Shelter Island colony (Lake Huron), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (

Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Chu, Shaogang

2012-01-13

111

Phase fractionation and oil-condensate mass balance in the South Marsh Island Block 208239 area, offshore Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase fractionation can strongly deplete oil of its volatile compounds in a regular and characteristic fashion. This process has affected oils to a remarkably uniform extent throughout the 3015km South Marsh Island 208239 and Vermilion 3031 area (including the Tiger Shoal, Starfak, Mound Point, Lighthouse Point, Amber, Trinity Shoal, and Aquamarine fields) just offshore Louisiana. Fractionation of the original parent

Steven Losh; Lawrence Cathles III

2010-01-01

112

An outbreak of type C botulism in herring gulls (Larus argentatus) in southeastern Sweden.  

PubMed

From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. PMID:17699071

Neimanis, A; Gavier-Widn, D; Leighton, F; Bollinger, T; Rocke, T; Mrner, T

2007-07-01

113

An outbreak of type C botulism in Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Southeastern Sweden  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring Gulls were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring Gulls collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected gulls were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected gulls by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

Neimanis, A.; Gavier-Widen, D.; Leighton, F.; Bollinger, T.; Rocke, T.; Morner, T.

2007-01-01

114

Differences in mercury contamination and elimination during feather development in gull and tern broods.  

PubMed

Eggs, feathers (down, body feathers from side/shoulder and back) and some dead chicks (liver) from broods of three species, herring full (Larus argentatus), black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) from the German North Sea coast were collected to study intersibling differences in mercury contamination and elimination into the growing feathers. The mercury contamination in eggs, feathers, and liver of the terns was about four times that of the gulls; black-headed gulls had lowest mercury concentrations. The body feathers grow when the chicks became older had lower mercury levels than down in the more contaminated species (11% lower in herring gulls, 49% in common terns), indicating the advancing decontamination of the body by the plumage development. The elimination of mercury was greater in chicks with higher mercury levels. Down of the first hatched herring gull and common tern chick contained more mercury than down of the siblings hatched later, because of its higher burden derived from the first laid egg. PMID:8060159

Becker, P H; Henning, D; Furness, R W

1994-08-01

115

Functional Metagenomics Reveals Previously Unrecognized Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Gulls  

PubMed Central

Wildlife may facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) between human-dominated habitats and the surrounding environment. Here, we use functional metagenomics to survey the diversity and genomic context of AR genes in gulls. Using this approach, we found a variety of AR genes not previously detected in gulls and wildlife, including class A and C ?-lactamases as well as six tetracycline resistance gene types. An analysis of the flanking sequences indicates that most of these genes are present in Enterobacteriaceae and various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to finding known gene types, we detected 31 previously undescribed AR genes. These undescribed genes include one most similar to an uncharacterized gene in Verrucomicrobium and another to a putative DNA repair protein in Lactobacillus. Overall, the study more than doubled the number of clinically relevant AR gene types known to be carried by gulls or by wildlife in general. Together with the propensity of gulls to visit human-dominated habitats, this high diversity of AR gene types suggests that gulls could facilitate the spread of AR.

Martiny, Adam C.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Weihe, Claudia; Field, Andrew; Ellis, Julie C.

2011-01-01

116

Does garbage in the diet improve reproductive output of Glaucous Gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous Gull's diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases gulls' access to garbage could result in increased local gull populations. Such an increase could affect the gulls' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

Weiser, E. L.; Powell, A. N.

2010-01-01

117

Outcrop Mapping at Woodall Shoals, South Carolina-Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mapping of complexly deformed high-grade metamorphic rocks in areas of relatively poor exposure, such as the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge, is very challenging. A traditional mapping project in such areas may be too difficult and frustrating for most undergraduate students and may be ineffective. Mapping parts of the outcrop at Woodall Shoals, with the benefits of 100% exposure and a relatively small area, provides a good alternative. This very large (2,000-square-meter) outcrop contains a full compliment of rock fabric and complex geologic structures typical of such areas. For purposes of the present exercise, it serves as a generic scale model of an exhumed high-grade terrain. The detailed map of the outcrop by Hatcher et. al. (1989, Georgia Geological Society Guidebook, v. 9, n. 3, Plate 3) is used as a solution to the exercise.

Mies, Jonathan

118

Closure report for CAU No. 416: Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect

This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Project Shoal Area (PSA) Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416. CAU 416 consists of a mud pit, muckpile, and housekeeping site. The PSA is located approximately 48.3 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The mud pit was the result of drilling activities at the PSA in 1963. Investigation activities completed in 1996 determined drilling mud in the mud pit was impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons in excess of the State of Nevada 100 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). The muckpile consists of broken granite from emplacement shaft and drift (tunnel) mining activities at the PSA in 1963. The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans.

NONE

1998-01-01

119

Distribution and potential significance of a gull fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada  

EPA Science Inventory

To better understand the distribution of gull fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a gull-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...

120

From Schooling to Shoaling: Patterns of Collective Motion in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Animal groups on the move can take different configurations. For example, groups of fish can either be shoals or schools: shoals are simply aggregations of individuals; schools are shoals exhibiting polarized, synchronized motion. Here we demonstrate that polarization distributions of groups of zebrafish (Danio rerio) are bimodal, showing two distinct modes of collective motion corresponding to the definitions of shoaling and schooling. Other features of the group's motion also vary consistently between the two modes: zebrafish schools are faster and less dense than zebrafish shoals. Habituation to an environment can also alter the proportion of time zebrafish groups spend schooling or shoaling. Models of collective motion suggest that the degree and stability of group polarization increases with the group's density. Examining zebrafish groups of different sizes from 5 to 50, we show that larger groups are less polarized than smaller groups. Decreased fearfulness in larger groups may function similarly to habituation, causing them to spend more time shoaling than schooling, contrary to most models' predictions.

Miller, Noam; Gerlai, Robert

2012-01-01

121

Nesting biology of laughing gulls Larus atricilla in relation to agricultural chemicals in south Texas USA 1978-1981  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various aspects of the breeding biology of Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) have been studied extensively in Florida (Dinsmore and Schreiber 1974, Schreiber et al. 1979, Schreiber and Schreiber 1980), New Jersey (Bongiorno 1970, Burger and Beer 1976, Burger 1976, Montevecchi 1978), and Massachusetts (Noble and Wurm 1943), but little is known of their yearly fledging success in Texas or elsewhere. The Laughing Gull is a common colonial nester along most of the Texas coast, second only to the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in breeding abundance; however, the Laughing Gull may be threatened in Texas because of suspected declines at certain traditional nesting locales (Blacklock et al. 1979). Since Laughing Gulls often nest in proximity to agricultural and industrial areas, we were concerned that environmental pollutants might be adversely affecting productivity. In 1978-1981 we conducted studies along the south Texas coast to learn more about the nesting ecology of Laughing Gulls and to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants on reproduction.

White, D. H.; Mitchell, C. A.; Prouty, R. M.

1983-01-01

122

Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen.  

PubMed

The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Copper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. An elevated ratio of PCB-118 was found, suggesting that local contamination from the settlement was detectable in the glaucous gull. Eight cestodes, four nematodes, two acanthocephalan and three trematode helminth species were found in the intestine. A positive correlation was found between cestode intensities and selenium levels and between acanthocephalan intensities and mercury levels. No correlation was found between parasite intensities and POP concentrations. It is concluded that the contaminant levels found in glaucous gulls do not cause immune suppression severe enough to affect parasite intensity. PMID:19364623

Sagerup, Kjetil; Savinov, Vladimir; Savinova, Tatiana; Kuklin, Vadim; Muir, Derek C G; Gabrielsen, Geir W

2009-01-01

123

Analysis of the Gull Fecal Microbial Community Reveals the Dominance of Catellicoccus marimammalium in Relation to Culturable Enterococci  

PubMed Central

Gulls are prevalent in beach environments and can be a major source of fecal contamination. Gulls have been shown to harbor a high abundance of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as Escherichia coli and enterococci, which can be readily detected as part of routine beach monitoring. Despite the ubiquitous presence of gull fecal material in beach environments, the associated microbial community is relatively poorly characterized. We generated comprehensive microbial community profiles of gull fecal samples using Roche 454 and Illumina MiSeq platforms to investigate the composition and variability of the gull fecal microbial community and to measure the proportion of FIB. Enterococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were the two most abundant families in our gull samples. Sequence comparisons between short-read data and nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene clones generated from the same samples revealed Catellicoccus marimammalium as the most numerous taxon among all samples. The identification of bacteria from gull fecal pellets cultured on membrane-Enterococcus indoxyl-?-d-glucoside (mEI) plates showed that the dominant sequences recovered in our sequence libraries did not represent organisms culturable on mEI. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing of gull fecal isolates cultured on mEI plates, 98.8% were identified as Enterococcus spp., 1.2% were identified as Streptococcus spp., and none were identified as C. marimammalium. Illumina deep sequencing indicated that gull fecal samples harbor significantly higher proportions of C. marimammalium 16S rRNA gene sequences (>50-fold) relative to typical mEI culturable Enterococcus spp. C. marimammalium therefore can be confidently utilized as a genetic marker to identify gull fecal pollution in the beach environment.

Koskey, Amber M.; Fisher, Jenny C.; Traudt, Mary F.; Newton, Ryan J.

2014-01-01

124

Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (insecta: phthiraptera: philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (aves: laridae: larus).  

PubMed

Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species. PMID:24882099

Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

2014-06-01

125

Identification of human enteric pathogens in gull feces at Southwestern Lake Michigan bathing beaches.  

PubMed

Ring-billed (Larus delawarensis Ord, 1815) and herring (Larus argentatus Pontoppidan, 1763) gulls are predominant species of shorebirds in coastal areas. Gulls contribute to the fecal indicator burden in beach sands, which, once transported to bathing waters, may result in water quality failures. The importance of these contamination sources must not be overlooked when considering the impact of poor bathing water quality on human health. This study examined the occurrence of human enteric pathogens in gull populations at Racine, Wisconsin. For 12 weeks in 2004 and 2005, and 7 weeks in 2006, 724 gull fecal samples were examined for pathogen occurrence on traditional selective media (BBL CHROMagar-Salmonella, Remel Campy-BAP, 7% horse blood agar) or through the use of novel isolation techniques (Campylobacter, EC FP5-funded CAMPYCHECK Project), and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pathogens commonly harbored in gulls. An additional 226 gull fecal samples, collected in the same 12-week period in 2004, from a beach in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, were evaluated with standard microbiological methods and PCR. Five isolates of Salmonella (0.7%), 162 (22.7%) isolates of Campylobacter, 3 isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila group 2 (0.4%), and 28 isolates of Plesiomonas shigelloides (3.9%) were noted from the Racine beach. No occurrences of Salmonella and 3 isolates of Campylobacter (0.4%) were found at the Milwaukee beach. A subset of the 2004 samples was also examined for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and was found to be negative. Information as to the occurrence of human pathogens in beach ecosystems is essential to design further studies assessing human health risk and to determine the parameters influencing the fate and transport of pathogens in the nearshore environment. PMID:19096455

Kinzelman, Julie; McLellan, Sandra L; Amick, Ashley; Preedit, Justine; Scopel, Caitlin O; Olapade, Ola; Gradus, Steve; Singh, Ajaib; Sedmak, Gerald

2008-12-01

126

Dynamics of storage of organochlorine pollutants in herring gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several organochlorine pollutants were studied over the period of one annual cycle in caged juvenile and wild-collected adult herring gulls (Lagus argentatus) from Lake Michigan. Fish, mostly alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), comprised the major year-round food items in the wild; alewives were also fed to the caged juveniles. Fish residues averaged around 3 mg/kg of p,p'-DDE, 2 mg/kg p,p'DDT + p,p'-TDE, and 2 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Juvenile body-burdens of DDE and PCBs showed a continual buildup after fledging, then a temporary dynamic equilibrium, related only in part to annual lipid deposition. Maximum body-burdens were reached in both juveniles and adults when winter fat deposits were declining prior to the breeding season?followed by a return to dynamic equilibrium. Residues of DDT and TDE followed closely the annual pattern of lipid deposition in both juveniles and adults. Total body-burdens in both age classes were similar after the buildups to equilibrium in juveniles in their eighth month after fledging. Seasonal variations of residues of DDE and PCBs were characterised by two phases in adults and three in juveniles, which gradually assumed the adult cyclic pattern. The maximum body-burdens attained by caged juveniles fed a diet of Lake Michigan alewives were 290 mg/kg DDE, 19 mg/kg DDT + TDE, and 200 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Residues in wild adults at the same time were 300, 4, and 200 mg/kg of the same residues. Apparent PCBs and DDE were highly accumulative, although DDE levels resulted from dietary DDE, as well as conversion from DDT.

Anderson, D.W.; Hickey, J.J.

1976-01-01

127

Predator-prey relations and competition for food between age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins in the Apostle Island region of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) are an important component of the fish community on reefs and adjacent nursery areas of the Great Lakes and overlap spatially with age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Important interactions between these fishes are possible during the lake trout's first year of life, which could include predation on each other's eggs and larvae, and competition for food resources. We investigated the diets of age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins on a lake trout spawning reef (Gull Island Shoal) and adjacent nursery area (near Michigan Island) in the Apostle Island Region of western Lake Superior during June through September from 1988 through 1991. Organisms in stomachs of 511 lake trout and 562 sculpins were identified and counted. Of the 11 major food types found in age-0 lake trout stomachs from both areas, Mysis was the dominant food item (mean volume in stomachs = 68%) and occurred in about 3/4 of the fish analyzed. Copepods, cladocerans, chironomid pupae, fish, and Bythotrephes were also common in the diet (frequency of occurrence > 4%). Diets of lake trout were more diverse on the reef than on the nursery area where Mysis dominated the diet. Slimy sculpins were only found in lake trout greater than 50 mm. Mysis was an important food item of slimy sculpins over the reef but not over the nursery area, where Diporeia was by far the most important taxon. A variety of benthic invertebrates (Asellus, chironomids, benthic copepods, and snails) comprised the bulk of the sculpin diet over the reef. Sculpins also ate lake trout eggs in November. Based on cluster analysis, diets were most similar over the reef where both consumed Mysis, calanoid copepods and chironomid pupae. Diets diverged over the nursery areas where sculpins were strictly benthic feeders and lake trout maintained their planktonic diet. In Lake Superior, where lake trout recruitment through natural reproduction has become well established, the coexistence of the two species appears amicable. However, in other Great Lakes with higher sculpin to lake trout ratios on a reef the coexistence of the two species may be a bottleneck for age-0 lake trout survival beginning with egg deposition and ending when age-0 lake trout move off the reef and the two species no longer compete for a common food resource.

Hudson, Patrick L.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Bronte, Charles R.

1995-01-01

128

Geologic Framework and Morphology of Diamond Shoals, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carolina Capes (Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain) along the eastern coast of the U.S. are dynamic regions that exert strong influences on large scale coastal evolution, sediment transport, and circulation. Projecting offshore of each Carolina Cape is an active depositional sedimentary feature referred to as a cape-associated shoal. These shoals have lobate ridges and swales, and typically extend from just seaward of the subaerial cape tip across the inner shelf towards the shelf break. Here we describe results from geophysical surveys of the cape-associated shoal known as Diamond Shoals off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The study area includes approximately 330 km2 and extends from ~400 m seaward of the shoreline comprising the cape tip to 20 km offshore where the shoal terminates in approximately 40 m water depth. Geophysical surveys used sidescan sonar; single-beam and interferometric swath bathymetry; and 3.5 kHz, CHIRP, boomer, and water gun subbottom profiling systems. The main body of the shoal consists of a 7 km2 triangular central platform that extends 8 km SE from the cape tip. The top of the platform is at a depth of 2-5 m and mantled by symmetrical sand waves with crest directions that trend NW-SE. The sand waves have a wavelength of ~300 m, and amplitudes up to 4 m. The central platform is bounded by two large lobate ridges and swales in water depths of 10-20 m. The ridges are ~5 m high, 1.5 km wide, and are more pronounced on the northern side of the shoal. The ridges on the northern side of the shoal are covered by coarse sediment that appears to result from winnowing by currents. Sand waves similar to those on the central platform are superimposed on the ridges, but are asymmetrical and indicate northeastward-directed net sediment transport. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic data suggests that Diamond Shoals consists of unconsolidated Holocene sediment up to 8 m thick overlying a transgressive unconformity. The unconformity has variable relief, up to several meters higher than the adjacent continental shelf, indicating that the position of the shoal may be controlled by the underlying geologic framework. This control could be manifest in a number of ways, such as through bathymetric relief and corresponding flow-sediment interactions, or via sediment source characteristics. Information about the shallow geology and surficial morphology of Diamond Shoals is being integrated into models of coastal dynamics that should strengthen our understanding of the linkage between geologic framework and physical processes, and improve predictions of coastal change at time scales from storm events to millennia.

Thieler, E. R.; Foster, D. S.; Himmelstoss, E. A.

2010-12-01

129

Validation Analysis of the Shoal Groundwater Flow and Transport Model  

SciTech Connect

Environmental restoration at the Shoal underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project Shoal Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of groundwater withdrawal activities in the area. The conceptual and numerical models were developed based upon regional hydrogeologic investigations conducted in the 1960s, site characterization investigations (including ten wells and various geophysical and geologic studies) at Shoal itself prior to and immediately after the test, and two site characterization campaigns in the 1990s for environmental restoration purposes (including eight wells and a year-long tracer test). The new wells are denoted MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3, and are located to the northnortheast of the nuclear test. The groundwater model was generally lacking data in the north-northeastern area; only HC-1 and the abandoned PM-2 wells existed in this area. The wells provide data on fracture orientation and frequency, water levels, hydraulic conductivity, and water chemistry for comparison with the groundwater model. A total of 12 real-number validation targets were available for the validation analysis, including five values of hydraulic head, three hydraulic conductivity measurements, three hydraulic gradient values, and one angle value for the lateral gradient in radians. In addition, the fracture dip and orientation data provide comparisons to the distributions used in the model and radiochemistry is available for comparison to model output. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicates that some of the model realizations correspond well with the newly acquired conductivity, head, and gradient data, while others do not. Other tests indicated that additional model realizations may be needed to test if the model input distributions need refinement to improve model performance. This approach (generating additional realizations) was not followed because it was realized that there was a temporal component to the data disconnect: the new head measurements are on the high side of the model distributions, but the heads at the original calibration locations themselves have also increased over time. This indicates that the steady-state assumption of the groundwater model is in error. To test the robustness of the model d

A. Hassan; J. Chapman

2008-11-01

130

Novel methods for discriminating behavioral differences between stickleback individuals and populations in a laboratory shoaling assay  

PubMed Central

Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from different habitats have been observed to differ in shoaling behavior, both in the wild and in laboratory studies. In the present study, we surveyed the shoaling behavior of sticklebacks from a variety of marine, lake, and stream habitats throughout the Pacific Northwest. We tested the shoaling tendencies of 113 wild-caught sticklebacks from 13 populations using a laboratory assay that was based on other published shoaling assays in sticklebacks. Using traditional behavioral measures for this assay, such as time spent shoaling and mean position in the tank, we were unable to find population differences in shoaling behavior. However, simple plotting techniques revealed differences in spatial distributions during the assay. When we collapsed individual trials into population-level data sets and applied information theoretic measurements, we found significant behavioral differences between populations. For example, entropy estimates confirm that populations display differences in the extent of clustering at various tank positions. Using log-likelihood analysis, we show that these population-level observations reflect consistent differences in individual behavioral patterns that can be difficult to discriminate using standard measures. The analytical techniques we describe may help improve the detection of potential behavioral differences between fish groups in future studies.

Wark, Abigail R.; Wark, Barry J.; Lageson, Tessa J.

2011-01-01

131

Fish Cam: An Online Tool for Introducing Shoaling Behavior to the Classroom  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fish Cam is an on-line educational resource that enables students to participate in behavioral research projects without ever leaving their classroom. By linking onto the Fish Cam site, students will observe an experimental tank in which fish choose shoal-mates in dichotomous choice tests. In these experiments, a test fish, in the central compartment, displays its shoaling preference by swimming near small shoals of fish in either of two side compartments. Assays are designed to examine the effects of phenotype, shoal size, and other factors known to influence shoaling. Students monitor Fish Cam in real time, and students collect data simply by running timers when the test fish crosses into the preference zones at each end of the central compartment. The times are logged onto data sheets that we provide, and we assist the students with their analysis. The simplicity of shoaling behavior makes it an ideal model system for data collection that is accessible to students of all ages and, in its first few years of operation, Fish Cam studies have been performed by fifth-, seventh- and eleventh-grade students. Sample lesson plans and handouts are available online to enhance the Fish Cam experience. The ultimate goals of this project are to make scientific research accessible in the classroom and promote science education.

Southwell, Maura; Galassi, Maria

2012-01-01

132

Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers' access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

Weiser, E. L.; Powell, A. N.

2011-01-01

133

Factors controlling navigation-channel Shoaling in Laguna Madre, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shoaling in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway of Laguna Madre, Tex., is caused primarily by recycling of dredged sediments. Sediment recycling, which is controlled by water depth and location with respect to the predominant wind-driven currents, is minimal where dredged material is placed on tidal flats that are either flooded infrequently or where the water is extremely shallow. In contrast, nearly all of the dredged material placed in open water >1.5 m deep is reworked and either transported back into the channel or dispersed into the surrounding lagoon. A sediment flux analysis incorporating geotechnical properties demonstrated that erosion and not postemplacement compaction caused most sediment losses from the placement areas. Comparing sediment properties in the placement areas and natural lagoon indicated that the remaining dredged material is mostly a residual of initial channel construction. Experimental containment designs (shallow subaqueous mound, submerged levee, and emergent levee) constructed in high-maintenance areas to reduce reworking did not retain large volumes of dredged material. The emergent levee provided the greatest retention potential approximately 2 years after construction.

Morton, R. A.; Nava, R. C.; Arhelger, M.

2001-01-01

134

Observations of Shoaling Nonlinear Internal Waves: Formation of Trapped Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-amplitude nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) shoaling on the continental slope in the northern South China Sea are observed. Observed NLIWs often reach the breaking limit, the maximum horizontal current velocity exceeding the wave speed, and trapped cores are formed with recirculating fluid. The conjugate flow does not form. The vertical position of the maximum horizontal velocity is displaced from surface to subsurface, via the formation of the trapped core. Trapped-core NLIWs are strongly dissipative and evolve rapidly into trains of NLIWs. The vertical overturning is as large as 75 m, and the turbulence kinetic energy dissipation rate is estimated as O(10^{-5}) W kg-1. We propose that the formation and the evolution of trapped cores catalyze the generation of the trains of NLIWs on the Dongsha plateau often captured by satellite images and by recent field observations. The generation, evolution, fission, dissipation, and energetics of observed trapped-core NLIWs will be discussed and compared with results of numerical models and laboratory experiments.

Lien, R.; D'Asaro, E. A.; Chang, M.; Tang, T.; Yang, Y.

2006-12-01

135

Inferring the rules of interaction of shoaling fish.  

PubMed

Collective motion, where large numbers of individuals move synchronously together, is achieved when individuals adopt interaction rules that determine how they respond to their neighbors' movements and positions. These rules determine how group-living animals move, make decisions, and transmit information between individuals. Nonetheless, few studies have explicitly determined these interaction rules in moving groups, and very little is known about the interaction rules of fish. Here, we identify three key rules for the social interactions of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki): (i) Attraction forces are important in maintaining group cohesion, while we find only weak evidence that fish align with their neighbor's orientation; (ii) repulsion is mediated principally by changes in speed; (iii) although the positions and directions of all shoal members are highly correlated, individuals only respond to their single nearest neighbor. The last two of these rules are different from the classical models of collective animal motion, raising new questions about how fish and other animals self-organize on the move. PMID:22065759

Herbert-Read, James E; Perna, Andrea; Mann, Richard P; Schaerf, Timothy M; Sumpter, David J T; Ward, Ashley J W

2011-11-15

136

SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM IN SHOREBIRDS, GULLS, AND ALCIDS: THE INFLUENCE OF SEXUAL AND NATURAL SELECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charadrii (shorebirds, gulls, and alcids) have an unusual diversity in their sexual size dimorphism, ranging from monomorphism to either male-biased or female-biased dimorphism. We use comparative analyses to investigate whether this variation relates to sexual selection through competition for mates or natural selection through different use of resources by males and females. As predicted by sexual selection theory, we found

Tams Szkely; John D. Reynolds; Jordi Figuerola

2000-01-01

137

Directional changes in sexual size dimorphism in shorebirds, gulls and alcids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Charadrii (shorebirds, gulls and alcids) are one of the most diverse avian groups from the point of view of sexual size dimorphism, exhibiting extremes in both male-biased and female-biased dimorphism, as well as monomor- phism. In this study we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate how size dimorphism has changed over evolutionary time, distinguishing between changes that have occurred

P. Lindenfors; T. Szekely; J. D. Reynolds

2003-01-01

138

Epidemiology of influenza A virus among black-headed gulls, the Netherlands, 2006-2010.  

PubMed

We sampled 7,511 black-headed gulls for influenza virus in the Netherlands during 2006-2010 and found that subtypes H13 and H16 caused annual epidemics in fledglings on colony sites. Our findings validate targeted surveillance of wild waterbirds and clarify underlying factors for influenza virus emergence in other species. PMID:24377955

Verhagen, Josanne H; Majoor, Frank; Lexmond, Pascal; Vuong, Oanh; Kasemir, Giny; Lutterop, Date; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Kuiken, Thijs

2014-01-01

139

Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

2000-05-01

140

Functional analysis of the newly established plants induced by nesting gulls on Riou archipelago (Marseille, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent population explosion of Yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans), nesting on the Riou archipelago, off Marseille (France), has perturbed the flora and the vegetation of this site. The present study consists of a functional approach to the newly established plant species through an analysis of some of their vital attributes. Small islets appear to be more affected by floristic turnover

Eric Vidal; Frdric Mdail; Thierry Tatoni; Patrick Vidal; Philip Roche

1998-01-01

141

Flight Testing and Response Characteristics of a Variable GullWing Morphing Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary morphing designs are focused towards enabling a vehicle to transition from one distinct ight regime to another. Such a change often requires highly complex morphing that is designed to address both aerodynamic performance and handling criteria. The University of Florida has developed a morphing demonstrator to investigate the effect of a biologically-inspired gull-wing morphing on the ight characteristics of

Mujahid Abdulrahim; Rick Lind

142

Effectiveness of an Overhead Wire Barrier in Deterring Gulls from Feeding at a Sanitary Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On behalf of Browning-Ferris Industries (BFI), we assessed the effectiveness of fine parallel overhead wires in deterring herring and ring-billed gulls from landing at an active sanitary landfill in Niagara Falls, N.Y. BFI was responsible for design and i...

M. A. McLaren R. E. Harris W. J. Richardson

1984-01-01

143

Relationships between ecological variables and four organochlorine pollutants in an artic glaucous gull ( Larus hyperboreus) population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arctic has become a sink for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) from lower latitudes, and relatively high levels have been found in different biota. Recent studies of the glaucous gull, Larus hyperboreus, a top predator in the arctic food web, have documented that high blood residues of various OCs are related to lower reproductive performance and reduced adult survival. Here we

Jan Ove Bustnes; ystein Miland; Magnus Fjeld; Kjell Einar Erikstad; Janneche Utne Skaare

2005-01-01

144

FOOD HABITS OF RING-BILLED GULLS BREEDING IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of Ring-billed Gulls (Larus dehwarensis) breeding on the Great Lakes has increased significantly during the last 3 decades (Ludwig 1966, 1974). Changes in the availability of nesting sites, fish introductions, and restrictions on human predation are among those factors probably re- sponsible for the population explosion. Additionally, breeding adults may have intensified or perfected their exploitation of food

WILLIAM L. JARVIS

145

[Study of protein metabolism of herring gulls (Larus argentatus Pontop.) infected by trematode Himasthla larina (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)].  

PubMed

The values and dynamics of some indices of protein metabolism were studied in herring gulls Larus argentatus infected with trematode Himasthla larina in natural populations and in experiment. These indices were compared in infected and uninfected birds. Trematode infection considerably affected host protein metabolism irrespective of the age; however, the changes were more pronounced in nestlings. Increased concentration of gamma-globulins, modified albumin, and circulating immune complexes was observed in plasma of infected herring gulls. The experiments demonstrated the most significant changes in protein metabolism of herring gulls 8-11 days after infection with trematode H. larina. PMID:18038623

Kuklina, M M; Kuklin, V V

2007-01-01

146

Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed gulls.  

PubMed

Sandwich terns, Sterna sandvicensis, often nest in association with black-headed gulls, Larus ridibundus. The gulls provide protection against predators, but can also adversely affect the terns' reproductive success through predation and piracy of fish. To test whether leading the chicks away from the nest site is an evasive strategy used by the parents to reduce the incidence of robbery by the gulls, we kept one group of Sandwich tern chicks at their original breeding site, while, with a wire-netting enclosure, we moved another group away from the gulls. The rate of kleptoparasitism was greatly reduced when the tern chicks were moved away from the original nest site, resulting in faster growth and earlier fledging. The rate of food parasitism and chick condition were affected only during the first 5 days of the experiment. After that, the rate of kleptoparasitism no longer differed between chicks that we moved away and those remaining in the colony. A second shift of the chicks again led to less kleptoparasitism and better chick condition. In line with these findings, the condition of free-living chicks that were lured away from their nesting site by their parents also improved. In particular, chicks initially in poor condition, which apparently suffered from high rates of kleptoparasitism, left the colony site. Free-living chicks are often lured away from the robbing gulls. However, not all subcolonies provided suitable escape routes and subsequently chicks in such subcolonies suffered from high mortality rates. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328801

Stienen; Brenninkmeijer

1999-05-01

147

Living on the edge: demography of the slender-billed gull in the Western mediterranean.  

PubMed

Small and peripheral populations are typically vulnerable to local extinction processes but important for the metapopulation dynamics of species. The Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei) is a long-lived species breeding in unstable ephemeral coastal habitats. Their Western Mediterranean populations are relatively small and represent the edge of their global geographical distribution. At a local scale, using long-term data (14 years) on annual breeding success and capture-resights of marked individuals, we estimated and compared the vital rates and evaluated the connectivity of two Spanish populations (Ebro Delta and Doana) varying in their local environmental conditions. At a metapopulation scale, we analyzed 22 years of data on breeding numbers to predict their future prospects by means of population demographic models. Local survival and breeding success of gulls from the Ebro Delta was lower than those from Doana, which is likely the result of higher permanent emigration and/or winter mortality in the former. Gulls from the Ebro Delta wintered mostly in Mediterranean areas whereas those from Doana did so in Atlantic coasts, where food availability is higher. Whereas adult local survival was constant, juvenile local survival showed temporal parallel variations between colonies, probably related to natal dispersal to other breeding colonies. Our results suggested that dispersal was higher at the Ebro Delta and gulls emigrating from their natal colonies settled preferentially in close patches. We found large fluctuations in breeding numbers among local populations probably related to the fact that the Slender-billed gull is a species adapted to unstable and unpredictable habitats with high abilities to disperse between suitable patches depending on environmental stochastic conditions during breeding. PMID:24664115

Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Afn, Isabel; Ramrez, Francisco; Doxa, Aggeliki; Bertolero, Albert; Gutirrez-Expsito, Carlos; Forero, Manuela G; Oro, Daniel

2014-01-01

148

Taphonomic signatures of turbid-zone reef development: Examples from Paluma Shoals and Lugger Shoal, inshore central Great Barrier Reef, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous coral reefs and coral communities occur along the nearshore regions of the central Great Barrier Reef (Australia) coastline. These develop under conditions of episodically high, wave-induced sediment resuspension and turbidity, and terrigenoclastic sediment accumulation. Cores recovered from two such reefs at Paluma Shoals and Lugger Bay are used to assess the taphonomic features and processes associated with framework development

Christopher T. Perry; Scott G. Smithers

2006-01-01

149

Spatial association between murres (Uria spp.), puffins (Fratercula spp.) and fish shoals near Pribilof Islands, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding by piscivorous marine seabirds necessitates some spatial association between them and their prey. Many attempts have been made to establish spatial associations between seabirds and their prey, yet small-scale (<1 km) proximate association is rarely found. In this paper, we review past attempts to examine spatial proximity, and provide yet another attempt which intro- duces the concept of a

Gordon Swartzman; George Hunt

2000-01-01

150

Island Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Island Information web site provides numerous facts and figures about the earth's islands. Island data is organized into the following categories: island superlatives, principal world islands and groups, 100 largest islands of the world, largest islands by continent, largest islands of selected countries, 35 largest islands of the United States, largest islands of selected U.S. states, 38 largest islands of Canada, largest islands of Canadian provinces, largest lake islands of the world, most populous islands of the world, most populous island countries, islands divided by international borders, tallest islands of the world, former and alternative names of islands, and island misinformation. All of the information within the web site is displayed in easy-to-read charts.

2001-10-07

151

Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring gull complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring gull and glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus) displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of gull species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed gull (L. marinus) we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring gull complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic gull species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring gull complex is still impossible, and requires detailed autosomal sequence information, a topic of our future studies.

2010-01-01

152

Impact of benzyl butyl phthalate on shoaling behavior in Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog) populations.  

PubMed

Fundulus heteroclitus preference for association with familiar conspecifics of similar body length was impacted by benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP); this was found to be a statically significant result with a p < 0.0001. When presented with equally sized shoals consisting of either large or small fish, the majority of unexposed (84%) and acetone exposed control (82%) fish selected the shoal of large fish. A small number of control fish chose either the shoal of small fish (6% and 10%) or the neutral zone (10% and 8%) where they were clear morphological outliers. Fish exposed to 0.1 mg/L BBP exposure daily for four weeks selected the shoal of small fish more often than unexposed or acetone controls (7.5- and 4.5-fold respectively). They also remained in the neutral zone and displayed agitation at levels more than twice that of control. Agitation and shoal choice disruption are quantifiable behavioral responses that support the use of F. heteroclitus as a model for detecting sub-lethal BBP exposure. PMID:23541602

Kaplan, Lisa A E; Nabel, Michael; Van Cleef-Toedt, Kathleen; Proffitt, Andrew R; Pylypiw, Harry M

2013-05-01

153

The geomorphology of the Chandeleur Island Wetlands  

SciTech Connect

The Chandeleur Islands represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier island arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur Islands form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier island arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual islands backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the island width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the island arc is fragmented into a series of small islands and shoals separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the islands. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.

Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.

1990-09-01

154

Bathymetry of Stevens Creek and Neal Shoals reservoirs, South Carolina, 1990  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stevens Creek Reservoir and Neal Shoals Reservoir are located in the Piedmont Province of South Carolina (fig. 1). The primary purposes for the reservoirs are hydroelectric power generation and recreational activities. Because there has been no bottom surveys of these reservoirs since they were formed in the early 1900's, there is concern about the decrease in reservoir volumes due to sedimen- tation. An investigation was begun in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources, Water Resources Division to provide information on present water depths, on areas of rapid-sediment deposition, and on changes in lake volume. This report documents the bathymetric surveys made of Stevens Creek and Neal Shoals Reservoirs during 1990 and provides maps that depict the depth of each reservoir. This report documents the bathymetric surveys made of Stevens Creek and Neal Shoals Reservoirs during 1990 and provides maps that depict the depth of each reservoir.

Stringfield, W. J.

1995-01-01

155

Energy balance, wave shoaling and group celerity in Boussinesq-type wave propagation models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the analysis of the linear shoaling performance of low order Boussinesq-type equations. Departing from the equation of the energy balance, a new velocity, vg, is obtained so that A?2vg is constant in space, being A? the wave height amplitude. The results are valid for a wide variety of low order Boussinesq-type equations. The new obtained velocity vg, which is in general different to the group celerity cg???/?k, allows a simple and analytical evaluation of the errors in linear shoaling, avoiding the numerical integration of the errors in the linear shoaling gradient. The general results are particularized for well known sets of Boussinesq-type equations.

Simarro, Gonzalo

2013-12-01

156

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) from Red Sea gulls with new host-parasite records.  

PubMed

Knowledge about chewing lice from marine birds of the Red Sea is minimal. Five species of gulls were examined for chewing lice in three different localities of the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast. Two gull species were examined for lice for the first time (Larus armenicus Buturlin, 1934 and Larus michahellis Naumann, 1840) and their lice represent new host-louse associations. Four species and two subspecies of lice were identified from 159 specimens collected. Actornithophilus piceus lari (Packard, 1870) and Austromenopon transversum (Denny, 1842) (suborder: Amblycera), and Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister, 1838) and Saemundssonia lari (O. Fabricius, 1780) (suborder: Ischnocera) were recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia and Red Sea birds. Taxonomic and ecological notes, type hosts, data on specimens examined, collecting localities, an identification key, and photographs of each species and subspecies are given. PMID:24869888

Al-Ahmed, Azzam; Shobrak, Mohammed; Nasser, Mohamed G E-D

2014-01-01

157

Helminths of the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus, from the northern Patagonian coast.  

PubMed

The helminth community of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes) is reported from Pennsula Valds, on the Patagonian coast, Argentina. From March 2000 to April 2004, 29 kelp gulls were collected and dissected. All the birds were parasitized by at least 2 of 18 parasite species: 2 cestodes (1 Tetrabothriidae, 1 Dilepididae), 10 trematodes (2 Echinostomatidae, 3 Microphallidae, 2 Gymnophallidae, 1 Philophthalmidae, 1 Dicrocoeliidae, 1 Diplostomatidae), 4 nematodes (2 Acuariidae, 1 Capillaridae, 1 Anisakidae), and 2 acanthocephalans (Polymorphidae). The mean intensity was 3,204 parasites per host, and all helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract or associated glands. The helminth community of L. dominicanus on the Peninsula Valds coast seems to be richer than those reported by previous authors in other localities in Argentina. This could be due to a greater diversity in prey items available. Nine species are recorded for the first time from the kelp gull and seven species are recorded for the first time from Argentina. PMID:21556688

Diaz, Julia Ins; Cremonte, Florencia; Navone, Graciela Teresa

2011-12-01

158

Stable isotope analysis of temporal variation in the diets of pre-fledged Laughing Gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The *13C, *15N, and *34S stable isotopic values of feathers from pre-fledged Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) in coastal Virginia and Jamaica Bay, New York were used to examine dietary variation during the nestling period. The tip portions of the feathers were used to indicate diet during the initiation of primary feather growth, whereas the base portions indicated diet during the period immediately prior to fledging. The results indicate that diets of the nestlings in Virginia moved to a higher trophic level during the period prior to fledging, however the New York nestlings did not appear to undergo any appreciable dietary change during this period. Overall, nestlings from both colonies consumed proportionately more foods of marine origin than freshwater or terrestrial. Therefore, the results do not support those of earlier studies that suggested that partially developed salt glands in young gulls might restrict the diet to more terrestrial or freshwater prey in the early stages of nestling growth.

Knoff, A.J.; Macko, S.A.; Erwin, R.M.; Brown, K.M.

2002-01-01

159

Gull-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote Mediterranean nature reserve.  

PubMed

The role of a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, THg, V, Zn) was assessed in a Mediterranean nature reserve (Marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. Trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. In contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. Biogenic enrichment factor B confirmed the role of gulls in the release of trace elements through guano subsidies. In addition, comparing trace element pond concentrations to the US NOAA's SQGs, As, Cu and Ni showed contamination levels associated with possible negative biological effects. Thus, this study reflects the need to take seabirds into account as key factors influencing ecological processes and contamination levels even in remote areas, especially around the Mediterranean, where these birds are abundant but overlooked. PMID:23870200

Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

2013-09-15

160

California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

2011-01-01

161

Prolific Overton field gas reservoirs within large transverse oolite shoals, Upper Jurassic Haynesville, Eastern Margin East Texas basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Triassic rifting along a northeast-southwest spreading center in east Texas resulted in basement highs along the eastern margin of the East Texas basin that became sites of extensive ooid shoal deposition during Late Jurassic time. Reservoirs within oolite facies at Overton field contain over 1 tcf of natural gas. These large shoals, each approximately 15 mi (24 km) long

T. E. Covington; R. G. Lighty; W. M. Ahr

1985-01-01

162

Corrective action investigation plan for Project Shoal Area CAU No. 416  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project Shoal Area (PSA). Project Shoal was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.

NONE

1996-08-01

163

Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project Shoal Area for the protection of the public and the environment.

K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

2004-03-01

164

Arteriovenous anastomoses and vascularity in the feet of eiders and gulls (Aves)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) and vascularity were studied in the webbed feet of eiders and two species of gulls using an injection technique. The density of AVAs was high in the distal part of the web (85126 AVAs per cm2) and decreased proximally. Anastomoses were also present in the feathered skin of the tibiotarsus (1839 AVAs per cm2). A positive correlation

Uffe Midtgrd

1980-01-01

165

Evaluating gull diets: A comparison of conventional methods and stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples such as regurgitated pellets and food remains have traditionally been used in studies of bird diets, but these can produce biased estimates depending on the digestibility of different foods. Stable isotope analysis has been developed as a method for assessing bird diets that is not biased by digestibility. These two methods may provide complementary or conflicting information on diets of birds, but are rarely compared directly. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of feathers of Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) chicks from eight breeding colonies in northern Alaska, and used a Bayesian mixing model to generate a probability distribution for the contribution of each food group to diets. We compared these model results with probability distributions from conventional diet samples (pellets and food remains) from the same colonies and time periods. Relative to the stable isotope estimates, conventional analysis often overestimated the contributions of birds and small mammals to gull diets and often underestimated the contributions of fish and zooplankton. Both methods gave similar estimates for the contributions of scavenged caribou, miscellaneous marine foods, and garbage to diets. Pellets and food remains therefore may be useful for assessing the importance of garbage relative to certain other foods in diets of gulls and similar birds, but are clearly inappropriate for estimating the potential impact of gulls on birds, small mammals, or fish. However, conventional samples provide more species-level information than stable isotope analysis, so a combined approach would be most useful for diet analysis and assessing a predator's impact on particular prey groups. ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

Weiser, E. L.; Powell, A. N.

2011-01-01

166

Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf 5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

2008-10-01

167

Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisited using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf ???5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

Robinson, M. M.; McBride, R. A.

2008-01-01

168

Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

2008-01-01

169

Measurement of ocean water optical properties and seafloor reflectance with scanning hydrographic operational airborne lidar survey (SHOALS): II. Practical results and comparison with independent data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimation of water column optical properties and seafloor reflectance (532 nm) is demonstrated using recent SHOALS data collected at Fort Lauderdale, Florida (November, 2003). To facilitate this work, the first radiometric calibrations of SHOALS were performed. These calibrations permit a direct normalization of recorded data by converting digitized counts at the output of the SHOALS receivers to input optical power.

Grady H. Tuell; Viktor Feygels; Yuri Kopilevich; Alan D. Weidemann; A. Grant Cunningham; Reza Mani; Vladimir Podoba; Vinod Ramnath; J. Y. Park; Jen Aitken

2005-01-01

170

Hydrographic Station Data Obtained in the Vicinity of Nantucket Shoals, May, July, September 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three cruises were made during May, July, and September 1978, to measure the regional hydrographic structure in the vicinity of Nantucket Shoals on the New England Continental Shelf. A summary of the hydrographic observations made during Cruise NS1, NS2, ...

R. Limeburner R. C. Beardsley

1979-01-01

171

Processes, Patterns and Petrophysical Heterogeneity of Grainstone Shoals at Ocean Cay, Western Great Bahama Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holocene and Pleistocene grainstone deposits surrounding Ocean Cay located on the western margin of Great Bahama Bank provide key evidence for the comprehension of patterns, processes and petrophysical heterogeneity of carbonate grainstone shoals. New datasets consisting of high-resolution remote sensing data, acoustic Doppler current measurements, sub-bottom profiles, and sedimentological and petrophysical analyses offer an opportunity to elucidate the various factors

Francisco Eduardo Gomes da Cruz

2008-01-01

172

Anatomy of the grainstone shoal facies of the Salem Limestone (Mississippian) of southern Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1990 M.A. Brown described the middle Mississippian (Valmeyeran) Salem Limestone exposed on the eastern side of the Illinois Basin as consisting of a massive grainstone shoal facies behind which developed a sand flat, an open lagoon, and a restricted lagoon facies. Smaller intrashoal channels provided limited exchange between lagoon and open ocean. The authors have made detailed studies of

J. R. Dodd; D. D. Petzold; T. A. Thompson

1993-01-01

173

Impact on Net Pen Culture on Water Quality and Fish Populations on Bull Shoals Reservoir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A net pen fish culture facility on Bull Shoals Reservoir located in north central Arkansas has been in operation since 1975 and presently produces approximately 205,010 kg of channel catfish, blue catfish and rainbow trout each year. This study examined t...

1980-01-01

174

LongEZ (N3R) Participation in the 1999 Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) was centered around the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) located in Duck, North Carolina during a one-month period in November and December 1999. The primary objective of SHOWEX was to measu...

J. R. French G. H. Crescenti T. L. Crawford E. J. Dumas

2000-01-01

175

Mine Burial in the Shoaling Zone: Scaling of Laboratory Results to Oceanic Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past several years, the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Group at Arizona State University (ASU, Tempe, AZ) conducted a comprehensive laboratory-based research program to elucidate the mechanisms and dynamics of mine burial in noncohesive sediments under shoaling waves on coastal slopes. This paper presents a brief description of this program as well as salient observations and quantitative parameterizations for scour,

Firat Y. Testik; Sergey I. Voropayev; Harindra Joseph S. Fernando; Sridhar Balasubramanian

2007-01-01

176

Diets of nesting laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia Coast Reserve: observations from stable isotope analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulation dietary variation in top-level consumers. In this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of gull tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the Virginia Coast Reserve estuarine system. As earlier traditional diet studies found evidence of individual dietary specialization within gull populations, this study used stable isotope analysis to assess specialization in a coastal Laughing Gull population. Specifically, blood, muscle, and feather isotope values indicated significant intrapopulation dietary specialization. Some gulls relied more heavily on estuarine prey (mean blood ?13C = -17.5, ?15N = 12.6, and ?34S = 9.3), whereas others appeared to consume more foods of marine origin (mean blood ?13C = -19.4, ?15N = 14.8, and ?34S = 10.4). It is important to account for such dietary variability when assessing trophic linkages in dynamic estuarine systems.

Knoff, A. J.; Macko, S. A.; Erwin, R. M.

2001-01-01

177

A QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THYROID HISTOPATHOLOGY OF HERRING GULLS (LARUS ARGENTATUS) FROM THE GREAT LAKES AND A HYPOTHESIS ON THE CAUSAL ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thyroids from 213 adult herring gulls of both sexes were collected during incubation from nine colonies in the Great Lakes basin of eastern North America between 1974 and 1983, and from a single colony in the Bay of Fundy from 1977 to 1982. Qualitative and quantitative histological assessment revealed that the majority of the gulls from the Great Lakes basin

R. D. Moccia; A. Fox; A. Britton

1986-01-01

178

Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, April 1994 to March 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-quality data for selected sites on Reversed, Rush, and Alger Creeks and Gull and Silver Lakes, Mono County, California, were collected from April 1994 to March 1995. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace elements, nutrients, methylene blue active substances, and oil and grease. Field measurements were made for discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity. Additional data collected include vertical water profiles of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen collected at 3.3-foot intervals for Gull and Silver Lakes; chlorophyll-a and -b concentrations and Secchi depth for Gull and Silver Lakes; sediment interstitial- water nutrient concentrations in cores from Gull Lake; and lake surface and volume of Gull and Silver Lakes.

Wang, Bronwen; Rockwell, G. L.; Blodgett, J. C.

1995-01-01

179

Satellite Tracking on the Flyways of Brown-Headed Gulls and Their Potential Role in the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus  

PubMed Central

Brown-headed gulls (Larus brunnicephalus), winter visitors of Thailand, were tracked by satellite telemetry during 20082011 for investigating their roles in the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread. Eight gulls negative for influenza virus infection were marked with solar-powered satellite platform transmitters at Bang Poo study site in Samut Prakarn province, Thailand; their movements were monitored by the Argos satellite tracking system, and locations were mapped. Five gulls completed their migratory cycles, which spanned 7 countries (China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) affected by the HPAI H5N1 virus. Gulls migrated from their breeding grounds in China to stay overwinter in Thailand and Cambodia; while Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam were the places of stopovers during migration. Gulls traveled an average distance of about 2400 km between Thailand and China and spent 12 weeks on migration. Although AI surveillance among gulls was conducted at the study site, no AI virus was isolated and no H5N1 viral genome or specific antibody was detected in the 75 gulls tested, but 6.6% of blood samples were positive for pan-influenza A antibody. No AI outbreaks were reported in areas along flyways of gulls in Thailand during the study period. Distance and duration of migration, tolerability of the captive gulls to survive the HPAI H5N1 virus challenge and days at viral shedding after the virus challenging suggested that the Brown-headed gull could be a potential species for AI spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries, the epicenter of H5N1 AI outbreak.

Ratanakorn, Parntep; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Eiamampai, Krairat; Farmer, Adrian H.; Webster, Robert G.; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Pothieng, Duangrat; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

2012-01-01

180

Genetic Markers for Rapid PCR-Based Identification of Gull, Canada Goose, Duck, and Chicken Fecal Contamination in Water  

PubMed Central

Avian feces contaminate waterways but contribute fewer human pathogens than human sources. Rapid identification and quantification of avian contamination would therefore be useful to prevent overestimation of human health risk. We used subtractive hybridization of PCR-amplified gull fecal 16S RNA genes to identify avian-specific fecal rRNA gene sequences. The subtracters were rRNA genes amplified from human, dog, cat, cow, and pig feces. Recovered sequences were related to Enterobacteriaceae (47%), Helicobacter (26%), Catellicoccus (11%), Fusobacterium (11%), and Campylobacter (5%). Three PCR assays, designated GFB, GFC, and GFD, were based on recovered sequence fragments. Quantitative PCR assays for GFC and GFD were developed using SYBR green. GFC detected down to 0.1 mg gull feces/100 ml (corresponding to 2 gull enterococci most probable number [MPN]/100 ml). GFD detected down to 0.1 mg chicken feces/100 ml (corresponding to 13 Escherichia coli MPN/100 ml). GFB and GFC were 97% and 94% specific to gulls, respectively. GFC cross-reacted with 35% of sheep samples but occurred at about 100,000 times lower concentrations in sheep. GFD was 100% avian specific and occurred in gulls, geese, chickens, and ducks. In the United States, Canada, and New Zealand, the three markers differed in their geographic distributions but were found across the range tested. These assays detected four important bird groups contributing to fecal contamination of waterways: gulls, geese, ducks, and chickens. Marker distributions across North America and in New Zealand suggest that they will have broad applicability in other parts of the world as well.

Green, Hyatt C.; Dick, Linda K.; Gilpin, Brent; Samadpour, Mansour

2012-01-01

181

Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger t estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed.

Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Bell, Douglas A.; Dove, Carla J.

2012-01-01

182

Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed.

Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J

2012-01-01

183

Effects of lead and exercise on endurance and learning in young herring gulls.  

PubMed

In this paper, we report the use of young herring gulls, Larus argentatus, to examine the effect of lead and exercise on endurance, performance, and learning on a treadmill. Eighty 1-day-old herring gull chicks were randomly assigned to either a control group or a lead treatment group that received a single dose of lead acetate solution (100mg/kg) at day 2. Controls were injected with an equal volume of isotonic saline at the same age. Half of the lead treatment group and half of the control group were randomly assigned to an exercise regime of walking on a treadmill twice each day. The other group remained in their cages. We test the null hypotheses that neither lead nor exercise affected performance of herring gull chicks when subsequently tested on the treadmill at 7, 11, and 17 days post-injection. Performance measures included latency to orient forward initially, to move continuously, forward on the treadmill, and to avoiding being bumped against the back of the test chamber. Also measured were the number of calls per 15 s, and the time to tire out. Latency to face forward and avoiding being bumped against the back of the test chamber were measures of learning, and time to tire out was a measure of endurance. We found significant differences as a function of lead, exercise, and their interaction, and rejected the null hypotheses. For all measures of behavior and endurance, lead had the greatest contribution to accounting for variability. In general, lead-treated birds showed better performance improvement from the daily exercise than did controlled non-lead birds, with respect to endurance and learning. We suggest that in nature, exercise can improve performance of lead-exposed birds by partially mitigating the effects of lead, thereby increasing survival of lead-impaired chicks. PMID:14759659

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

2004-02-01

184

Why do snakes have eyes? The (non-)effect of blindness in island tiger snakes ( Notechis scutatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large (to >1?m), diurnally active tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) are abundant on Carnac Island, near the coast of Western Australia. Our behavioural and mark-recapture studies provide the\\u000a first ecological data on this population, and reveal a surprising phenomenon. Many adult tiger snakes have had their eyes\\u000a destroyed, apparently during nest defence, by silver gulls (Larus novaehollandiae). This loss of vision

Xavier Bonnet; Don Bradshaw; Richard Shine; David Pearson

1999-01-01

185

Vigilance and feeding behaviour in large feeding flocks of laughing gulls, Larus atricilla, on Delaware Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laughing gulls ( Larus atricilla) forage on horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs during May in Delaware Bay each year. They feed in dense flocks, and foraging rates vary with vigilance, bird density, number of steps and location in the flock, whereas time devoted to vigilance is explained by number of steps, density, location and feeding rates. The time devoted to vigilance decreases with increasing density, increasing foraging rates and decreasing aggression. Birds foraging on the edge of flocks take fewer pecks and more steps, and devote more time to vigilance than those in the intermediate or central parts of a flock.

Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

1991-02-01

186

Reservoir Model for Calculating Natural Sand Bypassing and Change in Volume of Ebb-Tidal Shoals. Part 1. Description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN)provides information on a mathematical model developed to calculate natural sand bypassing and change in volume of ebb-tidal shoals. Subsequent CHETN s in this series will describe the interface...

N. C. Kraus

2002-01-01

187

Measurement of ocean water optical properties and seafloor reflectance with scanning hydrographic operational airborne lidar survey (SHOALS): I. Theoretical background  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an earlier work, we have proposed a concept for estimation of ocean optical properties with a multiple field-of-view bathymetric lidar. In this paper, we consider an implementation of this idea using SHOALS. The SHOALS design uses two receivers for depth measurement: a shallow-water, APD receiver with an 18 mrad FOV; and a deep-water PMT receiver with a 40 mrad

Yuri I. Kopilevich; Viktor I. Feygels; Grady H. Tuell; Alexey Surkov

2005-01-01

188

Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction  

PubMed Central

Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?34S with negative ?33S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction.

Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A.

2011-01-01

189

Comparing wave shoaling methods used in large-scale coastal evolution modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of methods are available to simulate wave propagation from the deep ocean to the surf zone. They range from simple and computationally fast (e.g. linear wave theory applied to shore-parallel bathymetric contours) to complicated and computationally intense (e.g., Delft's ';Simulating WAves Nearshore', or SWAN, model applied to complex bathymetry). Despite their differences, the goal of each method is the same with respect to coastline evolution modeling: to link offshore waves with rates of (and gradients in) alongshore sediment transport. Choosing a shoaling technique for modeling coastline evolution should be partly informed by the spatial and temporal scales of the model, as well as the model's intent (is it simulating a specific coastline, or exploring generic coastline dynamics?). However, the particular advantages and disadvantages of each technique, and how the advantages/disadvantages vary over different model spatial and temporal scales, are not always clear. We present a wave shoaling model that simultaneously computes breaking wave heights and angles using three increasingly complex wave shoaling routines: the most basic approach assuming shore-parallel bathymetric contours, a wave ray tracing method that includes wave energy convergence and divergence and non-shore-parallel contours, and a spectral wave model (SWAN). Initial results show reasonable agreement between wave models along a flat shoreline for small (1 m) wave heights, low wave angles (0 to 10 degrees), and simple bathymetry. But, as wave heights and angles increase, bathymetry becomes more variable, and the shoreline shape becomes sinuous, the model results begin to diverge. This causes different gradients in alongshore sediment transport between model runs employing different shoaling techniques and, therefore, different coastline behavior. Because SWAN does not approximate wave breaking (which drives alongshore sediment transport) we use a routine to extract grid cells from SWAN output where wave height is approximately one-half of the water depth (a standard wave breaking threshold). The goal of this modeling exercise is to understand under what conditions a simple wave model is sufficient for simulating coastline evolution, and when using a more complex shoaling routine can optimize a coastline model. The Coastline Evolution Model (CEM; Ashton and Murray, 2006) is used to show how different shoaling routines affect modeled coastline behavior. The CEM currently includes the most basic wave shoaling approach to simulate cape and spit formation. We will instead couple it to SWAN, using the insight from the comprehensive wave model (above) to guide its application. This will allow waves transformed over complex bathymetry, such as cape-associated shoals and ridges, to be input for the CEM so that large-scale coastline behavior can be addressed in less idealized environments. Ashton, A., and Murray, A.B., 2006, High-angle wave instability and emergent shoreline shapes: 1. Modeling of sand waves, flying spits, and capes: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 111, p. F04011, doi:10.1029/2005JF000422.

Limber, P. W.; Adams, P. N.; Murray, A.

2013-12-01

190

Zuloaga formation (upper Jurassic) shoal complex, Sierra de Enfrente, Coahuila, northeast Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Zuloga Formation at Sierra de Enfrente may be divided into 7 interbedded carbonate facies. In order of abundance, they are: pell-ooid grainstone-packstone, lime mudstone, pelletal packstone-grainstone, ooid grainstone, pelletal wackestone, skeletal wackestone, and algal boundstone. Three measured sections located on an east-west trending, overturned anticline (Sierra de Enfrente) were described and sampled. The Zuloaga Formation sediments were deposited on a broad carbonate ramp dipping southward off the emergent Coahuila peninsula. The study area is located between Zuloaga-equivalent, near-shore, siliciclastic deposits to the north and outer-ramp Zuloaga lime mudstone facies to the south. This intermediate position was ideally situated for the development of high-energy shoals. Time-equivalent shoal facies that rim the Gulf of Mexico are prolific hydrocarbon producers (Smackover Formation, USA; San Andres Formation, Mexico).

Finneran, J.B.

1984-04-01

191

Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) continued environmental investigation of the subsurface Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447. The PSA is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. Project Shoal was part of the Vela Uniform Program which was conducted to improve the US' ability to detect, identify, and locate underground nuclear detonations. The test consisted of detonating a 12-kiloton nuclear device deep underground in granitic rock to determine whether seismic waves produced by an underground nuclear test could be differentiated from seismic waves produced by a naturally occurring earthquake. The test was a joint effort conducted by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) in October 1963 (AEC, 1964).

DOE /NV

1998-11-01

192

The Evolution Model and Controlling Factors Analysis of the Pore Space of Oolitic Shoal Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pore space type of oolitic shoal reservoir is very complicated in Feixianguan Formation in Northeast Sichuan China. And\\u000a the evolution mode of different dissimilar pore space is different. An intensive research on the characteristics, the evolution\\u000a mode and the controlling factors of all kinds of pore space was carried out in Feixianguan Formation in Northeast Sichuan\\u000a basin. The result

Yun Wan; Jin-ku Liu; Min-quan Xia; Lan Chen

193

Butyl Benzyl Phthalate Affects Shoaling Behavior and Bottom-Dwelling Behavior in Threespine Stickleback  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this laboratory experiment, the effects on fish behavior caused by butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were of interest. We showed that shoaling behavior and bottom-dwelling behavior in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, were altered as a result of exposure to 0.1 mg\\/L BBP. Threespine sticklebacks, collected from a freshwater population in central Norway, were exposed to BBP for 26 days. BBP

sa Espmark Wibe; Anna Billing; Gunilla Rosenqvist; Bjrn Munro Jenssen

2002-01-01

194

Patterns of coral recruitment at the Gneering Shoals, southeast Queensland, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment patterns of scleractinian corals were investigated at the Gneering Shoals, a coral-dominated rocky-reef south of the Great Barrier Reef, in subtropical Queensland. The density of recruits (mean of 0.8 to 6.3 recruits per tile (15 cm 15 cm) pair from 4 sites) was the lowest ever recorded from six regions in tropical or subtropical eastern Australia that have

S. A. Banks; V. J. Harriott

1996-01-01

195

Statistical classification methodology of SHOALS 3000 backscatter to mapping coastal benthic habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scanning hydrographic operational airborne LiDAR survey (SHOALS) consists of a bathymetric LiDAR system which provides high precision measurements of water depth. Even though the acquisition is focused on depth accuracy, the return signal, i.e. waveform, contains other relevant information because of integration signatures from the water surface, the water column and the sea-bed. This paper highlights the benthic characterization

Antoine Collin; Antoine Cottin; Bernard Long; P. Archambault; P. Kuus; J. H. Clarke; Gunho Sohn; John Miller

2007-01-01

196

Familiarity affects social network structure and discovery of prey patch locations in foraging stickleback shoals.  

PubMed

Numerous factors affect the fine-scale social structure of animal groups, but it is unclear how important such factors are in determining how individuals encounter resources. Familiarity affects shoal choice and structure in many social fishes. Here, we show that familiarity between shoal members of sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) affects both fine-scale social organization and the discovery of resources. Social network analysis revealed that sticklebacks remained closer to familiar than to unfamiliar individuals within the same shoal. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that there was a strong untransmitted social effect on patch discovery, with individuals tending to discover a task sooner if a familiar individual from their group had previously done so than if an unfamiliar fish had done so. However, in contrast to the effect of familiarity, the frequency with which individuals had previously associated with one another had no effect upon the likelihood of prey patch discovery. This may have been due to the influence of fish on one another's movements; the effect of familiarity on discovery of an empty 'control' patch was as strong as for discovery of an actual prey patch. Our results demonstrate that factors affecting fine-scale social interactions can also influence how individuals encounter and exploit resources. PMID:25009061

Atton, N; Galef, B J; Hoppitt, W; Webster, M M; Laland, K N

2014-08-22

197

Consequences of shoaling of the Central American Seaway determined from modeling Nd isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central American Seaway played a pivotal role in shaping global climate throughout the late Cenozoic. Recent geological surveys have provided new constraints on timing of the seaway shoaling, while neodymium isotopic (?Nd) data measured on fossil teeth, debris, and ferromanganese crusts have helped define the history of water masses in the region. Here we provide the first 3-D simulations of ?Nd responses to the shoaling seaway. Our model suggests that a narrow and shallow seaway is sufficient to affect interoceanic circulation, that inflow/outflow balance between the Caribbean and the Antilles responds nonlinearly to sill depth, and that a seaway narrower than 400 km is consistent with an active Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during the late Miocene. Simulated ?Nd values in the Caribbean confirm that inputs from radiogenic Pacific waters in the Caribbean decrease as the seaway shoals. Despite model limitations, a comparison between our results and ?Nd values recorded in the Caribbean helps constrain the depth of the Central American Seaway through time, and we infer that a depth between 50 and 200 m could have been reached 10 Ma ago.

Sepulchre, P.; Arsouze, T.; Donnadieu, Y.; Dutay, J.-C.; Jaramillo, C.; Le Bras, J.; Martin, E.; Montes, C.; Waite, A. J.

2014-03-01

198

Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the Shoal harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the Shoal Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.

Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.

1996-10-01

199

Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring gull Larus argentatus  

SciTech Connect

..sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring gulls collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring gull. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in newly hatched chicks but the levels were much lower (only 7-12 % in the herring gull) in chicks just before fledgling. The levels in young gulls remained low until the end of August at least. Therefore it is plausible that the high levels found in adult gulls are a consequence of their wintering in the southern Baltic. The levels of ..sigma..DDT and PCB residues were significantly lower in female arctic terns than in male terns. Differences between the sexes were small in the herring gull. Thus it is possible that the female of the arctic tern is able to release pollutants, especially PCB residues, more effectively into eggs than the female of the herring gull. The biochemical mechanisms involved are not clear but a possible explanation may be different lipoprotein structures in the eggs of the species.

Lemmetyinen, R.; Rantamaki, P.; Karlin, A.

1982-01-01

200

Low frequency of extra-pair paternity in Common Gulls ( Larus canus ) as revealed by DNA fingerprinting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the last decade, the mating systems of many bird species have been analysed using molecular genetic methods. Most of these studies were performed on Passeriformes while Non-Passeriformes were rarely investigated. To fill this gap, we analysed blood samples of 24 Common Gull (Larus canus) families from two Polish colonies using DNA fingerprinting. A total of 55 of 56

Monika Bukaeifiska; Dariusz Bukacifiski; Jrg Thomas Epplen; Klaus Peter Sauer; Thomas Lubjuhn

1998-01-01

201

Isolation, Cryopreservation, and Mitogenesis of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Chickens ( Gallus domesticus ) and Wild Herring Gulls ( Larus argentatus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the toxicity of environmental contaminants on the physiologic function of wild birds often includes measures of immune function. The purpose of this study was to apply methods of isolation, cryopreservation, and cell culture of chicken lymphocytes to blood samples from herring gulls, which are a sentinel species for biomonitoring studies in the Great Lakes and northern North America. Slow-spin

E. T. Lavoie; K. A. Grasman

2005-01-01

202

Atlas of Gull and Tern Colonies: North Carolina to Key West, Florida (Including Pelicans, Cormorants and Skimmers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Colonies of pelicans, cormorants, gulls, terns and black skimmers were inventoried in 1976 from North Carolina to Key West, Florida. Five teams of investigators used ground and aerial counts of nests or adults, or both, throughout the spring and summer. T...

J. W. Portnoy R. M. Erwin T. W. Custer

1981-01-01

203

Eggshell thinning and decreased concentrations of vitamin E are associated with contaminants in eggs of ivory gulls.  

PubMed

The ivory gull is a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminant exposure. High levels of contaminants have been reported in ivory gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. The present study investigated associations between high levels of contaminants (organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg)) and three response variables: eggshell thickness, retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E). Negative associations were found between levels of OCPs, PCBs and BFRs and eggshell thickness (p<0.021) and ?-tocopherol (p<0.023), but not with retinol (p>0.1). There were no associations between PFASs and mercury and the three response variables. Furthermore, the eggshell thickness was 7-17% thinner in the present study than in archived ivory gull eggs (?1930). In general, a thinning above 16 to 20% has been associated with a decline in bird populations, suggesting that contaminant-induced eggshell thinning may constitute a serious threat to ivory gull populations globally. PMID:22673175

Miljeteig, Cecilie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Strm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Lie, Elisabeth; Jenssen, Bjrn Munro

2012-08-01

204

Canary Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

1992-01-01

205

Novel flame retardants in urban-feeding ring-billed gulls from the St. Lawrence River, Canada.  

PubMed

This study investigated the occurrence of a comprehensive suite of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and current-use flame retardants (FRs) in ring-billed gulls breeding in a highly industrialized section of the St. Lawrence River, downstream from Montreal (QC, Canada). Despite major point-sources and diffuse contamination by FRs, nearly no FR data have been reported in birds from this area. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP) was detected in 89% of ring-billed gull livers (mean: 2.16 ng/g ww; max: 17.6 ng/g ww). To our knowledge, this is the highest detection frequency and highest concentrations reported thus far in any avian species or populations. Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were also particularly abundant (anti-DP detected in 100% and syn-DP in 93% of livers). Other detected FR compounds (3-14% detection) included 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), hexachlorocyclopentenyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO) and ?-1,2-dibromo-4-(1.2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (?-TBECH). Mean BDE-209 (57.2 12.2 ng/g ww) in ring-billed gull livers was unexpectedly high for this midtrophic gull species, exceeding levels reported in several apex raptors such as peregrine falcons. BDE-209's relative contribution to ?PBDEs was on average 25% (exceeding BDE-47 and BDE-99) and contrasted with profiles typically reported for fish-eating gull species. The present study highlighted preoccupying gaps in upcoming FR regulations and stressed the need for further investigation of the sources of FR exposure in highly urbanized areas. PMID:22845168

Gentes, Marie-Line; Letcher, Robert J; Caron-Beaudoin, Elyse; Verreault, Jonathan

2012-09-01

206

Developing a statistical model for locating bedrock shoal habitat to aid in understanding naturally occurring denitrification processes in a mid-sized river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research presents results from an ongoing study of denitrification in bedrock shoals of the Cahaba River of Alabama. Previous research suggests that plant macrophytes and their associated microbial communities located in bedrock shoals help reduce DIN concentrations by 50% in the Cahaba River. As a first step in creating a geo-ecological model capable of predicting the location of denitrification 'hotspots,' we have developed a statistical model capable of predicting the location of bedrock shoals. We characterized rock integrity (GSI - Geological Strength Index), streamflow relative to bedrock orientation (perpendicularity index), and channel confinement (channel width/valley width) at shoaled (n=100) and non-shoaled (n=70) sections of the Cahaba River using aerial photography, field data, and geologic maps in a GIS environment. We used these data to develop a binary logistic regression model, which suggested that the two most significant variables for predicting shoal occurrence were rock integrity (p=.000) and perpendicularity index (p=.001). The model correctly predicted whether a location was shoaled or not 92% of the time. When used to predict the status of non-studied sites (i.e., not a part of the model's derivation) the model performed reliably, giving all shoaled locations > 90% probability of being shoaled and assigning < 35% probability of being shoaled to all non-shoaled sites. Though only a first-step in a long process, these results are crucial to creating a geo-ecological model to identify denitrification 'hotspots,' as bedrock-shoals provide a spatially explicit feature through which spatial variability of plant macrophytes and their associated microbial communities can be modeled at a variety of spatial scales.

Davis, L.; Bishop, J. A.

2013-12-01

207

Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2004-10-01

208

Seasonal enumeration of fecal coliform bacteria from the feces of ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis).  

PubMed

Water suppliers have often implicated roosting birds for fecal contamination of their surface waters. Geese and gulls have been the primary targets of this blame although literature documenting the fecal coliform content of these birds is quite limited. To determine the actual fecal coliform concentrations of these birds, fecal samples from 249 ring-billed gulls and 236 Canada geese in Westchester County, N.Y., were analyzed over a 2-year period. Results indicate that gull feces contain a greater average concentration of fecal coliform bacteria per gram (3.68 x 10(8)) than do goose feces (1.53 x 10(4)); however, average fecal sample weights of the geese were more than 15 times higher than those of the gulls. PMID:10584032

Alderisio, K A; DeLuca, N

1999-12-01

209

Island Biogeography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium;Biology); Jennifer Spangenberg (Beloit College;)

2005-12-16

210

Short communication Henslow's swimming crab (Polybius henslowii) as an important food for yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans) in NW Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the contents of 2562 pellets sampled from 1987 to 1993 at breeding colonies and roosting sites showed that Henslow's swimming crabs (Polybius henslowii) are by far the most important marine prey for yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans) on the coasts of Galicia (north-western Spain), occurring in 36.4% of pellets. The results also suggest that yellow-legged gulls in Galicia

Ignacio Munilla

211

Geological structure of Charity Shoal crater, Lake Ontario, revealed by multibeam bathymetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic images of Charity Shoal in Lake Ontario, derived from a 1 1 m grid model of bathymetry assembled by the Canadian Hydrographic Service in 2010-2011, confirm the existence of a crater, as revealed by its surface morphology. With these higher quality data, it is possible to describe the crater in much greater detail, and arrive at a better interpretation of the geology than was possible using the earlier bathymetry of Lake Ontario. This new bathymetry of Charity Shoal reveals a continuous rim encircling an ovoid-shaped crater floor 1,200-1,500 m in diameter, with the crater floor being largely devoid of relief. Extending 3-4 km southwest of the crater is a ridge capped by a linear zone of unstratified debris that resembles a medial moraine. NE-SW erosional valleys cut across the crater rim in its southwestern sector. Apparently, glacial erosion has stripped the soil zone off stratified bedrock beneath the crater rim, exposing an intricate pattern of micro-ridges and grooves that bear the record of differential resistance to erosion of successive beds within the sequence of rock strata. Mapping of the shallow structure of the bedrock reveals a continuous ring anticline coinciding with the crater rim, with rock strata dipping gently in both directions away from the rim axis. In combination with existing evidence on the regional stratigraphy, these observations and interpretations are consistent with the Charity Shoal crater having formed in a shallow marine environment by an extraterrestrial impact event in the Middle Ordovician, followed by post-impact sedimentation, and much later, erosion during Pleistocene glaciations. Apparently, post-impact sediments infilled the crater and eventually covered the crater rim, leaving only a diminished structural expression of a crater having no more than 20 m of surface relief. Further details of crater history and origin, and a test of the hypothesis of impact, will likely come from acoustic reflection profiling and direct sampling.

Holcombe, Troy L.; Youngblut, Scott; Slowey, Niall

2013-08-01

212

Surficial sediment stability on Georges Bank, in the Great South Channel and on eastern Nantucket Shoals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surficial sediment stability was estimated on Georges Bank, in the Great South Channel and on eastern Nantucket Shoals (36,699 km2) by determining where benthic shear stresses derived from an ocean model matched or exceeded the critical shear stress of the observed surficial sediments. The shear stress resulting from M2 and S2 semi-diurnal tides was estimated with the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model. Mixed-sediment critical shear stress levels were calculated for sediment compositions ranging from sand to boulder-dominated using 67,400 underwater video quadrats sampled from 1999 to 2010. Stresses matched or exceeded the sediment critical levels in 16,926 km2 (46%) of the study area, and were inversely related to water depth (r2=69.1%). In depths >50 m (10,953 km2) all sediments were stable due to weak flow (?0.4 N m-2). In the shallower higher flow areas (>0.4 N m-2, 25,716 km2) only sediments containing gravel remained stable. The largest stresses occurred on Nantucket Shoals and central and northeastern Georges Bank (?2 N m-2); in these areas only sand with cobbles or sediments dominated by gravel remained stable. Outcrops of these stable sediments were surrounded by highly unstable areas with stresses 2 to 9 times higher than the sediment critical levels. This analysis identifies the locations which likely remain stable even under the high shear stresses typical of Georges Bank, the Great South Channel and eastern Nantucket Shoals. Further, we provide the map products needed to begin investigating the influences of natural sediment disturbance on the spatial and temporal patterns of the benthos including the resilience of stable versus unstable areas to anthropogenic disturbances.

Harris, Bradley P.; Cowles, Geoffrey W.; Stokesbury, Kevin D. E.

2012-10-01

213

Islands at bay: Rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of island erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 islands in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, gulls by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The island losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding islands at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.

Erwin, R. M.; Brinker, D. F.; Watts, B. D.; Costanzo, G. R.; Morton, D. D.

2011-01-01

214

[CO2 exchanges between mangrove- and shoal wetland ecosystems and atmosphere in Guangzhou].  

PubMed

Based on the investigation of biomass and the measurement of CO2 and CH4 fluxes, the CO2 exchanges between mangrove- and shoal wetland ecosystems and atmosphere in Guangzhou were studied, and the CO2 absorption capability of the wetlands vegetation net productivity as well as the carbon sink function of the wetlands under different waterlogged conditions (perennial, intermittent, and no water-logging) was analyzed. As for mangrove wetland ecosystem, its vegetation net productivity absorbed 33.74 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2, and soil emitted 12.26 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2 (including the greenhouse effect amount of CH4 converted into that of CO2,) illustrating that mangrove wetland had a 21.48 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) net absorption of CO2, being a strong carbon sink. For shoal wetland ecosystem, its vegetation net productivity absorbed 8.54 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2, and soil emitted 5.88 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2 and 0.19 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CH4. If converting into carbon, the wetland absorbed 2.33 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), and soil emitted 1.74 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) (including the carbon in CH4), illustrating that shoal wetland fixed 0.59 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), being a weak carbon sink. If the greenhouse effect amount of CH4 was converted into that of CO2, the soil emitted 9.78 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2, which was 1.24 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) more than the absorption. As a result, shoal wetland was a weak carbon source. Between the two test greenhouse gases, CH4 was the main one emitted under perennial water-logging, while CO2 was that under no water-logging. Moreover, the wetland under perennial water-logging had the strongest carbon sink function, while that under no water-logging was in adverse. PMID:19288711

Kang, Wen-xing; Zhao, Zhong-hui; Tian, Da-lun; He, Jie-nan; Deng, Xiang-wen

2008-12-01

215

Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the Shoal Underground Nuclear Test  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the Shoal underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.

K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley

2004-03-01

216

[On a helminthofauna of seabirds of the Archangelskaya Bay ( Northern island of Novaya Zemlya)].  

PubMed

In the Archangelskaya Bay (North Island of Novaya Zemlya), 25 specimens of sea birds have been collected: 5 kittiwakes, 5 murres, 5 little auks, 4 common eiders, 4 purple sandpipers, and 2 glaucous gulls. Following numbers of helminth parasite species have been recovered in this material: trematodes--1, cestodes--5, proboscic worms--2, and nematodes--2 species. The description of morphological characters of Anomotaenia micracantha micracantha (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from the kittiwake is given. The dependence of helminth fauna composition on the character of bird's feeding is traced. Differences in the infection with parasites of gulls and auks habitating the Archangelskaya Bay are revealed. Data on a life cycle of parasites found and ways of their circulation in the ecosystems of the Barents Sea are given. As for Triaenophorus erostris, which was indicated for gulls of the Barents Sea by Belopolskaya (1952), Galkin e. a. (1994) and Galaktionov e. a. (1997) as a common parasite, it was absent both in the material collected by Markov (1941) and in our material. PMID:11548578

Kuklin, V V

2001-01-01

217

Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area  

SciTech Connect

The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.

Ahmed Hassan

2004-09-01

218

Observations of large infragravity wave runup at Banneg Island, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On Banneg Island, France, very high water-level events (6.5 m above the astronomical tide) have been observed on the western cliff, exposed to large swells from the North Atlantic. The analysis of hydrodynamic measurements collected during the storm of 10 February 2009 shows unusually high (over 2 m) infragravity wave runup events. By comparing runup observations to measurements in approximately 7 m of water and numerical simulations with a simplified nonlinear model, two distinct infragravity bands may be identified: an 80 s infragravity wave, produced by nonlinear shoaling of the storm swell; and a 300 s wave, trapped on the intertidal platform of the island and generating intermittent, low-frequency inundation. Our analysis shows that the 300 s waves are a key component of the extreme water levels recorded on the island.

Sheremet, Alex; Staples, Tracy; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Suanez, Serge; Fichaut, Bernard

2014-02-01

219

The genome of an influenza virus from a pilot whale: Relation to influenza viruses of gulls and marine mammals.  

PubMed

Influenza virus A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 (H13N2) was isolated from a diseased pilot whale. Since only a partial sequence was available, its complete genome was sequenced and compared to the sequences of subtype H13 influenza viruses from shorebirds and various influenza viruses of marine mammals. The data reveal a rare genotype constellation with all gene segments derived of an influenza virus adapted to gulls, terns and waders. In contrast, the phylogenetic trees indicate that the majority of influenza viruses isolated from marine mammals derived from influenza viruses adapted to geese and ducks. We conclude that A/whale/Maine/328B/1984 is the first record of an infection of a marine mammal from a gull-origin influenza virus. PMID:24704761

Groth, Marco; Lange, Jeannette; Kanrai, Pumaree; Pleschka, Stephan; Scholtissek, Christoph; Krumbholz, Andi; Platzer, Matthias; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Zell, Roland

2014-06-01

220

Estimation of the water optical properties and bottom reflectance from SHOALS data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In earlier work, we have proposed a concept for estimation of ocean optical properties with a mutliple field of view bathymetric lidar. In this paper we consider and implementation of this idea using the Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey (SHOALS) system. The SHOALS design uses two receivers for depth measurement: a shallow-water, APD receiver with and 18 mrad FOV; and a deep-water PMT receiver with a 40 mrad FOV. They simultaneously record the optical power returned from a single pulse of the laser, and consequently provide the desired measurements. Here, we present an algorithm for the estimation of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in the upper ocean layer which is based on "multiple-forward-single-backscattering" model of the returned power, and an analytical solution to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for finite sounding beam propogation in the small-angle-scattering approximation. Using this algorithm, we have developed an approach for estimation of the backscattering coefficient, the beam attenuation coefficient, the single-scattering albedo, and the VSF asymmetry coefficient, by fitting simulated waveforms to actual data measured by the two receivers. We also present an approach for improvement in estimates of bottom reflectance which compensates for pulse stretching induced by angle of incidence effects.

Feygels, V. I.; Kopilevich, Y.; Tuell, G. H.; Surkov, A.; LaRocque, P.; Cunningham, A. G.

2007-04-01

221

Patterns of coral recruitment at the Gneering Shoals, southeast Queensland, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recruitment patterns of scleractinian corals were investigated at the Gneering Shoals, a coral-dominated rocky-reef south of the Great Barrier Reef, in subtropical Queensland. The density of recruits (mean of 0.8 to 6.3 recruits per tile (15 cm 15 cm) pair from 4 sites) was the lowest ever recorded from six regions in tropical or subtropical eastern Australia that have been studied using directly comparable methods. Recruitment in summer was dominated by recruits from the Family Acroporidae, while corals from the Family Pocilloporidae recruited throughout the year. Recruits of massive corals and Turbinaria sp., which dominate the established coral communities, were absent. Possible explanations for the low recruitment rate in the region, include the depth of most sites (> 10m), competition for space with fouling organisms, and isolation, that is the failure of the south flowing East Australian Current to supply tropical larvae regularly from the Great Barrier Reef, 250 km to the north. The low coral recruitment rate at Gneering Shoals indicates that this region is unlikely to act as a stepping-stone for dispersal of tropical corals to more southern regions, which are more directly influenced by the East Australian Current.

Banks, S. A.; Harriott, V. J.

1996-11-01

222

Area utilization of gulls in a coastal farmland landscape: habitat mosaic supports niche segregation of opportunistic species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensively farmed coastal lowland landscape of Germany, adjacent to the North Sea, provides important foraging opportunities\\u000a for Black-headed, Common, Herring and Lesser Black-backed gull (Larus ridibundus, L. canus, L. argentatus and L. fuscus). We expected that spatial and temporal utilization of the landscape mosaic as well as behavioural traits and utilization\\u000a of food resources would differ between these closely

Philipp Schwemmer; Stefan Garthe; Roger Mundry

2008-01-01

223

Testing predictions from flight mechanical theory: a case study of Corys shearwater and Audouins gull  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions from flight mechanical theory concerning optimal flight speeds were tested in the field in two Mediterranean seabirds,\\u000a the Corys shearwater Calonectris diomedea and the Audouins gull Larus audouinii. Both species were commuting off the coast of Isola di San Pietro, 6 km south-west of the coast of Sardinia. Heading and\\u000a airspeed were obtained by vector calculation of flight tracks

Mikael Rosn; Anders Hedenstrm

2001-01-01

224

Fish waste as an alternative resource for gulls along the Patagonian coast: availability, use, and potential consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the volumes of waste from fish processing plants in Chubut Province, Argentina, and discuss its potential consequences for Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) population dynamics and coastal management. Mean volume of waste produced between 1989 and 2001 in three coastal cities was 49.810.9 thousand tonsy?1. The amount of waste varied between years and cities, being larger at Puerto Madryn

Pablo Yorio; Guillermo Caille

2004-01-01

225

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying datetemperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus  

Microsoft Academic Search

organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (G!E) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (nZ11 624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used

Jon E. Brommer; Kalev Rattiste; Alastair J. Wilson

2008-01-01

226

Gene expression, glutathione status and indicators of hepatic oxidative stress in laughing gull (Larus atricilla) hatchlings exposed to methylmercury  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite extensive studies of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in birds, molecular effects on birds are poorly characterized. To improve our understanding of toxicity pathways and identify novel indicators of avian exposure to Hg, the authors investigated genomic changes, glutathione status, and oxidative status indicators in liver from laughing gull (Larus atricilla) hatchlings that were exposed in ovo to MeHg (0.051.6 g/g). Genes involved in the transsulfuration pathway, iron transport and storage, thyroid-hormone related processes, and cellular respiration were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization as differentially expressed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) identified statistically significant effects of Hg on cytochrome C oxidase subunits I and II, transferrin, and methionine adenosyltransferase RNA expression. Glutathione-S-transferase activity and protein-bound sulfhydryl levels decreased, whereas glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased dose-dependently. Total sulfhydryl concentrations were significantly lower at 0.4 g/g Hg than in controls. T ogether, these endpoints provided some evidence of compensatory effects, but little indication of oxidative damage at the tested doses, and suggest that sequestration of Hg through various pathways may be important for minimizing toxicity in laughing gulls. This is the first study to describe the genomic response of an avian species to Hg. Laughing gulls are among the less sensitive avian species with regard to Hg toxicity, and their ability to prevent hepatic oxidative stress may be important for surviving levels of MeHg exposures at which other species succumb.

Jenko, Kathryn; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Hoffman, David J.

2012-01-01

227

Galapagos Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

228

Structural analysist of N-glycans from gull egg white glycoproteins and egg yolk IgG  

PubMed Central

We previously showed that the expression of (Gal?1-4Gal)-bearing glycoproteins among birds is related to their phylogeny. However, precise structures of (Gal?1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans were only known for pigeon egg white glycoproteins and IgG. To compare structural features of (Gal?1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans from other species, we analyzed N-glycans of gull egg white (GEW)-glycoproteins, ovomucoid, and ovotransferrin, and gull egg yolk IgG by HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS), and MS/MS analyses. GEW-glycoproteins included neutral, monosialyl, and disialyl N-glycans, and some of them contained Gal?1-4Gal sequences. Bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary oligosaccharides that lacked bisecting GlcNAc were the major core structures, and incomplete ?-galactosylation and sialylation as well as the presence of diLacNAc on the branches generated microheterogeneity of the N-glycan structures. Moreover, unlike pigeon egg white glycoproteins, the major sialylation in GEW-glycoproteins is ?2,3-, but not ?2,6-linked sialic acids (NeuAc). In addition to the complex-type oligosaccharide, hybrid-type oligosaccharides that lack bisecting GlcNAc were also abundant in GEW-glycoproteins. Gull egg yolk IgG also contained Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1- sequences, but unlike pigeon IgG, no Gal?1-4Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1- sequence was detected. Bi- and tri-antennary complex-type oligosaccharides with bisecting GlcNAc and with core fucosylation as well as high-mannose-type oligosaccharides were the major structures in gull IgG. Our data indicated that some N-glycans from both GEW-glycoproteins and gull IgG contain the Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1- sequence, but the ratio of ?-Gal-capped residues to non-?-Gal-capped residues in the nonreducing termini of N-glycans is much lower than that in those of pigeon glycoproteins.

Suzuki, Noriko; Su, Tseng-Hsiung; Wu, Sze-Wei; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lee, Yuan C

2009-01-01

229

Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using...

J. W. Lane P. K. Joesten G. Pohll T. Mihevic

2001-01-01

230

The Role of Phytoplankton from the Ob River in Biological Productivity of the ObYenisei Shoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program of investigations on the taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of planktonic microalgae in the Gulf of Ob and the southern Kara Sea in different seasons was carried out. Throughout the observation period, from July to October, high values of phytoplankton biomass were recorded in the Gulf of Ob and adjacent areas of the ObYenisei shoal. This is evidence

P. R. Makarevich; V. V. Larionov; N. V. Druzhkov; E. I. Druzhkova

2003-01-01

231

Data Report: LongEZ (N3R) Participation in the 1999 Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) Spring Pilot Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) Spring pilot study stook place at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) located in Duck, North Carolina during a three week period in March 1999. The primary objective of SHOWEX was to measur...

G. H. Crescenti T. L. Crawford E. J. Dumas

1999-01-01

232

Akpatok Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

233

Prolific Overton field gas reservoirs within large transverse oolite shoals, Upper Jurassic Haynesville, Eastern Margin East Texas basin  

SciTech Connect

Late Triassic rifting along a northeast-southwest spreading center in east Texas resulted in basement highs along the eastern margin of the East Texas basin that became sites of extensive ooid shoal deposition during Late Jurassic time. Reservoirs within oolite facies at Overton field contain over 1 tcf of natural gas. These large shoals, each approximately 15 mi (24 km) long and 3 mi (4.8 km) wide, trend north-south as a group and northeast-southwest individually. They are oblique to the basin margin but parallel with Jurassic diffracted tidal currents within the East Texas embayment. Modern Bahamian ooid shoals of similar size, trend, and depositional setting occur at the terminus of the deep Tongue-Of-The-Ocean platform reentrant. Overton field reservoirs are in ooid grainstone shoal facies and in transitional shoal margins of skeletal-oolitic-peloidal grainstones and packstones. Adjacent nonreservoir facies are peloidal-skeletal-siliciclastic wackestones and mudstones. Early diagenesis of grainstone reservoir facies included meteoric dissolution and grain stabilization, resulting in abundant chalky intraparticle porosity and equant and bladed calcite cements filling interparticle porosity. Subsequent burial diagenesis resulted in intense solution compaction and coarse equant calcite and saddle crystal dolomite that occluded remaining interparticle porosity. Whole-rock trace element analysis indicates greatest diagenetic flushing (less magnesium, strontium) in porous zones. Stable isotopes for grains and cements show strong overprint of later burial diagenesis, with greater depletion of delta/sup 18/O in reservoir facies. However, hydrocarbons were emplaced prior to late cementation, and unlike other Jurassic Gulf Coast reservoirs, deep burial diagenesis provided no late-stage formation of porosity.

Glynn, W.G.; Covington, T.E.; Lighty, R.G.; Ahr, W.M.

1985-02-01

234

Characteristics and Mechanisms of Cardiopulmonary Injury Caused by Mine Blasts in Shoals: A Randomized Controlled Study in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Background Because the characteristics of blast waves in water are different from those in air and because kinetic energy is liberated by a pressure wave at the water-air interface, thoracic injuries from mine blasts in shoals may be serious. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury caused by mine blasts in shoals. Methods To study the characteristics of cardiopulmonary injury, 56 animals were divided randomly into three experimental groups (12 animals in the sham group, 22 animals in the land group and 22 animals in the shoal group). To examine the biomechanics of injury, 20 animals were divided randomly into the land group and the shoal group. In the experimental model, the water surface was at the level of the rabbit's xiphoid process, and paper electric detonators (600 mg RDX) were used to simulate mines. Electrocardiography and echocardiography were conducted, and arterial blood gases, serum levels of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB and other physiologic parameters were measured over a 12-hour period after detonation. Pressures in the thorax and abdomen and the acceleration of the thorax were measured. Conclusion The results indicate that severe cardiopulmonary injury and dysfunction occur following exposure to mine blasts in shoals. Therefore, the mechanisms of cardiopulmonary injury may result from shear waves that produce strain at the water-air interface. Another mechanism of injury includes the propagation of the shock wave from the planta to the thorax, which causes a much higher peak overpressure in the abdomen than in the thorax; as a result, the abdominal organs and diaphragm are thrust into the thorax, damaging the lungs and heart.

Han, Gengfen; Wang, Ziming; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Weixiao; Chen, Jing; Kang, Jianyi; Zhang, Sen; Wang, Aimin; Lai, Xinan

2013-01-01

235

Response of shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, to extreme winter conditions in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effects of a severe freeze on the shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, were documented through analysis of temporal and spatial trends in below-ground biomass. The coincidence of the second lowest temperature (-10.6??C) in 107 years of record, 56 consecutive hours below freezing, high winds and extremely low water levels exposed the Laguna Madre, TX, to the most severe cold stress in over a century. H. wrightii tolerated this extreme freeze event. Annual pre- and post-freeze surveys indicated that below-ground biomass estimated from volume was Unaffected by the freeze event. Nor was there any post-freeze change in biomass among intertidal sites directly exposed to freezing air temperatures relative to subtidal sites which remained submerged during the freezing period.

Hicks, D. W.; Onuf, C. P.; Tunnell, J. W.

1998-01-01

236

2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the 2010 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 in Churchill County, Nevada. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the PSA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 447 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended March 2010) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes the results from the groundwater monitoring program during fiscal year 2010.

None

2011-02-01

237

Groundwater Model Validation for the Project Shoal Area, Corrective Action Unit 447  

SciTech Connect

Stoller has examined newly collected water level data in multiple wells at the Shoal site. On the basis of these data and information presented in the report, we are currently unable to confirm that the model is successfully validated. Most of our concerns regarding the model stem from two findings: (1) measured water level data do not provide clear evidence of a prevailing lateral flow direction; and (2) the groundwater flow system has been and continues to be in a transient state, which contrasts with assumed steady-state conditions in the model. The results of DRI's model validation efforts and observations made regarding water level behavior are discussed in the following sections. A summary of our conclusions and recommendations for a path forward are also provided in this letter report.

None

2008-05-19

238

On wind-wave-current interactions during the Shoaling Waves Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a case study of wind-wave-current interaction during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX). Surface current fields off Duck, North Carolina, were measured by a high-frequency Ocean Surface Current Radar (OSCR). Wind, wind stress, and directional wave data were obtained from several Air Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoys moored in the OSCR scanning domain. At several times during the experiment, significant coastal currents entered the experimental area. High horizontal shears at the current edge resulted in the waves at the peak of wind-sea spectra (but not those in the higher-frequency equilibrium range) being shifted away from the mean wind direction. This led to a significant turning of the wind stress vector away from the mean wind direction. The interactions presented here have important applications in radar remote sensing and are discussed in the context of recent radar imaging models of the ocean surface.

Zhang, Fei W.; Drennan, William M.; Haus, Brian K.; Graber, Hans C.

2009-01-01

239

Rock fabric, permeability, and log relationships in an upward-shoaling, vuggy carbonate sequence  

SciTech Connect

Cores and logs used in the study were from a Department of Energy well in Oldham County containing a wide range of separate-vug porosity in a simple upward-shoaling carbonate sequence of early Permian (Wolfcampian) age. The authors investigated two wireline methods, one involving acoustic logs and one involving resistivity logs, and both were found to determine separate-vug porosity. Two equations relating interparticle porosity and permeability were derived using the general relationship between particle size, interparticle porosity, and permeability described earlier by Lucia as a guide to define porosity-permeability relationships. The authors report that permeabilities calculated using particle-size and interparticle porosity determined by subtracting separate-vug porosity from total porosity are more accurate than those calculated from total porosity data alone.

Lucia, F.J.; Conti, R.D.

1987-01-01

240

Directional changes in sexual size dimorphism in shorebirds, gulls and alcids.  

PubMed

The Charadrii (shorebirds, gulls and alcids) are one of the most diverse avian groups from the point of view of sexual size dimorphism, exhibiting extremes in both male-biased and female-biased dimorphism, as well as monomorphism. In this study we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate how size dimorphism has changed over evolutionary time, distinguishing between changes that have occurred in females and in males. Independent contrasts analyses show that both body mass and wing length have been more variable in males than in females. Directional analyses show that male-biased dimorphism has increased after inferred transitions towards more polygynous mating systems. There have been analogous increases in female-biased dimorphism after transitions towards more socially polyandrous mating systems. Changes in dimorphism in both directions are attributable to male body size changing more than female body size. We suggest that this might be because females are under stronger natural selection constraints related to fecundity. Taken together, our results suggest that the observed variation in dimorphism of Charadrii can be best explained by male body size responding more sensitively to variable sexual selection than female body size. PMID:14635908

Lindenfors, P; Szkely, T; Reynolds, J D

2003-09-01

241

Differential effects of specific carotenoids on oxidative damage and immune response of gull chicks.  

PubMed

Micronutrients are essential for normal metabolic processes during early development. Specifically, it has been suggested that diet-derived carotenoids can play a key role in physiological functions because of their antioxidant and immunostimulant properties. However, their role as antioxidants remains controversial. Additionally, it is also unclear whether oxidative stress mediates their immunostimulatory effects. In this field study, we separately supplemented yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) chicks with two carotenoids (lutein and ?-carotene) with different molecular structures and different transformation pathways into other oxidative forms of carotenoids. We quantified their effect on the oxidative status and the immune response of chicks before and after an oxidative challenge with paraquat, a pro-oxidant molecule. Prior to oxidative challenge, none of the carotenoid treatments affected the oxidative status of chicks, but they enhanced the inflammatory response to an antigen compared with controls. The oxidative challenge enhanced plasma vitamin E levels (but not in ?-carotene-supplemented chicks) and the antioxidant capacity in the short term. Interestingly, lutein-supplemented chicks showed lower oxidative damage to proteins than non-lutein-supplemented chicks. After the oxidative challenge, the positive effect of carotenoid supplementation on the immune response disappeared. Thus, these results suggest differential effects of two carotenoids with different molecular structures on the oxidative status. Lutein but not ?-carotene helps to combat oxidative damage after a free-radical exposure. Additionally, the results indicate that the immunostimulatory effects of carotenoids are linked to oxidative status during early life. PMID:24363415

Lucas, Alberto; Morales, Judith; Velando, Alberto

2014-04-15

242

Reproductive success in presenescent common gulls (Larus canus): the importance of the last year of life.  

PubMed Central

Survival selection against individuals of inferior quality (measured as breeding success) has been proposed to account for the increase in average reproductive success with advancing age in presenescent birds. This so-called selection hypothesis relies on quality-dependent survival. In the present breeding performance study of common gulls, Larus canus, this assumption was not verified. In particular, omitting the last breeding year from the analysis resulted in the disappearance of the correlation between breeding success and survival. A positive correlation in the full dataset was thus solely based on the poor breeding success of ultimate breeders. Indeed, presenescent individuals were shown to have a specifically low breeding success in their terminal breeding event. The poor success of ultimate breeders thus reflects an abruptly declined condition rather than the birds' overall quality. A comparison of the survival of poor and good performers, involving last-time breeders, thus needs not to be a proper test of the selection hypothesis. Longitudinal analysis revealed a steady increase of individual breeding success until the tenth breeding year. The results suggest that an increase of breeding success with age often found in cross-sectional analyses is primarily a result of age-related improvements of competence and/or increased reproductive effort.

Rattiste, Kalev

2004-01-01

243

Breeding dispersal in black-headed gull: the value of familiarity in a contrasted environment.  

PubMed

1. Some species (e.g. migratory species with high movement ability) are unlikely to experience any physical cost when dispersing, at least at the landscape scale. In these species dispersal is nevertheless behaviourally constrained to avoid non-physical costs such as the loss of familiarity with the breeding environment, and these constraints can be maladaptive in a fast-changing environment. 2. We evaluated such constraints using multievent modelling of a 20-year capture-mark-recapture data set from a multisite population of black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus). The population undertakes seasonal migrations that are very large compared with the size of the study area. 3. Distances between colonies appeared as a strong predictor of breeding adults' dispersal rates, confirming behavioural constraints on dispersal. In addition, birds that had recruited outside their colony of birth (natal dispersers) tended to return to their colony of birth later in life (long-term memory effect). 4. An attraction for larger colonies was also visible in breeding adult dispersal patterns. The fact that distance and memory still constrained dispersal although the largest colony provided higher breeding success indicated departures from the ideal-free distribution, probably linked with the lack of information about distant colonies. Moreover, the regional population apparently functioned as a meta-colony where individuals frequently bred in suboptimal-choice locations before being able to recruit in their preferred colony. PMID:19891713

Pron, Guillaume; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Crochet, Pierre-Andr

2010-03-01

244

Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

Findlay, Rick

2006-01-01

245

Water quality in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 1999-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Results of a water-quality investigation of the upper Shoal Creek Basin in southwestern Missouri indicate that concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2t+NO3t) in water samples from Shoal Creek were unusually large [mean of 2.90 mg/L (milligrams per liter), n (sample size)=60] compared to other Missouri streams (mean of 1.02 mg/L, n=1,340). A comparison of instantaneous base-flow loads of NO2t+NO3t indicates that at base-flow conditions, most NO2t+NO3t discharged by Shoal Creek is from nonpoint sources. Nearly all the base-flow instantaneous load of total phosphorus as P (Pt) discharged by Shoal Creek can be attributed to effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Samples collected from a single runoff event indicate that substantial quantities of Pt can be transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Only minor quantities of NO2t+NO3t are transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Fecal coliform bacteria densities at several locations exceed the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. During 13 months of monitoring at 13 stream sites, fecal coliform densities (median of 277 and 400 col/100 mL) at two sites (sites 2 and 3) on Shoal Creek exceeded the MDNR standard at base-flow conditions. The maximum fecal coliform density of 120,000 col/100 mL was detected at site 3 (MDNR monitoring site) during a runoff event in April 1999 at a peak discharge of 1,150 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Fecal coliform densities also exceeded the MDNR standard in three tributaries with the largest densities (median of 580 col/100 mL) detected in Pogue Creek. Results of ribopattern analyses indicate that most Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in water samples from the study area probably are from nonhuman sources. The study area contains about 25,000 cattle, and has an estimated annual production of 33 million broilers and 300,000 turkeys. Probable nonhuman sources included turkeys, horses, chickens, and cattle; however, wildlife sources such as deer, raccoon, muskrat, and opossum were not evaluated. Human waste was an important source of E. coli in water samples collected at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) on Shoal Creek and at two tributary sites (Joyce Creek and Woodward Creek). In general, the detection of human ribopatterns was consistent with the detection of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater such as caffeine, triclosan, or phenol, and the fecal indicators cholesterol and 3B-coprostanol. Ribopattern analysis indicate that horses were an important source of E. coli in Woodward Creek, which was consistent with horses being pastured immediately upstream from the sampling site on this creek. Pogue Creek contains a large density of turkey barns and five of eight E. coli isolates from one sample from Pogue Creek were matched to turkeys. Water samples from Pogue Creek generally did not contain detectable concentrations of human wastewater compounds, but one sample did contain detectable quantities of the antibiotics tylosin and lincomycin (widely used in the animal industry), and sulfamethoxazole (human use only). Although promising, the ability of ribopattern analyses to positively identify the source of a particular isolate is uncertain because of the small sample size, possible differences between animal source patterns in the study area and database used, lack of native wildlife source patterns, and variation in results depending on the number of possible animal host considered. Results of this study indicate that a trend of increasing fecal coliform densities with increasing time detected by the MDNR is, in part, caused by trends in annual precipitation and stream discharge, and not necessarily changes in land use or densities of animal operations. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using specific conductance and wate

Schumacher, John G.

2001-01-01

246

Island Hopping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide

Bennett, Gayle

2009-01-01

247

Sexual size dimorphism in shorebirds, gulls, and alcids: the influence of sexual and natural selection.  

PubMed

Charadrii (shorebirds, gulls, and alcids) have an unusual diversity in their sexual size dimorphism, ranging from monomorphism to either male-biased or female-biased dimorphism. We use comparative analyses to investigate whether this variation relates to sexual selection through competition for mates or natural selection through different use of resources by males and females. As predicted by sexual selection theory, we found that in taxa with socially polygynous mating systems, males were relatively larger than females compared with less polygynous species. Furthermore, evolution toward socially polyandrous mating systems was correlated with decreases in relative male size. These patterns depend on the kinds of courtship displays performed by males. In taxa with acrobatic flight displays, males are relatively smaller than in taxa in which courtship involves simple flights or displays from the ground. This result remains significant when the relationship with mating system is controlled statistically, thereby explaining the enigma of why males are often smaller than females in socially monogamous species. We did not find evidence that evolutionary changes in sexual dimorphism relate to niche division on the breeding grounds. In particular, biparental species did not have greater dimorphism in bill lengths than uniparental species, contrary to the hypothesis that selection for ecological divergence on the breeding grounds has been important as a general explanation for patterns of bill dimorphism. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that sexual selection has had a major influence on sexual size dimorphism in Charadrii, whereas divergence in the use of feeding resources while breeding was not supported by our analyses. PMID:11005306

Szkely, T; Reynolds, J D; Figuerola, J

2000-08-01

248

Capillarity and fibre types in locomotory muscles of wild yellow-legged gulls (Larus cachinnans).  

PubMed

This study analyzes the capillarity and fibre-type distribution of six locomotory muscles of gulls. The morphological basis and the oxygen supply characteristics of the skeletal muscle of a species with a marked pattern of gliding flight are established, thus contributing to a better understanding of the physiology of a kind of flight with low energetic requirements. The four wing muscles studied (scapulotriceps, pectoralis, scapulohumeralis, and extensor metacarpi) exhibited higher percentages of fast oxidative glycolytic fibres (>70%) and lower percentages of slow oxidative fibres (<16%) than the muscles involved in nonflight locomotion (gastrocnemius and iliotibialis). Capillary densities ranged from 816 to 1,233 capillaries mm(-2), having the highest value in the pectoralis. In this muscle, the fast oxidative glycolytic fibres had moderate staining for succinate dehydrogenase and relatively large fibre sizes, as deduced from the low fibre densities (589-665 fibres mm(-2)). All these findings are seen as an adaptive response for gliding, when the wing is held outstretched by isometric contractions. The leg muscles studied included a considerable population of slow oxidative fibres (>14% in many regions), which suggests that they are adapted to postural activities. Regional variations in the relative distributions of fibre types in muscle gastrocnemius may reflect different functional demands placed on this muscle during terrestrial and aquatic locomotion. The predominance of oxidative fibres and capillary densities under 1,000 capillaries mm(-2) in leg muscles is probably a consequence of an adaptation for slow swimming and maintenance of the posture on land rather than for other locomotory capabilities, such as endurance or sprint activities. PMID:9678503

Torrella, J R; Fouces, V; Palomeque, J; Viscor, G

1998-01-01

249

Helminth fauna of the yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans in Galicia, north-west Spain.  

PubMed

Thirty-six helminth species were found in 324 gulls examined during June 1994 to February 1996 from different localities of Galicia: 25 trematodes (Brachylaima sp., Brachylecithum microtesticulatum, Cardiocephaloides longicollis, Cryptocotyle lingua, Cryptocotyle concavum, Diplostomum spathaceum, Echinostephilla virgula, Galactosomum phalacrocoracis, Gigantobilharzia acotylea, Gymnophallus deliciosus, Gynaecotyla longiintestinata, Himasthla elongata, Himasthla quissetensis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Levinseniella (Levinseniella) propinqua, Maritrema gratiosum, Maritrema linguilla, Microphallus primas, Microphallus similis, Ornithobilharzia canaliculata, Parorchis acanthus, Phagicola minuta, Psilostomum brevicolle, Renicola sp. and Stephanoprora denticulata), four cestodes (Alcataenia micracantha, Microsomacanthus ductilis, Tetrabothrius (Oriana) erostris and Wardium cirrosa), six nematodes (Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum rudolphii, Cosmocephalus obvelatus), Eucoleus contortus, Paracuaria adunca and Tetrameres (Tetrameres) skrjabini) and one acanthocephalan (Arhythmorhynchus longicollis). Tetrabothrius erostris was the most prevalent species (79.6%), followed by C. obvelatus (47.8%), C. lingua (37.4%), G deliciosus (30.9%), G. longiintestinata (22.8%), P. adunca (21.9%), B. microtesticulatum (17.6%), E. contortus (14.5%) and M. similis (9.3%). Microphallus similis was the dominant species, with a Berger-Parker index (BP) of 0.32, followed by T. erostris (BP=0.10). All species presented an aggregated dispersion except G. acotylea and G. phalacrocoracis, which showed a random dispersion. Species that seem to have the greatest predilection for specific sites along the intestine are: C. longicollis and A. micracantha (first third), Brachylaima sp., M. similis and G. longiintestinata (last third) and A. longicollis (second half). Eight species are known to be pathogenic to commercially important fish or molluscan species and several are pathogenic to humans. PMID:16336721

Sanmartn, M L; Cordeiro, J A; Alvarez, M F; Leiro, J

2005-12-01

250

Hudson River Channel, New York and New Jersey Plans to Reduce Shoaling in Hudson River Channels and Adjacent Pier Slips. Hydraulic Model Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive model which correctly reproduced tides, tidal currents, density currents, and shoaling in the entire New York Harbor complex was used to study plans for reducing maintenance dredging in the lower 11 miles of the Hudson River which annually...

H. B. Simmons W. H. Bobb

1965-01-01

251

Nihoa Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from the NOW-RAMP 2002 Expedition documents a research expedition to Nihoa Island. It showcases Nihoa's unique birds and plants, the threat posed by invading grasshoppers, and restoration efforts.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

252

Variation in growth form of shoal grass ( Halodule wrightii ) due to changes in the spectral composition of light below a canopy of turtle grass ( Thalassia testudinum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoal grass, Halodule wrightii, exhibited different morphologies when growing in a monospecific meadow compared to plants growing under a canopy of turtle\\u000a grass, Thalassia testudinum. When growing under a turtle grass canopy, shoal grass had longer internodes, less frequent branching, and lower aboveground\\u000a to belowground biomass ratios than when growing in a monospecific meadow. Aquarium studies approximated the observed phenomena

David A. Tomasko

1992-01-01

253

Intraslope basin reservoirs deposited by gravity-driven processes: Ship shoal and ewing banks areas, offshore Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic facies and high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provide a sequence stratigraphic framework for interpreting lateral distribution of sand-prone facies and reservoir connectivity in the Ship Shoal 351-358 to Ewing Bank 988 area, offshore Louisiana. The interval of interest is an isochron thick interpreted as a lowstand systems tract deposited at bathyal water depths within an intraslope-basin. This basin is approximately 50

J. M. Armentrout; S. J. Malecek; V. R. Mathur

1995-01-01

254

Intraslope basin reservoirs deposited by gravity-driven processes: Ship Shoal and Ewing Banks areas, offshore Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic facies and high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provide a sequence stratigraphic framework for interpreting lateral distribution of sand-prone facies and reservoir connectivity in the Ship Shoal 351-358 to Ewing Bank 988 area, offshore Louisiana. The interval of interest is an isochron thick interpreted as a lowstand systems tract deposited at bathyal water depths within an intraslope-basin. This basin is approximately 50

J. M. Armentrout; S. J. Malecek; V. R. Mathur; G. L. Neuder; G. M. Ragan

1996-01-01

255

Shoaling and mate choice of wild-type Tanichthys albonubes in the presence of the red fluorescent transgenic conspecifics.  

PubMed

Shoaling and sexual behaviour of wild-type male and female white cloud mountain minnow Tanichthys albonubes were measured in the presence of the red fluorescent transgenic conspecifics under laboratory conditions. Wild-type female test fish showed no significant preference, whereas wild-type male test fish preferred to be near a shoal of red transgenic fish rather than wild-type fish. When placed in a potentially reproductive context, wild-type males had a higher competitive ability over transgenic males; wild-type females spent more time with wild-type males in visually mediated experiments, but wild-type males performed more courtship displays towards transgenic females. These results suggest that the red body colouration does not appear to disturb signal communication between wild-type and transgenic T. albonubes in shoaling behaviour; transgenic males have no mating advantage over wild-type males, but the red body colouration of transgenic females may affect mate choice of wild-type males. PMID:21235550

Jiang, P; Bai, J J; Ye, X; Jian, Q; Chen, M; Chen, X Q

2011-01-01

256

Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian Arctic.  

PubMed

Environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to Arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. Whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. Exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), an Arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls [OC/PCB], mercury [Hg], and selenium [Se]) and measures of oxidative stress (glutathione [GSH] metabolism and lipid peroxidation) in Canadian Arctic ecosystems. Contaminant levels were low and associations between contaminant exposure and oxidative stress were weak. Nevertheless, glutathione peroxidase activity rose with increasing hepatic Se concentrations, levels of thiols declined as Hg and OC/PCB levels rose, and at one of the two study sites levels of lipid peroxidation were elevated with increasing levels of hepatic Hg. These results suggest the possibility of a deleterious effect of exposure to contaminants on gull physiology even at low contaminant exposures. PMID:20526953

Wayland, Mark; Hoffman, David J; Mallory, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Stebbins, Katherine R

2010-01-01

257

Experience modulates both aromatase activity and the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to testosterone in black-headed gulls.  

PubMed

In young black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), exposure to testosterone increases the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to a subsequent exposure to this hormone. The aim of this paper is twofold: to analyze whether social experience, gained during testosterone exposure, mediates this increase in hormonal sensitivity (priming), and whether this in turn is mediated by an increase in central aromatase activity. To this end, we performed three experiments. In the first juvenile gulls were exposed to two consecutive treatments with testosterone (T1 and T2), with more than a week interval in between. During T1, half of the birds were housed in social isolation (Iso) and the other half in groups (Soc). All birds were re-housed in a new social situation during the second treatment. The increase in social behaviour during T2 was significantly more rapid in Soc than Iso birds. In experiment 2 we show that 17beta-estradiol treatment facilitates the behaviour measured in experiment 1. In experiment 3 we used a set-up comparable with that of experiment 1, but birds were sacrificed early in the T2 period. Aromatase activity in the preoptic area and the hypothalamus was measured using the tritiated water releasing method. In some parts of the preoptic area and hypothalamus aromatase activity was higher in Soc birds relative to Iso birds. The results indicate that social experience can modulate the increase of social behaviour to testosterone via modulation of aromatase activity and independently of actual hormone levels. PMID:19419676

Ros, Albert F H; Franco, Aldina M A; Groothuis, Ton G G

2009-04-20

258

Genetic structure, diversity and subspecies status of Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) from the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gull-billed Terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) are among the most widespread, yet scarce, Charadriiformes in the world. Two subspecies are recognized in the United States: G. n. aranea breeds along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts and G. n. vanrossemi breeds in the Salton Sea and San Diego Bay of California. Conservation concerns exist for the species due to its low abundance in the United States and apparent declines in some parts of its North American range. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences to assess genetic diversity and differentiation patterns among Gull-billed Tern populations from Virginia, Texas, and California. We also tested for evidence of population bottlenecks, and evaluated the support our data provide for the North American subspecies. Genetic diversity was highest in Texas and underscored the importance of habitat in that large population. Significant population differentiation existed, but could not be consistently identified using various analytical approaches and suggested that the magnitude of differentiation was low. No evidence for bottlenecks was identified. Our data could not distinguish individuals from different subspecies and therefore do not support the current intraspecific taxonomy. Tenable explanations for many findings are related to the low site tenacity demonstrated by the species.

Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

2013-01-01

259

Growth, bioluminescence and shoal behavior hormetic responses to inorganic and/or organic chemicals: a review.  

PubMed

A biphasic dose response, termed hormesis, is characterized by beneficial effects of a chemical at a low dose and harmful effects at a high dose. This biphasic dose response phenomenon has the potential to strongly alter toxicology in a broad range. The present review focuses on the progress of research into hormetic responses in terms of growth (in plants, birds, algae and humans), bioluminescence, and shoal behavior as end points. The paper describes how both inorganic and organic chemicals at a low dose show stimulatory responses while at higher doses are inhibitory. The article highlights how factors such as symbiosis, density-dependent factors, time, and contrasting environmental factors (availability of nutrients, temperature, light, etc.) affect both the range and amplitude of hormetic responses. Furthermore, the possible underlying mechanisms are also discussed and we suggest that, for every end point, different hormetic mechanisms may exist. The occurrences of varying interacting receptor systems or receptor systems affecting the assessment of hormesis for each endpoint are discussed. The present review suggests that a hormetic model should be adopted for toxicological evaluations instead of the older threshold and linear non-threshold models. PMID:24361513

Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Naveedullah; Shen, Hui; Zhu, Shenhai; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng

2014-03-01

260

Zebrafish response to robotic fish: preference experiments on isolated individuals and small shoals.  

PubMed

Recently developed bioinspired robots imitate their live counterparts in both aspect and functionality. Nevertheless, whether these devices can be integrated within the ecological niche inspiring their design is seldom tested experimentally. An elemental research question concerns the feasibility of modulating spontaneous behaviour of animal systems through bioinspired robotics. The following study explores the possibility of engineering a robotic fish capable of influencing the behaviour of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a dichotomous preference test. While we observe that the preference for the robotic fish never exceeds the preference for a conspecific, our data show that the robot is successful in attracting both isolated individuals and small shoals and that such capability is influenced by its bioinspired features. In particular, we find that the robot's undulations enhance its degree of attractiveness, despite the noise inherent in the actuation system. This is the first experimental evidence that live zebrafish behaviour can be influenced by engineered robots. Such robotic platforms may constitute a valuable tool to investigate the bases of social behaviour and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. PMID:22677608

Polverino, G; Abaid, N; Kopman, V; Macr, S; Porfiri, M

2012-09-01

261

Using an Automated 3D-tracking System to Record Individual and Shoals of Adult Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Like many aquatic animals, zebrafish (Danio rerio) moves in a 3D space. It is thus preferable to use a 3D recording system to study its behavior. The presented automatic video tracking system accomplishes this by using a mirror system and a calibration procedure that corrects for the considerable error introduced by the transition of light from water to air. With this system it is possible to record both single and groups of adult zebrafish. Before use, the system has to be calibrated. The system consists of three modules: Recording, Path Reconstruction, and Data Processing. The step-by-step protocols for calibration and using the three modules are presented. Depending on the experimental setup, the system can be used for testing neophobia, white aversion, social cohesion, motor impairments, novel object exploration etc. It is especially promising as a first-step tool to study the effects of drugs or mutations on basic behavioral patterns. The system provides information about vertical and horizontal distribution of the zebrafish, about the xyz-components of kinematic parameters (such as locomotion, velocity, acceleration, and turning angle) and it provides the data necessary to calculate parameters for social cohesions when testing shoals.

Maaswinkel, Hans; Zhu, Liqun; Weng, Wei

2013-01-01

262

Health of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) in Relation to Breeding Location in the Early 1990s. II. Cellular and Histopathological Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organosomatic indices, hematological indicators of stress, and histopathological lesions were quantified for over 150 incubating herring gulls (Larus argentatus) sampled in 11 colonies throughout the Great Lakes and reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. Of 21 parameters assessed, significantly more differed between Great Lakes colonies and reference colonies than between the two reference colonies. Relative adrenal,

Glen A. Fox; Keith A. Grasman; G. Douglas Campbell

2007-01-01

263

Intersexual differences in T-cell-mediated immunity of black-headed gull chicks ( Larus ridibundus ) depend on the hatching order  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatching asynchrony in avian species leads to age and size differences between nestlings within a brood, handicapping last-hatched chicks in the sibling rivalry. Starvation due to this competitive disadvantage has been regarded as the primary cause of an increase in mortality with hatching order. However, for gulls it has also been suggested that disease is the cause of mortality for

Wendt Mller; Cor Dijkstra; Ton G. G. Groothuis

2003-01-01

264

Anatomy and histochemistry of spread-wing posture in birds. 2. Gliding flight in the California gull, Larus californicus: a paradox of fast fibers and posture.  

PubMed

Gliding flight is a postural activity which requires the wings to be held in a horizontal position to support the weight of the body. Postural behaviors typically utilize isometric contractions in which no change in length takes place. Due to longer actin-myosin interactions, slow contracting muscle fibers represent an economical means for this type of contraction. In specialized soaring birds, such as vultures and pelicans, a deep layer of the pectoralis muscle, composed entirely of slow fibers, is believed to perform this function. Muscles involved in gliding posture were examined in California gulls (Larus californicus) and tested for the presence of slow fibers using myosin ATPase histochemistry and antibodies. Surprisingly small numbers of slow fibers were found in the M. extensor metacarpi radialis, M. coracobrachialis cranialis, and M. coracobrachialis caudalis, which function in wrist extension, wing protraction, and body support, respectively. The low number of slow fibers in these muscles and the absence of slow fibers in muscles associated with wing extension and primary body support suggest that gulls do not require slow fibers for their postural behaviors. Gulls also lack the deep belly to the pectoralis found in other gliding birds. Since bird muscle is highly oxidative, we hypothesize that fast muscle fibers may function to maintain wing position during gliding flight in California gulls. PMID:9259122

Meyers, R A; Mathias, E

1997-09-01

265

The impact of climate fluctuation on food availability and reproductive performance of the planktivorous red-billed gull Larus novaehollandiae scopulinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Using 41 years of data, we examined annual variations in the reproductive performance of the red- billed gull at the Kaikoura Peninsula, New Zealand and related these to changes in climate, oceano- graphy and the availability of the planktonic euphausiid Nyctiphanes australis , the bird's principal food. 2. In 1994 the population began to decline, and between 1983

James A. Mills; John W. Yarrall; Janet M. Bradford-Grieve; Michael J. Uddstrom; James A. Renwick; Juha Meril

2008-01-01

266

Heat Island Effect  

MedlinePLUS

... to learn more. More Information on Urban Heat Islands Heat Island Basics Chapter from EPAs Reducing Urban ... Island Video Segments What Is an Urban Heat Island? As urban areas develop, changes occur in their ...

267

Assessment of trace-metal concentrations in Western Reef heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) from southern Iran.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals, namely, chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron, in Western Reef heron (Egretta gularis) (n = 15) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) (n = 15) to (1) compare metal concentrations between two bird species with different trophic level, molting pattern, and life strategy; (2) examine species- and sex-related variations in trace-metal accumulation; and (3) determine the significance between heavy-metal concentrations in kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle. Bird samples were collected from November to December 2010 throughout the Hara Biosphere Reserve, and heavy metals were assayed by using a Shimadzu AA 680 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer; the results were given as ?g/g dry weight. Metal concentrations were different between the bird species as well as among bird tissues, but there was no difference (except chromium and iron in kidney) between sex (male vs. female). Mean levels in kidney of Western Reef heron and Siberian gull were chromium (0.96, 2.32 ?g/g), copper (6.31, 10.55 ?g/g), cobalt (0.12, 0.14 ?g/g), nickel (1.13, 1.32 ?g/g), and iron (37.92, 39.64 ?g/g), respectively, whereas in liver they were chromium (1.05, 2.75 ?g/g), copper (8.93, 12.63 ?g/g), cobalt (0.09, 0.17 ?g/g), nickel (1.1, 2.27 ?g/g), and iron (34.03, 44.21 ?g/g), respectively. Results showed that heavy-metal concentrations in Western Reef heron were decreased in the sequence iron > copper > nickel > chromium > cobalt, whereas in Siberian gull they were decreased in the sequence iron > copper > chromium > nickel > cobalt. Results also showed that in both species, the highest chromium and nickel concentrations were measured in female birds and the lowest in male birds, whereas the highest copper, cobalt, and iron (except iron in liver) concentrations were measured in male birds and the lowest in female birds. PMID:22481524

Mansouri, Borhan; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Babaei, Hadi; Hoshyari, Ebrahim; Khodaparast, Seyed Hojat; Mirzajani, Alireza

2012-08-01

268

Groundwater flow near the Shoal Site, Sand Springs Range, Nevada: Impact of density-driven flow  

SciTech Connect

The nature of flow from a highland recharge area in a mountain range in north-central Nevada to discharge areas on either side of the range is evaluated to refine a conceptual model of contaminant transport from an underground nuclear test conducted beneath the range. The test, known as the Shoal event, was conducted in 1963 in granitic rocks of the Sand Springs Range. Sparse hydraulic head measurements from the early 1960s suggest flow from the shot location to the east to Fairview Valley, while hydrochemistry supports flow to salt pans in Fourmile Flat to the west. Chemical and isotopic data collected from water samples and during well-logging arc best explained by a reflux brine system on the west side of the Sand Springs Range, rather than a typical local flow system where all flow occurs from recharge areas in the highlands to a central discharge area in a playa. Instead, dense saline water from the playa is apparently being driven toward the range by density contrasts. The data collected between the range and Fourmile Flat suggest the groundwater is a mixture of younger, fresher recharge water with older brine. Chemical contrasts between groundwater in the east and west valleys reflect the absence of re-flux water in Fairview Valley because the regional discharge area is distant and thus there is no accumulation of salts. The refluxing hydraulic system probably developed after the end of the last pluvial period and differences between the location of the groundwater divide based on hydraulic and chemical indicators could reflect movement of the divide as the groundwater system adjusts to the new reflux condition.

Chapman, J.; Mihevc, T.; McKay, A.

1994-09-01

269

Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing shoaling induced by global warming  

PubMed Central

The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a shoaling of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO2 and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (10002000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the planktonDMScloudsearth albedo feedback hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere.

Vallina, S. M.; Simo, R.; Manizza, M.

2007-01-01

270

Measurement of ocean water optical properties and seafloor reflectance with scanning hydrographic operational airborne lidar survey (SHOALS): II. Practical results and comparison with independent data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimation of water column optical properties and seafloor reflectance (532 nm) is demonstrated using recent SHOALS data collected at Fort Lauderdale, Florida (November, 2003). To facilitate this work, the first radiometric calibrations of SHOALS were performed. These calibrations permit a direct normalization of recorded data by converting digitized counts at the output of the SHOALS receivers to input optical power. For estimation of environmental parameters, this normalization is required to compensate for the logarithmic compression of the signals and the finite frequency of the bandpass of the detector/amplifier. After normalization, the SHOALS data are used to estimate the backscattering coefficient, the beam attenuation coefficient, the single-scattering albedo, the VSF asymmetry, and seafloor reflectance by fitting simulated waveforms to actual waveforms measured by the SHOALS APD and PMT receivers. The resulting estimates of these water column optical properties are compared to in-situ measurements acquired at the time of the airborne data collections. Images of green laser bottom reflectance are also presented and compared to reflectance estimated from simultaneously acquired passive spectral data.

Tuell, Grady H.; Feygels, Viktor; Kopilevich, Yuri; Weidemann, Alan D.; Cunningham, A. Grant; Mani, Reza; Podoba, Vladimir; Ramnath, Vinod; Park, J. Y.; Aitken, Jen

2005-08-01

271

Two's company, three's a crowd: food and shelter limitation outweigh the benefits of group living in a shoaling fish.  

PubMed

Identifying how density and number-dependent processes regulate populations is important for predicting population response to environmental change. Species that live in groups, such as shoaling fish, can experience both direct density-dependent mortality through resource limitation and inverse number-dependent mortality via increased feeding rates and predator evasion in larger groups. To investigate the role of these processes in a temperate reef fish population, we manipulated the density and group size of the shoaling species Trachinops caudimaculatus on artificial patch reefs at two locations with different predator fields in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We compared mortality over four weeks to estimates of predator abundance and per capita availability of refuge and food to identify mechanisms for density or number dependence. Mortality was strongly directly density dependent throughout the experiment, regardless of the dominant predator group; however, the limiting resource driving this effect changed over time. In the first two weeks when densities were highest, density-dependent mortality was best explained by refuge competition and the abundance of benthic predators. During the second two weeks, food competition best explained the pattern of mortality. We detected no effect of group size at either location, even where pelagic-predator abundance was high. Overall, direct density effects were much stronger than those of group size, suggesting little survival advantage to shoaling on isolated patch reefs where resource competition is high. This study is the first to observe a temporal shift in density-dependent mechanisms in reef fish, and the first to observe food limitation on short temporal scales. Food competition may therefore be an important regulator of postsettlement reef fish cohorts after the initial intense effects of refuge limitation and predation. PMID:23858647

Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E

2013-05-01

272

Effects of parental age and food availability on the reproductive success of Heermann's gulls in the Gulf of California.  

PubMed

Parental age, body condition, and food availability have been found to influence breeding parameters in seabirds, such as clutch size, number of chicks hatched and fledged, hatching, fledging, and reproductive success. In this paper we analyze the influence of parental age and body condition estimated by body mass, and food availability estimated from catch per unit effort (CPUE) statistics for Pacific sardine (Sardinops caeruleus) + northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) by the local fishing fleet, on the breeding parameters of the Heermann's Gull (Larus heermanni; a vulnerable species according to Mexican federal law) nesting in Isla Rasa, Gulf of California, Mexico. Results are based on data from 1123 recaptures of known-age individuals, ranging from 4 to 13 years of age, during seven observation years between 1989 and 1997. Ages of mated male and female gulls were positively correlated. Breeding parameters showed their lowest values in 1992, an El Nio year in which the birds also showed significantly lower individual masses for both males and females, and in which the local CPUE of sardine + anchovies was lowest. All breeding parameters increased significantly with parental age and were highest at 10-12 years. No significant statistical interactions were found between food availability and parental age on the breeding parameters. Through a path analysis we found that there is a strong chained relationship between variables: food availability, which is strongly driven by oceanographic conditions, affects both the survival of eggs into hatchlings and the survival of hatchlings into fledglings. This external factor and parental age, a biological factor intrinsic to each nesting couple, explain 41% of the observed between-nest variation in fledgling success. PMID:19449702

Vieyra, Leticia; Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel

2009-04-01

273

Comparative body compartment composition and in ovo transfer of organophosphate flame retardants in north american great lakes herring gulls.  

PubMed

Although recent usage of organophosphate (OP) flame retardants has increased substantially, very few studies have reported on OPs in biota including wildlife, and essentially there is no information on OP body compartment composition and in ovo or in utero transfer for any given wildlife species. Concentrations and patterns of 16 OP triesters were presently screened for and/or determined in six body compartments from female herring gulls (Larus argentatus; n = 8) and the separate egg yolk and albumen of their entire clutches of eggs (n = 16) (collected in 2010 from a Lake Huron colony site, Laurentian Great Lakes of North America). Fat (32.3 9.8 ng/g wet weight; ww) contained the highest ?OP concentration, followed by egg yolk (14.8 2.4 ng/g ww) ? egg albumen (14.8 5.9 ng/g ww) > muscle (10.9 5.1 ng/g ww) ? red blood cells (1.00 0.62 ng/g ww), whereas in liver, blood plasma, and brain all OPs were not detectable. Nine OPs accumulated in herring gulls, but the concentrations and proportions of OPs were dependent on the body and egg compartment. For example, tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) accounted for 66% of the ?OP concentration in albumen, but only for 13% in yolk. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP) accounted for 25% of the ?OP concentration in yolk, but was not detected in albumen. Estimates showed that overall OP burdens in the body (3.5 ?g) were greater than in the whole egg (1.2 ?g), although depuration via in ovo transfer was substantial. PMID:24905208

Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J

2014-07-15

274

Thermal Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, students learn about the causes and impacts of urban heat islands. Numerous studies have shown how concrete pavements and buildings retain heat in cities, making cities several degrees warmer than the surrounding countryside. Students investigate the role of cities in our climate, specifically how the urban heat island affects climate. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed for use in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) professional development courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use. See Related & Supplemental URLs for a demo course showing how this module is integrated into an ESSEA course for teachers.

275

Streamlined Island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

2003-01-01

276

To Build an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan will give students a basic overview of the geography of islands. They will learn where islands are located throughout the world and will study two very different island groups (the Philippines and the British Isles) to illustrate the diversity of islands of the world. Students will explore island flora and fauna, languages, and climates and cultures.

277

The effect of rotation on shoaling of large amplitude internal solitary waves in the northern South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The propagation of large amplitude internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the northern South China Sea (SCS) is simulated using the fully nonlinear, nonhydrostatic MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). Special attention is paid to the effects of rotation and the shoaling three-dimensional topography. It is found that for the conditions of the northern SCS, a propagating ISW continuously loses its energy under the action of rotation by shedding inertia-gravity waves backwards, which further become steepened and form a new ISW. Such a decay-reemergence process repeats itself in a similar way as discussed by Helfrich (2007) with the only difference that, instead of the formation of a final localized wave packet, the frontal waves constantly attenuate by repeatedly shedding inertia-gravity waves backwards. Under the action of rotation and variable topography, the shoaling ISWs attenuate severely and disintegrate after passing through the continental slope. Wave polarity starts to reverse at the depth of about 130 m, which is consistent with the prediction of weakly nonlinear theories. It is also found that the rotational effects are more pronounced in combination with the topographic effects in the three-dimensional realistic context. Discrepancies between the wave profiles obtained with and without rotation are small in the deep part of the ocean but eventually turn out to be significant when going upon the shelf, addressing the crucial roles played by the rotation in the northern SCS.

Guo, C.; Vlasenko, V.

2012-12-01

278

Measurement of ocean water optical properties and seafloor reflectance with scanning hydrographic operational airborne lidar survey (SHOALS): I. Theoretical background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an earlier work, we have proposed a concept for estimation of ocean optical properties with a multiple field-of-view bathymetric lidar. In this paper, we consider an implementation of this idea using SHOALS. The SHOALS design uses two receivers for depth measurement: a shallow-water, APD receiver with an 18 mrad FOV; and a deep-water PMT receiver with a 40 mrad FOV. They simultaneously record the optical power returned from a single pulse of the laser, and consequently provide the desired measurements. Here, we present an algorithm for the estimation of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in the upper ocean layer which is based on "multiple-forward-single-backscattering" model of the returned power, and an analytical solution to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for finite sounding beam propagation in the small-angle-scattering approximation. Using this algorithm, we have developed an approach for estimation of the backscattering coefficient, the beam attenuation coefficient, the single-scattering albedo, and the VSF asymmetry coefficient, by fitting simulated waveforms to actual data measured by the two receivers. We also present an approach for improvement in estimates of bottom reflectance which compensates for pulse stretching induced by angle of incidence effects.

Kopilevich, Yuri I.; Feygels, Viktor I.; Tuell, Grady H.; Surkov, Alexey

2005-08-01

279

Is the bone tissue of ring-billed gulls breeding in a pollution hotspot in the St. Lawrence River, Canada, impacted by halogenated flame retardant exposure?  

PubMed

Bone metabolism is a tightly regulated process that controls bone remodeling and repair in addition to maintaining circulating calcium and phosphate levels. It has been shown that certain organohalogen contaminants may adversely impact bone tissue metabolism and structure in wildlife species. However, exceedingly few studies have addressed the bone-related effects of organohalogen exposure in birds. The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations between markers of bone metabolism and structural integrity, and concentrations of established and current-use halogenated flame retardants (FRs) in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) nesting in a known FR hotspot area in the St. Lawrence River (Montreal, Canada). Bone metabolism was assessed using plasma calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, and alkaline phophatase activity, while bone (tarsus; trabecular and cortical sections) structure quality was examined using the percentage of bone tissue comprised in the total bone volume (Bv/Tv) and bone mineral density (BMD). Bv/Tv and BMD of the tarsus tended (not significant) to be positively associated with circulating calcium levels in male ring-billed gulls. Moreover, concentrations of FRs in male bird liver (brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-154, -183, -201, and -209) and plasma (BDE-209) were negatively correlated with trabecular and cortical BMD of the tarsus. These correlative associations may suggest light demineralization of bone tissue associated with FR exposure in male ring-billed gulls. Present findings provide some evidence that bone (tarsus) metabolism and mineral composition may be impacted in high FR-exposed (mainly to PBDEs) ring-billed gulls breeding in the highly urbanized Montreal region. PMID:24016627

Plourde, Stphanie Pellerin; Moreau, Robert; Letcher, Robert J; Verreault, Jonathan

2013-11-01

280

Phylogeny of shorebirds, gulls, and alcids (Aves: Charadrii) from the cytochrome-b gene: parsimony, Bayesian inference, minimum evolution, and quartet puzzling.  

PubMed

Charadrii (shorebirds, gulls, and alcids) have exceptional diversity in ecological, behavioral, and life-history traits. A phylogenetic framework is necessary to fully understand the relationships among these traits. Despite several attempts to resolve the phylogeny of the Charadrii, none have comprehensively utilized molecular sequence data. Complete and partial cytochrome-b gene sequences for 86 Charadrii and five Falconides species (as outgroup taxa) were obtained from GenBank and aligned. We analyzed the resulting matrices using parsimony, Bayesian inference, minimum evolution, and quartet puzzling methods. Posterior probabilities, decay indices, and bootstrapping provide strong support for four major lineages consisting of gulls, alcids, plovers, and sandpipers, respectively. The broad structure of the trees differ significantly from all previous hypotheses of Charadrii phylogeny in placing the plovers at the base of the tree below the sandpipers in a pectinate sequence towards a large clade of gulls and alcids. The parsimony, Bayesian, and minimum evolution models provide strong evidence for this phylogenetic hypothesis. This is further corroborated by non-tree based measures of support and conflict (Lento plots). The quartet puzzling trees are poorly resolved and inconclusive. PMID:15012936

Thomas, Gavin H; Wills, Matthew A; Szkely, Tams

2004-03-01

281

Haldane's rule revisited: do hybrid females have a shorter lifespan? Survival of hybrids in a recent contact zone between two large gull species.  

PubMed

Haldane's rule predicts that particularly high fitness reduction should affect the heterogametic sex of interspecific hybrids. Despite the fact that hybridization is widespread in birds, survival of hybrid individuals is rarely addressed in studies of avian hybrid zones, possibly because of methodological constraints. Here, having applied capture-mark-recapture models to an extensive, 19-year-long data set on individually marked birds, we estimate annual survival rates of hybrid individuals in the hybrid zone between herring (Larus argentatus) and Caspian (Larus cachinnans) gulls. In both parental species, males have a slightly higher survival rate than females (model-weighted mean SE: herring gull males 0.88 0.01, females 0.87 0.01, Caspian gull males 0.88 0.01, females 0.87 0.01). Hybrid males do not survive for a shorter time than nonhybrid ones (0.88 0.01), whereas hybrid females have the lowest survival rate among all groups of individuals (0.83 0.03). This translates to a shorter adult (reproductive) lifespan (on average by 1.7-1.8 years, i.e. ca 25%) compared with nonhybrid females. We conclude that, in line with Haldane's rule, the lower survival rate of female hybrids may contribute to selection against hybrids in this hybrid zone. PMID:24820228

Neubauer, G; Nowicki, P; Zagalska-Neubauer, M

2014-06-01

282

Alcatraz Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

âThe Rockâ, the oft-used vernacular phrase used to describe Alcatraz, is perhaps one of the Bay Areaâs most dramatic landscapes, and certainly itâs best known island. Over the past several hundred years, it has served at times as a place for protest by Native Americans and a place of incarceration for some of Americaâs most hardened (and colorful) criminals. The National Park Service recently created this rather well-done online exhibit that allows users to view objects from Alcatrazâs past (such as escape materials and historic photographs) and also to allow them to take a virtual tour of the prison and its grounds. Visitors can also listen to a number of compelling sound clips that discuss the infamous âBattle of Alcatrazâ and the cellhouse rules. The site also features a number of thematic slide shows, including one that addresses the occupation of the island by members of the American Indian Movement from 1969 to 1971.

2005-01-01

283

Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role

Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

2009-01-01

284

An investigation of the origin of large water level oscillations during storms at Banneg Island, France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the generation mechanism for unusually high water levels observed at Banneg Island, France, where loose boulders have been reportedly transported during storms over distances exceeding 100m (Fichaut and Suanez, 2011). The site is characterized by steep cliffs with slopes from 0.3 to 3 and composed of fractured rock and boulders. The lowest points along Banneg Island cliff crest are at 5m above the highest predicted tide, which is 10m above mean sea level. Wave and tide levels were observed using pressure gauges over a period of approximately 7 months. Two gauges (P3 and P4) were deployed offshore near the 4m isobath, and were submerged for the entire duration of the experiment. A third gauge (P2), located on the island just above the maximum predicted tide, and approximately cross-shore with respect to P3, was intermittently submerged during storms, for periods of the order of 2-3 min. On milder slopes (Sheremet et al. 2011), nonlinear shoaling of wind waves is typically associated with the generation of infragavity (IG) waves. We investigate the relationship between the water level oscillations observed at Banneg Island, and wave set-up and infragravity waves generated during swell shoaling. To circumvent the difficulty posed by the intermittent P2 signal, wavelet cross-correlation and cross-bispectral analysis is used to study the phase correlation between the swell envelope and IG waves at P3 and P4. A uni-directional deterministic wave model (Agnon and Sheremet, 1997) is used to investigate the generation mechanism, and assess the magnitude of the infragravity waves. REFERENCES Agnon, Y and A. Sheremet. Stochastic nonlinear shoaling of directional spectra. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 345, p. 79-99, 1997. Fichaut, B and S. Suanez. Quarrying, transport and deposition of cliff-top storm deposits during extreme events: Banneg island. Marine Geology, pages 36-55, 2011. Sheremet, A, J. Kaihatu, S. Su, E. Smith, and J. Smith. Modeling of nonlinear wave propagation over fringing reefs. Coastal Engineering. 58(12). 1125-1137, 2011.

Staples, T.; TIAN, M.; Ardhuin, F.; Sheremet, A.; Suanez, S.; Fichaut, B.

2012-12-01

285

"STARS" at Black Island Comms.  

NSF Publications Database

... with Black Island chosen over Arrival Heights, Cape Royds, White Island, Daily Island, Marble Point ... Island. The Black Island site provides an unobstructed horizon of the Pacific Ocean Region (POR ...

286

Desktop Study for La Quinta Project; Shoaling Prediction in La Quinta Navigation Channel and Effect of a Barrier on Siltation in Extended La Quinta Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army Engineer District, Galveston, proposed two modifications of the La Quinta navigation channel: (1) extension of the navigation channel and providing a new turning basin at the end of the extension, both having the same depth as that of the present navigation channel, namely 13.7 m (45 ft), and (2) constructing a barrier on the south side of the extended channel. The District requested the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory (CHL) of the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), Vicksburg, MS, conduct a desktop study for estimation of future shoaling in the navigation channel with these two modifications. The results of a desktop study are given in this report in two parts for the above two problems. Shoaling Prediction in La Quinta Navigation Channel The approach consisted of the following steps. Field data already available as well as those collected by CHL were analyzed and the results of analysis used. Assumptions were made on the spatial and temporal variation in the values of relevant parameters. Runs were conducted on the existing numerical hydrodynamic model for a few selected conditions to determine the effect of channel extension on the currents in the area of interest. A quantitative estimate was provided on future shoaling in the navigation channel based on the field and model data analysis. The following conclusions were drawn. a. Proposed extension of La Quinta navigation channel and provision of a new turning basin will cause an increase in the present tidal currents. This is expected to increase the inflow of sediment in the channel, which would result in increased shoaling. b. Bed sediment in the La Quinta channel consists of mostly fine sediment in the category of silt and clay. This suggests that the major process of shoaling consists of deposition of suspended sediment.

Parchure, Trimbak M.; Sarruff, Soraya; Brown, Ben

2002-09-01

287

Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Churchill County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0  

SciTech Connect

This Well Completion Report is being provided as part of the implementation of the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447 (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). The CADD/CAP is part of an ongoing U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) funded project for the investigation of CAU 447 at the Project Shoal Area (PSA). All work performed on this project was conducted in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996), and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. Investigation activities included the drilling, construction, and development of three monitoring/validation (MV) wells at the PSA. This report summarizes the field activities and data collected during the investigation.

Rick Findlay

2006-09-01

288

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We report

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

2001-01-01

289

Effects of contaminant exposure and food restriction on hepatic autophagic lysosomal parameters in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.  

PubMed

Lysosomal autophagic responses, such as lysosomal membrane stability, neutral lipids (NL), lipofuscin (LF), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, are valuable measures of cellular early-onset effects induced by environmental stress factors, such as contaminant exposure and fasting. In this study, these parameters were analysed and related to levels of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in 40 Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) chicks. Chicks were experimentally exposed to HOCs through diet and went through a period of nutrient deprivation at the end of the experiment. HOC exposure and fasting were conducted separately and in combination. NL storages were depleted, and lysosomal membranes were destabilised after HOC exposure and nutrient deprivation. These responses were not related specifically to one type of stress or the extent of the treatment. No synergistic or additive effects from the combination of HOC exposure and fasting were observed. LF accumulated, and MDA levels increased as a result of fasting, but were unaffected by HOC exposure. LF accumulation was strongly associated with the percent weight change in the chicks. Large weight loss was associated with high LF levels, and slight weight gain was associated with low LF levels. Hence, food deprivation affected all the measured parameters, and HOC exposure decreased NL levels and lysosomal membrane stability in HG chick liver. Furthermore, autophagic lysosomal parameters have frequently been applied as biomarkers of cellular health status in previous studies of marine and terrestrial invertebrates, and this study suggests that these parameters may be good candidates for biomarkers of cellular health status in seabirds as well. PMID:24787519

Hegseth, Marit Nst; Gorbi, Stephania; Bocchetti, Raffaella; Camus, Lionel; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Regoli, Francesco

2014-08-01

290

Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common gull Larus canus  

PubMed Central

Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotypeenvironment interaction (GE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common gulls Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11?624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying datetemperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs.

Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J

2008-01-01

291

Control of plasma arginine vasotocin in Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus): roles of osmolality, volume, and plasma angiotensin II.  

PubMed

The physiological roles of plasma osmolality, volume, and angiotensin II (AII) in the control of plasma arginine vasotocin (AVT) have been evaluated in the Kelp gull. Plasma AVT (measured by radioimmunoassay) consistently followed the changes in plasma osmolality induced by dehydration, intravenous (iv) infusion of hypertonic saline, or iv infusion of hypotonic glucose solution. Osmoreceptor control of AVT was further characterized by the stimulatory effect of iv hypertonic mannitol but lack of effect of iv hypertonic urea. A direct volume effect on AVT release was demonstrated during hemorrhage, but blood volume reductions in excess of 10% were required. However, the volume of the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment does have an important role in modulating the osmotic release of AVT in a way that enables contraction or expansion of ECF to be more expeditiously corrected than would occur if osmoreceptors alone regulated plasma AVT. Any physiological role of plasma AII in the control of plasma AVT is doubtful because after the iv infusion of AII for 60 min at 10, 25, 50, and 100 ng.min-1, only the two highest doses of AII, which produced supraphysiological plasma AII levels, caused elevations of plasma AVT. In addition, the osmotic reactivity of AVT release was not altered by exogenous administration of AII. PMID:2737447

Gray, D A; Erasmus, T

1989-04-01

292

Pathology of enteric infections induced by the acanthocephalan Profilicollis chasmagnathi in Olrog's gull, Larus atlanticus, from Argentina.  

PubMed

Acanthocephalans can be pathogenic helminths of marine birds. Every year during the breeding season, there is variable mortality among prefledged chicks from the largest known Olrog's gull (Larus atlanticus) colony. Mortality has been associated with infection by the acanthocephalan Profilicollis chasmagnathi. Our aim was to study the role of chicks' size as a risk factor for intensity of infection and severe pathology, and to expand upon previous pathological findings reported in acanthocephalan-infected chicks. Size of the chick was associated with intensity of infection and number of intestinal perforations, which increased by 6.9% and 4.1%, respectively, for each millimetre increment in chick size. Infection was associated with inflammatory enteritis and granulomatous peritonitis. Complete intestinal perforations were observed in 85% and 97.3% of the studied chicks in 2005 and 2006, respectively, and they were observed very early during the post-hatching period. Our results show: (1) the presence of advanced pathology associated with acanthocephalan infections in chicks, beginning very early in the post-hatching period; and (2) significant increases in the intensity of infection and the associated pathology as a function of size of chicks, in dead chicks during this period. PMID:22176660

La Sala, L F; Perez, A M; Smits, J E; Martorelli, S R

2013-03-01

293

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

294

Interannual variations of the occurrence of epipelagic fish in the diets of the seabirds breeding on Teuri Island, northern Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diets of breeding seabirds can be a good monitor of marine environmental changes. From 1984 to 2001 we monitored the diets of black-tailed gulls ( Larus crassirostris) (surface foragers), rhinoceros auklets ( Cerorhinca monocerata) (epipelagic divers), and Japanese cormorants ( Phalacrocorax filamentotus) (bottom divers) that breed on Teuri Island at the northern boundary of the Tsushima Warm current in the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Between 1984 and 1987, both the gulls and the auklets foraged on the sardine ( Sardinops melanostictus), but after 1992, they switched to the anchovy ( Engraulis japonica). This change might reflect the collapse of the sardine stock in the late 1980s. In the 1990s, the year-to-year variations of the percentage of anchovy in the diets of the three seabird species showed similar trends: High in 1994 and 1998-2001; and low in 1992-1993 and 1995-1997. The estimated stock size of the anchovy population in the Tsushima Current area was positively correlated with the percentage of mass of anchovy in the seabirds diets. Thus, the short-term annual changes of the total anchovy availability, which might reflect SST or the volume transport of Tsushima Current, possibly affected the seabirds diets on this island.

Deguchi, Tomohiro; Watanuki, Yutaka; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Nakata, Akifumi

2004-05-01

295

Dissemination of Escherichia coli with CTX-M Type ESBL between Humans and Yellow-Legged Gulls in the South of France  

PubMed Central

Extended Spectrum ?-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae started to appear in the 1980s, and have since emerged as some of the most significant hospital-acquired infections with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella being main players. More than 100 different ESBL types have been described, the most widespread being the CTX-M ?-lactamase enzymes (blaCTX-M genes). This study focuses on the zoonotic dissemination of ESBL bacteria, mainly CTX-M type, in the southern coastal region of France. We found that the level of general antibiotic resistance in single randomly selected E. coli isolates from wild Yellow-legged Gulls in France was high. Nearly half the isolates (47,1%) carried resistance to one or more antibiotics (in a panel of six antibiotics), and resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycin was most widespread. In an ESBL selective screen, 9,4% of the gulls carried ESBL producing bacteria and notably, 6% of the gulls carried bacteria harboring CTX-M-1 group of ESBL enzymes, a recently introduced and yet the most common clinical CTX-M group in France. Multi locus sequence type and phylogenetic group designations were established for the ESBL isolates, revealing that birds and humans share E. coli populations. Several ESBL producing E. coli isolated from birds were identical to or clustered with isolates with human origin. Hence, wild birds pick up E. coli of human origin, and with human resistance traits, and may accordingly also act as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance with a potential to re-infect human populations.

Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Hernandez, Jorge; Granholm, Susanne; Kayser, Yves; Melhus, Asa; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Waldenstrom, Jonas; Johansson, Anders; Olsen, Bjorn

2009-01-01

296

Bathymetry of the waters surrounding the Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Elizabeth Islands in Massachusetts that separate Vineyard Sound from Buzzards Bay are the remnants of a moraine (unconsolidated glacial sediment deposited at an ice sheet margin; Oldale and OHara, 1984). The most recent glacial ice retreat in this region occurred between 25,000 and 20,000 years ago, and the subsequent rise in sea level that followed deglaciation caused differences in the seafloor character between Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound. The relatively rough seafloor of Vineyard Sound reflects widespread exposure of glacial material. Shoals mark the location of recessional ice contact material, and deep channels illustrate where meltwater drainage incised glacial deposits. Following ice retreat from the Elizabeth Islands, a glacial lake formed across the mouth of Buzzards Bay, when the lake drained, it scoured two deep channels at the southern end of the bay. Sea level rise began to inundate Vineyard Sound and Buzzards Bay about 8,000 years ago and continues to modify the modern seafloor (Robb and Oldale, 1977). Fine-grained marine and estuarine sediments were deposited in the partially protected setting of Buzzards Bay. These deposits, up to 10 meters in thickness, buried the high-relief glacial landscape and created the generally smooth modern seafloor. In contrast, the Vineyard Sound of today experiences strong tidal currents, which largely prevent the deposition of fine-grained material and constantly rework the glacial sand and gravel within shoals. The seafloor of the sound largely reflects the contours of the ancient glaciated landscape that existed before sea level began to rise. The bathymetric data used to create the hillshaded relief image of the seafloor were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management and supplemented with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey data. The map shows the detailed bathymetry of Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound with depth soundings shown on a 5-meter-per-pixel grid. Depths are coded by color where the deepest areas are in blue and the shallowest areas are in orange. The aerial photography for the Elizabeth Islands and Massachusetts mainland were obtained from the Massachusetts Office of Geographic Information. Data collected during this statewide cooperative project have been released in a series of USGS open-file reports. These publications and information regarding geologic mapping in Massachusetts can be obtained from the Coastal and Marine Geology Programs Web site (http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coastal_mass/).

Pendleton, Elizabeth; Andrews, Brian; Ackerman, Seth; Twichell, Dave

2014-01-01

297

Avian influenza virus H13 circulating in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario, Canada.  

PubMed

Avian influenza virus (AIV) was studied in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in one breeding colony on Lake Erie in 2000, and two on Lake Ontario in both 2000 and 2004. Antibodies to H13 AIV were detected in 92% of adults in 2000 and 82% in 2004. Antibody prevalence in 3-wk-old chicks was 5%-30% (overall 15%) in 2000 and 21% and 76% (overall 48%) in 2004. In 5-wk-old chicks, antibody prevalence was 23%-75% (overall 53%) in 2000 and 53% and 79% (overall 66%) in 2004. Geometric mean antibody titers at 3 and 5 wk did not differ in 2000, but increased significantly at one colony in 2004. In 2000, overall prevalence of AIV isolation from cloaca in embryonated chicken eggs was 32% (3 wk old), 13% (5 wk old), and 0 (adults), but AIV was also isolated from kidney and lung in a high proportion of tissues cultured from 3-wk-old birds in one colony. Isolates from cloaca were characterized as subtype H13 by serology; all 15 tested for neuraminidase were H13N6. However, three AIV detections considered on the basis of nucleotide sequence to be subtype H16 were among the 28 detected retrospectively by PCR in archived cloacal swabs; the remainder were subtype H13. Outcome of virus isolation was not related to presence of antibody titers in chicks. The presence of antibody to AIV in chicks was associated significantly with inflammation in heart, kidney, pancreas, and liver. AIV was not isolated in 2004. AIV infected chicks annually within the first 3 wk of life, ultimately infecting the majority of birds in most colonies, but did not appear to cause clinical disease. PMID:20521671

Velarde, Roser; Calvin, Sharon E; Ojkic, Davor; Barker, Ian K; Nagy, Eva

2010-03-01

298

Facies and sequential organisation of a mudstone-dominated slope and basin floor succession: the Gull Island Formation, Shannon Basin, Western Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lower part of the Carboniferous Shannon Basin of Western Ireland contains a deep-water succession which exceeds 1200 m in thickness that comprises five lithologically different units deposited within a confined, relatively narrow basin: (i) a calciclastic debris-flow and turbidite unit formed by resedimentation from nearby carbonate platforms, (ii) a siliciclastic black shale succession with former source potential which onlaps

Ole J Martinsen; Trond Lien; Roger G Walker; John D Collinson

2003-01-01

299

Final Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal area, Nevada, Subsurface Site, Revision 1, April 1999  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 6.0 in the Shoal Subsurface Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) provided a framework for a data decision analysis (DDA) that would be used to determine investigation methods and data collection methods to minimize uncertainty in groundwater flow and transport predictions. Uncertain parameters were identified and possible field activities that could provide information on those uncertain parameters were briefly described. The DDA has now been completed (Pohll and Forsgren, 1999) and prompts this addendum to describe the outcome of the DDA, how it was used to determine the next phase of data collection for the Shoal Subsurface activities, and to provide details of the planned investigations sufficient to allow understanding of the scope and completion of the tasks involved.

DOE /NV

1999-04-01

300

Ground-nesting waterbirds and mammalian carnivores in the Virginia barrier island region: Running out of options  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined changing patterns of distribution of two large mammalian predators, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and beach-nesting terns and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) along ca. 80 km of the Virginia barrier island landscape between the periods 1975-1977 and 1998. Based on evidence from trapping, scent stations, den observations and sightings of the two predators, there has been a marked increase in their island ranges. In 1975-77, only 6 of the 11 surveyed barrier islands definitely harbored at least one of the two mammals, but by 1998, 11 of 14 islands showed evidence of one or both during the spring and summer. Concurrently, annual beach-nesting bird surveys have been conducted since the mid 1970s during June. From 1977 to 1998, the number of colonies of terns [Common (Sterna hirundo), Gull-billed (S. nilotica), Least (S. antillarum), Royal (S. maxima), and Sandwich (S. sandvicensis)] and Black Skimmers declined from 23 colonies on 11 barrier islands to 13 colonies on 10 islands. In addition, the populations decreased dramatically for all species except the marginal Sandwich Tern and Least Tern. This pattern suggests that mammalian predation may be a major factor in colony site selection or success, although we have no data on success at most locations. The only consistently large colony over the years has been the Royal Tern colony on Fisherman Island, one of the few with no resident large mammals. Because these declining waterbirds appear to be running out of options for safe colony sites in coastal Virginia, we discuss the prospects of conducting limited predator removals on certain islands. In addition, considerations of strict management and enforcement of protection at critical manmade colony sites that now attract large numbers of certain species, are timely. Lastly, where dredged material disposal projects are planned, providing nesting sites for these colonial species and roosting sites for migrant birds may be appropriate.

Erwin, R.M.; Truitt, B.R.; Jimenez, J.E.

2001-01-01

301

Wind energy, Humble Island  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Wind energy, Humble Island Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : January 24, 1992 ... Memorandum (Facility for Wind Generation of Energy at Humble Island, Near Palmer Station, Antarctica ...

302

Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

1980-01-01

303

Galapagos Islands Flyby  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the power of computer graphics to explore data in the sense of virtual reality. In this scene, standard tools are applied to fly around the Galapagos Islands and the ocean floor surrounding the islands.

Pape, Dave; Feldman, Gene

1994-03-13

304

Pine Island Bay  

... Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica View Larger Image ... x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75S latitude, 102W longitude) sometime between November 4 and ...

2013-04-16

305

Bouvet Island near Antarctica  

... Lozier. Bouvet was convinced it was the northernmost tip of Antarctica but could not circumnavigate or land upon the island due to severe ... Bouvet Island location: Antarctica Atlantic Ocean thumbnail: ...

2013-04-16

306

Pine Island Glacier  

article title: Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica View Larger Image ... (MISR) images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left ...

2013-04-16

307

Addendum to the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447, Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site, Revision 1, April 1999  

SciTech Connect

The report is an addendum to Chapter 6.0, ''Field Investigation,'' of the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Nevada Subsurface Site, DOE/NV--513. Sections 6.0 and 6.1 in DOE/NV--513 continue to stand, with the sections below following after them. These new sections represent information that was not available at the time DOE/NV--513 was issued.

DOE /NV

1999-04-13

308

Muscle Shoals Airports, Muscle Shoals, Alabama.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project involves the following development: Land acquisition for clear zones and approach lighting system (easements); extend and light Runway 11/29 from 6,000' to 6,700'; strengthen Runway 11/29 (6,000' x 150'); construct and light partial parallel t...

1971-01-01

309

Arctic ice islands  

SciTech Connect

The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

1988-01-01

310

Island Fox Paradox  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Channel Island foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the island with the most abundant fox population in the island chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the islands by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?

Sharon Levy (Freelancer;)

2010-05-03

311

Microevolution in island rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four island rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (island, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos islands, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel islands. We

Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley

312

Island of Timor, Indonesia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This almost totally cloud free, photo of the island of Timor, Indonesia (9.0S, 125.0E) illustrates the volcanic origin of the over 1500 islands of Indonesia. Close examination of the photo reveals several eroded volcanoes on the Island of Timor and several of the adjacent islands. The linear alignment of the volcanoes, as seen from space, indicates the edges of the tectonic plates of the Earth's crust where volcanic activity is most common.

1989-01-01

313

Internal solitary waves shoaling onto a shelf: Comparisons of weakly-nonlinear and fully nonlinear models for hyperbolic-tangent stratifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the evolution of internal solitary waves shoaling onto a shelf is considered. The results of high resolution two-dimensional numerical simulations of the incompressible Euler equations are compared with the predictions of several weakly-nonlinear shoaling models of the Korteweg-de Vries family including the Gardner equation and the cubic regularized long wave (or Benjamin-Bona-Mahoney) equation. Wave models in both physical x-t space and in s-x space are considered where s is a commonly used characteristic time variable. The effects of rotation, background currents and damping are ignored. The Boussinesq and rigid lid approximations are also used. The shoaling internal solitary waves generally fission into several waves. Reflected waves are negligible in the cases considered here. Several hyperbolic tangent stratifications are considered with and without a critical point. Among the equations in x-t space the cubic regularized long wave equation gives the best predictions. The Gardner equation in s-x space gives the best predictions of the shape of the leading waves on the shelf, but for many stratifications it predicts a propagation speed that is too large.

Lamb, Kevin G.; Xiao, Wenting

2014-06-01

314

How Are Islands Formed?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides students with information about how islands are formed, including a basic knowledge of plate tectonics. Using the islands of Hawaii as an example, students learn about the earth processes that cause the formation of islands over time, including volcanoes and hot spots.

2001-01-01

315

Ice Island Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarises the issues related to the use of man-made ice islands as exploration drilling structures in the Canadian Arctic Islands and Beaufort Sea. The historical development of ice island technology has been reviewed with respect to design, ...

2005-01-01

316

Diomede Islands, Bering Straight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

317

The shallow stratigraphy and sand resources offshore of the Mississippi Barrier Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal Mississippi is protected by a series of barrier islands ranging in length from 10-25 kilometers that are less than 2 kilometers wide. The majority of these islands comprise the Gulf Islands National Seashore (GUIS), an ecologically diverse shoreline that provides habitat for wildlife including migratory birds and endangered animals. The majority of GUIS is submerged, and aquatic environments include dynamic tidal inlets, ebb-tide deltas, and seagrass beds. The islands are in a state of decline, with land areas severely reduced during the past century by storms, sea-level rise, and human alteration. Morton (2008) estimates that since the mid-1800s up to 64 percent of island surface area has been lost. Heavy damage was inflicted in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina, which passed by as a Category 3 storm and battered the islands with winds of more than 160 kilometers per hour and a storm surge up to 9 meters. Since 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the National Park Service, has been mapping the seafloor and substrate around the islands as part of the USGS Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. The purpose of these investigations is to characterize the near-surface stratigraphy and identify the influence it may have on island evolution and fate. In 2009, this effort provided the basis for a collaborative effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to expand the investigation outside of GUIS boundaries as part of the Mississippi Coastal Improvement Project (MsCIP). The MsCIP program consists of structural, nonstructural, and environmental project elements to restore portions of coastal Mississippi and GUIS affected by storm impact. The project includes the placement of sand along the islands, both on the present beaches and within the littoral zone, to mitigate shoreline erosion and breaching. This action requires the location and assessment of offshore sand or sediment deposits that can provide suitable material for shoreline renourishment. The geophysical and sample information collected by the USGS during geologic investigations provides this information. As part of the MsCIP program, in March 2010 the USGS mapped approximately 300 square kilometers of seafloor around GUIS. Interferometric swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and Chirp sub-bottom profiling were used to characterize seafloor elevations, texture, and the underlying stratigraphy. On the basis of this information, potential sediment resources were identified. The most promising offshore deposits for beach restoration include shoals, lowstand valley fill, tidal delta deposits, abandoned barrier deposits, and dredge spoil. Of these, lowstand valley fill deposits and dredge spoil are less desirable; lowstand deposits are buried under a 2- to 4-meter blanket of mud, and dredge spoil volume is small. A relict tidal delta and submerged shoals are the most desirable deposits; the tidal delta contains a large volume of material still exposed on the seafloor, and parts of submerged shoals have modest volume and thin mud cover.

Twichell, David; Pendleton, Elizabeth; Baldwin, Wayne; Foster, David; Flocks, James; Kelso, Kyle; DeWitt, Nancy; Pfeiffer, William; Forde, Arnell; Krick, Jason; Baehr, John

2011-01-01

318

Foraging movements of Audouins gull (Larus audouinii) in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean: A preliminary satellite-tracking study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A knowledge of the foraging strategies of marine predators is essential to understand the intrinsic factors controlling their distribution, abundance and their ecological function within the marine ecosystem. Here, we investigated for the first time the foraging movements and activity patterns of Audouin's gull Larus audouinii by using satellite-tracking data from eight breeding adults in the main colony of the species worldwide (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean). Tagged gulls foraged in the marine area close to the breeding colony (62% of foraging locations) and in the terrestrial area of the Ebro Delta (mainly rice fields; 38% of foraging locations). The foraging activity patterns changed significantly throughout the day; lower from dusk through the first half of the night (19-1 h; 32% of active locations) and higher during the rest of the day (1-19 h; 75.5 4.3% of active locations). These results confirm the foraging plasticity of this seabird and, based on previous information about the dietary habits of this species, we hypothesize how its time-dependent activity patterns and habitat use could be associated with variations in the availability of marine food resources (e.g. diel vertical migrations of pelagic fish) and the exploitation of terrestrial resources (e.g. American crayfish Procambarus clarkii).

Christel, Isadora; Navarro, Joan; del Castillo, Marcos; Cama, Albert; Ferrer, Xavier

2012-01-01

319

[Biomass and carbon storage of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora in Jiuduan Shoal Wetland of Yangtze Estuary, East China].  

PubMed

By the methods of field survey and laboratory analysis, an investigation was conducted on the seasonal dynamics of biomass and carbon storage of Phragmites australis and Spartina alterniflora dominated vegetation belts in the Jiuduan Shoal Wetland of Yangtze Estuary, East China in 2010-2012. The organic carbon storage of the biomass (including aboveground part, underground part, and standing litter) of the two plants was the highest in autumn and the lowest in spring. The average carbon storage of the biomass of S. alterniflora per unit area (445.81 g x m(-2)) was much higher than that of P. australis (285.52 g x m(-2)), and the average carbon storage of the standing litter of S. alterniflora (315.28 g x m(-2)) was also higher than that of P. australia (203.15 g x m(-2)). However, the organic carbon storage in the surface soil (0-30 cm) under P. australis community (1048.62 g x m(-2)) was almost as twice times as that under S. alterniflora community (583.33 g x m(-2)). Overall, the carbon accumulation ability of P. australis community (3212.96 g x m(-2)) was stronger than that of the S. alterniflora community (2730.42 g x m(-2)). Therefore, it is of significance to protect the P. australis community in terms of carbon sequestration at the salt marsh. PMID:24380329

Liu, Yu; Li, Xiu-zhen; Yan, Zhong-zheng; Chen, Xiu-zhi; He, Yan-long; Guo, Wen-yong; Sun, Pei-ying

2013-08-01

320

Bryophyte colonization history of the virgin volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The island Surtsey was formed in a volcanic eruption south of Iceland in 1963-1967 and has since then been protected and monitored by scientists. The first two moss species were found on Surtsey as early as 1967 and several new bryophyte species were discovered every year until 1973 when regular sampling ended. Systematic bryophyte inventories in a grid of 100 m 100 m quadrats were made in 1971 and 1972. The number of observed species almost doubled between years with 36 species found in 1971 and 72 species in 1972. Here we report results from an inventory in 2008, when every other of the grid's quadrats were searched for bryophytes. Despite lower sampling intensity than in 1972, distributional expansion and contraction of earlier colonists was revealed as well as presence of new colonists. A total of 38 species were discovered, 15 of those were not encountered in 1972 and eight had never been reported from Surtsey before (Bryum elegans, Ceratodon heterophyllus, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Schistidium confertum, S. papillosum, Tortula hoppeana and T. muralis). Habitat loss due to erosion and reduced thermal activity in combination with successional vegetation changes are likely to have played a significant role in the decline of some bryophyte species which were abundant in 1972 (Leptobryum pyriforme, Schistidium apocarpum coll., Funaria hygrometrica, Philonotis spp., Pohlia spp, Schistidium strictum, Sanionia uncinata) while others have continued to thrive and expand (e.g. Schistidium maritimum, Racomitrium lanuginosum, R. ericoides, R. fasciculare and Bryum argenteum). Some species (especially Bryum spp.) benefit from the formation of new habitats, such as grassland within a gull colony, which was established in 1984. Several newcomers are rarely producing sporophytes on Iceland and unlikely to have dispersed by airborne spores. They are more likely to have been introduced to Surtsey by seagulls in the form of vegetative fragments or dispersal agents (Bryum elegans, Didymodon rigidulus, Eurhynchium praelongum, Ceratodon heterophyllus and Ulota phyllantha). The establishment of the gull colony also means that leakage of nutrients from the nesting area is, at least locally, downplaying the relative importance of nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria growing in bryophyte shoots.

Ingimundardttir, G. V.; Weibull, H.; Cronberg, N.

2014-03-01

321

Dynamics of seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise at French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

and habitat creation may mitigate projected seabird population declines due to habitat loss. We predict substantial losses in seabird nesting habitat across the low-lying Hawaiian Islands by 2100 and emphasize the need to restore higher elevation seabird colonies.

Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Hartzell, Paula; Hatfield, Jeff S.

2013-01-01

322

Effects of seagulls on ecosystem respiration, soil nitrogen and vegetation cover on a pristine volcanic island, Surtsey, Iceland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Surtsey rose from the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland in 1963, it became a unique natural laboratory on how organisms colonize volcanic islands and form ecosystems with contrasting structures and functions. In July, 2004, ecosystem respiration rate (Re), soil properties and surface cover of vascular plants were measured in 21 permanent research plots distributed among the juvenile communities of the island. The plots were divided into two main groups, inside and outside a seagull (Larus spp.) colony established on the island. Vegetation cover of the plots was strongly related to the density of gull nests. Occurrence of nests and increased vegetation cover also coincided with significant increases in Re, soil carbon, nitrogen and C:N ratio, and with significant reductions in soil pH and soil temperatures. Temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of Re was determined as 5.3. When compared at constant temperature the Re was found to be 59 times higher within the seagull colony, similar to the highest fluxes measured in drained wetlands or agricultural fields in Iceland. The amount of soil nitrogen, mainly brought onto the island by the seagulls, was the critical factor that most influenced ecosystem fluxes and vegetation development on Surtsey. The present study shows how ecosystem activity can be enhanced by colonization of animals that transfer resources from a nearby ecosystem.

Sigurdsson, B. D.; Magnusson, B.

2010-03-01

323

INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization is progressing. Data on reservoir production rate and pressure history at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been tabulated, and porosity data from core analysis has been correlated with porosity as observed from well log response. Data integration is on schedule, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database for reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation for the reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs for each of these fields.

Ernest A. Mancini

2001-09-14

324

Apostle Islands National Lakeshore  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two islands called the Apostles. The Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 islands as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the Islands section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the islands. It offers information about: the islands, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the islands are also covered.

325

The Shark Assemblage at French Frigate Shoals Atoll, Hawai'i: Species Composition, Abundance and Habitat Use  

PubMed Central

Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao Mh ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 2891720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.

Dale, Jonathan J.; Stankus, Austin M.; Burns, Michael S.; Meyer, Carl G.

2011-01-01

326

Intraslope basin reservoirs deposited by gravity-driven processes: Ship Shoal and Ewing Banks areas, offshore Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Seismic facies and high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provide a sequence stratigraphic framework for interpreting lateral distribution of sand-prone facies and reservoir connectivity in the Ship Shoal 351-358 to Ewing Bank 988 area, offshore Louisiana. The interval of interest is an isochron thick interpreted as a lowstand systems tract deposited at bathyal water depths within an intraslope-basin. This basin is approximately 50 kilometers from the age equivalent shelf/slope break. The isochron thick was deposited between the late Pliocene Discoaster Pentaradiatus and early Pleistocene Discoaster brouweri Condensed Sections. The D. pentaradiatus-D. brouweri sequence consists of the synclinal fill of a salt withdrawal basin forming an isochron thick that thins onto adjacent salt-cored structural highs. This isochron interval was subdivided into four seismic facies and each was calibrated with local well data. Mapped patterns of these seismic facies suggest a network of channel systems within a slope valley supplying sand by gravity-driven processes into a local salt withdrawal intrastope-basin. Following the above analysis, three wells (351No.2, 359No.1, 988No.3) and two side-tracks (351No.2stNo.l and stNo.2) were drilled to further test the prospectivity of the area. Rock type and hydrocarbon predictions based on seismic facies analysis were confirmed by the wells. Sandstones occur within the axes of isochron thicks and shales dominate the isochron thins over paleo-highs with gradational facies between. Hydrocarbon accumulation occurs in two settings: (1) channel-fed lobes with blocky log character yield hydrocarbons within areas of structural closure; and (2) overbank facies which contain hydrocarbons in low resistivity pay both within and outside of structural closure. Local abundance peaks of planktonic microfossils provide correlation control between the four depositional lobes of this lowstand deposit.

Armentrout, J.M.; Malecek, S.J.; Mathur, V.R.; Neuder, G.L.; Ragan, G.M. [Mobile Oil Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

327

Intraslope basin reservoirs deposited by gravity-driven processes: Ship shoal and ewing banks areas, offshore Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

Seismic facies and high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provide a sequence stratigraphic framework for interpreting lateral distribution of sand-prone facies and reservoir connectivity in the Ship Shoal 351-358 to Ewing Bank 988 area, offshore Louisiana. The interval of interest is an isochron thick interpreted as a lowstand systems tract deposited at bathyal water depths within an intraslope-basin. This basin is approximately 50 kilometers from the age equivalent shelf/slope break. The D. pentaradiatus-D. brouweri sequence consists of the synclinal fill of a salt withdrawal basin forming an isochron thick that thins onto adjacent salt-cored structural highs. This isochron interval was subdivided into four seismic facies and each is calibrated with local well data. The seismic facies are: Facies (1) hummocky-mounded facies with an internal reflection character of discontinuous variable amplitude, calibrated to thick, flat-based blocky to fining-upward sandstones interpreted as local sheets deposited as channel-fed depositional lobes; Facies (3) clinoform-wedge facies are characterized by continuous, uniform amplitude reflections and are calibrated with mudstones interpreted as part of a downslope prograding complex that downlaps and onlaps the hummocky- mounded facies; and Facies (4) parallel-continuous facies of relatively uniform amplitude correlated with mudstones that drape the other three facies throughout the study area and are interpreted as hemipelagic mudstone. Mapped patterns of these seismic facies suggest a network of channel systems within a slope valley supplying sand by gravity-driven processes into a local salt withdrawal intraslope-basin. Following the above analysis, three wells and two side-tracks were drilled to further test the prospectivity of the area. Rock type and hydrocarbon predictions based on seismic facies analysis were confirmed by the wells.

Armentrout, J.M.; Malecek, S.J.; Mathur, V.R. [Mobil Oil Corp., Dallas, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

328

The Shoal Arm Formation, north-central Newfoundland: Fe- and Mn-enriched sediments underlying black shales and flysch  

SciTech Connect

The Middle Ordovician Shoal Arm Formation is located in the central volcanic belt of north-central Newfoundland and consists of a sequence of hematitic argillites overlain by grey cherts and then black shales directly underneath a late Ordovician/early Silurian flysch sequence. The hematitic argillites are enriched in Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Co. Geochemically definable components within related lithologic groups were discriminated using principal component analysis and factor analysis. These procedures indicate the presence of (1) biogenic, (2) mixed detrital, (3) hydrothermal, and (4) Mn-carbonate components. The base of the hematitic part is marked by a sharp increase in the hydrothermal component, which then decreases stratigraphically upward. The Mn-carbonate component also decreases upwards, but persists up to the grey cherts. The clastic component changes from mixed mafic/pelagic clay-like detritus to Zr-, Nb- and Y-rich detritus in the top hematitic part. The grey cherts mark a transitional stage between the hematitic sediments (oxic) and the black shales (anoxic). The change to increasingly O[sub 2]-deficient conditions is explained by (a) an increase of biological productivity and related O[sub 2]-drain by C[sub org]-oxidation and/or (b) diachronous subsidence of the basin floor into a deep-water anoxic layer as a result of the loading of the basin floor by an approaching thrust stack. The similar stratigraphic sequence and geochemistry of the Middle Ordovician sediments in the Taconic Allochthon of New York State suggest that these processes also acted at other locations along the continental margin of the Iapetus Ocean. This uniformity may reflect the strong influence of the warm Middle Ordovician climate on the sediment facies or, alternatively, the control by the specific tectonic environment.

Bruechert, V.; Delano, J.W.; Kidd, J.W.; William, S.F. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

329

Marquesas Islands, Pacific Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As with most small island groups around the world, the Marquesas Island group 9.0S, 140.0W) is usually concealed by heavy cloud cover throughout the day making them very difficult to photograph in their entirety. Located in the south central Pacific Ocean, just north of the Tuamotu Archipelago, the islands partially seen in this view are: Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka and Ua Pu.

1993-01-01

330

Hydrologic data for Block Island, Rhode Island  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report was compiled as part of a study to assess the hydrogeology and the quality and quantity of fresh ground water on Block Island, Rhode Island. Hydrologic data were collected on Block Island during 1988-91. The data are pre- sented in illustrations and tables. Data collec- ted include precipitation, surfae-water, ground- water, lithologic, and well-construction and dis- charge information. Precipitation data include total monthly precipitation values from 11 rain gages and water-quality analyses of 14 precipi- tation samples from one station. Surface-water data include water-level measurements at 12 ponds, water-quality data for five ponds, and field specific-conductance measurements at 56 surface- water sites (streams, ponds, and springs). Ground- water data include water-level measurements at 159 wells, water-quality data at 150 wells, and field specific-conductance data at 52 wells. Lithologic logs for 375 wells and test borings, and construc- tion and location data for 570 wells, springs, and test borings are included. In addition, the data set contains data on water quality of water samples, collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health during 1976-91, from Fresh and Sands Ponds and from wells at the Block Island Water Company well field north of Sands Pond.

Burns, Emily

1993-01-01

331

Enterobacter cloacae with a novel variant of ACT AmpC beta-lactamase originating from glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) in Svalbard.  

PubMed

We aimed at Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae isolates resistant to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and Salmonella isolates in wild birds in Arctic Svalbard, Norway. Cloacal swabs of little auks (Alle alle, n=215) and samples of faeces of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus, n=15) were examined. Inducible production of AmpC enzyme was detected in E. cloacae KW218 isolate. Sequence analysis of the 1146bp PCR product of the ampC gene from this isolate revealed 99% sequence homology with the blaACT-14 and blaACT-5 AmpC beta-lactamase genes. Four, respectively six of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms generated amino acid substitutions in the amino acid chain. As the ampC sequence polymorphism in the investigated E. cloacae strain was identified as unique, we revealed a novel variant of the ampC beta-lactamase gene blaACT-23. PMID:24629772

Literak, Ivan; Manga, Ivan; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Chroma, Magdalena; Jamborova, Ivana; Dobiasova, Hana; Sedlakova, Miroslava Htoutou; Cizek, Alois

2014-07-16

332

Entire Island of Crete  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lying in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the entire Island of Crete (35.0N, 25.0E) can be seen in great detail in this cloud free view. The volcanic origins of this island can also be observed in the many sharp and angular ridgelines and rugged coastal features.

1973-01-01

333

Floating islands of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey abounds in both natural as well as cultural richness. Especially the natural assets located in developing regions have an important role to play in the economic life of such areas. The floating islands are one of these assets and have become an important research subject lately. Turkey is considered as a heaven of floating islands. Almost all geographical regions

Ihsan Bulut

2011-01-01

334

Basaltic island sand provenance  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

335

Back to Treasure Island  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in

Shriki, Atara

2011-01-01

336

Parris Island Auditorium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine Corps recruits at a ceremony at the Parris Island Auditorium. The auditorium is part of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in Parris Island, South Carolina. Over one million men and women have trained at the depot since 1915 and served all over the world.

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

337

Marine and Island Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and

Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

1988-01-01

338

Island Natural Science School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of

Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

339

Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna. Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m. Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures. Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground water; and (3) an increase in primary or secondary porosity and an associated change in mineral assemblage, or decrease in ground water specific conductance, was characterized in two of the boreholes below 300 m. The results of the radar reflection logging indicate that even where data quality is marginal, borehole-radar reflection logging can provide useful information for ground-water characterization studies in fractured rock and insights into the nature and extent of fractures and fracture zones in and near boreholes.

Lane, J.W., Jr.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, Greg; Mihevic, Todd

2001-05-11

340

75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Wildlife Service [FWS-R1-R-2010-N131; 1265-0000-10137-S3] Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...

2010-08-18

341

Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all five sampling sites along the 5.7-mi study reach of Shoal Creek, but the trends at successive downstream sites were out of phase and could not be explained by simple advection and dispersion. At base-flow conditions, the travel time of bacteria in Shoal Creek along the 5.7-mi reach between State Highway W (site 2) and the MDNR sampling site (site 3) was about 26 hours. Substantial dispersion and dilution occurs along the upper 4.1 mi of this reach because of inflows from a number of springs and tributaries and the presence of several long pools and channel meanders. Minimal dispersion and dilution occurs along the 1.6-mi reach immediately upstream from the MDNR sampling site. Measurements of fecal bacteria decay in Shoal Creek during July 2001 indicated that about 8 percent of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria decay each hour with an average first-order decay constant of 0.084 h-1 (per hour). Results of field test plots indicated that substantial numbers of fecal bacteria present in poul try litter can survive in fields for as much as 8 weeks after the application of the litter to the land surface. Median densities of fecal coliform and E. coli in slurry-water samples collected from fields increased from less than 60 col/100 mL before the application of turkey and broiler litter, to as large as 420,000 and 290,000 col/100 mL after the application of litter. Bacteria densities in the test plots generally decreased in a exponential manner over time with decay rates ranging from 0.085 to 0.185 d-1 (per day) for fecal coliform to between 0.100 and 0.250 d-1 for E. coli. The apparent survival of significant numbers of fecal bacteria on fields where poultry litter has been applied indicates that runoff from these fields is a potential source of fecal bacteria to vicinity streams for many weeks following litter application.

Schumacher, John G.

2003-01-01

342

River Diversions and Shoaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel. Processes considered in this note are those m...

J. C. Pinkard J. J. Letter N. K. Raphelt

2008-01-01

343

The Erythroblastic Island  

PubMed Central

Erythroblastic islands are specialized microenvironmental compartments within which definitive mammalian erythroblasts proliferate and differentiate. These islands consist of a central macrophage that extends cytoplasmic protrusions to a ring of surrounding erythroblasts. The interaction of cells within the erythroblastic island is essential for both early and late stages of erythroid maturation. It has been proposed that early in erythroid maturation the macrophages provide nutrients, proliferative and survival signals to the erythroblasts, and phagocytose extruded erythroblast nuclei at the conclusion of erythroid maturation. There is also accumulating evidence for the role of macrophages in promoting enucleation itself. The central macrophages are identified by their unique immunophenotypic signature. Their pronounced adhesive properties, ability for avid endocytosis, lack of respiratory bursts, and consequent release of toxic oxidative species, make them perfectly adapted to function as nurse cells. Both macrophages and erythroblasts display adhesive interactions that maintain island integrity, and elucidating these details is an area of intense interest and investigation. Such interactions enable regulatory feedback within islands via cross talk between cells and also trigger intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression. An additional control mechanism for cellular growth within the erythroblastic islands is through the modulation of apoptosis via feedback loops between mature and immature erythroblasts and between macrophages and immature erythroblasts. The focus of this chapter is to outline the mechanisms by which erythroblastic islands aid erythropoiesis, review the historical data surrounding their discovery, and highlight important unanswered questions.

Manwani, Deepa; Bieker, James J.

2011-01-01

344

How Islands Form  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on island formation through water level changes, coral growth, or volcanism. Through class demonstrations, worksheets, and research, students learn the different ways islands form as well as how different lifeforms develop on the islands. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, extensions, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

345

Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that

Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

2010-01-01

346

Mercury Concentrations in Common Tern Sterna hirundo and Slender-billed Gull Larus genei from the Shadegan Marshes of Iran, in North-western Corner of the Persian Gulf.  

PubMed

We examined mercury levels in several tissues of Common Terns and Slender-billed Gulls collected from Shadegan Marshes of south-western Iran. In both species, total mercury content was highest in feathers followed by liver, kidney and muscle tissue. We found a significant correlation between mercury concentrations in kidney and breast feather (r?=?0.83, p?Gull (6.61 and 5.35?g/g in breast feather and tail feather, respectively) was similar to those reported for gull species worldwide. Mean values for mercury in the feather of two seabird species were higher than the levels known to cause adverse effects. PMID:24819088

Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Alahverdi, Mostafa; Mirzaei, Roohallah

2014-06-01

347

Charge Islands Through Tunneling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge 'islands'. This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insigh...

D. C. Robinson

2002-01-01

348

Island Watershed Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

Benson, Rod

2003-01-01

349

Heat Island Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For people living in and around cities, heat islands are of growing concern. This phenomenon describes urban and suburban temperatures that are 2 to 10 degrees F (1 to 6 degrees C) hotter than nearby rural areas. Elevated temperatures can impact communities by increasing peak energy demand, air conditioning costs, air pollution levels, and heat-related illness and mortality. The materials available here describe the basic causes of the heat island effect, and what can be done to mitigate some of the impacts. There is also an overview of the Urban Heat Island Pilot Project (UHIPP), an initiative being conducted in five cities in the U.S. to adopt and evaluate heat island reduction strategies and programs.

350

Mysteries of Apo Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive game about shark biodiversity, learners investigate some strange things happening on Apo Island, in the Philippines. Learners collect clues to identify the animal species that attacked their boat's propeller.

Aquarium, Shedd; Educational Web Adventures (Eduweb)

2006-01-01

351

Easter Island Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter Island is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.

Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles;Geography Department)

2007-09-21

352

Long Island Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The dedicated librarians at the Stony Brook University Library have created this most excellent research guide and digital archive that covers all things Long Island. On their homepage, visitors can use the Long Island Documents area to view recently acquired items from key figures in local (and national) history, such as George Clinton, James Jay, and Benjamin Tallmadge. Also on the site is the Books, Pamphlets, and Journals area. Here visitors can make their way through key documents, such as "Early Long Island: A Colonial Study" and "The Evolution of Long Island: A Story of Land and Sea." Also, the site pays tribute to a very exciting new acquisition: several letters from George Washington, donated by Dr. Henry Laufer, a history enthusiast. This site is a tremendously valuable resource and one that will serve as a model to other institutions seeking to do similar work.

2012-08-24

353

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

354

Progress in Pacific islands.  

PubMed

The article announces the formation of family planning associations on the Tonga, Tahiti, Gilbert and Ellice Island groups. The administrative structures of the Associations are briefly described and organizational methods and directions to involve all islands of a particular groups are reported. All of the territories are within the area served by the South Pacific Commission which has set up a family planning seminar for the areas involved. PMID:12305000

1970-02-01

355

Black Island telecommunications upgrade  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Black Island telecommunications upgrade Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : July 22, 1993 File : opp93107 OFFICE OF POLAR PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT SECTION 202/357-7766 MEMORANDUM Date: July 22, 1993 From: Acting Environmental Officer Subject: Environmental Action Memorandum (Black Island Telecommunications Facility Upgrade) To: Director, Office of Polar Programs Manager, Polar Operations Section Safety and Health Officer Electronics Engineer Facilities Engineering Projects ...

356

Urban Heat Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students learn about the urban heat island effect by investigating which areas of their schoolyard have higher temperatures - trees, grass, asphalt, and other materials. Based on their results, they hypothesize how concentrations of surfaces that absorb heat might affect the temperature in cities - the urban heat island effect. Then they analyze data about the history of Los Angeles heat waves and look for patterns in the Los Angeles climate data and explore patterns.

Gardiner, Lisa; Universe, Windows T.

357

Heron Island, Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

2002-01-01

358

Fluid Management Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1 and Errata Sheet  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) initiated the Offsites Project to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of testing at formerly used nuclear sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The scope of this Fluid Management Plan (FMP) is to support the subsurface investigation at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Shoal-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Spring Range, south of Highway 50, about 39 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada. (Figure 1-1). This FMP will be used at the PSA in lieu of an individual discharge permit for each well or a general water pollution control permit for management of all fluids produced during the drilling, construction, development, testing, experimentation, and/or sampling of wells conducted by the Offsites Project. The FMP provides guidance for the management of fluids generated during investigation activities and provides the standards by which fluids may be discharged on site. Although the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), Bureau of Federal Facilities (BoFF) is not a signatory to this FMP, it is involved in the negotiation of the contents of this plan and approves the conditions contained within. The major elements of this FMP include: (1) establishment of a well-site operations strategy; (2) site design/layout; (3) monitoring of contamination indicators (monitoring program); (4) sump characterization (sump sampling program); (5) fluid management decision criteria and fluid disposition; and (6) reporting requirements.

Tim Echelard

2006-01-01

359

Detection limits and cost comparisons of human- and gull-associated conventional and quantitative PCR assays in artificial and environmental waters.  

PubMed

Some molecular methods for tracking fecal pollution in environmental waters have both PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays available for use. To assist managers in deciding whether to implement newer qPCR techniques in routine monitoring programs, we compared detection limits (LODs) and costs of PCR and qPCR assays with identical targets that are relevant to beach water quality assessment. For human-associated assays targeting Bacteroidales HF183 genetic marker, qPCR LODs were 70 times lower and there was no effect of target matrix (artificial freshwater, environmental creek water, and environmental marine water) on PCR or qPCR LODs. The PCR startup and annual costs were the lowest, while the per reaction cost was 62% lower than the Taqman based qPCR and 180% higher than the SYBR based qPCR. For gull-associated assays, there was no significant difference between PCR and qPCR LODs, target matrix did not effect PCR or qPCR LODs, and PCR startup, annual, and per reaction costs were lower. Upgrading to qPCR involves greater startup and annual costs, but this increase may be justified in the case of the human-associated assays with lower detection limits and reduced cost per sample. PMID:24583609

Riedel, Timothy E; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Madi, Tania; Hanley, Kaitlyn T; Ebentier, Darcy L; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Layton, Blythe; Raith, Meredith; Boehm, Alexandria B; Griffith, John F; Holden, Patricia A; Shanks, Orin C; Weisberg, Stephen B; Jay, Jennifer A

2014-04-01

360

Maternal Antibody Transmission in Relation to Mother Fluctuating Asymmetry in a Long-Lived Colonial Seabird: The Yellow-Legged Gull Larus michahellis  

PubMed Central

Female birds transfer antibodies to their offspring via the egg yolk, thus possibly providing passive immunity against infectious diseases to which hatchlings may be exposed, thereby affecting their fitness. It is nonetheless unclear whether the amount of maternal antibodies transmitted into egg yolks varies with female quality and egg laying order. In this paper, we investigated the transfer of maternal antibodies against type A influenza viruses (anti-AIV antibodies) by a long-lived colonial seabird, the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), in relation to fluctuating asymmetry in females, i.e. the random deviation from perfect symmetry in bilaterally symmetric morphological and anatomical traits. In particular, we tested whether females with greater asymmetry transmitted fewer antibodies to their eggs, and whether within-clutch variation in yolk antibodies varied according to the maternal level of fluctuating asymmetry. We found that asymmetric females were in worse physical condition, produced fewer antibodies, and transmitted lower amounts of antibodies to their eggs. We also found that, within a given clutch, yolk antibody level decreased with egg laying order, but this laying order effect was more pronounced in clutches laid by the more asymmetric females. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that maternal quality interacts with egg laying order in determining the amount of maternal antibodies transmitted to the yolks. They also highlight the usefulness of fluctuating asymmetry as a sensitive indicator of female quality and immunocompetence in birds.

Hammouda, Abdessalem; Selmi, Slaheddine; Pearce-Duvet, Jessica; Chokri, Mohamed Ali; Arnal, Audrey; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Boulinier, Thierry

2012-01-01

361

Miscellaneous pocosin peat deposits of North Carolina: Gull Rock; Van Swamp; Bay City - Gum Swamp. Open-grounds pocos in Hofmann Forest; Angola Swamp; Holly Shelter; Green Swamp  

SciTech Connect

In earlier reports the coastal swamp or pocosin peat deposits of Dismal Swamp, Pamlimarle Peninsula, Croatan Forest, and Light Ground Pocosin were described (Ingram and Otte, 1980, 1981a, 1981b, and 1982). This report describes the remaining coastal swamp or pocosin deposits of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Total peat resources of these remaining deposits are: (1) Gull Rock - 8100 acres, 4.6 million tons, moisture free, (2) Van Swamp - 6600 acres, 5.8 million tons, (3) Bay City - Gum Swamp - 12,3000 acres, 5.9 million tons, (4) Open Grounds - 11,000 acres, 6.3 million tons, (5) Hofmann Forest - 5200 acres, 4.2 million tons, (6) Angola Swamp - 21,900 acres, 15.2 million tons, (7) Holly Shelter - 9200 acres, 6.7 million tons, and (8) Green Swamp - 16,400 acres, 10.3 million tons. A revised estimation of the total peat resources of North Carolina is 700,000 acres (1100 sq mi) of peatland with 500 million tons of peat. Of this total, 290,000 acres (460 sq mi) is underlain by peat greater than 4 ft thick with 330 million tons of peat.

Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

1983-06-01

362

Habitat and environment of islands: primary and supplemental island sets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The original intent of the study was to develop a first-order synopsis of island hydrology with an integrated geologic basis on a global scale. As the study progressed, the aim was broadened to provide a framework for subsequent assessments on large regional or global scales of island resources and impacts on those resources that are derived from global changes. Fundamental to the study was the development of a comprehensive framework?a wide range of parameters that describe a set of 'saltwater' islands sufficiently large to Characterize the spatial distribution of the world?s islands; Account for all major archipelagos; Account for almost all oceanically isolated islands, and Account collectively for a very large proportion of the total area of the world?s islands whereby additional islands would only marginally contribute to the representativeness and accountability of the island set. The comprehensive framework, which is referred to as the ?Primary Island Set,? is built on 122 parameters that describe 1,000 islands. To complement the investigations based on the Primary Island Set, two supplemental island sets, Set A?Other Islands (not in the Primary Island Set) and Set B?Lagoonal Atolls, are included in the study. The Primary Island Set, together with the Supplemental Island Sets A and B, provides a framework that can be used in various scientific disciplines for their island-based studies on broad regional or global scales. The study uses an informal, coherent, geophysical organization of the islands that belong to the three island sets. The organization is in the form of a global island chain, which is a particular sequential ordering of the islands referred to as the 'Alisida.' The Alisida was developed through a trial-and-error procedure by seeking to strike a balance between 'minimizing the length of the global chain' and 'maximizing the chain?s geophysical coherence.' The fact that an objective function cannot be minimized and maximized simultaneously indicates that the Alisida is not unique. Global island chains other than the Alisida may better serve disciplines other than those of hydrology and geology.

Matalas, Nicholas C.; Grossling, Bernardo F.

2002-01-01

363

Island of Luzon, Philippines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

1990-01-01

364

Long Island Solar Farm  

SciTech Connect

The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

Anders, R.

2013-05-01

365

Geology Fieldnotes: Buck Island Reef National Monument, Virgin Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service (NPS) site covers the geology of Buck Island Reef National Monument in the Virgin Islands. It discusses coral reef formation and characteristics, as well as the history of Buck Island. There are links for maps, visitor information, and more details about this monument.

366

Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Contextual view of Treasure Island from Yerba Buena Island, showing Palace of Fine and Decorative Arts (Building 3), far right, Hall of Transportation (Building 2), middle, and The Administration Building (Building 1), far left, Port of Trade Winds is in foreground, camera facing northwest - Golden Gate International Exposition, Treasure Island, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

367

Introduction to Sea Island Folklife.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the economic activity, language, world view, kinship patterns, and religion of contemporary Sea Islanders in order to illustrate the Islands' cultural conservatism and, thus, their appropriateness for the study of Africanism in the United States. (GC)

Twining, Mary A.; Baird, Keith E.

1980-01-01

368

Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed.

Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

1984-01-01

369

HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK  

EPA Science Inventory

This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: ?What is a heat island?? ?What are its impacts?" "What ar...

370

Adaptation and diversification on islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charles Darwin's travels on HMS Beagle taught him that islands are an important source of evidence for evolution. Because many islands are young and have relatively few species, evolutionary adaptation and species proliferation are obvious and easy to study. In addition, the geographical isolation of many islands has allowed evolution to take its own course, free of influence from other

Jonathan B. Losos; Robert E. Ricklefs

2009-01-01

371

Magnetic-island formation  

SciTech Connect

The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.

Boozer, A.H.

1983-08-01

372

Atsena Otie Key Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Atsena Otie Key is one of thirteen islands on Florida's Gulf Coast that make up Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge. Nearby waters support a multi-million dollar clam-farming industry. USGS documented pre-oil coastal conditions near the Refuge with baseline petrochemical measurements and aerial phot...

2010-07-20

373

Building the intelligent island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IT2000 project, Singapore's national information technology (IT) effort to create the intelligent island, is introduced. The motivation for Singapore's government and other parties in taking an active role in the development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) is outlined, and a strategic framework for coordinating the development of different aspects of the NII is presented. The architectural framework of

Juzar Motiwalla; Michael Yap; L. H. Ngoh

1993-01-01

374

Siberian Expedition: Wrangel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel Island to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.

375

Parris Island, South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entrance to the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in Parris Island, South Carolina. Training of Marine Corps recruits began here in 1915. The base has been training recruits for every major U.S. conflict of the 20th and 21st century.

Chet Smolski

1978-01-01

376

Island groin flap.  

PubMed

An island groin flap was used for satisfactory reconstruction of defects in the anterior thigh, lower abdomen, or perineal regions in 9 patients. This flap has several advantages: simple operation, wide range of coverage, large rotation arc, direct closure of the donor site, and no sacrifice of muscle. Comparison with tensor fascia lata and other musculocutaneous flaps is made. PMID:4091467

Ohtsuka, H; Nakaoka, H; Saeki, N; Miki, Y

1985-08-01

377

Three Mile Island revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the

B. L. Lipford; N. M. Cole; T. J. Friderichs

1991-01-01

378

Three Mile Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island;

M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz

1988-01-01

379

Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

Ford, M.

2012-12-01

380

Heavy metal contamination in feathers of Western Reef Heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian gull (Larus heuglini) from Hara biosphere reserve of Southern Iran.  

PubMed

The main objectives of article were monitor the metal concentrations of cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, cobalt, and iron, in the feather of shorebirds species, Western Reef Heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian Gull (Larus heuglini) from Hara Biosphere Reserve of Southern Iran; and identify any relationships between species. Assaying heavy metals by using Shimadzu AA 680 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, the results were given as micrograms per gram dry weight. The concentrations of heavy metal were found to follow the order of iron>zinc>copper>lead>cadmium>cobalt for E. gularis and of iron>zinc>lead>copper>cadmium>cobalt for L. heuglini. Also, they showed that the cadmium, copper, and cobalt concentrations were higher in females than in the males, while the lead concentration for E. gularis and L. heuglini was higher in males. The cadmium concentration means they were measured as1.16 and 1.37 ?g/g for E. gularis and L. heuglini, respectively, whereas the lead concentration means 7.04 and 5.48 ?g/g for E. gularis and L. heuglini, respectively. The concentrations of nonessential trace elements in E. gularis and L. heuglini were generally comparable to values reported in other studies. The average levels of lead we observed in these birds were greater than 5 ?g/g dry weight in the feather that is known to be associated with adverse behavioral or reproductive effects. Data analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between copper and zinc (P?

Mansouri, Borhan; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Babaei, Hadi; Hoshyari, Ebrahim

2012-10-01

381

Reservoir characterization of the Miocene Starfak and Tiger Shoal fields, offshore Louisiana through integration of sequence stratigraphy, 3-D seismic, and well-log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many "mature" Gulf of Mexico (GOM) fields, due to their structurally and stratigraphically complex nature, possess significant remaining resources. Such is the case in the Starfak and Tiger Shoal fields, offshore Louisiana. In these fields, forty hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in a regressive Miocene-age succession that comprises 10 third-order and at least 58 fourth-order sequences. Reservoir-scale heterogeneity is controlled by the nature and distribution of sedimentary facies and is usually below the resolution of current subsurface seismic sampling. Sequence-stratigraphic analysis helps to improve predictions of spatial and temporal reservoir heterogeneity. This study addresses the application of the correlation between petrophysical properties (PP) (e.g., effective porosity and shale volume) and seismic attributes (SA) within a high-frequency sequence-stratigraphic framework to identify untapped reservoir compartments in the two offshore Louisiana fields. Synthetic modeling of the seismic data showed that the vertical resolution of the seismic is approximately 12 ms. The relief on the fourth-order sequence boundary (SB) is below seismic resolution. A new method of mapping fourth-order SBs was developed. This method is based on the ability to image planiform morphology along the SB that can be depicted from a sequence of 4-ms-thick stratal slices. This method was successfully applied in the study area, and showed increased resolution when compared to two other mapping methods (manual tracking and proportional slicing). Three methods were tested to correlate SA with PP: (1) direct correlation between SAs and PPs through regression analysis, (2) seismic inversion, and (3) probabilistic neural network (PNN). Among the three methods, the PNN proved to be the best technique. Four uncontacted compartments targeting incised-valley sands in genetic sequence 30 were identified upon analyzing the inverted Vshale volume created using PNN method. Starfak and Tiger Shoal are typical of mature shelf-bound fields in the GOM, with long and sustained production histories. Structural and stratigraphic heterogeneities present opportunities for reserve-growth potential if an improved process for mapping of geologic complexity can be unraveled.

Badescu, Adrian Constantin

382

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

383

Pine Island Iceberg Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine Island iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine Island Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.

Perkins, Lori; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave

2002-01-10

384

Charge Islands Through Tunneling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

Robinson, Daryl C.

2002-01-01

385

Leyte Island, Philippines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of Tropical Storm Thelma in November 1991, three weeks prior to the taking of this photo can still be seen on Leyte, (10.5N, 125.0E). Flash floods and mud slides triggered by the heavy rainfall and aggravated by logging operations on the mountain slopes, added to the general destruction caused by the storm. Fresh water runoff (lens) into the ocean are still evident as numerous bright semi circles around the island perimeter.

1991-01-01

386

Dauphin Island Sea Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dauphin Island Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.

387

Kodiak Island, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Running vertically between Alaska on the right and Russia on the left, the Bering Strait is mostly free of ice in this true-color MODIS image acquired from data captured on May 31, 2001. To the lower right of the image, a phytoplankton bloom appears to be occurring at the mouth of Norton Sound, and is coloring the darker water a bright bluish green. At the bottom center of the image is snow-covered St. Lawrence Island.

2002-01-01

388

Animal Island Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive application students playing at the easiest level count the number of each type of animal at the zoo on an island and choose the correct number to complete the list. The middle level has the student clicking on the number of each animal as shown in the bar graph. The hardest level requires students to interpret the data displayed in the bar graph. A worksheet is included in PDF format to be used for student work.

2011-01-01

389

Southern Vancouver Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Landsat satellite images of Southern Vancouver Island are among the collection of the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing's Images of Canada series (reviewed in the June 7, 2000 Scout Report for Science and Engineering). Below the full-color .jpeg images are tables documenting the satellites and sensors used, date of acquisition, image resolution, area (km), and links to a reference map. Educational, hyperlinked text about the featured region and close-ups of important topographic features accompany the images.

1999-01-01

390

Poetic Waves: Angel Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz Island, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel Island, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the island served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that ââ¦there is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place.â Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.

2005-01-01

391

77 FR 71531 - Special Local Regulation; Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside, OH  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island, Lakeside...movement in portions of Lake Erie during the annual Kelley's...Temporary Final Rule A. Regulatory History and Information On June 5...Kelley's Island Swim, Lake Erie; Kelley's Island,...

2012-12-03

392

75 FR 61993 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA66 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands, RMI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...description of the Class E airspace areas for Kwajalein Island, Bucholz AAF, Marshall Islands, RMI. The...

2010-10-07

393

77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...

2012-06-12

394

75 FR 28643 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, Lee and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R4-R-2010-N051; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee National Wildlife Refuges...environmental assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...

2010-05-21

395

77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY...

2012-08-24

396

Island studies for Helias Configurations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the NESCOIL code, a method analogous to the procedure of Cary and Hanson was developed to eliminate islands and more generally to control the size and phase of islands. The method was applied to Helias stellerator vacuum fields in order to determine configurations with a dense set of flux surfaces in the plasma region and an island chain at the boundary which may serve as a basis for a divertor concept.

Merkel, Peter

1990-03-01

397

Islands of the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic islands are characterized by beautiful mountains and glaciers, in which the wildlife lives in delicate balance with its environment. It is a fragile region with a long history of exploration and exploitation that is now experiencing rapid environmental change. All of these themes are explored in Islands of the Arctic, a richly illustrated volume with superb photographs from the Canadian Arctic archipelago, Greenland, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. It begins with the various processes shaping the landscape: glaciers, rivers and coastal processes, the role of ice in the oceans and the weather and climate. Julian Dowdeswell and Michael Hambrey describe the flora and fauna in addition to the human influences on the environment, from the sustainable approach of the Inuit, to the devastating damage inflicted by hunters and issues arising from the presence of military security installations. Finally, they consider the future prospects of the Arctic islands Julian Dowdeswell is Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute and Professor of Physical Geography at 0he University of Cambridge. He received the Polar Medal from Queen Elizabeth for his contributions to the study of glacier geophysics and the Gill Memorial Award from the Royal Geographical Society. He is chair of the Publications Committee of the International Glaciological Society and head of the Glaciers and Ice Sheets Division of the International Commission for Snow and Ice. Michael Hambrey is Director of the Centre for Glaciology at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth. A past recipient of the Polar Medal, he was also given the Earth Science Editors' Outstanding Publication Award for Glaciers (Cambridge University Press). Hambrey is also the author of Glacial Environments (British Columbia, 1994).

Dowdeswell, Julian; Hambrey, Michael

2002-11-01

398

Reunion Island Volcano Erupts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 16, 2002, lava that had begun flowing on January 5 from the Piton de la Fournaise volcano on the French island of Reunion abruptly decreased, marking the end of the volcano's most recent eruption. These false color MODIS images of Reunion, located off the southeastern coast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, were captured on the last day of the eruption (top) and two days later (bottom). The volcano itself is located on the southeast side of the island and is dark brown compared to the surrounding green vegetation. Beneath clouds (light blue) and smoke, MODIS detected the hot lava pouring down the volcano's flanks into the Indian Ocean. The heat, detected by MODIS at 2.1 um, has been colored red in the January 16 image, and is absent from the lower image, taken two days later on January 18, suggesting the lava had cooled considerably even in that short time. Earthquake activity on the northeast flank continued even after the eruption had stopped, but by January 21 had dropped to a sufficiently low enough level that the 24-hour surveillance by the local observatory was suspended. Reunion is essentially all volcano, with the northwest portion of the island built on the remains of an extinct volcano, and the southeast half built on the basaltic shield of 8,630-foot Piton de la Fournaise. A basaltic shield volcano is one with a broad, gentle slope built by the eruption of fluid basalt lava. Basalt lava flows easily across the ground remaining hot and fluid for long distances, and so they often result in enormous, low-angle cones. The Piton de la Fournaise is one of Earth's most active volcanoes, erupting over 150 times in the last few hundred years, and it has been the subject of NASA research because of its likeness to the volcanoes of Mars. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

399

Urban heat island  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of urban heat island was investigated by the use of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data sets collected over the metropolitan area of Washington DC (U.S.). By combining the retrieved spectral albedos and temperatures, urban modification on radiation budgets of five surface categories were analyzed. The surface radiation budget imagery of the area show that urban heating is attributable to a large heat flux from the rapidly heating surfaces of asphalt, bare soil and short grass. In summer, symptoms of diurnal heating begin to appear by mid morning and can be about 10 degrees warmer than nearby woodlands in summer.

Kim, Hongsuk H.

1991-01-01

400

Three Mile Island  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature.

Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

1988-01-01

401

Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay  

USGS Publications Warehouse

San Francisco Bay, one of the world's finest natural harbors and a major center for maritime trade, is referred to as the 'Gateway to the Pacific Rim.' The bay is an urbanized estuary that is considered by many to be the major estuary in the United States most modified by man's activities. The population around the estuary has grown rapidly since the 1850's and now exceeds 7 million people. The San Francisco Bay area's economy ranks as one of the largest in the world, larger even than that of many countries. More than 10 million tourists are estimated to visit the bay region each year. The bay area's population and associated development have increasingly changed the estuary and its environment. San Francisco Bay and the contiguous Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta encompass roughly 1,600 square miles (4,100 km2) and are the outlet of a major watershed that drains more than 40 percent of the land area of the State of California. This watershed provides drinking water for 20 million people (two thirds of the State's population) and irrigates 4.5 million acres of farmland and ranchland. During the past several decades, much has been done to clean up the environment and waters of San Francisco Bay. Conservationist groups have even bought many areas on the margins of the bay with the intention of restoring them to a condition more like the natural marshes they once were. However, many of the major manmade changes to the bay's environment occurred so long ago that the nature of them has been forgotten. In addition, many changes continue to occur today, such as the introduction of exotic species and the loss of commercial and sport fisheries because of declining fish populations. The economy and population of the nine counties that surround the bay continue to grow and put increasing pressure on the bay, both direct and indirect. Therefore, there are mixed signals for the future health and welfare of San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay estuary consists of three subembayments--north bay (San Pablo and Suisun Bays), central bay, and south bay--each characterized by a central area of open water surrounded by intertidal mudflats and marshes. Central bay includes Alcatraz and Angel Islands and also a number of submerged bedrock knobs that protrude through the sediment of the bay floor and rise to within about 40 feet (12 m) of the water surface. The most prominent of these are Harding, Shag, Arch, and Blossom Rocks. These rocks have been lowered by blasting several times in the past, but they remain a potential hazard to shipping because newer cargo vessels are designed with increasingly deeper drafts. Central bay's location adjacent to two major population and commerce centers, San Francisco and Oakland, subjects it to greater human influences than less developed parts of the estuary. The western part of central San Francisco Bay is adjacent to the Golden Gate, the estuary's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The changing submarine topography of the west-central bay, as well as its geology, form the main focus of this book.

Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

2004-01-01

402

76 FR 16636 - Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and Caloosahatchee NWRs, Lee County, FL; Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FWS-R4-R-2010-N240; 40136-1265-0000-S3] Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...for the environmental assessment for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay, and...notice, we finalize the CCP process for Pine Island, Matlacha Pass, Island Bay,...

2011-03-24

403

Southern elephant seals breeding at Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A population survey of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758) was conducted at Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during the 2001 breeding season. Two breeding sites were identified, one of which had not been previously re? ported. The largest breeding site was located at Duthoit Point, with a total of 128 females, 111 pups and 7 weanlings distributed

Alejandro R. CARLINI; Sebastin POLJAK; Ricardo CASAUX; Gustavo Adolfo DANERI; Miguel GASCO

404

The Geochemistry of Pinta, Marchena, and Genovesa Islands and the Surrounding Seafloor in the Galpagos Archipelago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central Galpagos Archipelago differs from many other ocean island chains in that it is underlain by a 500 x 200 km platform. An appendage of the platform extends ~50 km NW toward the GSC and includes Pinta, Marchena, and Genovesa Islands, despite the easterly motion of the Nazca Plate. The flanks of these islands were surveyed by EM122 and MR1 sidescan sonar and dredged at 7 locations during the 2010 R/V Melville MV1007 cruise. The volcanoes that make up the islands are close enough that they nearly coalesce. They have elongate bathymetric footprints, with a submarine ridge that extends ~30 km north of Pinta toward the 9050W GSC transform fault, between Marchena and Genovesa, and ~45 km to the NE of Genovesa. A strikingly flat-topped shoal, which may be a drowned island, extends ~30 km SE from Marchena. An intriguing aspect of this platform appendage is that most of the isotopic and trace element compositional range of the region is observed. Pinta has the lowest ?Nd value in the Galpagos, lower than the plume component sampled at Fernandina, and lavas from N Pinta Ridge exhibit levels of enrichment similar to Pintas lavas. Genovesa volcano, only 150 km to the east, is constituted of lavas that are mostly indistinguishable from MORB and exhibit the most depleted signatures in the archipelago. Marchena, the southern shoal, and submarine lavas from ridges that extend toward Pinta, are built of lavas that have trace element compositions that are mixtures of Pinta and Genovesa compositions. Lavas become progressively depleted from W to E across the appendage. New 3He/4He values range from 6.5 to 9.5 Ra, with the highest value between Genovesa and Marchena. Despite plume-like trace element and Nd isotopic signatures at Pinta, 3He/4He values are lower than typical MORB (6.5-6.7 Ra). One hypothesis is that the mostly degassed plume mixes with greater amounts of upper mantle as it flows east, yielding the observed compositional gradient. Alternatively, a heterogeneous plume with distinct enriched and depleted components moving to the GSC will encounter the lithospheric discontinuity related to the fracture zone that extends toward Pinta from the transform, with younger lithosphere to the east. Mantle material rising beneath Pinta will experience limited melting owing to the thicker lithospheric cap, causing enriched plume components with low 3He/4He to dominate compositions. East of the discontinuity the plume will melt more extensively, producing progressively depleted signatures toward Genovesa. Prior to reaching the northern appendage of the Galpagos Archipelago, the plume undergoes an initial melting phase at the wet solidus near the plume center, losing its volatile components. The degassed material then migrates NE, where increasingly shallow lithosphere causes it to undergo a second decompression melting phase, yielding lavas with plume signatures in the more refractory elements but lacking the characteristic high 3He/4He plume signal.

Schlitzer, W.; Harpp, K. S.; Kurz, M. D.; Geist, D.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Fornari, D. J.; R/v Melville Mv1007 Flamingo Cruise Scientific Party

2010-12-01

405

Maternal effects mediated by egg quality in the Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis in relation to laying order and embryo sex  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal effects mediated by egg size and quality may profoundly affect offspring development and performance, and mothers may adjust egg traits according to environmental or social influences. In avian species, context-dependency of maternal effects may result in variation in egg composition, as well as in differential patterns of covariation among selected egg components, according to, for example, position in the laying sequence or offspring sex. We investigated variation in major classes of egg yolk components (carotenoids, vitamins and steroid hormones) in relation to egg size, position in the laying sequence and embryo sex in clutches of the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis). We also investigated their covariation, to highlight mutual adjustments, maternal constraints or trade-offs in egg allocation. Results Laying sequence-specific patterns of allocation emerged: concentration of carotenoids and vitamin E decreased, while concentrations of androgens increased. Vitamin A, estradiol and corticosterone did not show any change. There was no evidence of sex-specific allocation or covariation of yolk components. Concentrations of carotenoids and vitamins were positively correlated. Egg mass decreased along the laying sequence, and this decrease was negatively correlated with the mean concentrations of carotenoids in clutches, suggesting that nutritionally constrained females lay low quality clutches in terms of carotenoid content. Finally, clutches with smaller decline in antioxidants between first- and last-laid eggs had a larger increase in yolk corticosterone, suggesting that a smaller antioxidant depletion along the laying sequence may entail a cost for laying females in terms of increased stress levels. Conclusions Since some of the analyzed yolk components (e.g. testosterone and lutein) are known to exert sex-specific phenotypic effects on the progeny in this species, the lack of sex-specific egg allocation by mothers may either result from trade-offs between contrasting effects of different egg components on male and female offspring, or indicate that sex-specific traits are controlled primarily by mechanisms of sexual differentiation, including endogenous hormone production or metabolism of exogenous antioxidants, during embryonic development.

2011-01-01

406

Richmond's Urban Heat Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will need to learn about urban heat islands before they will have all of the information necessary to complete this lab. Instructors may wish to accomplish this via lecture and/or assigned readings and discussion. You may wish to start with the following: Yow, D.M. 2007, "Urban Heat Islands: Observations, Impacts, and Adaptation," Geography Compass. Volume 2, October 2007, 1227-1251. Also, if your students have no prior experience with MS excel, guiding them through a quick tutorial is advisable. The first thing students will do in the exercise is report on some important causes of the UHI. Then, they will examine two real-world sites via photographs and Google Earth to discuss how each location's land use/land cover may affect local temperatures. Next, students will analyze data acquired at each site using MS excel. After that, students will be asked to think about potential impacts of the UHI. The exercise ends with a critical thinking exercise asking students to devise and evaluate strategies to communicate scientific knowledge to non-science professionals. Has minimal/no quantitative component Uses geophysics to solve problems in other fields

Yow, Donald M.

407

Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans Diabetes in Asian and Pacific Islander Americans 4 Steps to Manage ... want to learn more about controlling the disease. Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders and Diabetes (from the Office ...

408

Cactace in the Galapagos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN my notice (NATURE, p. 623) of Dr. Baur's botanical collections from the Galapagos Islands, I intended to add a few words respecting the Cactace, but forgot it at the last moment. This natural order of plants forms the most conspicuous feature in the vegetation of some of the islands, as may be seen in the excellent views illustrating the

W. Botting Hemsley

1895-01-01

409

Inbreeding and Extinction: Island Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island populations are more prone to extinction than mainland populations, with island endemic species having higher extinction rates than nonendemic species. Inbreeding depression is one possible expla- nation for this. Insular populations are expected to suffer increased inbreeding relative to mainland popula- tions due to bottlenecks at foundation and to lower subsequent population sizes. Inbreeding coefficients for 182 nonendemic and

Richard Frankham

1998-01-01

410

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal- submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University- for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will eventually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

411

Okhotskia: International Sakhalin Island Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the International Sakhalin Island Project (ISIP), "an international collaboration of American, Russian, and Japanese scientists to survey the plants, lichens, mosses, liverworts, fungi, insects, spiders, freshwater and terrestrial mollusks, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and reptiles of Sakhalin Island." The website was developed primarily "to provide easy access to project results and databases, both for participants and other interested scientists." Site visitors can link to the project proposal submitted by the University of Washington, Russian Academy of Sciences, and Hokkaido University for descriptions of project objectives, anticipated future research, references cited, and more. Links are also provided to project Results including ISIP databases, publications, and NSF reports for ISIP and the Phase One Okhotskia project: the International Kuril Island Project (IKIP). The Sakhalin Island Info page is currently under construction but will ev entually feature sections on Lichens, Macrofungi, Mayflies (Ephemeroptera), and many more. The website also offers a small photo gallery with beautiful photographs from Sakhalin Island.

2010-05-12

412

Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project Shoal Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet  

SciTech Connect

This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project Shoal Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 447 is located in the Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County, Nevada, approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for CAU 447, as provided in the FFACO. Corrective Action Unit 447 consists of two corrective action sites (CASs): CAS 57-49-01, Emplacement Shaft, and CAS 57-57-001, Cavity. The emplacement shaft (CAS-57-49-01) was backfilled and plugged in 1996 and will not be evaluated further. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at PSA. The original Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for the PSA was approved in September 1996 and described a plan to drill and test four characterization wells, followed by flow and transport modeling (DOE/NV, 1996). The resultant drilling is described in a data report (DOE/NV, 1998e) and the data analysis and modeling in an interim modeling report (Pohll et al., 1998). After considering the results of the modeling effort, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determined that the degree of uncertainty in transport predictions for PSA remained unacceptably large. As a result, a second CAIP was developed by DOE and approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in December 1998 (DOE/NV, 1998a). This plan prescribed a rigorous analysis of uncertainty in the Shoal model and quantification of methods of reducing uncertainty through data collection. This analysis is termed a Data Decision Analysis (Pohll et al., 1999a) and formed the basis for a second major characterization effort at PSA (Pohll et al., 1999b). The details for this second field effort are presented in an Addendum to the CAIP, which was approved by NDEP in April 1999 (DOE/NV, 1999a). Four additional characterization wells were drilled at PSA during summer and fall of 1999; details of the drilling and well installation are in IT Corporation (2000), with testing reported in Mihevc et al. (2000). A key component of the second field program was a tracer test between two of the new wells (Carroll et al., 2000; Reimus et al., 2003). Based on the potential exposure pathways, two corrective action objectives were identified for CAU 447: Prevent or mitigate exposure to groundwater contaminants of concern at concentrations exceeding regulatory maximum contaminant levels or risk-based levels; and Reduce the risk to human health and the environment to the extent practicable. Based on the review of existing data, the results of the modeling, future use, and current operations at PSA, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 447: Alternative 1--No Further Action; Alternative 2--Proof-of-Concept and Monitoring with Institutional Controls; and Alternative 3--Contaminant Control. The corrective action alternatives were evaluated based on the approach outlined in the ''Focused Evaluation of Selected Remedial Alternatives for the Underground Test Area'' (DOE/NV, 1998b). Each alternative was assessed against nine evaluation criteria. These criteria include overall protection of human health and the environment;

Tim Echelard

2006-03-01

413

50 CFR 665.26 - Longline fishing prohibited area management.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Island, Necker Island, French Frigate Shoals, Gardner Pinnacles, Maro Reef, Laysan Island, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Reef, Midway Islands, and Kure Island, as defined in § 665.12. (c) Main Hawaiian Islands. (1) From...

2009-10-01

414

Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

2004-01-01

415

Central island tongue flap.  

PubMed

Pedicled tongue flaps have proved to be an effective method of repairing defects due to tissue loss in the oral cavity. Their central position, mobility, and excellent blood supply make their use feasible in a variety of sites. This paper describes the use and applications of central island tongue flaps to reconstruct defects of anterior floor of the mouth. This procedure was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University Hanover, introducing an improved surgical method and presenting the actual operation performed in our department. This method is considered superior for resurfacing the anterior floor of mouth defects because it is easy to perform and results in recovery of function and cosmetics. PMID:9927907

Shibahara, T; Noma, H; Fujikawa, M; Miyao, T; Ishikawa, M; Takasaki, Y

1998-08-01

416

'King George Island' Brushed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

2006-01-01

417

Marte Valles Crater 'Island'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

10 April 2004 Marte Valles is an outflow channel system that straddles 180oW longitude between the region south of Cerberus and far northwestern Amazonis. The floor of the Marte valleys have enigmatic platy flow features that some argue are formed by lava, others suggest they are remnants of mud flows. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an island created in the middle of the main Marte Valles channel as fluid---whether lava or mud---flowed past two older meteor impact craters. The craters are located near 21.5oN, 175.3oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2004-01-01

418

SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (about 200 feet) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

419

75 FR 63500 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Islands have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: The islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas, including Water Island for Public Assistance. All islands within the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands are...

2010-10-15

420

75 FR 71453 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Islands have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: The islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas, including Water Island for Public Assistance. All islands in the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands are...

2010-11-23