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1

Hatching, Dispersal, and Bathymetric Distribution of Age0 Wild Lake Trout at the Gull Island Shoal Complex, Lake Superior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested

Charles R. Bronte; James H. Selgeby; James H. Saylor; Gerald S. Miller; Neal R. Foster

1995-01-01

2

Hatching, dispersal, and bathymetric distribution of age-0 wild lake trout at the Gull Island Shoal complex, Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) associated with spawning and nursery areas of the Gull Island Shoal complex in western Lake Superior. Post-emergent age-0 lake trout were captured on rocky spawning substrate with a 3-m beam trawl and at the nursery area with a bottom trawl from June to September 1990 and June to August 1991. Catch data suggested that age-0 lake trout move distances of 7-11 km to the nursery area over a 3-month period. Water currents, measured at Gull Island Shoal, may be a part of the transport mechanism. Examination of daily-growth increments on the sagittae and back-calculation from the date of capture revealed that most fish hatched between 6 June and 19 July in 1990 and between 30 April and 30 May in 1991. The duration of the hatch was 100 days in 1990 and 120 days in 1991, and the estimated incubation period is about 7 months for lake trout eggs at this site. Similar hatch-date distributions of age-0 captured on different sampling dates suggested that natural mortality was low.

Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Saylor, James H.; Miller, Gerald S.; Foster, Neal R.

1995-01-01

3

Population recovery and natural recruitment of lake trout at Gull Island Shoal, Lake Superior, 1964-1992  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We documented an increase in the abundance of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at Gull Island Shoal in western Lake Superior and examined the relationship between parental-stock size and recruitment of age-0 fish in 1964-1992. Abundance of adult wild female lake trout and densities of age-0 fish both increased during the 28-year period. A significant positive, linear relationship (p = 0.0002) was found between the abundance of wild females on the spawning reef in the fall and density of age-0 lake trout on adjacent nursery grounds in August and September of the following year. The abundance of hatchery-origin females did not explain significant amounts (p = 0.107) of variation in recruitment. We concluded that most recruitment in 1965-1992 was the result of natural reproduction of wild females. After 28 years of recovery the Gull Island Shoal lake trout population appears to have additional capacity to increase because the stock-recruitment relationship is still linear. Therefore, restoration periods on the order of 30 years may be needed for other lake trout populations in the Great Lakes. We recommend that the refuge established to protect this population be maintained to allow further study of the relationship between parental stock and recruitment, and to provide a major source of recruitment to the lake trout population in the surrounding waters.

Schram, Stephen T.; Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Swanson, Bruce L.

1995-01-01

4

Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting areas were defined by all area within 100-m or 500-m of a plover nest. We argue that this apparent spatial separation between piping plovers and large gulls is due to different habitat preferences among the species. We found that gull removal on South Monomoy Island did not result in increased piping plover reproductive success, and large gulls did not affect breeding piping plovers on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000.

Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

2002-01-01

5

Population Trends of Gulls and Arctic Terns Nesting in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information exists on the population trends of gulls and terns nesting in the Arctic. In 1997, we surveyed the number of glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), herring gull (Larus argentatus), and arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) nests on the Belcher Islands (56?00' - 57?30'N, 79?30' - 80?00'W). We compared our results with the mean number of nests per island counted in

H. GRANT GILCHRIST; GREGORY J. ROBERTSON

6

Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): from shoaling to emergent stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ustica is a volcanic island located in the southern Tyrrhenian sea, ~60 km NW of Sicily. As usual for volcanic ocean islands, its exposed part (8.6 km2, 248 m max elevation, mostly of Pleistocene age), is a small fraction of the whole edifice which rises from ~2000 m depth. Its 5-pointed-star shape is slightly elongated in a NE direction. A new geological field survey was carried out at scale 1:10000 and locally at 1:2000, establishing informal stratigraphic units that on the whole fit a common scheme of evolution for volcanic ocean islands. In this framework, the whole pre-existing stratigraphy has been revised. Ustica has a variety of volcanic deposits from submarine (basaltic effusive to explosive) to subaereal (effusive, explosive and highly explosive -Plinian?). Moreover, Ustica is one of the few places in the world where a transition of deposits from shoaling to emergent stage crop out. In fact, its oldest deposits consist of: (a) a flank-facies association of submarine lavas (variably-shaped pillows, pillow breccias and hyaloclastites) with biocalcarenite-biocalcirudite lenses, dipping coastward in the E, S and W outer parts of the island; this association is arranged in steep foreset beds (lava deltas) and is capped by flat-lying transitional to subaereal massive lava flows and surf-shaped boulder conglomerates; the geometry of this association may suggest a progressive island uplift or sea lowering during this period; (b) shallow-water to emergent tuff cone deposits in the NW part of the island. In the centre of the island, subsequent activity built a pile, now deeply eroded, of subaereal basaltic lava flows capped by a scoria cone. A previously unknown outcrop where a pumice fall layer is exposed, allows a distinction into two members of a unit that was known as formed by pyroclastic surges only. Higher in the succession, the Ustica Pumice formation (for which 4 members are defined) is underlain by a palaeosoil, and is likely the remnant of a caldera-forming eruption, which possibly dismantled the northern part of the island. It may be suggested that a later flank collapse affected the W side of the island, exposing seamount-stage deposits and allowing small fissural eruptions. The northern part of the island was then rebuilt by hydro-magmatic littoral deposits, subaereal aa flows, and thick columnar lava flows. At the NE corner of the island, a littoral tuff cone (the only cone of the island which is roughly preserved in its original shape) gave the last volcanic activity in Ustica. Acknowledgement: LBM benefited of a grant from Milan University under the supervision of Prof. G.Pasquaré in the framework of a joint venture with SGN.

Marinoni, L. B.; Pasquaré, G.; Vezzoli, L.

2003-04-01

7

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...its center on Shag Rock in the vicinity of Duck Island at latitude 43°00â²12â³,...

2010-07-01

8

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...its center on Shag Rock in the vicinity of Duck Island at latitude 43°00â²12â³,...

2009-07-01

9

33 CFR 334.40 - Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval aircraft bombing target...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals; naval...ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.40 Atlantic Ocean in vicinity of Duck Island, Maine, Isles of Shoals;...

2013-07-01

10

A group of bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) shoal above a reef at St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A group of bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) shoal (group together) above a reef at St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Shoaling is a common anti-predator behavior for reef fishes such as the bluehead wrasse. Many reef fish species form large, very dense shoals as juveniles. A recent study found that there is safety in numbers at small spatial scales: solitary bluehead wrasse had higher mortality rates than conspecifics in groups. The same study also found that the inverse is true for wrasse morality when measured at larger spatial scales. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecology (88:12) in December of 2007.

White, J. W.

2010-02-12

11

Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items

Carey Morishige; Mary J. Donohue; Elizabeth Flint; Christopher Swenson; Christine Woolaway

2007-01-01

12

SABINE'S GULL FLOCK RESPONSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the breeding biology of Sabine's Gulls (Xema sabini) is very limited. Parmelee et al. (1967) detailed the species' life history on Victoria Island, northern Canada. Abraham (1986) quantified nesting and brood-rearing chronology and success and noted a strong relationship between nesting Sabine's Gulls and Arctic Terns (Sterna paradisaea), while Abraham and Ankney (1984) described partitioning of food resources

MICHAEL R. NORTH

1995-01-01

13

U. S. Navy Deepening of Pinole Shoal and Mare Island Strait Regulatory Permit Application by the Commander, Mare Island Shipyard, Solano County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commander, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California 94592, has applied for a Department of the Army permit to: (1) dredge approximately 100,000 cubic yards of material from Pinole Shoal to establish a depth of 36 feet (plus two feet allowable o...

1981-01-01

14

U. S. Navy Deepening of Pinole Shoal and Mare Island Strait Regulatory Permit Application by the Commander, Mare Island Shipyard, Solano County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commander, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo, California 94592, has applied for a Department of the Army permit to: dredge approximately 100,000 cubic yards of material from Pinole Shoal to establish a depth of 36 feet (plus two feet allowable overd...

1981-01-01

15

Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.  

PubMed

Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

2007-06-18

16

Reproductive biology of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) at Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Hawai`i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We monitored nesting of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus) on Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands from 1986 through 1991. Egg oviposition occurred between 26 April and 20 October. Nesting peaked between mid-June and early August. Hatchlings emerged between mid-August and early October. Mean incubation period was 66.0 (range 53-97) days. Mean clutch size was 92.4 (range 33-150) eggs. Mean hatching success was 78.6% when averaged over success of individual nests and 81.1% when calculated as percentage of total number of eggs. Natural hatchling emergence was 71.1%, based on percentage of total number of eggs. Live and dead hatchlings were found when nests were excavated and accounted for 10.0% of the eggs. Incubation periods tended to be longer in early and later portions of the season than in midseason, and incubation periods tended to decrease the farther inland the nest was situated from the high tide line. Maximum hatching success occurred at an incubation length of 66.7 days. Other trends indicated that nesting peaked near 5 July when conditions produced a near optimal incubation period for yielding maximum hatching success.

Niethammer, K.R.; Balazs, G.H.; Hatfield, J.S.; Nakai, G.L.; Megyesi, J.L.

1997-01-01

17

Shoals Marine Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located on 95 acre Appledore Island, Isles of Shoals in the Gulf of Maine, this near-pristine environment allows students to study many aspects of intertidal and sub-tidal ecology. Only open in the warmer months, SML offers a truly unique experience to graduate, undergraduate, and high school students, as well as adults wanting to further their education. Site features information on accessing the island and SML's special programs.

18

Gull eggs--food of high organic pollutant content?  

PubMed

A wide range and occasionally high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are reported in Arctic regions, especially among top predators. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus), arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) and some gull species (Larus spp.) often have high levels of these fat-soluble pollutants. Gulls deposit significant levels of these contaminants in their eggs. In northern regions, gull eggs are part of the traditional human diet. In the present study we have investigated the levels of POPs in gull eggs in order to determine the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) for humans. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in 214 gull eggs collected in the spring of 2001-02. The eggs were collected from four gull species (herring gulls (Larus argentatus), great black-backed gulls (L. marinus), lesser black-backed gulls (L. fuscus) and glaucous gulls (L. hyperboreus)) at 12 different locations in Northern Norway, on the Faroe Islands and on Svalbard. The pollutant levels in gull eggs were found to be 65.5 +/- 26.9 pg toxic equivalent (TE) for dioxin and PCB g(-1) wet weight. Based on these findings and the TWI-value determined by the EU Scientific Committee on Food it is advised that children, young women and pregnant and nursing women should not eat gull eggs. Other people should limit their intake of eggs to an absolute minimum, considering the health risks associated with gull egg intake. PMID:15931427

Pusch, Kerstin; Schlabach, Martin; Prinzinger, Roland; Wing Gabrielsen, Geir

2005-05-03

19

DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos  

SciTech Connect

Injection of DDT (1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on Santa Barbara Island in southern California.

Fry, D.M.; Toone, C.K.

1981-08-21

20

Effects of nesting yellow-legged gulls ( Larus cachinnans Pallas) on the heavy Metal Content of Soils in the cies Islands (Galicia, North-west Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn levels were determined in faeces of the yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans in Galicia (NW Spain), and in soils from three breeding and one reference site. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb in the soil were significantly higher at the site with highest gull density and with the longest history of use as

X. L. Otero Pérez

1998-01-01

21

Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

King, K.A.; Lefever, C.A.

1979-01-01

22

Effects of introducing foxes and raccoons on herring gull colonies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Red foxes (Vulpes fulva) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) released at colonies of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) on islands off the Massachusetts coast effectively eliminated the production of young gulls. Annual predator introductions for 2-4 years caused major reductions in colony size and occasionally total abandonment of the island as a colony site. Observations of the experimental islands for 2 years after cessation of predator introductions showed slow repopulation of the islands and lower breeding success than on control islands. The size of the regional population was reduced largely because of the movements of gulls off the experimental islands. The introduced predators are, in most cases, difficult to maintain on the islands; this restricts their utility in population management.

Kadlec, J.A.

1971-01-01

23

Retraction of a longevity record for a 36-year-old herring gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Full text: The longevity record for a 36-year-old Herring Gull, Larus argentatus (Pettingill 1967, Auk 84: 123), is erroneous. Herring Gull with band number A-676871, the basis of the record, was found dead on 20 June 1966 on the shore of Little Traverse Bay near Petoskey, Michigan, and reported to the Bird Banding Laboratory. The laboratory then mistakenly advised Pettingill that this gull was banded by him on 29 June 1930 on coastal Maine. He actually banded Herring Gull number A-676871 as a young bird on one of the Beaver Islands in Lake Michigan on 8 July 1948. The gull was thus 18 instead of 36 years old.

Jonkel, G.M.; Pettingill, O.S., Jr.

1974-01-01

24

Gulls Are Not "Seagulls"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The word "seagull" is included in the dictionary because the term is so often applied by the lay persons to almost any gull they notice. However, this is a generalized term which ignores the wide and facinating variety of the species. This article discusses some of the species of gulls. (NQ)|

Wheat, Maxwell Corydon, Jr.

1976-01-01

25

Gulls Are Not "Seagulls"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The word "seagull" is included in the dictionary because the term is so often applied by the lay persons to almost any gull they notice. However, this is a generalized term which ignores the wide and facinating variety of the species. This article discusses some of the species of gulls. (NQ)

Wheat, Maxwell Corydon, Jr.

1976-01-01

26

Sand shoal development on muddy Mississippi river delta shelf  

SciTech Connect

Trinity and Ship Shoals are transgressive sand bodies on the Louisiana inner continental shelf, and they represent the reworked sands of the abandoned Holocene Teche and Maringouin deltas. The development of these shoals is initiated by an episode of delta abandonment followed by subsidence-enhanced sea level rise. Through the process of shoreface retreat, the abandoned delta lobe evolves from an erosional headland with flanking barrier islands to a barrier-island arch and finally into a submerged inner-shelf shoal system. Trinity and Ship Shoals represent the final stage in the Mississippi River delta barrier shoreline cycle and provide a possible modern analogue for some Cretaceous shelf sandstones of the Western Interior. More than 1000 km (620 mi) of high-resolution seismic profiles correlated with cores provide the data base for interpretation of the depositional history of sand-body development on the muddy Louisiana shelf.

Penland, S.; Suter, J.R.; Moslow, T.F.

1984-04-01

27

Parathion causes secondary poisoning in a laughing gull breeding colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

ranging in age from a few days to several weeks, and several dead adults on 2 study islands. Upon examining the stomach contents of 2 chicks and 1 adult, we found a pasty substance containing parts of adult and larval-stage insects. Concurrently on 28 June, author King investigated a report that dead laughing gulls were seen in and near cotton

Donald H. White; Kirke A. King; Christine A. Mitchell; Ellwood F. Hill; Thair G. Lamont

1979-01-01

28

Historical Changes in PCB Patterns in Lake Ontario and Green Bay, Lake Michigan, 1971 to 1982, from Herring Gull Egg Monitoring Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patterns of PCB congener bioaccumulation were examined in archived herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected from Big Sister Island in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, and Scotch Bonnet Island in Lake Ontario from 1971 to 1982 as part of the Canadian Wildlife Service's Great Lakes Herring Gull Monitoring Program. Concentrations of 97 PCB congeners were measured. From 1971 to 1982, ecological

Craig E. Hebert; Ross J. Norstrom; Jiping Zhu; Colin R. Macdonald

1999-01-01

29

UV matters in shoaling decisions  

PubMed Central

Shoaling behaviour in fish is influenced by numerous factors, such as familiarity, kinship, group size and shoal composition. Grouping decisions are based on both olfactory and visual cues. The visual system of many vertebrates is extended into the ultraviolet (UV) wave range as in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus, L.). We investigated whether the presence or absence of UV wavelengths has an influence on shoaling behaviour in this species. Reproductively non-active three-spined sticklebacks were given the choice between two shoals, equal in numbers of individuals, which could be seen either through a UV-transmitting [UV(+)] or a UV-blocking [UV(?)] filter. Test fish preferred to join the shoal seen under UV(+) conditions. Due to differences in quantal flux between the UV(+) and UV(?) filters used, control experiments with neutral-density optical filters were performed in order to clarify the role of luminance. Here, test fish spent significantly more time near shoals that were seen in a darker environment, suggesting a potential trade-off between UV radiation and lower brightness during shoal choice. To our knowledge, these results demonstrate for the first time that shoaling decisions are influenced by UV wavelengths.

Modarressie, Ricarda; Rick, Ingolf P; Bakker, Theo C.M

2005-01-01

30

Breeding biology of Sabine’s gull ( Xema sabini ) in the Canadian high Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sabine’s gull (Xema sabini) is a small seabird that breeds in select locations across the circumpolar Arctic, but there have been few studies on its\\u000a breeding biology, particularly from the high Arctic. We studied nesting phenology, breeding effort, and breeding success of\\u000a Sabine’s gulls over 5 years at a colony on a small island (Nasaruvaalik) in the Canadian high Arctic.

Mark L. Mallory; Kelly A. Boadway; Shanti E. Davis; Mark Maftei

31

Trophic niche width and overlap of two sympatric gulls in the southwestern mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diets of two potential competitor species, Audouin's Larus audouinii and yellow-legged gulls Larus cachinnans, were examined while they bred at the Chafarinas Islands during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Data were collected during two commercial\\u000a fishing regimes: (1) trawling and purse seine fisheries, and (2) diurnal trawlers only. Since the food supply for the gulls\\u000a in this area was heavily

Jacob González-Solís; Daniel Oro; Lluis Jover; Xavier Ruiz; Vittorio Pedrocchi

1997-01-01

32

Muscle Shoals and TVA historical perspective seminars  

SciTech Connect

Six speeches are included: Muscle Shoals, The Problem and the Development; The Crash Program of 1916-1918; Some Things I Remember; Politics of the Muscle Shoals Development; From Munitions to Fertilizers; and Restoring the Land. (DLC)

Not Available

1983-01-01

33

BRIER ISLAND AND LURCHER SHOAL SCALLOP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus occurs only in the northwest Atlantic Ocean from Cape Hatteras north to Labrador. Within this area, scallops are concentrated in persistent, geographically discrete aggregates or \\

Brier Island; Lurcher Shoal

34

Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

1983-01-01

35

No. 2 fuel oil decreases embryonic survival of great black-backed gulls  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field study of the effects of No. 2 fuel oil applications to the eggs of great black-backed gulls on an island off the coast of Maine. Fuel oil applied in amounts of either 5 or 20 ul. All eggs opened 8 da later. Measured survival and estimated age of embryo at time of egg oiling.

Coon, N.C.; Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

1979-01-01

36

No. 2 fuel oil decreases embryonic survival of great black-backed gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great black-backed gull (Larus marinus) is widespread in the northern hemisphere, breeding south to Britain and Ireland on the European side of the Atlantic and to Long Island in the United States where populations have increased markedly during the last 50 years. With growing exploitation of oil\\/resources resources, seabird populations are being increasingly threatened by accidental oiling of individuals

Nancy C. Coon; Peter H. Albers; Robert C. Szaro

1979-01-01

37

The significance of the Lesser Black-backed Gull to models of bird migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of 1962–1975 recoveries of Lesser Black-backed Gulls ringed as chicks on Walney Island (Cumbria) discloses the changes in migration patterns that have occurred. The results are considered to support only the exploratory migration model of bird migration.

R. R. Baker

1980-01-01

38

Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Metals in Marine Species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals were analyzed in coral (Porites lobata), fish (Stegastes fasciolatus), crab (Grapsus tenuicrustatus), and sediment samples collected from Tern Island, and the reference samples from Trig and La Perouse Islands. All three\\u000a islands are part of French Frigate Shoals, a national wildlife refuge in the North Pacific Ocean. Average concentrations of\\u000a total PCBs ranged from

X.-S. Miao; C. Swenson; K. Yanagihara; Q. X. Li

2000-01-01

39

Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers (Ryn chops niger) and gull-billed terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) were investigated in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975. With few exceptions, the two species nested together in colonies located on barrier islands. We located 10 colonies, 7 of which were on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (Cape Romain); references were located that described nesting on seven other islands in South Carolina that no longer support colonies. Gull-billed terns nested from early May through July; the skimmers started later (late May) but also continued later (early September). Both species nested in areas subject to tidal flooding, and the two species persisted in nesting in several colonies despite intense predation by rats and gulls. Estimated reproductive success varied greatly from year to year and colony to colony; success in most colonies seemed low, particularly for the gull-billed tern. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in several eggs seemed of sufficient magnitude to induce adverse effects on reproductivity and eggshell thickness: however, the overall effect of organochlorines appeared negligible. Maximum numbers of nests located in a single year were 790 for the skimmer and 340 for the gull-billed tern: the total breeding population in South Carolina is unknown. Although nesting islands at Cape Romain and Deveaux Bank are sanctuaries for nesting birds, both species will continue to lose nesting habitat as additional sea islands are developed and inhabited by man.

Blus, Lawrence J.; Stafford, Charles J.

1980-01-01

40

Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg\\/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the

Donald H. White; Christine A. Mitchell; Elwood F. Hill

1983-01-01

41

Threats to public health from gulls (Laridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gulls have a world?wide distribution but are more common in temperate regions. The numbers of several species have increased enormously in recent decades, but for some populations this growth has now ceased or even reversed. The population growth followed cessation of prior persecution, and has substantially depended upon increased availability of food resulting directly or indirectly from human activities. Gulls

Jeremy J. Hatch

1996-01-01

42

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends in mercury in Great Lakes Herring Gull eggs, 1974-2009.  

PubMed

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends of total mercury (Hg) were assessed in eggs of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) over the period 1974-2009 at 15 sites in the Great Lakes: 2-3 sites per lake and one site in each of 3 connecting channels. Current (2009) concentrations ranged from 0.064 ?g/g (wet weight) at Chantry Island (Lake Huron) to 0.246 ?g/g at Middle Island (Lake Erie). There were significant inter-colony differences in mean Hg concentrations (2005-2009). Mercury concentrations at 14 of 15 sites declined from 23 to 86% between when it was first measured (usually 1974) and 2009. Declining temporal trends over the entire period (1974-2009) were significant at 10 of the 15 sites. On the other hand, there were no significant trends in mercury over the last 15 years. In the early years, declines of Hg in Herring Gull eggs tracked those in Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) in most Great Lakes. More recently, declines in gull eggs were more evident than in smelt and may be partially explained by temporal changes in the gull diet. When gull Hg data were adjusted for temporal changes in the gull diet, as inferred from stable nitrogen isotope values in eggs, significant declines in egg mercury levels were found only at 4 of 15 sites. Overall, Hg concentrations have declined in Great Lakes Herring Gull eggs over the period 1974-2009 but changes in the gull diet may be contributing, in part, to those declines. Examination of contaminant temporal trends in multiple indicator species will ensure accurate inferences regarding contaminant availability in the environment. PMID:21833543

Weseloh, D V Chip; Moore, David J; Hebert, Craig E; de Solla, Shane R; Braune, Birgit M; McGoldrick, Daryl J

2011-08-11

43

DISCRIMINATING THE SEX OF LAUGHING GULLS BY LINEAR MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discriminant function analysis (DFA) has been used to sex many gull species. DFA has been used to determine the sex of Laughing Gulls (Larus atricilla) from Florida using three measurements. The function derived from the Florida population misidentified 40% of Laughing Gulls from a New York population. Laughing Gulls from New York were significantly smaller than those from Florida (P

DANIEL R. EVANS; EDWIN M. HOOPES; CURTIGE R. GRIFFIN

44

Cross-species familiarity in shoaling fishes.  

PubMed Central

Preferential association with familiar shoal mates confers a number of potentially important benefits to individuals, including improved anti-predator effects and the reduction of aggression in competitive interactions. Until now, however, familiarity has been demonstrated purely between conspecifics. Here, we present evidence that familiarity preferences can override natural preferences for conspecifics. Individual focal fishes (chub, Leuciscus cephalus) were given a choice of two stimulus shoals of the same size composed of conspecifics or of heterospecifics (minnows, Phoxinus phoxinus) in a flow tank. A series of four treatments was carried out to investigate the effects of familiarity, induced by a 15 day association between the focal fish and the stimulus fishes, on the choices made by the focal fish. Focal fishes showed a significant preference for conspecifics over heterospecifics when both stimulus shoals were composed of non-familiar individuals. Focal fishes also showed a significant preference for stimulus shoals composed of familiar fishes over stimulus shoals composed of non-familiar fishes when both shoals were conspecific and when both shoals were heterospecific. Finally, the preference of focal fishes for conspecifics disappeared when the alternative, a shoal of heterospecifics, was composed of familiar individuals. The importance of this work is discussed in the context of species interactions in free-ranging shoals.

Ward, A J W; Axford, S; Krause, J

2003-01-01

45

Novel methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzene congeners and possible sources in herring gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.  

PubMed

An increasing number of brominated flame retardants and other brominated substances are being reported in herring gull eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Yet, in extracts from gulls' eggs, numerous bromide anion response peaks in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) mass chromatograms remain unidentified. Using archived herring gull egg homogenates, we characterize the structures of three major and three minor, new and unique brominated substances. After extensive cleanup and separation to isolate these substances from the extracts, high-quality ECNI and electron impact (EI) mass spectra revealed fragmentation patterns consistent with congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzene (MeO-PBDPB), where four congeners contained five bromines and the other two contain four and six bromines, respectively. Optimized, semiquantitative analysis revealed sum concentrations of the MeO-PBDBP congeners ranged from <0.2 to 36.8 ng/g ww in pooled egg homogenates (collected in 2009) from fourteen herring gull colony sites across the Great Lakes, with the highest concentration being for Channel-Shelter Island in Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron). To our knowledge, there are no published reports on the environmental presence and sources of MeO-PBDPBs. We hypothesize that these MeO-PBDPBs are degradation products of the polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes, for example, tetradecabromodiphenoxybenzene (currently marketed as SAYTEX 120) or polybromo 3P2E. MeO-PBDPBs in Great Lakes herring gull eggs indicates their bioaccumulation potential, and raises concerns about their origin, environmental behavior and influences on wildlife and environmental health. PMID:21966880

Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Chu, Shaogang; McCrindle, Robert; Potter, Dave

2011-10-21

46

Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 microg/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 microg/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor alpha-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. PMID:20641170

Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena; Basu, Niladri

2010-08-01

47

Depredation of common eider, Somateria mollissima, nests on a central Beaufort Sea barrier island: A case where no one wins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along the central Beaufort Sea, Pacific Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigra) nest on unvegetated, barrier islands; often near nesting Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus). Nest-site choice likely reflects a strategy of predator avoidance: nesting on islands to avoid mammalian predators and near territorial gulls to avoid other avian predators. We observed a nesting colony of Common Eiders from first nest initiation through nesting termination on Egg Island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska (2002 - 2003). Resident gulls depredated many eider nests, mostly during initiation. All nests failed when an Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus) visited the island and flushed hens from their nests, exposing the eggs to depredation by the fox and gulls (resident and non-resident). Common Eiders actively defended nests from gulls, but not from foxes. Likely all three species (i.e., eiders, gulls, and foxes) ultimately achieved negligible benefit from their nest-site selection or predatory activity: (a) island nesting provided no safety from mammalian predators for eiders or gulls, (b) for Common Eiders, nesting near gulls increased egg loss, (c) for Glaucous Gulls, nesting near colonial eiders may have reduced nest success by attracting the fox, and (d) for Arctic Foxes, the depredation was of questionable value, as most eggs were cached and probably not recoverable (due to damage from fall storms). Thus, the predator-prey interactions we observed appear to be a case where little or no fitness advantage was realized by any of the species involved.

Reed, J. A.; Lacroix, D. L.; Flint, P. L.

2007-01-01

48

Determining shoal membership using affinity propagation.  

PubMed

We propose using the affinity propagation (AP) clustering algorithm for detecting multiple disjoint shoals, and we present an extension of AP, denoted by STAP, that can be applied to shoals that fusion and fission across time. STAP incorporates into AP a soft temporal constraint that takes cluster dynamics into account, encouraging partitions obtained at successive time steps to be consistent with each other. We explore how STAP performs under different settings of its parameters (strength of the temporal constraint, preferences, and distance metric) by applying the algorithm to simulated sequences of collective coordinated motion. We study the validity of STAP by comparing its results to partitioning of the same data obtained from human observers in a controlled experiment. We observe that, under specific circumstances, AP yields partitions that agree quite closely with the ones made by human observers. We conclude that using the STAP algorithm with appropriate parameter settings is an appealing approach for detecting shoal fusion-fission dynamics. PMID:23219963

Quera, Vicenç; Beltran, Francesc S; Givoni, Inmar E; Dolado, Ruth

2012-12-04

49

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Laughing Gull.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for laughing gull (Larus atricilla). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat) for...

A. V. Zale R. Mulholland

1985-01-01

50

Sleep in the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep postures and eye state of free-ranging herring gulls (Larus argentatus) were studied during the breeding season. Three mutually exclusive behaviours were observed, namely sleep, rest-sleep and rest postures. Arousal thresholds, eye blink rates and eye closure time were obtained during these behaviours. Significant relationships existed between eye blinking, eye closure, and a raised threshold of arousal when birds were

Charles J. Amlaner; David J. McFarland

1981-01-01

51

A Decade of Research at the Cape Lookout Cuspate Foreland: New Insights Into Longshore Transport, Shoal Evolution, Spit Growth and the Regional Sediment Budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cape Lookout cuspate foreland is one of the most prominent features on the North Carolina coast. Composed of two barrier island limbs joined at right angles, a 16-km long shoal complex and a spit that progrades an average of 37 m\\/yr, the cuspate foreland sequesters an enormous amount of sediment derived from adjacent barrier islands and possibly from the

J. T. Wells; J. E. McNinch; J. Y. Park; M. Borrelli; C. W. Freeman

2002-01-01

52

Dynamics of fish shoals: identifying key decision rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social aggregations of fish are extremely common in nature. Pitcher (1983) defines a social aggregation of fish as a shoal, with a highly polarized shoal constituting a school. The ultimate causes of fish shoaling have been extensively studied and are well established, with the main causes being protection from predators and enhanced foraging ability. The proximate mechanisms by which groups

Joseph H. Tien; Simon A. Levin; Daniel I. Rubenstein

2004-01-01

53

Scanning laser mapping of the coastal zone: the SHOALS system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SHOALS system uses lidar technology to remotely measure bathymetry and topography in the coastal zone. During five years of survey operations, SHOALS has demonstrated airborne lidar bathymetry's benefits to the coastal community by providing a cost-effective tool for comprehensive assessment of coastal projects. This paper discusses the application of lidar technology for water-depth measurement, specifically outlining the SHOALS system

Jennifer L. Irish; W. Jeff Lillycrop

1999-01-01

54

Interactions between shoal size and conformity in guppy social foraging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experimental studies have established that shoaling fish forage more effectively in large than small groups. We investigated how shoal size affects the foraging efficiency of laboratory populations of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, exposed to different foraging tasks. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that in open water the first fish and focal fish of larger shoals locate food faster than

Rachel L. Day; Tom MacDonald; Culum Brown; Kevin N. Laland; Simon M. Reader

2001-01-01

55

18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Photocopy, "Light house for ship shoals, details of the apparatus for inserting the piles into the shoal, sheet no. 53", National Archives (8" x 10" print from 4" x 5" negative) - Ship Shoal Light Station, Gulf of Mexico, Theriot, Terrebonne Parish, LA

56

A wave-driven jet over a rocky shoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field observations and model simulations are presented of flow generated by waves breaking over a shoal at the entrance to a shallow bay. The shoal is composed of a series of steep and narrow bedrock ridges with depths of 2–8 m at the ridge crests. Observations from instruments on the shoal indicated peak significant wave heights during a storm event

Ryan P. Mulligan; Alex E. Hay; Anthony J. Bowen

2010-01-01

57

Levels and trends of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in ivory gull eggs from the Canadian Arctic, 1976 to 2004.  

PubMed

The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a circumpolar marine bird which has recently been listed as an endangered species in Canada. To determine whether contaminants may be playing a role in the population decline of this species, ivory gull eggs collected in 1976, 1987 and 2004 from Seymour Island in the Canadian Arctic were analyzed for organochlorines, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho PCBs. This study also provides the first account of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in ivory gulls. The most quantitatively abundant legacy organochlorines found in the ivory gull eggs were p,p'-DDE, SigmaPCB and oxychlordane. Concentrations of the organochlorines analyzed either decreased or showed little change between 1976 and 2004. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD in ivory gull eggs were greater than SigmaPCDF, and the non-ortho PCBs (primarily PCB-126) contributed the largest fraction to the total TEQ value in all years sampled. Concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and SigmaTEQ decreased from 1976 to 2004. In contrast, concentrations of the PBDEs steadily increased between 1976 and 2004 driven primarily by increases in BDE-47. Although concentrations of the persistent chlorinated compounds (i.e. organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs) reported in this study were below published toxicological threshold values for eggs of wild birds, we cannot rule out the possibility of synergistic/additive, sublethal effects. Very few studies have been carried out to evaluate the exposure-effect relationship of the persistent brominated compounds in avian species. Given the scarcity of information on toxicity threshold levels for PBBs and PBDEs in avian species, coupled with the trend toward increasing concentrations in ivory gulls, continued monitoring and further toxicological studies of these compounds are warranted. PMID:17412396

Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L; Grant Gilchrist, H; Letcher, Robert J; Drouillard, Ken G

2007-04-05

58

Economic models of fish shoal (school) size: a near comprehensive view of single species shoaling strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends theory of shoaling presented by Landa (1998), which uses the economic theory of clubs (Buchanan 1965).\\u000a The findings include that non-patchy feeding shoals formed for defense increase in size with increased predation and decline\\u000a in size with increased food concentration. There is strong evidence for the former and a piece of evidence for the latter.\\u000a The size

Peter C. Mayer

2010-01-01

59

Landscape changes and colony site dynamics: How gull-billed terns cope at the sea's edge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gull-billed Terns have declined dramatically in coastal Virginia over the past 20 years, with apparently low reproductive success. They nest, usually in mixed-species colonies, in two discrete habitat types: large, sandy barrier islands or shell/sandbars on the edges of marsh islands in the lagoon systems. The smaller shell/sandbars seem to provide more consistent nestling habitat and predation pressures than do barrier islands among years. We hypothesize that colony site turnover (between years) should be higher in the more uncertain barrier island habitats than among the shell/sandbar colonies. Our results do not corroborate the prediction. We postulate that social (and other) factors may explain these differences.

Erwin, R. M.; Williams, B.; Watts, B.; Truitt, B.; Stotts, D.; Eyler, B.

1996-01-01

60

Data Decision Analysis: Project Shoal  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the most appropriate field activities in terms of reducing the uncertainty in the groundwater flow and transport model at the Project Shoal area. The data decision analysis relied on well-known tools of statistics and uncertainty analysis. This procedure identified nine parameters that were deemed uncertain. These included effective porosity, hydraulic head, surface recharge, hydraulic conductivity, fracture correlation scale, fracture orientation, dip angle, dissolution rate of radionuclides from the puddle glass, and the retardation coefficient, which describes the sorption characteristics. The parameter uncertainty was described by assigning prior distributions for each of these parameters. Next, the various field activities were identified that would provide additional information on these parameters. Each of the field activities was evaluated by an expert panel to estimate posterior distribution of the parameters assuming a field activity was performed. The posterior distributions describe the ability of the field activity to estimate the true value of the nine parameters. Monte Carlo techniques were used to determine the current uncertainty, the reduction of uncertainty if a single parameter was known with certainty, and the reduction of uncertainty expected from each field activity on the model predictions. The mean breakthrough time to the downgradient land withdrawal boundary and the peak concentration at the control boundary were used to evaluate the uncertainty reduction. The radionuclide 137Cs was used as the reference solute, as its migration is dependent on all of the parameters. The results indicate that the current uncertainty of the model yields a 95 percent confidence interval between 42 and 1,412 years for the mean breakthrough time and an 18 order-of-magnitude range in peak concentration. The uncertainty in effective porosity and recharge dominates the uncertainty in the model predictions, while the other parameters are less important. A two-stage process was used to evaluate the optimal field activities. For all of the field activities combined there were five activities that were found to be "optimal" in terms of uncertainty reduction per unit cost: two-well, natural-gradient, energy budget, and single-well tracer tests, and the vadose zone modeling. A subset of the field activities was chosen such that there would be no duplication in parameter characterization. Of this subset, the vadose zone model, barometric test, energy budget, and the two-well tracer test were found to be optimal for the peak breakthrough time metric, while the single-well tracer test and the hydraulic head measurements are also considered optimal for the peak concentration metric. The environmental tracer activity was not found to be optimal, yet this activity may provide additional information on the transport system. Care must be taken in using this analysis to design a field characterization plan, as many assumptions were required in the analysis. First, many subjective assumptions were required to assess the reliability of the field activities in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty in the mean parameters. Actual field characterization may not result in the same reduction in model output uncertainty as estimated by this analysis. Second, this analysis focused on the reduction in model uncertainty due to the reduction in the uncertainty in the mean parameters. If the uncertainty in the mean parameters is reduced to zero, there still exists uncertainty in the natural heterogeneity that can never be reduced to zero. Therefore, this analysis should be used in combination with expert judgement when designing a field characterization strategy.

Forsgren, Frank; Pohll, Greg; Tracy, John

1999-01-01

61

Stratigraphic development of Ship Shoal, northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ship Shoal is the easternmost member of a Holocene inner-shelf shoal group located 25 km offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain in south-central Louisiana. Ship Shoal is a shore-parallel sand body 50 km long and 8-12 km wide, lying in 10 m of water with a relief above the surrounding shelf of 3 m to 7 m east to west along its crest axis. A comparison of hydrographic surveys indicate that the shoal has migrated 2 km landward since 1850. High resolution seismic profiles document Ship Shoal is an isolated sand body which punches out seaward on the erosional inner shelf and terminates landward on a depositional surface. Vibracores document Ship Shoal is 305 m thick sand body composed of shoal crest, lower shoal, back shoal, and lagoonal deposits lying disconformably over regressive deposits of the Maringouin delta complex, transgressed 6000 years B.P. The stratigraphy of Ship Shoal indicate it originated during the transgression of a Holocene barrier shoreline associated with the Maringouin delta complex. The presence of reworked clasts of beach rock Crassostrea sp. shell, and Rangia sp. shell within the sand body and overlying in-situ lagoonal deposits, document the former existence of a barrier shoreline. The transgressive shoal sequence shows that Ship Shoal has migrated to its present position from a more seaward location and the shoal and body contained no in-situ barrier shoreline deposits. The development of Ship Shoal illustrates a process whereby transgressive barrier shorelines are transformed into reworked barrier sand bodies lying on the inner shelf during relative sea level rise.

Penland, S.; Suter, J.R.; Moslow, T.F.

1985-01-01

62

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends in mercury in Great Lakes Herring Gull eggs, 1974–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current concentrations and spatial and temporal trends of total mercury (Hg) were assessed in eggs of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) over the period 1974–2009 at 15 sites in the Great Lakes: 2–3 sites per lake and one site in each of 3 connecting channels.\\u000a Current (2009) concentrations ranged from 0.064 ?g\\/g (wet weight) at Chantry Island (Lake Huron) to 0.246 ?g\\/g

D. V. Chip Weseloh; David J. Moore; Craig E. Hebert; Shane R. de Solla; Birgit M. Braune; Daryl J. McGoldrick

63

Nutrient transfer from sea to land: the case of gulls and cormorants in the Gulf of Maine.  

PubMed

1. The structure of communities is influenced by the transport of resources across ecosystem boundaries. Seabirds are capable of introducing large amounts of marine-derived nutrients to land, thereby modifying resource availability to terrestrial species. 2. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that variation in nesting densities of great black-backed gulls Larus marinus and double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus would modify the effect of these species on soil nutrients and plant species composition on offshore islands in the Gulf of Maine, USA. 3. Our results showed a significant positive correlation between nest density and concentrations of ammonia and nitrate in soils, but no significant relationship between nest density and phosphate. Ammonia and phosphate concentrations were good predictors of plant species composition; there were more annual forbs than perennial grasses in the abandoned cormorant colony compared with the gull colonies. Extremely high concentrations of ammonia in the highest density colony (active cormorant) may have been the main factor inhibiting plant germination at this site. All of the plant species in gull and cormorant colonies showed enriched delta(15)N signatures, indicating substantial input of marine-derived nitrogen from seabirds. 4. Our study demonstrated that gulls and cormorants are effective vectors for the transport of marine nutrients to terrestrial ecosystems. However, transported nutrients occurred in particularly high concentrations in areas with nesting cormorants. Nesting densities and species-specific variation in resource transport should be considered when predicting the effects of seabirds and other biogenic vectors of allochthonous resources. PMID:16638009

Ellis, Julie C; Fariña, Jose Miguel; Witman, Jon D

2006-03-01

64

Ross's Gull (Rhodostethia rosea) Breeding in Penny Strait, Nunavut, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

We found a small, previously undiscovered breeding colony of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) in Nunavut, Canada, approximately 80 km from a previous colony location occupied during the 1970s. The birds nested in association with arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea). The collective observations from this region of the High Arctic suggest that Ross's gulls may move colonies each year, or that colony

MARK L. MALLORY; H. GRANT GILCHRIST; CAROLYN L. MALLORY

65

Nest site selection and its survival value among laughing gulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The nesting strategy as determined by nonrandom variation in environmental features at laughing gull (Larus atricilla) nests in a salt marsh was studied (Fig. 3). Gulls tended to nest on mats in tall grass that grows on low ground (just above high tides) near water (Figs. 4–7). Grass height was inversely related to ground elevation and distance to water (Fig.

William A. Montevecchi

1978-01-01

66

COMPETITION BETWEEN AMERICAN COOTS AND FRANKLIN'S GULLS FOR NEST SITES AND EGG PREDATION BY THE COOTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RANKLIN'S Gull (Lams pipixcan) is the only gull that nests exclusively in marshes. It is colonial, and often changes colony sites from year to year. Franklin's Gulls build semi-floating nests in the cattail (Typha sp.) marshes of the northern prairies of North America. I studied the breeding adapta- tions of the Franklin's Gull to a marsh habitat from 1968 to

JOANNA BURGER

67

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Laughing Gull  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for laughing gull (Larus atricilla). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

Zale, Alexander V.; Mulholland, Rosemarie

1985-01-01

68

Relational learning in glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens).  

PubMed

An experimental approach was created for the comparative investigation of the cognitive abilities of the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) in their natural habitat. The territoriality of gulls during the breeding period and the fact that the gulls inhabiting the territory of the Komandorsky Reserve are practically not in fear of humans allowed us to work with individually recognized birds directly at their nest sites inside the colony. The possibility of using this approach to investigate their cognitive abilities was demonstrated on 24 gulls, in particular, to investigate their abilities for relative size generalization. The first experiment illustrated that the gulls are able to learn to discriminate two pairs of stimuli according to the feature: 'larger' or 'smaller'. They were then given a test to transfer the discriminative rule in which novel combinations of the same stimuli were used. The gulls successfully coped with only a few of these tests. In the next experiment the birds were taught to discriminate four pairs of similar stimuli. The majority of the birds coped with the tests to transfer the discriminative rule both to the novel combinations of familiar stimuli, and also to the novel stimuli of the familiar category (items of different colour and shape). However, none of the birds transferred the discriminative rule to stimuli of a novel category (sets differing by number of components). Thus, in their ability to generalize at a preconceptual level gulls are more comparable with pigeons, whereas large-brained birds (crows and parrots), are capable of concept formation. PMID:23156897

Obozova, Tatyana A; Smirnova, Anna A; Zorina, Zoya A

2012-11-01

69

At-Sea Behavior Varies with Lunar Phase in a Nocturnal Pelagic Seabird, the Swallow-Tailed Gull  

PubMed Central

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proano, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-01-01

70

At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull.  

PubMed

Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase. PMID:23468889

Cruz, Sebastian M; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; Proaño, Carolina B; Anderson, David J; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

2013-02-26

71

Temporal and spatial variability of ooid sand shoals: Comparison of Mississippian of Kentucky and Quaternary of Bahamas  

SciTech Connect

An examination of the lithology and topography of Andros Island, Bahamas, reveals it is a Pleistocene ooid sand shoal. A comparison with Joulters Cays (a modern ooid sand shoal directly to the north) shows that much of the original depositional topography is preserved through at least one cycle of sea level highstand and lowstand. Both the Pleistocene and the Holocene ooid sand bodies are a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide. The total vertical relief of a single episode of Quaternary ooid sand deposition is more than 10 m and includes accumulation in tidal channels, shallow flat areas, and eolian dunes. Today, much of Andros Island is within 2 m of present sea level and is the site of a belt several kilometers wide consisting of muddy tidal flat sediments overlying an exposure surface. The site of ooid sand deposition and shoal complex formation is not continuous along shorelines, especially windward margins, but shifts abruptly along the margins of platforms as a result of minor fluctuations of sea level. Thus, it should be expected that ooid sand shoals (ancient and modern) should be in direct lateral and vertical contact with lagoons, tidal flats, and reefs. The Mississippian Slade Formation contains many of the features of Quaternary ooid sand accumulation: abrupt vertical and lateral gradations between oolitic grainstones, packstones, and lime mudstones, vertical relief of individual oolitic sedimentary packages up to 30 m (perhaps with eolian dunes) and numerous exposure surfaces of varying intensities. These characteristics suggest that this formation represents a time of rapid fluctuations of relative sea level and abrupt shifts in the sites of ooid sand shoal complexes.

Boardman, M.R. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA))

1989-08-01

72

Limiting slopes and depths at ebb-tidal shoals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dense bathymetry surveys obtained by LIDAR at 13 small to medium coastal inlets of the continental United States were analyzed to quantify limiting (maximum) bottom slopes of ebb shoals and entrance channels. The LIDAR data were supplemented with conventional bathymetry measurements from five large inlets to obtain predictive relationships for the limiting (minimum) depth over crest of the ebb shoal.

Frank S. Buonaiuto; Nicholas C. Kraus

2003-01-01

73

Mechanisms underlying shoal composition in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-ranging groups are frequently assorted by phenotypic characters. However, very little is known about the underlying processes that determine this structuring. In this study, we investigate the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic composition of shoals of guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a high-predation stream in Trinidad's Northern Mountain Range. We collected 57 entire wild shoals, which were strongly assorted by body length.

D. P. Croft; B. J. Arrowsmith; J. Bielby; K. Skinner; E. White; I. D. Couzin; A. E. Magurran; I. Ramnarine; J. Krause

2003-01-01

74

Upward-shoaling cycles in Smackover carbonates of southwest Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper Smackover strata in Alabama commonly consist of one or more upward-shoaling cycles about 15 to 50 ft (3 to 16 m) in thickness. Multiple forcing functions (eustasy, regional tilting, salt halokinesis, and autogenic migration of facies) and varying water depths at the start and end of each upward-shoaling cycle generated an array of sedimentary responses. The Brittain No. 1

D. C. Kopaska-Merkel; S. D. Mann

1993-01-01

75

Intersex Condition of Shoal Bass in the Flint River, Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined male shoal bass Micropterus cataractae from the Flint River, Georgia, to determine the prevalence of intersex. During March and April 2010, we sampled 61 shoal bass from six sites along the Flint River. Testes were examined histologically and classified as intersex if the presence of oocytes was noted. Using a severity index, we compared samples collected on different

Dallas R. Ingram; Debra L. Miller; Travis R. Ingram; Josh E. Tannehill

2011-01-01

76

Kin assortment in juvenile shoals in wild guppy populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grouping provides many potential benefits to individuals in terms of foraging and anti-predator protection. However, it has been suggested that individuals could gain additional benefits in terms of indirect fitness by grouping with kin. Surprisingly, the genetic composition of wild fish shoals and the importance of kin-associated shoaling remain poorly understood. The Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata) has life history traits

C Piyapong; R K Butlin; J J Faria; K J Scruton; J Wang; J Krause

2011-01-01

77

A METHOD TO PREDICT WAVE CONDITIONS IN ISLAND ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many ocean regions the archipelagoes or even isolated islands provide shelter and this effect has an influence on the wave climate for coasts or ocean areas located in the shadow zones. Incident waves from the deep ocean are blocked by the island boundaries and are refracted over the island shoals. The wave energy is par tially dissipated in surf

E. Rusu; J. P. Pinto; R. Silva; C. Ventura Soares

78

Expansion of the Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1981, when the first breeding pair of Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus was recorded in Poland, the population of this gull has increased considerably. Its population size was stable until 1997,\\u000a not exceeding ten pairs annually; thereafter, an increasing number of sightings were made, and during the last 5 years between\\u000a 26 and 39 breeding pairs have been recorded in Poland.

Monika Zieli?ska; Piotr Zieli?ski; Pawe? Ko?odziejczyk; Pawe? Szewczyk; Jacek Betleja

2007-01-01

79

Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Gull Feces?  

PubMed Central

In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a gull 16S rRNA gene clone library was developed and analyzed to determine the identities of fecal bacteria. Analysis of 282 16S rRNA gene clones demonstrated that the gull gut bacterial community is mostly composed of populations closely related to Bacilli (37%), Clostridia (17%), Gammaproteobacteria (11%), and Bacteriodetes (1%). Interestingly, a considerable number of sequences (i.e., 26%) were closely related to Catellicoccus marimammalium, a gram-positive, catalase-negative bacterium. To determine the occurrence of C. marimammalium in waterfowl, species-specific 16S rRNA gene PCR and real-time assays were developed and used to test fecal DNA extracts from different bird (n = 13) and mammal (n = 26) species. The results showed that both assays were specific to gull fecal DNA and that C. marimammalium was present in gull fecal samples collected from the five locations in North America (California, Georgia, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Toronto, Canada) tested. Additionally, 48 DNA extracts from waters collected from six sites in southern California, Great Lakes in Michigan, Lake Erie in Ohio, and Lake Ontario in Canada presumed to be impacted with gull feces were positive by the C. marimammalium assay. Due to the widespread presence of this species in gulls and environmental waters contaminated with gull feces, targeting this bacterial species might be useful for detecting gull fecal contamination in waterfowl-impacted waters.

Lu, Jingrang; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Lamendella, Regina; Edge, Thomas; Hill, Stephen

2008-01-01

80

Avian paramyxoviruses in shorebirds and gulls.  

PubMed

There are nine serotypes of avian paramyxovirus (APMV), including APMV-1, or Newcastle disease virus. Although free-flying ducks and geese have been extensively monitored for APMV, limited information is available for species in the order Charadriiformes. From 2000 to 2005 we tested cloacal swabs from 9,128 shorebirds and gulls (33 species, five families) captured in 10 states within the USA and in three countries in the Caribbean and South America. Avian paramyxoviruses were isolated from 60 (0.7%) samples by inoculation of embryonating chicken eggs; isolates only included APMV-1 and APMV-2. Two isolates (APMV-2) were made from gulls and 58 isolates (APMV-1 [41 isolates] and APMV-2 [17 isolates]) were made from shorebirds. All of the positive shorebirds were sampled at Delaware Bay (Delaware and New Jersey) and 45 (78%) of these isolates came from Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres). The APMV-1 infection rate was higher among Ruddy Turnstones compared with other shorebird species and varied by year. Avian paramyxovirus-2 was isolated from two of 394 (0.5%) Ruddy Turnstones at Delaware Bay in 2001 and from 13 of 735 (1.8%) Ruddy Turnstones during 2002. For both APMV-1 and APMV-2, infection rates were higher among Ruddy Turnstones sampled on the south shore of Delaware Bay compared to north shore populations. This spatial variation may be related to local movements of Ruddy Turnstones within this ecosystem. The higher prevalence of APMV in Ruddy Turnstones mirrors results observed for avian influenza viruses in shorebirds and may suggest similar modes of transmission. PMID:20688640

Coffee, Laura L; Hanson, Britta A; Luttrell, M Page; Swayne, David E; Senne, Dennis A; Goekjian, Virginia H; Niles, Lawrence J; Stallknecht, David E

2010-04-01

81

Habitat and Diet Partitioning between Shoal Bass and Largemouth Bass in the Chipola River, Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the macrohabitat use, microhabitat use, and food habits of shoal bass Micropterus cataractaeand largemouth bass M. salmoides in the upper Chipola River, Florida. We electrofished two macrohabitats (pools and shoals) during the summer (May-August) and fall (September-December) of 1999 and 2000. The ratio of shoal bass to largemouth bass differed among macrohabitats, being highest in the shoals and

A. P. Wheeler; Michael S. Allen

2003-01-01

82

A wave-driven jet over a rocky shoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations and model simulations are presented of flow generated by waves breaking over a shoal at the entrance to a shallow bay. The shoal is composed of a series of steep and narrow bedrock ridges with depths of 2-8 m at the ridge crests. Observations from instruments on the shoal indicated peak significant wave heights during a storm event were 2.4-4.0 m across the observation sites; this spatial variability is due to wave breaking over the ridges. The 2-D depth-averaged hydrodynamic model Delft3D, coupled to the wave model SWAN, was used to simulate the waves and wave-driven flow over the shoal and throughout the entire bay with a nested fine grid (5 m resolution) to resolve the shoal bathymetry. The model predicts a well-defined jet behind the shoal, with mean axial speeds of 0.4-0.7 m/s. The observations indicate maximum speeds behind the shoal of 0.3-0.4 m/s, exceeding the maximum tidal current speed by more than a factor of 4, that are consistent in timing and direction with the model predictions. The model overpredicts wave breaking over the steep slopes and as a result the current speeds are overestimated.

Mulligan, Ryan P.; Hay, Alex E.; Bowen, Anthony J.

2010-10-01

83

Intersex condition of shoal bass in the Flint River, Georgia.  

PubMed

We examined male shoal bass Micropterus cataractae from the Flint River, Georgia, to determine the prevalence of intersex. During March and April 2010, we sampled 61 shoal bass from six sites along the Flint River. Testes were examined histologically and classified as intersex if the presence of oocytes was noted. Using a severity index, we compared samples collected on different dates and from different locations according to age and testis weight. No significant variations were noted among any of the groupings. Further investigation is needed to determine whether the intersex condition in shoal bass is severe enough to warrant concern and whether it is a natural phenomenon. PMID:22372246

Ingram, Dallas R; Miller, Debra L; Ingram, Travis R; Tannehill, Josh E

2011-12-01

84

Comparison of Helicobacter spp. genetic sequences in wild and captive seals, and gulls.  

PubMed

Helicobacter species are widely distributed in the gastrointestinal system of humans and many animal taxa. Investigations of natural infections are essential to elucidating their role within the host. The feces of fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus and sea lions Neophoca cinerea from 3 separate captive populations, as well as a wild colony from Kangaroo Island, Australia, were examined for the occurrence of Helicobacter spp. The feces from several wild silver gulls Larus novahollandiae were also investigated. As detected by PCR, 18 of 21 samples from captive and 12 of 16 samples from wild seals were positive for Helicobacter spp. Three species were identified in these animals. Whilst one possibly novel type was identified from wild fur seals, the majority of wild and captive individuals had the same species. This species also occurred in more than 1 seal type and in silver gulls, and shared a 98.1 to 100% identity to other Helicobacter spp. from harp seals and sea otters. A similar sequence type to species identified from cetaceans was also detected in several captive seals. This study reports for the first time the presence of Helicobacter spp. in wild and captive seals and demonstrates the diversity and broad-host range of these organisms in the marine host. PMID:16060262

Oxley, Andrew P A; McKay, David B

2005-06-01

85

Polychlorinated biphenyls and metals in marine species from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals were analyzed in coral (Porites lobata), fish (Stegastes fasciolatus), crab (Grapsus tenuicrustatus), and sediment samples collected from Tern Island, and the reference samples from Trig and La Perouse Islands. All three islands are part of French Frigate Shoals, a national wildlife refuge in the North Pacific Ocean. Average concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 154 to 274 ng/g in the sediments, from 120 to 267 ng/g in the corals, from 387 to 4,500 ng/g in the crabs, and 1,340 to 46,000 ng/g, dry weight, in the fishes. High concentrations in marine species indicate there is PCB source(s) in French Frigate Shoals, especially Tern Island. Tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls were 64-66% of the total PCB levels in the sediments, and they accounted for 57-65% of total PCBs in the corals. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls were 76-84% of total PCBs in the fishes, and they accounted for 79-85% in the crab samples. The sediment and coral were predominated by lower chlorinated PCB congeners, whereas the fish and crab bioaccumulated mainly higher chlorinated congeners. Selenium concentrations (16-23 microg/g) in sediments were much higher than some reported baseline values (0.4-2.5 microg/g). The average concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and selenium in the coral and fish were about equal to or less than those in the sediments. Concentrations of arsenic and cadmium in the crabs (49-51 and 3-4 microg/g, respectively) were approximately twofold of those in the sediments. PMID:10787097

Miao, X S; Swenson, C; Yanagihara, K; Li, Q X

2000-05-01

86

Flow separation and resuspension beneath shoaling nonlinear internal waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory observations are presented showing the structure and dynamics of the turbulent bottom boundary layer beneath nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) of depression shoaling upon sloping topography. The adverse pressure gradient beneath the shoaling waves causes the rear face to steepen, flow separation to occur, and wave-induced near-bottom vortices to suspend bed material. The resuspension is directly attributed to the near-bed

Leon Boegman; Gregory N. Ivey

2009-01-01

87

Modulation of Coherent Microwave Backscatter by Shoaling Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orbital speed of long shoaling waves and the modulation of centimetric wind-generated waves by the shoaling waves were obtained from the frequency and amplitude modulations, respectively, of the backscattered signal of a coherent CW 9.375-GHz radar operated from the end of a pier on the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Modulations anomalously large in comparison with those predicted by

W. J. Plant; W. C. Keller; J. W. Wright

1978-01-01

88

Distribution of Gull Specific Molecular Marker in Coastal Areas of Lake Ontario  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls have been implicated as primary sources of fecal contamination in the Great Lakes, a fact that may have health implications due to the potential spread of microbial pathogens by waterfowl. To better understand the spatial variability of gull fecal contamination, a gull-spe...

89

Impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of recreational water.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the impact of the ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) on the microbiological quality of water. We measured fecal coliforms, Salmonella spp., and Aeromonas spp. in the gull droppings and the number of fecal coliforms in the water prior to and after attracting these birds to the beach with food. Gulls can contribute to the bacteriological degradation of recreational water.

Benoit Leevesque; Brousseau, P; Simard, P; Dewailly, E; Meisels, M; Ramsay, D; Joly, J

1993-01-01

90

Gulls in urban environments: landscape-level management to reduce conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of several species of gulls (Larus spp.) have increased dramatically throughout coastal areas of North America and Europe during the past several decades. These increases have been attributed generally to protection from human disturbance, reduction in environmental contaminants, availability of anthropogenic food, and the ability of gulls to adapt to human-altered environments. Gull abundance in urban areas has resulted

Jerrold L. Belant

1997-01-01

91

Jets Driven by Wave Breaking Over a Shoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field observations and model simulations are presented of a jet forced by waves breaking over a shoal at the entrance to a shallow b ay. The shoal is composed of a series of steep and narrow bedrock ridges with depths of 2-8 m at the ridge crests. During a storm in October 2006 observations from an instrument array on the shoal indicated peak significant wave heights were 2.5-4.0 m across the array, this spatial variability due to wave breaking over the ridges. A well defined jet was observed behind the shoal with mean axial speeds up to 0.4 m/s, exceeding the 0.1 m/s maximum tidal current speed. The hydrodynamic model Delft3D, coupled to the wave model SWAN, was used to simulate the waves and depth-averaged wave-driven flow over the shoal and throughout the entire bay. Wave model results were generally in reasonable agreement with observations and confirm that the jet is forced by the radiation stress gradients over the shoal. However, discrepancies between model and data suggest that the breaking distribution function is inadequately represented. The model over-predicts wave breaking in deeper water as a result and the current speeds in the jet are slightly over-estimated by the model. The direction and transient nature of the flows were in agreement with observations.

Mulligan, R. P.; Bowen, A. J.; Hay, A. E.

2008-12-01

92

Sexing California gulls using morphometrics and discriminant function analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A discriminant function analysis (DFA) model was developed with DNA sex verification so that external morphology could be used to sex 203 adult California Gulls (Larus californicus) in San Francisco Bay (SFB). The best model was 97% accurate and included head-to-bill length, culmen depth at the gonys, and wing length. Using an iterative process, the model was simplified to a single measurement (head-to-bill length) that still assigned sex correctly 94% of the time. A previous California Gull sex determination model developed for a population in Wyoming was then assessed by fitting SFB California Gull measurement data to the Wyoming model; this new model failed to converge on the same measurements as those originally used by the Wyoming model. Results from the SFB discriminant function model were compared to the Wyoming model results (by using SFB data with the Wyoming model); the SFB model was 7% more accurate for SFB California gulls. The simplified DFA model (head-to-bill length only) provided highly accurate results (94%) and minimized the measurements and time required to accurately sex California Gulls.

Herring, G.; Ackerman, J. T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Takekawa, J. Y.

2010-01-01

93

Cytochrome P4501A induction and DNA adduct formation in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs.  

PubMed

This study indicates that complex mixtures of pollutants found in the Arctic marine environment have genotoxic effects in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). DNA adducts were quantified, by the (32)P-postlabeling technique, in liver samples from gulls fed with hen eggs (controls) and from gulls fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed). All birds were grown and fed under laboratory conditions. Hepatic homologues to mammalian cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) proteins were also determined by Western blotting. DNA adducts were detected in all but one liver sample, but the exposed birds had a significantly increased level of DNA adducts relative to that of the controls. There was no clear significant correlation between the DNA adduct level and the level of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in blood. The level of CYP1A protein was significantly higher in the liver of exposed male gulls than in the liver of control males and positively correlated, with significance, to the level of OC compounds measured in blood. There was no significant correlation between the level of DNA adducts and the CYP1A protein content. PMID:16216630

Østby, Lene; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Krøkje, Ase

2005-11-01

94

Gravity currents shoaling on a slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory experiments are performed to examine gravity currents propagating into an ambient of uniformly decreasing depth. Predominantly, the study is of a surface gravity current shoaling over a bottom slope as it approaches a corner between the horizontal surface and the sloping topography. For sufficiently high Reynolds number currents, they are found to propagate at a constant speed over the slope until the depth of the ambient below the nose is comparable to the depth of the current in the lee of the gravity current nose. It then decelerates at a constant rate set by the product of the reduced gravity, g', and the magnitude of the topographic slope, s. The shape of the head evolves to form a front parallel to the slope itself and the ambient ahead of the current accelerates downslope with significant turbulence between the ambient and current head. The dependency of the deceleration upon g's is anticipated from WKB-like extensions of steady-state gravity current theory that include the effect of the ambient depth in one case varying slowly in space as the current first passes over the slope and in another case varying slowly in time as the nose approaches the corner. However, the measured deceleration magnitude of ~= 0.31( +/- 0.01)g's is found to be larger than these heuristic predictions.

Sutherland, Bruce R.; Polet, Delyle; Campbell, Margaret

2013-08-01

95

Shoaling develops with age in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

The biological mechanisms of human social behavior are complex. Animal models may facilitate the understanding of these mechanisms and may help one to develop treatment strategies for abnormal human social behavior, a core symptom in numerous clinical conditions. The zebrafish is perhaps the most social vertebrate among commonly used laboratory species. Given its practical features and the numerous genetic tools developed for it, it should be a promising tool. Zebrafish shoal, i.e. form tight multimember groups, but the ontogenesis of this behavior has not been described. Analyzing the development of shoaling is a step towards discovering the mechanisms of this behavior. Here we study age-dependent changes of shoaling in zebrafish from day 7 post fertilization to over 5 months of age by measuring the distance between all pairs of fish in freely swimming groups of ten subjects. Our longitudinal (repeated measure within subject) and cross sectional (non-repeated measure between subject) analyses both demonstrated a significant increase of shoaling with age (decreased distance between shoal members). Given the sophisticated genetic and developmental biology methods already available for zebrafish, we argue that our behavioral results open a new avenue towards the understanding of the development of vertebrate social behavior and of its mechanisms and abnormalities.

Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert

2010-01-01

96

The herring gull complex is not a ring species.  

PubMed Central

Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America.

Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J.

2004-01-01

97

Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in Gull Feces  

EPA Science Inventory

In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a gull 16S rDNA fecal clone librar...

98

Heavy metals in laughing gulls: Gender, age and tissue differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, manganese, selenium, and chromium in feathers, liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of known-aged laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) that hatched in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey and were collected at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York 1 to 7 years later. Concentrations differed significantly among tissues, and tissue entered all the regression models

Michael Gochfeld; Jerrold L. Belant; Tara Shukla; Tom Benson; Joanna Burger

1996-01-01

99

Jamaica Bay studies III: Abiotic determinants of distribution and abundance of gulls ( Larus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution and abundance of gulls were examined at Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge (New York) from 31 May 1978 to 31 May 1979. Gulls were found to be affected by tidal, temporal and weather-related factors. The distribution of gulls was affected primarily by tidal factors on the bay, and by temporal (seasonal, circadian) and weather-related factors on the freshwater ponds. The most important weather-related factors were temperature, wind velocity and wind direction. Herring ( L. argentatus), great black-backed ( L. fuscus) and ring-billed gulls ( L. delawarensis) fed on the bay at low tides, and used the ponds at high tide. Laughing gulls ( L. atricilla) fed on the bay at low tide and on rising tides. Herring and great black-backed gulls were present all year, but were most abundant in the winter, ring-billed gulls were abundant in spring and early fall, and laughing gulls were present in the summer following the breeding season but were absent in winter. Gulls used the ponds during high velocity, north winds, when they usually rested or preened. Multiple regression models were used to determine the factors explaining the variability in the numbers of gulls. Temporal variables were important contributors to accounting for the variability in the numbers of great black-backed and herring gulls only; tidal variables were significant for great black-backed and herring gulls on the bay, and for ring-billed and laughing gulls on all areas; and weather variables were significant for all species.

Burger, Joanna

1983-02-01

100

Sediment Delivery to Diamond Shoals: a Field Experiment at Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond Shoals is a complex of sand shoals extending more than 20 km seaward from Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina. We conducted a one-month field experiment at Cape Hatteras Point during February 2010, with a primary objective of quantifying the processes that deliver sediment to Diamond Shoals. A leading hypothesis from previous literature, mainly focused on the similar Cape Lookout

J. H. List; J. C. Warner; E. R. Thieler; K. A. Haas; G. Voulgaris; J. E. McNinch; K. L. Brodie

2010-01-01

101

Observations of near-bed sediment convergence processes at Diamond Shoals, NC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamond Shoals is a large sedimentary deposit approximately 20 km in length that spans the shelf width from Cape Hatteras, NC to the shelf break. This shoal is part of a series of convergent features associated with the cuspate forelands of the Carolinas coast. The processes that have formed and maintain these shoals are not well understood, however, previous studies

J. C. Warner; J. H. List; G. Voulgaris; A. Sanchez

2010-01-01

102

Who follows whom? Shoaling preferences and social learning of foraging information in guppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preferences of fish for different types of shoals may influence the transmission of novel information through them. We investigated the factors influencing the preferences of guppies,Poecilia reticulata, for different shoals in order to shed some light on how information transmission occurs. Adult subjects were given a choice between swimming with two diverging shoals of conspecifics that differed with respect to

ROBERT F. LACHLAN; LUCY CROOKS; KEVIN N. LALAND

1998-01-01

103

Stratigraphic Assessment of the Mineral Aggregate Resources in the St. Bernard Shoals, Offshore Louisiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of an assessment of sand resources of the St. Bernard Shoals, and it examines the Holocene geologic framework of the St. Bernard Shoals region on the Louisiana-Mississippi continental shelf. These shoals are located about...

D. Pope P. Connor S. Penland

1993-01-01

104

POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS IN ABNORMAL YOUNG TERNS FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

THS paper reports the results of preliminary analyses for chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in young terns with visible abnormalities fo.und in a colony on Great Gull Island, 72 ø 07' W, 41 ø 12' N. Analyses are also reported on eight species of fish brought to the colony as food for the young or as part of behavioral displays. Great

HELEN HAYS; ROBERT W. RISEBROUGH

105

Competition between the yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans and Audouin's gull Larus audouinii associated with commercial fishing vessels: the influence of season and fishing fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition between the yellow-legged gull Larus cachinnans and Audouin's gull Larus audouinii while foraging at commercial fishing vessels off the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean) was assessed in 1997 and 1998. Observations were performed on board two kinds of fishing vessels with different timetables: bottom trawlers (diurnal activity) and purse seiners (nocturnal activity). Three situations were distinguished with respect to the

J. Arcos; D. Oro; D. Sol

2001-01-01

106

Antigenic and genetic characterization of a novel hemagglutinin subtype of influenza A viruses from gulls.  

PubMed

Influenza A virus isolates from ring-billed, Franklin, blackback, and herring gulls in the United States possess a hemagglutinin (HA) distinct from the 12 reference HA subtypes. Serological assays (hemagglutination inhibition and double-immunodiffusion) with specific antisera to reference strains and to a representative gull isolate showed that the HA of the gull virus was not antigenically related to that of any known subtype. The gull virus did not replicate in ducks or chickens but did replicate in ferrets. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences (and deduced amino acid sequences) of the 3' 20% of the HA genes of these viruses indicates that the gull viruses represent a genetically distinct group. We propose that this HA, which has been detected only in gull isolates thus far, be called the H13 subtype. PMID:7097861

Hinshaw, V S; Air, G M; Gibbs, A J; Graves, L; Prescott, B; Karunakaran, D

1982-06-01

107

Antigenic and genetic characterization of a novel hemagglutinin subtype of influenza A viruses from gulls.  

PubMed Central

Influenza A virus isolates from ring-billed, Franklin, blackback, and herring gulls in the United States possess a hemagglutinin (HA) distinct from the 12 reference HA subtypes. Serological assays (hemagglutination inhibition and double-immunodiffusion) with specific antisera to reference strains and to a representative gull isolate showed that the HA of the gull virus was not antigenically related to that of any known subtype. The gull virus did not replicate in ducks or chickens but did replicate in ferrets. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences (and deduced amino acid sequences) of the 3' 20% of the HA genes of these viruses indicates that the gull viruses represent a genetically distinct group. We propose that this HA, which has been detected only in gull isolates thus far, be called the H13 subtype.

Hinshaw, V S; Air, G M; Gibbs, A J; Graves, L; Prescott, B; Karunakaran, D

1982-01-01

108

Internal-tide generation and destruction by shoaling internal tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internal-tide generation is usually predicted from local topography, surface tides, and stratification. However, internal tides are often observed to be unrelated to local spring-neap forcing, appearing intermittently in 3-5 day bursts. Here we suggest a source of this intermittency by illustrating how remotely-generated shoaling internal tides induce first-order changes in local internal-tide generation. Theory, numerical simulations, and observations show that pressure perturbations associated with shoaling internal tides can correlate with surface-tide velocities to generate or destroy internal tides. Where shoaling internal tides have random phase, such as on the New Jersey slope, time-averaged internal-tide generation is unaffected, but instantaneous internal-tide generation varies rapidly, altering internal-tide energy and possibly affecting nonlinear internal waves, across-shelf transport, and mixing. Where shoaling internal tides are phase-locked to the local surface tide, such as in double-ridge systems, time-averaged internal-tide generation is affected and may result in resonance.

Kelly, S. M.; Nash, J. D.

2010-12-01

109

Observations of Polarity Reversal in Shoaling Nonlinear Internal Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations off the New Jersey coast document the shoaling of three groups of nonlinear internal waves of depression over 35 km across the shelf. Each wave group experienced changing background conditions along its shoreward transit. Despite different wave environments, a clear pattern emerges. Nearly symmetric waves propagating into shallow water develop an asymmetric shape; in the wave reference frame, the

E. L. SHROYER; J. N. MOUM; J. D. NASH

2008-01-01

110

Measurements of shoaling internal waves and turbulence in an estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractThe <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of horizontally propagating internal waves may represent an important source of mixing and transport in estuaries and coastal seas. Including such effects in numerical models demands improvements in the understanding of several aspects of the energetics, especially those relating to turbulence generation, and observations are needed to build this understanding. To address some of these issues in the estuarine context, we undertook an intensive field program for 10 days in the summer of 2008 in the St. Lawrence Estuary. The sampling involved shore-based photogrammetry, ship-based surveys, and an array of moorings in the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> region that held both conventional and turbulence-resolving sensors. The measurements shed light on many aspects of the wave <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> process. Wave arrivals were generally phase-locked with the M2 tide, providing hints about far-field forcing. In the deeper part of the study domain, the waves propagated according to the predictions of linear theory. In intermediate-depth waters, the waves traversed the field site perpendicularly to isobaths, a pattern that continued as the waves transformed nonlinearly. Acoustic Doppler velocimeters permitted inference of the turbulent energetics, and two main features were studied. First, during a period of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> internal waves, turbulence dissipation rates exceeded values associated with tidal shear by an order of magnitude. Second, the evolving spectral signatures associated with a particular wave-<span class="hlt">shoaling</span> event suggest that the turbulence is at least partly locally generated. Overall, the results of this study suggest that parameterizations of wave-induced mixing could employ relatively simple dynamics in deep water, but may have to handle a wide suite of turbulence generation and transport mechanisms in inshore regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richards, Clark; Bourgault, Daniel; Galbraith, Peter S.; Hay, Alex; Kelley, Dan E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021141"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal movements, migration, and range sizes of subadult and adult Bamforth Lake California <span class="hlt">Gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated seasonal migration patterns of three age classes of California <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus californicus). Using band recovery data and reported sightings of patagially marked <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, we constructed location maps for fledglings, one to two-year-old <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, and breeding-age adult <span class="hlt">gulls</span> during five time periods: spring migration, breeding season, early and late fall migration, and winter. Using repeated observations, we also produced a location map with directional vector plots. <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> followed a triangular pattern of movements. At the conclusion of breeding, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> migrated west and northwest to the Pacific coast, distributing themselves mainly between San Francisco and British Columbia. During winter, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> moved south along the Pacific coast and by spring were concentrated in southern California and northern Mexico. The range size was largest among fledgings which provided the northernmost and southernmost observations for the population. Few subadult <span class="hlt">gulls</span> migrated to the breeding colony. During the breeding season, a substantial portion of breeding-aged adults remained on the Pacific coast and throughout the intermountain west but were not observed at other California <span class="hlt">gull</span> colonies. While fledgings moved directly toward the Pacific coast at the end of the breeding season, many adults lingered near the colony site at aquatic habitats south of the colony. We suggest that adults remain longer in the area to feed and to rejuvenate before attempting migration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pugesek, B. H.; Diem, K. L.; Cordes, C. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23691168"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra) on herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) reproduction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting <span class="hlt">islands</span> where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) on Appledore <span class="hlt">Island</span>, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities. PMID:23691168</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeFisher, Luke E; Bonter, David N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5224227"> <span id="translatedtitle">Slaty-backed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> in Sullivan Co., NY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An adult Slaty-backed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus schistisagus) was found and photographed at Neversink Reservoir, Sullivan Co., NY on 20 February 2002. A native of northeastern Eurasia and northern Japan, this species is rare along the Bering coast of Alaska, and there are only a handful of scattered records in the lower 48 state since the first in St Louis along the Mississippi River in late 1983. There is one previous New York State occurrence, in the Niagara River Gorge area of NY/ONT, 24 November-29 December 1992. The Sullivan Co. adult is the closest confirmed Slaty-backed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> to the Atlantic Coast; recent single individuals along the Susquehanna River in MD, and at Cape Hatteras NC remain in dispute.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Freer, V.; Haas, J.; Buckley, P.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/ON/v013n03/p0267-p0272.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE BIRDS OF SEYMOUR <span class="hlt">ISLAND</span>, ANTARCTICA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During January-February 2000, we obtained information on the abundance and distribution of seabirds in Seymour <span class="hlt">Island</span>, Antarctica. Six species breed in this area: Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae; 28,255 pairs), Wilson's Storm-petrel (Oceanites oceanicus; 22), Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica; 30), South Polar Skua (C. maccormicki; 33), Kelp <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus dominicanus; 296) and Antarctic Tern (Sterna vittata; 107). In addition, five non-breeding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diego Montalti; Guillermo E. Soave</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l2753388761347k7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nocturnal behavior of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in coastal New Jersey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the behavior of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> at night with an image intensifier telescope to determine whether they were active at night,\\u000a and the extent of their foraging in coastal habitats of New Jersey in the summer, fall, and winter of 1989–1990. Regression\\u000a models and Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated that date, time of day, tide, cloud cover, moon phase, and study location</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joanna Burger; Kevin J. Staine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/74/13/3969.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phylogenetic Diversity and Molecular Detection of Bacteria in <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Feces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In spite of increasing public health concerns about the potential risks associated with swimming in waters contaminated with waterfowl feces, little is known about the composition of the gut microbial community of aquatic birds. To address this, a <span class="hlt">gull</span> 16S rRNA gene clone library was developed and analyzed to determine the identities of fecal bacteria. Analysis of 282 16S rRNA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jingrang Lu; Regina Lamendella; Thomas Edge; Stephen Hill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7145234"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ionic alkylleads in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from the Great Lakes region</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) tissues, collected from various breeding colonies in the Great Lakes, were examined to determine alkyllead levels and possible alkyllead sources into the Great Lakes region. Ionic trialkyl- and dialkyllead species (R/sub 3/Pb/sup +/, R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/; R = Me, Et) were quantitated by gas chromatography-atomic absorption spectrometry. The extraction procedure was tested at trace levels (3-4 ppb as Pb) with four domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues. Trimethyllead was found in two avian species and all examined tissues. Methyllead levels frequently exceeded ethyllead levels with no direct automotive source. Correlation between alkyllead levels in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> tissue and lake sediment lead levels suggests possible methylation but not ethylation of inorganic lead. The methyllead concentration trend in <span class="hlt">gull</span> tissues. Lake Ontario > Lake Huron approx. = Lake Erie > Lake Superior, was opposite to the ethyllead concentration trend, Lake Superior > Lake Huron > Lake Erie approx. = Lake Ontario. 40 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forsyth, D.S.; Marshall, W.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035592"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of a nesting platform by <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2006, we constructed an elevated nesting platform at the Salton Sea, California, and monitored its use by <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns and Black Skimmers over three subsequent breeding seasons. Black Skimmers were the first to colonize the platform with a total of five nests in 2006. In 2007 <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns colonized the platform with a total of 28 nests and the number of Black Skimmer nests increased to 20. Neither species nested on the platform in 2008. Low success for both species was probably influenced by at least two factors. First, when both species nested on the platform, nest densities were higher than is typical of their colonies on larger, earthen <span class="hlt">islands</span>, and colony success may have been reduced by overcrowding. Second, lack of access to water may have reduced chicks' ability to thermoregulate effectively in the hot environment of the Salton Sea. Refinements to the size, design, and location of artificial nesting habitats are necessary to enhance productivity of colonial groundnesting birds at the Salton Sea successfully.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molina, K. C.; Ricca, M. A.; Miles, A. K.; Schoneman, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18508755"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hybridization of glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus hyperboreus) and herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) in Iceland: mitochondrial and microsatellite data.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large white-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> provide an interesting group of birds for studies of hybridization. The group is composed of 20 species of recent origin, often with weak reproductive barriers. Here we report the results from a study on the glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus hyperboreus, an Arctic species which has been breeding in Iceland for centuries, and the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus argentatus which has a wide distribution in Europe but colonized Iceland in 1920s. Previous studies, based on morphological variation indicated hybridization between the two species in Iceland, have been questioned as it may just reflect variation within the species. Here we evaluate whether hybridization has occurred between the two species in Iceland by studying variation in microsatellites and mtDNA. The analysis is based on feathers taken from wings sampled in Iceland over a period of 40 years. The results are compared with samples obtained from East Greenland and published sequences of samples obtained throughout Europe. The genetic analysis reveals a distinctive grouping of the two species, although they present a shallow genealogy and an extensive sharing of the genetic variants between the two species. Several individuals show admixture for molecular markers, which may result from an incomplete lineage sorting although geographical patterns of both mtDNA haplotypes and microsatellites strongly indicate a recent hybridization in Iceland. PMID:18508755</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vigfúsdóttir, Freydís; Pálsson, Snaebjörn; Ingólfsson, Agnar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-09-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-05-26/pdf/2010-12608.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 29574 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Eggs by...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National...for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National...for the harvest of glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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Streptococcus spp.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Gulls</span> have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one <span class="hlt">gull</span>-specific assay is currently available (i.e., <span class="hlt">gull</span>2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cenpat.edu.ar/ecomarea/trabajosPDF/029%20Yorio_etal_2001_Olrog_BCI.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Habitat and nest site characteristics of Olrog's <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus atlanticus breeding at Bahia San Blas, Argentina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Olrog's <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus atlanticus is a vulnerable species endemic to the Argentine Atlantic coast. We present information on new breeding colonies, update information on known colonies, and describe habitat and nest site characteristics of Olrog's <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> breeding at Bahia San Blas, southern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Information was obtained during the 1998 breeding season. We recorded four colonies on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">PABLO Y ORIO; D ANIEL E. R ABANO; P ABLO F RIEDRICH</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14790112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Egg Size and Post-hatching Chick Mortality in the Herring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus argentatus)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">IN many <span class="hlt">gull</span> species, the third laid egg of the typical three egg clutch is distinctly smaller than the first two1,2. In the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus), the chick hatching from this third egg suffers a much higher mortality than either of its siblings3, although the hatching success is the same for all three eggs. In a series of egg</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Parsons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vogelwarte.uni-greifswald.de/pdf/cachinnans.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in the Larus cachinnans—fuscus group (Aves: Charadriiformes)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied mitochondrial genetic differentiation among nine taxa of large <span class="hlt">gulls</span> of the Larus cachinnans—fuscus group, which form part of the circumpolar Herring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> complex. Our primary interest was to see if there were unrecognized gene flow barriers, to what extent mitochondrial genetic population structure conformed to current taxonomic boundaries, and what it might reveal about possible differences in population</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. LIEBERS; A. J. HELBIG; P. DE KNIJFF</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40118780"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of blood removal and infusion on <span class="hlt">gull</span> salt gland secretion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1.The effect of blood removal and addition on salt gland secretion was studied in freshwater and seawater acclimated <span class="hlt">gulls</span>,Larus glaucescens.2.In contrast to published reports that blood removal decreased and blood infusion increased salt gland secretion in ducks, neither blood removal nor addition had an effect on concentration or volume of salt gland secretion in <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maryanne R. Hughes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39777508"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geographical distribution of organochlorine contaminants and reproductive parameters in Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> on Lake Superior in 1983</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the Great Lakes International Surveillance Plan, 1978–83, egg contaminant levels and reproductive output were determined for Herring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> colonies on Lake Superior in 1983. Since 1974, the Herring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> has been widely used in the Great Lakes as a spatial and temporal monitor of organochlorine (OC) contaminant levels and associated biological effects. Most eggs contained a wide</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. V. Chip Weseloh; Peter J. Ewins; John Struger; Pierre Mineau; Ross J. Norstrom</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40883359"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> ( Larus argentatus) eggs, 1972–1992</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1971, the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled during 1972–1976, 1981–1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. D. Koster; D. P. Ryckman; D. V. C. Weseloh; J. Struger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42010348"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> and shoreline dissipation of low-frequency waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growth rate, shoreline reflection, and dissipation of low-frequency waves are investigated using data obtained from physical experiments in the Delft University of Technology research flume and by parameter variation using the numerical model Delft3D-SurfBeat. The growth rate of the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> incoming long wave varies with depth with an exponent between 0.25 and 2.5. The exponent depends on a dimensionless</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. van Dongeren; J. A. Battjes; T. Janssen; J. van Noorloos; K. Steenhauer; G. Steenbergen; A. Reniers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26659631"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of waves and currents over a submerged laboratory <span class="hlt">shoal</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vertically-integrated effect of interaction between waves and wave-induced currents on wave transformation over a submerged elliptic <span class="hlt">shoal</span> was investigated based on numerical simulations of the Vincent and Briggs experiment [Vincent, C.L., Briggs, M.J., 1989. Refraction- diffraction of irregular waves over a mound. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, 115(2), pp. 269–284.]. The numerical simulations were performed using</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Junwoo Choi; Chae Ho Lim; Jong In Lee; Sung Bum Yoon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB23F..03D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrating Ecology and Geomorphology in Etowah River <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Restoration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Designs of stream restoration projects are typically based primarily on geomorphic data. However, these data may not be comprehensive enough to design ecologically successful restoration projects. In summer 2004 Georgia Ecological Services (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) surveyed nearly 80 km of the Etowah River, GA. The goal of this survey was to identify sediment sources and potential restoration techniques that would benefit imperiled, <span class="hlt">shoal</span>-inhabiting fishes in the Etowah River. An essential and unique part of this survey was to collect both ecological and geomorphic data to build a more holistic understanding of how and why <span class="hlt">shoal</span> habitats vary. One ecological measure included was the density and length of river weed Podostemum ceratophyllum, a submerged aquatic macrophyte. Other studies have shown that the imperiled "Coosa" madtom (Noturus sp. cf. N. munitus) and freckled darter (Percina lenticula) occur more frequently in the presence of Podostemum. Results indicate that the density and length of Podostemum increases with <span class="hlt">shoal</span> width and particle size, highlighting the importance of geomorphology in its growth. Restoration activities that focus on these habitat characteristics will facilitate Podostemum growth and will probably aid in the recovery of the "Coosa" madtom and freckled darter in the Etowah River.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duncan, W. W.; Meyer, J. L.; Leigh, D.; Goodloe, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19151182"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacteroidales diversity in ring-billed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Laurus delawarensis) residing at Lake Michigan beaches.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the occurrence and diversity of Bacteroidales fecal bacteria in <span class="hlt">gulls</span> residing in the Great Lakes region. Members of this bacterial order have been widely employed as human and bovine host-specific markers of fecal pollution; however, few studies have focused on <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, which can be a major source of fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens at beaches. We found a low but consistent occurrence of Bacteroidales in <span class="hlt">gulls</span> at five beaches in three different counties spanning the Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Michigan. The percentages of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> positive for Bacteroidales were 4 to 8% at beaches in the southern part of the state and 8 to 50% at beaches in the north. Sequencing of 931 clones from seven <span class="hlt">gull</span> Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed a large amount of diversity in both individual and pooled <span class="hlt">gull</span> fecal samples. Two libraries constructed from pooled <span class="hlt">gull</span> fecal samples (n = 5 and n = 6) did not have a greater richness of sequences than individual samples, suggesting that even within a single <span class="hlt">gull</span> diversity is high and an extensive sequencing effort is needed to characterize the populations. Estimates of the numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the libraries obtained using different similarity levels revealed a large amount of microdiveristy with a limited number of OTUs at the 95% similarity level. <span class="hlt">Gull</span> sequences were clustered by the beach from which they were collected, suggesting that there were geographic effects on the distribution of Bacteriodales. More than 53% of the 16S rRNA gene sequences from <span class="hlt">gulls</span> at the southern beaches were associated with the family Porphyromonadaceae, primarily the genus Parabacteroides, whereas sequences from <span class="hlt">gulls</span> at the northern beaches were comprised of Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae sequences. Comparison of <span class="hlt">gull</span> sequences with sequences from goose, canine, raccoon, and sewage sources revealed distinct clusters of closely related <span class="hlt">gull</span> sequences; however, these sequences were widely dispersed across a dendrogram that included all other sources, including previously characterized <span class="hlt">gull</span> Bacteroidales from other studies, suggesting that geographic influence or simply sample representation plays a greater role in the observed population structure than strictly the host gut environment. PMID:19151182</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeter, Sonja N; McDermott, Colleen M; Bower, Patricia A; Kinzelman, Julie L; Bootsma, Melinda J; Goetz, Giles W; McLellan, Sandra L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2655448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bacteroidales Diversity in Ring-Billed <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Laurus delawarensis) Residing at Lake Michigan Beaches?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the occurrence and diversity of Bacteroidales fecal bacteria in <span class="hlt">gulls</span> residing in the Great Lakes region. Members of this bacterial order have been widely employed as human and bovine host-specific markers of fecal pollution; however, few studies have focused on <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, which can be a major source of fecal indicator bacteria and pathogens at beaches. We found a low but consistent occurrence of Bacteroidales in <span class="hlt">gulls</span> at five beaches in three different counties spanning the Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Michigan. The percentages of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> positive for Bacteroidales were 4 to 8% at beaches in the southern part of the state and 8 to 50% at beaches in the north. Sequencing of 931 clones from seven <span class="hlt">gull</span> Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed a large amount of diversity in both individual and pooled <span class="hlt">gull</span> fecal samples. Two libraries constructed from pooled <span class="hlt">gull</span> fecal samples (n = 5 and n = 6) did not have a greater richness of sequences than individual samples, suggesting that even within a single <span class="hlt">gull</span> diversity is high and an extensive sequencing effort is needed to characterize the populations. Estimates of the numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the libraries obtained using different similarity levels revealed a large amount of microdiveristy with a limited number of OTUs at the 95% similarity level. <span class="hlt">Gull</span> sequences were clustered by the beach from which they were collected, suggesting that there were geographic effects on the distribution of Bacteriodales. More than 53% of the 16S rRNA gene sequences from <span class="hlt">gulls</span> at the southern beaches were associated with the family Porphyromonadaceae, primarily the genus Parabacteroides, whereas sequences from <span class="hlt">gulls</span> at the northern beaches were comprised of Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae sequences. Comparison of <span class="hlt">gull</span> sequences with sequences from goose, canine, raccoon, and sewage sources revealed distinct clusters of closely related <span class="hlt">gull</span> sequences; however, these sequences were widely dispersed across a dendrogram that included all other sources, including previously characterized <span class="hlt">gull</span> Bacteroidales from other studies, suggesting that geographic influence or simply sample representation plays a greater role in the observed population structure than strictly the host gut environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jeter, Sonja N.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Bower, Patricia A.; Kinzelman, Julie L.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Goetz, Giles W.; McLellan, Sandra L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22889009"> <span id="translatedtitle">Newly discovered methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes have been contaminants in the Great Lakes herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs for thirty years.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We recently reported the discovery and identification of novel methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes (MeO-PBDPBs) in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. We presently investigated the temporal changes (1982-2010) in MeO-PBDPB concentrations and congener patterns, as well as chemical tracers of diet (ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes), in egg pool homogenates from five selected colony sites across the Great Lakes. Egg pool homogenates from the Channel-Shelter (C-S) <span class="hlt">Island</span> (Lake Huron) contained ?MeO-PBDPB concentrations orders of magnitude greater than those from other colonies, suggesting potential point contamination sources nearby. In the C-S <span class="hlt">Island</span> egg pools, concentrations increased from the initial study year (31 ng/g wet weight) and peaked around the late 1990s, followed by a general decline until 2010. Over the period, concentrations generally increased in eggs from Fighting <span class="hlt">Island</span> (Lake Erie), Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario) and Big Sister <span class="hlt">Island</span> (Lake Michigan) colonies, whereas the levels in Agawa Rock (Lake Superior) declined. Although other factors likely exist, changes over time in the carbon and nitrogen isotope tracers reflected a shift of the <span class="hlt">gull</span> diet from aquatic to more terrestrial origins, and suggested this diet shift partially accounted for the temporal changes of ?MeO-PBDPB levels in eggs from most colonies. The ratio of Br(6)- to Br(5)-MeO-PBDPB congeners generally decreased over time in the colonies at Channel-Shelter <span class="hlt">Island</span>, Fighting <span class="hlt">Island</span> and Agawa Rock. This suggested that Br(5)- versus Br(6)-MeO-PBDPB congeners and/or possibly their nonmethoxylated and higher brominated precursors may have been more abundant in diets of terrestrial origin. Notably, these MeO-PBDPB congeners are not "emerging" brominated substances, but rather "recently discovered" contaminants since, as of 2011, ?MeO-PBDPB concentrations have been constantly in the range of 30-100 ng/g ww for at least the last 30 years. PMID:22889009</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Chu, Shaogang; McCrindle, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22774840"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> as an antiparasite defence in minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to trematode cercariae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. Individuals that live in groups benefit from increased foraging success and decreased predation. Protection from some types of parasites may provide an additional benefit of group-living. For fish, the extent to which <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> can reduce an individual's risk of exposure to the infective stages of parasites is unknown. 2. We tested for antiparasite benefits of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> in fathead minnows exposed to larvae (cercariae) of two of their most common species of trematode, Ornithodiplostomum ptychocheilus and Posthodiplostomum minimum. As developing stages (metacercariae) of these trematodes cause reductions in minnow activity, growth and survival, natural selection should favour the evolution of cercariae-avoidance behaviours. 3. We evaluated <span class="hlt">shoal</span> dimensions in groups of minnows exposed to O. ptychocheilus and to other chemical/physical stimuli within aquaria. To compare risk of exposure in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> vs. non-<span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish, we confined groups of minnows into mesh cages in outdoor mesocosms, exposed them to cercariae, then compared mean worm numbers in grouped vs. solitary fish. Lastly, we tested whether fish located within the centre of an artificial <span class="hlt">shoal</span> reduced their risk of cercariae exposure compared with those along peripheral edges. 4. Minnows distinguished infective cercariae from other potential aquatic threats and responded with activity that reduced the 2-dimensional area of their <span class="hlt">shoals</span> 15-fold compared with water-only controls. Fish confined within artificial <span class="hlt">shoals</span> had 3-fold fewer worms than single fish and minnows located within the centre of artificial <span class="hlt">shoals</span> had significantly fewer worms than those without peripheral minnows. 5. These results show that <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> reduces a minnows' risk of exposure to cercariae, either directly via detection of cercariae in the water column followed by behavioural avoidance or indirectly via behaviour-mediated differences in exposure between <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> vs. non-<span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish. PMID:22774840</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stumbo, Anthony D; James, Clayton T; Goater, Cameron P; Wisenden, Brian D; Cotter, Sheena</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5018899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anatomy of the grainstone <span class="hlt">shoal</span> facies of the Salem Limestone (Mississippian) of southern Indiana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1990 M.A. Brown described the middle Mississippian (Valmeyeran) Salem Limestone exposed on the eastern side of the Illinois Basin as consisting of a massive grainstone <span class="hlt">shoal</span> facies behind which developed a sand flat, an open lagoon, and a restricted lagoon facies. Smaller intrashoal channels provided limited exchange between lagoon and open ocean. The authors have made detailed studies of sedimentary structures and petrography of the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> facies in three settings: the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> proper, an intrashoal channel, and an intershoal channel. The <span class="hlt">shoal</span> and channel facies consists of tabular-planar and trough cross-stratified beds of grainstone containing echinoderm and fenestrate bryozoan grains as their primary constituents. Prominent hardgrounds that have up to 1 m of erosional relief occur in two of the sections. Despite the apparent uniformity of composition of the <span class="hlt">shoal</span>, porosity and especially permeability varies over a wide range, suggesting a range of cementation patterns within the <span class="hlt">shoal</span>. Most of the cement in the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> consists of syntaxial overgrowths on echinoderm grains. Cementation is less and thus porosity and permeability greater, in portions of the <span class="hlt">shoals</span> containing a lower concentration of echinoderm grains and grains with thick micrite envelopes. However, some portions of the intershoal channel facies that contain a high percentage of ooids have reduced porosity and permeability due to crushing of ooids, producing micrite that clogged the pores. Primary sedimentary features of the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> facies were produced predominantly by storm reworking of carbonate grains produced in situ and perhaps in part washed in from surrounding environments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dodd, J.R.; Petzold, D.D. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)); Thompson, T.A. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/635577"> <span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral thermoregulation: orientation toward the sun in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Orientation toward the sun combined with postural changes minimized the net radiation gain on the adult herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> during the breeding season. The decrease in absorbed solar radiation was due to reduced surface area exposed to direct sunlight and to reduced absorptivity since, when the bird orients toward the sun, the angle of incidence is such that only the white surfaces receive direct sunlight. At low wind velocities (0 to 0.6 meter per second) and ambient temperatures above the lower critical temperature, the birds rotated 180 degrees during the day, always facing the sun. PMID:635577</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Luskick, S; Battersby, B; Kelty, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3305870"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gull</span>-wing haptic design for posterior chamber intraocular lens.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current trend toward implantation of posterior chamber lenses within the capsular bag rather than the ciliary sulcus seems logical in light of the increasing evidence of uveal damage from sulcus fixated posterior chamber lenses. However, long-term, successful capsular bag fixation has not been demonstrated with current popular looped lenses of either flat or angulated styles. This report evaluated a new <span class="hlt">gull</span>-wing loop design that seems to have advantages of both planar and angulated loop styles for support of posterior chamber lenses. PMID:3305870</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masket, S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6851127"> <span id="translatedtitle">Upward-<span class="hlt">shoaling</span> cycles in Smackover carbonates of southwest Alabama</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Upper Smackover strata in Alabama commonly consist of one or more upward-<span class="hlt">shoaling</span> cycles about 15 to 50 ft (3 to 16 m) in thickness. Multiple forcing functions (eustasy, regional tilting, salt halokinesis, and autogenic migration of facies) and varying water depths at the start and end of each upward-<span class="hlt">shoaling</span> cycle generated an array of sedimentary responses. The Brittain No. 1 well, Permit No. 2478, Healing Springs field, Washington County, Alabama, illustrates nucleation of an offshore bar. Bar deposits are capped by anhydritic sabkha deposits, gradationally overlain by subtidal lagoonal strata. Varying rates (and directions ) of halokinesis controlled this succession. Locally varying rates of salt movement created as many as five sabkha-capped cycles in this area. The International Paper company 20-5 Mo. 1 well, Permit No. 5242, Blacksher field, Baldwin County, Alabama, contains three upward-<span class="hlt">shoaling</span> cycles capped by evaporites. Limited aggradational potential of supratidal evaporitic settings permitted subsidence-caused immersion, which eventually permitted reactivation of the carbonate factory and formation of the next cycle. The Chatom Unit 20-14 No. 1-04 well, Permit No. 7044, Chatom field, Washington County, contains three different cycles. The lower cycle consists of subtidal lime mudstone, capped by a 5-ft (1.5-m) thick soil zone that contains multiple exposure surfaces, tepee structures, and anhydrite pseudomorphs after lenticular gypsum crystals. The soil zone underlies an intraclastic storm deposit followed by a deepening-upward lagoonal succession. A thin ooid grainstone containing exposure surfaces caps the middle cycle. In the upper cycle, peritidal carbonate strata underlie sabkha deposits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Mann, S.D. (Geological Survey of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5087187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holocene sand <span class="hlt">shoals</span> offshore of Mississippi River delta plain, Louisiana</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Offshore of the Mississippi River delta plain lies a series of Holocene sand <span class="hlt">shoals</span> marking the position of ancient submerged shorelines. These ancient shorelines represent stillstand positions during which the Holocene transgression drove sea level across the former lowstand subaerial erosion surface of the Mississippi River delta plain. Short periods of rapid sea level rise led to the transgressive submergence of these sandy shorelines. Two shoreline trends can be recognized at the {minus}10-m and {minus}20-m isobaths on the continental shelf.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penland, S.; McBride, R.A. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Suter, J.R. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (USA)); Williams, S.J. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); Kindinger, J.L. (Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (USA)); Boyd, R. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998HMR....52..147L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Macrofauna on flood delta <span class="hlt">shoals</span> in the Wadden Sea with an underground association between the lugworm Arenicola marina and the amphipod Urothoe poseidonis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Living conditions for macrofauna on flood delta <span class="hlt">shoals</span> are determined by surf, strong currents and sediment mobility. Thus, a unique assemblage of invertebrate species colonize these far off-shore, low intertidal flats. We here describe the macrobenthic fauna of emerging <span class="hlt">shoals</span> in the Wadden Sea between the <span class="hlt">islands</span> of Römö and Sylt. Besides ubiquitous macroinvertebrates of the intertidal zone and species which attain their main distribution in the subtidal zone, the flood delta <span class="hlt">shoals</span> are characterized by organisms adapted to live in these highly unstable sediments, like the polychaetes Spio martinensis, Streptosyllis websteri, Magelona mirabilis, Psammodrilus balanoglossoides, the pericarid crustaceans Cumopsis goodsiri, Tanaissus lilljeborgi, Bathyporeia sarsi and a few others. Average abundance (1440 m-2 of ind >1 mm) and biomass (12.9 g AFDW m-2) were low compared to other intertidal habitats in the Wadden Sea. Biomass was dominated by largesized individuals of the lugworm Arenicola marina. The U-shaped burrows of these polychaetes were inhabited by high numbers of Urothoe poseidonis. Maximum densities of these amphipods occurred in the deepest parts of the burrows. Sampling at approximately montly intervals revealed no apparent seasonality of U. poseidonis abundance. Together with small Capitella capitata, these amphipods constitute a deep-dwelling component of the macrofauna associated with lugworms, which is separated from all other macrofauna living at the sediment surface. As a response to rising sea level and increasing tidal ranges, we expect the unstable sandy <span class="hlt">shoals</span>, inhabited by numerous Spio martinensis and Urothoe poseidonis, to expand within the Wadden Sea at the cost of stable sandy flats with abundant macrofauna.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lackschewitz, D.; Reise, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56480994"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Framework and Morphology of Diamond <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Cape Hatteras, North Carolina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Carolina Capes (Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain) along the eastern coast of the U.S. are dynamic regions that exert strong influences on large scale coastal evolution, sediment transport, and circulation. Projecting offshore of each Carolina Cape is an active depositional sedimentary feature referred to as a `cape-associated <span class="hlt">shoal</span>'. These <span class="hlt">shoals</span> have lobate ridges and swales, and typically extend from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. R. Thieler; D. S. Foster; E. A. Himmelstoss</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://lalandlab.st-andrews.ac.uk/pdf/webster_AB_2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diet-specific chemical cues influence association preferences and prey patch use in a <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In many social species individuals have to make adaptive decisions about with whom to group. Self-referent matching of chemical social information specific to patterns of diet and habitat use is an im- portant factor underlying social organization in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fishes. In a series of three experiments, we gave female Whitecloud mountain minnows, Tanichthys albonubes, a binary choice between <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. M. Webster; E. L. Adams; K. N. Laland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60723527"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Harbor\\/Compton Creek Project Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Harbor\\/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> harbor\\/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. W. Gardiner; A. B. Borde; S. L. Nieukirk; E. S. Barrows; B. D. Gruendell; J. Q. Word</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39657083"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> behaviour in a surface-dwelling and a cave-dwelling population of a barb Garra barreimiae (Cyprinidae, Teleostei)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behaviour in a species of fish ( Garra barreimiae) from Oman. We compared two populations (a surface-dwelling and a cave-dwelling population) with different theoretical costs and benefits of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span>. We measured the tendency to associate with a <span class="hlt">shoal</span> of conspecifics. The stimulus <span class="hlt">shoal</span> was confined to (1) clear Plexiglas cylinders in light, (2) wire-mesh cylinders in light,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mirna Timmermann; Ingo Schlupp; Martin Plath</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20424818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury concentration in 3 species of <span class="hlt">Gulls</span>, Larus ridibundus, Larus minutus, Larus canus, from south coast of the Caspian Sea, Iran.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, the mercury concentrations of liver, breast feathers and tail feathers in three species of <span class="hlt">Gull</span>; Black-headed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus ridibundus), Common <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus canus) and Little <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus minutus) from the South coast of the Caspian Sea in Iran were assayed. Mercury accumulation in liver, breast feathers and tail feathers of species were 1.69-3.16, 2.88-7.18 and 2.09-5.66 mg/kg, respectively. Mercury concentration hierarchy in tissues we tested was as follows: breast feather > tail feather > and liver. We found that despite its small size, Little <span class="hlt">Gull</span> had highest (3.85-8.05 mg/kg) and Common <span class="hlt">Gull</span> lowest (1.69-2.88 mg/kg) level of Hg in their bodies. An inverse relationship between body size and Hg levels in these <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> was detected. Mercury in Little <span class="hlt">Gull</span> and Black-headed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> exceeded the 5 ppm threshold for adverse effect. PMID:20424818</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rajaei, Fateme; Esmaili Sari, Abbas; Bahramifar, Nader; Ghasempouri, Seyed Mahmoud; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59230931"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estuarine Dynamics as a Function of Barrier <span class="hlt">Island</span> Transgression and Wetland Loss: Understanding the Transport and Exchange Processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Northern Gulf of Mexico and coastal Louisiana are experiencing accelerated relative sea level rise rates; therefore, the region is ideal for modeling the global affects of sea level rise (SLR) on estuarine dynamics in a transgressive barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> setting. The field methods and numerical modeling in this study show that as barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> are converted to inner <span class="hlt">shoals</span>, tidal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer Schindler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v115n04/p0970-p0978.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling colony site dynamics: a case study of <span class="hlt">gull</span>-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We developed a Markov process model for colony site dynamics of <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia. We used the model and data on colony site occupation from 1993 to 1996 to estimate model parameters. Each year, we monitored the breeding numbers of <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) at colony sites along about 80 km of the barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> region of Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony sites over the four-year period. We then used data on annual site occupation by <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and test between different structures reflecting competing hypotheses. Results revealed a dynamic system, but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian , i.e. the probability of occupancy of a site in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied the previous year. Nor did the colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of site occupancy. Site survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the overall annual probability of a site being occupied over the course of the four-year period was estimated to be 0.59 Of the total of 25 sites that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in only one or two years while only three were used all four years.. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of sites. The low colony-site fidelity we demonstrate suggests that an effective management approach is to provide a large number of alternative sand and/or shellpile sites that the terns may use. Sites not used one year may still be used in subsequent years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19708391"> <span id="translatedtitle">High levels of contaminants in ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> Pagophila eburnea eggs from the Russian and Norwegian Arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We found high levels of contaminants, in particular organochlorines, in eggs of the ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> Pagophila eburnea, a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminants. An 80% decline in the ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> breeding population in the Canadian Arctic the last two decades has been documented. Because of the dependence of the ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> on sea ice and its high trophic position, suggested environmental threats are climate change and contaminants. The present study investigated contaminant levels (organochlorines, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated alkyl substances, and mercury) in ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs from four colonies in the Norwegian (Svalbard) and Russian Arctic (Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya). The contaminant levels presented here are among the highest reported in Arctic seabird species, and we identify this as an important stressor in a species already at risk due to environmental change. PMID:19708391</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miljeteig, Cecilie; Strøm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Volkov, Andrey; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Geir W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v067n03/p0155-p0170.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">AUDITORY AND VISUAL MECHANISMS IN FOOD-FINDING BEHAVIOR OF THE HERRING <span class="hlt">GULL</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">HERE are many places along the sea-coast where <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus sp.) regularly gather to feed: refuse dumps, fish-processing factories, docks where fish are loaded and unloaded. Dumps are almost always littered with edible materials, and <span class="hlt">gulls</span> stay on them all day. They obviously learn to recognize trucks bringing food and flock in whenever one of these appears. Fish-processing factories and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">HUBERT FRINGS; MABLE FRINGS; BEVERLEY COX; LORRAINE PEISSNER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/23pdfs/Shing-Hainan.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wetland birds of Hainan <span class="hlt">Island</span>, China: results from winter waterbird surveys 2003-2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four simultaneous winter waterbird surveys were conducted <span class="hlt">island</span>-wide on Hainan <span class="hlt">island</span>, China, between 2003 and 2007, during which a total of 83 species of wetland-associated birds were recorded at 57 coastal and freshwater wetlands. The most abundant species were egrets and herons, followed by shorebirds, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and terns, and ducks. A new wintering site for the globally Endangered Black-faced Spoonbill</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">LEE KWOK SHING; BOSCO PUI LOK</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00027092"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gull</span> contributions of phosphorus and nitrogen to a Cape Cod kettle pond</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nutrient excretion rates and the annual contribution of P from the feces of the <span class="hlt">gulls</span> Larus argentatus and L. marinus (and of N from L. argentatus) to the nutrient budget of <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Pond (Wellfleet), a soft water seepage lake, have been estimated. Intensive year-round <span class="hlt">gull</span> counts by species were combined with determinations of defecation rate and the nutrient content of feces to quantitatively assess the P loading rates associated with regular <span class="hlt">gull</span> use of this coastal pond on a seasonal and annual basis. Total P loading from <span class="hlt">gulls</span> was estimated to be 52 kg yr?1, with 17 kg from L. argentatus and 35 kg from L. marinus, resulting from about 5.0 ? 106 h yr?1 and 1.7 ? 106 h yr?1 of pond use. This compares with P loading estimates of 67 kg yr?1 from upgradient septic systems, 2 kg yr?1 from precipitation and 3 kg yr?1 from unpolluted ground water. Fifty-six percent of annual <span class="hlt">gull</span> P loading was associated with migratory activity in late fall. Estimated annual N loading by L. argentatus was 14 kg TKN, 206 g NO3-N, and 1.85 g g NH3-N.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Portnoy, J. W.; Soukup, M. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.jstor.org/stable/1521644"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diets of nestling <span class="hlt">gull</span>-billed terns in coastal Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the diets of nestling <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) at colonies in coastal Virginia during the breeding seasons of 1995 and 1996 as part of a long-term study of the species. No previous quantitative assessments had been made of diets of this species anywhere along the Atlantic Coast, and only a few observations had been reported from other coastal areas in the southern United States. During 80 h of observations over the two seasons, 757 feeding observations were made, primarily at two colony sites. We examined how prey type (fish, marine invertebrates, terrestrial prey) and size were influenced by year, tide cycle, season (early and late) and age of the young (small chicks 7 d). We did not find significant year differences, but all other factors revealed statistically significant results. Older (>7 d) chicks were fed relatively more terrestrial and marine invertebrate prey than were younger chicks. In June (early season), fewer fish and terrestrial prey were fed to chicks than later (July-August). Most prey were less than one bill length in size, with the majority of the smallest prey being marine invertebrates. Tide cycle influenced prey delivered with terrestrial prey becoming relatively more important during high and ebb periods than during low and flood tides when aquatic prey dominated. The major marine invertebrate prey taken was the fiddler crab (Uca spp.). Terrestrial prey consisted mostly of large odonates and orthopterans. Unlike earlier reports from Europe, we found no regurgitated food pellets in any of the colonies in either year. This study confirms that the <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Tern is an extremely opportunistic feeder and has adapted to a variety of habitats, helping to explain its cosmopolitan distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erwin, R.M.; Eyler, T.B.; Hatfield, J.S.; McGary, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020378"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diets of nestling <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns in coastal Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the diets of nestling <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) at colonies in coastal Virginia during the breeding seasons of 1995 and 1996 as part of a long-term study of the species. No previous quantitative assessments had been made of diets of this species anywhere along the Atlantic Coast, and only a few observations had been reported from other coastal areas in the southern United States. During 80 h of observations over the two seasons, 757 feeding observations were made, primarily at two colony sites. We examined how prey type (fish, marine invertebrates, terrestrial prey) and size were influenced by year, tide cycle, season (early and late) and age of the young (small chicks 7 d). We did not find significant year differences, but all other factors revealed statistically significant results. Older (>7 d) chicks were fed relatively more terrestrial and marine invertebrate prey than were younger chicks. In June (early season), fewer fish and terrestrial prey were fed to chicks than later (July-August). Most prey were less than one bill length in size, with the majority of the smallest prey being marine invertebrates. Tide cycle influenced prey delivered with terrestrial prey becoming relatively more important during high and ebb periods than during low and flood tides when aquatic prey dominated. The major marine invertebrate prey taken was the fiddler crab (Uca spp.). Terrestrial prey consisted mostly of large odonates and orthopterans. Unlike earlier reports from Europe, we found no regurgitated food pellets in any of the colonies in either year. This study confirms that the <span class="hlt">Gull</span>-billed Tern is an extremely opportunistic feeder and has adapted to a variety of habitats, helping to explain its cosmopolitan distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erwin, R. M.; Eyler, T. B.; Hatfield, J. S.; McGary, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3170669"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maturation of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior is accompanied by changes in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in zebrafish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The zebrafish has been one of the preferred vertebrate model organisms of developmental biology, and is becoming an important research tool for behavioral neuroscience and behavior genetics. A prominent feature of zebrafish is their strong <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> tendency. Most recently, the first paper investigating the development of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> in zebrafish demonstrated that a few days after hatching zebrafish do not <span class="hlt">shoal</span>, but that <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> tendency gradually increases during development. The current paper investigates this phenomenon using the nearest neighbor distance, a measure most frequently employed for the quantification of <span class="hlt">shoal</span> cohesion in fish. We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">shoal</span> cohesion increases with age, while thigmotaxis, “wall hugging”, does not show a consistent age-dependent change. The mechanisms underlying the maturation of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> are unknown. HPLC analysis of whole brain extracts finds the concentration of dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin, and 5-HIAA normalized to total brain protein weight to increase with age. Although the behavioral and neurochemical results are only correlative at this point, they may open a new avenue into the investigation of the mechanisms and development of social behavior in zebrafish.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21656763"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maturation of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior is accompanied by changes in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems in zebrafish.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The zebrafish has been one of the preferred vertebrate model organisms of developmental biology, and is becoming an important research tool for behavioral neuroscience and behavior genetics. A prominent feature of zebrafish is their strong <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> tendency. Most recently, the first study investigating the development of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> in zebrafish demonstrated that a few days after hatching zebrafish do not <span class="hlt">shoal</span>, but that <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> tendency gradually increases during development. The current study investigates this phenomenon using the nearest neighbor distance, a measure most frequently employed for the quantification of <span class="hlt">shoal</span> cohesion in fish. We demonstrate that <span class="hlt">shoal</span> cohesion increases with age, while thigmotaxis, "wall hugging," does not show a consistent age-dependent change. The mechanisms underlying the maturation of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> are unknown. HPLC analysis of whole brain extracts finds the concentration of dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin, and 5-HIAA normalized to total brain protein weight to increase with age. Although the behavioral and neurochemical results are only correlative at this point, they may open a new avenue into the investigation of the mechanisms and development of social behavior in zebrafish. PMID:21656763</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buske, Christine; Gerlai, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS52F..07W"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Decade of Research at the Cape Lookout Cuspate Foreland: New Insights Into Longshore Transport, <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Evolution, Spit Growth and the Regional Sediment Budget</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Cape Lookout cuspate foreland is one of the most prominent features on the North Carolina coast. Composed of two barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> limbs joined at right angles, a 16-km long <span class="hlt">shoal</span> complex and a spit that progrades an average of 37 m/yr, the cuspate foreland sequesters an enormous amount of sediment derived from adjacent barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> and possibly from the shelf. A program of research was initiated in the Cape Lookout region in the early 1990s to provide insight into the processes of headland-generated eddies and cross-shore transport on the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> and, in the late 1990s, to examine wave-driven littoral processes and their role in spit growth and the regional sediment budget. Cape Lookout provides an excellent field laboratory because, as a National Seashore, it is largely unaltered by human impacts. Aerial photographs were used to depict the history of change over the past 60 years. Bathymetric surveys, instrument deployments, sediment sampling, and numerical modeling were undertaken at time scales sufficient to capture process-response relationships ranging from tidal to annual, and at spatial scales sufficient to gain a fundamental understanding of how the various environments of the cuspate foreland are linked as a sedimentary system. Results indicate that the <span class="hlt">shoal</span>, which contains approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of sediment, gains an additional 510-590,000 cubic meters of sand supplied from the littoral system of Core Banks each year, and provides significant protection to downdrift regions of the Cape Lookout littoral cell by interfering with shoreward propagation of waves. Measurements show that near-bottom oscillatory and mean currents, observed under a wide range of environmental conditions, result in gross sediment transport that is greatest in the across-<span class="hlt">shoal</span> direction, and net sediment transport that is greatest in the along-<span class="hlt">shoal</span>, seaward direction. Wind events, either from the SW or NE, enhance the seaward flow down the axis, increasing the magnitude of mean flow by 2-3 times. REF/DIF model output indicates that, under certain conditions, sediment can be transported north and released from the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> to the west side of the system, thereby supplying the downdrift spit which accumulates approximately 200,000 cubic meters of sediment per year. Modeling also suggests that Cape Lookout point can be a sensitive morphologic indicator of longshore transport direction, extending and contracting in relation to wind events. The long-held, but largely unsubstantiated, assumption that littoral cells necessarily converge at the apex of a cuspate foreland clearly does not apply at Cape Lookout. Sediment that escapes the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> and supplies the spit provides a textbook example of how spits prograde and widen through swash bar attachment, leaving a well-defined record of dune ridges that mark former shoreline positions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wells, J. T.; McNinch, J. E.; Park, J. Y.; Borrelli, M.; Freeman, C. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/field/activities/45569.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Outcrop Mapping at Woodall <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, South Carolina-Georgia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mapping of complexly deformed high-grade metamorphic rocks in areas of relatively poor exposure, such as the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge, is very challenging. A traditional mapping project in such areas may be too difficult and frustrating for most undergraduate students and may be ineffective. Mapping parts of the outcrop at Woodall <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, with the benefits of 100% exposure and a relatively small area, provides a good alternative. This very large (2,000-square-meter) outcrop contains a full compliment of rock fabric and complex geologic structures typical of such areas. For purposes of the present exercise, it serves as a generic scale model of an exhumed high-grade terrain. The detailed map of the outcrop by Hatcher et. al. (1989, Georgia Geological Society Guidebook, v. 9, n. 3, Plate 3) is used as a solution to the exercise.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mies, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/304057"> <span id="translatedtitle">Closure report for CAU No. 416: Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area (PSA) Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416. CAU 416 consists of a mud pit, muckpile, and housekeeping site. The PSA is located approximately 48.3 kilometers (30 miles) southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The mud pit was the result of drilling activities at the PSA in 1963. Investigation activities completed in 1996 determined drilling mud in the mud pit was impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons in excess of the State of Nevada 100 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg). The muckpile consists of broken granite from emplacement shaft and drift (tunnel) mining activities at the PSA in 1963. The housekeeping site consisted of approximately 20 used, empty, rusted, steel 0.9 liter (1 quart) oil cans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39657144"> <span id="translatedtitle">A theoretical model of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior based on a consideration of patterns of overlap among the visual fields of individual members</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a hypothetical visual field overlap (VFO) model for <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior. While solitary individuals have the disadvantage\\u000a of a substantial blind zone to their rear, the overlapping visual fields among <span class="hlt">shoal</span> members allows the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> to collectively\\u000a view nearly 360°. A highly polarized <span class="hlt">shoal</span> (i.e., a school) would be less advantageous than randomly oriented <span class="hlt">shoals</span> because\\u000a a substantial area</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodney A. Rountree; George R. Sedberry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18828562"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Escherichia coli populations from <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, landfill trash, and wastewater using ribotyping.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to their opportunistic and gregarious nature, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> may be important reservoirs and vectors for anthropogenically derived fecal pathogens in coastal areas. We used ribotyping, a genotypic bacterial source tracking method, to compare populations of Escherichia coli among herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> Larus argentatus, great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> L. marinus, wastewater, and landfill trash in New Hampshire and Maine, USA. Concentrations of E. coli in <span class="hlt">gull</span> feces varied widely among individuals, but were generally high (6.0 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(9) g(-1) wet weight). Of 39 E. coli isolates from L. argentatus, 67% had banding patterns that were > or = 90% similar to those from wastewater and trash, whereas only 39% of 36 L. marinus isolates exhibited > or = 90% similarity to these sources. Strains of E. coli from <span class="hlt">gulls</span> matched (> or = 90% similarity) more strains from wastewater (39% matching) than from trash (15% matching). E. coli isolates from L. marinus feces exhibited a greater diversity of banding patterns than did isolates from L. argentatus. There were more unique E. coli banding patterns in trash samples than in wastewater, and higher diversity indices in the former compared to the latter. These findings suggest that both species of <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, especially L. argentatus, obtain fecal bacteria from wastewater and landfill trash, which they may transport to recreational beaches and waters. Our results also indicate that E. coli populations may vary widely between <span class="hlt">gull</span> species, and between the anthropogenic habitats that they frequent, i.e. landfills and wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:18828562</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nelson, M; Jones, S H; Edwards, C; Ellis, J C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8722255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fluoride exposure and selected characteristics of eggs and bones of the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) and the common <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus canus).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluorine concentrations were determined in the shell of 285 herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs (Larus argentatus) and 120 common <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs (Larus canus), collected May 1991 to 1993, from breeding colonies exposed to emissions from two Norwegian primary aluminum smelters located at Karmøy and Sunndal, and from unexposed reference localities in Eigersund, Sola, and Stavanger. Volume-index, shell thickness, thickness-index, and fertilization of the eggs also were monitored. In both species, the shell fluorine concentration was significantly increased in eggs collected at sites exposed to fluoride emissions. No effects on other egg characteristics were observed. In both exposed and unexposed sites, the last-laid egg in a clutch, normally containing three eggs, had the highest shell fluorine residue. Fluorine levels also were analyzed in femurs from 42 herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, collected from Karmøy and Sola in May 1993. The relationship between sex and fluoride accumulation, and the relations between fluorine concentration in femurs of laying herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and in the shell of their eggs, were evaluated. Bone morphology also was studied. Bone fluorine concentrations were raised significantly in emission-exposed female birds. Moreover, females from the exposed site had significantly higher fluorine residues than males. There was a positive correlation between fluorine levels in femurs of individual laying birds and those in the shells of their eggs. No changes in bone morphology due to fluoride exposure was found. PMID:8722255</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vikøren, T; Stuve, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23060519"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Kelp <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus dominicanus) and Franklin's <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Leucophaeus pipixcan) as carriers of Salmonella by real-time polymerase chain reaction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that two <span class="hlt">gull</span> species in Talcahuano, Chile, shed Salmonella. Fecal samples from resident Larus dominicanus had prevalences of 51.2% for Salmonella spp. and 26.3% for Salmonella Enteritidis. Prevalences in samples from migratory Leucophaeus pipixcan were 75% and 30% respectively. Risks to public health may exist. PMID:23060519</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rodríguez, Francisco; Moreno, Jessica; Ortega, René; Mathieu, Christian; García, Apolinaria; Cerda-Leal, Fabiola; González-Acuña, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=TMR1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of Calculated and Measured Close-in Ground Motions for Hardhat, <span class="hlt">Shoal</span>, and Piledriver.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The underground nuclear detonations Hardhat, <span class="hlt">Shoal</span>, and Piledriver were located in granite, a medium for which there are available a number of Hugoniot measurements. The Hugoniot measurements have been converted to a Hugoniot equation of state and this eq...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. R. Cassity</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5336752"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical processes influencing temperature and salinity on the North Carolina Cape <span class="hlt">Shoals</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cross-spectral analysis and a heat budget are used to relate atmospheric and river runoff data with seven years of daily surface temperature and salinity on the North Carolina continental shelf. Salinity on Diamond <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> is highly correlated with alongshore wind stress implying wind driven advection of the front between Virginia Coastal Water and Carolina Coastal Water. In the presence of strong horizontal and vertical temperature gradients, temperature at Diamond <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> quickly responds to cross-shelf winds. At Frying Pan <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, the plume of the Cape Fear River is detected when winds blow seaward. Atmospheric fluxes primarily control the cycle of heating and cooling at Frying Pan <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, but advection of heat buffers the water temperature in the winter and summer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCann, M.P.; Pietrafesa, L.J.; Janowitz, G.S.; Curtin, T.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA268341"> <span id="translatedtitle">Archeological Record at Bull <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Lake and Norfork Lake Arkansas and Missouri.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was undertaken for the general purpose of gathering sufficient information on cultural resources and their predicted distribution at Bull <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Lake and Norfork Lake, Arkansas and Missouri, and to assist in the preparation of Historic Preserva...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. J. Bennett J. D. Northrip J. Dunbar F. Coulters J. Blakely</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19376208"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent social environment affects colour-assortative <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> in juvenile angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Theory predicts that fish should show colour-assortative <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> in order to avoid the oddity effect whereby individuals that differ in some feature from the group majority appear to incur increased risk of predation. It has also been shown that early experience plays an important role in affecting social preferences in some fish species. In this study, the importance of colour phenotype in promoting assortative <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> and the role played by the recent social environment on its expression were investigated in juvenile angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare. Individuals of the uniformly black and golden colour morphs were housed in a group with conspecifics of like and unlike body colour to themselves, as well as in mixed-colour groups for 4 weeks. Subsequently, they were subjected to a binary choice to <span class="hlt">shoal</span> with a group of conspecifics composed of unfamiliar fish of either a like or unlike colour phenotype to themselves. The response of the individuals to the colour attributes of the <span class="hlt">shoals</span> was related to their recent social environment. Fish in like- and mixed-colour previous treatments showed a preferential association with like colour conspecifics. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behaviour exhibited by fish previously maintained with a group of unlike-coloured conspecifics (cross-housed treatment) indicated no significant preference for any of the <span class="hlt">shoals</span>. The results suggest that angelfish use body colouration as an intraspecific <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> cue and that learning, in the form of recent familiarization with a specific colour phenotype of conspecifics, can affect colour-assortative <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> preferences in this species. This learning component of the choice need not be restricted to early developmental stages. PMID:19376208</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41183262"> <span id="translatedtitle">Initial formation and long-term evolution of channel–<span class="hlt">shoal</span> patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A complex process-based model (Delft3D) is used to simulate the formation of channels and <span class="hlt">shoals</span> in a schematised estuary. The model set-up enables a comparison with results obtained from other studies using idealised models. Initial (one tidal cycle) as well as long-term (up to 300 years) simulations are made. Dominant wavelengths of channel–<span class="hlt">shoal</span> patterns are investigated together with their dependency</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Hibma; H. M. Schuttelaars; H. J. de Vriend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3706275"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of a reassortant North American <span class="hlt">gull</span> influenza virus lineage: drift, shift and stability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background The role of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in the ecology of avian influenza (AI) is different than that of waterfowl. Different constellations of subtypes circulate within the two groups of birds and AI viruses isolated from North American <span class="hlt">gulls</span> frequently possess reassortant genomes with genetic elements from both North America and Eurasian lineages. A 2008 isolate from a Newfoundland Great Black-backed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> contained a mix of North American waterfowl, North American <span class="hlt">gull</span> and Eurasian lineage genes. Methods We isolated, sequenced and phylogenetically compared avian influenza viruses from 2009 Canadian wild birds. Results We analyzed six 2009 virus isolates from Canada and found the same phylogenetic lineage had persisted over a larger geographic area, with an expanded host range that included dabbling and diving ducks as well as <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. All of the 2009 virus isolates contained an internal protein coding set of genes of the same Eurasian lineage genes except PB1 that was from a North American lineage, and these genes continued to evolve by genetic drift. We show evidence that the 2008 Great Black-backed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> virus was derived from this lineage with a reassortment of a North American PA gene into the more stable core set of internal protein coding genes that has circulated in avian populations for at least 2 years. From this core, the surface glycoprotein genes have switched several times creating H13N6, H13N2, and H16N3 subtypes. These gene segments were from North American lineages except for the H16 and N3 vRNAs. Conclusions This process appears similar to genetic shifts seen with swine influenza where a stable “triple reassortant internal gene” core has circulated in swine populations with genetic shifts occurring with hemaggluttinin and neuraminidase proteins getting periodically switched. Thus <span class="hlt">gulls</span> may serve as genetic mixing vessels for different lineages of avian influenza, similar to the role of swine with regards to human influenza. These findings illustrate the need for continued surveillance in <span class="hlt">gull</span> and waterfowl populations, both on the Pacific and especially Atlantic coasts of North America, to document virus intercontinental movement and the role of <span class="hlt">gull</span> species in the evolution and epidemiology of AI.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3143475"> <span id="translatedtitle">Novel methods for discriminating behavioral differences between stickleback individuals and populations in a laboratory <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> assay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) from different habitats have been observed to differ in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior, both in the wild and in laboratory studies. In the present study, we surveyed the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior of sticklebacks from a variety of marine, lake, and stream habitats throughout the Pacific Northwest. We tested the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> tendencies of 113 wild-caught sticklebacks from 13 populations using a laboratory assay that was based on other published <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> assays in sticklebacks. Using traditional behavioral measures for this assay, such as time spent <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> and mean position in the tank, we were unable to find population differences in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior. However, simple plotting techniques revealed differences in spatial distributions during the assay. When we collapsed individual trials into population-level data sets and applied information theoretic measurements, we found significant behavioral differences between populations. For example, entropy estimates confirm that populations display differences in the extent of clustering at various tank positions. Using log-likelihood analysis, we show that these population-level observations reflect consistent differences in individual behavioral patterns that can be difficult to discriminate using standard measures. The analytical techniques we describe may help improve the detection of potential behavioral differences between fish groups in future studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wark, Abigail R.; Wark, Barry J.; Lageson, Tessa J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/cond.2010.100020"> <span id="translatedtitle">Does garbage in the diet improve reproductive output of Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthropogenic subsidies are used by a variety of predators in areas developed for human use or residence. If subsidies promote population growth, these predators can have a negative effect on local prey species. The Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus hyperboreus) is an abundant predator in northern Alaska that is believed to benefit from garbage as a supplemental food source, but this supposition has never been tested. In summer 2008 and 2009, we recorded the Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gull</span>'s diet and reproduction at 10 breeding colonies in northern Alaska. Colonies were in industrial, residential, and undeveloped areas and ranged from 5 to 75 km from the nearest landfill. By colony, garbage occurred in zero to 85% of pellets and food remains produced during the chick-rearing period, and the average number of chicks fledged per pair ranged from zero to 2.9. Random-forest analysis indicated that percent occurrence of garbage in the diet was the second most important factor (after number of eggs per pair) explaining variance in fledging rate. There was a significant positive correlation between percent occurrence of garbage in the diet and fledging rate in each year. If this correlation reflects a causal relationship, it suggests that human development that increases <span class="hlt">gulls</span>' access to garbage could result in increased local <span class="hlt">gull</span> populations. Such an increase could affect the <span class="hlt">gulls</span>' natural prey species, including at least 14 species of shorebirds and waterfowl of conservation concern. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiser, E. L.; Powell, A. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18939544"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chiral organochlorine contaminants in blood and eggs of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) and their eggs from Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic) have been used as biomonitors of contaminants in the marine environment. In this study, the enantiomer fractions (EFs) of chiral chlordanes and atropisomeric polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the blood plasma of adult male and female glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from three breeding colonies in Svalbard. Plasma EFs were similar in magnitude and direction to EFs previously reported in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from other arctic food webs, suggesting overall similarities in the biochemical processes influencing the EFs of bioaccumulated organochlorine (OC) contaminants within the food webs at those locations. Additionally, EFs in yolk of eggs collected concurrently from within the same nesting colonies varied with location, laying date, and OC concentrations, and may be influenced by changes in the local feeding ecology between those colonies. No differences were found between the EFs for any analyte in female <span class="hlt">gulls</span> compared to those found in egg yolk, indicating that processes involved in the maternal transfer of chlordanes and PCBs to eggs do not modulate the stereochemical ratio between enantiomers. Therefore, the use of eggs as a valuable and noninvasive means of OC biomonitoring may also extend to enantiomer compositions in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, and perhaps also in other seabird species from arctic regions. PMID:18939544</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ross, Matthew S; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Wong, Charles S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3275322"> <span id="translatedtitle">Functional Metagenomics Reveals Previously Unrecognized Diversity of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in <span class="hlt">Gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wildlife may facilitate the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR) between human-dominated habitats and the surrounding environment. Here, we use functional metagenomics to survey the diversity and genomic context of AR genes in <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. Using this approach, we found a variety of AR genes not previously detected in <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and wildlife, including class A and C ?-lactamases as well as six tetracycline resistance gene types. An analysis of the flanking sequences indicates that most of these genes are present in Enterobacteriaceae and various Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to finding known gene types, we detected 31 previously undescribed AR genes. These undescribed genes include one most similar to an uncharacterized gene in Verrucomicrobium and another to a putative DNA repair protein in Lactobacillus. Overall, the study more than doubled the number of clinically relevant AR gene types known to be carried by <span class="hlt">gulls</span> or by wildlife in general. Together with the propensity of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> to visit human-dominated habitats, this high diversity of AR gene types suggests that <span class="hlt">gulls</span> could facilitate the spread of AR.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martiny, Adam C.; Martiny, Jennifer B. H.; Weihe, Claudia; Field, Andrew; Ellis, Julie C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17699071"> <span id="translatedtitle">An outbreak of type C botulism in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) in southeastern Sweden.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From 2000 to 2004, over 10,000 seabirds, primarily Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus argentatus), died from an undetermined cause in the Blekinge archipelago in southeastern Sweden. In June 2004, 24 affected Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> were examined clinically, killed humanely, and 23 were examined by necropsy. Seven and 10 unaffected Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> collected from a local landfill site and from Iceland, respectively, served as controls. All affected birds showed similar neurologic signs, ranging from mild incoordination and weakness to severe flaccid paralysis of legs and wings, but generally were alert and responsive. All affected <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were in normal nutritional condition, but were dehydrated and had empty stomachs. No gross or microscopic lesions, and no bacterial or viral pathogens were identified. Type C botulinum toxin was detected in the sera of 11 of 16 (69%) affected <span class="hlt">gulls</span> by mouse inoculation. Type C botulism was the proximate cause of disease in 2004. Sera from 31% of birds tested from outbreaks in 2000 to 2003 also had detectable type C botulinum toxin by mouse inoculation. No large-scale botulism outbreak has been documented previously in this area. The source of toxin, initiating conditions, and thus, the ultimate cause of this outbreak are not known. This epidemic might signal environmental change in the Baltic Sea. PMID:17699071</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neimanis, A; Gavier-Widén, D; Leighton, F; Bollinger, T; Rocke, T; Mörner, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8060159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differences in mercury contamination and elimination during feather development in <span class="hlt">gull</span> and tern broods.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eggs, feathers (down, body feathers from side/shoulder and back) and some dead chicks (liver) from broods of three species, herring full (Larus argentatus), black-headed <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus ridibundus), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) from the German North Sea coast were collected to study intersibling differences in mercury contamination and elimination into the growing feathers. The mercury contamination in eggs, feathers, and liver of the terns was about four times that of the <span class="hlt">gulls</span>; black-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> had lowest mercury concentrations. The body feathers grow when the chicks became older had lower mercury levels than down in the more contaminated species (11% lower in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, 49% in common terns), indicating the advancing decontamination of the body by the plumage development. The elimination of mercury was greater in chicks with higher mercury levels. Down of the first hatched herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> and common tern chick contained more mercury than down of the siblings hatched later, because of its higher burden derived from the first laid egg. PMID:8060159</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Becker, P H; Henning, D; Furness, R W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gull-research.org/papers/2005_ibis.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Colonization and population growth of Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus cachinnans in southeastern Poland: causes and influence on native species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus cachinnans was first recorded in Poland in the 1980s. We analysed the probable factors responsible for its successful colonization of new areas. We also expected that such a large species should affect populations of other colonial waterbirds. We studied the breeding and feeding ecology in the largest inland colony of the Yellow- legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> in Poland,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">PIOTR SKORKA; JOANNA D. WOJCIK; RAFAL MARTYKA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=232029"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and potential significance of a <span class="hlt">gull</span> fecal marker in urban coastal and riverine areas of southern Ontario, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To better understand the distribution of <span class="hlt">gull</span> fecal contamination in urban areas of southern Ontario, we used a <span class="hlt">gull</span>-targeted PCR assay against 1309 water samples collected from 15 urban coastal and riverine locations during 2007. Approximately, 58 % of the water samples tested w...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42591048"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between the contamination of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus dominicanus) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium by PCR-RFLP</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shellfish can bioaccumulate in their tissues pathogenic contaminants present in water and they have been related with several outbreaks of food-borne diseases worldwide. With their increased population in urban areas, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> have been reported as an important source of water environment contamination. During a 10-month period, water, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> feces and oyster samples were collected in a shellfish harvesting site and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonas D. Albarnaz; Javier Toso; Adriana A. Corrêa; Cláudia M. O. Simões; Célia R. M. Barardi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h762785l573q3u32.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis , and the laughing <span class="hlt">gull</span>, Larus atricilla</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) and laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus atricilla) gathered from the Galveston Bay region of Texas were compared, to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. Their levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. Lead levels in bone were comparable, but <span class="hlt">gulls</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michael Hulse; John S. Mahoney; Gene D. Schroder; Carl S. Hacker; Stanley M. Pier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v087n04/p0534-p0542.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">EGG-LAYING, EGG SIZE, AND SUCCESS IN RELATION TO IMMATURE-MATURE PLUMAGE OF RING-BILLED <span class="hlt">GULLS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Important direct relationships between the age of parents and their success at hatching eggs and rearing young are known for the Kittiwake (Rissa tri- dactyla) (Coulson and White 1958)) H erring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus argentatus) (Par- sons 1971)) and Red-billed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (L. novaehollandiue) (Mills 1973). Addi- tionally, egg size, calculated from length and width (Stonehouse 1966) correlates positively with hatchability of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JOHN P. RYDER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/32341006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health of Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) in Relation to Breeding Location in the Early 1990s. I. Biochemical Measures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Tissues of 156 adult herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) were sampled in the early 1990s from 11 colonies throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes and 2 reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg and the Bay of Fundy. <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> from 1 or more Great Lakes differed from Lake Winnipeg or the Bay of Fundy for 17 of 19 clinical biochemical measures, whereas the freshwater</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glen A. Fox; Deborah A. Jeffrey; Kim S. Williams; Sean W. Kennedy; Keith A. Grasman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/952489"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation Analysis of the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Groundwater Flow and Transport Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental restoration at the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> underground nuclear test is following a process prescribed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. Characterization of the site included two stages of well drilling and testing in 1996 and 1999, and development and revision of numerical models of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. Agreement on a contaminant boundary for the site and a corrective action plan was reached in 2006. Later that same year, three wells were installed for the purposes of model validation and site monitoring. The FFACO prescribes a five-year proof-of-concept period for demonstrating that the site groundwater model is capable of producing meaningful results with an acceptable level of uncertainty. The corrective action plan specifies a rigorous seven step validation process. The accepted groundwater model is evaluated using that process in light of the newly acquired data. The conceptual model of ground water flow for the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area considers groundwater flow through the fractured granite aquifer comprising the Sand Springs Range. Water enters the system by the infiltration of precipitation directly on the surface of the mountain range. Groundwater leaves the granite aquifer by flowing into alluvial deposits in the adjacent basins of Fourmile Flat and Fairview Valley. A groundwater divide is interpreted as coinciding with the western portion of the Sand Springs Range, west of the underground nuclear test, preventing flow from the test into Fourmile Flat. A very low conductivity shear zone east of the nuclear test roughly parallels the divide. The presence of these lateral boundaries, coupled with a regional discharge area to the northeast, is interpreted in the model as causing groundwater from the site to flow in a northeastward direction into Fairview Valley. Steady-state flow conditions are assumed given the absence of groundwater withdrawal activities in the area. The conceptual and numerical models were developed based upon regional hydrogeologic investigations conducted in the 1960s, site characterization investigations (including ten wells and various geophysical and geologic studies) at <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> itself prior to and immediately after the test, and two site characterization campaigns in the 1990s for environmental restoration purposes (including eight wells and a year-long tracer test). The new wells are denoted MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3, and are located to the northnortheast of the nuclear test. The groundwater model was generally lacking data in the north-northeastern area; only HC-1 and the abandoned PM-2 wells existed in this area. The wells provide data on fracture orientation and frequency, water levels, hydraulic conductivity, and water chemistry for comparison with the groundwater model. A total of 12 real-number validation targets were available for the validation analysis, including five values of hydraulic head, three hydraulic conductivity measurements, three hydraulic gradient values, and one angle value for the lateral gradient in radians. In addition, the fracture dip and orientation data provide comparisons to the distributions used in the model and radiochemistry is available for comparison to model output. Goodness-of-fit analysis indicates that some of the model realizations correspond well with the newly acquired conductivity, head, and gradient data, while others do not. Other tests indicated that additional model realizations may be needed to test if the model input distributions need refinement to improve model performance. This approach (generating additional realizations) was not followed because it was realized that there was a temporal component to the data disconnect: the new head measurements are on the high side of the model distributions, but the heads at the original calibration locations themselves have also increased over time. This indicates that the steady-state assumption of the groundwater model is in error. To test the robustness of the model d</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Hassan; J. Chapman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70007032"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nesting biology of laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> Larus atricilla in relation to agricultural chemicals in south Texas USA 1978-1981</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various aspects of the breeding biology of Laughing <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus atricilla) have been studied extensively in Florida (Dinsmore and Schreiber 1974, Schreiber et al. 1979, Schreiber and Schreiber 1980), New Jersey (Bongiorno 1970, Burger and Beer 1976, Burger 1976, Montevecchi 1978), and Massachusetts (Noble and Wurm 1943), but little is known of their yearly fledging success in Texas or elsewhere. The Laughing <span class="hlt">Gull</span> is a common colonial nester along most of the Texas coast, second only to the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in breeding abundance; however, the Laughing <span class="hlt">Gull</span> may be threatened in Texas because of suspected declines at certain traditional nesting locales (Blacklock et al. 1979). Since Laughing <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> often nest in proximity to agricultural and industrial areas, we were concerned that environmental pollutants might be adversely affecting productivity. In 1978-1981 we conducted studies along the south Texas coast to learn more about the nesting ecology of Laughing <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> and to evaluate the effects of environmental contaminants on reproduction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">White, D. H.; Mitchell, C. A.; Prouty, R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23507452"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named <span class="hlt">Gull</span> adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. PMID:23507452</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bodewes, R; van de Bildt, M W G; Schapendonk, C M E; van Leeuwen, M; van Boheemen, S; de Jong, A A W; Osterhaus, A D M E; Smits, S L; Kuiken, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21506790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Helminth community structure of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Ichthyaetus melanocephalus) in Southern Italy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The helminth community of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Ichthyaetus melanocephalus) from the Calabria region in southern Italy was examined. Ten species of helminths, including 2 cestodes (Alcataenia larina and Tetrabothrius cylindraceus), 4 digeneans ( Aporchis massiliensis , Brachylaima fuscatum, Cardiocephaloides longicollis, and Ornithobilharzia canaliculata), and 4 nematodes (Eucoleus contortus, Capillaria sp., Cosmocephalus obvelatus, and Paracuaria adunca), were found. The Mediterranean <span class="hlt">gull</span> represents new host records for A. larina, A. massiliensis, B. fuscatum, and E. contortus; all species, except C. longicollis and O. canaliculata, constitute new locality records. The gastrointestinal helminth community of I. melanocephalus consisted of 9 species but, at the infracommunity level, species richness, diversity, and total helminth abundance are among the lowest reported from any <span class="hlt">gull</span> species. Two cestode species accounted for 81% of all helminth specimens found. PMID:21506790</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santoro, M; Mattiucci, S; Kinsella, J M; Aznar, F J; Giordano, D; Castagna, F; Pellegrino, F; Nascetti, G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3147368"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular Detection of Campylobacter spp. in California <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus californicus) Excreta ? †</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus californicus) samples using culture-, PCR-, and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based detection assays. Campylobacter prevalence and abundance were relatively high in the <span class="hlt">gull</span> excreta examined; however, C. jejuni and C. lari were detected in fewer than 2% of the isolates and DNA extracts from the fecal samples that tested positive. Moreover, molecular and sequencing data indicated that most L. californicus campylobacters were novel (<97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to known Campylobacter species) and not closely related to species commonly associated with human illness. Campylobacter estimates were positively related with those of fecal indicators, including a <span class="hlt">gull</span> fecal marker based on the Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S rRNA gene.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, Jingrang; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Griffith, John F.; Ashbolt, Nicholas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5301950"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-decadal <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of the euphotic zone in the southern sector of the California Current System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract We document,a long-term reduction in Secchi depth of 0.06–0.13 m yr,1 in the southern,California Current System (CCS) over the period 1969–2007, reflecting a long-term <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of the euphotic zone. Calibrated water clarity observations from 1949 to 1954 reinforce the results indicating a progressive <span class="hlt">shoaling</span>. For the inshore area, 150 km off the coast, Secchi disk has <span class="hlt">shoaled</span> 8.4 6</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dag L. Aksnes; Mark D. Ohman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://wavcis.csi.lsu.edu/pubs/Kobashi_Coastal%20Dynamics%202009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SPATIALLY-VARYING MORPHODYNAMICS OVER A SHORE-PARALLEL TRANSGRESSIVE <span class="hlt">SHOAL</span>, SOUTH-CENTRAL LOUISIANA, U.S.A</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Morphodynamics over a shore-parallel sand <span class="hlt">shoal</span> off south-central Louisiana, USA, have been recognized as complex given the occasional infusion of fine sediments, frequent winter storm passage, and complex <span class="hlt">shoal</span> bathymetry. Results from field surveys and numerical model studies unveiled spatially-varying morphodynamics; Occasional infusion of fine sediments (i.e. fluid mud) created sediment heterogeneity on the <span class="hlt">shoal</span>; the bottom sediments on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daijiro Kobashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3219133"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inferring the rules of interaction of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Collective motion, where large numbers of individuals move synchronously together, is achieved when individuals adopt interaction rules that determine how they respond to their neighbors’ movements and positions. These rules determine how group-living animals move, make decisions, and transmit information between individuals. Nonetheless, few studies have explicitly determined these interaction rules in moving groups, and very little is known about the interaction rules of fish. Here, we identify three key rules for the social interactions of mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki): (i) Attraction forces are important in maintaining group cohesion, while we find only weak evidence that fish align with their neighbor’s orientation; (ii) repulsion is mediated principally by changes in speed; (iii) although the positions and directions of all <span class="hlt">shoal</span> members are highly correlated, individuals only respond to their single nearest neighbor. The last two of these rules are different from the classical models of collective animal motion, raising new questions about how fish and other animals self-organize on the move.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herbert-Read, James E.; Perna, Andrea; Mann, Richard P.; Schaerf, Timothy M.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Ward, Ashley J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17089723"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organohalogen contaminants and reproductive hormones in incubating glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organohalogen contaminants detected globally in avian wildlife, including populations from the Arctic, have been related to various reproductive hormone potencies, and altered hormonal balance and functions. Besides legacy organochlorine (OC) substances, that is, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and OC pesticides and by-products, endocrine-disruptive properties have been defined for chemicals of new and emerging environmental concern, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and metabolically derived products like methylsulfonyl (MeSO2)- and hydroxyl (OH)-PCBs. We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of selected legacy OCs, PBDEs, and MeSO2- and OH-PCB metabolites and the circulating reproductive hormones testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) in incubating male and female glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Principal component and regression analyses demonstrated that P4 levels in male glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were associated positively with variations of sum (Y) PCB, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (sigmaDDT), chlordane (sigmaCHL), and sigmaPBDE concentrations, which were the most recalcitrant organohalogens determined in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. No such relationship was found for female glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> as well as between concentrations of any of the selected organohalogens and levels of T for both sexes. The E2 was not detected in any plasma samples. Present results were highly suggestive that exposure to high organohalogen concentrations in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, particularly the most persistent compound classes, may have the potential to interfere with steroidogenesis and impinge on circulating P4 homeostasis. Because significant effects were found in males exclusively, it cannot be completely ruled out that male glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are more sensitive than females to organohalogen-mediated alteration of P4 synthesis and breakdown. PMID:17089723</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Ropstad, Erik; Dahl, Ellen; Gabrielsen, Geir W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16826510"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation of water flux and body composition in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water influx rates (WIR) measured with tritiated water dilution were compared with direct measures of water and energy intake in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus). Total body water (TBW) measured isotopically was also compared with TBW determined by body composition analysis (BCA) of the same birds. Seventeen wild <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were captured and studied in outdoor enclosures at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, in July 2002. <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> were hand-fed known quantities of Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) or given water on the basis of one of four experimental treatments: (A) fasting, (B) fish only, (C) water only, or (D) fish and water. Water and energy content of Arctic cod was also determined. WIR of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (after subtracting metabolic water production) in treatments A, B, C, and D were 0, 101 +/- 5, 62 +/- 19, and 122 +/- 21 SD g d(-1), respectively. Measured water intake in each group was 0, 111 +/- 2, 64 +/- 3, and 134 +/- 15 SD g d(-1), respectively. On average, WIR underestimated measured water intake in each group. Errors were lowest but most variable for <span class="hlt">gulls</span> fed water only (-2.2% +/- 32.8%) compared with <span class="hlt">gulls</span> fed fish only (-9.0% +/- 5.4%) or fish and water (-9.0% +/- 7.0%). Compared with measured water intake, errors in WIR were relatively low overall (-6.9% +/- 17.4%) and comparable to previous validation studies. The difference in TBW determined by BCA versus isotopic dilution ranged between -1.02% and +8.59% of mass. On average, TBW measured isotopically (632 +/- 24 g kg(-1)) overestimated true body water by a factor of 1.033. PMID:16826510</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shaffer, Scott A; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Verreault, Jonathan; Costa, Daniel P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18374920"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in prolactin in a highly organohalogen contaminated Arctic top predator seabird, the glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The factors influencing prolactin (PRL) variation in birds and in wildlife in general have rarely been investigated with respect to the physiological impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the associations between circulating baseline PRL levels and concentrations of eight persistent organohalogen contaminant (OHC) classes (i.e., major organochlorines and brominated flame retardants, and associated metabolic products) in blood (plasma) of free-ranging glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus), a top predator in the Norwegian Arctic, engaged in the process of incubation. We further examined whether plasma OHC concentrations were associated with the variation of PRL in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> exposed to a standardized capture/restraint protocol. Plasma OHC concentrations in male glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were 2- to 3-fold higher relative to females. Baseline PRL levels tended to be higher in females compared to males, although not significantly (p=0.20). In both males and females, the 30-min capture/restraint protocol led on average to a 26% decrease in PRL levels, which resulted in a rate of PRL decrease of 0.76 ng/mL/min. The baseline PRL levels and the rate of decrease in PRL levels tended to vary negatively with plasma OHC concentrations in males, but not in females, although several of these associations did not adhere with the criterion of significance (alpha=0.05). Present results suggest that in highly OHC-exposed male glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, the control of PRL release may be affected by the direct or indirect modulating actions of OHCs and/or their metabolically derived products. We conclude that potentially OHC-mediated impact on PRL secretion in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (males) may be a contributing factor to the adverse effects observed on the reproductive behavior, development and population size of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> breeding in the Norwegian Arctic. PMID:18374920</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, Jonathan; Verboven, Nanette; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Letcher, Robert J; Chastel, Olivier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5836468"> <span id="translatedtitle">The geomorphology of the Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Island</span> Wetlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Islands</span> represent the largest and oldest transgressive barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> arc in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Generated by the transgressive submergence of the St. Bernard delta complex, the Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Islands</span> form the protective geologic framework for one of the richest areas of salt marsh and seagrass flats in Louisiana. The Chandeleur barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> arc is 60 km long and consists of five individual <span class="hlt">islands</span> backed by a linear, multiple bar system enclosing a shallow basin floored by extensive seagrass flats. The northern part of the Chandeleur chain is the highest in relief, elevation, width, and habitat diversity. Nonstorm morphology is predominantly a combination of continuous dunes and dune terraces. Numerous washover channels and large washover fans extend into the backbarrier environment. Further south, the <span class="hlt">island</span> width decreases and washover flats and terraces dominate the shoreline morphology In the southernmost section, the <span class="hlt">island</span> arc is fragmented into a series of small <span class="hlt">islands</span> and <span class="hlt">shoals</span> separated by tidal inlets. Between 1984 and 1989, aerial videotape, aerial photographic, and bathymetric surveys were used to map and monitor the geomorphic changes occurring along the shoreline and in backbarrier areas. The aerial videotape mapping surveys focused on the impacts of hurricanes Danny, Elena, and Juan on the geomorphology of the <span class="hlt">islands</span>. Videotape imagery was acquired in July 1984 and in July (prestorm), August (post-Danny), September (post-Elena), and November (post-Juan) 1985. A coastal geomorphic classification was developed to map the spatial and temporal landscape changes between surveys.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Westphal, K. (Louisiana Geological Survey, Baton Rouge (USA)); Handley, L. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Slidell, LA (USA)); Michot, T. (Fish and Wildlife Service, Baton Rouge, LA (USA)); Reed, D.; Seal, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20738637"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of progressive hypoxia on spontaneous activity in single and <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> golden grey mullet Liza aurata.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The hypothesis of a differential effect of hypoxia on activity in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> v. solitary fish was tested in golden grey mullet Liza aurata. In both solitary and <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish, (1) swimming activity increased significantly at <or=60% air saturation compared with normoxia, (2) aquatic surface respiration increased significantly below 15% air saturation and (3) a significant increase in ventilation frequency was observed between 40 and 10% air saturation. Swimming activity was higher in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> than in solitary fish, possibly due to social interactions in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish. Despite showing a higher swimming activity, <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> individuals showed similar ventilation frequency to the less active solitary fish. This suggests that <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> exerts a calming effect on L. aurata, probably related to increased safety while in numbers. In addition, <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish spent a higher proportion of time performing aquatic surface respiration at 15% air saturation (i.e. the highest oxygen level at which aquatic surface respiration was observed) than solitary fish, possibly because of (1) synchronization of aquatic surface respiration in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish and (2) lower risk of predation perceived by <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fish. PMID:20738637</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lefrançois, C; Ferrari, R S; Moreira da Silva, J; Domenici, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-9327(76)90036-7"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of storage of organochlorine pollutants in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several organochlorine pollutants were studied over the period of one annual cycle in caged juvenile and wild-collected adult herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Lagus argentatus) from Lake Michigan. Fish, mostly alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus), comprised the major year-round food items in the wild; alewives were also fed to the caged juveniles. Fish residues averaged around 3 mg/kg of p,p'-DDE, 2 mg/kg p,p'DDT + p,p'-TDE, and 2 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Juvenile body-burdens of DDE and PCBs showed a continual buildup after fledging, then a temporary dynamic equilibrium, related only in part to annual lipid deposition. Maximum body-burdens were reached in both juveniles and adults when winter fat deposits were declining prior to the breeding season?followed by a return to dynamic equilibrium. Residues of DDT and TDE followed closely the annual pattern of lipid deposition in both juveniles and adults. Total body-burdens in both age classes were similar after the buildups to equilibrium in juveniles in their eighth month after fledging. Seasonal variations of residues of DDE and PCBs were characterised by two phases in adults and three in juveniles, which gradually assumed the adult cyclic pattern. The maximum body-burdens attained by caged juveniles fed a diet of Lake Michigan alewives were 290 mg/kg DDE, 19 mg/kg DDT + TDE, and 200 mg/kg apparent PCBs. Residues in wild adults at the same time were 300, 4, and 200 mg/kg of the same residues. Apparent PCBs and DDE were highly accumulative, although DDE levels resulted from dietary DDE, as well as conversion from DDT.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anderson, D.W.; Hickey, J.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23541602"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of benzyl butyl phthalate on <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior in Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog) populations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fundulus heteroclitus preference for association with familiar conspecifics of similar body length was impacted by benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP); this was found to be a statically significant result with a p < 0.0001. When presented with equally sized <span class="hlt">shoals</span> consisting of either large or small fish, the majority of unexposed (84%) and acetone exposed control (82%) fish selected the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> of large fish. A small number of control fish chose either the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> of small fish (6% and 10%) or the neutral zone (10% and 8%) where they were clear morphological outliers. Fish exposed to 0.1 mg/L BBP exposure daily for four weeks selected the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> of small fish more often than unexposed or acetone controls (7.5- and 4.5-fold respectively). They also remained in the neutral zone and displayed agitation at levels more than twice that of control. Agitation and <span class="hlt">shoal</span> choice disruption are quantifiable behavioral responses that support the use of F. heteroclitus as a model for detecting sub-lethal BBP exposure. PMID:23541602</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaplan, Lisa A E; Nabel, Michael; Van Cleef-Toedt, Kathleen; Proffitt, Andrew R; Pylypiw, Harry M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7987J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gravity wave amplification and phase crest re-organization over a <span class="hlt">shoal</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface gravity wave propagation above a <span class="hlt">shoal</span> or any submerged structure has drawn of great interest for decades for both oceanographers and coastal engineers. Indeed, the experimental study of wave focusing above such a topography is useful for testing the accuracy of wave propagation models for steep two-dimensional sloping bottoms. In the context of the maritime navigation hazards, it may also explain the occurence of localized huge waves and steep surface slopes. Experiments have been carried out in the wave basin at University of Toulon, France. The <span class="hlt">shoal</span> consisted of a half cylinder with half spheres at both ends. Various depths of immersion of the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> were tested for regular wave conditions. The analysis is based on the measurements of the wave amplification above and around the <span class="hlt">shoal</span>. Photographs were also used for the wave crests shape analyses. A significant increase of the wave amplitude up to twice the incident amplitude can be observed experimentally above the mound. Due to the smaller wave celerity above the mound, a phase delay is observed for the wave down-wave the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> compared to the wave on both sides. Two slightly divergent separation lines of zero wave amplitude are observed down-wave the mound, waves do not cross as also verified numerically trough a refraction-diffraction model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jarry, Nicolas; Rey, Vincent; Gouaud, Fabrice; Lajoie, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16268150"> <span id="translatedtitle">New organochlorine contaminants and metabolites in plasma and eggs of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study investigated new or lesser-studied and legacy organochlorine (OC) contaminants and metabolites in plasma and eggs of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) collected from major breeding colonies on Bear <span class="hlt">Island</span> in the Norwegian Arctic. Hexachlorobutadiene was below the method limit of detection (< 0.07 ng/g lipid wt) in all samples. The sum (sum) of 20 chlorobornane congener concentrations ranged between 294 and 986 ng/g lipid weight and 104 and 1,121 ng/g lipid weight in plasma and eggs, respectively, whereas those of sum 20polychlorinated naphthalene ranged between 1.34 and 126 ng/g lipid weight in plasma and 1.82 and 162 ng/g lipid weight in eggs. Bis(4-chlorophenyl) sulfone concentrations ranged between 5.24 and 143 ng/ g lipid weight plasma, which is the first report of this contaminant in arctic biota north of Sweden. Based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs), partial dioxin-like toxicity varied between 3.04 and 20.8 ng TEQ/g lipid weight in plasma and 0.94 and 46.5 ng TEQ/g lipid weight in eggs, and largely was due to concentrations of non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with a very minor contribution from mono-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated naphthalenes. The major aryl sulfone metabolite in plasma was an unidentified hexachlorinated MeSO2-PCB congener (range: 13.5-551 ng/g lipid wt), whereas the pentachlorinated congeners 3'- and 4'-MeSO2-CB101 (range: 4.49-38.1 ng/g lipid wt) dominated in eggs. The predominant halogenated phenolic compound (HPC) in plasma was consistently the PCB metabolite 4-OH-CB187 (range: 0.29-17.5 ng/g wet wt), whereas in eggs, detectable HPCs were at very low and transient concentrations. As part of a complex profile of contaminant exposure, these chemical classes and metabolites may be contributing factors to enhance physiological stress in breeding glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. PMID:16268150</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G; Chu, Shaogang; Gebbink, Wouter A; Gabrielsen, Geir W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035029"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> corresponding to a change in waste management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult <span class="hlt">gulls</span> contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding <span class="hlt">gull</span> samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding <span class="hlt">gulls</span> was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding <span class="hlt">gull</span> diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers' access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiser, E. L.; Powell, A. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JGRC..112.2011V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> and shoreline dissipation of low-frequency waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The growth rate, shoreline reflection, and dissipation of low-frequency waves are investigated using data obtained from physical experiments in the Delft University of Technology research flume and by parameter variation using the numerical model Delft3D-SurfBeat. The growth rate of the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> incoming long wave varies with depth with an exponent between 0.25 and 2.5. The exponent depends on a dimensionless normalized bed slope parameter ?, which distinguishes between a mild-slope regime and a steep-slope regime. This dependency on ? alone is valid if the forcing short waves are not in shallow water; that is, the forcing is off-resonant. The ? parameter also controls the reflection coefficient at the shoreline because for small values of ?, long waves are shown to break. In this mild-slope regime the dissipation due to breaking of the long waves in the vicinity of the shoreline is much higher than the dissipation due to bottom friction, confirming the findings of Thomson et al. (2006) and Henderson et al. (2006). The energy transfer from low frequencies to higher frequencies is partly due to triad interactions between low- and high-frequency waves but with decreasing depth is increasingly dominated by long-wave self-self interactions, which cause the long-wave front to steepen up and eventually break. The role of the breaking process in the near-shore evolution of the long waves is experimentally confirmed by observations of monochromatic free long waves propagating on a plane sloping beach, which shows strikingly similar characteristics, including the steepening and breaking.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Dongeren, A.; Battjes, J.; Janssen, T.; van Noorloos, J.; Steenhauer, K.; Steenbergen, G.; Reniers, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v088n04/p0621-p0631.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">FOOD HABITS OF RING-BILLED <span class="hlt">GULLS</span> BREEDING IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The number of Ring-billed <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus dehwarensis) breeding on the Great Lakes has increased significantly during the last 3 decades (Ludwig 1966, 1974). Changes in the availability of nesting sites, fish introductions, and restrictions on human predation are among those factors probably re- sponsible for the population explosion. Additionally, breeding adults may have intensified or perfected their exploitation of food</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">WILLIAM L. JARVIS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.imedea.uib.es/natural/goi/seabirds/docs/IBI_187.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic and morphological differentiation between the two largest breeding colonies of Audouin's <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus audouinii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We assessed the genetic and morphological differences between the two largest breeding colonies of Audouin's <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus audouinii , an endemic seabird species of the Mediterranean region. The two colonies comprise c. 75% of the total world population and are 655 km apart. The Ebro Delta colony was formed recently and, after dramatic growth mainly due to high rates of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Meritxell Genovart; Daniel Oro; Francois Bonhomme</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.imedea.uib.es/natural/goi/seabirds/docs/JAE511.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The formation and growth of seabird colonies: Audouin's <span class="hlt">gull</span> as a case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary 1. Simulations of a stochastic, individual-based predictive model were used to invest- igate the ecological processes relating to the formation and growth of colonies (local populations) of Audouin's <span class="hlt">Gull</span> ( Larus audouinii Payraudeau). A colony was established in 1981 at the Ebro Delta (in the north-western Mediterranean) and since then, the colony has grown dramatically at an average rate</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Oro; Graeme D. Ruxton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://webs.uvigo.es/avelando/pdfs_archivos/EnvInt.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sublethal toxicity of the Prestige oil spill on yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Prestige oil spill in November 2002 is considered the biggest large-scale catastrophe of its type in Europe, thousands of seabirds dying in the subsequent months. Here, the total concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAH) was measured in the blood cell fraction of adult and chick yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus michahellis) from unoiled and oiled coastal areas in North Western</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carlos Alonso-Alvarez; Ignacio Munilla; Marta López-Alonso; Alberto Velando</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20080500"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) eggs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the <span class="hlt">gulls</span> to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the <span class="hlt">gull</span> diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5982576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can seismic character identify lithologies associated with Bluell and Sherwood shorelines and <span class="hlt">shoals</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several new oil fields have been discovered in the Bluell and Sherwood members of the Mission Canyon Formation, reviving the Mississippian shoreline play in the eastern Williston basin. During periodic regressions, carbonates and evaporites were deposited along the shoreline of a shallow sea. Embayments in the shoreline created traps that contain 3 - 8 million bbl of oil. Carbonate <span class="hlt">shoals</span> developed offshore. Surrounded by impermeable carbonate mud, they trap 1 - 3 million bbl of oil. The ability of seismic character to distinguish lithologies associated with shorelines and <span class="hlt">shoals</span> was investigated using sonic logs, models, and seismic data. Shorelines: The gross thickness of the Bluell zone can range between 40 and 70 ft, the Sherwood zone between 35 and 80 ft. Changing thicknesses on geologic models had a distinct effect on seismic character. Also, seismic character varied in response to changing stratigraphy above, within, and below the Bluell and Sherwood zones. Carbonate and anhydrite bulk densities and velocities differ by about 10%. Modeling this difference demonstrated a minimal change in seismic character. Seismic character cannot delineate the shoreline transition from carbonate to anhydrite. Other stratigraphic variations alter seismic character more than this lithologic change. <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>: Velocity and density variations between <span class="hlt">shoal</span> carbonates and intershoal mud can differ by 30%. Sonic log seismograms and seismic data show a distinct character change between these lithologies. Seismic character can be used to delineate carbonate <span class="hlt">shoals</span> and mud. However, the <span class="hlt">shoal</span>/mud character change can be modified by the seismic response to other stratigraphic variations. Calibration with nearby wells can reduce interpretational uncertainty.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, E.H. (Balcron Oil, Billings, MT (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23844073"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution patterns predict individual specialization in the diet of dolphin <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many animals show some degree of individual specialization in foraging strategies and diet. This has profound ecological and evolutionary implications. For example, populations containing diverse individual foraging strategies will respond in different ways to changes in the environment, thus affecting the capacity of the populations to adapt to environmental changes and to diversify. However, patterns of individual specialization have been examined in few species. Likewise it is usually unknown whether specialization is maintained over time, because examining the temporal scale at which specialization occurs can prove difficult in the field. In the present study, we analyzed individual specialization in foraging in Dolphin <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> Leucophaeus scoresbii, a scavenger endemic to the southernmost coasts of South America. We used GPS position logging and stable isotope analyses (SIA) to investigate individual specialization in feeding strategies and their persistence over time. The analysis of GPS data indicated two major foraging strategies in Dolphin <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> from New I. (Falkland Is./Islas Malvinas). Tagged individuals repeatedly attended either a site with mussel beds or seabird and seal colonies during 5 to 7 days of tracking. Females foraging at mussel beds were heavier than those foraging at seabird colonies. Nitrogen isotope ratios (?(15)N) of Dolphin <span class="hlt">Gull</span> blood cells clustered in two groups, showing that individuals were consistent in their preferred foraging strategies over a period of at least several weeks. The results of the SIA as well as the foraging patterns recorded revealed a high degree of specialization for particular feeding sites and diets by individual Dolphin <span class="hlt">Gulls</span>. Individual differences in foraging behavior were not related to sex. Specialization in Dolphin <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> may be favored by the advantages of learning and memorizing optimal feeding locations and behaviors. Specialized individuals may reduce search and handling time and thus, optimize their energy gain and/or minimize time spent foraging. PMID:23844073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masello, Juan F; Wikelski, Martin; Voigt, Christian C; Quillfeldt, Petra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10328801"> <span id="translatedtitle">Keep the chicks moving: how Sandwich terns can minimize kleptoparasitism by black-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sandwich terns, Sterna sandvicensis, often nest in association with black-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, Larus ridibundus. The <span class="hlt">gulls</span> provide protection against predators, but can also adversely affect the terns' reproductive success through predation and piracy of fish. To test whether leading the chicks away from the nest site is an evasive strategy used by the parents to reduce the incidence of robbery by the <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, we kept one group of Sandwich tern chicks at their original breeding site, while, with a wire-netting enclosure, we moved another group away from the <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. The rate of kleptoparasitism was greatly reduced when the tern chicks were moved away from the original nest site, resulting in faster growth and earlier fledging. The rate of food parasitism and chick condition were affected only during the first 5 days of the experiment. After that, the rate of kleptoparasitism no longer differed between chicks that we moved away and those remaining in the colony. A second shift of the chicks again led to less kleptoparasitism and better chick condition. In line with these findings, the condition of free-living chicks that were lured away from their nesting site by their parents also improved. In particular, chicks initially in poor condition, which apparently suffered from high rates of kleptoparasitism, left the colony site. Free-living chicks are often lured away from the robbing <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. However, not all subcolonies provided suitable escape routes and subsequently chicks in such subcolonies suffered from high mortality rates. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10328801</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stienen; Brenninkmeijer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/441722"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective action investigation plan for Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area CAU No. 416</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of an ongoing US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project for the investigation of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 416, Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area (PSA). Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> was conducted to determine whether seismic waves produced by underground nuclear testing could be differentiated from naturally occurring earthquakes. The PSA site is located approximately 30 miles southeast of Fallon, Nevada, in the northern portion of Sand Springs Mountains in Churchill County. This CAIP will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan, and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection policies and regulations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/822985"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Underground Nuclear Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groundwater flow and radionuclide transport at the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> underground nuclear test are characterized using three-dimensional numerical models, based on site-specific hydrologic data. The objective of this modeling is to provide the flow and transport models needed to develop a contaminant boundary defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater at the site throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will then be used to manage the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area for the protection of the public and the environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5636889"> <span id="translatedtitle">Initial formation and long-term evolution of channel–<span class="hlt">shoal</span> patterns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract A complex,process-based model,(Delft3D) is used to simulate the formation,of channels and <span class="hlt">shoals</span> in a schematised estuary. The model,set-up enables a comparison,with results obtained,from other studies using idealised models. Initial (one tidal cycle) as well as long-term (up to 300 years) simulations are made. Dominant,wavelengths,of channel–<span class="hlt">shoal</span> patterns are investigated together,with their dependency,on width,and,depth of the basin and,the local maximum velocity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. m. Schuttelaars; H. j. De Vriend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol8-sec401-407.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron, MI...charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron, MI...pilots on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol8-sec401-407.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 401.407 - Basic rates and charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron, MI...charges on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron, MI...pilots on Lake Erie and the navigable waters from Southeast <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> to Port Huron,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48071948"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sarcocystis sp. from the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> ( Larus argentatus ) identity to Sarcocystis wobeseri based on cyst morphology and DNA results</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Having studied 11 herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) Sarcocystis cysts were found in neck and leg muscles of 4 birds. One type of sarcocysts (cyst type I) that have a thin (?1.0 ?m), smooth,\\u000a or slightly wavy cyst wall without clearly visible protrusions and small (6.0–8.0 ?m) lancet- or banana-shaped cystozoites\\u000a was identified by the light microscopy. Sarcocysts extracted from one herring <span class="hlt">gull</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Petras Prakas; Liuda Kutkien?; Aniolas Sruoga; Dalius Butkauskas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2993719"> <span id="translatedtitle">Introgressive hybridization and the evolutionary history of the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> complex revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Based on extensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data, we previously showed that the model of speciation among species of herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) complex was not that of a ring species, but most likely due more complex speciation scenario's. We also found that two species, herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> and glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> (L. hyperboreus) displayed an unexpected biphyletic distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes. It was evident that mtDNA sequence data alone were far from sufficient to obtain a more accurate and detailed insight into the demographic processes that underlie speciation of this complex, and that extensive autosomal genetic analysis was warranted. Results For this reason, the present study focuses on the reconstruction of the phylogeographic history of a limited number of <span class="hlt">gull</span> species by means of a combined approach of mtDNA sequence data and 230 autosomal amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci. At the species level, the mtDNA and AFLP genetic data were largely congruent. Not only for argentatus and hyperboreus, but also among a third species, great black-backed <span class="hlt">gull</span> (L. marinus) we observed two distinct groups of mtDNA sequence haplotypes. Based on the AFLP data we were also able to detect distinct genetic subgroups among the various argentatus, hyperboreus, and marinus populations, supporting our initial hypothesis that complex demographic scenario's underlie speciation in the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> complex. Conclusions We present evidence that for each of these three biphyletic <span class="hlt">gull</span> species, extensive mtDNA introgression could have taken place among the various geographically distinct subpopulations, or even among current species. Moreover, based on a large number of autosomal AFLP loci, we found evidence for distinct and complex demographic scenario's for each of the three species we studied. A more refined insight into the exact phylogeographic history within the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> complex is still impossible, and requires detailed autosomal sequence information, a topic of our future studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2672.2003.01910.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Abundance and characteristics of the recreational water quality indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in <span class="hlt">gull</span> faeces</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims: To evaluate the numbers and selected phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and enterococci in <span class="hlt">gull</span> faeces at representative Great Lakes swimming beaches in the United States. Methods and Results: E. coli and enterococci were enumerated in <span class="hlt">gull</span> faeces by membrane filtration. E. coli genotypes (rep-PCR genomic profiles) and E. coli (Vitek?? GNI+) and enterococci (API?? rapid ID 32 Strep and resistance to streptomycin, gentamicin, vancomycin, tetracycline and ampicillin) phenotypes were determined for isolates obtained from <span class="hlt">gull</span> faeces both early and late in the swimming season. Identical E. coli genotypes were obtained only from single <span class="hlt">gull</span> faecal samples but most faecal samples yielded more than one genotype (median of eight genotypes for samples with 10 isolates). E. coli isolates from the same site that clustered at ???85% similarity were from the same sampling date and shared phenotypic characteristics, and at this similarity level there was population overlap between the two geographically isolated beach sites. Enterococcus API?? profiles varied with sampling date. <span class="hlt">Gull</span> enterococci displayed wide variation in antibiotic resistance patterns, and high-level resistance to some antibiotics. Conclusions: <span class="hlt">Gull</span> faeces could be a major contributor of E. coli (105-109 CFU g-1) and enterococci (104-108 CFU g-1) to Great Lakes recreational waters. E. coli and enterococci in <span class="hlt">gull</span> faeces are highly variable with respect to their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and may exhibit temporal or geographic trends in these features. Significance and Impact of the Study: The high degree of variation in genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of E. coli or enterococci populations within <span class="hlt">gull</span> hosts will require extensive sampling for adequate characterization, and will influence methods that use these characteristics to determine faecal contamination sources for recreational waters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fogarty, L. R.; Haack, S. K.; Wolcott, M. J.; Whitman, R. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/46480364"> <span id="translatedtitle">Waterfowl predation by and records of the great black-backed <span class="hlt">gull</span> in Chesapeake Bay during winter and spring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>,Larus marinus, were observed to attack and kill lesser scaup, ruddy duck, and the horned grebe in the Chesapeake Bay region during late\\u000a winter and early spring. Waterfowl predation by this <span class="hlt">gull</span> has been reported in more northern waters. Such behavior is of little\\u000a importance in the total mortaility of ducks. Records indicate that, while sporadic in occurrence,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Romeo J. Mansueti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1961-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.zoo.cam.ac.uk/zoostaff/manica/ms/2009_Harcourt_et_al_Anim_Behav.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Personality counts: the effect of boldness on <span class="hlt">shoal</span> choice in three-spined sticklebacks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The grouping behaviour of fish is a widespread phenomenon of high biological significance but little is known as to how consistent individual behavioural differences may affect group joining preferences. When given the option to join either a shy or a bold <span class="hlt">shoal</span> of three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, both shy and bold individuals showed a strong preference for associating with bold</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jennifer L. Harcourt; Gemma Sweetman; Rufus A. Johnstone; Andrea Manica</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/656462"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of groundwater flow and transport at the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> underground nuclear test: An interim report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1962, all United States nuclear tests have been conducted underground. A consequence of this testing has been the deposition of large amounts of radioactive materials in the subsurface, sometimes in direct contact with groundwater. The majority of this testing occurred on the Nevada Test Site, but a limited number of experiments were conducted in other locations. One of these is the subject of this report, the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area (PSA), located about 50 km southeast of Fallon, Nevada. The <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> test consisted of a 12-kiloton-yield nuclear detonation which occurred on October 26, 1963. Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> was part of studies to enhance seismic detection of underground nuclear tests, in particular, in active earthquake areas. Characterization of groundwater contamination at the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area is being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) with the State of Nevada Department of Environmental Protection and the US Department of Defense (DOD). This order prescribes a Corrective Action Strategy (Appendix VI), which, as applied to underground nuclear tests, involves preparing a Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD), Corrective Action Plan, and Closure Report. The scope of the CAIP is flow and transport modeling to establish contaminant boundaries that are protective of human health and the environment. This interim report describes the current status of the flow and transport modeling for the PSA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pohll, G.; Chapman, J.; Hassan, A.; Papelis, C.; Andricevic, R.; Shirley, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD609874"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Data on Ground Motion and Containment Safety Program.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predictions and evaluations of ground motion and con tainment were made for the 12.5 kt <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> event. A comprehensive ground motion instrumentation program was designed. Peak motions on alluvium were greater than on hardrock by a factor of 2.1 for accelera...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1964-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15090148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Critical Population Density Triggers Rapid Formation of Vast Oceanic Fish <span class="hlt">Shoals</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Similarities in the behavior of diverse animal species that form large groups have motivated attempts to establish general principles governing animal group behavior. It has been difficult, however, to make quantitative measurements of the temporal and spatial behavior of extensive animal groups in the wild, such as bird flocks, fish <span class="hlt">shoals</span>, and locust swarms. By quantifying the formation processes of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nicholas C. Makris; Purnima Ratilal; Srinivasan Jagannathan; Zheng Gong; Mark Andrews; Ioannis Bertsatos; Olav Rune Godø; Redwood W. Nero; J. Michael Jech</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=49515"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE ARGO MERCHANT OIL SPILL AND THE SEDIMENTS OF NANTUCKET <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span>: RESEARCH, LITIGATION AND LEGISLATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On December 15, 1976, the tanker Argo Merchant ran around on Fishing Rip of Nantucket <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> off the coast of Massachusetts. After several days of stormy weather she broke apart releasing her entire cargo of 28 X 10 to 3rd power metric tons of No. 6 fuel oil into the ocean. Feder...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57482285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seafloor integrity down the harbor waterfront: the coralligenous <span class="hlt">shoals</span> off Vado Ligure (NW Mediterranean)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last ten years, European Directives stressed the necessity to assess the ecological status of marine habitats by means of ecosystem or landscape indicators, rather than just species or chemical ones. In this paper, the seascape approach to characterise and assess the ecological quality of coralligenous rocky <span class="hlt">shoals</span> of Vado Ligure (Savona, Italy) is introduced. This approach integrates biological,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Giulia Gatti; Monica Montefalcone; Alessio Rovere; Valeriano Parravicini; Carla Morri; Giancarlo Albertelli; Carlo Nike Bianchi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51009756"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current analysis on the observations of sand wave SAR images in Taiwan <span class="hlt">shoal</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Statistical analysis on observations of submarine sand wave SAR images in Taiwan <span class="hlt">shoal</span> and their relationships with sea surface current are discussed. A total of 69 SAR images over 11 years are collected and 496 profiles of sand wave SAR images are used, the sea surface current calculated form high-frequency (HF) radar system are utilized for the study on the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaiguo Fan; Weigen Huang; Junfang Chang; Tingbiao Pang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB98143589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Develop a Detailed Map of Mille Lacs Lake <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Areas, Aitkin Area Fisheries, 1996. Completion Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Substrate and aquatic vegetation in the <span class="hlt">shoal</span> areas of Mille Lacs Lake were mapped during the summers from 1992 through 1996 to document existing physical and environmental conditions. One-thousand and seventy transects were established, including 1,015 t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/839179"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term Monitoring Plan for the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Underground Nuclear Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The flow and transport model of <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> is used to design a three-well monitoring network to be part of the long-term monitoring network for the site and achieve two objectives: (1) detect the presence of radionuclides in case they migrate to the monitoring well locations, and (2) provide field data to compare with model predictions as part of the model validation process. Using three different quantitative approaches and the numerical groundwater flow and transport model developed for <span class="hlt">Shoal</span>, three new monitoring well locations were identified from 176 different networks. In addition to the quantitative analyses using the numerical model, the development of the monitoring network for <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> will also be subject to qualitative hydrogeologic interpretation during implementation. information will only be available during the fieldwork, it will be incorporated in the monitoring well design at the time of well installation. Finally, it should be noted that the CADD-CAP for <span class="hlt">Shoal</span>, including the compliance boundary, is not yet approved. Should the compliance boundary change from the 1,000-year MCL contaminant boundary, well locations may also need to change. However, the analysis reported here provides a number of alternatives with reasonable detection efficiency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmed Hassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16683630"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organochlorines in antarctic and arctic avian top predators: a comparison between the South Polar Skua and two species of northern hemisphere <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Different organochlorine compounds (OCs) were measured in the blood of breeding south polar skuas (Catharacta maccormicki) at Svarthamaren, Dronning Maud Land (Antarctica) and compared to those in two species of northern hemisphere <span class="hlt">gulls</span>: the Arctic glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus hyperboreus) and the subarctic great black-backed <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus marinus). The skuas had 8% and 29% of the SigmaOC levels (45 ng/g, wet weight) of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (591 ng/g) and great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (158 ng/g), respectively. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) were very low in skuas compared to northern <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, but the mean hexachlorobenzene (HCB) level was 1.7 times higher than in great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and one-third of the glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> level. Mirex levels in skuas were among the highest reported in birds, the mean level being 3 and 26 times higher than those in glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> and great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, respectively. In skuas, the mean levels of HCB, oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by about 30% during a 2-week period, and mirex increased by nearly 60%. In glacuous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCBs increased by 10-20%. For HCB, mirex, and oxychlordane, only a relatively small proportion of the increase in skuas could be explained by changes in lipid pools and the levels at first sampling, compared to glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. Thus, skuas were probably accumulating these compounds when present in Antarctica. p,p'-DDE and PCB levels, in contrast, seemed much more stable in the skuas. Relatively high levels of mirex and HCB in south polar skuas are concerning with regard to potential adverse effects. PMID:16683630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bustnes, Jan O; Tveraa, Torkild; Henden, John A; Varpe, Oystein; Janssen, Kirstin; Skaare, Janneche U</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23870200"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Gull</span>-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote Mediterranean nature reserve.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of a yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, THg, V, Zn) was assessed in a Mediterranean nature reserve (Marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. Trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. In contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. Biogenic enrichment factor B confirmed the role of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in the release of trace elements through guano subsidies. In addition, comparing trace element pond concentrations to the US NOAA's SQGs, As, Cu and Ni showed contamination levels associated with possible negative biological effects. Thus, this study reflects the need to take seabirds into account as key factors influencing ecological processes and contamination levels even in remote areas, especially around the Mediterranean, where these birds are abundant but overlooked. PMID:23870200</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21556688"> <span id="translatedtitle">Helminths of the kelp <span class="hlt">gull</span>, Larus dominicanus, from the northern Patagonian coast.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The helminth community of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes) is reported from Península Valdés, on the Patagonian coast, Argentina. From March 2000 to April 2004, 29 kelp <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were collected and dissected. All the birds were parasitized by at least 2 of 18 parasite species: 2 cestodes (1 Tetrabothriidae, 1 Dilepididae), 10 trematodes (2 Echinostomatidae, 3 Microphallidae, 2 Gymnophallidae, 1 Philophthalmidae, 1 Dicrocoeliidae, 1 Diplostomatidae), 4 nematodes (2 Acuariidae, 1 Capillaridae, 1 Anisakidae), and 2 acanthocephalans (Polymorphidae). The mean intensity was 3,204 parasites per host, and all helminths parasitized the gastrointestinal tract or associated glands. The helminth community of L. dominicanus on the Peninsula Valdés coast seems to be richer than those reported by previous authors in other localities in Argentina. This could be due to a greater diversity in prey items available. Nine species are recorded for the first time from the kelp <span class="hlt">gull</span> and seven species are recorded for the first time from Argentina. PMID:21556688</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diaz, Julia Inés; Cremonte, Florencia; Navone, Graciela Teresa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40180299"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organochlorines and Possible Biochemical Effects in Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> ( Larus hyperboreus ) from Bjørnøya, the Barents Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.   To study possible biochemical effects of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus), 40 adult individuals were collected from colonies on Bjørnøya in the Barents Sea. OCs (four pesticides and nine PCB congeners),\\u000a microsomal 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, microsomal testosterone hydroxylation, highly carboxylated porphyrins\\u000a (HCPs), retinol, and retinyl palmitate were quantified in liver samples. The hepatic vitamin A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. O. Henriksen; G. W. Gabrielsen; S. Trudeau; J. Wolkers; K. Sagerup; J. U. Skaare</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40211494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Individual differences in nest defense in the colonial breeding Black-tailed <span class="hlt">Gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Often in colonial seabirds, all colony members are believed to defend against nest predators and experience equal nest predation\\u000a risk. However, the variation of defense behavior among members and its reproductive consequences are largely unknown. We investigated\\u000a (1) individual variation in the nest defense of breeding Black-tailed <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> Larus crassirostris against a natural egg predator, the Jungle Crow Corvus macrorhynchos</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kentaro Kazama; Yutaka Watanuki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1557-9263.2011.00333.x"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating <span class="hlt">gull</span> diets: A comparison of conventional methods and stable isotope analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Samples such as regurgitated pellets and food remains have traditionally been used in studies of bird diets, but these can produce biased estimates depending on the digestibility of different foods. Stable isotope analysis has been developed as a method for assessing bird diets that is not biased by digestibility. These two methods may provide complementary or conflicting information on diets of birds, but are rarely compared directly. We analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of feathers of Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus hyperboreus) chicks from eight breeding colonies in northern Alaska, and used a Bayesian mixing model to generate a probability distribution for the contribution of each food group to diets. We compared these model results with probability distributions from conventional diet samples (pellets and food remains) from the same colonies and time periods. Relative to the stable isotope estimates, conventional analysis often overestimated the contributions of birds and small mammals to <span class="hlt">gull</span> diets and often underestimated the contributions of fish and zooplankton. Both methods gave similar estimates for the contributions of scavenged caribou, miscellaneous marine foods, and garbage to diets. Pellets and food remains therefore may be useful for assessing the importance of garbage relative to certain other foods in diets of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and similar birds, but are clearly inappropriate for estimating the potential impact of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> on birds, small mammals, or fish. However, conventional samples provide more species-level information than stable isotope analysis, so a combined approach would be most useful for diet analysis and assessing a predator's impact on particular prey groups. ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiser, E. L.; Powell, A. N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/086f6l4lc6rajkh5.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's <span class="hlt">gull</span>, Larus audouinii</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effects of food availability and nest predation on several life history traits such as adult survival, dispersal, and\\u000a reproductive performance were assessed in an Audouin's <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus audouinii) colony during the period 1992–1997. The amounts of fish discarded from trawlers were used as a measure of food availability,\\u000a and a trawling moratorium which partially overlapped with the breeding season</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Oro; Roger Pradel; Jean-Dominique Lebreton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40211435"> <span id="translatedtitle">Egg antimicrobials, embryo sex and chick phenotype in the yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gull</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maternal effects through albumen quality are largely unexplored, despite the fundamental role that albumen exerts as source\\u000a of proteins and water, as well as for antimicrobial defence of the embryo. We analysed the variation of two major albumen\\u000a antimicrobials, avidin and lysozyme, by extracting samples from freshly laid eggs of the yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus michahellis) and by correlating their levels</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andrea Bonisoli-Alquati; Diego Rubolini; Maria Romano; Marco Cucco; Mauro Fasola; Manuela Caprioli; Nicola Saino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16050599"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interseasonal variation in blood concentrations of organochlorines in great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus marinus).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In two subsequent breeding seasons (2001 and 2002), we measured 12 organochlorines (OCs), including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), oxychlordane, and eight polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), in the blood of the same 25 great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus marinus). The wet-weight concentrations of different OCs in the blood decreased between 45 and 60% from 2001 to 2002. The main reasons for this were lower blood-lipid concentrations and higher body condition in 2002 compared to 2001. The differences in blood lipids and body condition probably resulted from changes in the availability of different prey types between the years. Despite the variation in the blood concentrations of OCs, there was a high predictability of the relative relationship among individuals between the years, especially for the most-persistent compounds (persistent PCBs, oxychlordane, and DDE); that is, individuals with high levels in 2001 still had relatively high levels compared to other individuals in 2002. This suggests that a concentration obtained from a single blood sample is a relatively reliable measurement of OC burdens for individual great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> compared to other individuals, independent of changes in mean OC levels within the population. However, by including information about the nutritional status of individuals, more precise interference from samples in different years and locations may be made. Moreover, the great seasonal variation in OC levels within individuals may have implications for how OC monitoring should be conducted in <span class="hlt">gull</span> populations. PMID:16050599</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bustnes, Jan Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Berg, Vidar; Tveraa, Torkild</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19932109"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adrenocortical function of Arctic-breeding glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in relation to persistent organic pollutants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Unpredictable changes in the environment stimulate the avian hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to produce corticosterone, which induces behavioural and metabolic changes that enhance survival in the face of adverse environmental conditions. In addition to profound environmental perturbations, such as severe weather conditions and unpredictable food shortages, many Arctic-breeding birds are also confronted with chronic exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of which are known to disrupt endocrine processes. This study investigated the adrenocortical function of a top predator in the Arctic marine environment, the glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus hyperboreus). High concentrations of organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and metabolically-derived products in blood plasma of incubating glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were associated with high baseline corticosterone concentrations in both sexes and a reduced stress response in males. Contaminant-related changes in corticosterone concentration occurred over and above differences in body condition and seasonal variation. Chronically high corticosterone concentrations and/or a compromised adrenocortical response to stress can have negative effects on the health of an individual. The results of the present study suggest that exposure to POPs may increase the vulnerability of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> to environmental stressors and thus could potentially compromise their ability to adapt to the rapidly changing environmental conditions associated with climate change that are currently seen in the Arctic. PMID:19932109</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verboven, Nanette; Verreault, Jonathan; Letcher, Robert J; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Evans, Neil P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20044795"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Svalbard glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> as bioindicator species in the European arctic: insight from 35 years of contaminants research.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biomonitoring survey conducted with glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from Svalbard have demonstrated that this top-predator-scavenger species accumulates a wide array of chemicals of environmental concern, including organohalogens, trace elements, organometals, and several non-halogenated and non-metallic-compounds. Among these contaminants are those subjected to global bans or restrictions in North America and Europe (e.g., legacy OC's, penta-, and octa-PBDE technical mixtures and mercury). In addition, some currently produced chemicals were found in <span class="hlt">gulls</span> that lack and global use regulation (e.g., deca-PBDE , HBCD, and other non-PBDE BFR additives, siloxanes, and selected PFASs). Svalbard glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are also exposed to contaminant metabolites that, at time, are more bioactive than their precursors (e.g., oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, OH- and MeSo2-PCBs, and OH-PBDEs) Concentrations of legacy OCs (PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, CBzs, dieldrin, PCDD/Fs, and mirec) in tissues, blood, and eggs of Svalbard glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> have displayed the highest contamination levels among glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> populations that inhabit Greenland (Cleemann et al. 2000) Jan Mayen (Gabrielsen et al. 1997), Alaska (Vander Pol et al. 2009), and the Canadian Arctic (Braune et a. 2005). To date, measurements obtaines on more novel organohalogens (e.g., OH- and MeSo2-containing metabolites, BFRs and PFASs) in Svalbard glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> samples generally confirm that the spatial and trophodynamic trends of the legacy OC concentrations, whereas no clear trend emerges from surveys of trace elements and organometals. Using the glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> as biosentinel species provides clear evidence that Svalbard and the European Arctic environment is exposed to a complex mixture of legacy and more recently introduced PBT-like substances. PMID:20044795</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, J; Gabrielsen, G W; Bustnes, J O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12927495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of the yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus cachinnans michahellis) in the North Eastern Mediterranean: is this <span class="hlt">gull</span> a suitable biomonitor for the region?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Levels of eight PCB congeners and thirteen organochlorine pesticides were measured in eggs sampled at four yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gull</span> colonies from the Aegean Sea (NorthEastern Mediterranean) in 1997. There were no significant differences among colony areas in the median concentrations in any of the pollutants whereas cluster analyses did not generally reveal reasonable pollution patterns. The maximum concentrations of four congeners were found at Kinaros colony and of nine compounds were found at Lipsos colony. Fingerprints in both groups were similar in all areas. Of PCBs, congener 28, 118, 138, 180 and of pesticides beta-BHC and 2,4'-DDD were prominently dominant suggesting a particular pollution pattern in this region. Statistically significant correlations were found between most of the higher PCBs in all areas studied. The DDT metabolites correlated mostly with other OCs. We suggest that regional pollution by both groups is not adequately reflected in the eggs of this <span class="hlt">gull</span> probably due to its extensive scavenging habits and, though information is needed from more colonies, it seems to be a poor biomonitor for organochlorines in this region. PMID:12927495</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Albanis, T A; Goutner, V; Konstantinou, I K; Frigis, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13922549"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why do snakes have eyes? The (non-)effect of blindness in <span class="hlt">island</span> tiger snakes ( Notechis scutatus )</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large (to >1?m), diurnally active tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) are abundant on Carnac <span class="hlt">Island</span>, near the coast of Western Australia. Our behavioural and mark-recapture studies provide the\\u000a first ecological data on this population, and reveal a surprising phenomenon. Many adult tiger snakes have had their eyes\\u000a destroyed, apparently during nest defence, by silver <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus novaehollandiae). This loss of vision</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xavier Bonnet; Don Bradshaw; Richard Shine; David Pearson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16564607"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gull</span> on the Norwegian Coast.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gull</span>, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were as high as in great black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. PMID:16564607</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/5224074"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diets of nesting Laughing <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia Coast Reserve: Observations from stable isotope analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulafion dietary variation in top-level consumers. In this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the Laughing <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of <span class="hlt">gull</span> tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the Virginia Coast Reserve estuarine system. As earlier traditional diet studies found evidence of individual dietary specialization within <span class="hlt">gull</span> populations, this study used stable isotope analysis to assess specialization in a coastal Laughing <span class="hlt">Gull</span> population. Specifically, blood, muscle, and feather isotope values indicated significant dietary specialization. Some <span class="hlt">gulls</span> relied more heavily on estuarine prey (mean blood a13 C=-17.5, a15N=12.6, a34S-9.3), whereas others appeared to consume more foods of marine origin (mean blood a13C=-19.4, a15N=14.8, and a34S=10.4). It is important to account for such dietary variability when assessing trophic linkages in dynamic estuarine systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knoff, A.J.; Macko, S.A.; Erwin, R.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023447"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diets of nesting laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia coast reserve: Observations from stable isotope analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulation dietary variation in top-level consumers. In this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the Laughing <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of <span class="hlt">gull</span> tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the Virginia Coast Reserve estuarine system. As earlier traditional diet studies found evidence of individual dietary specialization within <span class="hlt">gull</span> populations, this study used stable isotope analysis to assess specialization in a coastal Laughing <span class="hlt">Gull</span> population. Specifically, blood, muscle, and feather isotope values indicated significant intrapopulation dietary specialization. Some <span class="hlt">gulls</span> relied more heavily on estuarine prey (mean blood ??13C=-17.5, ??15N=12.6, and ??34S=9.3), whereas others appeared to consume more foods of marine origin (mean blood ??13C=-19.4, ??15N=14.8, and ??34S=10.4). It is important to account for such dietary variability when assessing trophic linkages in dynamic estuarine systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Knoff, A. J.; Macko, S. A.; Erwin, R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21343928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?(34)S with negative ?(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction. PMID:21343928</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3105335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes (32S, 33S, 34S and 36S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative ?34S with negative ?33S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40341867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus argentatus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Lemmetyinen; P. Rantamaki; A. Karlin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492207"> <span id="translatedtitle">Egg oiling to reduce hatch-year ring-billed <span class="hlt">gull</span> numbers on Chicago's beaches during swim season and water quality test results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A burgeoning ring-billed <span class="hlt">gull</span> population along Chicago's Lake Michigan beaches contributes to degraded water quality through fecal contamination. Egg oiling was conducted at Chicago's <span class="hlt">gull</span> colonies to reduce production and the influx of hatch-year (HY) <span class="hlt">gulls</span> using Chicago's beaches, with a second, long-term objective of eventually reducing adult <span class="hlt">gull</span> numbers through attrition. We also investigated swim season water quality trends through the course of this work. From 2007 to 2009, 52, 80, and 81%, of nests at the two primary nest colonies had their eggs rendered inviable by corn oil application. Counts of HY and after hatch-year (AHY) <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were analyzed during treatment years for 10 beaches. Water quality data were available from the Chicago Park District during our three treatment years and the prior year (baseline) for 19 beaches. HY counts declined at all 10 surveyed beaches from the initial year (52% nests with oiled eggs) to subsequent years with ~80% of nests oiled. Overall, HY <span class="hlt">gulls</span> numbers on beaches decreased 86% from 2007 to 2009. Decreases in beach usage by AHY <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were not detected. Compared to pretreatment, the number of beaches with improved water quality test rates increased each year through the course of the study. The frequency of water quality tests showing bacterial exceedances compared to 2006 declined at 18 of 19 beaches by 2009. Egg oiling resulted in fewer HY <span class="hlt">gulls</span> using Chicago's beaches and was likely a beneficial factor for reduced frequencies of swim advisories and swim bans. PMID:22492207</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Engeman, Richard M; Hartmann, John W; Beckerman, Scott F; Seamans, Thomas W; Abu-Absi, Sarah</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.climategeology.ethz.ch/people/lrebecca/2008_herring_gull_pollutants.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Health of Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) in Relation to Breeding Location in the Early 1990s. III. Effects on the Bone Tissue</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Health effects associated with the Great Lakes environment were assessed in adult herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) in the early 1990s, including the size and quality of their bones. Femurs were excised from 140 individuals from 10 colonies distributed throughout the Great Lakes and 2 reference colonies in Lake Winnipeg (freshwater) and the Bay of Fundy (marine). Femurs of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glen A. Fox; Rebecca Lundberg; Carolina Wejheden; Lars Lind; Sune Larsson; Jan Örberg; P. Monica Lind</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.joelheath.ca/pdf/497-500.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Timing of Bald Eagle Attendance and Influence on Activity Budgets of Glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> in Barkley Sound, British Columbia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As raptor populations recover following the banning of organochlorine pesticide use, there may be consequences for prey populations. While Bald Eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) actively prey on Glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> and their offspring ( Larus glaucescens ), their presence at colonies and roost sites may also influence reproduc- tive success of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> by impacting activity budgets. Here we investigate changes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A IJA F. W HITE; J OEL P. H EATH; B RIAN G ISBORNE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14220109"> <span id="translatedtitle">MODELING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONSERVATION PRACTICES AT <span class="hlt">SHOAL</span> CREEK WATERSHED, TEXAS, USING APEX</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Agricultural Policy\\/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model using daily storm event runoff and sediment yields (1997-2005) collected at the outlet of the 22.5 km 2 <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek watershed. This watershed only has intermittent streams. The watershed is within the U.S. Army's Fort Hood military reservation in central Texas. It received a combination</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">X. Wang; D. W. Hoffman; J. E. Wolfe; J. R. Williams; W. E. Fox</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008ECSS...77...47H"> <span id="translatedtitle">A cellular automata model for population expansion of Spartina alterniflora at Jiuduansha <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Shanghai, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biological invasion has received considerable attention recently because of increasing impacts on local ecosystems. Expansion of Spartina alterniflora, a non-native species, on the intertidal mudflats of Jiuduansha <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> at the Yangtze River Estuary is a prime example of a spatially-structured invasion in a relatively simple habitat, for which strategic control efforts can be modeled and applied. Here, we developed a Cellular Automata (CA) model, in conjunction with Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems, to simulate the expanding process of S. alterniflora for a period of 8 years after being introduced to the new <span class="hlt">shoals</span>, and to study the interactions between spatial pattern and ecosystem processes for the saltmarsh vegetation. The results showed that the CA model could simulate the population dynamics of S. alterniflora and Phragmites australis on the Jiuduansha <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> successfully. The results strongly support the hypothesis of space pre-emption as well as range expansion with simple advancing wave fronts for these two species. In the Yangtze River Estuary, the native species P. australis shares the same niche with the exotic species S. alterniflora. However, the range expansion rate of P. australis was much slower than that of S. alterniflora. With the accretion of the Jiuduansha <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> due to the large quantity of sediments deposited by the Yangtze River, a rapid range expansion of S. alterniflora is predicted to last for a long period into future. This study indicated the potential for this approach to provide valuable insights into population and community ecology of invasive species, which could be very important for wetland biodiversity conservation and resource management in the Yangtze River Estuary and other such impacted areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Hua-mei; Zhang, Li-quan; Guan, Yu-juan; Wang, Dong-hui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/428742"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean Disposal from <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Harbor/Compton Creek Project Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Harbor/Compton Creek Project was to evaluate proposed dredged material from the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> harbor/Compton Creek Project Area in Belford and Monmouth, New Jersey to determine its suitability for unconfined ocean disposal at the Mud Dump Site. This was one of five waterways that the US Army Corps of Engineers- New York District requested the Battelle Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to sample and evaluate for dredging and disposal in May 1995. The evaluation of proposed dredged material from the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Harbor/Compton Creek Project area consisted of bulk chemical analyses, chemical analyses of dredging site water and elutriate, benthic and water-column acute toxicity tests and bioaccumulation studies. Eleven core samples were analyzed or grain size, moisture content, and total organic carbon. Other sediments were evaluated for bulk density, specific gravity, metals, chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and 1,4- dichlorobenzene. Dredging site water and elutriate water were analyzed for metals, pesticides, and PCBs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gardiner, W.W.; Borde, A.B.; Nieukirk, S.L.; Barrows, E.S.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3509151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Tracking on the Flyways of Brown-Headed <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> and Their Potential Role in the Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brown-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus brunnicephalus), winter visitors of Thailand, were tracked by satellite telemetry during 2008–2011 for investigating their roles in the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread. Eight <span class="hlt">gulls</span> negative for influenza virus infection were marked with solar-powered satellite platform transmitters at Bang Poo study site in Samut Prakarn province, Thailand; their movements were monitored by the Argos satellite tracking system, and locations were mapped. Five <span class="hlt">gulls</span> completed their migratory cycles, which spanned 7 countries (China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) affected by the HPAI H5N1 virus. <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> migrated from their breeding grounds in China to stay overwinter in Thailand and Cambodia; while Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam were the places of stopovers during migration. <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> traveled an average distance of about 2400 km between Thailand and China and spent 1–2 weeks on migration. Although AI surveillance among <span class="hlt">gulls</span> was conducted at the study site, no AI virus was isolated and no H5N1 viral genome or specific antibody was detected in the 75 <span class="hlt">gulls</span> tested, but 6.6% of blood samples were positive for pan-influenza A antibody. No AI outbreaks were reported in areas along flyways of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in Thailand during the study period. Distance and duration of migration, tolerability of the captive <span class="hlt">gulls</span> to survive the HPAI H5N1 virus challenge and days at viral shedding after the virus challenging suggested that the Brown-headed <span class="hlt">gull</span> could be a potential species for AI spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries, the epicenter of H5N1 AI outbreak.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ratanakorn, Parntep; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Eiamampai, Krairat; Farmer, Adrian H.; Webster, Robert G.; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Pothieng, Duangrat; Puthavathana, Pilaipan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23209623"> <span id="translatedtitle">Satellite tracking on the flyways of brown-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and their potential role in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Brown-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus brunnicephalus), winter visitors of Thailand, were tracked by satellite telemetry during 2008-2011 for investigating their roles in the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus spread. Eight <span class="hlt">gulls</span> negative for influenza virus infection were marked with solar-powered satellite platform transmitters at Bang Poo study site in Samut Prakarn province, Thailand; their movements were monitored by the Argos satellite tracking system, and locations were mapped. Five <span class="hlt">gulls</span> completed their migratory cycles, which spanned 7 countries (China, Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam) affected by the HPAI H5N1 virus. <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> migrated from their breeding grounds in China to stay overwinter in Thailand and Cambodia; while Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, and Vietnam were the places of stopovers during migration. <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> traveled an average distance of about 2400 km between Thailand and China and spent 1-2 weeks on migration. Although AI surveillance among <span class="hlt">gulls</span> was conducted at the study site, no AI virus was isolated and no H5N1 viral genome or specific antibody was detected in the 75 <span class="hlt">gulls</span> tested, but 6.6% of blood samples were positive for pan-influenza A antibody. No AI outbreaks were reported in areas along flyways of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in Thailand during the study period. Distance and duration of migration, tolerability of the captive <span class="hlt">gulls</span> to survive the HPAI H5N1 virus challenge and days at viral shedding after the virus challenging suggested that the Brown-headed <span class="hlt">gull</span> could be a potential species for AI spread, especially among Southeast Asian countries, the epicenter of H5N1 AI outbreak. PMID:23209623</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ratanakorn, Parntep; Wiratsudakul, Anuwat; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Eiamampai, Krairat; Farmer, Adrian H; Webster, Robert G; Chaichoune, Kridsada; Suwanpakdee, Sarin; Pothieng, Duangrat; Puthavathana, Pilaipan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the high age 1+ entrainment rate at Desdemona <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> in June 2002 unusual, or would it be observed again under similar conditions? PNNL and USACE personnel directly measured crab entrainment by the USACE hopper dredge Essayons working in Desdemona <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> in June 2006. In addition to quantifying crab entrainment of all age classes, bottom salinity was directly measured in as many samples as possible, so that the relationship between crab entrainment and salinity could be further evaluated. All 2006 data were collected and analyzed in a manner consistent with the previous entrainment studies (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003, 2005).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3402200"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hybridization among Arctic white-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed <span class="hlt">gull</span> that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (?ST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (?ST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger ? estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed <span class="hlt">gull</span> species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed <span class="hlt">gull</span> behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sonsthagen, Sarah A; Chesser, R Terry; Bell, Douglas A; Dove, Carla J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991ECSS...32..207B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vigilance and feeding behaviour in large feeding flocks of laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, Larus atricilla, on Delaware Bay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> ( Larus atricilla) forage on horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs during May in Delaware Bay each year. They feed in dense flocks, and foraging rates vary with vigilance, bird density, number of steps and location in the flock, whereas time devoted to vigilance is explained by number of steps, density, location and feeding rates. The time devoted to vigilance decreases with increasing density, increasing foraging rates and decreasing aggression. Birds foraging on the edge of flocks take fewer pecks and more steps, and devote more time to vigilance than those in the intermediate or central parts of a flock.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11852-010-0119-y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Islands</span> at bay: Rising seas, eroding <span class="hlt">islands</span>, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Like many resources in the Chesapeake Bay region of the U. S., many waterbird nesting populations have suffered over the past three to four decades. In this study, historic information for the entire Bay and recent results from the Tangier Sound region were evaluated to illustrate patterns of <span class="hlt">island</span> erosion and habitat loss for 19 breeding species of waterbirds. Aerial imagery and field data collected in the nesting season were the primary sources of data. From 1993/1994 to 2007/2008, a group of 15 <span class="hlt">islands</span> in Tangier Sound, Virginia were reduced by 21% in area, as most of their small dunes and associated vegetation and forest cover were lost to increased washovers. Concurrently, nesting American black ducks (Anas rubripes) declined by 66%, wading birds (herons-egrets) by 51%, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> by 72%, common terns (Sterna hirundo) by 96% and black skimmers (Rynchops niger) by about 70% in this complex. The declines noted at the larger Bay-wide scale suggest that this study area maybe symptomatic of a systemic limitation of nesting habitat for these species. The <span class="hlt">island</span> losses noted in the Chesapeake have also been noted in other Atlantic U. S. coastal states. Stabilization and/or restoration of at least some of the rapidly eroding <span class="hlt">islands</span> at key coastal areas are critical to help sustain waterbird communities. ?? 2010 US Government.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erwin, R. M.; Brinker, D. F.; Watts, B. D.; Costanzo, G. R.; Morton, D. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5233273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Levels of DDT and PCB's in different stages of life cycle of the arctic tern Sterna paradisaea and the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus argentatus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">..sigma..DDT and PCB levels were analyzed in samples of arctic terns and herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> collected in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Special attention was paid to the levels at various stages of the life cycle and in different sexes. The levels were nearly ten times higher in the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>. The highest loads were found in adult birds and in newly hatched chicks but the levels were much lower (only 7-12 % in the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>) in chicks just before fledgling. The levels in young <span class="hlt">gulls</span> remained low until the end of August at least. Therefore it is plausible that the high levels found in adult <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are a consequence of their wintering in the southern Baltic. The levels of ..sigma..DDT and PCB residues were significantly lower in female arctic terns than in male terns. Differences between the sexes were small in the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>. Thus it is possible that the female of the arctic tern is able to release pollutants, especially PCB residues, more effectively into eggs than the female of the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>. The biochemical mechanisms involved are not clear but a possible explanation may be different lipoprotein structures in the eggs of the species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lemmetyinen, R.; Rantamaki, P.; Karlin, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V5X-4007DK3-1C&_user=3109910&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F1995&_rdoc=8&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235798%231995%23999289997%23186669%23FLP%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5798&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=49&_acct=C000038819&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=3109910&md5=9b78ae7fbc60ab934da4a079731499a9"> <span id="translatedtitle">The value and vulnerability of small estuarine <span class="hlt">islands</span> for conserving metapopulations of breeding waterbirds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Compelling arguments for preserving large habitat '<span class="hlt">islands</span>' have been made for a number of animal groups, but most commonly for terrestrial birds. We argue that, for many species of waterbirds nesting in coastal estuaries, maintaining numerous small <span class="hlt">islands</span> may be a more effective management strategy than maintaining larger <span class="hlt">islands</span> or reserves. In this study, the number of great white heron Ardea herodias nests over a 5-year period (1986-91) was negatively correlated with <span class="hlt">island</span> area in the Florida Keys, USA. Nest densities were highest in the 210 ha <span class="hlt">island</span> size range and lowest for <span class="hlt">islands</span> larger than 100 ha. These small <span class="hlt">islands</span> also attract nesting black skimmers Rynchops niger, brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis, and several species of terns and <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. Small estuarine <span class="hlt">islands</span> are vulnerable to sea level rise, erosion from watercraft, and, for dredge material <span class="hlt">islands</span>, lack of sufficient maintenance because of competing needs for beach nourishment. Managers need to enforce more buffering and protection of these <span class="hlt">islands</span> and argue for more dredged material allocations in some areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Erwin, R.M.; Hatfield, J.S.; Wilmers, T.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23124272"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> behaviour enhances risk of predation from multiple predator guilds in a marine fish.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predicting the consequences of predator biodiversity loss on prey requires an understanding of multiple predator interactions. Predators are often assumed to have independent and additive effects on shared prey survival; however, multiple predator effects can be non-additive if predators foraging together reduce prey survival (risk enhancement) or increase prey survival through interference (risk reduction). In marine communities, juvenile reef fish experience very high mortality from two predator guilds with very different hunting modes and foraging domains-benthic and pelagic predator guilds. The few previous predator manipulation studies have found or assumed that mortality is independent and additive. We tested whether interacting predator guilds result in non-additive prey mortality and whether the detection of such effects change over time as prey are depleted. To do so, we examined the roles of benthic and pelagic predators on the survival of a juvenile <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> zooplanktivorous temperate reef fish, Trachinops caudimaculatus, on artificial patch reefs over 2 months in Port Phillip Bay, Australia. We observed risk enhancement in the first 7 days, as <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behaviour placed prey between predator foraging domains with no effective refuge. At day 14 we observed additive mortality, and risk enhancement was no longer detectable. By days 28 and 62, pelagic predators were no longer significant sources of mortality and additivity was trivial. We hypothesize that declines in prey density led to reduced <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behaviour that brought prey more often into the domain of benthic predators, resulting in limited mortality from pelagic predators. Furthermore, pelagic predators may have spent less time patrolling reefs in response to declines in prey numbers. Our observation of the changing interaction between predators and prey has important implications for assessing the role of predation in regulating populations in complex communities. PMID:23124272</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ford, John R; Swearer, Stephen E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic61-3-322.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ross's <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Rhodostethia rosea) Breeding in Greenland: A Review, with Special Emphasis on Records from 1979 to 2007</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This review summarizes breeding records of Ross's <span class="hlt">gull</span> in Greenland with special emphasis on the period between 1979 and 2007. The review comprises both previously published records (including some published only in Danish) and unpublished reports and breeding records from 2004 and 2006. The majority of the Greenland breeding records fall into two geographically isolated areas that differ in habitat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CARSTEN EGEVANG; DAVID BOERTMANN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1469670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in prefledgling Caspian terns and herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from the Great Lakes: an ecoepidemiological study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of study were to determine whether contaminant-associated immunosuppression occurs in prefledgling herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and Caspian terns from the Great Lakes and to evaluate immunological biomarkers for monitoring health effects in wild birds. During 1992 to 1994, immunological responses and related variables were measured in prefledgling chicks at colonies distributed across a broad gradient of organochlorine contamination (primarily polychlorinated biphenyls), which was measured in eggs. The phytohemagglutinin skin test was used to assess T-lymphocyte function. In both species, there was a strong exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and suppressed T-cell-mediated immunity. Suppression was most severe (30-45%) in colonies in Lake Ontario (1992) and Saginaw Bay (1992-1994) for both species and in western Lake Erie (1992) for herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. Both species exhibited biologically significant differences among sites in anti-sheep red blood cells antibody titers, but consistent exposure-response relationships with organochlorines were not observed. In Caspian terns and, to a lesser degree, in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, there was an exposure-response relationship between organochlorines and reduced plasma retinol (vitamin A). In 1992, altered White blood cell numbers were associated with elevated organochlorine concentrations in Caspian terns but not herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. The immunological and hematological biomarkers used in this study revealed contaminant-associated health effects in wild birds. An epidemiological analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that suppression of T-cell-mediated immunity was associated with high perinatal exposure to persistent organochlorine contaminants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grasman, K A; Fox, G A; Scanlon, P F; Ludwig, J P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.imedea.uib.es/natural/goi/seabirds/docs/dietibis1996.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diet and adult time budgets of Audouin's <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus audouinii in response to changes in commercial fisheries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diet and feeding ecology of breeding Audouin's <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus audouinii were examined at the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean) during 1993, 1994 and 1995 and found to depend on the activity of the commercial fisheries operating within the foraging range of the birds in the colony. One of the largest fishing fleets in the Mediterranean operates in this afea, both</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. ORO; X. RUIZ; L. JOVER; V. PEDROCCHI; J. GONZÁLEZ-SOLÍS</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22673175"> <span id="translatedtitle">Eggshell thinning and decreased concentrations of vitamin E are associated with contaminants in eggs of ivory <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> is a high Arctic seabird species threatened by climate change and contaminant exposure. High levels of contaminants have been reported in ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> Pagophila eburnea eggs from Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. The present study investigated associations between high levels of contaminants (organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg)) and three response variables: eggshell thickness, retinol (vitamin A) and ?-tocopherol (vitamin E). Negative associations were found between levels of OCPs, PCBs and BFRs and eggshell thickness (p<0.021) and ?-tocopherol (p<0.023), but not with retinol (p>0.1). There were no associations between PFASs and mercury and the three response variables. Furthermore, the eggshell thickness was 7-17% thinner in the present study than in archived ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs (?1930). In general, a thinning above 16 to 20% has been associated with a decline in bird populations, suggesting that contaminant-induced eggshell thinning may constitute a serious threat to ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> populations globally. PMID:22673175</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miljeteig, Cecilie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Strøm, Hallvard; Gavrilo, Maria V; Lie, Elisabeth; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m41ge2aedgn9a4tm.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of migratory cycle and 17ß-estradiol on splenic leukocyte functions in female black-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The immune function of wild birds is practically unknown. We have studied several functions of splenic leukocytes from the <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus ridibundus. Considering that avian physiology is strikingly affected by the seasonal migratory cycle, those functions were analyzed throughout the seasonal cycle. The functions assayed were: adherence to substrate, chemotaxis and lymphoproliferative response to mitogens. Estrogens have been reported to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Francisco J. Muñoz; Mónica De la Fuente</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l0775637515162w3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The diet of Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) during winter and early spring on the lower Great Lakes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Great Lakes, the Herring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus argentatus) is a prominent member of the aquatic bird community, and has been used to monitor spatial and temporal trends in contaminant levels. To understand more fully contaminant loading outside the breeding season, we analysed the contents of 1298 freshly regurgitated pellets and 179 fresh faeces, collected in March and early April</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. J. Ewins; D. V. Weseloh; J. H. Groom; R. Z. Dobos; P. Mineau</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gull-research.org/papers/20crochet.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION AT NUCLEAR AND MITOCHONDRIAL LOCI AMONG LARGE WHITE-HEADED <span class="hlt">GULLS</span>: SEX-BIASED INTERSPECIFIC GENE FLOW?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measured genetic differentiation among species of large white-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> using mitochondrial (cy- tochrome b haplotypes) and nuclear (microsatellites) markers. Additional information was added using a previously published study of allozymes on the same species. Levels of differentiation among species at nuclear markers are much lower than would be expected for avian species and are not concordant with the level</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pierre-Andre Crochet; Junjian Z. Chen; Jean-Marc Pons; Jean-Dominique Lebreton; Paul D. N. Hebert; François Bonhomme</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19288711"> <span id="translatedtitle">[CO2 exchanges between mangrove- and <span class="hlt">shoal</span> wetland ecosystems and atmosphere in Guangzhou].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the investigation of biomass and the measurement of CO2 and CH4 fluxes, the CO2 exchanges between mangrove- and <span class="hlt">shoal</span> wetland ecosystems and atmosphere in Guangzhou were studied, and the CO2 absorption capability of the wetlands vegetation net productivity as well as the carbon sink function of the wetlands under different waterlogged conditions (perennial, intermittent, and no water-logging) was analyzed. As for mangrove wetland ecosystem, its vegetation net productivity absorbed 33.74 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2, and soil emitted 12.26 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2 (including the greenhouse effect amount of CH4 converted into that of CO2,) illustrating that mangrove wetland had a 21.48 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) net absorption of CO2, being a strong carbon sink. For <span class="hlt">shoal</span> wetland ecosystem, its vegetation net productivity absorbed 8.54 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2, and soil emitted 5.88 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2 and 0.19 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CH4. If converting into carbon, the wetland absorbed 2.33 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), and soil emitted 1.74 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1) (including the carbon in CH4), illustrating that <span class="hlt">shoal</span> wetland fixed 0.59 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), being a weak carbon sink. If the greenhouse effect amount of CH4 was converted into that of CO2, the soil emitted 9.78 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) of CO2, which was 1.24 t x hm(-2) x a(-1) more than the absorption. As a result, <span class="hlt">shoal</span> wetland was a weak carbon source. Between the two test greenhouse gases, CH4 was the main one emitted under perennial water-logging, while CO2 was that under no water-logging. Moreover, the wetland under perennial water-logging had the strongest carbon sink function, while that under no water-logging was in adverse. PMID:19288711</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Wen-xing; Zhao, Zhong-hui; Tian, Da-lun; He, Jie-nan; Deng, Xiang-wen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/850296"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling to Support Groundwater Contaminant Boundaries for the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Underground Nuclear Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this work is to characterize groundwater flow and contaminant transport at the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> underground nuclear test through numerical modeling using site-specific hydrologic data. The ultimate objective is the development of a contaminant boundary, a model-predicted perimeter defining the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from the underground test throughout 1,000 years at a prescribed level of confidence. This boundary will be developed using the numerical models described here, after they are approved for that purpose by DOE and NDEP.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. Pohlmann; G. Pohll; J. Chapman; A. Hassan; R. Carroll; C. Shirley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16173559"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flame retardants and methoxylated and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in two Norwegian Arctic top predators: glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and polar bears.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The brominated flame retardants have been subject of a particular environmental focus in the Arctic. The present study investigated the congener patterns and levels of total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as methoxylated (MeO) and hydroxylated (OH) PBDEs in plasma samples of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) and polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from the Norwegian Arctic. The analyses revealed the presence of total HBCD (0.07-1.24 ng/g wet wt) and brominated biphenyl 101 (< 0.13-0.72 ng/g wet wt) in glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> samples whereas these compounds were generally found at nondetectable or transient concentrations in polar bears. Sum (sigma) concentrations of the 12 PBDEs monitored in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (range: 8.23-67.5 ng/g wet wt) surpassed largely those of polar bears (range: 2.65-9.72 ng/g wet wt). Two higher brominated PBDEs, BDE183 and BDE209, were detected, and thus bioaccumulated to a limited degree, in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> with concentrations ranging from < 0.03 to 0.43 ng/g wet wt and from < 0.05 to 0.33 ng/g wet wt, respectively. In polar bear plasma, BDE183 was < 0.04 ng/g wet wt for all animals, and BDE209 was only detected in 7% of the samples at concentrations up to 0.10 ng/g wet wt. Of the 15 MeO-PBDEs analyzed in plasma samples, 3-MeO-BDE47 was consistently dominant in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (sigmaMeO-PBDE: 0.30-4.30 ng/g wet wt) and polar bears (sigmaMeO-PBDE up to 0.17 ng/g wet wt), followed by 4'-MeO-BDE49 and 6-MeO-BDE47. The 3-OH-BDE47, 4'-OH-BDE49, and 6-OH-BDE47 congeners were also detected in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (sigmaOH-PBDE up to 1.05 ng/g wet wt), although in polar bears 4'-OH-BDE49 was the only congener quantifiable in 13% of the samples. The presence of MeO- and OH-PBDEs in plasma of both species suggests possible dietary uptake from naturally occurring sources (e.g., marine sponges and green algae), but also metabolically derived biotransformation of PBDEs such as BDE47 could be a contributing factor. Our findings suggest that there are dissimilar biochemical mechanisms involved in PCB and PBDE metabolism and accumulation/elimination and/or OH-PBDE accumulation and retention in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and polar bears. PMID:16173559</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, Jonathan; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Chu, Shaogang; Muir, Derek C G; Andersen, Magnus; Hamaed, Ahmad; Letcher, Robert J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/835966"> <span id="translatedtitle">Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-year monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahmed Hassan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6615E..15F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of the water optical properties and bottom reflectance from <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In earlier work, we have proposed a concept for estimation of ocean optical properties with a mutliple field of view bathymetric lidar. In this paper we consider and implementation of this idea using the Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey (<span class="hlt">SHOALS</span>) system. The <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> design uses two receivers for depth measurement: a shallow-water, APD receiver with and 18 mrad FOV; and a deep-water PMT receiver with a 40 mrad FOV. They simultaneously record the optical power returned from a single pulse of the laser, and consequently provide the desired measurements. Here, we present an algorithm for the estimation of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in the upper ocean layer which is based on "multiple-forward-single-backscattering" model of the returned power, and an analytical solution to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for finite sounding beam propogation in the small-angle-scattering approximation. Using this algorithm, we have developed an approach for estimation of the backscattering coefficient, the beam attenuation coefficient, the single-scattering albedo, and the VSF asymmetry coefficient, by fitting simulated waveforms to actual data measured by the two receivers. We also present an approach for improvement in estimates of bottom reflectance which compensates for pulse stretching induced by angle of incidence effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feygels, V. I.; Kopilevich, Y.; Tuell, G. H.; Surkov, A.; LaRocque, P.; Cunningham, A. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://icesjms.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/54/4/631.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Short communication Henslow's swimming crab (Polybius henslowii) as an important food for yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus cachinnans) in NW Spain</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of the contents of 2562 pellets sampled from 1987 to 1993 at breeding colonies and roosting sites showed that Henslow's swimming crabs (Polybius henslowii) are by far the most important marine prey for yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus cachinnans) on the coasts of Galicia (north-western Spain), occurring in 36.4% of pellets. The results also suggest that yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in Galicia</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ignacio Munilla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984ECSS...18..209B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of laughing <span class="hlt">gull</span> and shorebird predation on the intertidal fauna at Cape May, New Jersey</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The intertidal flats of the Cape May, New Jersey shore of Delaware Bay are populated by large numbers of laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and migrating shorebirds during the spring and early summer. Exclusion of birds from a shallow slough and a sand bar had only minor effects on the infaunal benthic invertebrate assemblage at either site. The Cape May beaches provide a rich source of food in the form of horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs; foraging on this item may be more profitable than probing the sediment for infauna. Gemma gemma, a small, thick-shelled bivalve, composed over 98% of the benthic infauna at both sites in 1980, and this species may be resistant to predation by certain shorebirds, as suggested by Schneider (1978).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Botton, M. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1809998"> <span id="translatedtitle">Egg-laying capacity is limited by carotenoid pigment availability in wild <span class="hlt">gulls</span> Larus fuscus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In birds, experimentally increased egg production can reduce maternal condition, parenting ability and survival, and the quality of the eggs themselves. Such costs probably reflect resource limitation, but the identity of the resource(s) in question remains unclear. Carotenoids are antioxidants and immunomodulants that birds can only obtain in their diet. Trade-offs in the allocation of limiting carotenoids between somatic maintenance and egg production could therefore be an important factor underlying reproductive costs. We show that in wild lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, Larus fuscus, dietary carotenoid availability (i) constrained the capacity to re-lay following clutch removal; and (ii) affected the relationship between yolk mass and egg mass. However, whether carotenoids are limiting for egg production directly, by stimulating the synthesis or antioxidant protection of yolk precursors, or indirectly via effects on maternal health, requires further study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blount, Jonathan D; Houston, David C; Surai, Peter F; M?ller, Anders Pape</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367821"> <span id="translatedtitle">Audouin's <span class="hlt">gull</span> chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mercury levels of Audouin's <span class="hlt">gull</span> are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alborán Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alborán Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed. PMID:17367821</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanpera, Carolina; Moreno, Roci O; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AcO....35...83W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of egg harvesting on breeding success of black-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, Larus ridibundus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Gull</span> colonies world-wide have been harvested for their eggs for centuries with minimal knowledge of the impacts on breeding. Although most Laridae can replace lost eggs, they have comparatively high energetic demands for egg production. In this paper we assess the impacts of a licensed egg harvest on the breeding success of black-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> Larus ridibundus, which nest colonially in an EU Special Protection Area in Hampshire, southern England. We compared egg volume, hatching and chick survival from harvested and un-harvested nests in central and fringe positions within colonies of various sizes, including colonies with no harvesting activity. Eggs from various laying stages were collected from harvested and un-harvested colonies of similar pre-harvest intrinsic quality, for comparison of their volumes, yolk-to-albumen ratios and eggshell thickness. Egg volume and the yolk-to-albumen ratio depended on laying time and location, with the largest eggs laid during the peak period by birds breeding in central positions on large colonies. Eggs produced by these peak layers also had the largest yolk-to-albumen ratios. Harvested sites were characterised by reductions in egg volume, yolk-to-albumen ratio and eggshell thickness, which translated to poorer hatching success and chick survival. Harvested sites also had a higher proportion of abnormal eggs, particularly taking the forms of small yolkless eggs and unpigmented eggs. The reduced breeding success on harvested colonies is likely to be linked to depletion of the female's endogenous reserves which can also reduce future survival and breeding propensity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wood, Philippa J.; Hudson, Malcolm D.; Doncaster, C. Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17467797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organohalogen and metabolically-derived contaminants and associations with whole body constituents in Norwegian Arctic glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Comprehensive surveys of organohalogen contaminants have been conducted in various tissues and blood of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus), a top scavenger-predator species in Svalbard in the Norwegian Arctic. However, the physico-chemical properties of organohalogens (e.g., type and degree of halogenation and the presence or absence of additional phenyl group substituents) that may influence toxicokinetics, and subsequently tissue-specific accumulation, have yet to be studied in this species. We investigated the concentrations, total body burdens, and compositional patterns of legacy chlorinated compounds (PCBs and chlordanes (CHLs)), metabolically-derived PCBs (methylsulfonyl (MeSO(2))- and OH-PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), total-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)), and PBDE metabolites and/or naturally-occurring compounds with similar structures (MeO- and OH-PBDEs) in liver, blood and whole body homogenate samples of adult glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (n=19) from Svalbard. Further, we examined the distribution of these organohalogens and metabolites in relation to whole body composition of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, i.e., the total water, protein, lipid and mineral contents in whole homogenate carcasses. The total body burden of organohalogens and metabolites in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> ranged between 3.3 and 33.0 mg. Compound class distribution showed that the relative proportions of sum (Sigma) OH-PCB and SigmaOH-PBDE to the total organohalogen concentrations were significantly highest in blood. Conversely, the SigmaCHL and SigmaPCB showed generally higher proportions in the lipid-rich liver as well as in whole body homogenates. No significant difference in the compositional patterns of individual congeners/compounds was found among tissues/blood, with the exception of the classes comprised of less polar brominated compounds (PBDEs, PBBs and total-(alpha)-HBCD). Total proteins isolated from the whole body homogenates of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were significantly associated to the proportions of SigmaOH-PCB and SigmaPBDE. A non-significant positive association was found between total lipids and the SigmaPCB proportions. The present study suggests that both protein association and lipid solubility are important concomitant factors to be considered in the toxicokinetics and fate of contaminants as a function of chemical structure and properties, e.g., chlorination, bromination and the presence of other phenyl substituents such as OH group. An enhanced, selective retention of these organohalogen classes in given tissues/body compartments may thus lead to site-specific toxicological actions and adverse effects in the highly-contaminated Svalbard glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. PMID:17467797</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, J; Shahmiri, S; Gabrielsen, G W; Letcher, R J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54760517"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shark Assemblage at French Frigate <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Atoll, Hawai`i: Species Composition, Abundance and Habitat Use</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan J. Dale; Austin M. Stankus; Michael S. Burns; Carl G. Meyer; Richard Unsworth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CSR....37....1F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> of large-amplitude nonlinear internal waves at Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> of large-amplitude (˜100 m) nonlinear internal waves over a steep slope (˜3°) in water depths between 100 m and 285 m near Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea is examined with an intensive array of thermistor moorings and a bottom mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. During the 44 h study period in May 5-7, 2008, there were four groups of large internal waves with semidiurnal modulation. In each wave group a rapid transition occurred during the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span>, such that the front face of the leading depression wave elongated and plunged to the bottom and the rear face steepened and transformed into a bottom-trapped elevation wave. The transitions occur in water depths of 200 m and deeper, and represent the largest documented internal wave <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> events. The observations repeatedly capture the detailed temperature and velocity structures of the incident plunging waves. Strong horizontal convergence and intense upward motion are found at the leading edge of transformed elevation waves, suggesting flow separation near the bottom. The observations are compared with the previous observations and model studies. The implication of the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> internal waves on coral reef ecology also is discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fu, Ke-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Huai; St. Laurent, Louis; Simmons, Harper; Wang, Dong-Ping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/S/Ingo.B.Schlupp-1/pdf/Plath&Schlupp08EnvBiolFish.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parallel evolution leads to reduced <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior in two cave dwelling populations of Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana, Poeciliidae, Teleostei)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> behavior protects fishes from avian and piscine predation, but at the same time costs of group living arise due to several mechanisms including increased food competition. Most cave fishes live in an environment in which avian and piscine predators are lacking, and cave environments are often characterized by low food availability, leading to increased food competition. Altogether, this should</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70043124"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pressure gradient-driven nearshore circulation on a beach influenced by a large inlet-tidal <span class="hlt">shoal</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nearshore circulation induced by a focused pattern of surface gravity waves is studied at a beach adjacent to a major inlet with a large ebb tidal <span class="hlt">shoal</span>. Using a coupled wave and wave-averaged nearshore circulation model, it is found that the nearshore circulation is significantly affected by the heterogeneous wave patterns caused by wave refraction over the ebb tidal <span class="hlt">shoal</span>. The model is used to predict waves and currents during field experiments conducted near the mouth of San Francisco Bay and nearby Ocean Beach. The field measurements indicate strong spatial variations in current magnitude and direction and in wave height and direction along Ocean Beach and across the ebb tidal <span class="hlt">shoal</span>. Numerical simulations suggest that wave refraction over the ebb tidal <span class="hlt">shoal</span> causes wave focusing toward a narrow region at Ocean Beach. Due to the resulting spatial variation in nearshore wave height, wave-induced setup exhibits a strong alongshore nonuniformity, resulting in a dramatic change in the pressure field compared to a simulation with only tidal forcing. The analysis of momentum balances inside the surf zone shows that, under wave conditions with intensive wave focusing, the alongshore pressure gradient associated with alongshore nonuniform wave setup can be a dominant force driving circulation, inducing heterogeneous alongshore currents. Pressure-gradient-forced alongshore currents can exhibit flow reversals and flow convergence or divergence, in contrast to the uniform alongshore currents typically caused by tides or homogeneous waves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daniel Hanes;Li Erikson;Patrick Barnard;Jodi L Eshleman;F. Shi;J.T. Kirby</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11031193"> <span id="translatedtitle">MULTI-SCALE MORPHODYNAMIC ASSESSMENT OF AN EMBAYED LOW ENERGY ESTUARINE BEACH, <span class="hlt">SHOAL</span> BAY, PORT STEPHENS, NSW</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Bay is an embayed estuarine beach in the tide dominated estuary of Port Stephens on a wave dominated coast. It has been undergoing erosion for the past 40 years with the cross-shore extent associated with a well developed flood-tide delta (FTD). Morphodynamics of FTDs are poorly understood, despite their ubiquitous nature on wave dominated coastlines. This paper presents a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D Harris; J Benavente; T Austin; A Vila-Concejo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16713050"> <span id="translatedtitle">Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from the Norwegian Arctic: associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of sigma PCB, Sigma DDT and particularly Sigma chlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. PMID:16713050</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, Jonathan; Bech, Claus; Letcher, Robert J; Ropstad, Erik; Dahl, Ellen; Gabrielsen, Geir W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..114.1018Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">On wind-wave-current interactions during the <span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> Waves Experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a case study of wind-wave-current interaction during the <span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> Waves Experiment (SHOWEX). Surface current fields off Duck, North Carolina, were measured by a high-frequency Ocean Surface Current Radar (OSCR). Wind, wind stress, and directional wave data were obtained from several Air Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoys moored in the OSCR scanning domain. At several times during the experiment, significant coastal currents entered the experimental area. High horizontal shears at the current edge resulted in the waves at the peak of wind-sea spectra (but not those in the higher-frequency equilibrium range) being shifted away from the mean wind direction. This led to a significant turning of the wind stress vector away from the mean wind direction. The interactions presented here have important applications in radar remote sensing and are discussed in the context of recent radar imaging models of the ocean surface.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Fei W.; Drennan, William M.; Haus, Brian K.; Graber, Hans C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013806"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth <span class="hlt">shoal</span> deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive <span class="hlt">shoal</span> complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the <span class="hlt">shoals</span> at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Colman, S. M.; Berquist, Jr. , C. R.; Hobbs, III, C. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/508153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 416, Mud Pit, Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This plan addresses the actions necessary for the restoration and closure of the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area (PSA), Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 416, Mud Pit (Corrective Action Site No. 57-09-01), a pit that was used to store effluent produced during drilling of the Post-Shot Borehole PS-1 in 1963. This plan describes the activities that will occur at the site and the steps that will be taken to gather enough data to obtain a notice of completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996) and the Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan (DOE/NV, 1994). The SAFER process is being employed at this CAU where enough information exists about the nature and extent of contamination to propose an appropriate corrective action without completing a Corrective Action Decision Document and Corrective Action Plan. This process combines elements of the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach to help plan and conduct corrective actions. DQOs are used to identify the problem and define the type and quality of data needed to complete the investigation phase of the process. This has already been completed for the mud pit so it will not be repeated here. The DQOs for the mud pit are presented in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area, CAU No. 416 (DOE/NV, 1996). This observational approach provides a framework for managing uncertainty and planning decision making.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">NONE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS41B1229D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Turbulence and mixing generated by internal waves <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> on a barrier reef.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results are presented from an observational study of the turbulent bottom boundary layer on the outer Southeast Florida shelf in July and August 2005. ADCPs and ADVs deployed at 15 m on Conch Reef measured mean and turbulent velocities. Turbulence in the reef bottom boundary layer is highly variable in time and is modified by near bed flow, shear, and stratification driven by <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> internal waves. In the absence of internal waves on the shelf, currents from 1 to 5 meters above the bed are well described by a logarithmic profile and turbulent dissipation measured 0.6 to 3.0 meters above the bed agrees with classic bottom boundary layer scaling. We examine turbulence in the bottom boundary layer during a typical internal wave event and show that internal waves can induce significant increases in near-bed flow speed, shear, dissipation, and turbulent scalar diffusivity, K?. Estimates of flux Richardson number, calculated directly from measurements of dissipation and buoyancy flux, support the dependence of Rf on Frt and on turbulent intensity, ?/?N2, relationships that have been previously shown in laboratory and numerical work. Results from this study suggest that for reef communities exposed to continental shelf and slope processes, internal waves may play an important role in mass transfer to benthic organisms. In addition to the episodic onshore transport of cool, subthermocline water masses, with elevated nutrient concentrations, we have shown that the bottom-intensified currents from <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> internal waves can increase turbulent dissipation and mixing in the reef bottom boundary layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davis, K. A.; Monismith, S. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41219309"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermoregulation and Sleep: Effects of Thermal Stress on Sleep Patterns of Glaucous-Winged <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus glaucescens)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. To determine effects of thermal stress on avian sleep patterns, incubating Glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were subjected to conditions of heat loss and heat gain via conduction from hollow copper eggs.\\u000a2. Heated manipulations resulted in significant reductions in sleep and rest relative to controls, whereas cooled manipulations had little effect.\\u000a3. The resilience of sleep to thermal stress is greater</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark R. Opp; Nigel J. Ball; Don E. Miller; Charles J. Amlaner</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hfmpewfneqynq7ey.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study examining the anti-predator behaviour of Sabine’s <span class="hlt">gulls</span> ( Xema sabini ) during breeding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anti-predatory behaviour is widespread among a broad range of animal taxa, including birds. Nest defence is not without risk, however, and parent birds face a trade-off between the survival of their offspring and the risk of injury or mortality to themselves. This study focused on the anti-predator behaviour of the Sabine’s <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Xema sabini), a ground-nesting, Arctic breeder. Specifically, we</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Iain J. StenhouseH; H. Grant Gilchrist; William A. Montevecchi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39887936"> <span id="translatedtitle">DNA Strand Length and EROD Activity in Relation to Two Screening Measures of Genotoxic Exposure in Great Lakes Herring <span class="hlt">Gulls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We collected tissues from herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) nesting within and outside of the Great Lakes basin. Genotoxin exposure was assessed as fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs)\\u000a in bile and SOS Chromotest-inducing activity in muscle extracts. We determined whether these exposures were associated with\\u000a decreased erythrocyte DNA strand length and\\/or induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. FACs were detected in all</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Glen A. Fox; Paul A. White; Suzanne Trudeau; Chris Theodorakis; Laird J. Shutt; Sean W. Kennedy; Kim J. Fernie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138773"> <span id="translatedtitle">Egg Production in a Coastal Seabird, the Glaucous-Winged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus glaucescens), Declines during the Last Century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus glaucescens), a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that <span class="hlt">gull</span> egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y?1 from 1902 (108 y), equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008–2010) 7 d later than in previous studies (1959–1986). This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">gull</span> investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ?50–100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blight, Louise K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21789207"> <span id="translatedtitle">Egg production in a coastal seabird, the glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus glaucescens), declines during the last century.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus glaucescens), a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that <span class="hlt">gull</span> egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y(-1) from 1902 (108 y), equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008-2010) 7 d later than in previous studies (1959-1986). This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged <span class="hlt">gull</span> investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ?50-100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas. PMID:21789207</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blight, Louise K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38309229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hematological and immunological properties of herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> ( Larus argentatus ) nestlings experimentally infected with Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidae)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The morphological structure of the blood in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> nestlings and their immune system response to experimental infection\\u000a with tapeworm Diphyllobothrium dendriticum have been studied. The leukocyte reaction pattern and the dynamics of immunoglobulin synthesis and populations of immunocompetent\\u000a cells in the blood of nestlings during early invasion indicated a short duration of the cellular immune response and an insignificant</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">O. E. Mazur; N. M. Pronin; L. V. Tolochko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22027947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Twenty years of temporal change in perfluoroalkyl sulfonate and carboxylate contaminants in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, temporal trends and patterns of major C(4) to C(15) chain length PFCAs and PFSAs and some sulfonamide, fluorotelomer acid and alcohol precursors were determined in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) egg pools. Samples were analyzed from fifteen collection years including 1990 and all years from 1997 to 2010, and from seven colonies located throughout the Great Lakes, ranging from remote to highly urbanized areas. Other than at the Toronto Harbour colony, the slopes of ?PFSA concentrations (C(6), C(8), and C(10)) versus time were negative indicating general declines between 1990 and 2010. PFOS was the dominant PFSA regardless of colony or year, ranging from 80 to 99% of ?PFSA. For ?PFCA (C(8)-C(15)), slopes of concentrations versus time were generally positive with 4 of 7 colonies showing statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases in levels through time. Individual PFCAs showed similar increasing trends except for PFOA. Regardless of colony, the PFCA pattern was dominated by the C(10) to C(13) PFCAs. Consistent with the PFOS declines, concentrations of the PFOS precursor, PFOSA, declined at most colonies between 1990 and 2006 and post-2006 concentrations were below detection limits. Declining concentrations of the C(8) PFCs, PFOS, PFOA and PFOSA, were consistent with the phase out in 2002 by the 3M Company in North America of all of C(8) PFC-related chemistry products. Increasing production volumes of fluorotelomer based compounds, and degradation of these compounds to PFCAs may explain increasing trends of PFCAs in <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs. Dietary changes as measured by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, showed minimal relationships to PFC levels in <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs, which indicates the complexity of aquatic and terrestrial food of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and sources of PFCs. PMID:22027947</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gebbink, Wouter A; Letcher, Robert J; Hebert, Craig E; Chip Weseloh, D V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17695897"> <span id="translatedtitle">Current-use flame retardants in the eggs of herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) from the Laurentian Great Lakes.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Of the 13, current-use, non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants (FRs) monitored, hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and alpha- and gamma-isomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and the syn- and anti-isomers of the chlorinated Dechlorane Plus (DP) were quantified in egg pools of herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) collected in 2004 from six sites in all five of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. alpha-HBCD concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 20 ng/g (wet weight (ww)). Other "new" FR levels ranged from 0.004 to 1.4 ng/g ww and were much lower than those of the major BDE congeners that are in technical mixtures (namely BDE-47, -99, -100), where sigma3PBDE ranged from 186 to 498 ng/g ww. Nineteen hepta-BDEs (sigma(hepta) = 4.9-11 ng/g ww), octa-BDEs (alpha(octa) = 2.6-9.1 ng/g ww), and nona-BDEs (sigma(nona) = 0.12-5.6 ng/g ww) were detectible at all six colonies, while BDE-209 was low but quantifiable (< 0.1-0.21 ng/g ww) at two colonies. sigma-DP (syn- and anti-isomers) concentrations in eggs from all sites ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 ng/g ww. Our findings indicate that mother herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are exposed to several, current-use flame retardants via their diet, and in ovo transfer occurred to their eggs. Given the aquatic diet of herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>, this suggests that there are non-PBDE BFRs present in the <span class="hlt">gull</span>-associated aquatic food web of the Great Lakes. PMID:17695897</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gauthier, Lewis T; Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip; Letcher, Robert J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17283615"> <span id="translatedtitle">Susceptibility of North American ducks and <span class="hlt">gulls</span> to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 2002, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPA1) viruses have been associated with deaths in numerous wild avian species throughout Eurasia. We assessed the clinical response and extent and duration of viral shedding in 5 species of North American ducks and laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus atricilla) after intranasal challenge with 2 Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses. Birds were challenged at approximately equal to 10 to 16 weeks of age, consistent with temporal peaks in virus prevalence and fall migration. All species were infected, but only wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> exhibited illness or died. Viral titers were higher in oropharyngeal swabs than in cloacal swabs. Duration of viral shedding (1-10 days) increased with severity of clinical disease. Both the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) and agar gel precipitin (AGP) tests were able to detect postinoculation antibodies in surviving wood ducks and laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span>; the HI test was more sensitive than the AGP in the remaining 4 species. PMID:17283615</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E; Beck, Joan R; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20297811"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate variability and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in the arctic: a study of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The impact of climate variability on temporal trends (1997-2006) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs; polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], and oxychlordane) was assessed in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Norwegian Arctic (n = 240). The Arctic Oscillation (AO: an index of sea-level pressure variability in the Northern Hemisphere above 20 degrees N) with different time lags was used as a climate proxy. The estimated concentrations of POPs in glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> blood/plasma declined substantially (16-60%) over the time period. Multiple regression analyses showed that the rates of decline for POPs were correlated to climate variation when controlling for potential confounding variables (sex and body condition). More specifically AO in the current winter showed negative associations with POP concentrations, whereas the relationships with AO measurements from the year preceding POP measurements (AO preceding summer and AO preceding winter) were positive. Hence, <span class="hlt">gulls</span> had relatively higher POP concentrations in breeding seasons following years with high air transport toward the Arctic. Furthermore, the impact of AO appeared to be stronger for HCB, a relatively volatile compound with high transport potential, compared to heavy chlorinated PCB congeners. This study thus suggests that predicted climate change should be considered in assessments of future temporal trends of POPs in Arctic wildlife. PMID:20297811</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bustnes, Jan O; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Verreault, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21236450"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seabirds and chronic oil pollution: self-cleaning properties of <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, Laridae, as revealed from colour-ring sightings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mystery oil spills off the Dutch coast affected colonial, adult Lesser Black-backed <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> prior to and within the breeding season. From colour-ringed individuals, it was demonstrated that most oiled birds survived and were clean within a few weeks and often bred successfully. Further evidence of self-cleaning properties of Larus-<span class="hlt">gulls</span> is provided from a long-term colour-ringing project (1984-2009). In total 46 birds were reported 'oiled', two died, but the majority cleaned itself and survived for up to 20 years after being oiled. From colour-ring data and 30 years of beached bird surveys (1980-2010) it is demonstrated that the effects of chronic oil pollution is larger in winter than in summer; a reflection of seasonal differences in exposure and environmental conditions. The self-cleaning properties of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are such that long-term survival is not necessarily jeopardized and even in a breeding season, not all is lost in case of a spill. PMID:21236450</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Camphuysen, Kees C J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15041434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fish waste as an alternative resource for <span class="hlt">gulls</span> along the Patagonian coast: availability, use, and potential consequences.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated the volumes of waste from fish processing plants in Chubut Province, Argentina, and discuss its potential consequences for Kelp <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus dominicanus) population dynamics and coastal management. Mean volume of waste produced between 1989 and 2001 in three coastal cities was 49.8+/-10.9 thousand tonsy(-1). The amount of waste varied between years and cities, being larger at Puerto Madryn and Comodoro Rivadavia than at Rawson (24.1, 19.3 and 6.4 thousand tonsy(-1), respectively). Waste was disposed at the three cities during all months of the sampled years. Large numbers of Kelp <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> have been recorded taking advantage of fish waste disposed at these waste sites throughout the year. Considering its energetic content, waste generated at processing plants may support a population of between 101000 and 209000 Kelp <span class="hlt">Gulls</span>. Fish waste could be contributing to their population expansion through increased survival and breeding success. Conflicts due to the use of waste and derived effects on other coastal species and human populations could be minimized by adequate fish waste management. PMID:15041434</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yorio, Pablo; Caille, Guillermo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1566389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> embryos.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene expression, glutathione status and indicators of hepatic oxidative stress in laughing <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus atricilla) hatchlings exposed to methylmercury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite extensive studies of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in birds, molecular effects on birds are poorly characterized. To improve our understanding of toxicity pathways and identify novel indicators of avian exposure to Hg, the authors investigated genomic changes, glutathione status, and oxidative status indicators in liver from laughing <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus atricilla) hatchlings that were exposed in ovo to MeHg (0.05–1.6 µg/g). Genes involved in the transsulfuration pathway, iron transport and storage, thyroid-hormone related processes, and cellular respiration were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization as differentially expressed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) identified statistically significant effects of Hg on cytochrome C oxidase subunits I and II, transferrin, and methionine adenosyltransferase RNA expression. Glutathione-S-transferase activity and protein-bound sulfhydryl levels decreased, whereas glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased dose-dependently. Total sulfhydryl concentrations were significantly lower at 0.4 µg/g Hg than in controls. T ogether, these endpoints provided some evidence of compensatory effects, but little indication of oxidative damage at the tested doses, and suggest that sequestration of Hg through various pathways may be important for minimizing toxicity in laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. This is the first study to describe the genomic response of an avian species to Hg. Laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are among the less sensitive avian species with regard to Hg toxicity, and their ability to prevent hepatic oxidative stress may be important for surviving levels of MeHg exposures at which other species succumb.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenko, Kathryn; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Hoffman, David J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22890840"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gene expression, glutathione status, and indicators of hepatic oxidative stress in laughing <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus atricilla) hatchlings exposed to methylmercury.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite extensive studies of methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity in birds, molecular effects on birds are poorly characterized. To improve our understanding of toxicity pathways and identify novel indicators of avian exposure to Hg, the authors investigated genomic changes, glutathione status, and oxidative status indicators in liver from laughing <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus atricilla) hatchlings that were exposed in ovo to MeHg (0.05-1.6 µg/g). Genes involved in the transsulfuration pathway, iron transport and storage, thyroid-hormone related processes, and cellular respiration were identified by suppression subtractive hybridization as differentially expressed. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) identified statistically significant effects of Hg on cytochrome C oxidase subunits I and II, transferrin, and methionine adenosyltransferase RNA expression. Glutathione-S-transferase activity and protein-bound sulfhydryl levels decreased, whereas glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity increased dose-dependently. Total sulfhydryl concentrations were significantly lower at 0.4 µg/g Hg than in controls. Together, these endpoints provided some evidence of compensatory effects, but little indication of oxidative damage at the tested doses, and suggest that sequestration of Hg through various pathways may be important for minimizing toxicity in laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span>. This is the first study to describe the genomic response of an avian species to Hg. Laughing <span class="hlt">gulls</span> are among the less sensitive avian species with regard to Hg toxicity, and their ability to prevent hepatic oxidative stress may be important for surviving levels of MeHg exposures at which other species succumb. PMID:22890840</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jenko, Kathryn; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Hoffman, David J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000691"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of lake trout-egg survival at inshore and offshore and shallow-water and deepwater sites in Lake Superior</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We incubated lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) eggs over winter at shallow (10 m) and deep locations (20 m) on <span class="hlt">Gull</span> <span class="hlt">Island</span> <span class="hlt">Shoal</span>, Lake Superior; at a shallow-water (10 m) site off the mainland (bark point); and in flowing great lakes water at two laboratories. Survival to hatch was significantly higher in the laboratories and averaged 80.9%. In Lake Superior, egg survival among incubators at all sites was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) For incubators that remained buried in spawning substrates (15.1-21.0%) than for incubators that were partially or completely exposed to water currents (1.0-12.6%). Egg survival for incubators that remained buried at the shallow-water sites was significantly higher at bark point (44.6%) than at <span class="hlt">Gull</span> <span class="hlt">Island</span> <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> (21.0%). Egg survival among incubators that remained buried at the deep (14.4%) and shallow-water sites (21.0%) on <span class="hlt">Gull</span> <span class="hlt">Island</span> <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> was not significantly different. Because incubators that were completely buried or partially exposed only appeared to differ in their degree of exposure, we concluded that survival of eggs in the lake was reduced by mechanical stress associated with water turbulence. Lower egg survival at <span class="hlt">Gull</span> <span class="hlt">Island</span> <span class="hlt">Shoal</span>, a known lake trout-spawning site, was not expected and appeared to have been caused by a strong gale that occurred when these eggs were in late epiboly, a sensitive embryological stage. We present a hypothesis suggesting that lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes is limited by availability of spawning habitat.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eshenroder, Randy L.; Bronte, Charles R.; Peck, James W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2688389"> <span id="translatedtitle">Structural analysist of N-glycans from <span class="hlt">gull</span> egg white glycoproteins and egg yolk IgG</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We previously showed that the expression of (Gal?1-4Gal)-bearing glycoproteins among birds is related to their phylogeny. However, precise structures of (Gal?1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans were only known for pigeon egg white glycoproteins and IgG. To compare structural features of (Gal?1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans from other species, we analyzed N-glycans of <span class="hlt">gull</span> egg white (GEW)-glycoproteins, ovomucoid, and ovotransferrin, and <span class="hlt">gull</span> egg yolk IgG by HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS), and MS/MS analyses. GEW-glycoproteins included neutral, monosialyl, and disialyl N-glycans, and some of them contained Gal?1-4Gal sequences. Bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary oligosaccharides that lacked bisecting GlcNAc were the major core structures, and incomplete ?-galactosylation and sialylation as well as the presence of diLacNAc on the branches generated microheterogeneity of the N-glycan structures. Moreover, unlike pigeon egg white glycoproteins, the major sialylation in GEW-glycoproteins is ?2,3-, but not ?2,6-linked sialic acids (NeuAc). In addition to the complex-type oligosaccharide, hybrid-type oligosaccharides that lack bisecting GlcNAc were also abundant in GEW-glycoproteins. <span class="hlt">Gull</span> egg yolk IgG also contained Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1- sequences, but unlike pigeon IgG, no Gal?1-4Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1- sequence was detected. Bi- and tri-antennary complex-type oligosaccharides with bisecting GlcNAc and with core fucosylation as well as high-mannose-type oligosaccharides were the major structures in <span class="hlt">gull</span> IgG. Our data indicated that some N-glycans from both GEW-glycoproteins and <span class="hlt">gull</span> IgG contain the Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1- sequence, but the ratio of ?-Gal-capped residues to non-?-Gal-capped residues in the nonreducing termini of N-glycans is much lower than that in those of pigeon glycoproteins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzuki, Noriko; Su, Tseng-Hsiung; Wu, Sze-Wei; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lee, Yuan C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2006892037"> <span id="translatedtitle">Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 447: Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area, Subsurface, Nevada, Rev. No.: 3 with Errata Sheet.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 447, Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area (PSA)-Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (FFACO) (...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. Echelard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42684127"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diversity and dynamics of an interstitial Tardigrada population in the Meloria <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Ligurian Sea, with a redescription of Batillipes similis (Heterotardigrada, Batillipedidae)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantitative samples of sediment for the study of the meiofau?na were collected monthly beweenMar1996 andFeb1997 from a 7?m?deep site in the Meloria <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Livorno Italy. In the Tuscan <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, 16 species of tardigrades were found belonging to the families Stygarctidae, Halechiniscidae, and Batillipedidae. Megastygarctides orbiculatus and Actinarctus doryphorus are reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, and a</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maria Gallo DAddabbo; Susanna de Zio Grimaldi; Maria Rosaria de Lucia Morone; Romana Pietanza; Rossana DAddabbo; M. Antonio Todaro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23463275"> <span id="translatedtitle">High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vänern, Sweden.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vänern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the ?g/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span>, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist. PMID:23463275</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19280991"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The study of the nonpathogenic influenza virus A/<span class="hlt">gull</span>/Moscow/3100/2006 (H6N2) isolated in Moscow].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influenza virus A/<span class="hlt">gull</span>/Moscow/3100/2006 (H6N2) was isolated from <span class="hlt">gull</span> feces within the precincts of Moscow in autumn 2006. The nucleotide sequence of the complete genome (GenBank, EU152234-EU152241) and genotype (K, G, D, 6B, F, 2D, F, 1E) for this virus were determined. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the H6N2 virus derived by numerous reassortment between viruses that have been circulating among different birds in Europe since 1999 and in South-East Asia (NA gene) for last years. Migratory birds probably introduced some of these viruses from South-East Asia earlier. The strain A/<span class="hlt">gull</span>/Moscow/3100/2006 is nonpathogenic for chicken embryos and mice and induces specific antibody production in mice. Similar to all avian influenza viruses A/<span class="hlt">gull</span>/Moscow/3100/ 2006 it binds to Neu5Ac(2-3Gal receptors, but reveals higher affinity for fucosylated sialosugars (SLex) in contrast to the duck viruses, as was shown in receptor specificity assay and clarified due to modeling the accommodation of SLex into receptor binding site of duck and <span class="hlt">gull</span> influenza virus hemagglutinin. PMID:19280991</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lomakina, N F; Gambarian, A S; Boravleva, E Iu; Kropotkina, E A; Kirillov, I M; Lavrent'ev, M V; Iamnikova, S S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23402129"> <span id="translatedtitle">A survey for avian influenza from <span class="hlt">gulls</span> on the coasts of the District of Pinamar and the Lagoon Salada Grande, General Madariaga, Argentina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, fecal samples obtained from kelp <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus dominicanus), brown-hooded <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus maculipennis), and Olrog's <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus atlanticus) on the coast of the District of Pinamar, and grey-hooded <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus cirrocephalus) on the coast of the Lagoon Salada Grande and surrounding wetlands, General Madariaga, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, were tested for evidence of avian influenza virus over a period of 3 yr. This surveillance in free-living wild birds in the Buenos Aires Province started in October 2008. Additional samples, which included cloacal swabs, tracheal swabs, or pooled organs, were obtained from sick or dead <span class="hlt">gulls</span> that arrived at the Fundaci6n Ecol6gica Pinamar or were provided by the Direcci6n de Seguridad en Playas, Municipalidad de Pinamar. Samples were pooled according to date, species, and area. Pooled samples were inoculated in 9- to 11-day-old eggs, and after 5 days, allantoic fluids were tested for evidence of hemagglutination. None of the samples was positive for avian influenza viruses. PMID:23402129</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buscaglia, Celina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012efin.conf...59M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Happy <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">I discuss the phase diagram for QCD in the baryon chemical potential and temperature plane. I argue that there is a new phase of matter different from the deconfined Quark Gluon Plasma: Quarkyonic Matter. Quarkyonic Matter is confined and exists at densities parametrically large compared to the QCD scale, when the number of quark colors, Nc is large. I motivate the possibility that Quarkyonic Matter is in an inhomogeneous phase, and is surrounded by lines of phase transitions, making a Happy <span class="hlt">Island</span> in the ?B-T plane. I conjecture about the geography of Happy <span class="hlt">Island</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLerran, Larry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40210738"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kin and population recognition in sympatric Lake Constance perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.): can assortative <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> drive population divergence?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prior studies have shown that perch (Perca fluviatilis L.) of Lake Constance belong to two genetically different but sympatric populations and that local aggregations of juveniles\\u000a and adults contain closely related kin. In this study, we analysed the genetic structure of pelagic perch larvae to investigate\\u000a if kin-structured <span class="hlt">shoals</span> already exist during early ontogenetic development or might be the result</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jasminca Behrmann-Godel; Gabriele Gerlach; Reiner Eckmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/v35622768t225u52.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parallel evolution leads to reduced <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behavior in two cave dwelling populations of Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana , Poeciliidae, Teleostei)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> behavior protects fishes from avian and piscine predation, but at the same time costs of group living arise due to\\u000a several mechanisms including increased food competition. Most cave fishes live in an environment in which avian and piscine\\u000a predators are lacking, and cave environments are often characterized by low food availability, leading to increased food competition.\\u000a Altogether, this should</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martin Plath; Ingo Schlupp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23537236"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sexual differences in post-hatching Saunders's <span class="hlt">gulls</span>: size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various selection pressures induce the degree and direction of sexual size dimorphism in animals. Selection favors either larger males for contests over mates or resources, or smaller males are favored for maneuverability; whereas larger females are favored for higher fecundity, or smaller females for earlier maturation for reproduction. In the genus of Larus (seagulls), adult males are generally known to be larger in size than adult females. However, the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism is not well understood, compared to that in adults. The present study investigates the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in Saunders's <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus saundersi) in captivity. We artificially incubated fresh eggs collected in Incheon, South Korea, and measured body size, locomotor activity, and foraging skill in post-hatching chicks in captivity. Our results indicated that the sexual differences in size and locomotor activity occurred with the post-hatching development. Also, larger males exhibited greater foraging skills for food acquisition than smaller females at 200 days of age. Future studies should assess how the adaptive significance of the sexual size dimorphism in juveniles is linked with sexual divergence in survival rates, intrasexual contests, or parental effort in sexes. PMID:23537236</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoon, Jongmin; Lee, Seung-Hee; Joo, Eun-Jin; Na, Ki-Jeong; Park, Shi-Ryong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16563578"> <span id="translatedtitle">Maternal transfer of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites to eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eggs of seabirds have routinely been used as indicators of environmental pollution in the Arctic. However, the variability in organohalogen concentration and composition associated with the laying sequence, have not been defined. We examined a suite of PCBs, organochlorine (OC) pesticides and by-products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and methylsulfonyl- (MeSO2) PCBs in complete 3-egg clutches of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus), and plasma samples of the laying females collected from the Norwegian Arctic. SigmaPCB, SigmaOC and SigmaPBDE, but not SigmaMeSO2-PCB, concentrations in eggs were positively associated, with increasing magnitude and significance from the first through the last-laid egg, with concentrations in female plasma. However, the concentrations of these organohalogen classes fluctuated irrespective of the laying order in the clutch. In general, maternal transfer favored low K(ow) and/or less persistent compounds, whereas the recalcitrant and/or higher-halogenated compounds were less readily transferred, and consequently more selectively retained in the mother. PMID:16563578</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, Jonathan; Villa, Rosa A; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Skaare, Janneche U; Letcher, Robert J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19094086"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arginine vasotocin neuronal phenotypes among congeneric territorial and <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> reef butterflyfishes: species, sex and reproductive season comparisons.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arginine vasotocin (AVT) and the homologous arginine vasopressin (AVP) neuropeptides are involved in the control of aggression, spacing behaviour and mating systems in vertebrates, but the function of AVT in the regulation of social behaviour among closely-related fish species needs further clarification. We used immunocytochemical techniques to test whether AVT neurones show species, sex or seasonal differences in two sympatric butterflyfish sister species: the territorial monogamous multiband butterflyfish, Chaetodon multicinctus, and the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> polygamous milletseed butterflyfish, Chaetodon miliaris. The territorial species had larger AVT-immunoreactive (-ir) somata within the preoptic area, and higher AVT fibre densities within but not limited to the ventral telencephalon, medial and dorsal nucleus of the dorsal telencephalon, torus semicircularis, and tectum compared to the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> nonterritorial species. Furthermore, AVT-ir somata size and number did not differ among sexes or spawning periods in the territorial species, and showed only limited variation within the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> species. The distinct difference in AVT neuronal characteristics among species is likely to be independent of body size differences, and the lack of sex and seasonal variability is consistent with their divergent but stable social and mating systems. These phenotypic differences among species may be related to the influence of AVT on social spacing, aggression or monogamy, as reported for other fish, avian and mammalian models. The present study provides the first evidence for variation in vasotocin neural organisation in two congeneric and sympatric fish species with different social systems. PMID:19094086</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dewan, A K; Maruska, K P; Tricas, T C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7462604"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seagulls (Larus spp.) as vectors of salmonellae: an investigation into the range of serotypes and numbers of salmonellae in <span class="hlt">gull</span> faeces.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Of 1241 samples of seagulls faeces examined, 12.9% were found to contain salmonellae. The number of positive samples was significantly higher (17-21%) near sewage outfalls. Twenty-seven serotypes were isolated, including a new serotype named Salmonella grampian. The range and frequency of serotypes carried by <span class="hlt">gulls</span> was similar to those in the human population, suggesting sewage as a possible source of <span class="hlt">gull</span> infection. The number of salmonellae found in positive samples was low (0.18-191 g-1 faeces). This was similar to the numbers found in sewage, 10-80 1-1, suggesting <span class="hlt">gulls</span> may only carry infected material without infecting themselves. Antibiotic resistance in the isolates was low, only 21 showing resistance to the antibiotics tested, although most of these were determined by resistance transfer plasmids. PMID:7462604</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fenlon, D R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22047140"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laccase-carrying electrospun fibrous membranes for adsorption and degradation of PAHs in <span class="hlt">shoal</span> soils.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil is costly and time-consuming. The high hydrophobicity of PAHs makes PAH diffusion from soil particles by hydraulic flow difficult. The phase transfer of PAHs from soil to another available mediator is crucial for PAH removal. This study focuses on the remediation of PAH-contaminated <span class="hlt">shoal</span> soil, located in Yangtze, China, using three types of laccase-carrying electrospun fibrous membranes (LCEFMs) fabricated via emulsion electrospinning. These LCEFMs were composed of core-shell structural nanofibers (for PAH adsorption), with laccase in the core (for PAH degradation) and pores on the shell (for mass transfer). The LCEFMs with strong adsorptivity extracted the PAHs from the soil particles, resulting in an obvious enhancement of PAH degradation. The removal efficiencies in 6 h for phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene were greater than 95.1%, 93.2%, 79.1%, and 72.5%, respectively. The removal half-lives were 0.003-1.52 h, much shorter than those by free laccase (17.9-67.9 h) or membrane adsorption (1.25-12.50 h). The third-order reaction kinetics suggested that the superficial adsorption and internal diffusion were the rate-limiting steps of the overall reaction. A synergistic effect between adsorption and degradation was also proposed on the basis of the triple phase distribution and kinetics analyses. PMID:22047140</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dai, Yunrong; Yin, Lifeng; Niu, Junfeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/909858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of a Groundwater Management Model for the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document describes the development of a user-friendly and efficient groundwater management model of the Project <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Area (PSA and surrounding area that will allow the U.S. Department of Energy and State of Nevada personnel to evaluate the impact of proposed water-use scenarios. The management model consists of a simple hydrologic model within an interactive groundwater management framework. This framework is based on an object user interface that was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey and has been used by the Desert Research Institute researchers and others to couple disparate environmental resource models, manage temporal and spatial data, and evaluate model results for management decision making. This framework was modified and applied to the PSA and surrounding Fairview Basin. The utility of the management model was demonstrated through the application of hypothetical future scenarios including mineral mining, regional expansion of agriculture, and export of water to large urban areas outside the region. While the results from some of the scenarios indicated potential impacts to groundwater levels near the PSA and others did not, together they demonstrate the utility of the management tool for the evaluation of proposed changes in groundwater use in or near the PSA.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Lamorey; S. Bassett; R. Schumer; D. Boyle; G. Pohll; J. Chapman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2964...54G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design considerations for achieving high accuracy with the <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> bathymetric lidar system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The ultimate accuracy of depths from an airborne laser hydrography system depends both on careful hardware design aimed at producing the best possible accuracy and precision of recorded data, along with insensitivity to environmental effects, and on post-flight data processing software which corrects for a number of unavoidable biases and provides for flexible operator interaction to handle special cases. The generic procedure for obtaining a depth from an airborne lidar pulse involves measurement of the time between the surface return and the bottom return. In practice, because both of these return times are biased due to a number of environmental and hardware effects, it is necessary to apply various correctors in order to obtain depth estimates which are sufficiently accurate to meet International Hydrographic Office standards. Potential false targets, also of both environmental and hardware origin, must be discriminated, and wave heights must be removed. It is important to have a depth confidence value matched to accuracy and to have warnings about or automatic deletion of pulses with questionable characteristics. Techniques, procedures, and algorithms developed for the <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> systems are detailed here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guenther, Gary C.; Thomas, Robert W.; Larocque, Paul E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Zebrafish response to robotic fish: preference experiments on isolated individuals and small <span class="hlt">shoals</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently developed bioinspired robots imitate their live counterparts in both aspect and functionality. Nevertheless, whether these devices can be integrated within the ecological niche inspiring their design is seldom tested experimentally. An elemental research question concerns the feasibility of modulating spontaneous behaviour of animal systems through bioinspired robotics. The following study explores the possibility of engineering a robotic fish capable of influencing the behaviour of live zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a dichotomous preference test. While we observe that the preference for the robotic fish never exceeds the preference for a conspecific, our data show that the robot is successful in attracting both isolated individuals and small <span class="hlt">shoals</span> and that such capability is influenced by its bioinspired features. In particular, we find that the robot's undulations enhance its degree of attractiveness, despite the noise inherent in the actuation system. This is the first experimental evidence that live zebrafish behaviour can be influenced by engineered robots. Such robotic platforms may constitute a valuable tool to investigate the bases of social behaviour and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal functions and dysfunctions. PMID:22677608</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polverino, G; Abaid, N; Kopman, V; Macrì, S; Porfiri, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22807050"> <span id="translatedtitle">Description of Maritrema formicae sp. nov. (Digenea, Microphallidae) parasitic in the kelp <span class="hlt">gull</span>, Larus dominicanus, from the Patagonian coast, Argentina.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maritrema formicae sp. nov. is described from the Patagonian coast, Argentina, based on adults obtained from the kelp <span class="hlt">gull</span>, Larus dominicanus. The new species fits with the "eroliae complex" and can be distinguished from other related species mainly in shape and size of body, shape, size, and pattern of distribution of cirrus spines, uterus extension, number and size of eggs, vitellarium in a complete ring in all specimens, and its Neotropical distribution. The new species is sympatric with another species of the genus, Maritrema madrynense, which was recorded in the same host and locality. PMID:22807050</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Diaz, Julia I; Gilardoni, Carmen; Cremonte, Florencia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37342534"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lavender <span class="hlt">Islands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lavender <span class="hlt">Islands</span>: Portrait of the Whole Family is the first national strengths-based study of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people in New Zealand. The 133-item survey was made available both by website and paper copy from April to July 2004. Multidisciplinary interest areas were developed by a community reference group, and included identity and self-definition, families of origin, relationships and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mark Henrickson; Stephen Neville; Claire Jordan; Sara Donaghey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18229973"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perfluorinated, brominated, and chlorinated contaminants in a population of lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus fuscus).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Protein-bound perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines (OCs) were measured in whole blood from a large number (n = 83) of breeding lesser black-backed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus fuscus) caught during two distinct sampling periods in a colony on the coast of northern Norway. We analyzed 14 PFCs (seven were detected in more than 75% of samples), 10 PBDEs (only BDE 47 was detected), and 27 OCs, including 12 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (14 OCs were detected). Median total PFC concentration was higher than median total OC concentration (43 vs 39 ng/g wet wt). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC (mean relative contribution of PFOS to total contaminant concentration in blood [Sigmatotal contaminants] was 38%), whereas total PCB (26% of Sigmatotal contaminants) and p,p'-DDE (2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene; 13% of Sigmatotal contaminants) were the dominant OCs. No covariability was found between protein-bound and lipid-soluble compounds; individuals with high concentrations of PFCs did not have high concentrations of OCs or BDE 47. The concentrations of PFCs were lower in birds caught during the late sampling period compared to those of the early period, and females had lower levels of some PFCs compared with males, suggesting that females sequester fluorinated substances into eggs. For lipid-soluble compounds, no significant sex or sampling period differences were found, except that trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, and p,p'-DDE concentrations were lower in birds caught during the late sampling period. The pattern of PFC compounds (relative to PFOS) and lipid-soluble compounds (relative to PCB 153) differed between sampling periods in females but not in males. Finally, PFCs were distributed more uniformly within the population than the lipid-soluble compounds, for which the distributions were strongly negatively skewed. PMID:18229973</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bustnes, Jan O; Borgå, Katrine; Erikstad, Kjell E; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon; Herzke, Dorte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16336721"> <span id="translatedtitle">Helminth fauna of the yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus cachinnans in Galicia, north-west Spain.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirty-six helminth species were found in 324 <span class="hlt">gulls</span> examined during June 1994 to February 1996 from different localities of Galicia: 25 trematodes (Brachylaima sp., Brachylecithum microtesticulatum, Cardiocephaloides longicollis, Cryptocotyle lingua, Cryptocotyle concavum, Diplostomum spathaceum, Echinostephilla virgula, Galactosomum phalacrocoracis, Gigantobilharzia acotylea, Gymnophallus deliciosus, Gynaecotyla longiintestinata, Himasthla elongata, Himasthla quissetensis, Knipowitschiatrema nicolai, Levinseniella (Levinseniella) propinqua, Maritrema gratiosum, Maritrema linguilla, Microphallus primas, Microphallus similis, Ornithobilharzia canaliculata, Parorchis acanthus, Phagicola minuta, Psilostomum brevicolle, Renicola sp. and Stephanoprora denticulata), four cestodes (Alcataenia micracantha, Microsomacanthus ductilis, Tetrabothrius (Oriana) erostris and Wardium cirrosa), six nematodes (Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum rudolphii, Cosmocephalus obvelatus), Eucoleus contortus, Paracuaria adunca and Tetrameres (Tetrameres) skrjabini) and one acanthocephalan (Arhythmorhynchus longicollis). Tetrabothrius erostris was the most prevalent species (79.6%), followed by C. obvelatus (47.8%), C. lingua (37.4%), G deliciosus (30.9%), G. longiintestinata (22.8%), P. adunca (21.9%), B. microtesticulatum (17.6%), E. contortus (14.5%) and M. similis (9.3%). Microphallus similis was the dominant species, with a Berger-Parker index (BP) of 0.32, followed by T. erostris (BP=0.10). All species presented an aggregated dispersion except G. acotylea and G. phalacrocoracis, which showed a random dispersion. Species that seem to have the greatest predilection for specific sites along the intestine are: C. longicollis and A. micracantha (first third), Brachylaima sp., M. similis and G. longiintestinata (last third) and A. longicollis (second half). Eight species are known to be pathogenic to commercially important fish or molluscan species and several are pathogenic to humans. PMID:16336721</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanmartín, M L; Cordeiro, J A; Alvarez, M F; Leiro, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5885..115T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of ocean water optical properties and seafloor reflectance with scanning hydrographic operational airborne lidar survey (<span class="hlt">SHOALS</span>): II. Practical results and comparison with independent data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estimation of water column optical properties and seafloor reflectance (532 nm) is demonstrated using recent <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> data collected at Fort Lauderdale, Florida (November, 2003). To facilitate this work, the first radiometric calibrations of <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> were performed. These calibrations permit a direct normalization of recorded data by converting digitized counts at the output of the <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> receivers to input optical power. For estimation of environmental parameters, this normalization is required to compensate for the logarithmic compression of the signals and the finite frequency of the bandpass of the detector/amplifier. After normalization, the <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> data are used to estimate the backscattering coefficient, the beam attenuation coefficient, the single-scattering albedo, the VSF asymmetry, and seafloor reflectance by fitting simulated waveforms to actual waveforms measured by the <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> APD and PMT receivers. The resulting estimates of these water column optical properties are compared to in-situ measurements acquired at the time of the airborne data collections. Images of green laser bottom reflectance are also presented and compared to reflectance estimated from simultaneously acquired passive spectral data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tuell, Grady H.; Feygels, Viktor; Kopilevich, Yuri; Weidemann, Alan D.; Cunningham, A. Grant; Mani, Reza; Podoba, Vladimir; Ramnath, Vinod; Park, J. Y.; Aitken, Jen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SedG..294...68T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternation of microbial mounds and ooid <span class="hlt">shoals</span> (Middle Jurasssic, Morocco): Response to paleoenvironmental changes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The occurrence of neritic microbial carbonates is often related to ecological refuges, where grazers and other competitors are reduced by environmental conditions, or to post-extinction events (e.g. in the Late Devonian, Early Triassic). Here, we present evidence for Middle Jurassic (Bajocian) microbial mounds formed in the normal marine, shallow neritic setting of an inner, ramp system from the High Atlas of Morocco. The microbial mounds are embedded in cross-bedded oolitic facies. Individual mounds show low relief domal geometries (up to 3 m high and 4.5 m across), but occasionally a second generation of mounds exhibits tabular geometries (< 1 m high). The domes are circular in plan view and have intact tops, lacking evidence of current influence on mound preferred growth direction or distribution patterns, or truncation. The mound facies consists almost entirely of non-laminated, micritic thrombolites with branching morphologies and fine-grained, clotted and peloidal fabrics. Normal marine biota are present but infrequent. Several lines of evidence document that microbial mound growth alternates with time intervals of active ooid <span class="hlt">shoal</span> deposition. This notion is of general significance when compared with modern Bahamian microbialites that co-exist with active subaquatic dunes. Furthermore, the lack of detailed studies of Middle Jurassic, normal marine shallow neritic microbial mounds adds a strong motivation for the present study. Specifically, Bajocian mounds formed on a firmground substratum during transgressive phases under condensed sedimentation. Furthermore, a transient increase in nutrient supply in the prevailing mesotrophic setting, as suggested by the heterotrophic-dominated biota, may have controlled microbial mound stages.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tomás, Sara; Homann, Martin; Mutti, Maria; Amour, Frédéric; Christ, Nicolas; Immenhauser, Adrian; Agar, Susan M.; Kabiri, Lahcen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17901211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Weak response of oceanic dimethylsulfide to upper mixing <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> induced by global warming.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The solar radiation dose in the oceanic upper mixed layer (SRD) has recently been identified as the main climatic force driving global dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics and seasonality. Because DMS is suggested to exert a cooling effect on the earth radiative budget through its involvement in the formation and optical properties of tropospheric clouds over the ocean, a positive relationship between DMS and the SRD supports the occurrence of a negative feedback between the oceanic biosphere and climate, as postulated 20 years ago. Such a natural feedback might partly counteract anthropogenic global warming through a <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of the mixed layer depth (MLD) and a consequent increase of the SRD and DMS concentrations and emission. By applying two globally derived DMS diagnostic models to global fields of MLD and chlorophyll simulated with an Ocean General Circulation Model coupled to a biogeochemistry model for a 50% increase of atmospheric CO(2) and an unperturbed control run, we have estimated the response of the DMS-producing pelagic ocean to global warming. Our results show a net global increase in surface DMS concentrations, especially in summer. This increase, however, is so weak (globally 1.2%) that it can hardly be relevant as compared with the radiative forcing of the increase of greenhouse gases. This contrasts with the seasonal variability of DMS (1000-2000% summer-to-winter ratio). We suggest that the "plankton-DMS-clouds-earth albedo feedback" hypothesis is less strong a long-term thermostatic system than a seasonal mechanism that contributes to regulate the solar radiation doses reaching the earth's biosphere. PMID:17901211</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vallina, S M; Simó, R; Manizza, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/04/gk2/bowerbuild.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">To Build an <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson plan will give students a basic overview of the geography of <span class="hlt">islands</span>. They will learn where <span class="hlt">islands</span> are located throughout the world and will study two very different <span class="hlt">island</span> groups (the Philippines and the British Isles) to illustrate the diversity of <span class="hlt">islands</span> of the world. Students will explore <span class="hlt">island</span> flora and fauna, languages, and climates and cultures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16291564"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pinpointing potential causative agents in mixtures of persistent organic pollutants in observational field studies: a review of glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since different organochlorine contaminants (OCs) are often highly correlated in biota, a major challenge in observational field studies is to establish whether some OCs are potentially important causative agents of adverse effects. A possible solution to this problem is to compare the strength of the effects of different OCs on a number of outcome parameters, and then examine if some compounds are more consistently reliable predictors of adverse effects. In this analysis the four most common OCs (hexachlorobenzene [HCB], oxychlordane, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE], and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) in arctic glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) were ranked in relation to 19 different outcome parameters, for which at least 1 of the 4 OCs were significantly related. PCBs, made up close to 75% of the measured sigmaOCs, DDE 17-18%, and HCB and oxychlordane 3-4%, respectively. Despite relatively low levels of oxychlordane and HCB, these compounds tended to be more reliable predictors of adverse effects and were ranked highest for 11 and 10 of the 19 outcome parameters, respectively. PCBs and DDE were only ranked highest for seven of the outcome parameters. Oxychlordane, HCB, DDE, and PCB were "not significant" two, six, six, and eight times, respectively. Oxychlordane was significantly more likely to be related to adverse effects than DDE. Even if effects of OCs may depend on a complex interaction between different compounds, this analysis indicates that adverse effects are more likely to occur in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> with relatively high concentrations of oxychlordane and HCB. PMID:16291564</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bustnes, Jan O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20526953"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian Arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Environmental contaminants are transported over great distances to Arctic ecosystems, where they can accumulate in wildlife. Whether contaminant concentrations in wildlife are sufficient to produce adverse effects remains poorly understood. Exposure to contaminants elevates oxidative stress with possible fitness consequences. The glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus hyperboreus), an Arctic top predator, was used as a bioindicator for investigating relationships between contaminant levels (organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls [OC/PCB], mercury [Hg], and selenium [Se]) and measures of oxidative stress (glutathione [GSH] metabolism and lipid peroxidation) in Canadian Arctic ecosystems. Contaminant levels were low and associations between contaminant exposure and oxidative stress were weak. Nevertheless, glutathione peroxidase activity rose with increasing hepatic Se concentrations, levels of thiols declined as Hg and OC/PCB levels rose, and at one of the two study sites levels of lipid peroxidation were elevated with increasing levels of hepatic Hg. These results suggest the possibility of a deleterious effect of exposure to contaminants on <span class="hlt">gull</span> physiology even at low contaminant exposures. PMID:20526953</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wayland, Mark; Hoffman, David J; Mallory, Mark L; Alisauskas, Ray T; Stebbins, Katherine R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21518427"> <span id="translatedtitle">Description of microsatellite markers and genotyping performances using feathers and buccal swabs for the Ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Pagophila eburnea).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report 22 new polymorphic microsatellites for the Ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Pagophila eburnea), and we describe how they can be efficiently co-amplified using multiplexed polymerase chain reactions. In addition, we report DNA concentration, amplification success, rates of genotyping errors and the number of genotyping repetitions required to obtain reliable data with three types of noninvasive or nondestructive samples: shed feathers collected in colonies, feathers plucked from living individuals and buccal swabs. In two populations from Greenland (n=21) and Russia (Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, n=21), the number of alleles per locus varied between 2 and 17, and expected heterozygosity per population ranged from 0.18 to 0.92. Twenty of the markers conformed to Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium expectations. Most markers were easily amplified and highly reliable when analysed from buccal swabs and plucked feathers, showing that buccal swabbing is a very efficient approach allowing good quality DNA retrieval. Although DNA amplification success using single shed feathers was generally high, the genotypes obtained from this type of samples were prone to error and thus need to be amplified several times. The set of microsatellite markers described here together with multiplex amplification conditions and genotyping error rates will be useful for population genetic studies of the Ivory <span class="hlt">gull</span>. PMID:21518427</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yannic, Glenn; Sermier, Roberto; Aebischer, Adrian; Gavrilo, Maria V; Gilg, Olivier; Miljeteig, Cecilie; Sabard, Brigitte; Strøm, Hallvard; Pouivé, Emmanuelle; Broquet, T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23541603"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trophic ecology of a resident Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus michahellis) population in the Bay of Biscay.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stable isotopes analyses (SIAs) are an efficient tool to obtain a general insight into the diet of generalist consumers, such as the Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus michahellis). Here we analysed ?(13)C, ?(15)N and ?(34)S values in feathers of chicks and adults, and used Bayesian triple-isotope mixing models to reconstruct the diet of a Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> population breeding in the southeastern Bay of Biscay. Questions to test were (1) whether adults and chicks rely on different feeding resources during breeding period; (2) whether there is a seasonal foraging effect involving a higher proportion of refuse food in winter compared to summer, and (3) the magnitude of the annual variation in diet. Prey consumption differed between colonies, among years, and also varied slightly between seasons, and this was mainly due to a differential use of prey of marine origin. However, diet did not differ between age classes. These results suggest a relatively monotonous diet with only slight variations from year to year, seasonally and at a local geographic scale. PMID:23541603</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arizaga, Juan; Jover, Lluís; Aldalur, Asier; Cuadrado, Juan F; Herrero, Alfredo; Sanpera, Carola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11436818"> <span id="translatedtitle">PCBs and organochlorine pesticide residues in eggs of Audouin's <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus audouinii) in the north-eastern Mediterranean.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Levels of eight PCB congeners (IUPAC 8, 20, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 180) and 13 organochlorine pesticides (alpha-BHC, beta-BHC, lindane (gamma-BHC), heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, 2,4'-DDT, 2,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDD, 4,4'-DDE) were measured in unhatched Audouin <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs from Aegean Sea (northeastern Mediterranean) colonies in 1997 and 1998. Levels of more persistent congeners 138, 180 and in some colonies 118, predominated among PCBs. Between years significant differences were found in the levels of a variety of contaminants in the same regional colonies (Lipsos, Agathonisi, and Fourni) attributable to temporal changes in diet. Within years differences were limited (1997: PCB congeners 52, 118, 180, heptachlor and 4,4'-DDD; 1998: PCB congener 8 and heptachlor epoxide) which in combination with cluster analysis suggest a temporal rather than spatial pattern of pollution in the Aegean Sea. Maximum median levels of five PCB congeners, total PCBs and eight organochlorine pesticides were found in the Agathonisi and Fourni colonies suggesting an elevated nearby pollution probably from the polluted Menderez River. Levels of all contaminants were too low to have any adverse reproductive effects on the Audouin's <span class="hlt">gull</span> of the Aegean colonies. PMID:11436818</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goutner, V; Albanis, T; Konstantinou, I; Papakonstantinou, K</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gull-research.org/papers/larsucanus_2006_acta2.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Habitat and nest site selection in the Common <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Larus canus in southern Poland: significance of man-made habitats for conservation of an endangered species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Common <span class="hlt">Gull</span> is a rare and endangered breeding species at inland habitats in Poland as well as in some other countries in Europe. Breeding biology, habitat and nest site selection were studied in this species in southern Poland. Almost all birds nested on industrial water bodies (gravel pits, sedimentation basins), although fishponds and reservoirs were the most abundant habitat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piotr SKÓRKA; Joanna D. WÓJCIK; Tomasz BABIARZ</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39778238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Patterns and Rankings of Contaminant Concentrations in Herring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> Eggs from 15 Sites in the Great Lakes and Connecting Channels, 1998–2002</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mean values of eight contaminants in Herring <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Larus argentatus) eggs were calculated for 15 Great Lakes sites for the 5 year period 1998–2002. The sites were ranked according to the concentrations of each of seven compounds relative to fish flesh criteria for the protection of piscivorous wildlife, and a single overall rank of contamination was calculated for each site.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. V. Chip Weseloh; Cynthia Pekarik; Shane R. De Solla</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42510657"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental infections of herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses by intranasal inoculation of virus and ingestion of virus-infected chicken meat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present study investigated the susceptibility of herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus) exposed to two strains of Asian lineage H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus by evenly separating six <span class="hlt">gulls</span> into two groups and inoculating them intranasally with 10 median embryo infectious doses of either A\\/whooper swan\\/Mongolia\\/244\\/05 (H5N1) or A\\/duck meat\\/Anyang\\/AVL-1\\/01 (H5N1). Two additional <span class="hlt">gulls</span> were fed 5.0 g meat</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Justin D. Brown; David E. Stallknecht; David E. Swayne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029232"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surficial geology of the sea floor in west-central Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Sound as shown by sidescan-sonar imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used sidescan-sonar imagery detailing almost 300 km2 of the sea floor in west-central Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Sound in conjunction with bathymetry, sediment samples, bottom video, and seismic data to interpret the area's surficial geology. The distribution of sediments and sedimentary environments interpreted from these data sets represents the Quaternary geology, regional bathymetry, and effects of modern tidal- and wave-driven currents. Four distinct sedimentary environments consisting of 1) fine-grained deposition, 2) sorting and reworking, 3) coarse-grained bedload transport, and 4) erosion or nondeposition, were identified and mapped. Relatively low-energy environments prevail where deposition of clayey silts occurs in deeper water throughout the central part of the study area, and in the protected areas of the far northeastern corner. As low-energy environments transition to relatively high-energy environments, sorting and reworking of sand, silty sand, and sand-silt-clay takes place on the flanks of the <span class="hlt">shoals</span> and over smaller bathymetric highs. Environments of coarse-grained bedload transport, distinguished by sandy sediments with current-derived bedforms, are located on an unnamed <span class="hlt">shoal</span> in the northwestern part of the study area and directly to the south of this on Stratford <span class="hlt">Shoal</span>. High-energy conditions are reflected by environments of erosion or nondeposition, which occur on bathymetric highs where gravel and gravelly sediments are present.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McMullen, K. Y.; Poppe, L. J.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, M. L.; Moser, M. S.; Christman, E. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57577449"> <span id="translatedtitle">Change in the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behaviour and nutritional condition of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) during a wind-induced water column disturbance: a natural event test of a general hypothesis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fishermen have long observed the sudden change of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> behaviour of small pelagic fish following a strong wind event. The phenomenon was thereafter confirmed by fisheries scientists using acoustic tools. In this study, we report our observations made with acoustics to measure disorganization of the previously observed spatial distribution and shape of <span class="hlt">shoals</span> that occurred after a wind event. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jean-Pierre Bergeron; Jacques Massé</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Amelia%22&pg=6&id=EJ847163"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Island</span> Formation: Constructing a Coral <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|The process of coral <span class="hlt">island</span> formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral <span class="hlt">island</span> formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral <span class="hlt">island</span>. Students play an interactive…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.5885..106K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of ocean water optical properties and seafloor reflectance with scanning hydrographic operational airborne lidar survey (<span class="hlt">SHOALS</span>): I. Theoretical background</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an earlier work, we have proposed a concept for estimation of ocean optical properties with a multiple field-of-view bathymetric lidar. In this paper, we consider an implementation of this idea using <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span>. The <span class="hlt">SHOALS</span> design uses two receivers for depth measurement: a shallow-water, APD receiver with an 18 mrad FOV; and a deep-water PMT receiver with a 40 mrad FOV. They simultaneously record the optical power returned from a single pulse of the laser, and consequently provide the desired measurements. Here, we present an algorithm for the estimation of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in the upper ocean layer which is based on "multiple-forward-single-backscattering" model of the returned power, and an analytical solution to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) for finite sounding beam propagation in the small-angle-scattering approximation. Using this algorithm, we have developed an approach for estimation of the backscattering coefficient, the beam attenuation coefficient, the single-scattering albedo, and the VSF asymmetry coefficient, by fitting simulated waveforms to actual data measured by the two receivers. We also present an approach for improvement in estimates of bottom reflectance which compensates for pulse stretching induced by angle of incidence effects.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kopilevich, Yuri I.; Feygels, Viktor I.; Tuell, Grady H.; Surkov, Alexey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H41B0499M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Evolution of the Chandeleur Barrier <span class="hlt">Islands</span>, Southeastern Louisiana: Initial Exploration of a Possible Threshold Crossing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Airborne photographic and lidar observations of the 72 km-long Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Island</span> arc in southeastern Louisiana since August 2005 indicate that large volumes of sediment were removed from the <span class="hlt">islands</span> during and following Hurricane Katrina and suggest that a return to pre-storm <span class="hlt">island</span> configuration may be unlikely. Others have suggested, based on recent field observations, that the southern portion of the Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Islands</span> may be showing signs of becoming an inner shelf <span class="hlt">shoal</span>. In contrast to these observations, plentiful sand has been observed in the nearshore farther to the north; based on this finding it has been suggested that at least the northern portion of the Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Islands</span> may be poised for recovery. Given the range of observations, it is unclear if Hurricane Katrina initiated a threshold crossing in the Chandeleurs causing the subaerial, landward- migrating barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> to begin evolving as submerged sand <span class="hlt">shoals</span>. If a threshold crossing has not yet occurred and the Chandeleurs do recover from the impact of Hurricane Katrina, it remains uncertain how imminent a threshold crossing may be. To better understand the potential future evolution of the Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Islands</span> and to assess the combination of factors that are likely to cause a threshold crossing in this environment, a series of initial model experiments are being conducted using the morphological-behavior model GEOMBEST. This model simulates the evolution of coastal morphology and stratigraphy resulting from changes in relative sea level and sediment supply, and provides insight into how barriers evolve over time scales ranging from decades to millennia. Vibracore logs, geophysical records, bathymetric surveys, and lidar surveys provide data necessary to design the model domain, while sediment budget studies, estimates of sea-level rise rates, and measurements of shoreline change rates provide input and calibration parameters. Late Holocene model runs simulate the evolution of 42 km-long North Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Island</span> as it migrated from the distal end of the St. Bernard Delta to its modern position. Building on the late Holocene simulation, we present a series of initial, multi-decadal forward model experiments that assess the combination of factors, including relative sea-level rise rates, sediment supply rates, and geologic framework, that are likely to initiate a threshold crossing in the Chandeleur <span class="hlt">Islands</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moore, L. J.; List, J. H.; Williams, S. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22481524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of trace-metal concentrations in Western Reef heron (Egretta gularis) and Siberian <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus heuglini) from southern Iran.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals, namely, chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, and iron, in Western Reef heron (Egretta gularis) (n = 15) and Siberian <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus heuglini) (n = 15) to (1) compare metal concentrations between two bird species with different trophic level, molting pattern, and life strategy; (2) examine species- and sex-related variations in trace-metal accumulation; and (3) determine the significance between heavy-metal concentrations in kidney, liver, and pectoral muscle. Bird samples were collected from November to December 2010 throughout the Hara Biosphere Reserve, and heavy metals were assayed by using a Shimadzu AA 680 flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer; the results were given as ?g/g dry weight. Metal concentrations were different between the bird species as well as among bird tissues, but there was no difference (except chromium and iron in kidney) between sex (male vs. female). Mean levels in kidney of Western Reef heron and Siberian <span class="hlt">gull</span> were chromium (0.96, 2.32 ?g/g), copper (6.31, 10.55 ?g/g), cobalt (0.12, 0.14 ?g/g), nickel (1.13, 1.32 ?g/g), and iron (37.92, 39.64 ?g/g), respectively, whereas in liver they were chromium (1.05, 2.75 ?g/g), copper (8.93, 12.63 ?g/g), cobalt (0.09, 0.17 ?g/g), nickel (1.1, 2.27 ?g/g), and iron (34.03, 44.21 ?g/g), respectively. Results showed that heavy-metal concentrations in Western Reef heron were decreased in the sequence iron > copper > nickel > chromium > cobalt, whereas in Siberian <span class="hlt">gull</span> they were decreased in the sequence iron > copper > chromium > nickel > cobalt. Results also showed that in both species, the highest chromium and nickel concentrations were measured in female birds and the lowest in male birds, whereas the highest copper, cobalt, and iron (except iron in liver) concentrations were measured in male birds and the lowest in female birds. PMID:22481524</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mansouri, Borhan; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza; Babaei, Hadi; Hoshyari, Ebrahim; Khodaparast, Seyed Hojat; Mirzajani, Alireza</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47705645"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microevolution in <span class="hlt">island</span> rodents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four <span class="hlt">island</span> rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (>˜?100 years). Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish <span class="hlt">island</span>, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos <span class="hlt">islands</span>, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel <span class="hlt">islands</span>. We report</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16245813"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perfluorinated alkyl substances in plasma, liver, brain, and eggs of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent environmental surveys have ascertained the widespread occurrence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in tissues of wildlife from the Arctic. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of a suite of PFAS in plasma, liver, brain, and egg samples from adult glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus), an apex scavenger-predator seabird breeding in the Norwegian Arctic. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the predominant PFAS in all samples and was present at concentrations that are the highest reported thus far in any arctic seabird species and populations. Among the body compartment/ tissue samples analyzed, PFOS was highest in plasma (48.1-349 ng/g wet weight (ww)), followed by liver approximately equal to egg > brain. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8-15 carbon (C) atoms were found, with the highest concentrations determined in plasma (sum PFCA: 41.8-262 ng/g ww), whereas 5C- and 6C-PFCAs were below the limits of detection. Perfluorobutane sulfonate, perfluorooctane sulfonamide, and four saturated (8:2 FTCA and 10:2 FTCA) and unsaturated (8:2 FTUCA and 10:2 FTUCA) fluorotelomer carboxylic acids were not detected in any samples. Perfluorohexane sulfonate was measured at concentrations up to 2.71 ng/g ww. The accumulation profiles of PFCAs were characterized by high proportions of the long and odd-numbered carbon-chain-length compounds, namely perfluoroundecanoic (11C) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (13C), although their individual contribution differed between the matrixes analyzed. Current PFAS concentrations suggest a bioaccumulation potential in Norwegian arctic glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span> that needs to be assessed as part of a broad organohalogen contaminant cocktail with potential for mediating biological processes in this vulnerable top-predator marine species. PMID:16245813</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Verreault, Jonathan; Houde, Magali; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Berger, Urs; Haukås, Marianne; Letcher, Robert J; Muir, Derek C G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19557615"> <span id="translatedtitle">The toxic effects of multiple persistent organic pollutant exposures on the post-hatch immunity maturation of glaucous <span class="hlt">gulls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study tested whether the immune system of the glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus hyperboreus) chicks became affected by existing environmental contaminants. An experimental group was given food that mimicked the natural contaminant mixture found in food from the North Atlantic marine environment, while the control group was given the equivalent of nearly clean food. All chicks were immunized with herpes virus (EHV), reovirus (REO), influenza virus (EIV), and tetanus toxoid (TET) in order to test their ability to respond to foreign specific antigens. At 8 wk, the experimental group had 3- to 13-fold higher concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, p,p'-DDE, and total polychlorinated biphenyls (Sigma PCB) than did the control. The experimental group produced significantly lower antibody titer against EIV and had lower concentrations of immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and -M (IgM) in blood. Hematocrit percent and leukocyte numbers did not differ between the two groups. The ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in vitro was tested with three mitogens, phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), and pokeweed mitogen (PWM), and three antigens, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), TET, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). The experimental group had a significantly higher peripheral blood lymphocyte response to PHA and to spleen lymphocytes in vitro stimulated with Con A and PCB congeners 99 or 153, while the Con A, PWM, KLH, TET, PPD, and Con A plus PCB-156 or -126 showed nonsignificant differences between groups. Data indicate that the combined effect of multiple persistent organic pollution exposures occurring naturally in the Arctic negatively affect the immune system of the glaucous <span class="hlt">gull</span> chick. PMID:19557615</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sagerup, Kjetil; Larsen, Hans Jørgen S; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Johansen, Grethe M; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20058955"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-frequency target strength and abundance of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006 Experiment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The low-frequency target strength of <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during Autumn 2006 spawning season is estimated from experimental data acquired simultaneously at multiple frequencies in the 300-1200 Hz range using (1) a low-frequency ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (OAWRS) system, (2) areal population density calibration with several conventional fish finding sonar (CFFS) systems, and (3) low-frequency transmission loss measurements. The OAWRS system's instantaneous imaging diameter of 100 km and regular updating enabled unaliased monitoring of fish populations over ecosystem scales including <span class="hlt">shoals</span> of Atlantic herring containing hundreds of millions of individuals, as confirmed by concurrent trawl and CFFS sampling. High spatial-temporal coregistration was found between herring <span class="hlt">shoals</span> imaged by OAWRS and concurrent CFFS line-transects, which also provided fish depth distributions. The mean scattering cross-section of an individual <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> herring is found to consistently exhibit a strong, roughly 20 dB/octave roll-off with decreasing frequency in the range of the OAWRS survey over all days of the roughly 2-week experiment, consistent with the steep roll-offs expected for sub-resonance scattering from fish with air-filled swimbladders. PMID:20058955</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gong, Zheng; Andrews, Mark; Jagannathan, Srinivasan; Patel, Ruben; Jech, J Michael; Makris, Nicholas C; Ratilal, Purnima</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP22A0351B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Carbonate Compensation Depth <span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum on Shatsky Rise, ODP Leg 198</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a transient interval of global warming approximately 55 million years ago. The event is associated with a prominent carbon isotope excursion that can best be explained by rapid dissociation of methane hydrate. This massive release of methane in conjunction with its subsequent oxidation to carbon dioxide likely resulted in a <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of the lysocline and carbonate compensation depth (CCD). Ocean Drilling Program Leg 198 on Shatsky Rise in the central Pacific recovered the PETM at five sites (Sites 1208 to 1212) spanning a modern depth range of almost 1000 meters from 2387 m at Site 1209 to 3346 m at Site 1208. These sites provide an ideal opportunity to test the response of the Pacific lysocline and CCD to events at the PETM. In the shallowest four sites (Sites 1209-1212), the PETM corresponds to an 8 to 23 cm-thick layer of clayey nannofossil ooze with a sharp base and a gradational upper contact. The clay-rich layer is generally yellowish brown in color and is often bioturbated into the underlying sediment. An extremely thin (1 mm) dark brown clay seam lies at the base of the PETM in several locations. The deepest of the four shallowest sites (Site 1211) shows a greater sedimentological response to the PETM indicating that it was at a depth close to the lysocline that was more sensitive to changes in carbonate solubility. At the deepest site on Shatsky Rise (Site 1208), the PETM is highly condensed (<3 cm), lies in a dark claystone with few nannofossils and almost no foraminifers, and was clearly close to the CCD before and after the event. Detailed counts of planktonic and benthic foraminifers as well as other grains (fish teeth, zeolites) have been conducted. This has been combined with measurements of percent CaCO3 and observations of test ultrastructure in the scanning electron microscope. The survey of pore infilling and secondary calcite overgrowth of foraminifera indicates that preservation deteriorates at the base of the PETM, likely due to lysocline <span class="hlt">shoaling</span>. In some sections, poor preservation is also observed in the 1-2 cm below the event. Foraminiferal preservation is poorest and percent sand fraction highest immediately above the base of the event. All observations support the expected <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> of the Pacific lysocline and CCD as a result of hydrate dissociation at the PETM.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brill, A.; Bralower, T. J.; McDowell, T.; Thomas, D. J.; Cottone, R.; Zachos, J. C.; Leg 198 Shipboard Party, .</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3477125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adapting to a Changing World: Unraveling the Role of Man-Made Habitats as Alternative Feeding Areas for Slender-Billed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Chroicocephalus genei)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current rates of wildlife habitat loss have placed increasing demands on managers to develop, validate and implement tools aimed at improving our ability to evaluate such impacts on wildlife. Here, we present a case study conducted at the Natural Area of Doñana (SW Spain) where remote sensing and stable isotope (?13C, ?15N) analyses of individuals were combined to unravel (1) the effect of variations in availability of natural food resources (i.e. from natural marshes) on reproductive performance of a Slender-billed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Chroicocephalus genei) population, and (2) the role of two adjacent, artificial systems (a fish farm and saltmines) as alternate anthropogenic feeding areas. Based on long-term (1983–2004) remote-sensing, we inferred the average extent of flooded area at the marshland (a proxy to natural resource availability) annually. Estimated flooded areas (ranging from extreme drought [ca. 151 ha, 1995] to high moisture [15,049 ha, 2004]) were positively related to reproductive success of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (estimated for the 1993–2004 period, and ranging from ca. 0 to 1.7 fledglings per breeding pairs), suggesting that habitat availability played a role in determining their reproductive performance. Based on blood ?13C and ?15N values of fledglings, 2001–2004, and a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, we conclude that saltmines acted as the main alternative foraging habitat for <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, with relative contributions increasing as the extent of marshland decreased. Although adjacent, anthropogenic systems have been established as the preferred breeding sites for this <span class="hlt">gull</span> population, dietary switches towards exploitation of alternative (anthropogenic) food resources negatively affected the reproductive output of this species, thus challenging the perception that these man-made systems are necessarily a reliable buffer against loss of natural feeding habitats. The methodology and results derived from this study could be extended to a large suite of threatened natural communities worldwide, thus providing a useful framework for management and conservation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramirez, Francisco; Navarro, Joan; Afan, Isabel; Hobson, Keith A.; Delgado, Antonio; Forero, Manuela G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23094062"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adapting to a changing world: unraveling the role of man-made habitats as alternative feeding areas for slender-billed <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Chroicocephalus genei).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current rates of wildlife habitat loss have placed increasing demands on managers to develop, validate and implement tools aimed at improving our ability to evaluate such impacts on wildlife. Here, we present a case study conducted at the Natural Area of Doñana (SW Spain) where remote sensing and stable isotope (?(13)C, ?(15)N) analyses of individuals were combined to unravel (1) the effect of variations in availability of natural food resources (i.e. from natural marshes) on reproductive performance of a Slender-billed <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (Chroicocephalus genei) population, and (2) the role of two adjacent, artificial systems (a fish farm and saltmines) as alternate anthropogenic feeding areas. Based on long-term (1983-2004) remote-sensing, we inferred the average extent of flooded area at the marshland (a proxy to natural resource availability) annually. Estimated flooded areas (ranging from extreme drought [ca. 151 ha, 1995] to high moisture [15,049 ha, 2004]) were positively related to reproductive success of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (estimated for the 1993-2004 period, and ranging from ca. 0 to 1.7 fledglings per breeding pairs), suggesting that habitat availability played a role in determining their reproductive performance. Based on blood ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of fledglings, 2001-2004, and a Bayesian isotopic mixing model, we conclude that saltmines acted as the main alternative foraging habitat for <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, with relative contributions increasing as the extent of marshland decreased. Although adjacent, anthropogenic systems have been established as the preferred breeding sites for this <span class="hlt">gull</span> population, dietary switches towards exploitation of alternative (anthropogenic) food resources negatively affected the reproductive output of this species, thus challenging the perception that these man-made systems are necessarily a reliable buffer against loss of natural feeding habitats. The methodology and results derived from this study could be extended to a large suite of threatened natural communities worldwide, thus providing a useful framework for management and conservation. PMID:23094062</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramírez, Francisco; Navarro, Joan; Afán, Isabel; Hobson, Keith A; Delgado, Antonio; Forero, Manuela G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39726863"> <span id="translatedtitle">The diet of Atlantic Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> ( Larus michahellis atlantis ) at an oceanic seabird colony: estimating predatory impact upon breeding petrels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diet and breeding ecology of Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus michahellis atlantis) were studied on Selvagem Grande, North Atlantic in the nesting season of 2007. We collected and analyzed 715 pellets from\\u000a adults. The most frequent prey were White-faced Storm-petrels (Pelagodroma marina; present on 40.8% of all pellets) and the endemic land snails (Theba macandrewiana; present on 36.5% of all pellets).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rafael Matias; Paulo Catry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19847662"> <span id="translatedtitle">Age, sex and spatial dependent variations in heavy metals levels in the Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from the Bjørnøya and Jan Mayen, Arctic.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) concentrations were determined in different tissues (muscle, kidney, liver, brain, gonads, heart and feathers) of Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Larus hyperboreus) from Bjørnøya and Jan Mayen. The age and spatial dependent variations in heavy metals were quantified and interpreted in view of the three chemometric techniques, i.e. non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test, redundancy gradient analysis and detrended correspondence analysis. The Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> from Bjørnøya contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) levels of Cd, Cu and Zn than those inhabited Jan Mayen. Adult birds were characterized by greater (p < 0.01) concentration of muscle, hepatic and renal heavy metals in comparison to chicks. Insignificantly higher slope constant Zn/Cd for the liver than for the kidney may reflect insignificant Cd exposure. Estimate of transfer factor (TF) allows us to assess variations in heavy metal concentrations during the individual development of Glaucous <span class="hlt">Gulls</span>. It may be stated that there is a distinct increase of bioaccumulation of all the studied metals during subsequent stages of the bird life. PMID:19847662</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malinga, Micha?; Szefer, Piotr; Gabrielsen, Geir W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-10-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3786981"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin’s <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the <span class="hlt">gulls</span> 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin’s <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stedt, Johan; Bengtsson, Stina; Porczak, Aleksandra; Granholm, Susanne; Gonzalez-Acuna, Daniel; Olsen, Bjorn; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24098774"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin's <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the <span class="hlt">gulls</span> 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin's <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance. PMID:24098774</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hernandez, Jorge; Johansson, Anders; Stedt, Johan; Bengtsson, Stina; Porczak, Aleksandra; Granholm, Susanne; González-Acuña, Daniel; Olsen, Björn; Bonnedahl, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geomo.199...82C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mesoscale geomorphic change on low energy barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> in Chesapeake Bay, U.S.A.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an analysis of decadal (mesoscale) geomorphic change on sandy barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> in the fetch-limited environment of Chesapeake Bay. Low energy barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> exist in two settings: on the fringe of marshes and in open water and this analysis shows the various types of barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> to be genetically related. Barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> that face the dominant wind and wave direction (E or W) retreat via barrier translation, preserving the barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> volume. Those that exist in re-entrants are dominated by longshore transport processes, are strongly affected by sediment supply and are subject to disintegration. Marsh fringe barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> are perched on or draped over the surface of the underlying marsh. They migrate landwards via barrier translation during periodic high water events accompanied by large waves (hurricanes and northeasters). The underlying marsh surface erodes under all water levels and the rate of retreat of the barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> and underlying marsh may take place at different rates, leading to various configurations from perched barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> several metres landward of the marsh edge, to barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> that have a sandy shoreface extending into the subtidal zone. The coastal configuration during landward retreat of marsh fringe barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> is subject to strong local control exerted by the underyling marsh topography. As erosion of marsh promontories occurs and marsh creeks are intersected and bypassed, the configuration is subject to rapid change. Periodic sediment influxes cause spits to develop at re-entrants in the marsh. The spits are initiated as extensions of adjacent marsh fringe barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span>, but as the sediment volume is finite, the initial drift-aligned spits become sediment-starved and begin to develop a series of swash-aligned cells as they strive for morphodynamic equilibrium. The individual cells are stretched until breaches form in the barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span>, creating inlets with tidal deltas. At this stage the low energy barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> closely resemble open ocean barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span>. Continued reworking leads to widening of the inlets with consequent loss of constriction of tidal flow. The tidal deltas are, thus, no longer maintained and ultimately the <span class="hlt">island</span> system disintegrates through inlet widening and is transformed to subtidal <span class="hlt">shoals</span>. Barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> at various stages in this evolutionary cycle can be observed around the bay. Mid-bay barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> are affected by wave processes from both sides. This helps maintain the barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> form and enables barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> to persist as sediment is exchanged between both sides of the <span class="hlt">island</span>. Rates of barrier <span class="hlt">island</span> translation are extremely high (up to 30 m/year over a 12 year period). This is attributed to the low volume of sand, which facilitates complete rollover in short periods. Accelerated sea level rise is likely to hasten the translation rates of marsh fringe barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span>. The rapid disintegration of most spits compared to the persistence of marsh fringe barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> points to a reliance on the marsh as a stabilising point. If the marshes are overstepped by rising sea level as appears to be happening, the complete disintegration of the barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> is highly likely.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, J. Andrew G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uic.edu/depts/malab/pdfs/029.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microevolution in <span class="hlt">island</span> rodents</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">\\u000a We perform a meta-analysis on morphological data from four <span class="hlt">island</span> rodent populations exhibiting microevolution (<? 100 years).\\u000a Data consisting of incidences of skeletal variants, cranial, and external measurements are from house mice (Mus musculus) on one Welsh and one Scottish <span class="hlt">island</span>, black rats (Rattus rattus) on two Galapagos <span class="hlt">islands</span>, and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) on three California Channel <span class="hlt">islands</span>. We</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oliver R. W. Pergams; Mary V. Ashley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://caliber.ucpress.net/doi/abs/10.1525/bio.2010.60.5.3"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Island</span> Fox Paradox</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Channel <span class="hlt">Island</span> foxes, long the top predator in their ecosystem, show little fear of humans. Wild foxes often accost visitors on San Nicolas, the <span class="hlt">island</span> with the most abundant fox population in the <span class="hlt">island</span> chain. Now, archaeologists have new evidence that suggests foxes were carried to the <span class="hlt">islands</span> by indigenous people thousands of years ago, and that humans shaped the evolution of the entire species. Do species introduced by native people thousands of years ago deserve protection?</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sharon Levy (Freelancer;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6091444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arctic ice <span class="hlt">islands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice <span class="hlt">islands</span> are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice <span class="hlt">islands</span> are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice <span class="hlt">islands</span> are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice <span class="hlt">island</span> problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice <span class="hlt">island</span> and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice <span class="hlt">island</span> and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice <span class="hlt">island</span>. The ice <span class="hlt">island</span> research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice <span class="hlt">island</span> generation and movement suggest that ice <span class="hlt">island</span> lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice <span class="hlt">islands</span> present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice <span class="hlt">islands</span>. At this time, approximately 34 ice <span class="hlt">islands</span> are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice <span class="hlt">islands</span>. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice <span class="hlt">island</span> recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice <span class="hlt">island</span> hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1173/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The shallow stratigraphy and sand resources offshore of the Mississippi Barrier <span class="hlt">Islands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coastal Mississippi is protected by a series of barrier <span class="hlt">islands</span> ranging in length from 10-25 kilometers that are less than 2 kilometers wide. The majority of these <span class="hlt">islands</span> comprise the Gulf <span class="hlt">Islands</span> National Seashore (GUIS), an ecologically diverse shoreline that provides habitat for wildlife including migratory birds and endangered animals. The majority of GUIS is submerged, and aquatic environments include dynamic tidal inlets, ebb-tide deltas, and seagrass beds. The <span class="hlt">islands</span> are in a state of decline, with land areas severely reduced during the past century by storms, sea-level rise, and human alteration. Morton (2008) estimates that since the mid-1800s up to 64 percent of <span class="hlt">island</span> surface area has been lost. Heavy damage was inflicted in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina, which passed by as a Category 3 storm and battered the <span class="hlt">islands</span> with winds of more than 160 kilometers per hour and a storm surge up to 9 meters. Since 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the National Park Service, has been mapping the seafloor and substrate around the <span class="hlt">islands</span> as part of the USGS Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility project. The purpose of these investigations is to characterize the near-surface stratigraphy and identify the influence it may have on <span class="hlt">island</span> evolution and fate. In 2009, this effort provided the basis for a collaborative effort with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to expand the investigation outside of GUIS boundaries as part of the Mississippi Coastal Improvement Project (MsCIP). The MsCIP program consists of structural, nonstructural, and environmental project elements to restore portions of coastal Mississippi and GUIS affected by storm impact. The project includes the placement of sand along the <span class="hlt">islands</span>, both on the present beaches and within the littoral zone, to mitigate shoreline erosion and breaching. This action requires the location and assessment of offshore sand or sediment deposits that can provide suitable material for shoreline renourishment. The geophysical and sample information collected by the USGS during geologic investigations provides this information. As part of the MsCIP program, in March 2010 the USGS mapped approximately 300 square kilometers of seafloor around GUIS. Interferometric swath bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and Chirp sub-bottom profiling were used to characterize seafloor elevations, texture, and the underlying stratigraphy. On the basis of this information, potential sediment resources were identified. The most promising offshore deposits for beach restoration include <span class="hlt">shoals</span>, lowstand valley fill, tidal delta deposits, abandoned barrier deposits, and dredge spoil. Of these, lowstand valley fill deposits and dredge spoil are less desirable; lowstand deposits are buried under a 2- to 4-meter blanket of mud, and dredge spoil volume is small. A relict tidal delta and submerged <span class="hlt">shoals</span> are the most desirable deposits; the tidal delta contains a large volume of material still exposed on the seafloor, and parts of submerged <span class="hlt">shoals</span> have modest volume and thin mud cover.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Twichell, David; Pendleton, Elizabeth; Baldwin, Wayne; Foster, David; Flocks, James; Kelso, Kyle; DeWitt, Nancy; Pfeiffer, William; Forde, Arnell; Krick, Jason; Baehr, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1001481"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concentrated nesting of mallards and gadwalls on Miller Lake <span class="hlt">Island</span>, North Dakota</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Island</span>-nesting mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and gadwalls (A. strepera) were studied on a 4.5-ha <span class="hlt">island</span> in 385-ha Miller Lake in northwestern North Dakota during 1976-80. During the 5-year study, 2,561 duck nests of 9 species were found on <span class="hlt">Island</span> A located 180 m offshore; 59% were mallard and 34% were gadwall. In patches of shrub cover, which contained the greatest concentrations of nests, densities ranged from 241 to 389 mallard nests/ha and from 139 to 237 gadwall nests/ha. Over 97% of the nests were placed in 4 patches of shrubs totaling about 1 ha of western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)--Woods rose (Rosa woodsii) cover, which composed about 30% of the <span class="hlt">island</span>'s vegetation. Average hatching success was 85% for clutches of all species. Abandonment averaged 14% (348 of 2,426 nests) and was the major cause of egg failure. Only 15 nests (<1%) were destroyed, primarily by ring-billed (Larus delawarensis) or California <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (L. californicus). A minimum of 15,960 ducklings including 9,300 mallards and 5,150 gadwalls hatched on 4.5-ha <span class="hlt">Island</span> A. Hatching rates of eggs in successful nests averaged 83% for mallards and 87% for gadwalls. Despite the close spacing of nests, most individual hens maintained normal nesting regimes. Eighty-one percent of the mallard clutches contained 7-13 eggs and 81% of the gadwall clutches contained 8-14 eggs. <span class="hlt">Island</span> A in Miller Lake provides an outstanding example of the potential for high reproduction levels of mallards and gadwalls nesting in small areas of predator-free habitats.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duebbert, H. F.; Lokemoen, J. T.; Sharp, D. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41205101"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disturbed <span class="hlt">island</span> ecology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The natural occurrence of significant disturbances to the operation of insular ecosystems has tended to be downplayed in the development of <span class="hlt">island</span> ecological theory. Despite the importance of events such as Hurricane Hugo, which in 1989 affected <span class="hlt">islands</span> in the Caribbean, <span class="hlt">islands</span> that are disturbed tend to be viewed as deviants from the `true path' described by equilibrium models. However,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert J. Whittaker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6361273"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mutagenicity studies on herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> from different locations on the Great Lakes. II. Mutagenic evaluation of extracts of herring-<span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs in a battery of in vitro mammalian and microbial tests.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Herring-<span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) eggs were collected from five locations on the Great Lakes and from one colony on the Atlantic coast for organochlorine analysis and mutagenesis testing. The Great Lakes colonies were chosen for their different contaminant levels, while the Atlantic coast colony was used as a relatively clean control. The eggs were homogenized and extracted, and the extracts were tested in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay for induction of point mutations and in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome aberrations. None of the extracts was mutagenic in Salmonella, either in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. However, all of the extracts, including the clean control, caused significant increases in both the SCE rate and in the number of chromosome aberrations in the CHO cells. There was no apparent relationship between contaminant levels and the magnitude of these responses or the doses at which they occurred, although the chemical analysis indicated a wide range in the concentrations of the different organochlorides present. PMID:6361273</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ellenton, J A; McPherson, M F; Maus, K L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nps.gov/apis/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Apostle <span class="hlt">Islands</span> National Lakeshore</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Near the western end of Lake Superior lies a forested archipelago of twenty-two <span class="hlt">islands</span> called the Apostles. The Apostle <span class="hlt">Islands</span> National Lakeshore (est. 1970) is composed of 20 of the 22 <span class="hlt">islands</span> as well as a 12 mile strip of shoreline on the mainland. This National Park Service site contains an Explore the <span class="hlt">Islands</span> section to get to know the natural wonders and human history of the <span class="hlt">islands</span>. It offers information about: the <span class="hlt">islands</span>, including a list of flora; lighthouses and shipwrecks; eagles and bears; sea caves; old growth forests; Lake Superior, including a fish species list; and the formation of sandscapes. The history of farming, stone quarries, and fisheries on the <span class="hlt">islands</span> are also covered.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhDT.......146A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of satellite imagery to monitor various parameters of Bull <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Reservoir, Arkansas, United States of America</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of satellite imagery to estimate various water quality parameters of Bull <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Reservoir, Arkansas, was investigated. Landsat Thematic Mapper data were acquired for four flyby dates that coincided with field data collection. Field data included chlorophyll a analysis, phytoplankton composition, zooplankton composition, nitrate-nitrogen, orthophosphate, and turbidity levels, and Secchi disk depth. A step-wise regression approach was used to develop predictive models that would incorporate Landsat Thematic Mapper digital numbers to estimate the various field parameters. Models developed predicted levels of chlorophyll a for July 1994 (Rsp2 = 0.80) and December 1994 (Rsp2 = 0.84) and for Secchi disk depth (Rsp2 = 0.96) from February 1995. Bands 1, 2, 3, and 5 were important predictors in the July 1994 model and bands 2 and 3 were incorporated in the December 1994 model. Band 2 was the most significant variable in both chlorophyll a models, accounting for 39% and 68% of the variance in July 1994 and December 1994, respectively. Band 3 was the only band indicated as a predictive variable for Secchi depth in February 1995. No other field data were successfully predicted by the polynomial regression models. Landsat data were also acquired for ten years prior to the initiation of this study to test the predictive chlorophyll a models. Resulting estimates were compared to United States Geological Survey chlorophyll a data corresponding to the time of satellite data. Analysis of variance tests indicated that the July 1994 model predicted similar chlorophyll a values 60% of the time. Predicted values from the December 1994 model were significantly higher than both the USGS measured chlorophyll a values and the July 1994 estimates. Landsat data from 1984 through 1993 were also analyzed for changes of vegetative cover within a portion of Bull <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> watershed. The watershed was subdivided into sub-watershed drainage basins and land cover for each sub-watershed was categorized into one of five classes: forested, open, mixed, urban, and water. Chlorophyll a estimates derived from the July 1994 model were compared to land cover classes to determine if land cover changes within the sub-watersheds had influenced chlorophyll a concentrations. Only sub-watershed 1 (Theodosia, Missouri) was indicated to have variables that could explain a significant portion of the variation in chlorophyll a estimates. This model incorporated the two land cover types of water and mixed, with an Rsp2 of 0.73. The results suggested that satellite imagery may be used to estimate surface chlorophyll a but is highly dependent on algal composition. Sub-watershed analyses suggested that water quality within Bull <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Reservoir is influenced more by inflow from up-stream reservoirs than adjacent land use.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Allee, Rebecca Jean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21549412"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of exposure to halogenated organic compounds combined with dietary restrictions on the antioxidant defense system in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> chicks.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (HG) (Larus argentatus) is naturally exposed to halogenated organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through its diet. During periods of food scarcity, arctic seabirds experience lipid mobilization, allowing stored lipid soluble contaminants to re-enter the body circulation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of PCB exposure and fasting on the antioxidant defense system in HG chicks. Forty newly hatched chicks were exposed to contaminated cod liver oil for 6weeks and then fasted for 1week. We assessed the hepatic total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) against peroxynitrite, hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, and measured glutathione (reduced: GSH, and oxidized: GSSG) levels and the enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. The results show that fasting significantly increased the HOC levels in the HG chick livers. Limited effects were observed on antioxidant responses; significant effects were only found for catalase (CAT) activity, Se-dependent GPX activity and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the exposed and fasted group. CAT and Se-dependent GPX activities correlated negatively with the PCB concentrations within this group, and a nonlinear relationship between glutathione and contaminant levels was also found. These effects were generally not observed after exposure or fasting alone and were likely related to the high PCB levels induced by the combination of exposure and fasting. PMID:21549412</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hegseth, Marit Nøst; Camus, Lionel; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring plasticity in the wild: laying date-temperature reaction norms in the common <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus canus.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Exploration of causal components of plasticity is important for insight into evolutionary dynamics and an organism's ability to respond to climate change. Among individuals, variation in plasticity can be due to genotype-environment interaction (GxE) or a result from environmental effects associated with an individual. We investigated plasticity for laying date in the common <span class="hlt">gulls</span> Larus canus, using data collected in Estonia during 37 years (n=11624 records on 2262 females, with 472 relatives). We used a sliding window approach to find the period in spring during which mean temperature best explained the annual mean laying date. Then, considering the spring temperature as a quantitative description of the environment, we used pedigree information and a random regression animal model to determine the variation in plasticity for the laying date-temperature relationship. We found that individuals differ in the plasticity of laying date (such that there is increased variation among individuals for the laying date in warmer springs), and that approximately 11% of variation in the laying date is heritable, but we found no statistical support for GxE. Plasticity in this species is not constrained by warmer springs. PMID:18211880</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brommer, Jon E; Rattiste, Kalev; Wilson, Alastair J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19896145"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biomonitoring of coastal areas in Tunisia: stable isotope and trace element analysis in the Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gull</span> (YLG) chicks to monitor trace elements in Tunisian areas subject to different pollution stresses: urban contamination (Chikly), industrial pollution (Thyna) and an unpolluted area (Kneis). We measured trace element concentrations (Hg, Se and Pb) in chick feathers. We also assessed their feeding ecology by analyzing both regurgitates and stable isotopes (SIA) in chick feathers and in their prey, to determine the main entry route of pollutants. SIA revealed that YLG feed mainly on aquatic resources from the Lake of Tunis (Chikly colony) and the Gulf of Gabès (Thyna and Kneis colonies). Moreover, the enriched delta(15)N found in feathers from Chikly are attributed to the eutrophication of the Lake of Tunis. Hg and Se were higher in Kneis and Thyna colonies, in agreement with the higher consumption of marine resources and the greater availability of these elements resulting from the impact of the industrial activity in the area. Pb concentrations were higher in Chikly, related to the heavier traffic around the Lake of Tunis and the use of leaded gasoline. PMID:19896145</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abdennadher, Aida; Ramírez, Francisco; Romdhane, Mohamed Salah; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14761064"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic differentiation at nuclear and mitochondrial loci among large white-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span>: sex-biased interspecific gene flow?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measured genetic differentiation among species of large white-headed <span class="hlt">gulls</span> using mitochondrial (cytochrome b haplotypes) and nuclear (microsatellites) markers. Additional information was added using a previously published study of allozymes on the same species. Levels of differentiation among species at nuclear markers are much lower than would be expected for avian species and are not concordant with the level of differentiation in mitochondrial markers. This discrepancy is best explained by a combination of recent species origin and interspecific gene flow after speciation. The data also suggest that female-mediated gene flow is reduced compared to male-mediated gene flow, either due to behavioral bias or due to stronger counterselection of female hybrids in accordance with Haldane's rule for ZW species. Whatever the reasons for the low differentiation of the species' nuclear gene pools, the extensive similarity of their nuclear genome demonstrates that selection on a limited number of characters is an important factor in establishing and maintaining clear-cut phenotypic differences between these species and suggests that the number of loci involved in this process is quite low. This situation may not be exceptional in birds, indeed a number of studies have found similarly low level of differentiation in nuclear markers among congeneric bird species, although usually based on a single set of markers. Because hybridization is a widespread phenomenon in birds, many of these cases might be due to interspecific gene flow. PMID:14761064</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Crochet, Pierre-Andre; Chen, Junjian Z; Pons, Jean-Marc; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Hebert, Paul D N; Bonhomme, François</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47890633"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Island</span> Biogeography and Landscape Ecology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">MacArthur and Wilson’s theory (1967) set out to identify and measure the variables involved in the colonisation of <span class="hlt">islands</span>\\u000a by biota and their subsequent evolution or extinction. The key biogeographical variables identified by their theory were <span class="hlt">island</span>\\u000a size and distance from the mainland. They suggested that an <span class="hlt">island’s</span> biodiversity is proportionate to the <span class="hlt">island’s</span> size (i.e.\\u000a the larger the <span class="hlt">island</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ioannis Vogiatzakis; Geoffrey H. Griffiths</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2596184"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Shoal</span> and prey patch choice by co-occurring fishes and prawns: inter-taxa use of socially transmitted cues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Animals can use socially transmitted information to learn about the distribution and quality of resources without incurring the costs associated with having to search for and sample them first hand. Recently, it has been shown that the use of chemical social information specific to patterns of diet and habitat use is an important mechanism underpinning recognition and social organization in <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> fishes. In this study we revealed that the use of resource-specific chemical information is not limited to conspecifics, or even members of the same taxon. In a series of laboratory experiments, we showed that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) could recognize similar patterns of habitat use in common prawns (Leander serratus), preferentially orientating towards groups of prawns exposed to the same habitats as themselves, and even selecting foraging patches located close to them. Prawns were seen to use habitat-specific cues generated by conspecifics, but not by sticklebacks, suggesting that the benefits of forming these heterospecific social association patterns may be unequal for prawns and fishes. Our findings suggest that some species might use co-occurring, unrelated species as information centres in order to orient and locate resources within their surroundings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Webster, M.M; Ward, A.J.W; Hart, P.J.B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409674"> <span id="translatedtitle">Walk-through survey report of the bagging operation at Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Alabama</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A site visit was made to the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) in Muscle <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Alabama to determine the effectiveness of control measures used to lessen possible hazardous working conditions. The NFDC was to provide products, processes, and processing beneficial to the fertilizer industry. At the time of the visit 46-0-0 granular urea was being packaged into 50-pound plastic bags. Attention was paid to the control of airborne dust in dry chemical bagging and filling operations. Engineering control technology observed during this process included ventilation systems, work practices and protective equipment. While there were some controls worth noting at the facility, the packers were in need of repair. Product was continually leaking from the fill spouts into the environment of the workers whenever a bag was not on the spout. Employees were required to wear safety shoes, safety glasses, and hard hats. Respirators were not required. The author concludes that control techniques in use were not exemplary.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cooper, T.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19536298"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dissemination of Escherichia coli with CTX-M type ESBL between humans and yellow-legged <span class="hlt">gulls</span> in the south of France.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extended Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae started to appear in the 1980s, and have since emerged as some of the most significant hospital-acquired infections with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella being main players. More than 100 different ESBL types have been described, the most widespread being the CTX-M beta-lactamase enzymes (bla(CTX-M) genes). This study focuses on the zoonotic dissemination of ESBL bacteria, mainly CTX-M type, in the southern coastal region of France. We found that the level of general antibiotic resistance in single randomly selected E. coli isolates from wild Yellow-legged <span class="hlt">Gulls</span> in France was high. Nearly half the isolates (47.1%) carried resistance to one or more antibiotics (in a panel of six antibiotics), and resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin and streptomycin was most widespread. In an ESBL selective screen, 9.4% of the <span class="hlt">gulls</span> carried ESBL producing bacteria and notably, 6% of the <span class="hlt">gulls</span> carried bacteria harboring CTX-M-1 group of ESBL enzymes, a recently introduced and yet the most common clinical CTX-M group in France. Multi locus sequence type and phylogenetic group designations were established for the ESBL isolates, revealing that birds and humans share E. coli populations. Several ESBL producing E. coli isolated from birds were identical to or clustered with isolates with human origin. Hence, wild birds pick up E. coli of human origin, and with human resistance traits, and may accordingly also act as an environmental reservoir and melting pot of bacterial resistance with a potential to re-infect human populations. PMID:19536298</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonnedahl, Jonas; Drobni, Mirva; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Hernandez, Jorge; Granholm, Susanne; Kayser, Yves; Melhus, Asa; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Waldenström, Jonas; Johansson, Anders; Olsen, Björn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18441798"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dramatic changes in the temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes: 1982-2006.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">DecaBDE is a current-use, commercial formulation of an additive, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardant composed of > 97% 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-decabromoDE (BDE-209). Of the 43 PBDE congeners monitored, we report on the temporal trends (1982-2006) of quantifiable PBDEs, and specifically BDE-209, in pooled samples of herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) eggs from seven colonies spanning the Laurentian Great Lakes. BDE-209 concentrations in 2006 egg pools ranged from 4.5 to 20 ng/g wet weight (ww) and constituted 0.6-4.5% of sigma39PBDE concentrations among colonies, whereas sigma(octa)BDE and sigma(nona)BDE concentrations constituted from 0.5 to 2.2% and 0.3 to 1.1%, respectively. From 1982 to 2006, the BDE-209 doubling times ranged from 2.1 to 3.0 years, whereas for sigma(octa)BDEs and sigma(nona)BDEs, the mean doubling times ranged from 3.0 to 11 years and 2.4 to 5.3 years, respectively. The source of the octa- and nona-BDE congeners, e.g., BDE-207 and BDE-197, are the result of BDE-209 debromination, and they are either formed metabolically in Great Lakes herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and/or bioaccumulated from the diet and subsequently transferred to their eggs. In contrast to BDE-209 and the octa- and nona-BDEs, congeners derived mainly from PentaBDE and OctaBDE mixtures, e.g., BDE-47, -99, and -100, showed rapid increases up until 2000; however, there was no increasing trend post-2000. The data illustrates that PBDE concentrations and congener pattern trends in the Great Lakes herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs have dramatically changed between 1995 and 2006. Regardless of BDE-209 not fitting the pervasive criteria as a persistent and bioaccumulative substance, it is clearly of increasing concern in Great Lake herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span>, and provides evidence that regulation of DecaBDE formulations is warranted. PMID:18441798</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gauthier, Lewis T; Hebert, Craig E; Weseloh, D V Chip; Letcher, Robert J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5691381"> <span id="translatedtitle">Basaltic <span class="hlt">island</span> sand provenance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Islands</span> are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the <span class="hlt">islands</span> of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from <span class="hlt">island</span> to <span class="hlt">island</span>, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older <span class="hlt">islands</span> exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active <span class="hlt">islands</span>. Climatic variations across the <span class="hlt">island</span> of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the <span class="hlt">island</span>. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=animals+AND+islands&pg=3&id=ED059085"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Island</span> Natural Science School.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prepared for students in grade six attending the <span class="hlt">Island</span> Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes <span class="hlt">island</span> lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bahamas&pg=2&id=EJ384576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marine and <span class="hlt">Island</span> Ecology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the <span class="hlt">island</span> habitats. Provides information on the <span class="hlt">island</span>, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22marine+ecology%22&pg=2&id=EJ384576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marine and <span class="hlt">Island</span> Ecology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the <span class="hlt">island</span> habitats. Provides information on the <span class="hlt">island</span>, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/eden/build.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Build an <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This step by step presentation of the formation of a coral atoll includes eight frames, showing the volcanic <span class="hlt">island</span> sinking as the fringing reef builds. Eventually the original <span class="hlt">island</span> sinks well below the surface and only the reef remains as an atoll.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3037392"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Shark Assemblage at French Frigate <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> Atoll, Hawai'i: Species Composition, Abundance and Habitat Use</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao Mh ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289–1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dale, Jonathan J.; Stankus, Austin M.; Burns, Michael S.; Meyer, Carl G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5770997"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Arm Formation, north-central Newfoundland: Fe- and Mn-enriched sediments underlying black shales and flysch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Middle Ordovician <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Arm Formation is located in the central volcanic belt of north-central Newfoundland and consists of a sequence of hematitic argillites overlain by grey cherts and then black shales directly underneath a late Ordovician/early Silurian flysch sequence. The hematitic argillites are enriched in Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Co. Geochemically definable components within related lithologic groups were discriminated using principal component analysis and factor analysis. These procedures indicate the presence of (1) biogenic, (2) mixed detrital, (3) hydrothermal, and (4) Mn-carbonate components. The base of the hematitic part is marked by a sharp increase in the hydrothermal component, which then decreases stratigraphically upward. The Mn-carbonate component also decreases upwards, but persists up to the grey cherts. The clastic component changes from mixed mafic/pelagic clay-like detritus to Zr-, Nb- and Y-rich detritus in the top hematitic part. The grey cherts mark a transitional stage between the hematitic sediments (oxic) and the black shales (anoxic). The change to increasingly O[sub 2]-deficient conditions is explained by (a) an increase of biological productivity and related O[sub 2]-drain by C[sub org]-oxidation and/or (b) diachronous subsidence of the basin floor into a deep-water anoxic layer as a result of the loading of the basin floor by an approaching thrust stack. The similar stratigraphic sequence and geochemistry of the Middle Ordovician sediments in the Taconic Allochthon of New York State suggest that these processes also acted at other locations along the continental margin of the Iapetus Ocean. This uniformity may reflect the strong influence of the warm Middle Ordovician climate on the sediment facies or, alternatively, the control by the specific tectonic environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bruechert, V.; Delano, J.W.; Kidd, J.W.; William, S.F. (State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499260"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea) from Cardos <span class="hlt">Islands</span>, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831) is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile) and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil) to Terra del Fuego (Argentina). This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos <span class="hlt">Island</span>, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos <span class="hlt">Island</span> has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus dominicanus), the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast. PMID:22499260</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fracasso, Hélio A A; Branco, Joaquim O</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS...96..257C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foraging movements of Audouin’s <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus audouinii) in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean: A preliminary satellite-tracking study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A knowledge of the foraging strategies of marine predators is essential to understand the intrinsic factors controlling their distribution, abundance and their ecological function within the marine ecosystem. Here, we investigated for the first time the foraging movements and activity patterns of Audouin’s <span class="hlt">gull</span> Larus audouinii by using satellite-tracking data from eight breeding adults in the main colony of the species worldwide (Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean). Tagged <span class="hlt">gulls</span> foraged in the marine area close to the breeding colony (62% of foraging locations) and in the terrestrial area of the Ebro Delta (mainly rice fields; 38% of foraging locations). The foraging activity patterns changed significantly throughout the day; lower from dusk through the first half of the night (19-1 h; 32% of active locations) and higher during the rest of the day (1-19 h; 75.5 ± 4.3% of active locations). These results confirm the foraging plasticity of this seabird and, based on previous information about the dietary habits of this species, we hypothesize how its time-dependent activity patterns and habitat use could be associated with variations in the availability of marine food resources (e.g. diel vertical migrations of pelagic fish) and the exploitation of terrestrial resources (e.g. American crayfish Procambarus clarkii).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christel, Isadora; Navarro, Joan; Del Castillo, Marcos; Cama, Albert; Ferrer, Xavier</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21564561"> <span id="translatedtitle">A nondestructive method for obtaining maternal DNA from avian eggshells and its application to embryonic viability determination in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> (Larus argentatus).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many avian studies, aimed at collecting samples for genetic analysis, rely upon invasive procedures involving the capture and handling of parents and their offspring. Our goal was to develop a nondestructive method for sampling maternal DNA that would not require blood collection from the mother. Herein, we describe a method for isolating genomic DNA from eggshell powder, obtained by filing the outer shell of an avian egg. Comparison of microsatellite profiles, obtained from genomic DNA found within eggshell matrices and their corresponding parents, verified the presence of maternal DNA in the eggshell matrix in 100% of the herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> nests assessed (n= 11). In addition, the microsatellite profiles of eggshell DNA were identical among eggs from the same clutch. The ability to rapidly obtain a DNA sample from an avian eggshell in a noninvasive manner could aid in a wide range of genetic sampling studies, and in this study, we provide one potential application of this finding: assessing the fertilization status of nonviable herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes. Detection of fertilization was successful as the microsatellite profiles of eggshell powder (maternal only) and the fertilized embryonic contents of those eggs did not match. Ideally, the application of such an approach will help to discriminate unfertilized eggs from embryos aborted early in development and provide insights into avian reproductive health. PMID:21564561</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Egloff, C; Labrosse, A; Hebert, C; Crump, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS53E1381L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross-shore momentum, mass, and buoyancy fluxes by <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> nonlinear internal waves observed from dye-tracking studies and moored observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Numerical studies have shown that large amplitude internal waves are effective agents for transporting surface waters, buoyancy and momentum in the direction of wave propagation, when the pycnocline depth is less than half the total water depth. This is particularly true when surface currents associated with the waves approach the wave propagation speed. However, the transport by <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> coastal internal waves has yet to be quantified from field measurements. Further, the influence of these fluxes, due to wave packets that are typically generated every tidal cycle, on sub-tidal circulation and buoyancy fields, is not understood. Here, we use fluorescent dye tracking studies and a set of moored time series to quantify the cross-shore transport of momentum, mass and buoyancy due to <span class="hlt">shoaling</span>, nonlinear internal waves. The experiment, from which these data were obtained, took place in the summer of 2008 in western Massachusetts Bay, where shoreward propagating, large amplitude internal waves are predictably observed. The array of four moorings spanned a cross-shore distance of 5.4 km, where the water depth <span class="hlt">shoaled</span> from 70 to 36 m. At each mooring, two acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) and 12 to 17 temperature and conductivity sensors measured currents and density over the entire water column for a period of 65 days. In addition, bottom pressure and near-bottom stress were measured at each site. These data were used to quantify cross-shore momentum and buoyancy fluxes and flux divergences associated with the <span class="hlt">shoaling</span> waves. Fluorescein and rhodamine dye tracking took place during two nine-day cruises. Dye was initially injected within the surface mixed layer, in a line parallel to internal wave troughs. Here we contrast subsequent transport of dye by internal waves when the dye is injected prior to the arrival of a wave packet and when the dye is injected within a trough at the leading edge of an internal wave packet. When the dye was injected prior to wave packet arrival, the dye patch was subducted under the leading wave front and the center-of-mass of the patch was transported offshore. In contrast, when the dye patch was injected within a wave trough, the center-of-mass of the patch was transported several kilometers onshore.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lerczak, J. A.; Shearman, R. K.; Rubiano-Gomez, L.; Brodersen, J.; Nelson, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64R.579."> <span id="translatedtitle">Christmas <span class="hlt">Island</span> birds returning</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas <span class="hlt">Island</span>. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas <span class="hlt">Island</span> is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the <span class="hlt">island</span>.” The <span class="hlt">island</span>'s birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2843203"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coalescence of magnetic <span class="hlt">islands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The process of coalescence of magnetic <span class="hlt">islands</span> is studied in an incompressible resistive MHD model. For intermediate values of resistivity, reconnection rate is independent of the resistivity, although the reconnection process is basically different from a Petschek-type model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Biskamp; H. Welter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/sci;317/5845/1692?maxtoshow=&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&resourcetype=HWCIT"> <span id="translatedtitle">Easter <span class="hlt">Island</span> Revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. New information about Easter <span class="hlt">Island</span> is helping to identify the cause of the massive deforestation that occurred prior to European arrival, but unanswered questions remain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jared Diamond (University of California at Los Angeles;Geography Department)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://guides.library.stonybrook.edu/long_island"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Collection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dedicated librarians at the Stony Brook University Library have created this most excellent research guide and digital archive that covers all things Long <span class="hlt">Island</span>. On their homepage, visitors can use the Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Documents area to view recently acquired items from key figures in local (and national) history, such as George Clinton, James Jay, and Benjamin Tallmadge. Also on the site is the Books, Pamphlets, and Journals area. Here visitors can make their way through key documents, such as "Early Long <span class="hlt">Island</span>: A Colonial Study" and "The Evolution of Long <span class="hlt">Island</span>: A Story of Land and Sea." Also, the site pays tribute to a very exciting new acquisition: several letters from George Washington, donated by Dr. Henry Laufer, a history enthusiast. This site is a tremendously valuable resource and one that will serve as a model to other institutions seeking to do similar work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://illuminations.nctm.org/LessonDetail.aspx?ID=U183"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Island</span> Inequality Map</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The concepts of greater than, less than, and equal to are explored in this two-lesson unit. Students create piles of food on two <span class="hlt">islands</span>, and their fish always swims toward the <span class="hlt">island</span> with more food. The fish's mouth is open to represent the greater than and less than symbols. Students transition from the concrete representation of using piles of food and the fish to writing inequalities with numerals and symbols.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Math, Illuminations N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/m535240033wg3k66.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Index</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using a multi-faceted approach that combines analysis of existing statistical data, original research, survey data, and comparative\\u000a case studies, the Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Index has helped to clarify the complex dynamics of the region and succeeded in reaching a wide audience including leaders who\\u000a shape regional policy. This chapter explores the nature of the target area, Long <span class="hlt">Island</span>, defining the characteristics</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ann Golob</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5592197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Pabelokan <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pertamina and Iiapco has an expanding complex of offshore production platforms in the S.E. Sumatra contract area of the Java Sea. One of the requirements for this complex is a treatment facility for water to be used in secondary recovery operations. Because of the water quality required, the water treatment system is substantially larger than that normally used off shore. Instead of constructing one or more platforms for the treatment system, a small coral <span class="hlt">island</span> named Pabelokan <span class="hlt">Island</span> has been utilized for this purpose. Although the water treatment system is the primary reason for the base, other facilities were co-located to centralize electric power generation, living quarters and recreation facilities, and facilities for storage and maintenance of offshore equipment. Future plans for the <span class="hlt">island</span> include a gas-liquids recovery system. This work describes the <span class="hlt">island</span> facilities, and provides a case study in responsible planning and construction techniques in the development of a coral <span class="hlt">island</span> for use as an offshore base. The experience gained should be useful in the planning of other coral <span class="hlt">islands</span> for similar purpose.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Powell, D.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mo.water.usgs.gov/Reports/wrir03-4243-schu/index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all five sampling sites along the 5.7-mi study reach of <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek, but the trends at successive downstream sites were out of phase and could not be explained by simple advection and dispersion. At base-flow conditions, the travel time of bacteria in <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek along the 5.7-mi reach between State Highway W (site 2) and the MDNR sampling site (site 3) was about 26 hours. Substantial dispersion and dilution occurs along the upper 4.1 mi of this reach because of inflows from a number of springs and tributaries and the presence of several long pools and channel meanders. Minimal dispersion and dilution occurs along the 1.6-mi reach immediately upstream from the MDNR sampling site. Measurements of fecal bacteria decay in <span class="hlt">Shoal</span> Creek during July 2001 indicated that about 8 percent of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria decay each hour with an average first-order decay constant of 0.084 h-1 (per hour). Results of field test plots indicated that substantial numbers of fecal bacteria present in poul try litter can survive in fields for as much as 8 weeks after the application of the litter to the land surface. Median densities of fecal coliform and E. coli in slurry-water samples collected from fields increased from less than 60 col/100 mL before the application of turkey and broiler litter, to as large as 420,000 and 290,000 col/100 mL after the application of litter. Bacteria densities in the test plots generally decreased in a exponential manner over time with decay rates ranging from 0.085 to 0.185 d-1 (per day) for fecal coliform to between 0.100 and 0.250 d-1 for E. coli. The apparent survival of significant numbers of fecal bacteria on fields where poultry litter has been applied indicates that runoff from these fields is a potential source of fecal bacteria to vicinity streams for many weeks following litter application.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schumacher, John G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7053572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Silurian (Llandoverian) Leask Point and Charlton Bay bioherms, Manitoulin <span class="hlt">Island</span>, Ontario, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">About 300 bioherms are known in the Llandoverian Manitoulin Formation of eastern Manitoulin <span class="hlt">Island</span>. In the South Bay area, the large Leask Piont bioherm and Charlton Bay patch-reef complex lack a distinct skeletal growth framework. Bioherms consist of mudstone and wackestone, with isolated lenses of bafflestone, boundstone, floatstone. Fossils are scarce, but crinozoans and bryozoans comprise about 90% of the bioclasts. Other fauna include stromatoporoids, corals, brachiopods, gastropods, trilobites, and probable algae (algae are difficult to identify and may have played a significant role). Faunal ratios remained relatively constant during mound growth. Soft substrates with sedimentation rates of a few millimeters per year are suggested by bedding type and morphologic dominance of lamellar and tabular corals and stromatoporoids. An increased sedimentation rate, resulting from <span class="hlt">shoaling</span>, is indicated by more overturned, broadly conical corals in the upper parts of the mounds. <span class="hlt">Shoaling</span> may be responsible for cessation of mound growth. Lithoclasts are more common in the upper parts of the mounds. They formed when semiconsolidated muds were disturbed and redeposited during storms. Megarippled interreef surface areas, largely devoid of coral growth, indicate mud instability at Charlton Bay. Lack of suitable stable substrates may have hampered coral development. Dolomitization was postdepositional. The diagenetic sequence occurred in three stages: 1)selective pyritization and silicification, formation of an early muddy dolomite replacing the mud fraction of the dolostone, lithification and formation of rare calcite cement and neomorphic syntaxial rims; 2)clear, coarse dolomite replacing pore-filling calcite cement, syntaxial rims, and unaltered macrofossils, stylolitization, grain-to-grain dissolution; and 3)a late dolomite found mainly as fine rhombs in stylolites, solution seams, and intraskeletal pore space.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mielczarek, W.; Copper, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996ESRv...41...31S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Island</span>-arc carbonates: characterization and recognition in the ancient geologic record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Carbonates of <span class="hlt">island</span>-arc origin that are preserved in Paleozoic-Mesozoic terranes of the North American Cordillera exhibit a distinctive suite of paleontologic and lithologic features and share a fundamental similarity with limestones forming in modern volcanic arcs. This study provides the first detailed synthesis of carbonate depositional systems in <span class="hlt">island</span> arcs and documents primary sedimentary constituents based on facies relationships and faunal communities. Models are developed that show patterns in the long-term evolution of shallow marine organisms and the construction, evolution, and demise of carbonate platforms in <span class="hlt">island</span> arcs. A suite of criteria is identified that may be used to differentiate <span class="hlt">island</span>-arc carbonates from limestones that accumulated in other platform settings. Biogeographic isolation, prolonged subsidence, steep submarine slopes and tectonic instability of volcanic edifices contribute to the development of relatively high levels of species endemism, impoverished normal marine faunas, complex provincial affinities, and relict biotas in limestones that are characterized by exceptionally thick platform and periplatform sequences, fringing and barrier reefs at the shelf margin, extensive lagoonal deposits and rapid lateral and vertical facies changes. Although destructive tectonic and geologic processes in <span class="hlt">island</span> arcs may hinder determining the original size and extent of the carbonate platform, and particular facies types may not be represented (e.g., fringing and barrier reefs may be replaced by sand <span class="hlt">shoals</span> at the platform, margin), many characteristics have potential value for identifying carbonates of <span class="hlt">island</span>-arc origin in the ancient rock record. Apart from being associated with calc-alkaline volcanic and volcaniclastic assemblages, the most valuable suite of features for recognizing <span class="hlt">island</span>-arc carbonates is marine biotas that exhibit elevated levels of endemism and mixed paleobiogeographic affinities, extraordinary thicknesses of platform (shallow marine) and periplatform carbonates, and rapid facies changes between volcanic and carbonate rocks and between shallow and deep water limestones. Recognizing that an ensemble of features is distinctive within <span class="hlt">island</span>-arc carbonates considerably enhances identification of volcanic arcs in the ancient geologic record and thus improves the likelihood of successfully unraveling the complex geologic history of ocean basins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soja, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40017137"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">shoals</span> of giants: natural catastrophes and the overall destruction of the Caribbean’s archaeological record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper I review a host of natural and cultural processes that have affected the preservation and integrity of archaeological\\u000a sites on <span class="hlt">islands</span> in the West Indies, many of which are located in low-lying coastal areas. Given the position of the Caribbean\\u000a lithospheric plate—juxtaposed between four others—it is no surprise that by its very nature the region is volcanically</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scott Michael Fitzpatrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sea.edu/academics/k-12_detail/lights_shoals_soundings"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lights, <span class="hlt">Shoals</span> & Soundings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson introduces students to nautical charts and their symbols and defines the terms nautical charts, latitude, longitude, depth sounding, lighthouses, and buoys. Students will study the Training Chart 1210TR and be reminded that this tool is a chart, not a map (sailors don't use maps!). This particular chart is special for at least two reasons. One is that it describes one of the most interesting and scenic regions of the coastal United States. The 1210TR is also unusual because it is a training chart, meaning that the reverse side is chock full of helpful explanations of the cryptic symbols used on the charts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://chl.erdc.usace.army.mil/Media/1/0/4/3/chetn-vii-9.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">River Diversions and <span class="hlt">Shoaling</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel. Processes considered in this note are those most pertinent to riverine, as opposed to estuarine, aspects of diversions. In particular, this note provides general guidance on the physical process issues, outlines</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph V. Letter; Nolan K. Raphelt</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-24/pdf/2012-20831.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Sound; Manursing <span class="hlt">Island</span>, NY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Sound; Manursing <span class="hlt">Island</span>, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final...Sound in the vicinity of Manursing <span class="hlt">Island</span>, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary...Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Sound; Manursing <span class="hlt">Island</span>, NY in the Federal Register (77 FR...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-09/pdf/2013-19289.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> LLC, Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Power Authority, Long...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Utility Servco LLC, Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Power Authority, Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice...Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Power Authority (Authority), and Long <span class="hlt">Island</span> Lighting Company (LIPA); (the Authority and LIPA together,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://muse.jhu.edu/content/crossref/journals/pacific_science/v061/61.1athens.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation History of Laysan <span class="hlt">Island</span>, Northwestern Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Islands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Paleoenvironmental investigations were undertaken on Laysan <span class="hlt">Island</span> in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Islands</span> to investigate its flora before his- torical observations. Substantial impacts occurred to the <span class="hlt">island</span> as a result of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century guano mining, commercial feather col- lecting, and denudation of vegetation by feral rabbits. An account of Laysan's historically known vegetation is presented, followed by</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Stephen. Athens; James V. Ward; Dean W. Blinn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB237485"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fanning <span class="hlt">Island</span> Expedition, January 1970.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interdisciplinary studies consisted of a sea phase, involving measurements in the South Equatorial Current and Undercurrent and measurement of the contribution of detritus from Fanning <span class="hlt">Island</span> to the open sea; and an <span class="hlt">island</span> phase, aimed at the physical...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. E. Chave B. S. Gallagher F. I. Gonzalez D. C. Gordon G. Krasnick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57642551"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geology of the Cook <span class="hlt">Islands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The geology of the 15 Cook <span class="hlt">Islands</span> in the south-central Pacific is briefly described and their geological history outlined. All are the summit portions of extinct Tertiary volcanoes; six of the seven Northern Group <span class="hlt">islands</span> are atolls, four of the Southern Group are makatea-type <span class="hlt">islands</span>, and the others include a high mountainous volcanic <span class="hlt">island</span>, a hilly near-atoll, an atoll, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. L. Wood</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49027977"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chapter 2 The Erythroblastic <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Erythroblastic <span class="hlt">islands</span> are specialized microenvironmental compartments within which definitive mammalian erythroblasts proliferate and differentiate. These <span class="hlt">islands</span> consist of a central macrophage that extends cytoplasmic protrusions to a ring of surrounding erythroblasts. The interaction of cells within the erythroblastic <span class="hlt">island</span> is essential for both early and late stages of erythroid maturation. It has been proposed that early in erythroid maturation the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deepa Manwani; James J. Bieker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0010325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nurse Practitioner in Rhode <span class="hlt">Island</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study of the future role of the nurse practitioner in Rhode <span class="hlt">Island</span> is reported. The study was conducted by the Rhode <span class="hlt">Island</span> Health Science Education Council under contract to the Rhode <span class="hlt">Island</span> Department of Education, in response to a resolution of the 1...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61354260"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three Mile <span class="hlt">Island</span> revisited</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a result of the accident in March 1979, the Three Mile <span class="hlt">Island</span> Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel sustained significant internal damage. Approximately half of the reactor core suffered some degree of melting, with 10 to 20 tons of molten core material relocating inside the vessel and flowing down onto the reactor vessel's lower head. The resulting damage and the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. L. Lipford; N. M. Cole; T. J. Friderichs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61375522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three Mile <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations\\/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile <span class="hlt">Island</span>;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. S. Wood; S. M. Shultz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6535986"> <span id="translatedtitle">Why the <span class="hlt">islands</span> move.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Micronesian navigators routinely make voyages across large expanses of open ocean. To do this, a navigator must judge both the direction in which he is sailing and the distance he has travelled. The rising and setting points of the stars (and other cues) provide instantaneous information about direction, but distance can only be judged by integrating velocity-related information over time. Micronesian navigators judge distance in a way that seems odd. When they are out of sight of land, they imagine that the canoe is stationary and that the <span class="hlt">islands</span> move back past them. For each voyage, they 'attend' to an <span class="hlt">island</span> off to the side of the course which is out of sight over the horizon. As they sail, they imagine the <span class="hlt">island</span> moving back along the horizon changing in bearing until it is imagined to be under the bearing it is known to have from the destination <span class="hlt">island</span>. Then they know they are near their destination. There is good reason for using a frame of reference whose origin is defined by the boat. We show how it finesses a perceptual paradox--the rising and setting points of the stars do not exhibit motion parallax. PMID:6535986</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hutchins, E; Hinton, G E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=climate+AND+warm&pg=4&id=ED235049"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hawaii's Sugar <span class="hlt">Islands</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the <span class="hlt">islands</span> in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EOSTr..74..369Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Flores <span class="hlt">Island</span> tsunamis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores <span class="hlt">Island</span>, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic <span class="hlt">island</span> located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda <span class="hlt">Island</span> arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi <span class="hlt">Island</span> had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cook+AND+islands&pg=3&id=ED235049"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hawaii's Sugar <span class="hlt">Islands</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the <span class="hlt">islands</span> in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/expeditions/siberia/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Siberian Expedition: Wrangel <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This web site chronicles an American Museum of Natural History research expedition in 1998 to Siberia's Wrangel <span class="hlt">Island</span> to collect woolly mammoth bones and test the theory that lethal disease caused the mammal's extinction. Information on the team members and journal excerpts are included as well as information on the expedition's objectives and the important tools used by the team.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5860624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Magnetic-<span class="hlt">island</span> formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic <span class="hlt">islands</span>, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boozer, A.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60244949"> <span id="translatedtitle">Man made floating <span class="hlt">island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An artificial <span class="hlt">island</span> is described for use in energy production from ocean waves, comprising: a platform disposed atop the ocean surface; vertically disposed rigid posts extending beneath the platform short of the ocean floor; a stationary wave amplifier affixed to the posts, the wave amplifier of a conical shape with inclined sides for directing water upwardly from substantially any lateral</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martinak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.earthisland.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earth <span class="hlt">Island</span> Institute</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Visitors to this homepage can learn about the Earth <span class="hlt">Island</span> Institute and its mission, origins, and purpose. Materials include summaries of projects designed to promote conservation, preservation, and restoration of the Earth, a biography of the organization's founder, news articles, and information for people who wish to become involved in conservation or outreach efforts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HRP0030276"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rhode <span class="hlt">Island</span>'s Health 1979.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is the fourth annual report on the health conditions and health expenditures of the people of Rhode <span class="hlt">Island</span> and is the only such report to be issued by any State in the Nation. Topics covered include population trends, health status (natality, mortali...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57514673"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Islands</span> and despots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper challenges a conventional wisdom: that when discussing political systems, small is democratic. And yet, can there be paradises without serpents? The presumed manageability of small <span class="hlt">island</span> spaces promotes and nurtures dispositions for domination and control over nature and society. In such dark circumstances, authoritarian rule is a more natural fit than democracy. By adopting an inter-disciplinary perspective, this</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Godfrey Baldacchino</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1914"> <span id="translatedtitle">Safety Evaluation Report for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Plan to Decommission its Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site at Muscle <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Alabama</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From 1966 to 1981, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operated a burial site, licensed under the former 10 CFR 20.304, for low-level radioactive waste on its Muscle <span class="hlt">Shoals</span>, Alabama, reservation. TVA submitted a decommissioning plan for the burial site and requested approval for unrestricted use of the site. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to evaluate this plan to determine if the site meets the radiological requirements for unrestricted use as specified in 10 CFR 20.1402; that is, an average member of the critical group would not receive more than 25 mrem/y from residual radioactivity at the TVA Low-Level Radioactive Waste Burial Site and the radioactivity has been reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gant, K.S.; Kettelle, R.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48272871"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed <span class="hlt">gull</span> ( Larus marinus ), a species demonstrated to move between these regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary hosts for influenza A viruses are waterfowl, although <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and shorebirds are also important in global avian\\u000a influenza dynamics. Avian influenza virus genes are separated phylogenetically into two geographic clades, American and Eurasian,\\u000a which is caused by the geographic separation of the host species between these two regions. We surveyed a gregarious and cosmopolitan\\u000a species, the Great Black-backed</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michelle Wille; Gregory J. Robertson; Hugh Whitney; Davor Ojkic; Andrew S. Lang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49188699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates and sulfonates and precursors in relation to dietary source tracers in the eggs of four species of <span class="hlt">gulls</span> ( Larids) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the present study, we identified and examined the spatial trends, sources and dietary relationships of bioaccumulative perfluorinated sulfonate (PFSA; C6, C8, and C10 chain lengths) and carboxylate (PFCA; C6 to C15 chain lengths) contaminants, as well as precursor compounds including several perfluorinated sulfonamides, and fluorotelomer acids and alcohols, in individual eggs (collected in 2008) from four <span class="hlt">gull</span> species [glaucous-winged</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wouter A. Gebbink; Robert J. Letcher; Neil M. Burgess; Louise Champoux; John E. Elliott; Craig E. Hebert; Pamela Martin; Mark Wayland; D. V. Chip Weseloh; Laurie Wilson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a002300/a002344/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pine <span class="hlt">Island</span> Iceberg Formation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This animation is a sequence showing the formation of the Pine <span class="hlt">Island</span> iceberg and the glacial seaward flow upstream from the crack. It is a series of MISR images from the Terra satellite on top of the continental Radarsat view of Antarctica. The Pine <span class="hlt">Island</span> Glacier is the largest discharger of ice in Antarctica and the continents fastest moving glacier. Even so, when a large crack formed across the glacier in mid 2000, it was surprising how fast the crack expanded, 15 meters per day, and how soon the resulting iceberg broke off, mid-November, 2001. This iceberg, called B-21, is 42 kilometers by 17 kilometers and contains seven years of glacier outflow released to the sea in a single event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perkins, Lori; Bindschadler, Bob; Diner, Dave</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20821667"> <span id="translatedtitle">2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran is a more potent cytochrome P4501A inducer than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> hepatocyte cultures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) on cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction were determined in primary cultures of embryonic herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> (Larus argentatus) hepatocytes exposed for 24 h. Based on the concentration that induced 50% of the maximal response (EC50), the relative potencies of TCDD and TCDF did not differ by more than 3.5-fold. However, also based on the EC50, PeCDF was 40-fold, 21-fold, and 9.8-fold more potent for inducing ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, CYP1A4 mRNA expression, and CYP1A5 mRNA expression than TCDD, respectively. The relative CYP1A-inducing potencies of PeCDF and of other dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs) in herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> hepatocytes (HEH RePs), along with data on concentrations of DLCs in Great Lakes herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> eggs, were used to calculate World Health Organization toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ) concentrations and herring <span class="hlt">gull</span> embryonic hepatocyte toxic equivalent (HEH-TEQ) concentrations. The analysis indicated that, when using avian toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) recommended by the WHO, the relative contribution of TCDD (1.1-10.2%) to total WHO-TEQ concentration was higher than that of PeCDF (1.7-2.9%). These results differ from the relative contribution of TCDD and PeCDF when HEH RePs were used; PeCDF was a major contributor (36.5-52.9%) to total HEH-TEQ concentrations, whereas the contribution by TCDD (1.2-10.3%) was less than that of PeCDF. The WHO TEFs for avian species were largely derived from studies with the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The findings of the present study suggest that it is necessary to determine the relative potencies of DLCs in wild birds and to re-evaluate their relative contributions to the biochemical and toxic effects previously reported in herring <span class="hlt">gulls</span> and other avian species. PMID:20821667</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hervé, Jessica C; Crump, Doug L D; McLaren, Kristina K; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Kennedy, Sean W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.disl.org"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dauphin <span class="hlt">Island</span> Sea Lab</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dauphin <span class="hlt">Island</span> Sea Lab is Alabama's marine education and research center. Lab also provides a public aquarium that focuses solely on the native eco-systems of the Mobile Bay estuary. Site provides information on graduate programs, undergraduate opportunities, faculty, facilities, and news and events. Explore the Education and Aquarium sections for teacher resources and information on workshops, student summer camps, and academic-year programs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/ks1/maths/organising_data/play/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Animal <span class="hlt">Island</span> Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this interactive application students playing at the easiest level count the number of each type of animal at the zoo on an <span class="hlt">island</span> and choose the correct number to complete the list. The middle level has the student clicking on the number of each animal as shown in the bar graph. The hardest level requires students to interpret the data displayed in the bar graph. A worksheet is included in PDF format to be used for student work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.poeticwaves.net/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Poetic Waves: Angel <span class="hlt">Island</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While many visitors to San Francisco may be familiar with Alcatraz <span class="hlt">Island</span>, they may be less familiar with the story of Angel <span class="hlt">Island</span>, which is also located nearby. From 1910 to 1940, the <span class="hlt">island</span> served as immigration station for newly arrived Asian American immigrants to the United States. While here, these people began to bond over their shared experiences, and also started to learn about the difficult time that they would face in this new land. This multimedia website pays tribute to their experiences through offering compelling information about this place through audio narration and music. As the title of the site suggests, visitors can read some of the poetry the immigrants carved into the barracks where they lived when they were being processed upon arrival. The website accurately suggests that ÂÂthere is no direct connection between them except for the languages, the time period, and place. Of course, visitors may wish to continue their visit to the site, by taking the online tour of the facility, which includes the hospital building, the pier, and the barracks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004EOSTr..85...65O"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Islands</span> of the Arctic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few environments on Earth are changing more dramatically than the Arctic. Sea ice retreat and thinning is unprecedented in the period of the satellite record. Surface air temperatures are the warmest in centuries. The biology of Arctic lakes is changing like never before in millennia. Everything is pointing to the meltdown predicted by climate model simulations for the next 100 years. At the same time, the Arctic remains one of the most pristine and beautiful places on Earth. For both those who know the Arctic and those who want to know it, this book is worth its modest price. There is much more to the Arctic than its <span class="hlt">islands</span>, but there's little doubt that Greenland and the major northern archipelagos can serve as a great introduction to the environment and magnificence of the Arctic. The book uses the <span class="hlt">islands</span> of the Arctic to give a good introduction to what the Arctic environment is all about. The first chapter sets the stage with an overview of the geography of the Arctic <span class="hlt">islands</span>, and this is followed by chapters that cover many key aspects of the Arctic: the geology (origins), weather and climate, glaciers, ice sheets, sea ice, permafrost and other frozen ground issues, coasts, rivers, lakes, animals, people, and environmental impacts. The material is pitched at a level well suited for the interested layperson, but the book will also appeal to those who study the science of the Arctic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Overpeck, Jonathan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..DPPLP1050L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Island</span> induced bootstrap current on <span class="hlt">island</span> dynamics in tokamaks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When a magnetic <span class="hlt">island</span> is imbedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">island</span>. It is illustrated that this <span class="hlt">island</span> induced bootstrap current density modifies the <span class="hlt">island</span> evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter | | for the <span class="hlt">island</span> to be unstable. This lo