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1

Comparative Study Between Two Flaps-Trapezoidal flap (TZF) and Ocshenbein-Leubke Flap (OLF) in Periapical Surgeries.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal in surgical endodontics is not only the eradication of periapical pathosis but also preservation of periodontal tissues using suitable surgical techniques. Treatment outcomes are no longer acceptable without considering the esthetic consequences of all involved dentoalveolar structures. It is critical that incisions and tissue elevations and reflections are performed in a way that facilitates healing by primary intention. The large variety of flaps available for periapical surgeries reflects the number of variables to be considered before choosing an appropriate flap design. In this study; Ocshenbein-Leubke (OL) and trapezoidal (TZ) flaps have been compared in terms of their efficacy and comfort. Twenty patients of ASA category I, between the age group of 12-40 years were randomly selected to undergo periapical surgery by utilizing one of two flaps. All the subjects were free of periodontal disease. Demographic variables were found to be statistically similar. OL flap was found to be better than TZ flap with respect to time of flap reflection, accessibility, duration of surgery and post-operative pain. The OL flap takes less time for reflection with nearly the same accessibility, less post-operative pain and less complication as compared to TZ flap. We conclude that OL flap gives better results when compared to TZ flap. PMID:24431885

Ahmed, Mohd Viqar; Rastogi, Sanjay; Baad, Rajendra K; Gupta, Anurag K; Nishad, Sumita G; Bansal, Mansi; Kumar, Sanjeev; Oswal, Rakesh; Mahendra, P; Bhatnagar, Alok

2013-12-01

2

[Renaissance of pedicled flaps in oral and maxillofacial surgery].  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis in the period 2007 to 2011 included 71 surgically treated patients for carcinoma of the head and neck region and subsequent reconstruction with 36 pedicled distant flaps and 47 free flaps. Patient specific parameters of data collection with SPSS 17.0 were age and sex distribution, TNM stage and treatment. The specific type of flap reconstruction, duration of surgery, complications, intensive care and inpatient treatment were recorded. The results showed that the healing process was uneventful in 26 (72.2?%) pedicled flaps, 14 (38.9?%) pedicled flaps were transplanted in a preoperatively irradiated area of the head and neck region and in 86.0?% with a positive healing process. Tumor stage, general physical condition of the patient and type of therapy are the key parameters for the choice of reconstruction. PMID:24449079

Twieg, M; Reich, W; Dempf, R; Eckert, A W

2014-06-01

3

Use of fibrin glue in periodontal flap surgery.  

PubMed

In the changing era of perio surgeries one innovative remedy has ended the inconvenience of suturing and has allowed the clinician to meet growing expectations and demands of today's dental patient, and the remedy is fibrin glue. When periodontal plastic surgical procedures done or implants placed in esthetic zone, fibrin sealants may be variable alternative to closing flaps with sutures and with histologic benefits and has potential uses in field of medicine. Fibrin sealant is an excellent beginner in the era of sutureless periodontal flap surgery, and this article is a humble effort to prove it. PMID:20142939

Jathal, Bimal; Trivedi, Anal; Bhavsar, Neeta

2008-01-01

4

Are pedicled flaps feasible in robotic surgery? Report of an anatomical study of the kite flap in conventional surgery versus robotic surgery.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of cutaneous defects of the hand has dramatically progressed. It should also benefit from the development of robot-assisted surgery. The aim of the present study was to consider the feasibility of a kite flap in robotic surgery. Two cadaver hands were used in this study, one for a conventional procedure, and one for a robotic surgical procedure using a da Vinci Si robot. The operative duration was measured, and all difficulties encountered during the procedures were reported. The total duration of the intervention was 19 minutes with the conventional procedure and 30 minutes with the robotic technique. Some difficulties were encountered, related both to lack of specific instrumentation and haptic feedback. Robotic surgery presents interesting advantages such as the suppression of physiological tremor, increased degrees of freedom, and enhanced precision and accuracy of hand maneuvers. In this study, it allowed the realization of a pedicled flap without any external help. PMID:21868422

Huart, Alexandra; Facca, Sybille; Lebailly, Frédéric; Garcia, José Carlos; Liverneaux, Philippe André

2012-03-01

5

Airway Management in A Case of Tongue Flap Division Surgery: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Summary This article sums up successful airway management in an 18-year-old male presented for tongue flap division surgery constructed before for a palatal fistula in our hospital. After induction of general anaesthesia, we performed laryngoscopy with right molar approach using miller straight blade, intubated from right side of flap and throat packing done using left molar approach. Tongue flap was divided without any ties and hemostasis checked.

Sahoo, Tapas Kumar; Ambardekar, Manasi; Patel, R D; Pandya, S H

2009-01-01

6

Effect of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage on Wound Healing in Flap Surgery: Histological Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find out the effect of CSF leakage on wound healing after flap surgery. Sixteen male Wistar rats were used. The superiorly based rectangular dorsal skin flap 3 × 3 cm was elevated at the interscapular region. Through this opening, paraspinal muscle dissection and three-level bilateral laminectomy were done. Finally, a dura defect with

Orhan Babuccu; Irfan Peksoy; Ferda Cagavi

2004-01-01

7

Revisional surgery following the superiorly based posterior pharyngeal wall flap. Historical perspectives and current considerations.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the surgical and functional complications following superiorly based posterior pharyngeal wall (SBPP) flap surgery. Records of 130 patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) who had undergone SBPP flap surgery as a secondary procedure to reduce nasal resonance in speech were reviewed. Complications were defined as the incidence of revisional surgery required to obtain a more satisfactory result. 20 patients (15%) required revisional surgery. In 4 patients (3%) early revisional surgery was indicated to treat surgical complications (1 postoperative bleeding, 3 flap dehiscences). In 16 patients (12%) late revisional surgery was indicated to achieve a better functional result with regard to nasal resonance in speech. The low incidence of surgical complications indicates that SBPP flap surgery is a safe procedure. After SBPP flap surgery, a satisfactory functional result with respect to nasal resonance was obtained in 88% of patients. This result was improved after revisional surgery. The hypothesis that the patients of an experienced surgeon have fewer complications and better functional results than those of a less experienced one was tested. The individual skill of the surgeon rather than their experience led to a better functional result. PMID:19632094

Keuning, K H D M; Meijer, G J; van der Bilt, A; Koole, R

2009-11-01

8

Nurse-midwifery at Gundersen Clinic: a twenty year review.  

PubMed

The twenty-year experience of the Certified Nurse-Midwife (CNM) Service at Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center is presented. The Service was started in September, 1975. From 1975 through 1995, the nurse-midwives have attended 9,120 women in labor (32.5% of all laboring women at Lutheran Hospital). During this time, the CNM service perinatal mortality rate was 6.8 per 1,000 births and the primary cesarean section rate was 5.8%. A close working relationship between nurse-midwives and obstetricians is thought to be one of the main factors in the growth, acceptance and safety of the service. PMID:9197198

DeLano, C F; Hirsh, L D; Schauberger, C W

1997-06-01

9

The Role of Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flaps in Secondary Breast Reconstruction After Breast-Conserving Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective: Secondary reconstruction after breast-conserving surgery is generally challenging because of the nature of irradiated tissue. The aim of this study was to validate the use of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flaps for secondary breast reconstruction after breast-conserving surgery. Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients who underwent secondary reconstruction with an LDM flap after breast-conserving surgery were included in the study. The esthetic outcome in comparison with the contralateral breast was evaluated by observer assessments consisting of 7 criteria. In addition to comparing pre- and postoperative scores for each criterion, factors affecting overall esthetic outcome were analyzed. Results: There was no major recipient- or donor-related complication. In 13 patients, the skin paddle of the LDM flap was exposed to the skin surface. In all patients, overall esthetic scores increased postoperatively. Age, period between breast-conserving surgery and LDM flap, body mass index, or preoperative breast size did not affect the overall esthetic outcome. Tumors in the lower quadrants tended to result in poorer esthetic scores, especially in breast shape and scar (P = .04 and .02, respectively). Conclusions: Given their high vascularity and moderate flap volume, LDM flaps could be a reliable option for secondary breast reconstruction after breast-conserving surgery. Although exposure of skin paddle to the skin surface is inevitable in most cases, esthetic improvement could be achieved, including the breast scar. On the contrary, immediate reconstruction would certainly be more desirable, especially in cases of tumors in the lower quadrants.

Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Nishibayashi, Akimitsu; Fukai, Megumi; Miyasaka, Miwako; Hosokawa, Ko

2013-01-01

10

[The Martius flap in vaginal surgery: technic and indications].  

PubMed

The Martius pedicle adipose flap can be used as an interposition flap during complex vaginal operations. It is a simple, rapid technique allowing raising of a well vascularized adipose flap with a mean length of 8 to 12 cm. It can be used in certain forms of vaginal repair, such as high supratrigonal vesicovaginal fistula, after bladder perforation, for obstructed urethra after colposuspension, after urethral destruction following prolonged bladder catheterization in a neurological patient, during repair of a complex urethral diverticulum or during transvaginal insertion of an artificial sphincter. After describing the flap raising operative technique, the various operative indications are presented. PMID:9116729

Chassagne, S; Haab, F; Zimmern, P

1997-02-01

11

Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?  

PubMed Central

Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients.

Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

2012-01-01

12

Previous multiple abdominal surgeries: a valid contraindication to abdominal free flap breast reconstruction?  

PubMed

PRESENTED IN PART AT THE FOLLOWING ACADEMIC MEETINGS: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m(2) (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal surgeries did not predispose to increased flap or donor site morbidity. On the basis of our experience, we have proposed some recommendations for successful abdominal free flap breast reconstruction in patients with previous multiple scars. Careful preoperative planning and the use of some intraoperative adaptations can allow abdominal free flap breast reconstruction to be reliably undertaken in such patients. PMID:22848775

Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M

2012-01-01

13

A technical note about flap fixation technique to prevent salivary fistulas in reconstructive oral cavity surgery.  

PubMed

Salivary fistulas are frequent complications in oral oncological reconstructive surgery by means of pedicled or free flaps. The most common risk factors are malnutrition, advanced disease, and healing alterations due to radiation therapy or infections. However, they can be observed also in healthy patients where the flap suture breakdown is the only cause. During the reconstructive phase, flaps are anchored to the remnant tongue, hyoid bone, and residual gingival mucosa; the last structure often does not offer suitable margins for a strong suture. The aim of this study was to propose a transmandibular fixation of the flap that allows, in a safe, efficient, and unexpensive way, the creation of a saliva-proof neofloor of the mouth, independently from the quality and thickness of residual gingival mucosa. PMID:24777013

Raimondo, Luca; Germano, Silvia; Garzaro, Massimiliano; Bocchiotti, Maria Alessandra; Tos, Pierluigi; Pecorari, Giancarlo

2014-05-01

14

The use of the Mini-Flap wound suction drain in maxillofacial surgery.  

PubMed Central

Preliminary experience using the Mini-Flap closed suction drain after maxillofacial surgery is described. The drain fulfils many of the criteria required for drainage of small wounds about the face and neck, and is associated with a low incidence of postoperative haematoma, oozing and infection. Images Fig. 1

Nasser, N. A.

1986-01-01

15

[Temporal muscle flap in cranio-facial reconstructive surgery. Apropos of 32 cases].  

PubMed

The temporalis muscle flap is used in craniofacial reconstructive surgery to repair defects, to restore facial contours and to cover bone grafts. These possibilities of reconstruction are analysed in the light of 32 cases. After reviewing the anatomy and the surgical technique, this series is presented as a function of the various types of defect: cranio-orbital (9 cases), defects of the malar area (6 cases), maxillary defects (7 cases), mandibular defects (7 cases), malar and parotid soft tissues defects (2 cases), mastoid defects (1 case). This study indicates that the temporalis flap possesses several advantages: great vascular reliability, associated with simplicity of flap raising and an easily available tissue volume. The arc of rotation constitutes the limiting factor. Romberg's syndrome does not constitute an ideal indication of choice, as the muscle may be atrophied. Similarly, when the defect requires thin cover, it would be wiser to use a thinner flap, such as fascia temporalis superficialis. Donor site sequelae are negligible. Limitation of mouth opening (3 cases) and frontal paralysis (2 cases) are usually transient. The field of application of this flap can be extended by continuing the flap as far as the pericranium or calvarium, allowing complex reconstructions. PMID:7574388

Cothier-Savey, I; Jousset, C; Raulo, Y

1995-04-01

16

Results of omental flap transposition for deep sternal wound infection after cardiovascular surgery.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Our experience with omental flap transposition in the treatment of deep sternal wound infections is reviewed here with an emphasis on efficacy, risk factors for in-hospital mortality rates, and long-term results. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Even with improvements in muscle and omental flap transposition, the timing of closure and the surgical strategy are controversial. METHODS: Forty-four consecutive patients with deep sternal wound infections were treated using the omental flap transposition from 1985 through 1994. The strategies included debridement with delayed omental flap transposition or single-stage management, which consisted of debridement of the sternal wound and omental flap transposition. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was cultured from more than 50% of the wounds. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of in-hospital death after omental flap transposition. RESULTS: There were seven (16%) in-hospital deaths. Univariate analysis demonstrated that hemodialysis and ventilatory support at the time of omental flap transposition were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality rates (p = 0.0023 and p = 0.0075, respectively). Thirty-seven patients whose wounds healed well were discharged from the hospital. Two patients with cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus had recurrent sternal infections. Patients without positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cultures had good long-term results after reconstructive surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Transposition of an omental flap is a reliable option in the treatment of deep sternal wound infections, unless the patients require ventilatory support or hemodialysis at the time of transposition. Images Figure 1.

Yasuura, K; Okamoto, H; Morita, S; Ogawa, Y; Sawazaki, M; Seki, A; Masumoto, H; Matsuura, A; Maseki, T; Torii, S

1998-01-01

17

Flap infection associated with medicinal leeches in reconstructive surgery: two new drug-resistant organisms.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal leeches in reconstructive surgery has proven value for the salvage of flaps with venous congestion but is associated with a risk of leech-acquired infection. The most common leech-associated organism is Aeromonas hydrophila, which antibiotic prophylaxis is typically directed against. The authors describe two new multidrug-resistant organisms acquired from medicinal leech therapy that resulted in flap infection. The evaluation of suspected leech-borne infection and management protocol for this leech-acquired resistant multi-organism infection is presented. PMID:23599212

Bibbo, Christopher; Fritsche, Thomas; Stemper, Mary; Hall, Matthew

2013-09-01

18

[Latissimus dorsi muscular flap in cosmetic sequelae of breast cancer conserving surgery: a case report].  

PubMed

The correction of type II sequelae of breast conservative surgery is a difficult problem to solve. The authors present the case of a 39 years old woman, in which the repair has been carried out in two steps. A latissimus dorsi muscular flap is first realised, then a breast implant and a double-opposing Z plasty on the areola finish the reconstruction. The final result is very satisfactory in a cosmetic point of view, with a little cost in terms of scars. This difficult case presents the muscular variant of the latissimus dorsi flap, as a technique of choice in the post-quadrantectomy sequelae. PMID:17157972

Zwillinger, N; Carette, S; Lorenceau, B

2007-04-01

19

Salvage surgery of recurrence after laryngectomy - when should the alt free flap be modified?  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Reconstruction of the pharynx and cervical esophagus has significantly progressed in the last 2 decades. A revolution in microvascular surgery has provided numerous choices for primary restoration, or in secondary reconstructions necessary for recurrences or complications of primary surgery. The goals of reconstruction after laryngopharyngoesophagectomy are to provide continuity of the alimentary tract, to protect major blood vessels, to heal the primary wound, and to restore the swallowing and breathing functions with minimal donor site and neck morbidity and deformation. Case Report We present 3 cases with complex defects of the laryngopharynx, cervical esophagus and trachea and anterior neck skin following central neck exenteration safely reconstructed with a single anterolateral thigh flap. No postoperative complications occurred in any of the 3 cases of reconstructions, each using a single anterolateral thigh flap. Conclusions This approach significantly simplified the reconstruction, with quick recovery, short hospital stay and excellent functional and aesthetic results.

Maciejewski, Adam; Krakowczyk, Lukasz; Szymczyk, Cezary; Wierzgon, Janusz; Grajek, Maciej; Dobrut, Miroslaw; Szumniak, Ryszard; Jedrzejewski, Piotr; Ulczok, Rafal; Poltorak, Stanislaw

2012-01-01

20

Nasal cheek flap in ethmoidal and skull base tumour surgery: results and complications  

PubMed Central

Summary Surgery is the treatment of choice for the management of malignant nasal/ethmoidal tumours, followed, in most cases, by external radiotherapy. Two main procedures are adopted to resect these tumours depending upon stage and extension: ethmoidectomy and medial maxillectomy, via a transfacial approach, or craniofacial resection with a combined transcranial and transfacial approach. The nasal cheek flap technique allows complete nasal swing thus obtaining a wide access to both the nasal fossae and the ethmoidal labyrinth. Furthermore, this approach can also be used in the management of small intracranial tumours extended through the skull base to the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, upper and middle clivus. We have used the nasal cheek flap since 1992 with good aesthetic and functional results. Aim of the present study was to analyse personal experience, focusing on complications, aesthetic results and self-evaluation expressed by the patients.

Crosetti, E; Di Lisi, D; Sartoris, A; Succo, G

2005-01-01

21

Improvisations in classic and modified techniques of flap surgery to improve the success rate for pressure ulcer healing in patients with spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The recurrence of pressure ulcers (PrUs) and dehiscence of reconstructive flap have always been a problem. The present study aimed to evaluate the results of reconstructive flap surgeries in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) having PrUs, using classic and modified flaps with improvisations to decrease wound dehiscence, flap necrosis and tension in flap. This is a prospective clinical study. The setting was a tertiary care centre in northern India. Thirty-five patients with SCI having 37 stage III and IV PrUs. PrUs were treated using classic and modified flaps with improvisations. The outcome was evaluated using criteria of wound dehiscence, flap necrosis and recurrence. The results of flap surgery were excellent in 32 (86·48%) patients, good in 4 (10·81%) patients and poor in 1 (2·7%) patient. Partial flap necrosis (2·7%), low incidence of PrU recurrence rate at flap site (5·4%) and overall PrU recurrence (11·4%) were the complications observed. Improvisation of classic and modified techniques of flap surgeries along with reinforcement of general care principles of paraplegia can be effective in minimising complications often associated with PrU reconstructive surgery thus improving the ultimate outcome. PMID:22697785

Singh, Roop; Singh, Raghubir; Rohilla, Rajesh K; Magu, Narender K; Goel, Rakesh; Kaur, Kiranpreet

2013-08-01

22

Nasoseptal flap.  

PubMed

The nasoseptal flap had an important role in the development of endoscopic endonasal surgery of the cranial base. The flap is pedicled upon the posterior septal artery, which is a terminal branch of the sphenopalatine artery. The reliable vascular supply promotes rapid healing and the flap is an effective barrier for the prevention of CSF leaks. For large skull base defects, it has dramatically decreased the risk of a postoperative CSF leak to less than 5%. The nasoseptal flap is a versatile flap with a wide arc of rotation that allows the flap to reach defects from the frontal sinus to the lower clivus. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the nasoseptal flap. The harvesting and reconstruction techniques, modifications of the flap and complications are described. PMID:23257551

Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos D; Snyderman, Carl H

2013-01-01

23

Breast cancer in the lower jaw after reconstructive surgery with a pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) - A case report  

PubMed Central

For head and neck as well as for oromaxillofacial surgery, the use of the pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap is a standard reconstructive technique after radical surgery for cancers in this region. We report to our knowledge for the first development of breast cancer in the PMMC flap in a 79 year old patient, who had undergone several operations in the past for recurring squamous cell carcinoma of the jaw. The occurrence of a secondary malignancy within the donor tissue after flap transfer is rare, but especially in the case of transferred breast tissue and the currently high incidence of breast cancer theoretically possible. Therefore preoperative screening mammography seems advisable to exclude a preexisting breast cancer in female patients undergoing such reconstruction surgery. Therapy for breast cancer under these circumstances is individual and consists of radical tumor resection followed by radiation if applicable and a standard systemic therapeutic regimen on the background of the patients individual prognosis due to the primary cancer.

2011-01-01

24

The use of glycerol-preserved skin allograft in conjunction with reconstructive and flap surgery: seven years of experience.  

PubMed

Major reconstructive surgery may be extensive and prolonged, and it may cause edema and compromise the flap pedicle if closed under tension. Glycerol-preserved skin allograft (GPA) can provide a means for tension-free closure and temporary cover of the wound. Seven years of analysis on GPA used in conjunction with major reconstruction was undertaken to highlight its indications, results, and outcomes. Forty-seven patients were included, aged between 9 and 73 years. Majority of patients had reconstruction following tumor resection and trauma. The main indication for use of GPA was temporary, loose cover of the wound in 44% of cases; flap pedicle protection in 31% of cases; donor site wound cover in 10%; flap monitoring in one case; and management of flap-related complications in 6% of cases. Free flap reconstruction was performed in 72% of cases. In conclusion, GPA is a useful adjunct in reconstructive surgery. It can be used temporarily to allow tension-free wound closure, as well as to protect the flap pedicle until edema subsides and the pedicle becomes stable. This latter approach allows secondary wound closure and good esthetic outcome. PMID:20976667

Saad, Arman Zaharil Mat; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye

2011-02-01

25

Early frontalis flap surgery as first option to correct congenital ptosis with poor levator function.  

PubMed

Abstract In congenital blepharoptosis the upper eyelid cannot be lifted normally because of congenital impairment in the levator function. The descended eyelid margin partially or completely obstructs of the visual axis with the consequent risk of amblyopia. Frontalis suspension is the surgery of choice for ptosis with poor levator function creating a linkage between the frontalis muscle and the tarsus; the frontalis muscle is used to elevate the eyelid. Direct transplantation of frontalis muscle to the upper eyelid has been widely described. We report our experience using frontalis flap in congenital ptosis with poor levator function in children. Methods: Retrospective study of 30 eyes with severe congenital ptosis and poor levator function treated by means of direct frontalis flap. Mean age 2 years. Eyelid measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 3, 12 months postoperatively and last visit. Mean ptosis degree was 5?mm (3--8?mm) and levator function 2?mm (1--5?mm). The presence of complications, flap function and palpebral contour were evaluated. Mean follow up time was 27 months. At last visit, ptosis degree ranged from 0 to 3?mm. Discussion: Direct advancement of the frontalis muscle to treat severe eyelid ptosis is effective and stable in the long term avoiding the use of a linking structure, therefore the risk of foreign-body reaction, absorption, granuloma and late exposure, as well as the need for a second visible incision in the forehead. Patients learn how to control the lid height by means of the frontalis muscle achieving more symmetry. PMID:24660813

Medel, Ramon; Vasquez, Luzmaria; Wolley Dod, Charlotte

2014-06-01

26

Esthetic outcome of immediate reconstruction with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap after breast-conservative surgery and skin-sparing mastectomy.  

PubMed

With the recent advances in oncologic breast surgery, breast reconstruction with the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous (LDM) flap without an implant has become a good option among other autologous tissue reconstructions available. However, only a few large-scale studies have so far evaluated the critical factors affecting its esthetic outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed 97 consecutive patients who underwent breast reconstruction with the LDM flap between 2001 and 2005 at our institution. The esthetic outcome in comparison with the normal breast was evaluated by means of observer assessment consisting of 7 criteria. A stratified analysis was performed to determine the factors affecting the esthetic outcomes after the breast-conservative surgery and skin-sparing mastectomy. We found that reconstruction of the lower half of the breast and exposure of the skin paddle resulted in poor esthetic outcomes after breast-conservative surgery. Large preoperative brassiere cup size, radiation history, axillary node dissection, and exposure of the skin paddle were the factors which negatively affected the overall outcomes after skin-sparing mastectomy. Age, body mass index, presence of nipple areola-complex defect, or design of skin paddle did not affect the esthetic outcomes. On the basis of these critical factors, we could determine the indications and limitations of breast reconstruction with LDM flap. In some cases, further technical modifications are still warranted, and we believe that these modifications will optimize the use of this flap in breast reconstruction. PMID:18580144

Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Matsuda, Ken; Takada, Akiyoshi; Hosokawa, Ko

2008-07-01

27

Flapless versus Conventional Flapped Dental Implant Surgery: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the implant failure rates, postoperative infection, and marginal bone loss for patients being rehabilitated by dental implants being inserted by a flapless surgical procedure versus the open flap technique, against the alternative hypothesis of a difference. An electronic search without time or language restrictions was undertaken in March 2014. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, either randomized or not. The search strategy resulted in 23 publications. The I2 statistic was used to express the percentage of the total variation across studies due to heterogeneity. The inverse variance method was used for random-effects model or fixed-effects model, when indicated. The estimates of relative effect were expressed in risk ratio (RR) and mean difference (MD) in millimeters. Sixteen studies were judged to be at high risk of bias, whereas two studies were considered of moderate risk of bias, and five studies of low risk of bias. The funnel plots indicated absence of publication bias for the three outcomes analyzed. The test for overall effect showed that the difference between the procedures (flapless vs. open flap surgery) significantly affect the implant failure rates (P?=?0.03), with a RR of 1.75 (95% CI 1.07–2.86). However, a sensitivity analysis revealed differences when studies of high and low risk of bias were pooled separately. Thus, the results must be interpreted carefully. No apparent significant effects of flapless technique on the occurrence of postoperative infection (P?=?0.96; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.23–4.03) or on the marginal bone loss (P?=?0.16; MD ?0.07 mm, 95% CI ?0.16–0.03) were observed.

Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

2014-01-01

28

Computer-assisted teaching of skin flap surgery: validation of a mobile platform software for medical students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a multimedia software application for mobile platforms to assist in the teaching and learning process of design and construction of a skin flap. Traditional training in surgery is based on learning by doing. Initially, the use of cadavers and animal models appeared to be a valid alternative for training. However, many conflicts with these training models prompted progression to synthetic and virtual reality models. Fifty volunteer fifth- and sixth-year medical students completed a pretest and were randomly allocated into two groups of 25 students each. The control group was exposed for 5 minutes to a standard text-based print article, while the test group used multimedia software describing how to fashion a rhomboid flap. Each group then performed a cutaneous flap on a training bench model while being evaluated by three blinded BSPS (Brazilian Society of Plastic Surgery) board-certified surgeons using the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill) protocol and answered a post-test. The text-based group was then tested again using the software. The computer-assisted learning (CAL) group had superior performance as confirmed by checklist scores (p<0.002), overall global assessment (p?=?0.017) and post-test results (p<0.001). All participants ranked the multimedia method as the best study tool. CAL learners exhibited better subjective and objective performance when fashioning rhomboid flaps as compared to those taught with standard print material. These findings indicate that students preferred to learn using the multimedia method. PMID:23935818

de Sena, David P; Fabricio, Daniela D; Lopes, Maria Helena I; da Silva, Vinicius D

2013-01-01

29

An evaluation of surgical outcome of bilateral cleft lip surgery using a modified Millard's (Fork Flap) technique  

PubMed Central

Background The central third of the face is distorted by the bilateral cleft of the lip and palate and restoring the normal facial form is one of the primary goals for the reconstructive surgeons. The history of bilateral cleft lip repair has evolved from discarding the premaxilla and prolabium and approximating the lateral lip elements to a definitive lip and primary cleft nasal repair utilising the underlying musculature. The aim of this study was to review surgical outcome of bilateral cleft lip surgery (BCLS) done at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods A review of all cases of BCLS done between January 2007 and December 2012 at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital was done. Data analysis included age and sex of patients, type of cleft deformity and type of surgery (primary or secondary) and whether the cleft deformity was syndromic and non-syndromic. Techniques of repair, surgical outcome and complications were also recorded. Results A total of 39 cases of BCLS involving 21 males and 18 females were done during the period. This constituted 10% (39/390) of all cases of cleft surgery done during the period. There were 5 syndromic and 34 non-syndromic cases. Age of patients at time of surgery ranged between 3 months and 32 years. There were 24 bilateral cleft lip and palate deformities and 15 bilateral cleft lip deformities. Thirty-one of the cases were primary surgery, while 8 were secondary (revision) surgery. The most common surgical technique employed was modified Fork flap (Millard) technique, which was employed in 37 (95%) cases. Conclusion Bilateral cleft lip deformity is a common cleft deformity seen in clinical practice, surgical repair of which can be a challenge to an experienced surgeon. A modified Fork flap for repair of bilateral cleft lip is a reliable and versatile technique associated with excellent surgical outcome.

Adeyemo, W. L.; James, O.; Adeyemi, M. O.; Ogunlewe, M. O.; Ladeinde, A. L.; Butali, A.; Taiwo, O. A.; Emeka, C. I.; Ayodele, A. O. S; Ugwumba, C. U.

2014-01-01

30

[Preoperative angiographic CT-scan for perforator flap transfer. Clinical applications in an emergency unit of reconstructive surgery: four clinical cases].  

PubMed

Our experience of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap has led us to perform systematically an abdominal CT-scan for the pretherapeutic checking. This exam gives us a precise vascular mapping of musculocutaneous and septocutaneous perforators artery of the flap, may enable a better orientation in the dissection and reduce the surgery time. We have enlarged the indication of this exam to the members flaps who needs the dissection of a musculocutaneous or a septocutaneous perforators vessels: Nakajima's et al. classification [1]. The mapping of perforating vessels on 3D reconstruction pictures helps us to planify the vascular cutaneous autologous grafts. PMID:20705211

Bosc, R; Hivelin, M; Benjoar, M-D; Pigneur, F; Lantieri, L

2010-08-01

31

Relationship between the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve applicable to flap surgery.  

PubMed

Flap surgery in the distal part of the gluteal region has to deal with a lack of detailed descriptions of the inferior gluteal artery and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The existing papers are mainly clinical studies, based on low numbers of observations. Our study includes 118 cadaveric gluteal regions. The descending branch was present in 91% and gave rise to a cutaneous branch. When the descending branch was absent, this cutaneous branch came from the medial or lateral femoral circumflex artery or as a perforator of the deep artery of the thigh. The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve was found in a common sheath of connective tissue with the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery in 72% of cases. Nerve loops around the vessel are present in 29%. Our results show that a cutaneous or fasciocutaneous flap, either local or free, in this region can be reliably lifted on a cutaneous branch of the descending branch of the inferior gluteal artery without loss of sensitivity. However, the close relationship of the artery and nerve limits the arc of rotation in the case of a local flap. PMID:12497213

Windhofer, C; Brenner, E; Moriggl, B; Papp, C

2002-12-01

32

Online rapid sampling microdialysis (rsMD) using enzyme-based electroanalysis for dynamic detection of ischaemia during free flap reconstructive surgery.  

PubMed

We describe an enzyme-based electroanalysis system for real-time analysis of a clinical microdialysis sampling stream during surgery. Free flap tissue transfer is used widely in reconstructive surgery after resection of tumours or in other situations such as following major trauma. However, there is a risk of flap failure, due to thrombosis in the flap pedicle, leading to tissue ischaemia. Conventional clinical assessment is particularly difficult in such 'buried' flaps where access to the tissue is limited. Rapid sampling microdialysis (rsMD) is an enzyme-based electrochemical detection method, which is particularly suited to monitoring metabolism. This online flow injection system analyses a dialysate flow stream from an implanted microdialysis probe every 30 s for levels of glucose and lactate. Here, we report its first use in the monitoring of free flap reconstructive surgery, from flap detachment to re-vascularisation and overnight in the intensive care unit. The on-set of ischaemia by both arterial clamping and failure of venous drainage was seen as an increase in lactate and decrease in glucose levels. Glucose levels returned to normal within 10 min of successful arterial anastomosis, whilst lactate took longer to clear. The use of the lactate/glucose ratio provides a clear predictor of ischaemia on-set and subsequent recovery, as it is insensitive to changes in blood flow such as those caused by topical vasodilators, like papaverine. The use of storage tubing to preserve the time course of dialysate, when technical difficulties arise, until offline analysis can occur, is also shown. The potential use of rsMD in free flap surgery and tissue monitoring is highly promising. PMID:23435450

Rogers, M L; Brennan, P A; Leong, C L; Gowers, S A N; Aldridge, T; Mellor, T K; Boutelle, M G

2013-04-01

33

Forehead flap: master techniques in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.  

PubMed

When the nose is missing, most patients would like to have their normal appearance and function restored. Unfortunately, the wound does not reflect the true tissue loss and the available donor tissues are not similar to nasal tissues. So subunit principles are applied and donor tissues modified to achieve a satisfactory result. All major reconstructions will require a late revision to revise scars, improve asymmetry, or open the airway. However, when cover and lining are grossly deficient, the repair must be totally redone with a second regional flap. Success requires a thoughtful preoperative analysis and careful reconstructive plan. Small nasal defects may be resurfaced in two stages with a forehead flap but large deep defects are best repaired in three stages with an intermediate operation which allows the placement of primary and delayed primary cartilage grafts, soft tissue sculpting, and folded flap lining replacements with safety. PMID:24810124

Menick, Frederick J

2014-04-01

34

Indications for the microvascular medial femoral condylar flap in craniomaxillofacial surgery.  

PubMed

The medial femoral condylar flap makes it possible to reconstruct bone, cartilage, and skin, but elongation of the pedicle is usually required to bridge the distances to the vascular connections in the neck. The indications in the maxillofacial area include reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), pseudarthrosis of the jaws, osteonecrosis of the jaws and skull, and augmentation of bone in irradiated or otherwise compromised tissue. If small bony defects require safe and reliable osseous, osteochondral, or osteocutaneous reconstruction, the medial femoral condylar flap can be used to fill the gap between small avascular, and larger microvascular, bone transplants. PMID:24812021

Thiele, Oliver Christian; Kremer, Thomas; Kneser, Ulrich; Mischkowski, Robert Andreas

2014-07-01

35

Recurrent pedal hobnail (Dabska-retiform) hemangioendothelioma with forefoot reconstructive surgery using a digital fillet flap.  

PubMed

An 8-year-old female presented with a recurrent hobnail (Dabska-retiform) hemangioendothelioma of her right foot. After initial tumor excision and subsequent recurrence, the patient underwent a successful tumor resection and forefoot reconstruction using a fillet of second digit flap. In an attempt to create a plantigrade foot, while sufficiently removing this rare pedal tumor, the authors employed the use of a fillet of second digit flap. Specific surgical techniques and the histopathological assessment of this rare vascular neoplasm are discussed. Level of Clinical Evidence: 4. PMID:18725133

Yarmel, Daniel; Dormans, John P; Pawel, Bruce R; Chang, Benjamin

2008-01-01

36

A difficult case: omental transposition flap reconstruction of a large radionecrotic axillary ulcer in a patient with extensive previous abdominal surgery.  

PubMed

Radionecrotic ulcers due to breast cancer treatment is a highly morbid and disabling condition, causing pain, malodour, need for frequent dressings, reduced range of shoulder movements and an unacceptable cosmetic appearance. In patients with radiotherapy to the chest and/or axilla and general poor health the usual reconstructive options may not be suitable due to regional tissue damage and inappropriate long anaesthetic time, respectively. Described procedures include the pedicled latisimus dorsi flap, transverse rectus abdominal flap (TRAM) and omental transposition flap, as well as free tissue transfer (e.g. free TRAM, DIEP). We report a case of a morbidly obese female patient presenting with a large radionecrotic ulcer in her left axilla, following mastectomy, axillary clearance and local radiotherapy to left chest and axilla for breast cancer. She underwent reconstruction using an omental transposition flap, despite previous abdominal surgery. PMID:22871429

Hartmann, Christoph E A; Ko, Loretta W L; Ion, Lucion; Jemec, Barbara

2013-03-01

37

Deep-planes lift associated with free flap surgery for facial reanimation.  

PubMed

Between April 1999 and April 2008, 37 patients with long-standing facial paralysis underwent a one-stage facial reanimation with neuromuscular free flaps: 28 patients (group A) underwent flap transposition only; 9 patients (group B) underwent a deep-planes lift (DPL) composed of the superficial muscoloaponeurotic system + parotid fascia at the time of facial reanimation. The postoperative and final results were compared between groups A and B, following the classification of Terzis and Noah (1997). Before the onset of contraction, only group B patients (100%) showed good or moderate symmetry at rest, while none of the patients of group A had a symmetric face. The respective final results for patients in groups A and B who already showed the onset of flap contraction were excellent in 28.6% and 44.5%, good in 42.9% and 33.3%, moderate in 10.7% and 22.2%, and fair or poor and fair in 17.8% and 0% of patients, respectively. The DPL allows immediate symmetry of the face at rest and contributes to upgrading the final static and dynamic results in facial reanimation with free muscular flaps. PMID:21145243

Biglioli, Federico; Frigerio, Alice; Autelitano, Luca; Colletti, Giacomo; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Brusati, Roberto

2011-10-01

38

Neurotrophins and Nerve Regeneration-associated genes are expressed in the Cornea after Lamellar Flap Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the in vivo expression of neurotrophins (NTs) and nerve regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) after surgically creating a hinged lamellar corneal flap in thy1-YFP mice. Methods Lamellar corneal flaps with multiple hinges were created in thy1-YFP mice. Mice were sacrificed weeks 2, 4, and 8. Quantitative PCR was performed to determine the expression of NTs and RAGs in the corneas following lamellar transection. Nerve growth factor (Ngf), Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (Gdnf), Neurotrophin-3 (Ntf3), Neurotrophin 5 (Ntf5), Small proline-rich repeat protein 1A (Sprr1a), Growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43) and Beta III tubulin (Tubb3) gene expressions were analyzed. Whole-mount confocal immunofluorescence and Western analyses were performed for localization and abundance of robustly expressed genes. Results Sprouts of fine YFP positive fronds emanating from transected (injured) nerve bundles were seen in the flap area at 2 weeks onwards. Bdnf and Sprr1a were robustly and significantly expressed at 2 weeks postoperatively (> 2 folds increase in expression and p < 0.05). Bdnf localized to thy1-YFP+ cells in operated corneas. Sprr1a localized to corneal epithelial cell membranes. At 8 weeks, none of the NTs and RAGs had increased expression. Bdnf (? = 0.73, p = 0.001) and Sprr1a (? = 0.76, p = 0.001) showed a significant positive correlation with Tubb3. Conclusion The neurotrophin Bdnf and regeneration-associated gene Sprr1a are robustly and significantly expressed during corneal nerve regeneration in vivo.

Namavari, Abed; Chaudhary, Shweta; Yco, Lisette; Chang, Jin-Hong; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Sarkar, Joy; Jain, Sandeep

2012-01-01

39

Enhanced Morbidity of Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flap Used for Salvage after Previously Failed Oncological Treatment and Unsuccessful Reconstructive Head and Neck Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The reconstruction of complex cervicofacial defects arising from surgical treatment for cancer is a real challenge for head and neck surgeons, especially in salvage reconstruction surgery and/or failed previous reconstruction. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) has been widely used in these specific situations due to its reliability and low rate of failure or complications. Objectives. Identify factors that determine complications and influence the final outcome of the reconstructions with PMMF in salvage cancer surgery or in salvage reconstruction. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate a sample including 17 surgical patients treated over a period of ten years that met the inclusion criteria. Results. Reconstruction was successful in 13 cases (76.5%), with two cases of partial flap loss and no case of total loss. Complications occurred in 13 cases (76.5%) and were specifically related to the flap in nine instances (52.9%). An association was identified between the development of major complications and reconstruction of the hypopharynx (P = 0.013) as well as in patients submitted to surgery in association with radiation therapy as a previous cancer treatment (P = 0.002). The former condition is also associated with major reconstruction failure (P = 0.018). An even lower incidence of major complications was noted in patients under the age of 53 (P = 0.044). Conclusion. Older patients, with hypopharyngeal defects and submitted to previous surgery plus radiation therapy, presented a higher risk of complications and reconstruction failure with PMMF.

Ribeiro Salles Vanni, Christiana Maria; de Matos, Leandro Luongo; Faro Junior, Mario Paulo; Ledo Kanda, Jossi; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Garcia Brandao, Lenine; Pinto, Fabio Roberto

2012-01-01

40

Reconstructive options in patients with late complications after surgery and radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: remember the deltopectoral flap.  

PubMed

During the past 40 years, free vascularized flaps have become the golden standard in the reconstruction of postoncologic head and neck defects. When there is a need for an osteofasciocutaneous free flap, the free fibula flap is the first choice because of the advantages of its long bone structure, high reliability, and minimal donor-site morbidity. However, most of these patients receive adjuvant radiation therapy, which sometimes causes symptomatic fibrosis, contractures, and (osteo)radionecrosis. In case of these late complications, locoregional reconstructive options are often limited, and complex secondary free flap procedures are not always feasible or preferred by the patient. The present paper discusses regional and free flap reconstructive options and demonstrates with 3 cases that the delayed deltopectoral flap remains a very safe, reliable, and easy flap, which still has a place in the management of these complex reconstructive challenges. PMID:22868303

Krijgh, David D; Mureau, Marc A M

2013-08-01

41

Oncoplastic breast surgery combining periareolar mammoplasty with volume displacement using a crescent-shaped cutaneous flap for early breast cancer in the upper quadrant.  

PubMed

Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS), which combines the concepts of oncological and plastic surgery, is becoming more common, especially in Western countries; however, only a few reports have been published in Japan. We herein report the results of OBS for Japanese patients with early breast cancer in the upper quadrant. We performed oncoplastic surgery combining partial mastectomy using a periareolar incision with immediate breast reshaping using a crescent-shaped cutaneous flap in three patients with a past history of breast-feeding, ptotic breasts and lesions that were suitable for breast conserving surgery. The lesions were located in the upper quadrant and were 5, 6 and 10 cm from the nipple, respectively. The total length of the operations ranged between 86 and 192 min, with the mean being 164 min. Two patients underwent contralateral surgery to produce symmetrical breasts and one did not. The plastic period after receiving pathological results intraoperatively ranged between 47 and 120 min, with the mean period being 82 min. The observation period ranged between 6 and 12 months, and the cosmetic results were excellent in all three cases. OBS combining partial mastectomy using a periareolar incision with immediate breast reshaping using a crescent-shaped cutaneous flap was successfully performed in patients with early cancer in the upper quadrant. PMID:23443821

Kijima, Yuko; Yoshinaka, Heiji; Hirata, Munetsugu; Nakajo, Akihiro; Arima, Hideo; Ishigami, Sumiya; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

2013-08-01

42

Effects of an air-powder abrasive device used during periodontal flap surgery in dogs.  

PubMed

An air-powder abrasive system, the Prophy-Jet, is a commercially available product product intended for use during dental prophylaxis procedures. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects on periodontal tissues when the device is used as an adjunct to hand instrumentation in root preparation during periodontal surgery. The degree of tissue injury was assessed by evaluating clinical healing and by histometric analysis of the intensity of the inflammatory response at selected healing times. Surgical sites subjected to Prophy-Jet treatment tended to have slightly lower histometric inflammation scores than control sites treated by hand instrumentation alone. As judged by the inflammatory response and clinical healing, additional effects to surgical exposure of tissues of the periodontium were benign. Use of the Prophy-Jet instrument during periodontal surgery is effective and well tolerated. PMID:2846817

Pippin, D J; Crooks, W E; Barker, B F; Walters, P L; Killoy, W J

1988-09-01

43

Design and development of a fascioperiosteal flap for use in experimental cranial surgery in a porcine model.  

PubMed

As part of an ongoing program of research on reconstructive techniques applicable to the growing craniofacial skeleton, this study aimed to characterize a pedicled fasciocutaneous flap on the scalp of a porcine model. Twelve juvenile Yorkshire white pigs were used. The anatomy of the porcine scalp was determined by fresh cadaveric dissection, radiocontrast dye injection, and resin casting of the vascular supply. No direct analogue of the human superficial temporal artery, the key to the superficial and deep temporal fascial flaps in humans, could be demonstrated in the pig. Thus, a fascioperiosteal flap, pedicled on an occipital leash of vessels, was designed. After a 14-day surgical delay, this flap, which covered the entire cranial width, from the nuchal crest to the glabella (7-10 cm long x 3-4 cm wide), could be elevated and split into a periosteal and a fascial layer. A cartilage construct placed between these layers could be kept alive for 4 weeks with no evidence of necrosis. The flap would allow mobilization of the construct to distant sites on the head and neck. An extensive literature survey showed a dearth of suitable cranial flap options in animal models. Accordingly, the pig cranium was examined with a view to finding a fascial flap analogous to the human temporoparietal flap, suitable for use in ear reconstruction. Cadaver dissections of the pig scalp, examining both the fascial layers and blood supply, were performed in three pigs; in an additional three pigs, the vascular supply to the scalp and cranium was injected with a radiocontrast gel, and, after dissecting suitable flaps, x-ray exposure was used to demonstrate the microvascular supply of these flaps. In an additional two pigs, the cranial vascular tree was filled with a plastic resin, and the soft tissues were then removed by thermal and chemical digestion. Finally, a group of three pigs were used to test the functional efficacy of a bilayered, occipitally based fascioperiosteal flap, whose design evolved from the foregoing work. Fluoresceine and disulphine blue were used to demonstrate the vascularity of these flaps before and after a surgical delay procedure. Function of these flaps, as carriers of a reconstructive construct, was shown by implanting autologous cartilage for 3 weeks and then demonstrating complete survival of the implant by fine section and histology. No clinically useful equivalent of the superficial temporal artery in humans could be identified in pigs, thus rendering the porcine superficial temporal artery flap of little use. However, a useful flap, comprising the pericranium and the subgaleal fascia, based on the occipital vasculature, could be raised with relative ease. PMID:9477837

de Chalain, T; Phillips, J H

1997-11-01

44

Reconstruction of porcine critical-sized mandibular defects with free fibular flaps: the development of a craniomaxillofacial surgery model.  

PubMed

Vascularized bone flaps are the well-known standards of care for reconstruction of segmental mandibular defects ? 6 cm. We developed a large animal critical-sized mandibular defect model in which osseous free fibula flaps were used for reconstruction.In this study a total of eight 3-month-old Yorkshire pigs underwent 6 cm full-thickness resection of the left hemimandible. An osseous free fibula flap from the left leg was harvested and contoured to the mandibular defect. Bone placement and plate position was confirmed with fluoroscopy. Animals were followed with serial radiographs and clinical evaluations.Free fibulas were transferred successfully in all eight animals. The average operative time was 346 minutes, and the average flap ischemia time was 86 minutes. The average volume ratio of reconstructed hemimandibles to nonoperated control hemimandibles was 0.72 ± 0.33. The average maximum fracture load was 689 ± 262 N, and the average ratio of biomechanical fracture load for these samples compared with contralateral control hemimandibles was 0.88 ± 0.25.It is concluded that the porcine osseous free fibula flaps can be reliably harvested and viably transferred to critical-sized posterior mandibular defects with acceptable long-term results. The described microsurgical large animal model is acceptable for use in craniomaxillofacial experimentation. PMID:24590323

Dorafshar, Amir H; Mohan, Raja; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Brown, Emile N; Kelamis, Alex J; Bojovic, Branko; Christy, Michael R; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

2014-05-01

45

Local skin flap reconstruction for abdominal wound dehiscence after abdominal surgery with a stoma: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Abdominal wound dehiscence is a serious complication of laparotomy, and fascial dehiscence in a patient with a stoma is especially difficult to manage. We describe how we performed local skin flap reconstruction for abdominal wound dehiscence in two patients with stomas. One patient underwent sigmoidectomy with a colostomy for peritonitis caused by perforated diverticulitis of the sigmoid colon. Postoperative fascial dehiscence was repaired by rhomboid flap reconstruction. The other patient underwent total gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, and splenectomy. An ileostomy was performed for digestive tract perforation, which was complicated by abdominal dehiscence with necrosis of the fascia. This was repaired by rotation flap reconstruction. The abdominal walls in both patients were repaired successfully without tension. PMID:21874425

Kakisaka, Tatsuhiko; Yoneyama, Shigehito; Katayama, Tomonari; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Uemura, Kazuhito; Ito, Yoshio; Une, Yoshie

2011-09-01

46

Pedicled extranasal flaps in skull base reconstruction.  

PubMed

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks most commonly arise during or after skull base surgery, although they occasionally present spontaneously. Recent advances in the repair of CSF leaks have enabled endoscopic endonasal surgery to become the preferred option for management of skull base pathology. Small defects (<1 cm) can be repaired by multilayered free grafts. For large defects (>3 cm), pedicled vascular flaps are the repair method of choice, resulting in much lower rates of postoperative CSF leaks. The pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF) constitutes the primary reconstructive option for the vast majority of skull base defects. It has a large area of potential coverage and high rates of success. However, preoperative planning is required to avoid sacrificing the NSF during resection. In cases where the NSF is unavailable, often due to tumor involvement of the septum or previous resection removing or compromising the flap, other flaps may be considered. These flaps include intranasal options - inferior turbinate or middle turbinate flaps - as well as regional pedicled flaps: pericranial flap, temporoparietal fascial flap, or palatal flap. More recently, novel alternatives such as the pedicled facial buccinator flap and the pedicled occipital galeopericranial flap have been added to the arsenal of options for skull base reconstruction. Characteristics of and appropriate uses for each flap are described. PMID:23257554

Kim, Grace G; Hang, Anna X; Mitchell, Candace A; Zanation, Adam M

2013-01-01

47

CASE REPORT Persistent Seromas in Abdominal Free Flap Donor Sites After Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction Surgery: Case Reports and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Donor site seroma formation is a common occurrence following abdominal free flap breast reconstructions. Although such seromas usually resolve spontaneously after a few weeks or months, we recently encountered 3 patients with abdominal seromas persisting for up to 2 years postoperatively. We therefore investigated possible predisposing factors in our patient group. Methods: Patients with persistent abdominal seromas, arbitrarily defined as present after 3 months following abdominal free flap harvest were identified. Their demographic characteristics, comorbidities, reconstruction details, frequency, and volume of abdominal aspirations were documented. Results: Three obese patients (Mean body mass index = 35) with an average age of 49 years bilaterally reconstructed with superior inferior epigastric artery or deep inferior epigastric artery flaps fitted the aforementioned criteria. Seroma aspirations commenced at 3 weeks and continued for a maximum of 26 months postoperatively. The average number of aspirations was 11 with a mean volume of 338 mL (range: 100-864 mL) per visit. The patients were aspirated either weekly or fortnightly depending on the speed of seroma reaccumulation and symptoms. All the 3 patients needed excision of the seroma sac to achieve permanent resolution. Discussion and Conclusion: In addition to their nuisance value (notably frequent aspirations and outpatient clinic visits), persistent seromas can cause significant morbidity and eventually require surgical excision. Possible predisposing factors in our patients included obesity, bilateral reconstructions, and superior inferior epigastric artery flap harvest. Such “high risk” patients should be warned about the likelihood of persistent seromas needing repeated aspirations and possible surgical interventions for ultimate resolution.

Sadeghi, Abtin; Malata, Charles

2013-01-01

48

Flap monitoring using infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results of clinical trials on flap monitoring in 65 plastic surgeries. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation of flap tissue (StO2) was monitored non-invasively by using ODISseyTM tissue oximeter, an infrared spectroscopic device. StO2 measurements were conducted both intra-operatively and post-operatively. From the intra-operative measurements, we observed that StO2 values dropped when the main blood vessels supplying the flap were clamped in surgery, and that StO2 jumped after anastomosis to a value close to its pre-operative value. From post-operative monitoring measurements for the 65 flap cases, each lasted two days or so, we found that the StO2 values approach to a level close to the baseline if the surgery was successful, and that the StO2 value dropped to a value below 30% if there is a perfusion compromise, such as vascular thrombosis.

Keller, Alex; Wright, Leigh P.; Elmandjra, Mohamed; Mao, Jian-min

2006-03-01

49

Free "kite" flap: a new flap for reconstruction of small hand defects.  

PubMed

Small, thin, and pliable flaps are frequently required in hand surgery to reconstruct defects in functionally important areas such as the pulp or the "contact zones" of the digits. The innervated first metacarpal artery flap ("kite" flap) is a reliable procedure to restore sensibility in the thumb and the digits. Four microsurgical (free) kite flaps to the hand were performed between February, 1993 and August, 1999 in male patients. Follow-up examinations were performed in three patients. The static two-point discrimination in the kite flaps ranged from 8 to 15 mm and did not show any difference compared to flaps from the foot described in the literature. Semmes-Weinstein testing results ranged from normal to protective sensation with a normal sharp vs. dull discrimination. A free kite flap provides a valuable, safe alternative to venous flaps or other free flaps for reconstruction of small defects in the hand PMID:15237355

Pelzer, Michael; Sauerbier, Michael; Germann, Günter; Tränkle, Markus

2004-07-01

50

Propeller flaps for leg reconstruction.  

PubMed

Leg soft tissue defects with bone or tendon exposure need to be covered with a flap. Various local and free flaps with more or less consistent donor site defects have been described in the past. After the introduction of the perforator-based flap concept, new flaps have also been described for the leg. An evolution and simplification of the perforator flap concept, together with the 'free style' flap harvesting method, are the propeller flaps, i.e. local flaps, based on a perforator vessel, which becomes the pivot point for the skin island that can, therefore, be rotated up to 180 degrees . In this prospective study, six consecutive patients, having post-traumatic soft tissue defects of the leg or knee prosthesis infection, with bone or tendon exposure, were treated with propeller flaps. Complete and stable coverage of the soft tissue losses was obtained in all cases with an inconspicuous, only cosmetic, donor site defect. No flap necrosis was observed, with the exception of a small superficial necrosis of the tip of one flap, due to the inclusion in the design of scarred tissue. In two cases, transient venous congestion was observed and resolved spontaneously. Mean operative time was 2 h (ranging from 60 min to 6 h when an orthopaedic procedure was also needed) and mean hospital stay after surgery was 10 days. Propeller flaps allow the coverage of wide defects, can be raised with a relatively simple surgical technique, have a high success rate and good cosmetic results without functional impairment. In the light of this they can be considered among the first surgical choices to resurface complex soft tissue defects of the leg. PMID:18450531

Pignatti, Marco; Pasqualini, Monica; Governa, Maurizio; Bruti, Massimiliano; Rigotti, Gino

2008-07-01

51

Images in plastic surgery: the anatomy of macrovascular arteriovenous shunts and implications for abdominal wall free flaps.  

PubMed

With the increasing use of preoperative imaging of the abdominal vasculature prior to free flaps based on the abdominal wall, the identification of a previously undescribed anatomic structure has, that of large-vessel (macroscopic) arteriovenous communications, has emerged. These macrovascular arteriovenous shunts are observed in most patients, and provide a communication between the arterial perforators of the deep inferior epigastric artery and the superficial inferior epigastric vein. These communications provide vascular shunting occurring prior to capillary filling and have potentially profound clinical implications and therapeutic possibilities in a range of medical and surgical conditions. Although these have been demonstrated previously on computed tomographic angiography imaging, their macroscopic and microscopic anatomy has not been described. We present images in vivo, ex vivo, and histologically to highlight their anatomic features. PMID:21734478

Rozen, Warren M; Chubb, Daniel; Ashton, Mark W; Whitaker, Iain S; Grinsell, Damien

2011-08-01

52

Central island tongue flap.  

PubMed

Pedicled tongue flaps have proved to be an effective method of repairing defects due to tissue loss in the oral cavity. Their central position, mobility, and excellent blood supply make their use feasible in a variety of sites. This paper describes the use and applications of central island tongue flaps to reconstruct defects of anterior floor of the mouth. This procedure was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical University Hanover, introducing an improved surgical method and presenting the actual operation performed in our department. This method is considered superior for resurfacing the anterior floor of mouth defects because it is easy to perform and results in recovery of function and cosmetics. PMID:9927907

Shibahara, T; Noma, H; Fujikawa, M; Miyao, T; Ishikawa, M; Takasaki, Y

1998-08-01

53

Free anterolateral thigh flap in pediatric patients.  

PubMed

The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap represents a workhorse flap in reconstructive surgery. We describe our clinical experience with this flap in the pediatric population. A total of 20 patients with an average age of 9.5 years underwent a free ALT flap reconstruction. All flaps were commonly raised on 2 perforators. About 5 flaps were employed for head and neck reconstruction, 7 for upper and 8 for lower limb reconstruction. Traumatic defects and congenital malformations represented the predominant etiology. Sizable perforators were found in all patients. The caliber was smaller compared to adults, and the course of the perforator was shorter. There were no complete flap losses and no significant donor-site morbidity. Donor-site closure required closure with split-thickness skin grafts in 6 cases. Hypertrophic scars developed in 4 patients. Secondary procedures included flap debulking (5) and Z-plasties (2). In conclusion, children have well-developed perforators supplying the ALT flap. With proper technique, this flap can be harvested and employed safely and reliably for reconstruction of varied defects in children. PMID:21178758

Gharb, Bahar Bassiri; Salgado, Christopher J; Moran, Steven L; Rampazzo, Antonio; Mardini, Samir; Gosain, Arun K; Spanio di Spilimbergo, Stefano; Chen, Hung-Chi

2011-02-01

54

A new classification of spreader flap techniques.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to introduce various spreader flap technique modifications to adjust the width of the middle nasal vault in patients who underwent rhinoplasties with humpectomy. Decisive modifications of current spreader flap techniques were performed to allow a more natural restoration of the middle nasal vault and the internal nasal valve after humpectomy. Additional steps provide tools to adjust the width and shape of the middle nasal vault according to patients' requirements. The techniques were categorized into "basic spreader flaps," "flaring spreader flaps," "support spreader flaps," and "interrupted spreader flaps." The various spreader flap techniques were used during 576 primary septorhinoplasties in patients with hump noses, hump/crooked noses, or hump/tension noses. The average follow-up was 19 months. Patients who received basic spreader flaps or a flaring spreader flaps tended to show a slightly too wide middle nasal vault, revision surgery was necessary in four of these cases. All other patients showed an appropriate width in the middle nasal vault and an aesthetically pleasing course of the dorsal aesthetic lines. No signs of inverted v deformities or collapse of the internal nasal valve were observed in any of the patients. Patients who had reported impaired nasal breathing preoperatively described clearly improved subjective symptoms. The described techniques appear to be appropriate and highly promising as a supplement to existing procedures for reconstructing the middle nasal vault and internal nasal valves. No additional cartilage grafts are needed. PMID:24327250

Wurm, Jochen; Kovacevic, Milos

2013-12-01

55

The "Reverse" Latissimus Dorsi Flap for Large Lower Lumbar Defect  

PubMed Central

The latissimus dorsi (LD) flap is one of the most common flaps used in plastic surgery based on its dominant thoracodorsal pedicle as well as free tissue transfer. The “distally based” or “reverse” fashion design has been used to repair myelomeningoceles, congenital diaphragmatic agenesis, or thoracolumbar defects. We present a case of a large lumbar defect after cancer resection covered by a combined tegument solution starring the “reverse” LD flap in its muscular version with a cutaneous gluteal flap. This flap is a safe and reliable way to cover large distal lumbar defect.

Kotti, Bouraoui; Jaidane, Olfa; Ben Hassouna, Jamel; Rahal, Khaled

2012-01-01

56

White light spectroscopy for free flap monitoring.  

PubMed

White light spectroscopy non-invasively measures hemoglobin saturation at the capillary level rendering an end-organ measurement of perfusion. We hypothesized this technology could be used after microvascular surgery to allow for early detection of ischemia and thrombosis. The Spectros T-Stat monitoring device, which utilizes white light spectroscopy, was compared with traditional flap monitoring techniques including pencil Doppler and clinical exam. Data were prospectively collected and analyzed. Results from 31 flaps revealed a normal capillary hemoglobin saturation of 40-75% with increase in saturation during the early postoperative period. One flap required return to the operating room 12 hours after microvascular anastomosis. The T-stat system recorded an acute decrease in saturation from ~50% to less than 30% 50 min prior to identification by clinical exam. Prompt treatment resulted in flap salvage. The Spectros T-Stat monitor may be a useful adjunct for free flap monitoring providing continuous, accurate perfusion assessment postoperatively. PMID:23280724

Fox, Paige M; Zeidler, Kamakshi; Carey, Joseph; Lee, Gordon K

2013-03-01

57

Complications of surgery for radiotherapy skin damage  

SciTech Connect

Complications of modern surgery for radiotherapy skin damage reviewed in 28 patients who had 42 operations. Thin split-thickness skin grafts for ulcer treatment had a 100 percent complication rate, defined as the need for further surgery. Local flaps, whether delayed or not, also had a high rate of complications. Myocutaneous flaps for ulcers had a 43 percent complication rate, with viable flaps lifting off radiated wound beds. Only myocutaneous flaps for breast reconstruction and omental flaps with skin grafts and Marlex mesh had no complications. The deeper tissue penetration of modern radiotherapy techniques may make skin grafts and flaps less useful. In reconstruction of radiation ulcers, omental flaps and myocutaneous flaps are especially useful, particularly if the radiation damage can be fully excised. The pull of gravity appears detrimental to myocutaneous flap healing and, if possible, should be avoided by flap design.

Rudolph, R.

1982-08-01

58

[Thoracodorsal pedicled perforator flap for chest wall and breast reconstruction in children: Illustration with two clinical cases].  

PubMed

Perforator flaps represent a new approach in reconstructive surgery including the thoracodorsal perforator flap. It can be used as a free or pedicled tissue transfer. By exposing two clinical cases, we demonstrate that this flap is an interesting option for children and adolescents chest wall skin coverage with less morbidity compared to myocutaneous latissimus dorsi flap. PMID:24262919

Minetti, C; Colson, T; Gisquet, H; Pujo, J; Brix, M; Simon, E

2014-02-01

59

Anesthesia duration as an independent risk factor for postoperative complications in free flap surgery: a review of 1,305 surgical cases.  

PubMed

Surgical dogma and objective data support the relationship between increased operative times and perioperative complications. However, there has been no large-scale, multi-institutional study that evaluates the impact of increased anesthesia duration on microvascular free tissue transfer. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database was retrospectively reviewed to identify all free-flap patients between 2006 and 2011. Included patients were subdivided into quintiles of anesthesia time. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess its impact on 30-day postoperative complications. The mean anesthesia duration for all patients was 603 ± 222 minutes. In univariate analysis, 30-day overall/medical complications, reoperation, and free flap loss demonstrated statistically significant increases as anesthesia duration increased (p<0.05). However, in multivariate analyses, these trends and significances were abolished, with exception of the utilization of postoperative transfusions. Of interest, increasing anesthesia duration did not predict flap failure on multivariate analysis. We found that increased anesthesia time correlates with increased postoperative transfusions in free flap patients. As a result, limiting blood loss and avoiding prolonged anesthesia times should be goals for the microvascular surgeon. This is the largest multidisciplinary study to investigate the ongoing debate that longer anesthesia times impart greater risk. PMID:24163224

Kim, Bobby D; Ver Halen, Jon P; Grant, David W; Kim, John Y S

2014-05-01

60

Assessment of the abdominal wall function after pedicled TRAM flap surgery for breast reconstruction: Use of modified mesh repair for the donor defect  

PubMed Central

Background: The pedicled TRAM flap has been a workhorse of autologous breast reconstruction for decades. However, there has been a rising concern about the abdominal wall donor site morbidity with the use of conventional TRAM flap. This has generally been cited as one of the main reasons for resorting to “abdominal wall friendly” techniques. This study has been undertaken to assess the abdominal wall function in patients with pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction. The entire width of the muscle and the overlying wide disk of anterior rectus sheath were harvested with the TRAM flap in all our patients and the anterior rectus sheath defect was repaired by a Proline mesh. Materials and Methods: Abdominal wall function was studied in 21 patients who underwent simultaneous primary unipedicled TRAM flap reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer. In all the patients, the abdominal wall defect was repaired using wide sheet of Proline mesh both as inlay and onlay. The assessment tools included straight and rotational curl ups and a subjective questionnaire. The abdominal wall was also examined for any asymmetry, bulge, or hernia. The minimal follow-up was 6 months postoperative. The objective results were compared with normal unoperated volunteers. Results and Conclusions: The harvesting the TRAM flap certainly results in changes to the anterior abdominal wall that can express themselves to a variable degree. A relatively high incidence of asymptomatic asymmetry of the abdomen was seen. There was total absence of hernia in our series even after a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. A few patients were only able to partially initiate the sit up movement and suffered an important loss of strength. In most patients, synergists took over the functional movement but as the load increased, flexion and rotation performances decreased. The lack of correlation between exercise tests and the results of the questionnaire suggests that this statistically significant impairment was functionally not important. The patients encountered little or no difficulty in theis day-to-day activities. Our modification of use of a wide mesh as inlay and onlay repair minimizes the donor site morbidity. This also avoids maneuvers meant for primary closure of the rectus sheath defects, which can result in distortion of umbilicus. Therefore, in conclusion, the unipedicled TRAM flap should be regarded as a valuable option in breast reconstruction provided careful repair of the abdominal wall defect is undertaken using Proline mesh.

Cyriac, Chacko; Sharma, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet

2010-01-01

61

Theodore Dunham's Discovery of an Island Flap.  

PubMed

Theodore Dunham was first to perform an island flap in 1892. His 2-stage procedure was done in a single stage several years later by George Monks who credited Dunham but received much of the recognition. Despite the important role that the island flap continues to play in modern reconstructive surgery, little is known about the life and career of Theodore Dunham. This article analyzes a variety of primary sources (publications, special collections, and interviews with his grandson) to chronicle Dunham's discovery of the island flap in the context of medical education and surgical training in the late 19th century. Dunham published many articles on a wide range of topics but his most lasting contribution to plastic surgery was the island flap. PMID:23917543

Fraser, James F; Halvorson, Eric G; Mulliken, John B

2014-05-01

62

Autologous breast augmentation by pedicled perforator flaps.  

PubMed

A technique is described for autologous breast augmentation based on perforator flaps of the lateral chest wall. Raising these flaps as perforator flaps implies minimal donor site morbidity; however, the price to pay is a scar underneath the armpit extending from the lateral end of the inframammary fold onto the back. This scar can be relatively well hidden underneath the arm and in the brassiere. Indications depend on the aversion of the patient against prostheses and the extent of available tissue versus the desired augmentation. As typical indications, we would consider the occasional developmental asymmetry, autologous augmentation after contralateral breast reconstruction, or contour surgery in the bariatric patient. PMID:15385764

Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Hamdi, Moustapha; Blondeel, Phillip; Monstrey, Stanislas

2004-10-01

63

Development of a Mouse Model of Abdominal Cutaneous Flaps for Breast Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Autologous tissue transfer, in addition to replacing tissue that was lost during injury or surgery, offers women an excellent option to improve cosmetic appearance and self-confidence following mastectomy due to breast cancer. However, flap necrosis is a complication in obese patients undergoing this procedure. We created a mouse model to study the flap-related complications that leads to decreased flap survival in autologous breast reconstruction. Methods Left superficial inferior epigastric (SIE) pedicle abdominal-cutaneous flaps were elevated in 8 week-old, obese ob/ob male mice and their lean littermates. Flaps were followed by serial photography. Area of flap necrosis was measured at 7 days. Statistical analysis was performed. Results Necrosis was observed at the distal margin of the flaps, in both lean and obese groups. Lean left SIE flaps (n?=?8) had a total area flap necrosis of 9.1% at 7 days whereas obese left SIE flaps (n?=?8) had a total area flap necrosis of 45.5% at 7 days. Obese flaps had a statistically significant increase in necrosis compared to the lean flaps, p?=?0.001. Conclusions There was a significant difference between flap survival in lean and obese SIE pedicle flaps in our mouse model. We have developed the first flap model of obesity utilizing the superficial epigastric pedicle in the mouse. This model is optimal for future studies to dissect out mechanisms that lead to the complications related to flap survival for breast reconstruction, especially in obese subjects.

Womac, Daniel John; Palanisamy, Arun Prathap; Eslick, Rene; Schimpf, Dennis Kenneth; Chavin, Kenneth David

2013-01-01

64

Tunica vaginalis reinforcement flap in reoperative Snodgrass procedure.  

PubMed

Interposing vascularized flaps between urethra and skin sutures is recommended in hypospadias surgery to decrease the rate of urethrocutaneous fistula. For this purpose nine patients with failed results after at least one hypospadias surgery and with insufficient foreskin were included in the study. Tubularized incised plate uretroplasty and tunica vaginalis reinforcement flap were performed to all patients with normal urethral plate. After a mean follow-up of 8.9 months (range 3-20) only one patient had developed a fistula. We believe that tunica vaginalis reinforcement flap decreases fistulas in reoperative hypospadias surgery in patients with insufficient foreskin or with a circumcised penis. PMID:14574610

Gürdal, Mesut; Karaman, M Ihsan; Kanbero?lu, Hüseyin; Kireççi, Sinan

2003-11-01

65

Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... a cure for COPD but can improve one's quality of life. The goal of the surgery is to reduce ... help improve breathing ability, lung capacity, and overall quality of life among those who are qualified for it. Lung ...

66

Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap.  

PubMed

Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap. PMID:24647304

Nawfal, Fejjal; Hicham, Brahmi; Achraf, Bekkali; Rachid, Belkacem

2014-01-01

67

[Lingualoplasty with modified forearm flap: A preliminary report with 6 cases  

PubMed

A modified technic with forearm flap for lingualoplasty after ablative surgery for tongue cancer is reported.The tongure flap is pedicaled with the root of tongue by the residual excixion margin,and an oblique incision is made on the side of the placed forearm flap.Finally,the tongue flap is inlaid into the forearm flap in order to increasing the moving activity and function of the flap.This method has been applied to treat 6 patients of the tongue cancer.For them,the objective comments for function of the tongue after operation was given. PMID:15159796

Zhu, H G; Qiu, W L; Gu, Z Y

1993-12-01

68

[The technic and advantages of using the tongue flap in the reconstructive surgery of cancer of the oral cavity. Our experience apropos 16 cases].  

PubMed

In this study, primary we present briefly the main anatomic elements that concern the tongue as also the clinical and other structures of the cancer of the oral cavity. Simultaneously, we notice our experience from the use of the tongue flap in 16 patients with cancer of the floor of the oral cavity. This procedure is simple, easy, brief and it does not cause aesthetic problems to patients. It is also emphasized that this method does not create functional disabilities to the rest part of the tongue, with result the patients not have disturbances in speech, in chewing or in swallowing. PMID:1626195

Assimakopoulos, D; Kastanioudakis, Y; Skevas, A

1992-01-01

69

Inverted periosteal flap: an alternative to the buccal advancement flap for tension-free, watertight closure.  

PubMed

The buccal advancement flap has been universally used in oral and maxillofacial surgery for closure of alveolar ridge incisions. It involves scoring of the buccal periosteum to enhance flap mobility and then stretching the buccal tissues medially (palatally or lingually) to obtain tension-free, watertight closure of a wound. Its applications have included, but have not been limited to, alveolar ridge augmentation procedures and closure of oral-antral communications. However, the buccal advancement flap technique has several major disadvantages. First, because the buccal flap is advanced crestally and medially, this technique invariably results in a significant reduction in vestibular depth. This can cause patients discomfort, such that they have described a sensation that their buccal mucosa has been sutured to their alveolar mucosa. In addition to being uncomfortable, this vestibular shortening can adversely affect patients' options for future prosthetic rehabilitation. Second, because the buccal flap is advanced medially, the mucogingival junction will be obliged to follow; therefore, the width of the keratinized tissue on the buccal aspect of the alveolus will be diminished. Third, if the buccal flap has been advanced a large distance, even with aggressive periosteal scoring and release, true tension-free closure can be very difficult to achieve, increasing the risk of wound dehiscence. The inverted periosteal flap is a new technique for flap design and closure that has several advantages over the buccal advancement flap. In my experience, the inverted periosteal flap will preserve the vestibular depth, maintain the keratinized gingival dimensions, and provide true tension-free closure. Thus, this flap could be ideal for any oral and maxillofacial surgical procedure in which tension-free, watertight closure is desired. PMID:24768423

Rosenfeld, Elisheva A

2014-07-01

70

Muscle Flaps and Their Role in Limb Salvage  

PubMed Central

Muscle flaps have proved to be a valuable and versatile tool in the surgical treatment of the severely compromised lower extremity. Utilized as both local pedicle flaps and free tissue transfers, muscles have been successfully employed to cover complex wounds, manage osteomyelitis, salvage infected vascular grafts, treat recalcitrant venous stasis ulcers, preserve amputation levels, and restore motion following compartment syndrome. Free flap pedicles have also been used in a flow-through fashion to create a distal arterial bypass. This article explores the multipurpose role of muscle flaps in limb salvage surgery and their beneficial physiologic characteristics in hostile wound environments.

Klebuc, Michael; Menn, Zachary

2013-01-01

71

Lower Extremity Reconstruction Using Vastus Lateralis Myocutaneous Flap versus Anterolateral Thigh Fasciocutaneous Flap  

PubMed Central

Background The anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap has become a popular option for treating soft tissue defects of lower extremity reconstruction and can be combined with a segment of the vastus lateralis muscle. We present a comparison of the use of the ALT fasciocutaneous (ALT-FC) and myocutaneous flaps. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients in whom free-tissue transfer was performed between 2005 and 2011 for the reconstruction of lower extremity soft-tissue defects. Twenty-four patients were divided into two groups: reconstruction using an ALT-FC flap (12 cases) and reconstruction using a vastus lateralis myocutaneous (VL-MC) flap (12 cases). Postoperative complications, functional results, cosmetic results, and donor-site morbidities were studied. Results Complete flap survival was 100% in both groups. A flap complication was noted in one case (marginal dehiscence) of the ALT-FC group, and no complications were noted in the VL-MC group. In both groups, one case of partial skin graft loss occurred at the donor site, and debulking surgeries were needed for two cases. There were no significant differences in the mean scores for either functional or cosmetic outcomes in either group. Conclusions The VL-MC flap is able to fill occasional dead space and has comparable survival rates to ALT-FC with minimal donor-site morbidity. Additionally, the VL-MC flap is easily elevated without myocutaneous perforator injury.

Lee, Min Jae; Yun, In Sik; Rah, Dong Kyun

2012-01-01

72

Autonomized flaps in secondary head and neck reconstructions.  

PubMed

Free flaps, with their very high rates of success and low donor site morbidity, are considered the gold standard in head and neck reconstruction, allowing the transfer of ideal tissues for head and neck reconstruction. Nonetheless, under certain circumstances they may be contraindicated or cannot be utilized. We describe four subjects in which delayed locoregional flaps were used to reconstruct head and neck defects after a previous flap failure. Due to adverse anatomic and systemic conditions these patients were not suitable for a free flap, and thus one delayed prelaminated temporalis fasciocutaneous flap placement and three delayed supraclavicular flap (one of which was prelaminated) placements to reconstruct large defects of the cheek and commissural region needed to be performed. All flaps and grafts were viable. All patients in this case series had acceptable functional and aesthetic outcomes. Donor-site morbidity was negligible. Delayed locoregional flap placement required a total of three surgical sessions. Although limited, our experience suggests that in cases in which a free flap is contraindicated or not ideal, locoregional flaps may be a valid and safe alternative. Limitations of these procedures include increased duration of hospitalization and, foremost, the need for three-step surgery. PMID:23326014

Colletti, G; Autelitano, L; Tewfik, K; Rabbiosi, D; Biglioli, F

2012-10-01

73

Island groin flap.  

PubMed

An island groin flap was used for satisfactory reconstruction of defects in the anterior thigh, lower abdomen, or perineal regions in 9 patients. This flap has several advantages: simple operation, wide range of coverage, large rotation arc, direct closure of the donor site, and no sacrifice of muscle. Comparison with tensor fascia lata and other musculocutaneous flaps is made. PMID:4091467

Ohtsuka, H; Nakaoka, H; Saeki, N; Miki, Y

1985-08-01

74

Trapezoid adipose scar local flap: postburn lateral truncal contracture elimination with trapeze-flap plasty.  

PubMed

Trunk burns result in various complications, deformities, and contractures. Contracture of the lateral surface of the trunk is one of the serious complications that limits movements of the spine; children experience structural changes in the form of scoliosis. Therefore, the lateral truncal contracture should be the subject of early surgical treatment. The currently used method has been the stage-by-stage incisions on the contracture scars and skin grafting or Z-plasty. Skin grafts have a tendency to shrink; thus, compression garments are recommended for an extended period of time after surgery. Triangular flaps are small to complete contracture elimination. The need for development of a more effective surgical technique is apparent. Lateral truncal contracture is caused by a crescent-shaped fold; both sheets of the fold are scars. The sheets have a trapeze-shaped surface deficit in length, which causes the contracture and creates the skin surplus in width. The contracture is of medial type; therefore, it is subject to treatment with local tissues using trapeze-flap plasty. The fold and the adjacent contracted scars are converted into trapezoid flaps by radial incisions. The distance among incisions ranges from 4 to 5 cm, which determines the width of the flap's top. One or several trapezoid flap pairs are planned. The scar flaps are elevated with the subcutaneous fat layer and transposed one toward another with tension, so that the end of one flap reaches the base of the counter flap. As a result, the zone of the plasty is elongated by 100 to 150%. Twelve patients with lateral truncal contractures were operated using trapeze-flap plasty. Good immediate and late results have been achieved. It is the author's belief that trapeze-flap plasty is the most effective technique in light of today's proposed methodology. PMID:20861744

Grishkevich, Viktor M

2010-01-01

75

A large lower eyelid reconstruction: nasojugal flaps plus V-Y advancement flap.  

PubMed

Lower eyelid reconstruction still represents one of the finest expressions in oculoplastic surgery. A 76-year-old male presented with a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the lateral canthus, involving the inferior eyelid. After ablative surgery, the resulting full-thickness defect was reconstructed with a mucosal graft from the buccal sulcus and a nasolabial flap subcutaneously pedicled on a V-Y advancement flap. The above techniques, joined together, allow better nasojugal transposition and should be considered when lateral half of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus reconstruction are performed. PMID:16722343

Rubino, C; Farace, F

2006-01-01

76

Versatility of the anterolateral thigh free flap: the four seasons flap.  

PubMed

Presented at the following academic meetings:? 56th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (SICPRE) Fasano (Brindisi), Italy, September 26-29, 2007? 42nd Meeting of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), Warsaw, Poland, May 21-24, 2008? Winter Meeting, British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons, (BAPRAS) London, December 1-3, 2009Background: The anterolateral free flap has become increasingly popular at our institution year on year. We decided to review our experience with this flap and study the reasons for this trend. Methods: A retrospective review of all anterolateral thigh free flaps performed at Addenbrooke's University Hospital from the available charts was carried out. This chart review included patients' demographics, indications, flap size, recipient vessels used, ischemia time, flap, and donor site outcomes. All flap perforator vessels were located preoperatively using a handheld Doppler ultrasound probe. Results: From October 1999 to December 2008, 55 anterolateral thigh flaps were performed in 55 patients to reconstruct a variety of soft-tissue defects (upper and lower limbs, chest wall, skull base, head and neck). Flap size ranged 12 to 35 cm in length and 4 to 11 cm in width. During flap elevation, the main supply to the flap was found to be a direct septocutaneous perforator in 41% (n = 23) of the cases as opposed to a musculocutaneous perforator, which was found in 59% (n = 32). The mean ischemia time was 82 minutes (range, 62-103). The overall flap success rate was 100%. Two flaps were successfully salvaged after reexploration for venous congestion. The donor site morbidity was minimal. The mean follow-up time was 18 months (range, 2-48). Discussion and Conclusion: The anterolateral thigh free flap was found to be a very reliable flap (100% success) across a wide range of clinical indications. It facilitates microvascular anastomoses as evidenced by the short ischemia time. It provided ample skin with volume that could be tailored to the defect. These advantages have led to its widespread use by different consultants and trainees in our department. PMID:22582118

Di Candia, Michele; Lie, Kwok; Kumiponjera, Devor; Simcock, Jeremy; Cormack, George C; Malata, Charles M

2012-01-01

77

Versatility of the Anterolateral Thigh Free Flap: The Four Seasons Flap  

PubMed Central

Presented at the following academic meetings: ? 56th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery (SICPRE) Fasano (Brindisi), Italy, September 26-29, 2007 ? 42nd Meeting of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), Warsaw, Poland, May 21-24, 2008 ? Winter Meeting, British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons, (BAPRAS) London, December 1-3, 2009 Background: The anterolateral free flap has become increasingly popular at our institution year on year. We decided to review our experience with this flap and study the reasons for this trend. Methods: A retrospective review of all anterolateral thigh free flaps performed at Addenbrooke's University Hospital from the available charts was carried out. This chart review included patients' demographics, indications, flap size, recipient vessels used, ischemia time, flap, and donor site outcomes. All flap perforator vessels were located preoperatively using a handheld Doppler ultrasound probe. Results: From October 1999 to December 2008, 55 anterolateral thigh flaps were performed in 55 patients to reconstruct a variety of soft-tissue defects (upper and lower limbs, chest wall, skull base, head and neck). Flap size ranged 12 to 35 cm in length and 4 to 11 cm in width. During flap elevation, the main supply to the flap was found to be a direct septocutaneous perforator in 41% (n = 23) of the cases as opposed to a musculocutaneous perforator, which was found in 59% (n = 32). The mean ischemia time was 82 minutes (range, 62-103). The overall flap success rate was 100%. Two flaps were successfully salvaged after reexploration for venous congestion. The donor site morbidity was minimal. The mean follow-up time was 18 months (range, 2-48). Discussion and Conclusion: The anterolateral thigh free flap was found to be a very reliable flap (100% success) across a wide range of clinical indications. It facilitates microvascular anastomoses as evidenced by the short ischemia time. It provided ample skin with volume that could be tailored to the defect. These advantages have led to its widespread use by different consultants and trainees in our department.

Di Candia, Michele; Lie, Kwok; Kumiponjera, Devor; Simcock, Jeremy; Cormack, George C.; Malata, Charles M.

2012-01-01

78

The lateral arm flap.  

PubMed

The authors contend that the conventional flap (LAF) and the ELAF should be considered among the best choices of all possible fasciocutaneous flaps for head and neck reconstruction. Easy and quick dissection under tourniquet, design variability, and potential sensory innervation make these flaps superior to other fasciocutaneous flaps. The ELAF provides the same pliable, thin fasciocutaneous tissue and a longer pedicle than the RFF. In contrast to the RFF, the donor site can be closed primarily and heals with an acceptable scar without any functional deficit. The authors therefore strongly recommend clinical application of these flaps in head and neck reconstruction. PMID:11400830

Ninkovic, M; Harpf, C; Schwabegger, A H; Rumer-Moser, A; Ninkovic, M

2001-04-01

79

Reconstruction of Various Perinasal Defects Using Facial Artery Perforator-Based Nasolabial Island Flaps  

PubMed Central

Background Classical flaps for perinasal defect reconstruction, such as forehead or nasolabial flaps, have some disadvantages involving limitations of the arc of rotation and two stages of surgery. However, a perforator-based flap is more versatile and allows freedom in flap design. We introduced our experience with reconstruction using a facial artery perforator-based propeller flap on the perinasal area. We describe the surgical differences between different defect subtypes. Methods Between December 2005 and August 2013, 10 patients underwent perinasal reconstruction in which a facial artery perforator-based flap was used. We divided the perinasal defects into types A and B, according to location. The operative results, including flap size, arc of rotation, complications, and characteristics of the perforator were evaluated by retrospective chart review and photographic evaluation. Results Eight patients were male and 2 patients were female. Their mean age was 61 years (range, 35-75 years). The size of the flap ranged from 1 cm×1.5 cm to 3 cm×6 cm. Eight patients healed uneventfully, but 2 patients presented with mild flap congestion. However, these 2 patients healed by conservative management without any additional surgery. All of the flaps survived completely with aesthetically pleasing results. Conclusions The facial artery perforator-based flap allowed for versatile customized flaps, and the donor site scar was concealed using the natural nasolabial fold.

Yoon, Tae Ho; Yun, In Sik; Rha, Dong Kyun

2013-01-01

80

Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare two noninvasive techniques, laser Doppler and optical spectroscopy, for monitoring hemodynamic changes in skin flaps. Animal models for assessing these changes in microvascular free flaps and pedicle flaps were investigated. A 2 x 3-cm free flap model based on the epigastric vein-artery pair and a reversed MacFarlane 3 x 10-cm pedicle flap model were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups, with groups 1 (n = 6) and 2 (n = 4) undergoing epigastric free flap surgery and groups 3 (n = 3) and 4 (n = 10) undergoing pedicle flap surgery. Groups 1 and 4 served as controls for each of the flap models. Groups 2 and 3 served as ischemia-reperfusion models. Optical spectroscopy provides a measure of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and blood volume, and the laser Doppler method measures blood flow. Optical spectroscopy proved to be consistently more reliable in detecting problems with arterial in flow compared with laser Doppler assessments. When spectroscopy was used in an imaging configuration, oxygen saturation images of the entire flap were generated, thus creating a visual picture of global flap health. In both single-point and imaging modes the technique was sensitive to vessel manipulation, with the immediate post operative images providing an accurate prediction of eventual outcome. This series of skin flap studies suggests a potential role for optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in the clinical assessment of skin flaps. PMID:15692360

Payette, Jeri R; Kohlenberg, Elicia; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Pabbies, Arone; Kerr, Paul; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Sowa, Michael G

2005-02-01

81

[Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with mucosal flap].  

PubMed

Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is done commonly in subjects with chronic dacryocystitis and nasolacrimal duct stenosis, and endoscopic DCR is now an established alternative to external approaches. Mucosal preservation is important in preventing granulation tissue and synechia from forming around the ostium. Our modified endoscopic DCR using a mucosal flap involves creating a large bony opening to form an anastomosis for the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Instead of silicon tubing, we use a silicon sheet to avoid manipulating the canaliculi. Our modifications enable an easy, safe, effective form of DCR easily implemented by otolaryngologists familiar with endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:22184872

Kodama, Satoru; Hirano, Takashi; Suzuki, Masashi

2011-10-01

82

Assessment of skin flap viability using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate assessment of skin flap viability is vitally important in reconstructive surgery. Early identification of vascular compromise increases the change of successful flap salvage. The ability to determine tissue viability intraoperatively is also extremely useful when the reconstructive surgeon must decide how to inset the flap and whether any tissue must be discarded. Visible diffuse reflectance and auto-fluorescence spectroscopy, which yield different sets of biochemical information, have not been used in the characterization of skin flap viability simultaneously to our best knowledge. We performed both diffuse reflectance and fluorescence measurements on a reverse MacFarlane rat dorsal skin flap model to identify the additional value of auto-fluorescence spectroscopy to the assessment of flap viability. Our result suggests that auto-fluorescence spectroscopy appears to be more sensitive to early biochemical changes in a failed flap than diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which could be a valuable complement to diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the assessment of flap viability.

Zhu, Caigang; Chen, Shuo; Chui, Christopher Hoe-Kong; Liu, Quan

2012-12-01

83

The modified rhomboid transposition flap in periocular reconstruction.  

PubMed

The traditional rhomboid transposition flap has been widely used in reconstructive surgery. The authors have modified the original technique by eliminating the creation of the rhomboid defect and by directly transposing the flap into the original postexcisional defect. These changes allow maximum flexibility in flap design and minimize normal tissue loss. The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who underwent periocular reconstruction with flaps from 1990 through 1995. The authors selected those patients in whom the modified rhomboid flap was used. Functional and cosmetic results and complications were reviewed. Two hundred thirty-two patients were identified in whom 242 flaps were performed. The modified rhomboid flap was used in 101 patients (41.7%). Complications occurred in 23 patients (23%), 19 of whom (19%) were treated medically and four of whom (4%) required an additional surgical procedure. Cosmetic and functional results were classified as very good or excellent in 96 patients (96%). The use of a modified rhomboid flap in the reconstruction of the periocular area offers ample versatility in flap design and minimal normal tissue loss. Functional and cosmetic results are satisfactory in the vast majority of cases. PMID:9783289

Teske, S A; Kersten, R C; Devoto, M H; Kulwin, D R

1998-09-01

84

Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps  

PubMed Central

Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun

2014-01-01

85

The design of tongue flaps for the closure of palatal fistulas.  

PubMed

This paper presents the author's experience with thin (3-mm) tongue flaps used to close large anterior palatal fistulas. This technique was used successfully in 12 patients with fistulas following surgery for cleft palate. One forked flap and one mushroom-shaped flap that were used to close irregularly shaped fistulas are described. All flaps survived, and there was a partial recurrence of one fistula in only one patient. The results of this series confirm that the thin tongue flap is a safe and reliable technique for the closure of large palatal fistulas even when tailored to fit irregularly shaped defects. PMID:8460182

Assunçao, A G

1993-04-01

86

Reestablished circulation after free radial forearm flap transfer.  

PubMed

New circulation in the free flap reestablished at the recipient site is the key to successful microvascular reconstructive surgery. This study is the first evaluation of long-term circulatory changes in nine free radial forearm flap transfers. Postoperatively, color Doppler studies revealed that the flow volume through the arterial pedicle increased rapidly during the first 3 days, gradually increased until day 14 (exceeding flow volume through the facial artery of the unoperated contralateral side), then decreased slightly until the sixth month. The pulsatility index, representing vascular resistance downstream, decreased successively. Ohm's law explains that this flow increase is caused by reduced vascular resistance downstream, attributed to changes in the vascularity of the transferred flap and in the recipient bed. The authors believe the circulatory changes are determinants of the clinical properties of the flap. This study addresses the importance of clarifying the events that transpire at the macroscopic circulatory level in the transferred free flap. PMID:15088205

Ichinose, Akihiro; Tahara, Shinya; Terashi, Hiroto; Yokoo, Satoshi

2004-04-01

87

The nasolabial flap.  

PubMed

The nasolabial flap is a straightforward and time-tested reconstructive option suitable for a variety of facial and oral defects. The superiorly and inferiorly based variants are well described in the literature and offer a rapid and reliable alternative to time-consuming microvascular free flaps and less esthetic skin grafts. Despite newer and more complex alternatives, the nasolabial flap maintains its prominent position in the reconstructive armamentarium of the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:18088699

Schmidt, Brian L; Dierks, Eric J

2003-11-01

88

Mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy with mucosal flaps  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe and assess the efficacy of mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (MENDCR). This is a new technique that involves creation of a large rhinostomy and mucosal flaps. The study involved a prospective non-randomised interventional case series with short perioperative follow up. Method: A prospective series of 104 consecutive endonasal DCRs performed from January 1999 to December 2001 were entered into the study. Patients included in the study had nasolacrimal duct obstruction and had not had previous lacrimal surgery. The technique involved anastomosis of nasal mucosal and lacrimal sac flaps and a large bony ostium. Surgery was performed by two surgeons (AT/PJW). Follow up assessment included nasoendoscopy as well as symptom evaluation. Success was defined as anatomical patency with fluorescein flow on nasoendoscopy and patency to lacrimal syringing. The average follow up time was 9.7 months (range 2–28, SD 6.7 months). Results: There were 104 DCRs performed on 86 patients (30 male, 56 female). The average age of the patients was 59 years (range 3–89, SD 24.1 years). Common presentations were epiphora (77%) and/or mucocele (19%). Septoplasty (SMR) was required in 48 DCRs (46%) and 13 DCRs (12.5%) needed other endoscopic surgery in conjunction with the lacrimal surgery. The surgery was successful in 93 cases (89%). Of the 11 cases that were classified as a failure six patients was anatomically patent but still symptomatic and another two had preoperative canalicular problems. The anatomical patency with this new technique was thus 95% (99 of 104 DCRs). Conclusion: MENDCR involves creation of a large ostium and mucosal preservation for the construction of flaps. The anatomical success is 95% and is similar to external DCR and better then other endonasal approaches. The authors suggest that creation of a large ostium as well as mucosal flaps improves the efficacy of this endonasal technique.

Tsirbas, A; Wormald, P J

2003-01-01

89

The penile flap in the rat: description and autotransplantation.  

PubMed

Considering both its unique structural and functional properties, the reconstruction of the penis is still a challenging problem in reconstructive surgery. Reconstruction may be required in many situations, including traumas, congenital abnormalities, and female-to-male transsexual surgery. Currently, the only natural reconstructive method for the penis is its microvascular reattachment in amputation cases. In all other situations, and in nonreplantable amputations, there is no alternative but to reconstruct the penis using autologous tissues to create the most similar substitute, hoping for a possible allogeneic transplantation in the future. There are many unresolved issues and unanswered questions related to functional recovery after replantation of the penis. In this study, to overcome these drawbacks and to guide and show the feasibility of allogeneic transplantation of the penis in humans in the future, we describe a penile composite tissue flap based on the internal pudendal artery and its autotransplantation in an economical animal species. Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 400 to 500 g were used. In 20 rats, the vascular anatomy of the male perineal region was determined by anatomic dissections. Based on this anatomic study, the penile composite flap was created based on the internal pudendal vessels. In 10 rats, the penile flap was raised as an island flap based on its vascular pedicle and replaced in situ. In 10 rats, distant flap transfer was accomplished to determine the feasibility of the flap being transferred as a free flap and to demonstrate the viability of the flap components in a heterotopic region. For this purpose, the flap was transferred to the groin region performing anastomoses between internal pudendal vessels and superficial epigastric vessels. In the control group (n=10), while the same surgical procedure was performed, the flap was transferred to the groin region but no anastomosis was performed. The procedure required approximately 3 to 4 hours of operating time in the free flap group. Five of the animals died in the early postoperative days, while all others survived. Direct observation and microangiography were used to assess the viability of the flaps. On the basis of direct observation on the seventh postoperative day, all the pedicled flaps survived completely. In the free-flap group, all but 1 of the vascularized flaps showed complete survival, whereas all the nonvascularized flaps completely necrosed. The authors conclude that the penile flap of the rat offers the following advantages: (1) the composite tissue flap is harvested from a small animal species, (2) the flap is an exact representation of the clinical original penile composition, (3) it can be transferred as a free flap without the need for an isogeneic animal, (4) the vascular pedicle is consistent and allows for microvascular anastomoses. The flap will provide a means for future physiological studies, especially for replantation cases. The feasible autotransplantation of the penile flap with successful results will also guide researchers towards the future allogeneic transfer of the penis in humans. PMID:15985799

Akyurek, Mustafa; Ozkan, Omer; Safak, Tunc; Ozgentas, H Ege; Dunn, Raymond M

2005-07-01

90

Functional sensory function recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip skin defects  

PubMed Central

The fingertip skin defect is a common hand injury often accompanied by tendon or bone exposure, and is normally treated with flaps. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional sensory recovery of random-pattern abdominal skin flap in the repair of fingertip cutaneous deficiency. A total of 23 patients, aged between 18 and 50 years (mean age, 31 years) with fingertip cutaneous deficiency (30 digits) were treated with random-pattern abdominal skin flaps. The post-debridement defect area measured from 0.7×1.2 to 2.5×3 cm. The flap pedicle was divided three weeks after surgery, which marked the onset of the second stage. A second surgery was performed on 2 patients after 3 months and on another set of 2 patients after 6 months to create a thinner flap. Tissue was dissected during surgery for a histological examination. All the flaps survived and the post-operative follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the appearance of their fingers and the flaps. All flaps demonstrated satisfactory flexibility and texture and sensory recovery was achieved. Only 4 patients were subjected to a second surgery to make the flap thinner. The flaps for the 3-month tissue section had several low-density, free nerve endings, whereas those of the 6-month section had more intensive free nerve endings, nerve tracts, tactile cells and lamellar corpuscles. Random-pattern abdominal skin flap therefore repairs fingertip skin defects achieving sensory recovery.

YU, YA-DONG; ZHANG, YING-ZE; BI, WEI-DONG; WU, TAO

2013-01-01

91

Preventing seroma in the latissimus dorsi flap donor site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for preventing seroma in latissimus dorsi flap donor sites is presented. The procedure involves quilting the donor site skin flaps to the underlying tissues with absorbable sutures.In a single surgeon series, a retrospective group (n=16) of non-quilted donor sites was compared to a prospective group of quilted donor sites (n =11). The age range and indications for surgery

O. G. Titley; G. E. Spyrou; M. F. T. Fatah

1997-01-01

92

Use of Modified Pericranial Flaps in Anterior Skull Base Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Proper reconstruction of the cranial base is imperative in preventing cerebrospinal fluid leakage and in the protection of vascular elements. Living pericranial flaps are often key elements in such reconstruction; however, trauma, previous surgery, or pathologic involvement can result in the loss of important parts of the pericranium. Techniques for utilizing pericranial flaps despite defects in the pericranium are described and case examples are given to illustrate these techniques. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3

Ross, Donald A.

1992-01-01

93

Management of a Traumatic Flap Dislocation Seven Years after LASIK  

PubMed Central

Seven years after uneventful laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), a 48-year-old woman presented one week after being hit with an iron cord with blurry vision, pain, and irritation. The injury resulted in traumatic flap dislocation, epithelial ingrowth, and macrostriae. Following epithelial removal, the flap was refloated and repositioned. Nine interrupted sutures were used to secure the flap. Three-weeks after surgery with no sutures remaining, the epithelial ingrowth and macrostriae had resolved with a visual acuity of 20/20.

Moshirfar, Majid; Anderson, Erik; Taylor, Nathan; Hsu, Maylon

2011-01-01

94

Flow Over Swept Flaps and Flap Tips  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary measurements have been made of the flow over the tip of an unswept wing flap. To achieve an acceptable Reynolds number based on flap chord, the flap chord was chosen equal to the chord of the main airfoil (c = 19 in. approx. 0.48 m). The model was mounted in a 30 in. x 30 in. wind tunnel running at up to 100 ft/sec. (30 m/s): severe wind-tunnel interference was accepted, and any computations would be done using the tunnel walls as the boundaries of the computational domain. Maximum Reynolds number based on flap chord and tunnel speed was about 1.O x lO(exp 6). The grant ended before a full set of measurements could be made, but the work done so far yields a useful picture of the flow. The vortex originates at about mid-chord on the flap and rises rapidly above the chord line. It has a concentrated core, with total pressure lower than the ambient static pressure, and there is no evidence of large-scale wandering. A simple method of model construction, giving light weight and excellent surface finish, was developed.

Bradshaw, Peter; Buice, Carl U.

1995-01-01

95

Flaps in obese rats-A novel experimental flap model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Obesity is viewed as a risk factor for post-operative complications following autologous tissue breast reconstruction. However, the effect of obesity on flap survival remains unclear. To examine the impact of obesity on surgical flaps, we designed an animal flap model employing obese rats.Methods: Epigastric skin flaps were developed in obese Zucker rats and their lean littermates, using anatomic landmarks.

Ronald Reyna; Seung-Jun O; Zachary Evans; Crystal Campbell; Ryan Fiorini; David Rodwell; Kenneth Chavin

2004-01-01

96

Simple volume estimation of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap in Asian breast reconstruction.  

PubMed

Breast reconstruction is surgery where aesthetics are of the utmost importance, and to achieve symmetry is the ultimate goal. Preoperative volume estimation of a transfer flap can be helpful to achieve symmetry. This study demonstrated a simple volume estimation of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous (LDMC) flap. It recorded each patient's body weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) and the weight of the LDMC flap in 21 cases of breast reconstruction, and examined the association between flap weight and patient body weight, height, and body mass index by linear regression analysis. Statistical association was found between flap weight and body weight and between flap weight and BMI. Linear regression analysis also revealed that the weight of the flap could be estimated from the patient's body weight and BMI. PMID:24006916

Kubo, Tateki; Miki, Ayako; Osaki, Yoko; Onoda, Motohiro

2014-04-01

97

The surgical management of the oral soft tissues: 1. Flap design.  

PubMed

Correct management of the soft tissues during minor oral surgery is of great importance to ensure rapid and uncomplicated healing. This paper will cover the design of the most commonly required mucoperiosteal flaps in general practice. Clinical Relevance: The ability to perform mucoperiosteal flap surgery is a useful skill for the general dental practitioner, yet such procedures are frequently avoided and referral preferred. It is important to understand the principles of flap design in order to increase confidence in performing minor oral surgery in general practice. PMID:18019490

Jephcott, Anna

2007-10-01

98

Local flaps of the hand.  

PubMed

A local flap consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue that is harvested from a site near a given defect while maintaining its intrinsic blood supply. Local skin flaps can be a used as a reliable source of soft tissue replacement that replaces like with like. Flaps are categorized based on composition, method of transfer, flap design, and blood supply, but flap circulation is considered the most critical factor for the flap survival. This article reviews the classification of local skin flaps of the hand and offers a practical reconstructive approach for several soft tissue defects of the hand and digits. PMID:24731606

Rehim, Shady A; Chung, Kevin C

2014-05-01

99

Can a true perforator flap survive on venous blood? A case report of anterolateral thigh true perforator flap supplied by antegrade venous inflow.  

PubMed

In some cases of degloving injury, as a result of multiple venous anastomoses formed on the peripheral and proximal sides, the detached flap skin did survive, though with patchy necrosis. On the basis of this experience, the skin and soft-tissue defects after removing skin cancer were closed with an anterolateral thigh true perforator flap, measuring 4 × 5 cm in size, which is nourished by venous blood. The subcutaneous vein on the peripheral side of the defect was anastomosed to the perforator artery, and the veins on the proximal side of the defects were anastomosed to the concomitant veins of the perforator. After surgery, to ensure a sufficient blood flow to the flap, the affected limb was positioned lower than the heart for 1 week. To prevent microthrombus in the perforator branch and the flap, preventive anticoagulant therapy was performed. The transplanted flap had marked cyanosis for a few days, but turned pinkish on the sixth day after surgery. The flap survived completely. As opposed to venous flaps reported in the past, the physiologic direction of blood flow of the flap is from arteries to veins, and it is nourished exclusively by venous blood. If a flap is small, and there are no appropriate recipient vessels nearby, this method could serve as a favorable alternative. PMID:21712705

Ao, Masakazu; Nakago, Kie; Morisada, Sunao; Koshimune, Seijirou

2012-07-01

100

Levels of gingival tissue platelet activating factor after conventional and regenerative periodontal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis, a relationship between gingival tissue platelet activating factor (PAF) levels and healing after periodontal\\u000a surgery, was tested by measuring PAF levels in gingival tissues collected from sites that had undergone flap surgery and guided\\u000a tissue regeneration (GTR) or flap surgery alone. Using a split-mouth design, 20 intrabony defects were randomly assigned to\\u000a treatment with flap surgery and GTR

Gonca Cayir Keles; Burcu Ozkan Cetinkaya; Bulent Ayas; Ibrahim Isildak; Emine Diraman; Hulya Koprulu; Gokhan Acikgoz

2007-01-01

101

[Vestibularly displaced flap with bone augmentation].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to achieve esthetic gingival contours with the help of less traumatic mucogingival surgeries. 9 Patients were operated with horizontal deficiencies in 9 edentulous sites, planned to be restored with fixed partial dentures. In all cases there was lack of keratinized tissues. Temporary bridges were fabricated to all patients. Before surgery the bridges were removed and the abutment teeth were additionally cleaned with ultrasonic device. A horizontal incision was made from lingual (palatal) side between the abutment teeth, which was connected with two vertical releasing incisions to the mucogingival junction from the vestibular side. The horizontal incision was made on a distance 6-10 mm from the crest of the alveolar ridge. A partial thickness flap in the beginning 3-5 mm, then a full thickness flap up to the mucogingival junction, then a partial thickness flap was made. The flap was mobilized and displaced vestibularly. In the apical part the cortical bone was perforated, graft material was put and the flap was sutured. In all 9 cases the horizontal defect was partially or fully eliminated. The width of the keratinized tissues was also augmented in all cases. The postoperative healing was without complications, discomfort and painless. The donor sites also healed without complications. The application of Solcoseryl Dental Adhesive Paste 3 times a day for 7-10 days helped for painless healing of the donor site. The offered method of soft tissue and bone augmentation is effective in the treatment of horizontal defects of edentulous alveolar ridges of not big sizes. It makes possible to achieve esthetic results without traumatizing an additional donor-site. PMID:19644187

Bakalian, V L

2009-01-01

102

Free style perforator based propeller flaps: Simple solutions for upper extremity reconstruction!  

PubMed Central

Background: The introduction of perforator flaps by Koshima et al. was met with much animosity in the plastic surgery fraternity. The safety concerns of these flaps following the intentional twist of the perforators have prevented widespread adoption of this technique. Use of perforator based propeller flaps in the lower extremity is gradually on the rise, but their use in upper extremity reconstruction is infrequently reported, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Materials and Methods: We present a retrospective series of 63 free style perforator flaps used for soft tissue reconstruction of the upper extremity from November 2008 to June 2013. Flaps were performed by a single surgeon for various locations and indications over the upper extremity. Patient demographics, surgical indication, defect features, complications and clinical outcome are evaluated and presented as an uncontrolled case series. Results: 63 free style perforator based propeller flaps were used for soft tissue reconstruction of 62 patients for the upper extremity from November 2008 to June 2013. Of the 63 flaps, 31 flaps were performed for trauma, 30 for post burn sequel, and two for post snake bite defects. We encountered flap necrosis in 8 flaps, of which there was complete necrosis in 4 flaps, and partial necrosis in four flaps. Of these 8 flaps, 7 needed a secondary procedure, and one healed secondarily. Although we had a failure rate of 12-13%, most of our failures were in the early part of the series indicative of a learning curve associated with the flap. Conclusion: Free style perforator based propeller flaps are a reliable option for coverage of small to moderate sized defects. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic IV.

Panse, Nikhil; Sahasrabudhe, Parag

2014-01-01

103

Split pectoralis major flaps for mediastinal wound coverage: a 12-year experience.  

PubMed

Poststernotomy mediastinitis is an infrequent but highly dangerous complication following median sternotomy. Typically, such wounds are debrided aggressively of necrotic and foreign materials with subsequent flap reconstruction. Between December 1989 and January 2002, 69 patients were referred to the University of Maryland division of plastic surgery for mediastinal wound coverage. A total of 105 flaps of various types were used. Fifty-eight percent of the patients received a single flap. Ninety percent of the flaps used were pectoralis major flaps, whereas only 10% of the flaps were rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi, or omentum flaps. Ten patients (14.5%) required reoperation. The most common comorbidity was diabetes mellitus. Those patients with diabetes mellitus were 9.1 times more likely to require reoperation after their sternal reconstruction compared with nondiabetic patients (95% confidence interval, 2.1-40.4). Four patients (5.8%) died less than 30 days from their flap procedure. The flap of first choice used in this series is the pectoralis major turnover flap, which is harvested in its entirety and split in the direction of its muscle fibers. Taking the entire muscle allows better coverage of the lower portion of the incision, resulting in far less frequent need for abdominal flaps and their associated morbidity. PMID:15385766

Li, Edward N; Goldberg, Nelson H; Slezak, Sheri; Silverman, Ronald P

2004-10-01

104

Effect of intraoperative platelet-rich plasma and fibrin glue application on skin flap survival.  

PubMed

The experiment was designed to compare the effect of intraoperative platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin glue application on skin flap survival. In this study, bilateral epigastric flaps were elevated in 24 rats. The right-side flaps were used as the control of the left-side flaps. Platelet-rich plasma, fibrin glue, and thrombin had been applied under the flap sites in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Five days later, all flap pedicles were ligated. Necrotic area measurements, microangiography, and histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations were performed to compare the groups. Platelet-rich plasma reduced necrotic area percentages as compared with other groups. Histologically and microangiographically increased number of arterioles were observed in PRP groups. Thrombin when used alone increased flap necrosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and transforming growth factor ?3 primary antibody staining showed increased neovascularization and reepithelialization in all PRP-applied flaps. This study demonstrated that PRP, when applied intraoperatively under the skin flap, may enhance flap survival. Thrombin used alone was found to be unsuitable in flap surgery. PMID:22976648

Findikcioglu, Fulya; Findikcioglu, Kemal; Yavuzer, Reha; Lortlar, Nese; Atabay, Kenan

2012-09-01

105

Lip reconstruction using Karapandzic flap.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the lip may be required after trauma and/or surgical excision of tumor. The lips contribute to form the beginning of the oral cavity, and they are the most common site of oral cancer. Any reconstruction of the lips must include both functional and cosmetic considerations. This case report presents a female patient, aged 22 years old, who was exposed to severe road traffic accident resulting in lower lip loss with both functional and cosmetic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction using Karapandzic flap was carried out at the Maxillofacial Surgery Department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar Province, Iraq. A dynamic reconstruction with remaining lip tissue can provide superior results in terms of lip appearance and function. PMID:24481165

Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A

2014-03-01

106

Spontaneous Flapping Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As shown in an earlier work [Vandenberghe, et. al. JFM, Vol 506, 147, 2004], a vertically flapping wing can spontaneously move horizontally as a result of symmetry breaking. In the current experimental study, we investigate the dependence of resultant velocity on flapping amplitude. We also describe the forward thrust generation and how the system dynamically selects a Strouhal number by balancing fluid and body forces. We further compare our model system with examples of biological locomotion, such as bird flight and fish swimming.

Vandenberghe, Nicolas; Zhang, Jun; Childress, Stephen

2004-11-01

107

The accuracy of computer-assisted primary mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps: iliac crest bone flap versus osteomyocutaneous fibula flap  

PubMed Central

Background The intention of mandibular reconstruction is to restore the complex anatomy with maximum possible functionality and high accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of computer-assisted surgery in primary mandibular reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap compared with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. Materials and methods Preoperative computed tomography data of the mandible and the iliac crest or fibula donor site were imported into a specific surgical planning software program. Surgical guides were manufactured using a rapid prototyping technique for translating the virtual plan, including information on the transplant dimensions and shape, into real-time surgery. Using postoperative computed tomography scans and an automatic surface-comparison algorithm, the actual postoperative situation was compared with the preoperative virtual simulation. Results The actual flap position showed a mean difference from the virtual plan of 2.43 mm (standard deviation [SD] ±1.26) and a surface deviation of 39% <2 mm and 15% <1 mm for the iliac crest bone flap, and a mean difference of 2.18 mm (SD ±1.93) and a surface deviation of 60% <2 mm and 37% <1 mm for the osteomyocutaneous fibula flap. The position of the neomandible reconstructed with an osteomyocutaneous fibula flap indicated a mean difference from the virtual plan of 1.25 mm (SD ±1.31) and a surface deviation of 82% <2 mm and 57% <1 mm, in contrast to a mean difference of 1.68 mm (SD ±1.25) and a surface deviation of 63% <2 mm and 38% <1 mm for the neomandible after reconstruction with an iliac crest bone flap. For shape analysis, a similarly high accuracy could be calculated for both flaps. Conclusion Virtual surgical planning is an effective method for mandibular reconstruction with vascularized bone flaps, and can help to restore the anatomy of the mandible with high accuracy in position and shape. It seems that primary mandibular reconstruction with the osteomyocutaneous fibula flap is more accurate compared with the vascularized iliac crest bone flap.

Modabber, Ali; Ayoub, Nassim; Mohlhenrich, Stephan Christian; Goloborodko, Evgeny; Sonmez, Tolga Taha; Ghassemi, Mehrangiz; Loberg, Christina; Lethaus, Bernd; Ghassemi, Alireza; Holzle, Frank

2014-01-01

108

Oral reconstruction with submental flap  

PubMed Central

Background: Submental flap is a useful technique for reconstruction of medium to large oral cavity defects. Hair bearing nature of this flap in men makes it less appropriate. Therefore, deepithelialized variant is introduced to overcome the problem of hair with this flap. Recently, application of this flap has been introduced in maxillofacial trauma patients. Materials and Methods: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is used for the reconstruction of oral cavity mucosal defects. Results: Four cases including two trauma patients and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of oral cavity were treated using deepithelialized orthograde submental flap. There were no complications in all four patients and secondary epithelialization occurred in raw surface of the flap which was exposed to oral cavity. Conclusion: Deepithelialized orthograde submental flap is very effective in reconstruction of oral cavity in men. The problem of hair is readily solved using this technique without jeopardizing flap blood supply.

Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

2013-01-01

109

Predictive Capability of Near-Infrared Fluorescence Angiography in Submental Perforator Flap Survival  

PubMed Central

Background Perforator flaps have become increasingly popular in reconstructive surgery as patients experience less donor-site morbidity than with conventional musculocutaneous flaps. Previously, our laboratory described the intraoperative use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography for patient-specific perforator-flap design. This study evaluates the predictive capability of NIR fluorescence angiography for flap survival in submental flap reconstruction. Methods NIR angiography was performed using indocyanine green at 0, 0.5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-surgery after flap creation in 12 pigs. A single perforator artery was preserved during flap creation based on location (central or non-central) and dominance (dominant or non-dominant). Venous drainage, arterial perfusion, and perfused area as percentage of total flap were analyzed. Clinical assessments of perfusion were compared with those made using NIR imaging and histology. Results Use of NIR fluorescence angiography immediately after flap creation accurately predicted areas of perfusion at 72 h (p = 0.0013), compared to the initial clinical assessment (p = 0.3085). Identification of necrosis by histology at 72 h correlated with NIR findings of insufficient arterial perfusion immediately after flap creation. No statistically significant differences in perfusion metrics were detected based on location or dominance of the preserved perforator; however, flaps containing central perforators had a higher percent perfused area than those with non-central perforators. Conclusions The use of NIR angiography immediately after flap creation can predict areas of perfusion at 72 h. This predictive capability may permit intraoperative revision of compromised flaps that have a high likelihood of failure.

Matsui, Aya; Lee, Bernard T.; Winer, Joshua H.; Laurence, Rita G.; Frangioni, John V.

2010-01-01

110

Control of Flap Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

Greenblatt, David

2005-01-01

111

Closure of large palatal defect using a tongue flap.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to report the effectiveness of a tongue flap for covering a large hard and soft tissue defect following cleft of the palate. A young patient diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent a surgical reconstruction of the cleft palate by Le Fort I osteotomy and palatal closure utilizing a tongue flap. The flap provided sound and lasting closure after the surgery, and the patient successfully healed. Our goal is to present this unique case and highlight how postoperative results were good, safe, and predictable. We also hope to show that tongue transplantation as flap for hard and soft tissue reconstruction represents a valuable option in reconstruction, given the proper circumstances. PMID:23714900

Herford, Alan S; Tandon, Rahul; Pivetti, Luca; Cicciů, Marco

2013-05-01

112

Tongue reconstruction with the gracilis myocutaneous free flap.  

PubMed

We describe our experience in tongue reconstruction using the transverse gracilis myocutaneous (TMG) free flap after major demolitive surgery for advanced cancer. This technique was used in 10 patients: seven underwent total glossectomy and three partial glossectomy. In eight patients we performed motor reinnervation attempting to maintain muscular trophism and gain long-term volumetric stability. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 28 months. The overall flap survival was 100%. Nine out of 10 patients resumed oral intake. Our preliminary experience shows that this flap is a good reconstructive option for total glossectomy patients, whereas it is less suited for reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects. Functional and objective evaluation of the tongue reconstructed with TMG free flap requires further and standardized evaluation. PMID:21503974

Calabrese, Luca; Saito, Akira; Navach, Valeria; Bruschini, Roberto; Saito, Noriko; Zurlo, Valeria; Ostuni, Angelo; Garusi, Cristina

2011-07-01

113

Blowing Flap Experiment: PIV Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the flap vortex system. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Bremmer, David M.

2004-01-01

114

Flap endonuclease 1.  

PubMed

First discovered as a structure-specific endonuclease that evolved to cut at the base of single-stranded flaps, flap endonuclease (FEN1) is now recognized as a central component of cellular DNA metabolism. Substrate specificity allows FEN1 to process intermediates of Okazaki fragment maturation, long-patch base excision repair, telomere maintenance, and stalled replication fork rescue. For Okazaki fragments, the RNA primer is displaced into a 5' flap and then cleaved off. FEN1 binds to the flap base and then threads the 5' end of the flap through its helical arch and active site to create a configuration for cleavage. The threading requirement prevents this active nuclease from cutting the single-stranded template between Okazaki fragments. FEN1 efficiency and specificity are critical to the maintenance of genome fidelity. Overall, recent advances in our knowledge of FEN1 suggest that it was an ancient protein that has been fine-tuned over eons to coordinate many essential DNA transactions. PMID:23451868

Balakrishnan, Lata; Bambara, Robert A

2013-01-01

115

Defect reconstruction over the olecranon with the distally extended lateral arm flap.  

PubMed

Defect reconstruction over the olecranon should be reliable, quick, relatively simple and with minimal complications. More recently, perforator flaps have been described with the benefit of minimal donor site morbidity when compared with muscle flaps or flaps relying on the major arteries of the upper extremity. So far, most of these flaps were harvested on the upper arm and rotated 180° into the defect. The aim of the present study was to analyse the results with the proximally based, distally extended lateral arm flap for soft-tissue reconstruction over the olecranon. The subcutaneous tissue layer in this area is thinner than in the upper arm, and less rotation of the pedicle is necessary. The location of the perforator just proximal to the lateral epicondyle and the precise territory of the flap are well known. Nine consecutive male patients with a mean age of 57 ± 27 years presenting with soft-tissue defects after surgical treatment of bursitis (eight cases) or a pressure sore (one case) were operated on. The mean operation time was 60 ± 15 min. In eight of the nine cases, the flap healed uneventfully or with a minor complication (fistula). One patient underwent revision surgery due to marginal flap necrosis. The defect was closed with a local advancement flap. In conclusion, the flap was reliable, relatively simple and quick to harvest, and yielded acceptable aesthetic results with minimal bulging over the olecranon. Postoperative recovery was relatively painless and short. PMID:24927859

Wettstein, R; Helmy, N; Kalbermatten, D F

2014-08-01

116

The extended distally based sural neurocutaneous flap for foot and ankle reconstruction: a retrospective review of 10 years of experience.  

PubMed

The distally based sural neurocutaneous flap has been used for coverage of defects in foot and ankle for years. Conventional flaps do not extend to the upper third of the leg, which limits its application. The current study presents results using extended distally based sural neurocutaneous flaps for reconstruction of extensive soft tissue defects of the foot and ankle in 21 patients. All injuries occurred from 2001 to 2011 as a result of a traumatic event. Follow-up of 21 patients ranged from 7 months to 5 years after surgery. All 21 flaps survived successfully. The largest flap used measured 26 × 15 cm. Complications included 1 distal marginal necrosis and 2 slight venous congestions. The extended distally based sural neurocutaneous flap is a good alternative for extensive soft tissue defects of foot and ankle. The operative techniques with several simple modifications in harvesting the flaps are easy to handle and will not prolong the operation time. PMID:23241805

Liu, Lifeng; Zou, Lin; Li, Zongyu; Zhang, Qiang; Cao, Xuecheng; Cai, Jinfang

2014-06-01

117

Intraoral Reconstruction Using Local and Regional Flaps  

PubMed Central

Choosing a pedicled flap to reconstruct an intraoral defect depends on the size and the anatomic position of the tissue defect. The goals are to restore form and function and minimize donor site morbidity. Regional pedicled flaps available for intraoral reconstruction are the buccal fat pad flap, facial artery musculomucosal flap, platysma, pectoralis major, temporalis muscle flap, and trapezius flaps. We give a concise illustration of anatomy, our harvesting technique, indications, and eventual pitfalls for each of the six flaps.

Squaquara, Roberto; Kim Evans, Karen F.; Spanio di Spilimbergo, Stefano; Mardini, Samir

2010-01-01

118

Soft Palate Reconstruction Using Bilateral Palatal Mucomuscular Flap and Pharyngeal Flap after Resection of Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Squamous cell carcinoma infrequently occurs at the soft palate. Although various methods can be used for reconstruction of soft palate defects that occur after resecting squamous cell carcinoma, it is difficult to obtain satisfactory results from the perspective of the functional restoration of the soft palate. A combination of bilateral palatal mucomuscular flap for the oral side and superiorly based posterior pharyngeal flap for the nasal side were performed on two patients who were diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate in order to reconstruct the soft palate defects after surgical resection. After surgery, the patients were followed-up for a mean period of 11 months. The flaps were well maintained in both patients. The donor site defects were epithelialized and completely recovered. Additionally, no recurrence of the primary sites was shown. Slight hyponasality was observed in the voice assessments that were conducted 6 months after surgery. No food regurgitation or aspiration was observed in the swallowing tests. We used a combination of bilateral palatal mucomuscular flap and superiorly based posterior pharyngeal flap to reconstruct the soft palate defects that occurred after resecting the squamous cell carcinomas. We reduced the donor site complications and achieved functionally satisfactory outcomes.

Jo, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Nam Gyun; Lee, Kyung Suk

2012-01-01

119

Three Dimensional Flapping Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a pair of three dimensional flexible flapping wings, which are actuated by muscle forces to mimic insect flight. The flows and forces are computed with the immersed boundary method of Peskin. The 'virtual insect' learns to fly as we manipulate the muscles.

Wang, Z. Jane; Childress, Steve; Cowen, Nathaniel; Peskin, Charles; Shelley, Mike

2000-11-01

120

The pedicled latissimus dorsi flap in head and neck reconstruction: an old method revisited.  

PubMed

In head and neck cancer patients with significant comorbidities, the reconstructive options are limited, and there is a need for a safe alternative for microvascular flaps without compromising flap size. During the study period, 331 head and neck cancer patients were reconstructed with microvascular tissue flaps. Ten patients requiring large resections were considered to have high risks for long surgery and to be poor candidates for free tissue transfer and thus were reconstructed with a subpectorally tunneled pedicled latissimus dorsi (SP-LD) flap. The flap was raised simultaneously with the tumor resection and tunneled to the head and neck region. The flap was used for reconstruction of oral, mandibular, pharyngeal, or neck defects. Median follow-up was 3.6 years. Median duration of surgery was 7 hours and 17 minutes, and total hospital stay was 20 days. During the follow-up, four patients died of their disease and one from another cause (median of 329 days). We were able to perform large tumor resections with a curative intent and reconstruct major defects in high-risk head and neck cancer patients with a SP-LD flap. It possesses many of the characteristics of a free flap with the benefits of a shorter operation time and less perioperative risk. PMID:24323483

Wilkman, Tommy; Suominen, Sinikka; Back, Leif; Vuola, Jyrki; Lassus, Patrik

2014-03-01

121

Propeller Flaps and Its Outcomes - A Prospective Study of 15 Cases Over Two-years.  

PubMed

Introduction: Cover flaps are needed in management of any bodily defect involving bone, tendon, nerve & vessels. The major objective of a plastic surgeon, facing a complex soft-tissue defect, is to replace "like with like" tissues at minimal donor site "cost" and with maximal accuracy & efficacy. Aims: To study the "Propeller Flaps" utility in reconstructive surgeries, evaluate its planning and complications involving donor site morbidity. Methodology: The prospective study was conducted on 15 cases (11 males/4 females) of propeller flaps during the period of two years (2010-12) in Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI), Karnataka, India. The propeller flaps were performed in cases with defects due to any cause. Exclusion criteria: Cases with Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD). Flaps were performed and details recorded. Results: Overall results revealed problem resolution in 87% cases (13 cases). Comprehensive description of each flap type and its related cases are given in the table. It has been categorically found that there were 2 flap partial losses. Partial necrosis has been reported in heavy-smoker patients. Conclusion: This current study clearly justifies that careful application, optimal designing & judicious scientific application of local perforator flaps for lower-limb wounds including rest of the body is successful in many aspects providing high-quality reconstruction ensuring minimal morbidity. It is cost-effective as well as time-saving. PMID:24596732

K T, Ramesha; J, Vijay; M, Shankarappa

2014-01-01

122

External monitor for buried free flaps in head and neck reconstructions  

PubMed Central

Summary Head and neck defects following oncological surgery must often be repaired with soft tissue and/or bone from other areas of the body. Significant loss of soft tissue requires flaps of sufficient bulk to adequately reconstruct the defect. Microvascular free tissue transfer is a good method for reconstructing even large defects following oncological surgery for head and neck cancer. Continuous post-operative monitoring of the perfusion of a free flap is vitally important to achieve not only a favourable outcome but also to decrease morbidity. Microvascular thrombosis occurs in 4% of the flaps and the best chance for flap salvage is offered by the earliest possible revision of the microanastomosis. Use of buried flaps in head and neck reconstruction makes monitoring particularly difficult and exteriorization of a segment of the flap permits a direct visualization. An original technique is presented for harvesting forearm free flaps with a secondary monitor skin paddle to externally check the status of the paddle and, when modified, can also be used for fibula and rectus abdominis flap.

Pellini, R; Pichi, B; Marchesi, P; Cristalli, G; Deganello, A; Spriano, G

2006-01-01

123

Repeated bevacizumab injections versus mitomycin C in rotational conjunctival flap for prevention of pterygium recurrence  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of repeated bevacizumab injection in rotational conjunctival flap surgery versus rotational conjunctival flap with adjunctive mitomycin C (MMC) or rotational conjunctival flap alone. Materials and Methods: Ninety eyes of 90 patients who underwent primary pterygium surgery with rotational flap were evaluated. Patients were randomly assigned to undergo conjunctival rotational flap alone (Group A) or conjunctival rotational flap with either 0.02% MMC application (Group B) or adjunctive subconjunctival 2.5 mg/0.1 ml bevacizumab injection (Group C). Each group consisted of 30 eyes. Recurrence rates at 9 months were evaluated. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in mean size of the pterygium across the limbus in terms of length (P > 0.5). The recurrence rates at 9 months were 26.6% (n = 8) in Group A, 13.3% (n = 4) in Group B, and 10% (n = 3) in Group C. The recurrence rates in Group B and C were significantly lower than in Group A (P =0.1806). The recurrence rates were similar in Group B and C (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Subconjunctival bevacizumab injection may decrease the recurrence rate of primary pterygium surgery with rotational conjunctival flap. Further studies with a larger population and longer follow-up period are needed to supplement this study.

Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Ayintap, Emre; Akkan, Julide C U; Koytak, Arif; Aras, Cengiz

2014-01-01

124

Septal mucoperiosteal flap for the repair of unilateral choanal atresia.  

PubMed

The authors present a new modality of endoscopic repair for unilateral choanal atresia. A 14-year old girl complained of right-sided nasal obstruction. Endoscopy and CT scans showed unilateral bony choanal atresia. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery. A mucoperiosteal flap at the posterior part of the septum in the left, healthy nasal cavity was fashioned and the denuded part of the septum was removed. The atretic choanae was resected and a unified posterior nasal opening was formed. The flap was spread over the posterior septal edge and adjusted to the opposite septal side. One-year follow-up of the patient showed no stenosis of the choanae. PMID:19839259

Mladina, Ranko; Prstaci?, Ratko; Prstasi?, Ratko; Vukovi?, Katarina; Skitareli?, Neven

2009-09-01

125

Uncommon Flaps for Chest Wall Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The omentum, external oblique musculocutaneous, and thoracoepigastric flaps are uncommonly used for chest wall reconstruction. Nevertheless, awareness and knowledge of these flaps is essential for reconstructive surgeons because they fill specific niche indications or serve as lifeboats when workhorse flaps are unavailable. The current report describes the anatomic basis, technical aspects of flap elevation, and indications for these unusual flaps.

Matros, Evan; Disa, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

126

Galeal Flap Based on Superficial Temporal Vessels for Oral Cavity and Pharynx Reconstruction - An Anatomical Study  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Despite the advances in microvascular free tissue transfer for intraoral reconstruction, this surgery is not recommended for all patients. In specific cases, the pedicled temporoparietal galeal flap may be an option for reconstructive procedures in the head and neck regions. The objective of this paper is to present the anatomical aspects of a galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels and to test its potential for reconstructing diverse sites of the oral cavity and pharynx. METHODS We performed 40 dissections on 34 fresh adult cadavers. The flap vascular anatomy was studied by injecting latex into the superficial temporal vessels. A standardized square-shape flap measuring 10 x 10 cm2, pedicled on the superficial temporal vessels, was raised. Oral cavity and oropharynx reconstruction simulations were performed after flap transposition into the mouth by passing it under the zygomatic arch. Hypopharyngeal reconstruction was tested by transposing the flap to the neck under the facial nerve. RESULTS After latex injection, a rich vascular network over the temporoparietal galea was observed directly from the superficial temporal artery, and a well-vascularized flap based on this vessel was raised. In the reconstruction simulations, the flap was shown to be suitable for the coverage of hypothetical defects in most oral cavity and pharyngeal sites, mainly the retromolar trigone, tonsil area, and buccal mucosa. CONCLUSIONS A galeal flap based on the superficial temporal vessels presents favorable anatomical characteristics for oral cavity and pharyngeal reconstruction.

Pinto, Fabio; Magalhaes, Roberto; Durazzo, Marcelo; Brandao, Lenine; Rodrigues, Aldo Junqueira

2008-01-01

127

Harmonic Scalpel versus electrocautery and surgical clips in head and neck free-flap harvesting.  

PubMed

We sought to determine the safety and utility of Harmonic Scalpel-assisted free-flap harvesting as an alternative to a combined electrocautery and surgical clip technique. The medical records of 103 patients undergoing radial forearm free-flap reconstruction (105 free flaps) for head and neck surgical defects between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. The use of bipolar electrocautery and surgical clips for division of small perforating vessels (n = 53) was compared to ultrasonic energy (Harmonic Scalpel; Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) (n = 52) free-tissue harvesting techniques. Flap-harvesting time was reduced with the use of the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with electrocautery and surgical clip harvest (31.4 vs. 36.9 minutes, respectively; p = 0.06). Two patients who underwent flap harvest with electrocautery and surgical clips developed postoperative donor site hematomas, whereas no donor site complications were noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Recipient site complication rates for infection, fistula, and hematoma were similar for both harvesting techniques (p = 0.77). Two flap failures occurred in the clip-assisted radial forearm free-flap harvest group, and none in the Harmonic Scalpel group. Median length of hospitalization was significantly reduced for patients who underwent free-flap harvest with the Harmonic Scalpel when compared with the other technique (7 vs. 8 days; p = 0.01). The Harmonic Scalpel is safe, and its use is feasible for radial forearm free-flap harvest. PMID:24932828

Dean, Nichole R; Rosenthal, Eben L; Morgan, Bruce A; Magnuson, J Scott; Carroll, William R

2014-06-01

128

Clinical evaluation of axial pattern skin flaps in dogs and cats: 19 cases (1981-1990).  

PubMed

Nineteen axial pattern skin flaps were used in 16 dogs and cats to provide skin for repair of extensive cutaneous defects. Retrospective evaluation of medical records was used to determine percentage flap survival, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome of axial pattern skin flaps. The most common indication for use of axial pattern flaps was to augment wound closure following tumor resection (n = 7). Other indications included trauma (n = 5), chronic nonhealing wounds (n = 4), urine-induced cellulitis (n = 1), idiopathic dermal necrosis (n = 1), and chronic lymphoplasmocytic dermatitis (n = 1). Mean flap survival (+/- SD) was 96% (+/- 8). Postoperative complications included wound drainage (n = 15), partial dehiscence of the sutured flap (n = 7), distal flap necrosis (n = 6), infection (n = 3), edema (n = 3), and seroma formation (n = 2). After a median follow-up time of 5 months, evaluation of animals indicated that surgery provided successful wound reconstruction with good cosmetic results. Reconstruction of large cutaneous defects is facilitated by axial pattern flap application regardless of cause of wound. Postoperative complications are common but amenable to standard wound management techniques such as drain placement and surgical debridement of devitalized distal flap skin. PMID:1517139

Trevor, P B; Smith, M M; Waldron, D R; Hedlund, C S

1992-08-15

129

Standing equine sinus surgery.  

PubMed

Trephination of the equine sinuses is a common surgical procedure in sedated standing horses. Standing sinus flap surgery has become increasingly popular in equine referral hospitals and offers several advantages over sinusotomy performed under general anesthesia, including reduced patient-associated risks and costs; less intraoperative hemorrhage, allowing better visualization of the operative site; and allows surgeons to take their time. Other minimally invasive surgical procedures include sinoscopic surgery, balloon sinuplasty, and transnasal laser sinonasal fenestration. Despite the procedure used, appropriate indications for surgery, good patient selection, and familiarity with regional anatomy and surgical techniques are imperative for good results. PMID:24680206

Barakzai, Safia Z; Dixon, Padraic M

2014-04-01

130

The midabdominal TRAM flap for breast reconstruction in morbidly obese patients.  

PubMed

The transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap is ideal for postmastectomy reconstruction but is tenuous in morbidly obese patients. Because of their relatively high incidence of postoperative complications, morbidly obese patients are often not considered candidates for autogenous reconstruction. The midabdominal TRAM flap has a more favorable anatomy and may represent an alternative technique in this patient population. The records of 18 morbidly obese patients who underwent postmastectomy reconstruction using a mid-abdominal TRAM flap from 1998 through 2002 were retrospectively reviewed. The mid-abdominal TRAM flap territory includes more of the supraumbilical region than the traditional TRAM flap, corresponding to an area with more abundant musculocutaneous perforators and greater dependence on the superior epigastric vascular system. All patients underwent unipedicled mid-abdominal TRAM flap surgery. Four patients with previous subumbilical midline incisions had a delay procedure with ligation of the inferior epigastric vessels. Complications investigated were flap necrosis greater than 10 percent or sufficient to require surgical revision, abdominal donor-site breakdown, seroma formation, umbilical necrosis, abdominal wall bulging or hernia, deep vein thrombosis, infected mesh, surgical revisions, fat necrosis, and extended hospital stay. At a mean follow-up time of 15.6 months (range, 12 to 24 months), three patients had postoperative complications requiring surgical revision. Two of these patients had previous midline abdominal incisions. One patient had both partial flap necrosis and a donor-site complication. The second patient had partial flap necrosis, and the third had an abdominal donor-site complication. No occurrences of abdominal wall hernia, total flap loss, deep vein thrombosis, infected mesh, extensive surgical revision, or extended hospitalization were noted in this series. The mid-abdominal TRAM flap represents an alternative method for postmastectomy breast reconstruction in morbidly obese patients. Autologous reconstruction using a midabdominal TRAM flap may be considered in this patient population; however, additional research is required to conclusively demonstrate an improved outcome when compared with traditional reconstructive methods. PMID:15731676

Gabbay, Joubin S; Eby, Joseph B; Kulber, David A

2005-03-01

131

Computer-assisted craniomaxillofacial surgery.  

PubMed

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) describes all forms of surgery planning or execution that incorporate various forms of advanced imaging, software, analysis, and planning and, in some cases, rapid prototyping technology, robotics, and image-guidance systems. Innovation is progressing rapidly, and new forms of technology continue to be incorporated and evaluated for their value in improving daily operations. This article reviews imaging, enhanced three-dimensional diagnostics, tactile models, CAS concepts, reconstructive surgery, bone flap shaping, distraction osteogenesis, and orthognathic surgery in relation to craniomaxillofacial surgery. PMID:20159482

Edwards, Sean P

2010-02-01

132

Externally blown flap impingement parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of two externally blown flap (EBF) wind tunnel models was compared with an engine exhaust flap impingement correlation parameter. One model was a four engine EBF triple slotted flap transport. Isolated engine wake surveys were conducted to define the wake properties of five separate engine configurations for which performance data were available. The other model was a two engine EBF transport for which the engine wake properties were estimated. The correlation parameter was a function of engine exhaust dynamic pressure at the flap location, area of engine exhaust flap impingement, total exhaust area at the flap location, and engine thrust. The distribution of dynamic pressure for the first model was measured; however, the distribution for the second model was assumed to be uniform.

Hoad, D. R.

1976-01-01

133

Flexible Flapping Foils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic tunnel experiments with flexible flapping foils of 4:1 span-to-chord aspect ratio are used in the present work to study the effect of foil compliance in the dynamical features of a propulsive wake. The average thrust force produced by the foil is estimated from 2D PIV measurements and the regime transitions in the wake are characterized according to a flapping frequency-amplitude phase diagram as in Godoy-Diana et al. (Phys. Rev. E 77, 016308, 2008). We show that the thrust production regime occurs on a broader region of the parameter space for flexible foils, with propulsive forces up to 3 times greater than for the rigid case. We examine in detail the vortex generation at the trailing edge of the foils, and propose a mechanism to explain how foil deformation leads to an optimization of propulsion.

Marais, Catherine; Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Wesfreid, José. Eduardo

2010-11-01

134

LASIK Interface-Captured Foreign Bodies after Mild Traumatic Corneal Scratch without Flap Displacement  

PubMed Central

A 38-year-old woman developed diffusely distributed opacities with crystalline materials in the laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) interface of her eye after she was scratched by a sprig during mountain climbing. No sign of flap displacement was noted. Despite two days of topical and systemic antibiotics therapy, the corneal infiltration with interface opacities persisted. The following day, the distribution of the crystalline materials had rotated in a counterclockwise direction. Flap lifting and foreign body removal using sufficient irrigation were performed. One month after surgery, the patient's postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 0.8 with cleared interface. No signs of epithelial ingrowth or flap striae were noted. Mild traumatic corneal scratching without flap displacement may threaten the integrity of the LASIK interface. If foreign bodies are suspected to be the cause of inflammation, early flap lifting with irrigation is imperative for successful treatment.

Choi, Jin A

2012-01-01

135

Squamous cell carcinoma of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap donor site.  

PubMed

The pectoralis major myocutaneous flap is considered a workhorse flap in the reconstruction of head and neck defects after cancer ablative surgeries and remains one of the most widely used reconstructive options. Complications at the donor site after the use of this flap, although rare, do occur and are usually restricted to minor infections, hematoma, and seroma formation. Metastasis to the flap donor site is a rare complication with limited documentation. Metastasis at the donor site usually follows local recurrence at the primary site, supporting the probable hypothesis of re-establishment of lymphatic drainage to the primary site by the flap pedicle. Tumor implantation, although a probable cause for metastasis at the donor site, cannot be confidently distinguished from other mechanisms, such as hematogenous spread or lymphogenous metastasis. This report describes a case that supports a seeding or tumor implantation mechanism of metastasis exclusively. PMID:24560174

Mohan, A Mathan; Balaguhan, B; Krishna, Vinod; Nagarjuna, Muralidhara

2014-07-01

136

Supermicrosurgical free sensate intercostal artery perforator flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch for plantar reconstruction.  

PubMed

The use of an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP) flap has recently become popular in reconstructive surgery. We have developed a novel free sensate ICAP flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch (LCB) and applied it to a case with a plantar defect. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first to describe a free sensate ICAP flap based on the LCB. This method has several advantages: (1) a sensate flap is possible because the LCB neurovascular bundle is consistently available; (2) the long neurovascular pedicle can be harvested in the supine position without the risk of pneumothorax; (3) the donor-site morbidity is low; and (4) conversion or combination with a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) or a superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap is readily possible. We believe that this method represents a new option for soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:24491457

Iida, Takuya; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Morizaki, Yutaka; Uehara, Kosuke; Koshima, Isao

2014-07-01

137

Keystone flaps in coloured skin: Flap technology for the masses?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Viscoelastic properties of skin in coloured ethnic groups are less favourable compared to Caucasians for executing Keystone flaps. Keystone flaps have so far been evaluated and reported only in Caucasians. The potential of Keystone flaps in a coloured ethnic group is yet unknown. Aim: This article reviews the experience to reconstruct skin defects presenting in a coloured ethnic group, by using Keystone flaps, with a review of existing literature. Design: Uncontrolled case series. Materials and Methods: This retrospective review involves 55 consecutive Keystone flaps used from 2009 to 2012, for skin defects in various locations. Patient demographic data, medical history, co-morbidity, surgical indication, defect features, complications, and clinical outcomes are evaluated and presented. Results: In this population group with Fitzpatrick type 4 and 5 skin, the average patient age was 35.73. Though 60% of flaps (33/55) in the series involved specific risk factors, only two flaps failed. Though seven flaps had complications, sound healing was achieved by suitable intervention giving a success rate of 96.36%. Skin grafts were needed in only four cases. Conclusions: Keystone flaps achieve primary wound healing for a wide spectrum of defects with an acceptable success rate in a coloured skin population with unfavorable biophysical properties. By avoiding conventional local flaps and at times even microsurgical flaps, good aesthetic outcome is achieved without additional skin grafts or extensive operative time. All advantages seen in previous studies were verified. These benefits can be most appreciated in coloured populations, with limited resources and higher proportion of younger patients and unfavorable defects.

Bhat, Satish P.

2013-01-01

138

Shape-based 3D vascular tree extraction for perforator flaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perforator flaps have been increasingly used in the past few years for trauma and reconstructive surgical cases. With the thinned perforated flaps, greater survivability and decrease in donor site morbidity have been reported. Knowledge of the 3D vascular tree will provide insight information about the dissection region, vascular territory, and fascia levels. This paper presents a scheme of shape-based 3D vascular tree reconstruction of perforator flaps for plastic surgery planning, which overcomes the deficiencies of current existing shape-based interpolation methods by applying rotation and 3D repairing. The scheme has the ability to restore the broken parts of the perforator vascular tree by using a probability-based adaptive connection point search (PACPS) algorithm with minimum human intervention. The experimental results evaluated by both synthetic and 39 harvested cadaver perforator flaps show the promise and potential of proposed scheme for plastic surgery planning.

Wen, Quan; Gao, Jean

2005-04-01

139

Reconstruction of Nasal Skin Cancer Defects with Local Flaps  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of nasal defects must preserve the integrity of complex facial functions and expressions, as well as facial symmetry and a pleasing aesthetic outcome. The reconstructive modality of choice will depend largely on the location, size, and depth of the surgical defect. Individualized therapy is the best course, and numerous flaps have been designed to provide coverage of a variety of nasal-specific defects. We describe our experience in the aesthetic reconstruction of nasal skin defects following oncological surgery. The use of different local flaps for nasal skin cancer defects is reported in 286 patients. Complications in this series were one partial flap dehiscence that healed by secondary intention, two forehead flaps, and one bilobed flap with minimal rim necrosis that resulted in an irregular scar requiring revision. Aesthetic results were deemed satisfactory by all patients and the operating surgeons. The color and texture matches were aesthetically good, and the nasal contour was distinct in all patients. All scars were inconspicuous and symmetrical. No patient had tenting or a flat nose.

Salgarelli, A. C.; Bellini, P.; Multinu, A.; Magnoni, C.; Francomano, M.; Fantini, F.; Consolo, U.; Seidenari, S.

2011-01-01

140

Effect of radiation on skin expansion and skin flap viability in pigs.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of radiation treatment both on skin tissue expansion with the chronic inflation of subcutaneous expanders and on skin flap viability in surgically delayed and expanded skin in the pig. One flank in each of six pigs (initially weighing 17 +/- 1.8 kg) was randomly assigned for radiation treatment, and the contralateral flank served as a nonirradiated control. Three mirror-image, 8 x 10 cm, rectangular templates were marked on each flank; these templates were randomly assigned to the construction of a delayed skin flap (group A), a skin flap raised on expanded skin (group B), or a skin flap raised on expanded skin with a capsulectomy before flap surgery (group C). Radiation treatment was performed using sequential radiation with three fractions per week (810 cGy/fraction) for 2 weeks, with a total dose of 4,860 cGy. Twelve weeks after radiation treatment, skin expanders (8 x 10 cm) were installed subcutaneously in the locations assigned for skin expansion. Skin expansion by the inflation of subcutaneous skin expanders with saline twice weekly was started 8 weeks later and lasted for 3 weeks. Two weeks after surgical delay and the last skin expansion, 8 x 20 cm skin flaps were raised on the locations assigned for delayed skin flaps, expanded skin flaps, and expanded skin flaps with a capsulectomy. Skin flap viability was assessed 24 hours later using a fluorescein dye-staining technique. Skin expansion by the inflation of subcutaneous expanders with saline was slower (p < 0.05) in the radiated skin (39 +/- 6 ml/filling) than in the nonirradiated control skin (51 +/- 6 ml/filling). Radiation reduced the overall area of expanded skin by 23 percent (p < 0.05) compared with the control. Radiation treatment also reduced skin viability by 36 percent (p < 0.05) in the delayed skin flaps, 27 percent (p = 0.10) in the expanded skin flaps, and 36 percent (p < 0.05) in the expanded skin flaps with a capsulectomy when compared with their contralateral, nonirradiated controls. There were no significant differences in skin viability among these three types of skin flaps within the radiated and nonirradiated groups. Taken together, these observations indicate that radiation treatment reduced the effectiveness of the surgical delay procedure, the amount of subcutaneous skin expansion (by an increase in skin area), and skin flap viability. However, a capsulectomy alone did not affect the viability of skin flaps raised on expanded skin. PMID:10987469

Dvali, L T; Dagum, A B; Pang, C Y; Kerluke, L D; Catton, P; Pennock, P; Mahoney, J L

2000-09-01

141

Comparison of corneal flap thickness using a FS200 femtosecond laser and a moria SBK microkeratome  

PubMed Central

AIM To evaluate differences in flap thickness resulting from use of an Alcon Wavelight FS200 femtosecond laser and a MORIA SBK microkeratome when making a 110-µm-thick corneal flap and to identify the potential factors that affect corneal flap thickness. METHODS A prospective case study was performed on 120 eyes of 60 patients who were divided into two groups for LASIK, each group consisting of 60 eyes (30 patients). The corneal flaps were created using an Alcon Wavelight FS200 femtosecond laser or a MORIA SBK microkeratome. The central corneal flap thickness was calculated by subtraction pachymetry. Age, central corneal thickness (CCT), spherical equivalent refraction, mean keratometry, and corneal diameter were recorded preoperatively for analysis. RESULTS Cutting of all flaps was easily performed without intraoperative complications. In the Alcon Wavelight FS200 femtosecond laser group, the mean right and left corneal flap thicknesses were 114.0±6.6 µm (range: 98-126) and 111.4±7.6 µm (range: 98-122), respectively. The difference (2.6±9.1 µm) in the corneal flap thickness between the right and left eyes was not significant (t=1.59, P=0.12). Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the resulting corneal flap thickness was unrelated to the patient's age, preoperative CCT, spherical equivalent refraction, mean keratometry, or corneal diameter. In the MORIA SBK microkeratome group, the mean right and left corneal flap thicknesses were 110.6±7.4 µm (range: 97-125 µm) and 108.2±6.1 µm (range: 78-123 µm), respectively. The difference in the corneal flap thickness between the right and left eyes (2.4±6.5µm) was not significant (t=2.039, P=0.0506). The corneal flap thickness was positively correlated with the preoperative CCT through stepwise regression analysis (r=0.297, P=0.021). The corneal flap thickness was not related to age, spherical equivalent refraction, mean keratometry, or corneal diameter. The corneal flap thickness was estimated using the following equation: Tflap=67.77+0.076 CCT (F=5.63, P=0.021). CONCLUSION Both the Alcon Wavelight FS200 femtosecond laser and the MORIA SBK microkeratome produced 110-µm-thick corneal flaps. The central corneal flap thickness was positively correlated with the preoperative CCT in MORIA SBK microkeratome surgery.

Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Yu, Qing; Wu, Jiang-Xiu; Lian, Jing-Cai

2014-01-01

142

Effects of Buflomedil and Pentoxifylline on Hamster Skin-Flap Microcirculation: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Orthogonal Polarization Spectral Imaging  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE This study investigated the effects of buflomedil and pentoxifylline, both of which are used in reconstructive surgery of hamster skin flap microcirculation, and evaluated the skin flap survival rate by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging. METHOD Twenty-four adult male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into three groups: a control (C, 0.1 ml 0.9% saline), buflomedil (B, 3 mg/kg/day), and pentoxifylline group (P, 14.5 mg/kg/day). Treatments administered intraperitoneally were initiated 1 hour before skin flap preparation and continued for 7 days post-operatively at 12-hour intervals. Preparations (skin flaps) were divided into 12 fields, which were organized into six bands. Functional capillary density (FCD, in mm/mm2), distance from the skin flap base to blood flow cessation (Distwith flow, in cm), percentage of viable skin (VA, in%), and qualitative analysis of blood flow by orthogonal polarization spectral imaging were performed at 1 and 24 hours and on the seventh post-operative day. RESULT Bands IV, V, and VI presented no flow independent of time. The functional capillary density group B was higher than that of groups C and P, primarily after 24 hours. All groups showed an increase in D with time but reached similar final distances (C = 2.73, B = 2.78 and P = 2.70 cm). Moreover, the percentage of viable areas remained at approximately 50%. The orthogonal polarization spectral imaging was useful to assess viability by counting fields with and without blood flow. CONCLUSIONS Functional capillary density values were higher in the buflomedil group compared to the control and pentoxifylline groups in this model. Functional capillary density did not influence D or the percentage of VA, and the technique showed favorable potential to assess/predict the viability of skin flaps within 1 h after surgery.

Coelho da Mota, Denise Salles; Furtado, Eliane; Bottino, Daniel Alexandre; Bouskela, Eliete

2009-01-01

143

Perforator-based propeller flaps treating loss of substance in the lower limb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Local flaps based on perforator vessels are raising interest in reconstructive surgery of the limbs. These flaps allow efficient\\u000a coverage of large wounds without the need to sacrifice a major vascular axis. The operative technique does not require microvascular\\u000a anastomosis and allows reconstruction of soft tissue defects using nearby similar tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate\\u000a the

Pierluigi Tos; Marco Innocenti; Stefano Artiaco; Andrea Antonini; Luca Delcroix; Stefano Geuna; Bruno Battiston

2011-01-01

144

Deep inferior epigastric artery perforated rectus abdominis free flap for head and neck reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deep inferior epigastric artery perforated rectus abdominis (DIEAP-ra) free flap is a modification of the classic myocutaneous\\u000a DIEA free flap in which only fasciocutaneous tissue is harvested based on the paraumbilical perforators of the medial row.\\u000a The aim of this retrospective study is to describe our experience with this reconstructive technique in head and neck surgery.\\u000a Between 2004 and

Johnny Cappiello; Cesare Piazza; Valentina Taglietti; Piero Nicolai

145

Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible-near infrared multispectral reflectance image sets were acquired from the dorsal surface of rats both before and after elevation of reversed McFarlane skin flaps. Raw images were dominated by uneven surface illumination and shadowing along with the variation associated with instrument response. These interfering features obscured variation associated with a change in tissue reflectance, which is related to the degree of flap perfusion. Logarithmic residual preprocessing followed by principal component analysis of multispectral images could clearly detect a difference in the optical properties between the base and distal section of the flap. The difference in the reflectance properties correlated with the varying degree of tissue perfusion. Principal component analysis detected this optical difference between the well-perfused base of the skin flap and the compromised distal section of the flap immediately following surgery. The first visual signs of compromised tissue perfusion appeared only 6 or more hours after surgery. The results from this study indicate that the application of principal component analysis to discrete wavelength near infrared multispectral reflectance images of skin flaps can effectively distinguish reflectance changes related to the degree of tissue perfusion immediately following surgical elevation of the reversed McFarlane skin flap.

Sowa, Michael G.; Payette, Jeri R.; Hewko, Mark D.; Mantsch, Henry H.

1999-10-01

146

Visible-near infrared multispectral imaging of the rat dorsal skin flap.  

PubMed

Visible-near infrared multispectral reflectance image sets were acquired from the dorsal surface of rats both before and after elevation of reversed McFarlane skin flaps. Raw images were dominated by uneven surface illumination and shadowing along with the variation associated with instrument response. These interfering features obscured variation associated with a change in tissue reflectance, which is related to the degree of flap perfusion. Logarithmic residual preprocessing followed by principal component analysis of multispectral images could clearly detect a difference in the optical properties between the base and distal section of the flap. The difference in the reflectance properties correlates with the varying degree of tissue perfusion. Principal component analysis detected this optical difference between the well-perfused base of the skin flap and the compromised distal section of the flap immediately following surgery. The first visual signs of compromised tissue perfusion appeared only 6 or more hours after surgery. The results from this study indicate that the application of principal component analysis to discrete wavelength near infrared multispectral reflectance images of skin flaps can effectively distinguish reflectance changes related to the degree of tissue perfusion immediately following surgical elevation of the reversed McFarlane skin flap. © 1999 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. PMID:23014621

Sowa, M G; Payette, J R; Hewko, M D; Mantsch, H H

1999-10-01

147

Changes in articulation and resonance after tongue flap closure of palatal fistulas: case reports.  

PubMed

This paper describes speech changes in three patients after tongue flap closure of various sized palatal fistulas. In all three patients articulation and lingual mobility appeared to be unaffected by excision of tongue tissue for the procedure. However, a large protruding tongue flap was noted to interfere with the articulation of sibilants in one patient. All patients showed a reduction in overall hypernasal resonance and nasal emission, although one patient developed nasal turbulence postoperatively and another required a pharyngeal flap for total elimination of hypernasality. This paper points out the need for a systematic investigation into the effects of this surgery on speech. PMID:2917418

Kummer, A W; Neale, H W

1989-01-01

148

Color Doppler ultrasound for monitoring free flaps in the head and neck region.  

PubMed

The use of microvascular free flaps has become established as a very reliable reconstructive technique following tumor surgery or trauma in the head and neck region. Occasionally, flap compromise may occur which will require immediate re-exploration. Early diagnosis of vascular insufficiency is essential. Clinical signs are not always reliable. Numerous systems have been described for monitoring the viability of microsurgical free flaps. The authors consider that color Doppler ultrasound is one of the most useful diagnostic tools. Three cases are reviewed in which this technique aided the decision whether re-exploration was necessary. PMID:11886997

Seres, Laszlo; Makula, Eva; Morvay, Zita; Borbely, Laszlo

2002-01-01

149

VAC Therapy in Large Infected Sacral Pressure Ulcer Grade IV-Can Be an Alternative to Flap Reconstruction?  

PubMed

Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy is a new entrant in wound care after growth factors and alginate or hydrocolloid dressing, in the treatment of pressure ulcers. We have been using this technique for diabetic foot ulcers. A young nondiabetic man presented with a large sacral bed sore after high doses of ionotropes in an intensive care unit for treating severe hypotension. His wound was debrided, and instead of flap surgery in such infected wound, he was treated with VAC therapy. The complete wound healing was achieved in 6 weeks and at half the cost of flap surgery. Moreover, the chances of flap failure and its related complications were eliminated. PMID:24891788

Batra, R K; Aseeja, Veena

2014-04-01

150

Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

2005-01-01

151

There is no donor side specificity of fibula free flap for complex oromandibular reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this study was to prove that there is no significance to the donor side (right or left) of the free fibula osteocutaneous flap (FFOCF) in the reconstruction of complex oromandibular defects (COMD) and proper flap planning, designing and tailoring are important in reconstructing different types of COMD after tumour-ablative surgery. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and eighty-six consecutive patients who where reconstructed with FFOCF for COMD from Jan 2005 to Dec 2009 over a period of 5 years were studied. Except in seven patients, all fibula flaps were harvested from the left leg as per convenience and to facilitate a simultaneous, two-team approach. Depending on the condition of the neck vessels, vascular anastomosis was performed on the right or the left side, irrespective of the side of the defect. Results: Complete flap survival was seen in 334 patients (86.52%). Superficial skin necrosis was seen in 20 patients, and was managed conservatively (5.18%). Partial flap loss was seen in 20 patients (5.18%). There were 39 re-explorations. Complete flap loss was seen in 12 patients (3.10%). Conclusion: We found no significance in terms of the results as far as the side of flap donor leg or primary defect were concerned. Flap tailoring in terms of meeting the tissue requirement and vessel orientation were rather more important.

Yadav, Prabha S.; Ahmad, Quazi G.; Shankhdhar, Vinay Kant; Nambi, G. I.

2010-01-01

152

Optimal administration routes for adipose-derived stem cells therapy in ischaemic flaps.  

PubMed

Improvement of flap survival represents an ongoing challenge in reconstructive surgery. The angiogenic potential of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) offers a promising approach to improve the viability of random pattern flaps. Recently, to maximize the therapeutic effects of ASCs, increasing focus is being placed on how to deliver the stem cells to target lesions. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different administration routes of ASCs to improve the viability of the random pattern skin flap. ASCs labelled with PKH26 were applied via four methods to the cranially-based random pattern skin flaps of rats: (a) intravenous injection; (b) subcutaneous injection; (c) application with collagen sponge seeding; and (d) application with fibrin glue seeding. ASCs led to a significant increase in flap viability in the subcutaneous injection group and the collagen sponge group. Cutaneous blood flow was increased in the intravenous injection, subcutaneous injection and collagen sponge groups. Capillary density in the intravenous injection group and collagen sponge group was significantly greater than in the control group (no treatment). PKH26-positive cells via the collagen sponge were distributed more densely within the flap than in other groups. This study demonstrated that the collagen sponge method delivered ASCs most effectively within the flap and increased flap vascularity. The clinical therapeutic effects of ASCs can therefore be maximized when the optimal delivery route is chosen. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22782932

Lee, Dong Won; Jeon, Yeo Reum; Cho, Eul Je; Kang, Jong Hwa; Lew, Dae Hyun

2012-07-10

153

BCL-2 and Bax Expression in Skin Flaps Treated with Finasteride or Azelaic Acid.  

PubMed

Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between - to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult. PMID:24250563

Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

2012-01-01

154

Flap-Edge Blowing Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Appendix documents the salient results from an effort to mitigate the so-called flap-edge noise generated at the split between a flap edge that is deployed and the undeployed flap. Utilizing a Coanda surface installed at the flap edge, steady blowing was used in an attempt to diminish the vortex strength resulting from the uneven lift distribution. The strength of this lifting vortex was augmented by steady blowing over the deployed flap. The test article for this study was the same 2D airfoil used in the steady blowing program reported earlier (also used in pulsed blowing tests, see Appendix G), however its trailing edge geometry was modified. An exact duplicate of the airfoil shape was made out of fiberglass with no flap, and in the clean configuration. It was attached to the existing airfoil to make an airfoil that has half of its flap deployed and half un-deployed. Figure 1 shows a schematic of the planform showing the two areas where steady blowing was introduced. The flap-edge blowing or the auxiliary blowing was in the direction normal to the freestream velocity vector. Slot heights for the blowing chambers were on the order of 0.0 14 inches.

Gaeta, R. J.; Englar, R. J.; Ahuja, K. K.

2003-01-01

155

The concept of fillet flaps: classification, indications, and analysis of their clinical value.  

PubMed

Tissue of amputated or nonsalvageable limbs may be used for reconstruction of complex defects resulting from tumor and trauma. This is the "spare parts" concept. By definition, fillet flaps are axial-pattern flaps that can function as composite-tissue transfers. They can be used as pedicled or free flaps and are a beneficial reconstruction strategy for major defects, provided there is tissue available adjacent to these defects.From 1988 to 1999, 104 fillet flap procedures were performed on 94 patients (50 pedicled finger and toe fillets, 36 pedicled limb fillets, and 18 free microsurgical fillet flaps). Nineteen pedicled finger fillets were used for defects of the dorsum or volar aspect of the hand, and 14 digital defects and 11 defects of the forefoot were covered with pedicled fillets from adjacent toes and fingers. The average size of the defects was 23 cm2. Fourteen fingers were salvaged. Eleven ray amputations, two extended procedures for coverage of the hand, and nine forefoot amputations were prevented. In four cases, a partial or total necrosis of a fillet flap occurred (one patient with diabetic vascular disease, one with Dupuytren's contracture, and two with high-voltage electrical injuries).Thirty-six pedicled limb fillet flaps were used in 35 cases. In 12 cases, salvage of above-knee or below-knee amputated stumps was achieved with a plantar neurovascular island pedicled flap. In seven other cases, sacral, pelvic, groin, hip, abdominal wall, or lumbar defects were reconstructed with fillet-of-thigh or entire-limb fillet flaps. In five cases, defects of shoulder, head, neck, and thoracic wall were covered with upper-arm fillet flaps. In nine cases, defects of the forefoot were covered by adjacent dorsal or plantar fillet flaps. In two other cases, defects of the upper arm or the proximal forearm were reconstructed with a forearm fillet. The average size of these defects was 512 cm2. Thirteen major joints were salvaged, three stumps were lengthened, and nine foot or forefoot amputations were prevented. One partial flap necrosis occurred in a patient with a fillet-of-sole flap. In another case, wound infection required revision and above-knee amputation with removal of the flap.Nine free plantar fillet flaps were performed-five for coverage of amputation stumps and four for sacral pressure sores. Seven free forearm fillet flaps, one free flap of forearm and hand, and one forearm and distal upper-arm fillet flap were performed for defect coverage of the shoulder and neck area. The average size of these defects was 432 cm2. Four knee joints were salvaged and one above-knee stump was lengthened. No flap necrosis was observed. One patient died of acute respiratory distress syndrome 6 days after surgery. Major complications were predominantly encountered in small finger and toe fillet flaps. Overall complication rate, including wound dehiscence and secondary grafting, was 18 percent. This complication rate seems acceptable. Major complications such as flap loss, flap revision, or severe infection occurred in only 7.5 percent of cases. The majority of our cases resulted from severe trauma with infected and necrotic soft tissues, disseminated tumor disease, or ulcers in elderly, multimorbid patients. On the basis of these data, a classification was developed that facilitates multicenter comparison of procedures and their clinical success. Fillet flaps facilitate reconstruction in difficult and complex cases. The spare part concept should be integrated into each trauma algorithm to avoid additional donor-site morbidity and facilitate stump-length preservation or limb salvage. PMID:11547143

Küntscher, M V; Erdmann, D; Homann, H H; Steinau, H U; Levin, S L; Germann, G

2001-09-15

156

Reconstruction of a Columellar Defect With a Nasolabial Island Flap  

PubMed Central

Columellar skin defects may be caused by excision of cutaneous malignancy, trauma, or tissue necrosis associated with surgery. Although columellar skin necrosis rarely occurs following rhinoplasty, this condition might be more common when using an external approach than a closed approach. Columellar skin incision performed with exaggerated tip augmentation may cause columellar necrosis. The nasolabial island flap, used unilaterally to cover columellar skin defects, is used for a single-stage reconstruction procedure and is generally not associated with the need for secondary surgeries. This technique is well suited for repairing columellar skin defects. We experienced a patient with columellar skin necrosis occurring after rhinoplasty which was reconstructed using a unilateral single-stage nasolabial island flap.

Kang, IL Gyu; Jung, Joo Hyun; Kim, Seon Tae

2014-01-01

157

Transthoracic hernia after harvesting a costal and latissimus dorsi flap.  

PubMed

Ribs are one of the most widely used grafts in craniofacial surgery. Harvesting a costochondral graft is easy and safe. The main complications are related to pneumothorax and chest-wall deformity in children. A complication is described in a patient who underwent an orbito-zygomatic reconstruction with two contiguous ribs and a latissimus dorsi free flap, and who subsequently developed a transthoracic hernia that required reconstruction with polypropylene mesh. PMID:18339520

Autelitano, L; Rabbiosi, D; Mantovani, A; Ghelma, F

2008-06-01

158

DMSO: Applications in plastic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors point out that dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) increases tissue perfusion and may effectively treat or prevent ischemia in flaps. They recommend application of topical DMSO every 4 to 6 hours, until blood flow improves, to areas that show signs of ischemia or less than adequate perfusion. Other potential cosmetic surgery uses of DMSO include areas of skin care, pain

V. Leroy Young; C. B. Boswell; Robert F. Centeno; Marla E. Watson

2005-01-01

159

Stereotactic image-guided navigation in the preoperative imaging of perforators for DIEP flap breast reconstruction.  

PubMed

Preoperative imaging is sought prior to DIEA (Deep Inferior Epigastric Artery) perforator flaps due to the potential for maximizing operative success and minimizing operative complications. Recent advances include the use of computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography. Image-guided stereotactic surgery is a recent technique that has been used with success in several fields of surgery. The variability of perforator anatomy makes DIEA perforator flap surgery a suitable candidate for such technology, but as yet this has not been described. A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of CT-guided stereotaxy technique in DIEA perforator flap surgery and to compare findings with both conventional CTA and operative findings. Five consecutive patients planned for an elective DIEA perforator flap were recruited. Each patient underwent preoperative imaging of the anterior abdominal wall vasculature with both conventional CTA and CT-guided stereotactic imaging. Imaging findings were compared to operative findings. In all cases, all the major perforators were accurately localized with stereotactic imaging and with conventional CTA. Stereotactic navigation demonstrated a slightly better (nonsignificant) correlation with perforator location than conventional CTA. As such, CT-guided stereotactic imaging is an accurate method for the preoperative planning of DIEA perforator flaps, providing additional and potentially more accurate data to conventional CTA. With no additional scanning required, the method described in this paper allows the combined use of both methods for preoperative planning. PMID:18623155

Rozen, W M; Ashton, M W; Stella, D L; Phillips, T J; Taylor, G I

2008-01-01

160

Radiated noise from an externally blown flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The far field noise from subsonic jet impingement on a wing-flap with a 45 deg bend was experimentally investigated. The test parameters are jet Mach number and flap length. For long flaps, the primary source mechanisms are found to be turbulent mixing and flow impingement. For short flaps, the interaction of turbulent flow with the flap trailing edge appears to strongly influence the radiated noise.

Reddy, N. N.; Yu, J. C.

1975-01-01

161

Fasciocutaneous flaps based on a doppler detected perforator, an illustrative series as used for burn contracture reconstruction.  

PubMed

Perforator flaps are well established as a versatile option in reconstructive surgery that provide thin, pliable cutaneous or fasciocutaneous tissue. They are particularly useful in the reconstruction of large shallow defects, such as after the release of a burn contracture, however there are situations where the additional time spent islanding these flaps may be unnecessary, and the flap is then essentially a fasciocutaneous flap based, but not islanded, on a perforator artery. This paper documents a series of 22 severe burn contractures in 17 patients reconstructed with fasciocutaneous flaps in this way. The arteries were all located pre-operatively with a hand held Doppler probe, around half at the site of a known perforator and half by systematic scanning of the surrounding skin for an ad hoc perforator. All patients achieved a good functional range of motion. There were three cases of partial superficial flap necrosis treated with split skin grafting. The functional and aesthetic outcomes were far better then those expected with split skin grafting, and published series show that contractures treated with perforator flaps are unlikely to ever need further surgery. Without islanding the flap it becomes a feasible option for reconstructing these patients even in the extremely resource poor environment in which they often present, and is an option for all plastic surgeons to consider in the reconstruction of large superficial defects. PMID:21237734

Tucker, S C

2011-07-01

162

Dermal flaps in breast reduction: Prospective study in 100 breasts.  

PubMed

The most common complication of breast reduction with inverted T-scar technique is wound dehiscence at the junction of the vertical and horizontal sutures. In this study, a technique involving three triangular dermal flaps is presented with the results for healing in the junctional T zone. Fifty women were included in a comparative, single-center randomized double-blind prospective study to evaluate the efficiency of the three-triangular dermal-flap technique in healing in the junctional T zone. All patients were seen for follow-up at 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 28 days, 35 days, 42 days, and 49 days after surgery to evaluate primary healing in the T zone. Average healing time was 19.7 days in the triangular-skin-flap series and 25.48 days in the control series, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). One patient in the triangular-skin-flap series experienced dehiscence in the T zone (2%) versus eight patients (16%) in the control series. A statistically significant difference was noted (p = 0.012). This technique is based on the association of two principles. First, ischemia on the edges as well as skin necrosis is limited by suturing the two superior skin flaps rather than directly suturing the cutaneous angles. In addition, this technique brings an underlying dermal support. Second, the inferior flap width allows fixing two sutures laterally to limit the central tension. This easy technique does not lengthen total operative time and significantly improves healing time. It is applicable to all breast reductions with inverted T scars. PMID:24662153

Domergue, Sophie; Ziade, Makram; Lefevre, Marine; Prud'homme, Alexandre; Yachouh, Jacques

2014-06-01

163

The "sliding door" technique for closure of abdominal wall defects after rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap transposition.  

PubMed

Radical surgery is often necessary in patients with local recurrence of rectal cancer or in those with carcinoma associated with an anal fistula. The surgery may include extended excision of the perineal area and can create a large dead space in the pelvis and a large skin defect, often necessitating reconstruction of the pelvic floor using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (RAM) flap transposition. Wound dehiscence and incisional hernia are common complications of RAM flap transposition. We report herein our encounter with 3 patients in whom we used a "sliding door" technique for reconstruction of the abdominal wall after the creation of a RAM flap. One patient underwent abdominoperineal resection with sacrectomy and RAM flap transposition; he experienced a postoperative surgical site infection and wound dehiscence, which we urgently repaired by reconstructing the abdominal wall using the sliding door technique. Two other patients underwent posterior pelvic exenteration with sacrectomy and RAM flap transposition. These patients underwent simultaneous abdominal wall reconstruction using the sliding door technique. No patient experienced postoperative pelvic sepsis, wound dehiscence, or incisional hernia. The sliding door technique might be useful for preventing wound dehiscence and incisional hernia in patients undergoing RAM flap transposition. PMID:24394135

Nakamoto, Takayuki; Koyama, Fumikazu; Kobata, Yasunori; Nagao, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Shinji; Ueda, Takeshi; Nishigori, Naoto; Inoue, Takashi; Kawasaki, Keijiro; Obara, Shinsaku; Fujii, Hisao; Kido, Akira; Koizumi, Munehisa; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

2013-11-01

164

Anomalous superficial ulnar artery based flap  

PubMed Central

Upper limb shows a large number of arterial variations. This case report describes the presence of additional superficial ulnar artery which was used to raise a pedicle flap to cover an arm defect thus avoided using the main vessel of the forearm - radial or ulnar artery. Vascular anomalies occurring in the arm and forearm tend to increase the likelihood of damaging the superficial anomalous arteries during surgery. Superficial ulnar or radial arteries have been described to originate from the upper third of the brachial artery; here we report the origin of the anomalous superficial ulnar artery originating from the brachial artery at the level of elbow with the concomitant presence of normal deep radial and ulnar arteries.

Ramani, C. V.; Kundagulwar, Girish K.; Prabha, Yadav S.; Dushyanth, Jaiswal

2014-01-01

165

An engineered muscle flap for reconstruction of large soft tissue defects.  

PubMed

Large soft tissue defects involve significant tissue loss, requiring surgical reconstruction. Autologous flaps are occasionally scant, demand prolonged transfer surgery, and induce donor site morbidity. The present work set out to fabricate an engineered muscle flap bearing its own functional vascular pedicle for repair of a large soft tissue defect in mice. Full-thickness abdominal wall defect was reconstructed using this engineered vascular muscle flap. A 3D engineered tissue constructed of a porous, biodegradable polymer scaffold embedded with endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and/or myoblasts was cultured in vitro and then implanted around the femoral artery and veins before being transferred, as an axial flap, with its vascular pedicle to reconstruct a full-thickness abdominal wall defect in the same mouse. Within 1 wk of implantation, scaffolds showed extensive functional vascular density and perfusion and anastomosis with host vessels. At 1 wk posttransfer, the engineered muscle flaps were highly vascularized, were well-integrated within the surrounding tissue, and featured sufficient mechanical strength to support the abdominal viscera. Thus, the described engineered muscle flap, equipped with an autologous vascular pedicle, constitutes an effective tool for reconstruction of large defects, thereby circumventing the need for both harvesting autologous flaps and postoperative scarification. PMID:24711414

Shandalov, Yulia; Egozi, Dana; Koffler, Jacob; Dado-Rosenfeld, Dekel; Ben-Shimol, David; Freiman, Alina; Shor, Erez; Kabala, Aviva; Levenberg, Shulamit

2014-04-22

166

Intrinsic flaps in the hand.  

PubMed

Advances in anatomical research have created the base for a vast variety of flaps that can be raised in the hand. They are either based on the palmar arterial system or on the dorsal vascular system, which is fed by either perforating vessels from the palmar side or the dorsal arterial system nourished by dorsal carpal arterial network. The majority of small to moderate size defects in the hand can be reconstructed with these types of flaps. PMID:22032596

Germann, Günter; Biedermann, Nina; Levin, Scott L

2011-10-01

167

The Martius flap neovagina revisited.  

PubMed

The Martius bulbocavernosus flap has been used frequently in the repair of various vaginal fistulas. It can also be a useful source for the construction of a neovagina if used in the appropriate patient. We present a case of a patient who underwent a total pelvic exenteration for recurrent cervical cancer. For her neovagina, a novel variation of the Martius flap was constructed. In carefully selected patients, this can be a useful option for neovagina reconstruction. PMID:16174252

Green, A E; Escobar, P F; Neubaurer, N; Michener, C M; Vongruenigen, V E

2005-01-01

168

Full scale upper surface blown flap noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly noise suppressed TF 34 engine was used to investigate the noise of several powered lift configurations involving upper surface blown (USB) flaps. The configuration variables were nozzle type (i.e. slot and circular with deflector), flap chord length, and flap angle. The results of velocity surveys at both the nozzle exit and the flap trailing edge are also presented and used for correlation of the noise data. Configurations using a long flap design were 4 db quieter than a short flap typical of current trends in USB flap design. The lower noise for the long flap is attributed primarily to the greater velocity decay of the jet at the flap trailing edge. The full-scale data revealed substantially more quadrupole noise in the region near the deflected jet than observed in previous sub-scale tests.

Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.; Jones, W. L.

1975-01-01

169

[Reconstruction of the alae nasi by folded nasolabial flap].  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the nose is very old surgical procedure and, in fact, represents the beginnings of plastic surgery. In reconstruction, an effort has to be made in order to achieve a normal look. A surgeon must choose carefully the method of reconstruction, taking into consideration the skin color, texture and nasal topography. Full-thickness nasal defects in alar region are very difficult for reconstruction due to anatomic characteristics and structures, which are very important for normal breathing and cosmetic result. Our study analyzed 16 patients with full-thickness defect of alae nasi. Folded nasolabial flaps were used for reconstruction of these defects. Good results were achieved in all cases. The flap was vital. No flap necrosis was reported in any of these patients. The lining of the nose was good. Postoperatively, the alar edge was thickened, but it became thinned after six months. The incision in donor's region was well placed in the natural line of nasolabial fold. It was concluded that folded nasolabial flap was extremely good one-step procedure for reconstruction of full-thickness defects of alar region. PMID:18044312

Jovanovi?, M; Coli?, M; Rasuli?, L; Stojici?, M; Malis, M

2007-01-01

170

New developments in flap techniques.  

PubMed

Limb reimplantation techniques using composite free-tissue transfer and microsurgical salvage of traumatized extremities have become standard reconstructive methods. Mechanisms for working with free-tissue transfers have advanced, specifically in regard to the use of thin-wire fixators: combining microsurgical techniques and thin-wire fixators helps in salvaging limbs that otherwise might be amputated. Also, combining the Ilizarov method with microsurgical techniques for limb salvage provides a new use for flaps. A further development in the use of flaps is the application of free-tissue transfers to preserve amputation levels in the war-injured. So-called fillet flaps serve as "spare parts" and can be customized for specific recipient sites. The so-called perforator flap makes use of feeder vessels, thus providing cutaneous and other composite flaps without sacrificing major vessels. Finally, the advent of the sural flap has made it possible to avoid microsurgical reconstruction but still provide adequate, well-vascularized cover, particularly in the distal third of the leg. PMID:17003218

Levin, L Scott

2006-01-01

171

Bilateral breast reconstruction using bilateral anterolateral thigh flaps: a case report.  

PubMed

Options for autologous reconstruction have been limited in some patients by previous abdominal surgeries, and by lack of adequate abdominal tissue. The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has previously been described as an alternate donor site for autologous breast reconstruction when abdominal tissue is unavailable or unsuitable.We describe our experience with a 41-year-old low body mass index (19.8 kg/m) patient with previous suction-assisted lipectomy underwent bilateral breast reconstruction using bilateral ALT flaps.At a follow-up of 2 years, the patient was delighted with her reconstructed breasts and despite her athletic build was able to fill a B cup bra.ALT flap has the advantages of a long pedicle, adequate soft adipose tissue, and also allowing supine positioning with a 2-team approach. The anterolateral flap is a credible alternative that may be considered for bilateral autologous breast reconstruction in selected patients. PMID:19158519

Bernier, Christina; Ali, Rozina; Rebecca, Alanna; Cheng, Ming-Huei

2009-02-01

172

The ratio in choosing access flap for surgical endodontics: a review  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In Surgical Endodontics we face complex situations that require the knowlflap and application of both principles of endodontics (cleansing shaping and filling) in the root management, and the principles of surgery (asepsis, non harmfulness and hemostasis) in the phase of access to the root. Among the factors of surgical relevance that for which have been proposed with the largest number of alternatives is the design of access flap. That clearly indicates that not only one flap design can be ideal in all clinical situations. In this article all proposed access flap designs are evaluated in the light of their degree of compliance with ideal requirements in different circumstances. A clear pattern in the decision-making criteria for the selection of access flaps is proposed.

GRANDI, C.; PACIFICI, L.

2009-01-01

173

Propeller flaps: classification and clinical applications.  

PubMed

Propeller flaps feature a highly reliable reconstructive method, based on a perforator vessel. Since their introduction in 1991, a great variety of propeller flaps have been described, according to their shape and their potential of coverage. Indeed, these flaps have progressively been refined and modified, concerning their vascularity and space design. The authors present a classification of propeller flaps. This anatomical classification is necessary to understand the dissection procedure and the differences between the numerous types of propeller flaps nowadays described. It is the international classification, which should be used for the description and conception of these flaps. PMID:21236544

Ayestaray, B; Ogawa, R; Ono, S; Hyakusoku, H

2011-04-01

174

Vascular pedicle ossification of free fibular flap: is it a rare phenomenon? Is it possible to avoid this risk?  

PubMed

Free fibula flap is the most common free tissue transfer for maxillary and mandibular reconstructions. The distal part of the harvested bone is transferred, while the proximal part is removed by sub-periosteum dissection. The vascularized periosteum attached to the vascular pedicle has osteogenic potential. 61 patients reconstructed with free fibula flaps were divided in 2 groups: 41 flaps performed with a standard technique and 20 flaps performed by dissecting the periosteum from the pedicle. Patients were followed up with orthopantomography and CT scan at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after surgery. The minimum follow-up time was 18 months. With retrospective analysis of the first group we diagnosed 7 pedicle ossifications on 41 reconstructions (17%). In the second group, no pedicle ossification was observed (p < 0.05). The dissection of periosteum from the vascular pedicle of free fibula flaps avoids the risk of ossification. PMID:24227895

Tarsitano, A; Sgarzani, R; Betti, E; Oranges, C M; Contedini, F; Cipriani, R; Marchetti, C

2013-10-01

175

Transplantation of adipose stromal cells promotes neovascularization of random skin flaps.  

PubMed

The delivery of bone marrow-derived mononulear cells (BM-MNCs) has been proved to be effective at promoting neovascularization of ischemic skin flaps. However, the limited source of BM-MNCs restricts their clinical application. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains a group of heterogeneous cells in the adipose tissue, including adipose tissue-derived stem cells, and it has abundant reserve in human body. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of SVF to promote neovascularization of random skin flaps. Female Wistar rats were randomly devided into three groups with 8 in each group and received allogeneic SVF, BM-MNCs and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), respectively, before surgery. Two days after cell administration, a 10 × 3 cm random skin flap was elevated. Flap survival, blood flow perfusion and capillary density were examined 7 days after surgery, and the relevant mechanism was also explored. Results showed that SVF group and BM-MNCs group had higher survival percentage (72.2 ± 2.0% and 76.4 ± 3.1%, respectively) as compared with the control group (56.8 ± 4.6%, P < 0.05). Blood flow perfusion and capillary density of flap tissues in SVF and BM-MNCs groups were both improved. The expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were increased in flap tissues of SVF and BM-MNCs groups detected by ELISA. These results indicate that SVF could promote vascularization and increase flap survival probably by secreting VEGF and bFGF. The effect of transplantation of SVF on therapeutic angiogenesis of skin flaps is equivalent to that of BM-MNCs. PMID:21701129

Sheng, Lingling; Yang, Mei; Li, Hua; Du, Zijing; Yang, Yiai; Li, Qingfeng

2011-01-01

176

Extended Reverse Sural Artery Flap's Safety, Success and Efficacy - A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the challenges in reconstructive surgeries, faced by a majority of surgeons, is the soft tissue defect management around the lower-third of the leg, plantar and dorsal feet. Due to the sensitive location and other related difficulties, only limited options are available in this region. A durable flap is the preferred option for coverage of such defects. Objective: To evaluate the safety, success and efficacy of the extended reverse sural artery flap which was harvested, with extension to proximal-third of the leg. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted at Department of Plastic Surgery, on 18 consecutive patients with soft tissue defects and exposed bones, tendons and joints of distal-third of leg and foot. We harvested medium to large sized reverse sural artery flaps with extensions to the upper third of the calf, to cover the defects found in the distal tibia, ankle, heel, foot, and sole. Results: A majority of flaps provided a good coverage for defects. Two cases developed marginal necrosis of flaps in the distal border, which was treated with use of secondary skin grafts. Four flaps developed venous congestions. In other patients, minor complications such as rupture of suture inset, development of ulcer over insensate flap, since only one patient developed ulcer and another one patient developed inset rupture and graft loss occurred. In 16 cases, the final outcome was unaffected by any complications. Conclusions: Extension of reverse sural artery flap to the proximal third of the leg was safe and reliable and it was efficiently used to treat patients with large and far wounds of distal leg, foot and sole.

MN, Prakashkumar; M, Shankarappa

2014-01-01

177

The versatility of the tongue flap in the closure of palatal fistula.  

PubMed

Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery. PMID:23997859

Vasishta, Sathish M S; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y S; Desai, Anil

2012-09-01

178

The Versatility of the Tongue Flap in the Closure of Palatal Fistula  

PubMed Central

Aims?Tongue flaps were introduced for intraoral reconstruction by Lexer in 1909. A retrospective study was performed in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, S.D.M. College of Dental Sciences (Dharwad, India), to assess the use of tongue flap in closure of palatal fistula. Material and Methods?A total of 40 patients treated for palatal fistulas were included in this study from the period of January 1, 2000, to January 1, 2007; fistulas present in anterior and midpalate were considered. Patients' preoperative photographs, clinical records, and preoperative speech analysis were recorded. Following completion of fistula closure, patients were assessed over 6 months to check flap viability, fistula closure, residual tongue function, aesthetics, and speech impediment. Results?A total of 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients with palatal fistulas were treated with tongue flap in our study. Six patients were 4 to 6 years old, three were 7 to 10 years old, and 22 were 11 to 20 years old, which accounts for 68% of study subjects. There were nine patients 21 to 30 years old. In the early postoperative period, we encountered bleeding in one patient and sloughing in one patient. There are three recurrences, and two flaps were detached; all remaining cases showed satisfactory healing, and donor site morbidity was minimal. No speech deficits were evident. Conclusion?Tongue flaps are used in cleft palate surgery because of their excellent vascularity, and the large amount of tissue that they provide has made tongue flaps particularly appropriate for the repair of large fistulas in palates scarred by previous surgery.

Vasishta, Sathish M.S.; Krishnan, Gopal; Rai, Y.S.; Desai, Anil

2012-01-01

179

Proximally based sural adipose-cutaneous/scar flap in elimination of ulcerous scar soft-tissue defect over the achilles tendon and posterior heel region: a new approach.  

PubMed

Scar ulcers that spread over the Achilles tendon and posterior heel disturb patients by causing pain, impeding hygiene, and creating difficulty in finding appropriate shoe wear. As this region undergoes pressure, effective reconstruction is based on the flap use. The most popular flaps currently used are distally based sural fasciocutaneous flap, calcaneal artery skin flap, and free flaps. These flaps, however, are insensate, can create soft-tissue excess, and cause donor site morbidity. Ulcerous soft-tissue defects over Achilles tendon and posterior heel after burns, frost, and trauma were studied and reconstructed in 16 patients, using proximally based sural adipose-cutaneous flap, the anatomy of which was studied on lower extremities of 27 cadavers. Ulcerous soft-tissue defect consists of two parts: ulcer and surrounding pathologic scars that should be excised in one block. Resulting soft-tissue defects with exposed tendon and calcaneal bone varied from 6 to 20 cm in length and 6 cm in width. For such wound resurfacing a flap was developed that was sensate, thin, large, and having steady blood circulation. The flap was harvested from the lower third of the leg and lateral foot, consisting of skin and subcutaneous fat layer (without fascia), including the sural nerve and lesser vein. The blood supply was ensured through peroneal and anterior tibial artery perforators, which formed a vascular net in the flap. In 14 of 16 cases excellent and stable functional and good cosmetic results with acceptable donor site morbidity were achieved. In two patients the distal flap loss took place because of arteriitis obliterans (one case) and because of the cross-cutting of the sural nerve and vessels during previous surgeries (another case). Proximally based sural adipose-cutaneous/scar flap is the only flap that satisfies all requirements for Achilles tendon and posterior heel region resurfacing. The author believes that this technique, based on this flap use, is anatomically justified, clinically profitable, and should be considered as the first choice operation. PMID:24043244

Grishkevich, Viktor M

2014-01-01

180

PIV Measurements on a Blowing Flap  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

181

Phalloplasty in children and adolescents using the extended pedicle island groin flap.  

PubMed

An operative procedure for phalloplasty is reported that uses an extended pedicle island groin flap. Forming a combined groin and lower abdominal flap based on the superficial iliac and epigastric vessels is the main characteristic of this technique. The flap consists of 3 parts: 1) the lateral narrow hairless part for the neourethra, 2) the medial wide part for neophallus shaft reconstruction and 3) the base of the flap on which a flap pedicle is formed and lengthened by de-epithelializing the skin. The pedicle includes subcutaneous tissue with blood and lymph vessels. The neourethra and neophallus shaft are reconstructed using a tube-within-tube technique. The size of the flap depends on patient build. The flap is transferred to the recipient area, that is to the level of the lower margin of symphysis. Anastomosis of the new and native urethra may be done simultaneously or during the second stage of the procedure. The donor site skin defect is closed by direct approximation. During 3 years (1991 to 1993) this flap technique was performed on 24 patients (age 12 to 18 years). There were 2 main indications for treatment: 1) complete absence of the penis, and so total reconstruction of the phallus was done and 2) small dimensions of the penis or just a penile stump, and so augmentation of the penis was done. Specific indications were female transsexualism in 4 patients, penile amputation in 2 and a small disabled penis in 18 (the exstrophy-epispadias complex, intersex and micropenis). Followup ranged from 6 to 42 months (average 29). A new phallus of satisfactory dimensions was achieved in all cases. Complications included partial necrosis of the flap in 2 patients, fistulas in 2 and stenosis of the urethral anastomosis in 1. These complications were successfully resolved by corrective surgery. The method is simple and timesaving with a minor complication rate. This technique is the available alternative to the most commonly used procedure, that is microsurgical free tissue phalloplasty. PMID:7609196

Perovi?, S

1995-08-01

182

The propeller flap for postburn elbow contractures.  

PubMed

Flexion contracture of the elbow is a common sequela of burn injury. Numerous methods have been suggested for release, including grafting, Z-plasty, Y-V flaps, local or distant fasciocutaneous flaps, muscle or myocutaneous flaps, free flaps, tissue expanders and non-surgical orthotics. In this article the authors present their experience with the propeller flap method in seven cases of elbow flexion contracture. Sufficient extension and an acceptable aesthetic outcome were obtained. Other benefits include easy design and rapid flap elevation that permits a single stage correction of the deformity without further sacrificing an artery or muscle. We think that the main disadvantage of the propeller flap is using the same skin that has suffered from the burn insult which has a poorer cosmetic result. Other than this and excluding deep burn injuries, we believe that the propeller flap is a useful alternative for elbow contracture release. PMID:16384651

Aslan, Gurcan; Tuncali, Dogan; Cigsar, Bulent; Barutcu, Ayse Yuksel; Terzioglu, Ahmet

2006-02-01

183

14 CFR 25.457 - Wing flaps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.457 Wing flaps. Wing flaps, their operating mechanisms, and...

2014-01-01

184

Resurfacing tophaceous gout in the foot with anterolateral thigh flap.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 46-year-old patient who suffered from huge tophus masses involving the metatarsal joints of the big toes of both feet, with infection and skin necrosis secondary to chronic tophaceous gout. After conventional curettage and debridement of each lesion, a free anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) was used to resurface the circumferential wound, protect the underlying structures, and provide a gliding surface for the exposed tendons. The flap was safely raised and debulked during revision surgery, and excellent functional and cosmetic results were apparent at the 2-year follow-up. We consider ALTF to be a valuable option for the coverage of necrotic skin over tophi after adequate debridement. PMID:19670239

Ou, Kuang-Ling; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Yu, Chien-Chih; Chen, Tim-Mo

2010-01-01

185

Reconstruction of total lower lip defects using radial forearm free flap with subsequent tongue flap.  

PubMed

Subtotal and total reconstruction of the lower lip is a challenge for the plastic surgeon. Large defects extending to the chin area can be difficult to manage with only local flaps, and free flaps are better suited. In an attempt to restore the lower lip with the vermilion, the authors used the radial forearm free flap with anteriorly based ventral tongue flap in 5 patients. The tongue flap is used 3 months after the free flap procedure, and this flap is divided 3 weeks later. The tongue flap transfer, adaptation, and division are done under local anesthesia. In all patients, the aesthetic result was excellent compared with the complexity of the reconstructed defect. Patient compliance was uneventful. Although it is a 3-stage reconstruction, combination of radial forearm flap with the tongue flap offers functional and fine aesthetic results. PMID:20186089

Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Tosun, Zekeriya; Savaci, Nedim

2010-03-01

186

The bi-pedicle post-auricular tube flap for reconstruction of partial ear defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstruction of partial ear defects represents a difficult challenge to the plastic surgeon, due to the delicate and intricate architecture of the chondrocutaneous sandwich of the external ear.These defects could be the result of laceration and avulsion injuries, animal and human bites, burns and tumour excision.Since its introduction to the plastic surgery field, by Gillies, in 1917, tube flaps have

Mohammed G Ellabban; Maamoun I Maamoun; Moustafa Elsharkawi

2003-01-01

187

[Rhomboid flap in radical surgical treatment of sacrococcygeal fistulas: technical notes].  

PubMed

The Authors report their experience in surgical management of sacrococcygeal fistulas treated by radical excision and subcutaneous/cutaneous rhomboid flap. This is a simple, safe surgical technique and the patients can be treated in day surgery by spinal anesthesia. PMID:17064496

Salvi, P F; Midiri, G; Tucci, G; Lombardi, A; Coppola, M; Conte, S; Marino, G; Milillo, A; Montana, C; Pezzatini, M

2006-01-01

188

Regrafting of nipple areolar complex during pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction.  

PubMed

Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap is one of the most popular reconstructive methods employed in head and neck reconstruction.cosmesis and symmetry are important components of any surgery. Here we report a simple and effective method to restore cosmesis and symmetry. PMID:24822015

Kudva, Adarsh; Hemavathi, U; Patil, B R

2014-06-01

189

Treatment of radioulnar synostosis by radical excision and interposition of a radial forearm adipofascial flap.  

PubMed

A patient had radical excision of type II diaphyseal radioulnar synostosis and interposition of a radial forearm adipofascial flap. Neither adjuvant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications nor radiation therapy were used. Three years after surgery the patient showed 90 degrees of pronation and 90 degrees of supination without any evidence of recurrence. PMID:15576229

Jones, Neil F; Esmail, Adil; Shin, Eon K

2004-11-01

190

Femtosecond refractive eye surgery: study of laser parameters for even more efficiency and safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on corneal surgery and flap processing on enucleated porcine eyes have been performed using a dedicated 100 kHz femtosecond laser source based on Ytterbium technology. IR (1035 nm) and green (517 nm) flap processing have been studied. Comparisons for ocular femtosecond laser surgery are discussed in terms of process efficiency and safety aspects. Flaps with a typical diameter of 6 mm and 150 ?m thick have been performed in less than 2 min with both wavelengths. The transmittances of femtosecond laser pulses through the ocular media of porcine eyes have been measured for a collimated beam and during flap processing. More than 25% of energy is transmitted through the whole eye at the retina during IR pulses flap processing. Concerning green pulses, if less energy is necessary to perform the flap which is of prime interest, the transmission of green light is very high and could be an undeniable obstacle for the safety.

Le Harzic, Ronan; Wüllner, Christian; Bruneel, D.; Donitzky, Christof; König, Karsten

2007-06-01

191

Numerical Analysis of Flapping Wing Aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flapping-wing aerodynamics recently has generated a great deal of interest and increasing research effort because of the potential application in micro-air vehicles. The objective of this study is to critically review the recent progress of CFD analysis of flapping- wing aerodynamics. Critical parameters like flapping modes, frequency and amplitude for optimal thrust generation and propulsive efficiency are identified. Current gaps

M. A. Ashraf; J. C. S. Lai; J. Young

192

Posterior Flap Hemipelvectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of increasingly effective chemotherapy and advances in limb-sparing surgery around the pelvis and hip (see Chapter\\u000a 10), hindquarter amputation (hemipelvectomy) often remains the optimal surgical treatment for primary tumors of the upper\\u000a thigh, hip, or pelvis. Hemipelvectomy may also be life-saving for patients with massive pelvic trauma or uncontrollable sepsis\\u000a of the lower extremity, and it can provide

Martin Malawer; Robert Henshaw

193

Flexible wings in flapping flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the effect of passive pitching and flexible deflection of wings on the forward flapping flight. The wings are flapped vertically in water and are allowed to move freely horizontally. The forward speed is chosen by the flapping wing itself by balance of drag and thrust. We show, that by allowing the wing to passively pitch or by adding a flexible extension at its trailing edge, the forward speed is significantly increased. Detailed measurements of wing deflection and passive pitching, together with flow visualization, are used to explain our observations. The advantage of having a wing with finite rigidity/flexibility is discussed as we compare the current results with our biological inspirations such as birds and fish.

Moret, Lionel; Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun

2007-11-01

194

Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for the membrane subject to glide loads and pretension from the wing joint positions. The flapping gait is optimized in a two-stage procedure. First the design space is explored using a binary genetic algorithm. The best design points are then used as starting points in a sequential quadratic programming optimization algorithm. This algorithm is used to refine the solutions by precisely satisfying the constraints. The refined solutions are found in generally less than twenty major iterations and constraints are violated generally by less than 0.1%. We find that the optimal motions are in agreement with previous results for simple wing motions. By adding joint motions, the required flapping power is reduced by 7% to 17%. Because of the large uncertainties for some estimates, we investigate the sensitivity of the optimized flapping gait. We find that the optimal motions are sensitive mainly to flight speed, body accelerations, and to the material properties of the wing membrane. The optimal flight speed found correlates well with other studies of pterosaur flapping flight, and is 31% to 37% faster than previous estimates based on glide performance. Accounting for the body accelerations yields an increase of 10% to 16% in required flapping power. When including the aeroelastic effects, the optimal flapping gait is only slightly modified to accommodate for the deflections of stiff membranes. For a flexible membrane, the motion is significantly modified and the power increased by up to 57%. Finally, the flapping gait and required power compare well with published results for similar wing motions. Some published estimates of required power assumed a propulsive efficiency of 100%, whereas the propulsive efficiency computed for Coloborhynchus robustus ranges between 54% and 87%.

Strang, Karl Axel

195

The efficacy of color duplex sonography in preoperative assessment of anterolateral thigh flap.  

PubMed

The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has become a workhorse in reconstructive surgery of the head and neck region and the extremities. However, its inconsistent vascular anatomy and frequent intramuscular course of perforators often cause difficulties during the dissection of this versatile flap. Hence, reliable preoperative perforator mapping and identification of vascular anomalies may render the raising of the flap easier and safer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Color Duplex sonography and whether it allows the distinction between septocutaneous and musculocutaneous perforators. For this purpose, the thighs of 13 patients undergoing reconstruction with ALT flaps were examined preoperatively, and results were compared to intraoperative findings. A total of 30 perforators could be detected preoperatively, of which 29 were confirmed during flap dissection. Preoperative Color Duplex sonography correctly predicted the course of all perforators as either running through the vastus lateralis muscle or the intermuscular septum. In our investigations, Color Doppler sonography had a 96.7% positive predictive value and a 96.7% true positive rate in detecting perforators. Color Duplex sonography is a highly reliable tool in the preoperative assessment of ALT flaps. Localization and course of perforators can be determined accurately and vascular anomalies can be identified. PMID:22434415

Ensat, Florian; Babl, Maria; Conz, Christian; Rueth, Markus-Johannes; Greindl, Markus; Fichtl, Bernhard; Herzog, Gerhard; Ussmueller, Juergen; Spies, Marcus

2012-11-01

196

Through-and-through Nasal Reconstruction with the Bi-Pedicled Forehead Flap  

PubMed Central

Background Nasal reconstruction is one of the most difficult challenges for the head and neck surgeon, especially in the case of complex full thickness defects following malignant skin tumor resection. Full-thickness defects require demanding multi-step reconstruction. Methods Seven patients underwent surgical reconstruction of full-thickness nasal defects with a bi-pedicled forehead flap shaped appropriately to the defect. Patients were aged between 58 and 86 years, with a mean age of 63.4 years. All of the tumors were excised using traditional surgery, and in 4 of the patients, reconstruction was performed simultaneously following negativity of fresh frozen sections of the margins under general anesthesia. Results Nasal reconstruction was well accepted by all of the patients suffering non-melanoma skin tumors with acceptable cosmetic outcomes. The heart-shaped forehead flap was harvested in cases of subtotal involvement of the nasal pyramid, while smaller defects were reconstructed with a wing-shaped flap. No cartilaginous or osseous support was necessary. Conclusions This bi-pedicled forehead flap was a valid, versatile, and easy-to-implement alternative to microsurgery or multi-step reconstruction. The flap is the best indication for full-thickness nasal defects but can also be indicated for other complex facial defects in the orbital (exenteratio orbitae), zygomatic, and cheek area, for which the availability of a flap equipped with two thick and hairless lobes can be a valuable resource.

Perello, Raffaella; Russo, Giulia Lo; Spinelli, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

197

Endoscopic Contralateral Superiorly Based Mucoperiosteal Nasal Septal Flap for Closure of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak  

PubMed Central

Objective A novel local contralateral superiorly based mucoperiosteal nasal septal flap (CSBMNSF) for closure of a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak from the middle anterior base of the skull is described. Materials and Methods A retrospective review of patients having endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) with a CSF leak between 2000 and 2009 was performed. The surgical technique is described. Two vertical parallel incisions are performed anteriorly and posteriorly in the contralateral septal mucosa, joined inferiorly by a horizontal incision. Elevation of the flap is completed, leaving it pedicled superiorly. A window is created at the highest aspect of the nasal septum to allow transfer of the flap to the affected side. Results Four patients with a CSF leak post-ESS for excision of a congenital meningocele, tumor removal, and chronic sinusitis are described. All were treated successfully using a CSBMNSF. Conclusion A novel, easy-to-handle local flap for closure of defects in the anterior middle skull base is described. The use of this flap offers less morbidity and less bulkiness compared with other local or regional flaps.

Eviatar, Ephraim; Gavriel, Haim

2013-01-01

198

Experience With Reverse Sural Flap to Cover Defects of the Lower Leg and Foot  

PubMed Central

Background: Coverage of traumatic soft-tissue defects in the lower limb is a common procedure. Objectives: The purpose of this prospective case series study was explore the capacity of the perforator-based sural flap in reconstruction surgery of patients with high velocity gunshot wounds in the distal third of the leg and heel pad of the foot. Patients and Methods: A prospective case series study was undertaken to assess the sural fasciocutaneous flap carried out in our hospital, from 2010 to 2011. This case series study comprised eight patients, seven men and one woman with an average age of 35 years (19-55) and with a mean follow-up duration of 13 months (6-24 months). All patients had a history of a gunshot wound in distal part of the leg and heel pad of the foot with large soft-tissue defects; treatment was done using the reverse sural flap. Results: We performed reverse sural flaps in eight gunshot patients, to cover the defects of the lower leg and foot. Surgical site infection observed in one patient (12.5%) was treated successfully with antibiotic therapy. The reverse sural flap provided a satisfactory coverage for gunshot defects in all the patients. Conclusions: Reverse sural flap is a useful and versatile reconstructive method in patients with gunshot wounds of the lower leg and foot.

Ebrahimi, Ali; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Shams Koushki, Ehsan

2012-01-01

199

Spare-part surgery.  

PubMed

The authors discuss the use of scavenged tissue for reconstruction of an injured limb, also referred to as "spare-part surgery." It forms an important part of overall reconstructive strategy. Though some principles can be laid down, there is no "textbook" method for the surgeon to follow. Successful application of this strategy requires understanding of the concept, accurate judgment, and the ability to plan "on-the-spot," as well as knowledge and skill to improvise composite flaps from nonsalvageable parts. Requirements for limb reconstruction vary from simple solutions such as tissue coverage, which include skin grafts or flaps to more complex planning as in functional reconstruction of the hand, where the functional importance of individual digits as well as the overall prehensile function of the hand needs to be addressed right from the time of primary surgery. The incorporation of the concept of spare-part surgery allows the surgeon to carry out primary reconstruction of the limb without resorting to harvest tissue from other regions of the body. PMID:24872768

Peng, Yeong Pin; Lahiri, Amitabha

2013-11-01

200

Colorimetric examination of typical free flap donor sites and comparison to recipient sites in the extremities.  

PubMed

Results after free flap reconstruction in the extremities are often impaired by missing color match of the transferred flap and the recipient site. But pre-existing color match is the precondition for satisfying aesthetic results. To obtain suitable free flap donor sites in terms of color for extremity reconstruction and to understand frequent color mismatch, we performed a colorimetric study including 60 healthy volunteers. Ten free flap donor sites were compared with ten recipient sites in the extremities. The results of our study showed that lower extremity sites are markedly lighter than upper extremity sites with the exception of the palmar forearm. We encountered an excellent color match of the radial forearm flap to the back of the hand (4.10 ± 1.91) and the palm of the hand (5.62 ± 2.21), and significantly relevant color match to the palmar aspect of the forearm (2.52 ± 1.23). Additionally, the lateral arm flap showed a remarkable color match to the dorsal aspect of the forearm (3.13 ± 2.06). Furthermore we encountered significantly relevant color match of the fibula flap to the anterior aspect of the lower leg (2.01 ± 1.08) and excellent color match of the anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) to the palmar aspect of the forearm (3.66 ± 2.10). No further significantly relevant color differences between the other donor sites and recipient regions were found. Colorimetric measurements are a helpful tool in reconstructive surgery to compare skin color of different anatomic sites. PMID:23093467

Ensat, Florian; Greindl, Markus; Skreiner, Anna; Schubert, Heinrich; Hladik, Michaela; Stuflesser, Alexander; Spies, Marcus; Wechselberger, Gottfried

2013-01-01

201

Biomimetic flapping wing aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vertical take-off and hover capable flapping wing aerial vehicle using a biomimetic approach; replicating the hovering patterns of dragonflies and hummingbirds. The prototype uses a spatial mechanism driven by a rotary actuator which generates an angle of attack during each wing stroke. A 98 g, 380 mm span two wing prototype capable of vertical take-off and

M. A. A. Fenelon

2009-01-01

202

Lift production through asymmetric flapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

2009-11-01

203

Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains

Karl Axel Strang

2009-01-01

204

Fluorescence angiography in the assessment of flap perfusion and vitality.  

PubMed

Indocyanine green angiography is increasingly being adopted by reconstructive surgeons for use in pedicle tissue flaps and microvascular free-tissue transfer procedures. With the increasing adoption of this technology, the postoperative complication rate and the need for reoperation can be decreased, making these reconstructive procedures more predictable. The main disadvantage of this technology is its cost; with time and greater adoption of this technology, the cost will eventually decrease. Decreased postoperative complications and reduced need for revision surgery with the use of this technology will play a significant role in decreasing the overall health care costs for these complex reconstructive procedures. PMID:23399396

Yeoh, Melvyn S; Kim, D David; Ghali, G E

2013-02-01

205

Sensitivity and specificity of ICG angiography in free flap reexploration.  

PubMed

Microscope-integrated indocyanine green near-infrared videoangiography (ICGA) is a new imaging technique to assess vascular flow through diminutive vessels used in microvascular surgery. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ICGA in detecting microvascular thrombosis in reexploration surgery. Patients undergoing emergent reexploration surgery after free tissue transfer were enrolled in this clinical study. After the patients had been returned to the operating room the pedicle vessels were exposed and a microangiography was performed. Independent of the result, the anastomoses were opened and surgically explored. Sensitivity and specificity was calculated, using the result of exploration surgery as a reference standard. Of 200 free flaps 20 (10%) underwent reexploration surgery. The most common surgical finding was microvascular thrombosis (55%). In one case vascular compromise was due to confusion of artery and vein with anastomosis of two veins. In 40% of patients an intact vascular pedicle was found. The sensitivity and specificity of ICGA to detect microvascular thrombosis was 100% and 86%, respectively. ICGA provides an excellent diagnostic accuracy for detecting microvascular thrombosis in reexploration surgery. Routine implementation of this technique may expedite a correct diagnosis and facilitate the surgical approach by preventing unnecessary surgical manipulation of intact anastomoses. PMID:20183789

Holm, Charlotte; Dornseifer, Ulf; Sturtz, Gustavo; Ninkovic, Milomir

2010-07-01

206

"Wet behind the ears": the postauricular training ground for local flaps.  

PubMed

Early in the course of surgical education, dermatologic and plastic surgery trainees shift from theory to practice. This shift must be done cautiously so as not to cause unnecessary damage to the patient, especially when attempting to reconstruct soft tissue defects on the face. Helical rim defects present an excellent opportunity because the postauricular region provides a safe environment for novice surgeons to practice the theoretical and manual aspects of basic flap reconstruction. This paper explains key features on how to plan basic flaps based on postauricular tissues. PMID:23135089

Farber, Nimrod; Haik, Josef; Weissman, Oren; Israeli, Orenhadar; Winkler, Eyal; Zilinsky, Isaac

2012-11-01

207

Endoscopic ICG perfusion imaging for flap transplants: technical development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: Following tumour surgery in the head and neck region, skin flap transplants are usually required to cover the resection area. The purpose of the development was to provide a simple and reliable means to assess whether the transplanted flap is sufficiently perfused. Methods: Fluorescence of intravenously injected Indocyanine green (ICG) was detected with a slightly modified 3-chip CCD camera. Appropriately coated optical filters allow for excitation of ICG with NIR light and detection of NIR ICGfluorescence with the blue channel of the camera. In addition, low intensities of white light can be transmitted to allow for simultaneous display of a remission image in the green and red channels of the camera. Further processing was performed with a LabVIEW program. Results: A satisfactory white light image (red, green and blue display (RGB)) could be calculated from the remission images recorded with the green and red channels of the camera via a look-up table. The look-up table was programmed to provide an optimized blue intensity value for each combination of red and green values. This was generated using a reference image. Implementation of image tracking and intensity measurements in regions of interest (ROIs) in the images is useful to reliably monitor perfusion kinetics of flap and adjacent normal tissue.

Stepp, Herbert; Schachenmayr, Hilmar; Ehrhardt, André; Göbel, Werner; Zhorzel, Sven; Betz, Christian Stephan

2010-02-01

208

The effects of resveratrol on flap survival in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Resveratrol is an antioxidant agent with multiple positive impacts on the body. It is known to have anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and neuroprotective effects. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the antioxidant and anti-diabetic effects of resveratrol on flap survival in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley albino rats were treated with 10 mg/kg resveratrol following a flap surgery. Histological findings regarding polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) density, vascular proliferation, fibroblast density, and tissue necrosis were compared between resveratrol-treated and control rats. Significantly higher PMNL density was found in the control group (p = 0.005); while vascular proliferation and the fibroblast density were higher in the resveratrol group (p = 0.004 and p = 0.021, respectively). Collagen density was also higher in the resveratrol group and the difference has statistical significance (p = 0.024). Lymphocyte density was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.061). When the necrosis in the distal areas was evaluated histologically, 20% of the resveratrol group had epidermal tissue necrosis, thus 90% of the control group had epidermal or full-layer necrosis. Resveratrol improved flap survival significantly in diabetic rats. Therefore, diabetic patients requiring complex reconstructive procedures may benefit from resveratrol; so, clinical trials are required to support this study. PMID:24308328

Ciloglu, N Sinem; Zeytin, Kayhan; Aker, Fugen

2014-08-01

209

Vascularisation of Urethral Repairs with the Gracilis Muscle Flap  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to achieve a long-term, stricture-free urethral repair is one of the ongoing challenges of reconstructive urologic surgery. A successful initial repair is critical, as repeat procedures are difficult, owing to distortion, scarring, and short urethral stumps. Methods We describe a technique in which the gracilis muscle flap is laid on or wrapped around the urethral repair site to provide a well-vascularised soft tissue reinforcement for urethral repair. This technique promotes vascular induction, whereby a new blood supply is introduced to the repair site to improve the outcome of urethral repair or anastomotic urethroplasty. The surface contact between the muscle flap and the repair site is enhanced by the use of fibrin glue to improve adherence and promote inosculation and healing. We employed this technique in 4 patients with different urethral defects. Results After a follow-up period of 32 to 108 months, all of the urethral repairs were successful without complications. Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of a gracilis muscle flap to vascularise urethral repairs can improve the outcome of challenging urethral repairs.

Kua, Ee Hsiang Jonah; Leo, Kah Woon; Ong, Yee Siang; Cheng, Christopher

2013-01-01

210

The latissimus dorsi myo-cutaneous flap for breast reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a method of breast reconstruction after mastectomy making use of the versatile latissimus dorsi myo-cutaneous flap. Two different flap designs are proposed. A fish-shaped flap for reconstruction after mastectomy without irradiation damage and a tennis rackuet type flap for the replacement of irradiated skin, breast and pectoralis muscle. This axial pattern innervated composite flap enables a safe

W. Mfihlbauer; R. Olbrisch

1977-01-01

211

Microsurgical fibular flap for pelvic ring reconstruction after periacetabular tumor resection.  

PubMed

Reconstruction after resection of tumor about the acetabulum represents a considerable challenge in reconstructive surgery. Between 1999 and 2003, three patients with periacetabular tumors underwent tumor resections (Ennecking type B) and pelvic ring reconstruction with microsurgical fibular flaps. Histological diagnosis showed osteosarcoma, giant cell tumor, and aneurysmoid bone cyst. All patients survived surgery without complications. The follow-up for patients ranged from 14 to 42 months. The average time for bone healing and full weight bearing was 13.6 weeks after surgery. In evaluations of the functional outcome using Enneking scoring system, two reached the score of excellent (>or= 23 points), and one reached the score of good (15 to 22 points). This report shows our experience in use of microsurgical fibular flaps for arthrodesis of the hip after periacetabular tumor resection, which restores the continuity of the pelvic ring with minimal shortening of the limb. PMID:17479451

Yu, Guangrong; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, Jiaqian; Chang, Shimin; Cheng, Liming; Jia, Yongwei; Li, Haifeng; Lineaweaver, William C

2007-04-01

212

"Naked microvascular bone flap" in oral reconstruction.  

PubMed

Since the 1980s, bone free flaps have been used to reconstruct the maxilla and the mandible. The vascular pedicle, through the supply of nutritional substances and drugs from the bloodstream, ensures the vitality of the flap, rapid bone integration, and reduced risk of infection.However, due to many surgeons' concerns about orocervical and orosinusal fistulas and infections, bone flaps are usually buried and protected by mucosal flaps or a second skin flap whenever it is not possible to harvest a skin paddle together with the bone flap.The authors, convinced that naked bone free flaps, if well vascularized, are capable of healing and repairing the osteomucosal deficit on their own, with no risk of infection or fistulas, began to harvest, for oral reconstructions, naked bone flaps, that is, bone flaps covered only by a muscle layer 5 to 20 mm thick.In this study, the authors present a review of their experience in oral cavity reconstructions by harvesting naked and covered bone free flaps, retrospectively evaluating the occurrence of major and minor, early and late complications, associated with the different reconstructive technique. PMID:24691338

Gennaro, Paolo; Della Monaca, Marco; Aboh, Ikenna Valentine; Priore, Paolo; Facchini, Arianna; Valentini, Valentino

2014-08-01

213

Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE-761) on the survival of fasciocutaneous flaps in rats.  

PubMed

Cutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps are used widely in the surgical reconstruction of various body segments, especially to cover exposed vital tissues. Partial or total necrosis of these flaps, secondary to insufficient tissue irrigation, is one possible complication. Therefore, investigations into antiplatelet aggregation, vasodilation and antioxidant properties are highly significant. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of GbE 761 on the survival of fasciocutaneous flaps in rats. For that purpose, GbE 761 was administered to 30 rats after the creation of 10?×?3?cm dorsal flaps on each animal. The rats were divided into three equal groups. GbE 761 was administered to Group A, starting immediately after surgery; Group B received it 24?h after the flap was cut; and Group C (controls) received 0.9% NaCl solution. The average area of necrosis was 29.53% in Group A, 26.25% in Group B and 46.12% in Group C. The difference between Groups B and C was statistically significant (p?=?0.026). These initial findings suggest that GbE 761 administered on day 1 after surgery reduces the percentage of necrosis in fasciocutaneous flaps, relative to not giving GbE at all. PMID:22083662

Sambuy, Marina T C; Costa, Antonio C da; Cohen, Carina; Chakkour, Ivan

2012-02-01

214

Preconditioned hyperbaric oxygenation protects skin flap grafts in rats against ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is an effective therapy for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the brain, small intestine, testes and liver. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of HBO therapy remain undetermined. In the current study, the hypothesis that preconditioning rats with HBO protects grafted skin flaps against subsequent I/R injury was investigated. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying HBO therapy were characterized by analyzing the roles of the following important inflammatory factors: High mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) and nuclear factor?? B (NF??B). A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: (i) Sham surgery (SH); (ii) ischemia followed by reperfusion 3 days following surgery (I/R3d); (iii) ischemia followed by reperfusion 5 days following surgery (I/R5d); (iv) HBO preconditioning (HBO?PC) and ischemia followed by reperfusion 3 days following surgery (HBO?PC+3d); and (v) HBO?PC and ischemia followed by reperfusion 5 days following surgery (HBO?PC+5d). For the surgical procedure, all pedicled skin flaps were first measured and elevated (9x6 cm). The feeding vessels of the skin flaps were subsequently clamped for 3 h and released to restore blood flow. The rats in the HBO?PC+3d and HBO?PC+5d groups received 1 h HBO for 3 and 5 consecutive days, respectively, prior to surgery. Following surgery, the rats were euthanized, and grafted tissues were collected for western blotting and immunohistochemistry. HBO?PC increased blood perfusion in epigastric skin flaps and attenuated I/R injury following skin flap graft. Additionally, the elevated expression of HMGB1 and NF??B proteins during I/R injury was attenuated by HBO?PC treatment. HBO?PC may therefore be applied to reduce I/R injury and improve the survival rate of grafted skin flaps. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of HBO therapy are associated with the attenuation of inflammatory responses. PMID:24676940

Kang, Nan; Hai, Yong; Liang, Fang; Gao, Chun-Jin; Liu, Xue-Hua

2014-06-01

215

Preconditioned hyperbaric oxygenation protects skin flap grafts in rats against ischemia/reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is an effective therapy for ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the brain, small intestine, testes and liver. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of HBO therapy remain undetermined. In the current study, the hypothesis that preconditioning rats with HBO protects grafted skin flaps against subsequent I/R injury was investigated. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying HBO therapy were characterized by analyzing the roles of the following important inflammatory factors: High mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) and nuclear factor-? B (NF-?B). A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: (i) Sham surgery (SH); (ii) ischemia followed by reperfusion 3 days following surgery (I/R3d); (iii) ischemia followed by reperfusion 5 days following surgery (I/R5d); (iv) HBO preconditioning (HBO-PC) and ischemia followed by reperfusion 3 days following surgery (HBO-PC+3d); and (v) HBO-PC and ischemia followed by reperfusion 5 days following surgery (HBO-PC+5d). For the surgical procedure, all pedicled skin flaps were first measured and elevated (9×6 cm). The feeding vessels of the skin flaps were subsequently clamped for 3 h and released to restore blood flow. The rats in the HBO-PC+3d and HBO-PC+5d groups received 1 h HBO for 3 and 5 consecutive days, respectively, prior to surgery. Following surgery, the rats were euthanized, and grafted tissues were collected for western blotting and immunohistochemistry. HBO-PC increased blood perfusion in epigastric skin flaps and attenuated I/R injury following skin flap graft. Additionally, the elevated expression of HMGB1 and NF-?B proteins during I/R injury was attenuated by HBO-PC treatment. HBO-PC may therefore be applied to reduce I/R injury and improve the survival rate of grafted skin flaps. The molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of HBO therapy are associated with the attenuation of inflammatory responses.

KANG, NAN; HAI, YONG; LIANG, FANG; GAO, CHUN-JIN; LIU, XUE-HUA

2014-01-01

216

Modified superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap and supermicrosurgery technique for lower extremity reconstruction: a new approach for moderate-sized defects.  

PubMed

The superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap is an evolved form of groin flap. It overcomes the inherent disadvantages of the groin flap by preserving the deep fascia but still requires challenging skills because of short pedicles and small caliber of vessels. The use of SCIP flap was evaluated for lower extremity use.From June of 2009 to August of 2011, a total of 79 cases were performed (age range, 4-80 years) on the lower extremity using supermicrosurgical approach. All flaps were harvested above the deep fat and the pedicles were taken above or just below the deep fascia to reconstruct the defects throughout the lower extremity.Supermicrosurgery technique was used in 71 cases. A total of 75 cases were performed successfully; 1 case underwent revision but failed and 2 cases were lost within 2 days of surgery. Average size of the flap was 75.5 cm, thickness 7 mm, average length of pedicle was 5 cm, and the average caliber of artery was 0.7 mm. Donor sites were all closed primarily but complications were noted with 1 dehiscence and prolong drainage of lymphatics. Flaps provided good functional coverage and appearance. The average follow-up was 12 months.With the modification of elevating the flap on the superficial fascia, we can harvest a thin flap without additional debulking and avoid complications such as lymphorrhea. Furthermore, with the perforator to perforator or perforator to small distal vessel approach, we can apply this flap on all regions of the lower extremity overcoming the difficulties with short pedicle and small vessel caliber. In our hands, the modified SCIP flap is the flap of choice for small to moderate size defects in the lower extremity. PMID:23187712

Hong, Joon Pio; Sun, Sang Hoon; Ben-Nakhi, Muneera

2013-10-01

217

The zygomatic flap: a further possibility in reconstructing soft-tissue defects of the nose and upper lip.  

PubMed

Through the dissection and localization of the cutaneous zygomatic branch, as previously described by the authors, a vessel is available that plays an important role in reconstructive surgery. The performance of this anatomical study has enabled designing of the so-called zygomatic flap, which can be considered as a further possibility in the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects of the upper lip and nose. This new island axial pattern flap provides a reliable source of skin, with color match for facial resurfacing, and leaves a well-hidden donor site similar to that of the nasolabial flap. The flap must be carefully raised, and when properly designed, it can follow naturally existing contour lines, thus respecting and preserving the normal facial topography and leaving the patient with minimal surgical deformity. In this article, the authors report the clinical application of the zygomatic flap and the outcome of 10 cases. In a follow-up period from 1998 to the end of 2002, there was no flap loss, and in all cases, the aesthetic results were excellent and highly acceptable to the patients. The authors' experience with this new island axial pattern flap has been good, and they recommend this technique. PMID:14758207

Gardetto, Alexander; Erdinger, Kajetan; Papp, Christoph

2004-02-01

218

Role of computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis of vascular stenosis in head and neck microvascular free flap reconstruction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the diagnosis of vascular stenosis at the vascular pedicle of head and neck microvascular free flaps. A prospective study was done of 65 consecutive patients (49 male, 16 female; mean age 55 years) who had undergone head and neck microvascular free flap reconstruction. All patients underwent 64-slice CTA of the carotid artery. Post-processing with volume rendering reconstruction of CTA images was done. There was excellent inter-observer agreement (weighted kappa=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.93) in grading of the degree of vascular stenosis. The true sensitivity of CTA for diagnosis of stenosis of the vascular pedicle to the flap was 63% (95% CI 63-100%). Patients with failed flaps showed complete occlusion (n=2) on CTA and underwent a replacement flap procedure. Patients with failing flaps showed severe stenosis (n=6) of the vascular pedicle on CTA and underwent revision surgery. There was no change in the degree of stenosis on follow-up CTA for patients with moderate stenosis (n=9). CTA is a reliable, non-invasive, high-quality imaging tool for the diagnosis and grading of vascular stenosis of the vascular pedicle of head and neck microvascular free flaps. PMID:24794762

Abdel Razek, A A K; Denewer, A T; Hegazy, M A F; Hafez, M T A

2014-07-01

219

[Five hundred sixty-nine flaps used in reconstruction of the head and neck: morbidity analysis and results].  

PubMed

Aim of the study is to provide high-level results in terms of functionality and softness of the tissues achieved with different reconstructive techniques performed in oncological surgery of the head and neck. Test group was composed of 528 patients recovered with a diagnosis of head and neck cancer. We performed 569 flaps: myocutaneous, cutaneous and fasciocutaneous, and free flaps. The clinical outcome and the morpho-functional evaluation show that free flaps can ensure excellent results, especially in defined anatomical areas such as the cervical-esophageal region, jaw and tongue. As to myocutaneous and cutaneous/fasciocutaneous flaps, they are still the first reconstructive choice, according to their minimal or no functional implications. PMID:16437979

Caravelli, G; Lorenzon, L; Arelli, F; Cricrě, G; Marcasciano, F; Pompei, S

2005-01-01

220

The Expansion of RPE Atrophy after the Inverted ILM Flap Technique for a Chronic Large Macular Hole  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report a case of the expansion of submacular retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy after using the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for a persisting, large, stage IV macular hole (MH). Case Report A 79-year-old woman presented with a chronic large MH that remained open despite pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). The surgery was performed twice for the MH closure 14 years earlier. ILM peeling was not performed during the previous surgeries. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with the Landolt ring chart was 0.08 at her visit. The minimum MH diameter was 1,240 ?m. Inverted ILM flap technique with 20% SF6 gas tamponade was performed for the MH closure. For the inverted ILM flap technique, 25-gauge PPV and ILM staining with indocyanine green were used. The ILM was peeled off for 2 disc diameters around the MH, but the ILM was not removed completely. The ILM was then inverted and covered the MH. Results One month after surgery, the MH was closed, accompanied by glial cell proliferation spreading from the inverted ILM flap (as reported before). On the other hand, the area of the submacular RPE atrophy, which was already observed 1 week after surgery, gradually increased in size. BCVA improved to 0.3 six months after the surgery. Conclusions The inverted ILM flap technique may be promising even for persisting large MH which were not closed in previous surgeries, but long-term observation is needed because the detailed behavior of the inverted ILM and the Müller cells after surgery is not yet known.

Imai, Hisanori; Azumi, Atsushi

2014-01-01

221

Intraoperative Prediction of Post-Operative Flap Outcome using the Near-Infrared Fluorophore Methylene Blue  

PubMed Central

Methylene blue (MB) is a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore that provides a stable visual map of skin perfusion after intravenous injection. We explored the capability of MB to predict submental flap postoperative outcome using a single intraoperative measurement. Submental flaps were created in N = 15 pigs and imaged using the FLARE ™ imaging system immediately after surgery and at 72 h. Using the first 3 pigs, optimal MB dosing was found to be 2.0 mg/kg. Training and validation sets of 6 pigs each were then used for receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the training set, a contrast-to-background ratio (CBR) threshold of 1.24 provided the highest sensitivity and specificity to predict tissue necrosis at 72 h. In the validation set, this threshold provided a prediction sensitivity of 95.3% and a specificity of 98.0%. We demonstrate that a single intraoperative NIR measurement can predict submental flap outcome at 72 h.

Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bernard T.; Laurence, Rita G.; Lunsford, Elaine; Hutteman, Merlijn; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V.

2011-01-01

222

Expanded uses for the nasolabial flap.  

PubMed

The nasolabial flap is an excellent choice for use in reconstruction of the nasal alar subunit due to its inherent properties that match skin tone and the convexity of the nose. Often overlooked as an option to use in nasal reconstruction, the nasolabial flap can be very advantageous. Indications for the nasolabial flap can be expanded to include reconstruction of the nasal tip, dorsum, soft triangle, and partial alar defects. PMID:24872750

Weathers, William M; Wolfswinkel, Erik M; Nguyen, Huy; Thornton, James F

2013-05-01

223

Expanded Uses for the Nasolabial Flap  

PubMed Central

The nasolabial flap is an excellent choice for use in reconstruction of the nasal alar subunit due to its inherent properties that match skin tone and the convexity of the nose. Often overlooked as an option to use in nasal reconstruction, the nasolabial flap can be very advantageous. Indications for the nasolabial flap can be expanded to include reconstruction of the nasal tip, dorsum, soft triangle, and partial alar defects.

Weathers, William M.; Wolfswinkel, Erik M.; Nguyen, Huy; Thornton, James F.

2013-01-01

224

Externally blown flap dynamic loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the principal results obtained in three series of measurements of fluctuating surface pressures induced on externally blown flaps by jet impingment are presented. Large- and small-scale models and hot- and cold-flow tests are considered. The discussion sets forth scaling parameters and consistent features of the root-mean-square values and spectra of the loading. Implications of these results with regard to sonic fatigue are indicated.

Lansing, D. L.; Mixson, J. S.; Brown, T. J.; Drischler, J. A.

1973-01-01

225

Flap endonuclease 1 mechanism analysis indicates flap base binding prior to threading.  

PubMed

FEN1 cleaves 5' flaps at their base to create a nicked product for ligation. FEN1 has been reported to enter the flap from the 5'-end and track to the base. Current binding analyses support a very different mechanism of interaction with the flap substrate. Measurements of FEN1 binding to a flap substrate show that the nuclease binds with similar high affinity to the base of a long flap even when the 5'-end is blocked with biotin/streptavidin. However, FEN1 bound to a blocked flap is more sensitive to sequestration by a competing substrate. These results are consistent with a substrate interaction mechanism in which FEN1 first binds the flap base and then threads the flap through an opening in the protein from the 5'-end to the base for cleavage. Significantly, when the unblocked flap length is reduced from five to two nucleotides, FEN1 can be sequestered from the substrate to a similar extent as a blocked, long flap substrate. Apparently, interactions related to threading occur only when the flap is greater than two to four nucleotides long, implying that short flaps are cleaved without a threading requirement. PMID:20739288

Gloor, Jason W; Balakrishnan, Lata; Bambara, Robert A

2010-11-01

226

A water tunnel study of Gurney flaps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several Gurney flap configurations were tested in the NASA Langley 16 x 24 inch Water Tunnel. These devices provided an increased region of attached flow on a wing upper surface relative to the wing without the flaps. The recirculation region behind the flap was visualized and shown to be consistent with hypotheses stated in previous research. Although the test Reynolds number for this study was several orders of magnitude below those in previous investigations, the effect of the Gurney flaps is in qualitative agreement with them. This is as would be expected from first order effects for high lift devices.

Neuhart, Dan H.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

1988-01-01

227

[Modern breast reconstruction with endoscopically assisted latissimus dorsi flap harvesting].  

PubMed

Skin- and nipple-sparing mastectomies made immediate breast reconstruction possible on a systemic level within breast cancer surgery. Mass reconstruction needs brought by the most common malignancy in women can only be met by the use of implant-based techniques, providing excellent cosmetic results and high patient satisfaction. For these postmastectomy reconstructions the replacement of the skin is no longer a challenge, but the well vascularized, good quality soft tissue coverage of the implant. Oncoplastic breast surgery today is able to conduct oncologically radical complete removal of the glandular tissue through an incision of 6-10 cm made in the armpit, with the nearly scarless retention of the natural skin envelope of the breast, and in the same time adequate axillary staging (sentinel node biopsy/axillary lymphadenectomy) is performed, then using the same incision, the implementation of one-step or multi-step breast reconstruction is possible. During these complex interventions, the latissimus dorsi flap formed by endoscopic technique (leaving no scar on the back), rotated to the anterior chest wall can be used for total autologous reconstruction of low-volume breasts as complete coverage of implants placed under the spared skin-envelope or for revitalization of thin or radiation damaged breast skin. This paper presents 4 cases of breast reconstruction with endoscopically assisted latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and the authors demonstrate the surgical technique in detail and conduct a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian. PMID:24412949

Mátrai, Zoltán; Kunos, Csaba; Pukancsik, Dávid; Sávolt, Akos; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kásler, Miklós

2014-01-19

228

The effect of recombinant hirudin on rabbit ear flaps with venous insufficiency  

PubMed Central

The effect of recombinant hirudin, which is the most powerful antithrombotic agent, on flaps with venous insufficiency was investigated. Oedema and congestion are frequent on flaps, causing necrosis unpredictably. Venous insufficiency and thrombosis are experimentally and clinically more frequent than arterial occlusion. Twenty-one adult New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Skin flaps (3 × 6 cm) were elevated on a 1-cm-wide pedicle on rabbit ears. The artery, nerve, and vein were exposed and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope. Venous insufficiency was established by cutting the vein and nerve. In the control group, no additional surgical or medical procedures were performed and the ear flap was inset to its original location. Subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin (LMWH; 320 IU/kg) was administered to a second group of rabbits after the same surgery, and recombinant hirudin (2 ?g) was administered via the pedicle artery 5 minutes after the vein and nerve were bound and cut in a third group of rabbits. Compared with control and LMWH groups on day 3 and 7, the hirudin-treated group had less hair loss, lower oedema scores and less haematoma formation. Furthermore, a lower size of necrotic areas and an increase in the circulating area on day 7 was found in the hirudin-treated group. In addition, angiography revealed new vessel development (neovascularisation) only in the hirudin group. On histologic sections, hirudin-treated animals had lower oedema, inflammation and congestion scores than animals in the other two groups. Thus, when administered into the ear flap through the pedicle as a pure recombinant preparation, hirudin increased flap survival by its antithrombotic effects and by accelerating neoangiogenesis. Recombinant hirudin may be used in clinical practice to treat flaps with venous problems and to increase survival rates.

Duzgun, Serdar; Nisanci, Mustafa; Unlu, Erkin

2014-01-01

229

Surgical Outcomes of Different Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation Methods between Scleral Graft and Scleral Flap  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the surgical outcomes of the two different methods used for Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation between the donor scleral graft method and the partial-thickness scleral flap method. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 28 eyes of 26 patients diagnosed as neovascular glaucoma followed by AGV implantation. Based on the surgical method, the included eyes were divided into two groups. In the graft group (n = 18), the drainage tube was inserted into the anterior chamber, and then covered with preserved donor sclera. In the flap group (n = 10), the drainage tube was inserted under the partial-thickness scleral flap, and then covered with the flap. We compared the postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), surgical success rates, and postoperative complications between the two groups. Results Postoperative IOP was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.967, 0.495 at 12 months, 24 months, respectively, by the Mann-Whitney U-test). The mean success periods were 53.1 ± 10.1 months in the graft group versus 50.9 ± 9.4 months in the flap group (p = 0.882 by log rank test), and cumulative success rates were 77.8% and 80.0% at one year, respectively. However, tube migration occurred more frequently in the flap group than in the graft group (p = 0.037 by Fisher's exact test). Conclusions In AGV surgery for neovascular glaucoma, the scleral graft method may be associated with relatively less complication about tube migration than the scleral flap method. The surgical results, however, were not statistically different.

Lee, Ho Young; Park, Jong Seok; Choy, Yoon Jung

2011-01-01

230

Application of fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flap in primary and recurrent sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease  

PubMed Central

Background Pilonidal sinus disease is a common disease of young adults, which most frequently occurs in the sacrococcygeal region on the skin’s midline. Various procedures, ranging from simple incision and curettage to complex flaps for natal cleft obliteration, have been described in the literature. Material/Methods We aimed to present the dermographic characters, post-operative complications, length of stay in hospital, time of return to daily activities, and recurrence rates of the patients in which we applied sinus excision and fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flap due to primary complicated or recurrent sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease. Results Patients with primary complicated and recurrent pilonidal sinus received a fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flap in the general surgery service of our hospital. Eleven patients had recurrent disease. Thirty-seven patients received a unilateral V-Y flap and 8 patients received a bilateral V-Y flap. None of the patients had post-operative flap necrosis or wound opening. Two of the patients had a self-draining simple seroma and 3 of the patients had delayed wound healing in the perianal region of the incision, which was treated with dressing. The mean time required to return to daily activities was 7 days, and return to work took 17 days. In the mean 25-month follow-ups of the patients, no recurrences were detected. Conclusions We think that fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flap is an easily learned and practicable method that reduces the recurrences in the patients with primary complicated and recurrent pilonidal sinus, length of stay in hospital, and time to return to daily activities and work in the post-operative period.

Demiryilmaz, Ismail; Yilmaz, Ismayil; Peker, Kemal; Celebi, Fehmi; Cimen, Orhan; Isik, Arda; Bicer, Senol; Firat, Deniz

2014-01-01

231

Donor-site morbidity of the inferior gluteal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction in teenagers  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Few options, apart from the buttock area, are available for autologous breast reconstruction in thin teenagers. The aim of the present study was to objectively evaluate and compare donor-site morbidity of the inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap with that of the previously described inferior gluteal musculocutaneous flap. METHOD: A retrospective review of all IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction performed in teenagers between June 2006 and April 2011 at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, was performed. Patients were invited to undergo a specific physical evaluation and complete a questionnaire on aesthetic and functional outcomes. RESULTS: Thirteen records and 11 photographic charts were reviewed. Lateral buttock flattening was noticeable in nine of 11 cases. Three patients experienced some degree of inferior displacement of the gluteal crease. All six patients available for the appointment presented with a zone of dysesthesia or hypoesthesia in the territory of the operated buttock and/or posterior thigh. No motor impairment was found. The questionnaire, completed by eight patients, revealed that six were satisfied or very satisfied with the surgery. Appearance of the operated buttock was rated 3.4 on a scale from 1 to 5 (5 = normal) compared with the normal side. CONCLUSIONS: The IGAP flap remains a suitable option for breast reconstruction in slim teenagers. Similar to the myocutaneous flap, the major donor-site morbidity of the IGAP flap remains sensory impairment involving the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. There is, however, less visible lateral depression when it is harvested as a perforator flap.

Godbout, Emilie; Farmer, Lucie; Bortoluzzi, Patricia; Caouette Laberge, Louise

2013-01-01

232

Surgical Correction of Whistle Deformity Using Cross-Muscle Flap in Secondary Cleft Lip  

PubMed Central

Background The whistle deformity is one of the common sequelae of secondary cleft lip deformities. Santos reported using a crossed-denuded flap for primary cleft lip repair to prevent a vermilion notching. The authors modified this technique to correct the whistle deformity, calling their version the cross-muscle flap. Methods From May 2005 to January 2011, 14 secondary unilateral cleft lip patients were treated. All suffered from a whistle deformity, which is characterized by the deficiency of the central tubercle, notching in the upper lip, and bulging on the lateral segment. The mean age of the patients was 13.8 years and the mean follow-up period was 21.8 weeks. After elevation from the lateral vermilion and medial tubercle, two muscle flaps were crossed and turned over. The authors measured the three vertical heights and compared the two height ratios before and after surgery for evaluation of the postoperative results. Results None of the patients had any notable complications and the whistle deformity was corrected in all cases. The vertical height ratios at the midline on the upper lip and the affected Cupid's bow point were increased (P<0.05). The motion of the upper lip was acceptable. Conclusions A cross muscle flap is simple and it leaves a minimal scar on the lip. We were able to reconstruct the whistle deformity in secondary unilateral cleft lip patients with a single state procedure using a cross-muscle flap.

Choi, Woo Young; Kim, Gyu Bo; Han, Yun Ju

2012-01-01

233

Application of the inner arm perforator flap in the management of axillary hidradenitis suppurativa.  

PubMed

Axillary hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic and debilitating disease that primarily affects the axillae, perineum, and inframammary areas. Surgical removal of all the diseased skin constitutes the only efficient treatment. Covering an axillary fossa defect is challenging, due to the range of shoulder movement required. Indeed, shoulder movement may be compromised by scar contraction after inadequate surgery. The present study is the first to apply an inner arm perforator flap to the treatment of twelve axillary skin defects in 10 patients. The defect originated from extensive excision of recurrent hidradenitis suppurativa in the axilla. The technique used to cover the defect is a V-Y advancement flap or a propeller flap from the inner arm based on one to three perforators arising from the brachial artery or the superior ulnar collateral artery. The flap provides a tensionless wound closure and a generally unremarkable postoperative course in a short hospital stay. No major complications occurred. Two patients had minor delayed wound healing. Outcomes (including donor site morbidity, function and the cosmetic outcome) were very satisfactory in all cases. We consider that the inner arm perforator flap is a valuable new option for the reconstruction of axillary defects. PMID:24290491

Alharbi, M; Perignon, D; Assaf, N; Qassemyar, Q; Elsamad, Y; Sinna, R

2014-02-01

234

Vascular Waveform Analysis of Flap-Feeding Vessels Using Color Doppler Ultrasonography  

PubMed Central

We performed vascular waveform analysis of flap-feeding vessels using color Doppler ultrasonography and evaluated the blood flow in the flaps prior to surgery. Vascular waveform analysis was performed in 19 patients. The analyzed parameters included the vascular diameter, flow volume, flow velocity, resistance index, pulsatility index, and acceleration time. The arterial waveform was classified into 5 types based on the partially modified blood flow waveform classification reported by Hirai et al.; in particular, D-1a, D-1b, and D-2 were considered as normal waveforms. They were 4 patients which observed abnormal vascular waveform among 19 patients (D-4?:?1, D-3?:?1, and Poor detect?:?2). The case which presented D-4 waveform changed the surgical procedure, and a favorable outcome was achieved. Muscle flap of the case which presented D-3 waveform was partially necrosed. The case which detected blood flow poorly was judged to be the vascular obstruction of the internal thoracic artery. In the evaluation of blood flow in flaps using color Doppler ultrasonography, determination of not only basic blood flow information, such as the vascular distribution and diameter and flow velocity, but also the flow volume, vascular resistance, and arterial waveform is essential to elucidate the hemodynamics of the flap.

Onishi, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

235

Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat skin flap*  

PubMed Central

Objective: Skin damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a multifactorial process that often occurs in plastic surgery. The mechanisms of I/R injury include hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damage. Hydrogen gas has been reported to alleviate cerebral I/R injury by acting as a free radical scavenger. Here, we assessed the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on skin flap I/R injury. Methods: Abdominal skin flaps of rats were elevated and ischemia was induced for 3 h; subsequently, HRS or physiological saline was administered intraperitoneally 10 min before reperfusion. On postoperative Day 5, flap survival, blood perfusion, the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and levels of cytokines were evaluated. Histological examinations were performed to assess inflammatory cell infiltration. Results: Skin flap survival and blood flow perfusion were improved by HRS relative to the controls. The production of malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of lipid peroxidation, was markedly reduced. A multiplex cytokine assay revealed that HRS reduced the elevation in the levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, with the exception of RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) growth factor. HRS treatment also reduced inflammatory cell infiltration induced by I/R injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HRS mitigates I/R injury by decreasing inflammation and, therefore, has the potential for application as a therapy for improving skin flap survival.

Zhao, Ling; Wang, You-bin; Qin, Shi-rui; Ma, Xue-mei; Sun, Xue-jun; Wang, Ming-lian; Zhong, Ru-gang

2013-01-01

236

[Postoperative complications in plastic surgery].  

PubMed

Plastic surgery covers a broad spectrum of diseases and conditions in the areas of reconstructive surgery, hand, burn and aesthetic surgery. Besides acquired defects or malformations an increasing number of patients are being treated for surgical or multimodal complications. In a considerable number of patients plastic and reconstructive surgery remains the only therapeutic alternative after other therapy has failed. Therefore complication management in plastic surgery is of utmost importance for a successful outcome. In addition patient expectations in the results of plastic surgery as a discipline of invention and problem solving are steadily increasing. This challenge is reflected in clinical patient management by intensive research in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Patients in plastic surgery are recruited from all age groups of either gender, involving traumatic and oncologic as well as congenital and aesthetic disorders. The demographics of aging, multimorbidity and obesity pose new challenges to plastic surgery. Although age over 70 years is not an independent risk factor per se for complications in plastic surgery, e.g. for complex free flap transfer, medical problems are present at a higher rate, which is to be expected in this age group. Risk factors such as alcoholism and coronary heart diseases seem to be independent predictors of perioperative complications. Therefore older patients can also benefit from plastic surgery and recurrent operations by the corresponding risk and complication management. Complication management necessitates careful patient selection, estimation of operative risks and patient-adapted selection of procedures. In addition to expertise in plastic surgery a thorough knowledge of non-surgical and surgical back-up procedures for technical incidents as well as vascular circulatory and wound healing disorders is required to deal successfully with complications in plastic surgery. This article presents these specific aspects of postoperative complication management in plastic surgery. PMID:19669715

Vogt, P M

2009-09-01

237

Fillet flap: a successful procedure to preserve the optimum length of below-the knee-amputation stump in congenital constriction band of the leg.  

PubMed

The use of 'spare part' tissue from an amputated segment to cover a stump with soft tissue deficiency is a viable option for augmenting the shape of the stump and preserving functional length of the stump without additional donor morbidity. The procedure requires no microsurgical skill if the tissues are used as pedicle fillet flaps transfer. This concept of fillet flap makes the amputation distal to an unfavourable definitive amputation site such as in congenital constriction band possible. We report herein a case of amputation distal to constriction ring to illustrate the application of fillet flap in reconstruction surgery. PMID:16381298

Sulaiman, A R; Sallehudin, A Y; Shahidan, Y; Iskandar, M A; Halim, A S

2005-07-01

238

Sensitive areolar reconstruction in using a neurocutaneous island flap based on the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve.  

PubMed

Sensory reconstruction has recently been stressed in breast reconstruction. However, there are no reports concerning the reconstruction of a sensitive areola. The bilateral reconstruction of a sensitive areola using a neurocutaneous flap based on the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve is reported. The flap was harvested from the distal third of the forearm as an island flap and tunneled to reach the apex of the new breast, which was previously reconstructed using a 135-cc, gel-filled, silicone prosthesis covered by a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap. Six months later, fine sensibility in the reconstructed areola was demonstrated. The patient could perceive light touch, pain, and 14 mm two-point discrimination. At 2 months after surgery, 50 percent of cutaneous faulty stimulus location was observed. However, at 4 and 6 months after surgery, faulty location disappeared. Six months after harvesting the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, the sensory deficit was minimal; it included a hypoesthesic zone of 4 to 7 cm and an anesthesic zone of 2.5 to 5 cm on the middle third of the forearm. Fifteen months after the procedure, no hypoesthesic zone was observed; only a 2 to 3 cm anesthesic zone on the proximal medial side of the forearm existed. This sensory deficit passed unnoticed by the patient. The technique developed here is a refinement in breast reconstruction, and we think it should be used in selected patients. PMID:10541179

Bertelli, J A; Pereira Filho, O J; Ely, J B

1999-11-01

239

[The super extended sub-mental flap or combo sub-mental flap].  

PubMed

The author presents a technical variation of the sub-mental flap including in a conventional pedicled flap both sub-mental axes and their anastomoses on the midline. The assessment of the first flaps raised according to this method confirms the improvement of the distal blood supply. It allows the possibility to harvest "super extended" flaps reaching the contralateral auricular lobula. This variation can be considered as an axial flap which only the tip, located beyond the mandibular angle, is at random. The evolution of the sub-mental flap from its original description to this variation called "combo sub-mental flap" is then presented. Its reliability and the technical simplification it provides will have to be assessed in the future. PMID:24840945

Martin, D

2014-08-01

240

A new facial artery free-style perforator flap and conchal cartilage graft for one-step reconstruction of the alar defects.  

PubMed

The nose is the most commonly affected area by basal and squamous skin carcinomas of the head and neck area (D'Arpa et al. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2009, 62:36-42). The nasolabial flap is a very well known local flap that provides excellent color and texture matches. However, its major drawback is that it requires a 2-stage procedure to restore an adequate nasal cheek groove (Karsidag et al. J Craniofac Surg. 2010;21:1887-1889). In the perforator flaps, there are numerous studies that describe flaps whose vascular supply depend on perforators from the fascial artery.We planned to harvest a perforator flap around the medial cheek area, which included one cutaneous perforator from the facial artery. Free-style facial artery perforator flaps and auricular conchal cartilage framework were performed in 9 patients who have alar defect due to malignancies.From September 2010 to December 2011, the free-style facial perforator artery flap was performed in 9 patients at the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey. The whole flap was used to reconstruct the whole alar unit, which includes cartilaginous tissues.Our aim is to define a one-stage reconstruction technique with a perforator-based flap. Our flap is supplied by a perforating branch of the facial artery. We develop this method because of its reliable vascularization, that is, the possibility of performing one-stage technique with sensation preservation.In conclusion, we strongly recommend one-stage reconstruction in any kind of alar region defect with this versatile facial perforator flap. PMID:24220404

Duzgun, Serdar; Unlu, Erkin; Bali, Yagmur

2013-11-01

241

Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap  

PubMed Central

Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction. Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery. Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

Bae, Sung Kyu; Kang, Seok Joo; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Hwan

2013-01-01

242

Results with sphincter pharyngoplasty and pharyngeal flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate speech outcomes and complications of sphincter pharyngoplasty and pharyngeal flap performed for management of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Design: Case series. Setting: Tertiary care children’s hospital. Patients: All patients who underwent pharyngeal flap or sphincter pharyngoplasty from 1990 to 1995. Methods: Perceptual speech analysis was used to assess severity of VPI, presence of nasal air emissions and quality

Lianne M. de Serres; Frederic W.-B. Deleyiannis; Linda E. Eblen; Joseph S. Gruss; Mark A. Richardson; Kathleen C. Y. Sie

1999-01-01

243

Coanda Inlet/Jet Flap Diffuser Ejector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combination of a Coanda inlet and jet flap diffusion, for the achievement of high performance, low volume, thrust augmentation, has been investigated in a two-dimesnional experiment. The use of jet flap diffusion provides a mechanism for the achieveme...

M. Alperin

1972-01-01

244

Free flap pulse oximetry utilizing reflectance photoplethysmography.  

PubMed

The successful salvage of a free flap is dependent on the continuous monitoring of perfusion. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available post-operative monitoring technique to reliably assess the viability of free flaps by continuously monitoring free flap blood oxygen saturation. In an attempt to overcome the limitations of the current techniques a reflectance photoplethysmographic (PPG) processing system has been developed with the capability of real-time estimation of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels implemented in LabVIEW. This system was evaluated in clinical measurements on five patients undergoing breast reconstruction using Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) flap. Good quality PPG signals were obtained from the flaps and fingers simultaneously. The estimated free flap SpO2 values were in broad agreement with the oxygen saturation readings from the commercial pulse oximeter. The results suggest that reflectance free flap photoplethysmography can be used as a continuous monitoring technique to non-invasively monitor the perfusion of free flaps. PMID:24110620

Zaman, T; Kyriacou, P A; Pal, S K

2013-01-01

245

Nasolabial flap reconstruction in oral cancer  

PubMed Central

Background The nasolabial flap is a simple flap used for reconstructing small intraoral defects created after the excision of malignant tumors. Methods A retrospective analysis of 26 cases of oral cancer treated with primary excision and nasolabial flap reconstruction was carried out. In 22 cases, the excision was combined with neck dissection and facial artery ligation. Results Good cosmetic and functional results were obtained in almost all cases. Wound dehiscence developed in three patients, while one patient developed a persistent orocutaneous fistula. Disease recurrence occurred in one patient. Conclusions The nasolabial flap is a good flap for the reconstruction of small oral defects after excision of primary tumors and results in good overall cosmetic and functional outcome.

2012-01-01

246

Piezoelectrically actuated insect scale flapping wing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An energy method is used in order to derive the non-linear equations of motion of a smart flapping wing. Flapping wing is actuated from the root by a PZT unimorph in the piezofan configuration. Dynamic characteristics of the wing, having the same size as dragonfly Aeshna Multicolor, are analyzed using numerical simulations. It is shown that flapping angle variations of the smart flapping wing are similar to the actual dragonfly wing for a specific feasible voltage. An unsteady aerodynamic model based on modified strip theory is used to obtain the aerodynamic forces. It is found that the smart wing generates sufficient lift to support its own weight and carry a small payload. It is therefore a potential candidate for flapping wing of micro air vehicles.

Mukherjee, Sujoy; Ganguli, Ranjan

2010-03-01

247

Fasciocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction  

SciTech Connect

A skin and fascia flap from the medial thigh is proposed for vaginal and perineal reconstruction. Dissection, vascular injection, and radiographs of 20 fresh cadaver limbs uniformly demonstrated the presence of a communicating suprafascial vascular plexus in the medial thigh. Three to four nonaxial vessels were consistently found to enter the proximal plexus from within 5 cm of the perineum. Preservation of these vessels permitted reliable elevation of a 9 X 20 cm fasciocutaneous flap without using the gracilis muscle as a vascular carrier. Fifteen flaps in 13 patients were used for vaginal replacement and coverage of vulvectomy, groin, and ischial defects. Depending on the magnitude of the defect, simultaneous and independent elevation of the gracilis muscle provided additional vascularized coverage as needed. Our experience indicates that the medial thigh fasciocutaneous flap is a durable, less bulky, and potentially sensate alternative to the gracilis musculocutaneous flap for vaginal and perineal reconstruction.

Wang, T.N.; Whetzel, T.; Mathes, S.J.; Vasconez, L.O.

1987-07-01

248

Flexibility and Direction Reversal in Flapping Locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better understand the role of flexibility in the flapping of wings and fins in Nature, experimentalists at NYU have studied a heaving foil with passive pitching. We analyze this system numerically, having constructed a high-order accurate numerical scheme to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensions to study the dynamics. We are able to reproduce qualitatively the results of the experiments: by increasing the flapping frequency, we find regions of improved performance when compared to a rigid wing, regions of under-performance, and a bi-stable regime where the flapping wing can move horizontally in either direction. The numerical simulations have led to predictions of other modes of flapping locomotion, which have subsequently been observed in experiments. We also find that a symmetry breaking transition to forward flapping flight, as observed in experiments of a heaving foil with no pitching, may be directed with only very slight flexibility.

Spagnolie, Saverio; Shelley, Michael

2008-11-01

249

Flexibility and Direction Reversal in Flapping Locomotion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better understand the role of flexibility in the flapping of wings and fins in Nature, experimentalists at NYU have studied a heaving foil with passive pitching. We analyze this system numerically, having constructed a high-order accurate numerical scheme to solve the full Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensions to study the dynamics. We are able to reproduce qualitatively the results of the experiments: by increasing the flapping frequency, we find regions of improved performance when compared to a rigid wing, regions of under-performance, and a bi-stable regime where the flapping wing can move horizontally in either direction. The numerical simulations have led to predictions of other modes of flapping locomotion, which have subsequently been observed in experiments. We also find that a symmetry breaking transition to forward flapping flight, as observed in experiments of a heaving foil with no pitching, may be directed with only very slight flexibility.

Spagnolie, Saverio; Shelley, Michael

2009-03-01

250

First dorsal metacarpal artery flap for thumb reconstruction: a retrospective clinical study  

PubMed Central

Extensive pulp (zone 4) defects of the thumb, with the exposure of tendon or bone, are challenging reconstructive problems. Surgical treatment includes the use of local, regional, and free flaps. The first dorsal metacarpal artery flap has been used successfully for defects of the thumb. The innerved first dorsal metacarpal artery flap from the dorsum of the index finger was first described by Hilgenfeldt and refined by Holevich. An island flap carried on a neurovascular pedicle consisting of the first dorsal metacarpal artery was first demonstrated by Foucher and Braun. Seven innervated FDMCA island flaps were performed from May 2005 until July 2007 for thumb reconstruction. There were three women and four men with an average age of 54.9 years (range 28–89 years). The mean follow-up period was 15.4 months (range 4–29 months). The dominant hand was involved in six (85.7%) patients. In a retrospective clinical study, the following criteria were evaluated: (1) etiology of the defect, (2) time of reconstruction (primary vs. delayed), (3) survival rate of flap, (4) sensory function (Semmes–Weinstein monofilaments, static 2-PD, pain, cortical reorientation), (5) TAM measured with the Kapandji index, and (6) subjective patient satisfaction (SF 36). Four patients presented with trauma, two patients with defects after tumor resection and one with infection of the thumb. The flap was used for immediate reconstruction in three (42.9%) patients and for delayed reconstruction in four (57.1%) patients. Delayed reconstruction was performed 4.75 (1–12) months after initial trauma or first surgery. The donor area was grafted with full-thickness skin grafts in all cases. All flaps survived. The mean SWMF was 3.31 g and average statis 2-PD over the flap was 10.57 mm. Pain at the flap scored 3.71 over 10 and at the donor site 2.17 over 10. Paresthesia at the flap scored 0.57 over 4 and at the donor site 0.33 over 4. Complete cortical reorientation was only seen in one patient. The mean Kapandji score of the reconstructed thumb was 7.43 over 10. Using the SF-36, mean physical health of the patients scored 66.88% and mean mental health scored 70.55%. Disturbing pain and paresthesia of the flap are exceptional. The static 2-PD is more than 10 mm, and is clinically over the limit. Cortical reorientation was incomplete in all but one patient. Touch on thumb is felt on the dorsum of the index finger; however, sensation is not disturbing or interfering with the patient’s activities. Foucher described the technique débranchement–rébranchement in order to improve this problem. The postoperative total amount of motion of the reconstructed thumb was very good. The results demonstrated that the FDMCA flap has a constant anatomy and easy dissection. It has a low donor site morbidity if FTSG is used. It also shows good functional and aesthetic results. Therefore, the FDMCA flap is a first treatment of choice for defects of the proximal phalanx and proximal part of the distal phalanx of the thumb.

Muyldermans, Thomas

2009-01-01

251

Immediate breast reconstruction for stage III breast cancer using transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The management of stage III breast cancer is challenging; it often includes multimodal treatment with systemic therapy and\\/or radiation therapy and surgery. Immediate breast reconstruction has not traditionally been performed in these patients. We review the results of immediate transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap in 21 patients treated for stage III breast cancer.\\u000aMethods: Data have been collected

Toncred M. Styblo; Melinda M. Lewis; Grant W. Carlson; Douglas R. Murray; William C. Wood; David Lawson; Jerome Landry; Lorie Hughes; Foad Nahai; John Bostwick

1996-01-01

252

Massive tears of the rotator cuff treated with a deltoid flap  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 29 patients younger than 65 years at surgery treated with deltoid flap reconstruction for massive postero-superior rotator cuff tears. All tears involved supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons and were associated with tendon stump retraction to the glenoid rim, a preservable long biceps tendon, and an intact subscapularis tendon. Mean follow-up was 10.5 years. Patient satisfaction

Eric Vandenbussche; Moncef Bensaďda; Céline Mutschler; Thierry Dart; Bernard Augereau

2004-01-01

253

Treatment of cranium bifidum occultum of the frontonasal region with a pericranial flap.  

PubMed

Cranium bifidum is a congenital anomaly caused by abnormal development of the cephalic neural tube. We report two cases of cranium bifidum occultum with defects of both the frontal bone and anterior cranial base accompanied by infection and enlargement of frontonasal dermoid cysts. Surgery successfully interrupted the communication between the intracranial space and nasal cavity by inserting a pericranial flap after removal of the dermoid cysts. PMID:22119376

Okumoto, T; Iijima, Y; Yoshimura, Y

2012-03-01

254

Umbilical reconstruction using a modified inverted C-V flap with conjoint flaps.  

PubMed

The umbilicus is an important aesthetic feature of the abdomen. Because of its location, the umbilicus can be injured after abdominal surgical procedures. Various methods have been devised to reconstruct the umbilicus by using local flaps, purse-string sutures, or a cartilage graft, but there are no ideal methods. The authors have created a modified inverted C-V flap with conjoint flaps. A 10-year-old boy presented with deformed umbilicus because he had undergone surgical correction of an omphalocele. The drawback of the traditional C-V flap method is the transverse long abdominal scar because of the long length of the V flap. However, by using two conjoint flaps at the superior part of the C-V flap, the length of V flap can be more short and the umbilical wall can be reconstructed by rotation of two conjoint flaps. It is also good for making a sinusoidal pocket and it makes the umbilicus deeper and more natural-looking. After the operation, there were no complications like flap necrosis, infection, haematoma, and so on. The patient was satisfied with the results The patient had a more attractive umbilicus than the one with the other previous technique. This new method makes a natural-looking umbilicus with less of a transverse scar and an adequate sinusoidal pocket and umbilical wall. PMID:23829506

Lee, Yoonho; Lee, San Ha; Woo, Kevin Volt

2013-09-01

255

Facial subdermal vascular network flap: anatomic study and clinical application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the numerous flaps for facial reconstruction that have been described, the search for the ideal flap with good color matching and minimal donor-site morbidity continues. In the past 3 years we have repaired 13 facial defects with success using the lateral genicervical flap - a type of facial subdermal vascular network flap (SVNF) - with a pedicle located on

S.-H. Xiong; X.-D. Cheng; D.-C. Xu; N. Li; L. Yan; T.-L. Zhao; L. Yu; H. Liao; F. Suwa; A. Takemura; I. Toda; H. Ike; Y.-R. Fang

2002-01-01

256

Outcome of modified turn in flaps for the lining with primary cartilage support in nasal reconstruction.  

PubMed

Turning in adjacent skin from the residual nose to line a full-thickness defect is still a controversial option. Text books continue to perpetuate that such flaps are poorly vascularized and may not survive if longer than 1.5 cm. The rationale of our study was to challenge the traditional thoughts about the turn-in flaps for the lining and describe our modified technique of raising these flaps so that well-vascularized thin tissue can be provided for the lining. The study was conducted at the Department of Plastic Surgery, KEMU, Lahore, from January 2007 to March 2011. Eighteen patients were included. They had posttraumatic full-thickness nasal defect of variable extent, involving the lower third of the nose. In the first stage of reconstruction, the epithelialized portion and 5-mm portion of normal adjoining skin were dermabraded. The residual skin of nasal dorsum, side walls, and alae was turned in to form inner lining of 2 nostrils. These flaps were based on healthy dermabraded skin to ensure adequate blood supply. Residual septal and conchal cartilages were used for primary support. Standard ipsilateral paramedian forehead flap with slight oblique design was used for resurfacing. Final assessment of airway patency and alar rim contour was made by the patient at 6 months as satisfactory, just satisfactory, and not satisfactory. There were 12 female and 6 male patients. There was necrosis of distal portion of the forehead flap in 1 case. Partial graft loss at the donor site with bone exposure was noted in another case. There was partial dehiscence and necrosis of turndown flap in 3cases. Mean flap size was 2.05 ± 0.28 cm. As regards airway patency, 12 patients were satisfied, 4 patients were just satisfied, and 2 patients were unsatisfied. When asked about alar rim contour, 3 patients said it to be satisfactory, 9 patients found it just satisfactory, and 6 patients declared it unsatisfactory. Nasal turndown flaps provide reliable tissue for the lining and allow primary placement of cartilage grafts. PMID:23524713

Bashir, Muhammad Mustehsan; Khan, Bilal Ahmad; Abbas, Muhammad; Khan, Farid Ahmad

2013-03-01

257

Periosteal Flap fixation of the Globe for Surgical Treatment of Severe Restrictive Strabismus: A Report of Eight Cases with Outcomes.  

PubMed

Purpose: Severe paretic and restrictive strabismus presents a challenging surgical problem. Despite aggressive, and often multiple, surgical attempts, patients can have recurrence of large angle binocular misalignments. In this paper, we present a series of patients who underwent apically-based orbital bone periosteal flap fixation of the globe in cases of restrictive strabismus due to isolated third-nerve and sixth-nerve palsies, multiple cranial nerve palsies, and severe ocular fibrosis syndrome. Methods: We performed a retrospective study at our institution of patients who underwent a periosteal flap fixation. In all cases presented, the creation of the periosteal flap was performed by an orbital surgeon, and the strabismus surgery and follow-up data points were performed and collected by a strabologist. Results: A total of 8 patients underwent a periosteal flap fixation of the globe. The mean age was 48 years old. Three patients had a third cranial nerve palsy, one patient had congenital fibrosis, one patient had sixth cranial nerve palsy, and three patients had multiple cranial nerve palsies. Five patients had a medial periosteal flap constructed, and 3 patients had a temporal periosteal flap. Seven of the 8 patients had stable postoperative strabometry (binocular misalignment) measurements. A single patient required an additional procedure secondary to postoperative drift (a mild recurrence of binocular misalignment). Conclusions: The surgical correction of severe paretic and restrictive strabismus is complex and can present a formidable challenge. The use of an orbital bone-based periosteal fixation flap, at our institution, has shown satisfactory outcomes not only with regard to improved postoperative deviation, but also, in that most patients required only this single procedure, usually after several prior unsuccessful interventions by standard strabismus surgery procedures. PMID:22204549

Ahmed, Rehan; Coats, David K; Yen, Michael T

2011-01-01

258

Dynamic stall in flapping flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on experiments concerning unsteady effects in flapping flight, conducted in the low-speed wind tunnel of the TU Darmstadt using a mechanical flapping-wing model. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis parallel and perpendicular to the flow field. A sensitivity analysis of the main flight parameters has been performed, with specific attention to the flight envelope of 26,500 < Re < 135,000 and 0.029 < k < 0.29 (k=?f c / U?). The phase-averaged reconstructions of the flow field are then used to calculate the phase-resolved forces acting on the model and were compared with the results from an internal three component balance. The existence of the dynamic stall effect could be verified by the direct force measurement as well as the flow visualization. The observation of the leading-edge vortex for typical bird flight reduced frequencies shows that this flow cannot be approximated as being quasi- steady. This in effect proves that adaptive wings are necessary to fully control these unsteady flow features, such as dynamic stall.

Hubel, Tatjana; Tropea, Cameron

2007-11-01

259

Delineation of LASIK Flaps with Prednisolone Acetate Eyedrops  

PubMed Central

We describe the use and safety of prednisolone acetate eyedrops at the end of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to aid proper positioning of the corneal flap. The LASIK flap is created using the preferred technique. Following laser ablation and flap repositioning, one drop of prednisolone acetate is instilled on the eye. This delineates the flap “gutters” and allows perfect flap positioning and centration. We used this technique in 425 eyes undergoing LASIK for correction of spherocylindrical refractive errors. Flap margins were adequately delineated intraoperatively. The only complication related to the use of the steroid suspension was crystal deposition under the flap in one case which resolved completely in 48 hours.

Fahd, Daoud C; Fahed, Sharbel D

2014-01-01

260

Limb salvage surgery  

PubMed Central

The threat of lower limb loss is seen commonly in severe crush injury, cancer ablation, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy. The primary goal of limb salvage is to restore and maintain stability and ambulation. Reconstructive strategies differ in each condition such as: Meticulous debridement and early coverage in trauma, replacing lost functional units in cancer ablation, improving vascularity in ischaemic leg and providing stable walking surface for trophic ulcer. The decision to salvage the critically injured limb is multifactorial and should be individualised along with laid down definitive indications. Early cover remains the standard of care, delayed wound coverage not necessarily affect the final outcome. Limb salvage is more cost-effective than amputations in a long run. Limb salvage is the choice of procedure over amputation in 95% of limb sarcoma without affecting the survival. Compound flaps with different tissue components, skeletal reconstruction; tendon transfer/reconstruction helps to restore function. Adjuvant radiation alters tissue characters and calls for modification in reconstructive plan. Neuropathic ulcers are wide and deep often complicated by osteomyelitis. Free flap reconstruction aids in faster healing and provides superior surface for offloading. Diabetic wounds are primarily due to neuropathy and leads to six-fold increase in ulcerations. Control of infections, aggressive debridement and vascular cover are the mainstay of management. Endovascular procedures are gaining importance and have reduced extent of surgery and increased amputation free survival period. Though the standard approach remains utilising best option in the reconstruction ladder, the recent trend shows running down the ladder of reconstruction with newer reliable local flaps and negative wound pressure therapy.

Kadam, Dinesh

2013-01-01

261

Platysma Flap with Z-Plasty for Correction of Post-Thyroidectomy Swallowing Deformity  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the number of thyroid surgery cases has been increasing; consequently, the number of patients who visit plastic surgery departments with a chief complaint of swallowing deformity has also increased. We performed a scar correction technique on post-thyroidectomy swallowing deformity via platysma flap with Z-plasty and obtained satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes. Methods The authors performed operations upon 18 patients who presented a definitive retraction on the swallowing mechanism as an objective sign of swallowing deformity, or throat or neck discomfort on swallowing mechanism such as sensation of throat traction as a subjective sign after thyoridectomy from January 2009 till June 2012. The scar tissue that adhered to the subcutaneous tissue layer was completely excised. A platysma flap as mobile interference was applied to remove the continuity of the scar adhesion, and additionally, Z-plasty for prevention of midline platysma banding was performed. Results The follow-up results of the 18 patients indicated that the definitive retraction on the swallowing mechanism was completely removed. Throat or neck discomfort on the swallowing mechanism such as sensation of throat traction also was alleviated in all 18 patients. When preoperative and postoperative Vancouver scar scales were compared to each other, the scale had decreased significantly after surgery (P<0.05). Conclusions Our simple surgical method involved the formation of a platysma flap with Z-plasty as mobile interference for the correction of post-thyroidectomy swallowing deformity. This method resulted in aesthetically and functionally satisfying outcomes.

Jeon, Min Kyeong; Kang, Seok Joo

2013-01-01

262

Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

Platt, Robert C

1936-01-01

263

The Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator and Pedicled Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap in Breast Reconstruction: A Comparative Study  

PubMed Central

Background Our objective was to compare the complication rates of two common breast reconstruction techniques performed at our hospital and the cost-effectiveness for each test group. Methods All patients who underwent deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap and transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap by the same surgeon were selected and matched according to age and mastectomy with or without axillary clearance. Patients from each resultant group were selected, with the patients matched chronologically. The remainder were matched for by co-morbidities. Sixteen patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with pedicled TRAM flaps and 16 patients with DIEP flaps from 1999 to 2006 were accrued. The average total hospitalisation cost, length of hospitalisation, and complications in the 2 year duration after surgery for each group were compared. Results Complications arising from both the pedicled TRAM flaps and DIEP flaps included fat necrosis (TRAM, 3/16; DIEP, 4/16) and other minor complications (TRAM, 3/16; DIEP, 1/16). The mean hospital stay was 7.13 days (range, 4 to 12 days) for the pedicled TRAM group and 7.56 (range, 5 to 10 days) for the DIEP group. Neither the difference in complication rates nor in hospital stay duration were statistically significant. The total hospitalisation cost for the DIEP group was significantly higher than that of the pedicled TRAM group (P<0.001). Conclusions Based on our study, the pedicled TRAM flap remains a cost-effective technique in breast reconstruction when compared to the newer, more expensive and tedious DIEP flap.

Tan, Shane; Yek, Jacklyn; Ong, Wei Chen; Hing, Chor Hoong; Lim, Thiam Chye

2013-01-01

264

TRAM flap breast reconstruction after radiation treatment.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Patients with and without radiation treatment before their breast reconstruction were compared to study the relationship of radiation to flap-related complications. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap for breast reconstruction involves a a vascular pedicle and recipient bed, both included in the radiated field of patients undergoing adjunctive therapy. Detailed reviews of flap-related complications in this subgroup of patients have been limited. METHODS: One hundred eight patients with radiation treatment who subsequently underwent a TRAM flap breast reconstruction were compared with 572 patients with no radiation treatment before similar reconstruction. Flap-related complications, radiation dosage, time, fields, relationships between risk factors, and complications were studied. RESULTS: Overall complication rates were comparable between the two groups. Only fat necrosis (> 10% of total reconstruction) was found to be statistically significant (17.6% vs. 10.1%, p = 0.03228). No difference was found for fat necrosis in unipedicled vs. bipedicled flaps controlled for radiation (17.7% vs. 17.4%). Obesity and radiation therapy were associated with fat necrosis and major infection in a logistic regression. Significant abdominal scarring was also associated with major infection (p = 0.0044). CONCLUSIONS: In this, the largest reported series, radiation therapy was associated with increased fat necrosis and major infection. The use of the TRAM flap was not found to be prohibitive in radiated patients and should still be the first choice in this subgroup of patients. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Williams, J K; Bostwick, J; Bried, J T; Mackay, G; Landry, J; Benton, J

1995-01-01

265

First report of squamous cell carcinoma arising within an intraoral radial forearm free flap  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Oral epithelial dysplasia within free tissue reconstructions of the oral cavity has been reported. We report a case where squamous carcinoma arose within radial forearm skin transferred to the oral cavity 23 years previously. After a thorough literature search we believe this is the first report of such a phenomenon. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 62-year-old man presented to our service with pain and a new mass in the left floor of mouth. The floor of mouth had been reconstructed with a radial forearm free flap (RFFF) 23 years earlier following resection of a mucosal squamous cancer. This new mass was within the reconstruction tissue. Biopsy showed multiple areas of dysplasia and a single new focus of invasive carcinoma. This new tumour was excised and reconstructed with a contralateral nasolabial flap. Formal histology showed an arrector pili muscle adjacent to invasive cancer. Some years earlier dysplasia had been noted in the free flap skin component. DISCUSSION The skin component of free tissue transfer reconstruction flaps has been shown to develop epithelial dysplastic change. This has been found to be associated with similar levels of p53 mutation and increased Ki-67 expression within this intraoral skin and adjacent dysplastic mucosa. Our case demonstrates similar levels of expression of mutated p53 and Ki-67 in in situ epithelium and in invasive tissue perhaps supporting the idea of expansion of premalignant cells into the skin flap epidermis. CONCLUSION We have shown for the first time that a new SCCa has developed within the cutaneous component of a free tissue transfer flap. With improved longevity of patients treated with primary surgery for oral cavity SCCa there is need for vigilance in monitoring for this cancer recurrence site.

Cymerman, James A.; Kulkarni, Raghav; Gouldesbrough, David; McCaul, James A.

2013-01-01

266

The Adverse Effect of Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor on Random Skin Flap Survival in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. Methods The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE) for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . Results 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65±2.81)% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81±2.33)%(P <0.01). Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm2 being lower in study group (15.4±4.4) than in control group (27.2±4.1) (P <0.05). To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45±153.1), and in control group was (2638.05±132.2) (P <0.01). The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45±472.0) vs (4938.05±123.6)(P <0.01).In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. Conclusion Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

Ren, Haiyong; Lin, Dingsheng; Mou, Zhenyu; Dong, Pu

2013-01-01

267

Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with DIEP flap after breast-conserving therapy  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Currently about 70% of women who suffer from breast cancer undergo breast-conserving therapy (BCT) without removing the entire breast. Thus, this surgical approach is the standard therapy for primary breast cancer. If corrections are necessary, the breast surgeon is faced with irritated skin and higher risks of complications in wound healing. After radiation, an implant-based reconstruction is only recommended in selected cases. Correction of a poor BCT outcome is often only solved with an additional extended operation using autologous reconstruction. Material/Methods In our plastic surgery unit, which focuses on breast reconstruction, we offer a skin-sparing or subcutaneous mastectomy, followed by primary breast reconstruction based on free autologous tissue transfer to correct poor BCT outcomes. Between July 2004 and May 2011 we performed 1068 deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps for breast reconstruction, including 64 skin-sparing or subcutaneous mastectomies, followed by primary DIEP breast reconstruction procedures after BCT procedures. Results In all free flap-based breast reconstruction procedures, we had a total flap loss in 0.8% (9 cases). Within the group of patients after BCT, we performed 41 DIEP flaps and 23 ms-2 TRAM flaps after skin-sparing or subcutaneous mastectomies to reconstruct the breast. Among this group we had of a total flap loss in 1.6% (1 case). Conclusions In cases of large tumour sizes and/or difficult tumour locations, the initial oncologic breast surgeon should inform the patients of a possibly poor cosmetic result after BCT and radiation. In our opinion a skin-sparing mastectomy with primary breast reconstruction should be discussed as a valid alternative.

Andree, Christoph; Munder, Beatrix; Seidenstuecker, Katrin; Richrath, Philipp; Behrendt, Philipp; Koppe, Tobias; Hagouan, Mazen; Audretsch, Werner; Nestle-Kramling, Carolin; Witzel, Christian

2012-01-01

268

Alternative techniques for pedicle transfer of an island flap and a free flap  

PubMed Central

Alternative techniques for pedicle transfer of a reverse radial forearm flap for hand coverage, and a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap for pelvic wound coverage, are illustrated. Exteriorization of the vascular pedicle of a reverse radial forearm flap allows a greater arc of movement of the flap for more distal coverage, and avoids the potential vascular compromise of tunnelling under a tight skin bridge. Two-stage transfer of a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous free flap on a wrist carrier pedicle may be useful in circumstances when local recipient vessels are inadequate for free flap transfer. Although both of these vascular pedicle modifications have drawbacks, they may be of value in limited circumstances. Their advantages and limitations are discussed.

Classen, Dale A

2005-01-01

269

Tourniquet-Free Hand Surgery Using the One-per-Mil Tumescent Technique  

PubMed Central

Background A pneumatic tourniquet is generally used to achieve a bloodless operation field in hand surgery. However, this has changed with tumescent solution-based wide-awake surgery. This study is a preliminary prospective case series study to elaborate the formula and indications of the tumescent technique in hand surgery without a tourniquet. Methods Seven patients (age range, 4 months to 37 years) underwent hand or upper extremity surgery for conditions such as nerve palsy, electric burn defect, fingertip injury, contracture, constriction ring syndrome, or acrosyndactyly. A "one-per-mil" tumescent solution (epinephrine 1:1,000,000+20 mg lidocaine/50 mL saline) was used to create a bloodless operating field without a tourniquet. Observation was performed to document the amount of solution injected, the operation field clarity, and the postoperative pain. Results The "one per mil" epinephrine solution showed an effective hemostatic effect. The tumescent technique resulted in an almost bloodless operation field in the tendon and in the constriction ring syndrome surgeries, minimal bleeding in the flap and contracture release surgeries, and acceptable bleeding in acrosyndactyly surgery. The amount of solution injected ranged from 5.3 to 60 mL. No patient expressed significant postoperative pain. Flap surgeries showed mixed results. One flap was lost, while the others survived. Conclusions Epinephrine 1:1,000,000 in saline solution is a potential replacement for a tourniquet in hand surgery. Further studies are needed to delineate its safety for flap survival.

2013-01-01

270

An endoscopic approach to longitudinal structures including muscle flaps and vein, tendon, and nerve grafts.  

PubMed

Anatomically favorable structures that have a longitudinal orientation are particularly amenable to endoscopic harvest. Typically, only a single portal is necessary for access, and an optical cavity can be maintained using a mechanical retraction device. As with all minimal invasive surgery, this can still allow rapid and often a safer tissue harvest with diminished morbidity, especially with respect to wound healing and non-aesthetic scar formation. Many plastic surgery applications have already been described facilitated by the endoscopic harvest of vein, tendon, and nerve grafts, as well as certain local or free muscle flaps. PMID:20567684

Hallock, Geoffrey G; Rice, David C

2008-02-01

271

Flap-augmented shrouds for aerogenerators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axisymmetrical shrouds for windmills are augmented by ring-shaped 'flaps' and their performance is studied experimentally. The concept of the shroud as an annular 'wing' is justified, leading to the conclusion that high-lift techniques should be used in shroud design, and that high-lift devices, such as flaps, would increase the power output of the windmill. It is shown experimentally that the ideal power output of a flap-augmented shrouded turbine can be more than 4 times the power of unshrouded turbines of the same diameter.

Seginer, A.

1976-01-01

272

Hairy intraoral flap--an unusual indication for laser epilation: a series of 5 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A variety of the flaps used to reconstruct defects of the head and neck region following surgery for malignant disease contain hair follicles that may result in unwanted hair growth. This can cause significant distress to the patients in a variety of ways. We report 5 cases of significant intraoral hair growth of which 4 cases were successfully managed with long-pulsed alexandrite laser. One patient was not treated due to technical difficulties. We review the literature on the management of hair growth on intraoral flaps. PMID:21306803

Shim, Tang Ngee; Abdullah, Anthony; Lanigan, Sean; Avery, Christopher

2011-10-01

273

Robotic surgery  

MedlinePLUS

Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

274

Combined tongue flap and V-Y advancement flap for lower lip defects.  

PubMed

A combined tongue flap and V-Y advanced flap were used for reconstruction of the lower lip after radical excision of squamous cell carcinoma. This V-Y advancement flap is useful because the procedure does not require any difficult technique, and preservation of the orbicularis oris muscle and the branch of the mental artery and nerve are possible. The vermilion is reconstructed with a tongue flap, with almost no disturbance in the patients' speaking or eating and satisfactory cosmetic results. We describe this procedure in two cases. PMID:15710124

Yano, Kenji; Hosokawa, Ko; Kubo, Tateki

2005-03-01

275

Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap for Breast Reconstruction: Bad Rap or Good Flap?  

PubMed Central

Objective: This article serves to review latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap as an option for breast reconstruction postmastectomy. Since the introduction of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in the late 1970s, its use has always been as a secondary technique, particularly after the development of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap in the 1980s. Methods: A literature review of the history of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap utilized for breast reconstruction as well as a review of our institution's experience with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and tissue expander placement was performed. Results: There remains a paucity of published studies investigating latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Most studies have small numbers and do not utilize tissue expanders. More recently several small studies have been published that show acceptably low complication rates with aesthetically pleasing outcomes when latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is employed with a tissue expander. At our institution, we have employed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with tissue expander placement for both delayed and immediate reconstruction with subsequent replacement with a permanent implant with a capsular contraction rate of 10.5%. Our data and others more recently published demonstrate very acceptable capsular contracture rates and aesthetic outcomes, particularly when an expander is utilized. Conclusion: The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction with a low risk of complications.

Perdikis, Galen; Koonce, Stephanie; Collis, George; Eck, Dustin

2011-01-01

276

The Versatile Use of Temporoparietal Fascial Flap  

PubMed Central

Background: The pedicled or free temporoparietal fascial has been used in many areas, especially in head and neck reconstruction. This thin, pliable, highly vascularized flap may be also transferred as a carrier of subjacent bone or overlying skin. Objective: The aim of this study is to report our experience in versatile use of temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF) and discuss the surgical anatomy and technique. Patients and Methods: A total number of 57 TPFFs have been used in periorbital, mid-facial, auricular, and tracheal reconstruction due to tumor resection, trauma, and congenital ear deformities. Results: All the flaps were successfully transferred without any major complication. The cosmetic results were quite satisfactory to all patients. Conclusion: The advantages and minimal donor site morbidity of TPPF makes this flap a good choice in many reconstructive procedures.

Demirdover, Cenk; Sahin, Baris; Vayvada, Haluk; Oztan, Hasan Yucel

2011-01-01

277

14 CFR 23.701 - Flap interconnection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.701 Flap interconnection...unsafe flight characteristic of the airplane is extremely improbable; or (b) The airplane must be shown to have safe...

2014-01-01

278

Modified semilunar coronally advanced flap: A case series.  

PubMed

Dentists traditionally think of periodontal treatment as a means of saving the teeth while leaving the patient with an esthetic problem. The goal of gingival esthetics is to maintain normal healthy gingival appearance around teeth that must be restored. Gingival recession represents a significant concern for patients and a therapeutic problem for the clinician. Root coverage is the goal of periodontal plastic surgery when treating gingival recessions in the esthetic zone. Correction of mucogingival recession deformities with a variety of periodontal plastic surgical procedures have been described each demonstrating a variable degree of success. This case report presents to you the treatment outcomes and predictability of modified semilunar coronally advanced flap (Kamran Haghighat) techniques described for the treatment of recession defects on single and multiple adjacent teeth, respectively. PMID:23633787

Pai, B S Jagadish; Rajan, Smitha Anitha; Padma, R; Suragimath, Girish; Annaji, Shridhar; Kamath, K Vinesh

2013-01-01

279

Ventral tongue myomucosal flap: a suitable choice for shaved lower vermilion border reconstruction.  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or verrocous carcinoma (VC) occurs frequently on the border of the lower lip and surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment. The vermilion border area is difficult to reconstruct and is very complex both morphologically and anatomically. Various reconstructive approaches for defects of the vermilion border have been described. However, for esthetics, reconstruction of the vermilion border defect by tissue of normal texture and color is paramount.We used a ventral myomucosal tongue flap for reconstruction of the vermilion border after radical excision of squamous cell carcinomas of the lip in 15 patients with labial carcinoma. The tumor was resected with a safe margin (1 cm in SCC and 0.5 cm in VC) in an approximately rectangular shape. Free-border confirmation was done using frozen section. A longitudinal strip of the free border of the tongue nonkeratinized mucosal layer with submucosal muscular layers of the tongue including the terminal branch of the lingual artery was raised. This strip extended to the angles of the mouth to cover the defect. The mucosal or myomucosal flap of the ventral tongue is designed according to the shape and size of a vermilion defect. The vermilion and subcutaneous tissue are incised, and the specimen is sent for histopathological free-border confirmation by frozen section. The flap is sutured in 2 layers, joining the mucosal border of the tongue and the upper border of the skin. The tongue flap pedicle was cut off after 3 weeks, and the oral side of the vermilion was sutured. The donor site of the tongue was closed primarily. Application of moisturizing cream for at least 2 months after surgery would be continued. In all 15 cases, the reconstructed vermilion with a tongue flap was ideal and with almost no disturbance in the patients' speaking, swallowing or taste with satisfactory cosmetic results. The ventral tongue flap is a suitable choice for vermilion border reconstruction. This flap is useful because the procedure does not require complicated surgery, and preservation of the orbicularis oris muscle and mental artery and nerve is possible. PMID:23524802

Kheradmand, Ali A; Garajei, Ata

2013-03-01

280

Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.  

PubMed

Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic insects and, to a limited extent, in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping insect wings. PMID:19692394

Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

2010-03-01

281

Mandibular reconstruction in irradiated patients utilizing myosseous-cutaneous flaps  

SciTech Connect

Myosseous-cutaneous flaps were used for mandibular reconstruction in 16 irradiated patients. Three of six sternomastoid-clavicle flaps failed (all in conjunction with a neck dissection), as did one of 10 pectoralis major-anterior-fifth rib flaps. One trapezius-scapular flap was used and it succeeded. We found the blood supply of the sternomastoid-clavicle flap too tenuous for use in conjunction with a neck dissection. The trapezius-scapular flap had too short an arc of rotation to be used for defects other than those in the horizontal ramus. In addition, this flap required a change of position and created an undesirable functional deformity. The pectoralis major-fifth rib flap, in contrast, could be used for a variety of defects, in conjunction with a neck dissection, and did not require a change of position during operation. We found it to be the most versatile and dependable of the flaps employed in this series.

Pearlman, N.W.; Albin, R.E.; O'Donnell, R.S.

1983-10-01

282

[The use of myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of surgical defects in the oropharyngeal area].  

PubMed

Oncological Dispensary of Leningrad Region, St.Petersburg Our paper deals with evaluation of the results of using distal pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (38) in 37 patients; bilateral dissection of tissue--1. Plastic reconstruction of surgical effects of the oral cavity and pharynx was performed in 27 (skin cancer--8, parotid salivary gland tumor--1). Flap was used to both shield the parotid artery and prevent erosive bleeding following radical cervical dissection, urgent plastic surgery--30, postponed--8. Complication, chiefly slight was reported in 60.5% and treated conservatively. Total necrosis was identified in 2 (5.3%), partial--4 (10.8%), salivary fistula--10 out of 27 reconstructions of the upper intestinal tract (18.4%), cervical suture failure--7 (18.4%), flap avulsion from wound edges--6 (15.8%), wound edge avulsion--2 (5.3%). Nasogastric probe for feeding was used for approx. 23.7 days. Feeding per os after the first operation was restored in 23 (85.2%). Repeat reconstruction using pectoralis major myocutaneous flap has proved effective in patients with surgical effects of head and neck. PMID:21395129

Roman, L D; Karpenko, A V; Chumanikhina, N S; Sibgatullin, R R; Dzsalilov, D N

2010-01-01

283

Sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver for understanding the deep circumflex iliac artery flap.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap from sectioned images and stereoscopic anatomic models using Visible Korean, for the benefit of medical education and clinical training in the field of oromandibular reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the pelvic area were obtained from a cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. The PDF (portable document format) file (size, 30 MB) of the constructed models is available for free download on the Web site of the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine (http://anatomy.co.kr). In the PDF file, the relevant structures of the DCIA flap can be seen in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures associated with the DCIA flap are displayed in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees better understand the anatomy associated with DCIA flap. PMID:24621709

Kim, Bong Chul; Chung, Min Suk; Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Dong Sun

2014-03-01

284

Reconstruction of large meningomyelocele defects with rotation-transposition fasciocutaneous flaps.  

PubMed

Meningomyelocele is one of the most common congenital defects of the central nervous system. Reconstruction of these defects must be performed immediately after delivery to prevent complications such as primary meningitis and to protect the neural tissues. The most important factors in the surgical treatment of meningomyelocele defects are the size of the defect, its location, the presence of kyphosis, and the quality of the surrounding tissue. The chosen method must be a simple one that causes minimal blood loss, requires a short duration of surgery, and covers the surface of the neural defect with a soft-tissue mass enabling closure without tension. In our study, satisfactory results have been obtained using 1 or 2 fasciocutaneous flaps based on the midline in 20 patients with large meningomyelocele defects where primary closure was not possible. A single flap based superiorly on the midline was sufficient to close the defects in patients without kyphosis. In patients with concurrent kyphosis, a second flap based inferiorly on the midline has been used. All flaps survived, except for a distal partial necrosis observed in 1 patient. In the method we used, we adopted a defect reconstruction that is similar to the normal anatomic structures and resistant to trauma and infections, and does not sacrifice any muscle tissue. According to our clinical experiences, this method is useful for large meningomyelocele defects that are unsuitable for primary closure. PMID:21734541

Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Civelek, Birol; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapi, Emin; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

2012-08-01

285

Ex vivo intraoperative angiography for rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flaps.  

PubMed

In this study, the vascular architecture of rectus abdominis free flaps nourished by deep inferior epigastric vessels was investigated using an ex vivo intraoperative angiogram. Oblique rectus abdominis free flaps were elevated and isolated from the donor site. In 11 patients, the vascular architecture of these flaps was analyzed before the flap was thinned. Radiographic study identified an average of 2.1 large deep inferior epigastric arterial perforators in each flap. In nine of the 11 flaps, the axial artery was visible. In four flaps, the axial artery originated from the perforator of the lateral branch of the deep inferior epigastric artery; in five others, it originated from the medial branch. In each flap, the angle of the axial perforator from its anterior rectus sheath in the vertical plane was measured; its mean was 50.6 degrees. All flaps survived, although three showed partial necrosis in the distal portions. In two of these three flaps, the axial artery was not visible in the angiograms, and the third revealed a one-sided distribution of axial flap arteries. Using ex vivo intraoperative angiography, the architecture of the individual flap, its axial perforator, and its connecting axial flap vessel could be investigated. This information can help the surgeon safely thin and separate the flap. PMID:12045546

Ohjimi, Hiroyuki; Era, Kozo; Tanahashi, Shinji; Kawano, Katsuyuki; Manabe, Tsuyoshi; Naitoh, Masatoshi

2002-06-01

286

[The inferior gluteal musculocutaneous flap: Short and long-term results for 69 patients].  

PubMed

The inferior gluteal musculocutaneous flap described by Shaw then Le-Quang offers the possibility of harvesting a large amount of tissue with a well-concealed scar in the inferior fold. Since 1996, we used this flap for breast reconstruction without implant. The purpose of this study was to assess short and for long-term results in our patients. Between 1996 and 2005, 64 patients underwent 69 musculocutaneous flaps by two seniors surgeons, for secondary unilateral reconstruction (57 cases, 51 total mastectomy, three partial mastectomy, three constitutional breast asymmetry), five bilateral reconstruction or one thoracic skin ulceration after radiotherapy. The average flap weight and size was respectively 360g and 18 × 7cm. For short results, the assessment was based on flap success and surgical morbidity. For long-term results, the assessment was based on breast result (shape, volume, symmetry, skin and scar) and donor-site morbidity (scar, contour deformity, muscle function and sensation). Patients and surgeons global satisfaction were compared. Minimal follow-up was three years for 60 patients. Two patients died with metastasis. Sixty-three flaps succeeded. We had five flap necrosis, one after general complication (pulmonary embolism), four after venous thrombosis during the first period of our experience. Forty patients underwent a second procedure on the flap or on the other breast (25 cases). For the patients, the global result was excellent in 20 cases, good in 32 cases, fair in nine cases. For surgeons the global result was excellent in 13 cases, good in 32 cases, fair in 13 cases and poor in three cases. Concerning the donor-site, only one patient had an asymmetry of the buttock. Mostly, the scar of the donor site was good. Five cases needed a new surgery for poor scar. Five patients had functional complaints (for bicycle and squatting). Twenty-three patients noticed the hypoesthesia in the territory of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. For breast reconstruction, the gluteal region is an acceptable donor site with low morbidity and stable results. This technique needed a relative long learning curve, especially for the venous pedicle. We recommend to use a large vein dissected from the arm and axillary vessels. We also reduce the harvesting volume of the muscle to preserve the function. The reconstructive breast had a good shape, sufficient volume and acceptable symmetry. PMID:20561738

Duquennoy-Martinot, V; Le Pendeven, R; Patenôtre, P; Calibre, C; Guerreschi, P

2010-12-01

287

Image-guided perforator flap design using invisible near-infrared light and validation with x-ray angiography.  

PubMed

Although perforator flaps mark an important conceptual change in reconstructive surgery, individual perforator vessels show a high degree of variability with respect to anatomic landmarks. We have developed an intraoperative imaging system that simultaneously displays surgical anatomy and otherwise invisible near-infrared images. In 22 adult pigs, perforating vessels were identified within seconds using this optical imaging system and systemic injection of indocyanine green. Perforator flaps were then designed based on these results, and vessel location confirmed by direct visualization and anatomic dissection. Since x-ray angiography remains the gold standard for identification of underlying vessels, conventional x-ray angiography was also performed in 8 pigs to verify the location of perforators. There was full correlation of all the perforators identified among near-infrared fluorescence angiography, x-ray angiography, and anatomic dissection. The technology we describe provides high-sensitivity real-time image guidance throughout perforator dissection, and permits patient-specific flap design. PMID:19692894

Matsui, Aya; Lee, Bernard T; Winer, Joshua H; Kianzad, Vida; Frangioni, John V

2009-09-01

288

Reconstruction of intraoral defects using facial artery musculomucosal flap.  

PubMed

The facial artery musculomucosal flap, technically a combination of the nasolabial flap and the buccal mucosal flap, has been a reliable, versatile flap, either superiorly or inferiorly based for reconstruction of a wide variety of postcancer excision intraoral mucosal defects including defects of the palate, alveolus, lips and floor of mouth. We have used it 17 times in 16 patients with no failures and one flap with terminal necrosis. Almost all flaps developed venous congestion which settled on its own by conservative management. PMID:16099439

Joshi, A; Rajendraprasad, J S; Shetty, K

2005-12-01

289

Combined posterior flap and anterior suspended flap dacryocystorhinostomy: A modification of external dacryocystorhinostomy  

PubMed Central

Background: External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) remains a reliable surgical technique for the treatment of obstruction of lacrimal drainage system beyond the common canalicular opening. Aim: To describe a simple modified double flap external DCR technique. Materials and Methods: Ninety six consecutive cases of chronic dacryocystitis with or without mucocele were selected irrespective of age and sex. In a modification to routine external DCR, a modified technique was followed, where both anterior and posterior flaps of lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa are created and sutured. Two double armed sutures were used to join the edges of anterior flaps, and elevate them anteriorly to avoid adhesion or apposition with underlying sutured posterior flaps, and to approximate the deep plane of the wound. Results: At the end of average follow-up period of 13 months, we observed 98.9% objective and 96.8% subjective success rates. The average operation time was 45 minutes. No significant intraoperative or postoperative complications were noticed. Conclusion: We believe that combined posterior flap and anterior suspended flap DCR technique is simple to perform and has the advantage of both double flap DCR and anterior suspension of anterior flaps. The results of the study showed the efficacy of this simple modification.

Deka, Amarendra; Saikia, S. P.; Bhuyan, S. K.

2010-01-01

290

Review of the free scapular flap: a versatile flap for most osteocutaneous tissue defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is little doubt that the scapular flap is a versatile flap that is suitable for most tissue defects, it has failed to gain its proper place in the reconstructive armamentarium. This may be due to the perceived donor site morbidity. However, many published articles have shown that the donor site morbidity is limited and acceptable. The scapular free

Kutlu Sevin

2001-01-01

291

Risk Factors for Complications after Reconstructive Surgery for Sternal Wound Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Although the utility of flaps for the treatment of sternal wound infections following median sternotomy has been reported for 30 years, there have been few reports on the risk factors for complications after reconstruction. The objective of this investigation was to identify factors related to complications after the reconstruction of sternal wound infections. Methods A retrospective analysis of 74 patients with reconstructive surgery after sternal wound infection over a 5-year period was performed. Clinical data including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities, bacterial culture, previous cardiac surgery, wound depth, mortality rate, type of reconstructive procedure, and complication rate were collected. Results The patients' BMI ranged from 15.2 to 33.6 kg/m2 (mean, 23.1±3.74 kg/m2). Wound closure complications after reconstructive surgery were observed in 36.5% of the cases. The mortality rate was 2.7%. Diabetes mellitus significantly affected the rate of wound closure complications (P=0.041). A significant difference in the number of complications was seen between Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (P=0.011). There was a correlation between harvesting of the internal thoracic artery and postoperative complications (P=0.048). The complication rates of the pectoralis major flap, rectus abdominis flap, omentum flap, a combination of pectoralis major flap and rectus abdominis flap, and direct closure were 23.3%, 33.3%, 100%, 37.5%, and 35.7%, respectively. Conclusions Diabetes mellitus, S. aureus, harvesting of the internal thoracic artery, and omentum flap were significant factors for complications after reconstruction. The omentum flap volume may be related to the complications associated with the omentum flap transfer in the present study.

Takaku, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Shinji; Abe, Yoshiro; Harada, Hiroshi; Nagae, Hiroaki; Fujioka, Yusuke; Anraku, Kuniaki; Inagawa, Kiichi; Nakanishi, Hideki

2014-01-01

292

Omental free-tissue transfer for coverage of complex upper extremity and hand defects--the forgotten flap.  

PubMed

Free omental tissue transfer is a versatile reconstructive option for trunk, head and neck, and extremity reconstruction. Its utility is due to the length and caliber of the vascular pedicle and the malleability and surface area of the flap. We report our experience with omental free flap coverage of complex upper-extremity defects. A retrospective analysis of eight omental free-tissue transfers in seven patients with complex upper-extremity defects between 1999 and 2008 was performed. Indications, operative technique, and outcome were evaluated. Patient age ranged from 12 to 59 years with five male and two female patients. Indications included tissue defects due to crush-degloving injuries, pitbull mauling, or necrotizing soft tissue infection. All patients had prior operations including: revascularization, debridement, tendon repair, skin grafts, and/or fixation of associated fractures. One patient sustained severe bilateral crush-degloving injuries requiring free omental hemiflap coverage of both hands. The mean defect size was 291 cm(2) with all patients achieving complete wound coverage. No flap loss or major complications were noted. Laparoscopic-assisted omental free flap harvest was performed in conjunction with the general surgery team in three cases. Mean follow-up was 2 years. The omental free flap is a valuable, often overlooked reconstructive option. The long vascular pedicle and large amount of pliable, well-vascularized tissue allow the flap to be aggressively contoured to meet the needs of complex three-dimensional defects. In addition, laparoscopic-assisted harvest may aid with flap dissection and may result in reduced donor-site morbidity. PMID:19319608

Seitz, Iris A; Williams, Craig S; Wiedrich, Thomas A; Henry, Ginard; Seiler, John G; Schechter, Loren S

2009-12-01

293

Intraoperative vascular monitoring of ipsilateral vs. contralateral TRAM flaps.  

PubMed

Transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction has become an increasingly common procedure in the 1990s. The original description of the procedure was that of an ipsilaterally based pedicled procedure. However, because of concerns about potential folding of the pedicle with possible compromise of the vascular supply, with full muscle harvest the contralateral flap soon became the flap of choice. Subsequently there have been several large clinical series of pedicled TRAM flaps reported showing a relatively high complication rate related to problems with flap vascularity. These findings resulted in many centers favoring free TRAM flap breast reconstruction, despite an increased resource utilization and negligible differences in complication rates. Ipsilateral pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction is not a commonly reported procedure, and is reserved for patients in whom scars preclude use of the contralateral pedicle. The ease of flap shaping and lack of tension on the pedicle is recognized by some, and the ipsilateral procedure has become the flap of choice for these surgeons. The authors hypothesized that ipsilateral TRAM flaps have less compromise of venous outflow as a result of the rotational tension effect of transposing the flap to the mastectomy site. To determine if the vascularity of the pedicled TRAM procedure is influenced by pedicle choice, an intraoperative clinical study was designed to compare intravascular pressures in the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein pedicle at various times from pedicle division to flap insetting. Ten consecutive ipsilateral TRAM flaps were compared with eight contralateral flaps. The deep inferior epigastric pedicle was cannulated with both an arterial and venous catheter, and pressures were monitored from the time of division of the inferior pedicle through to the time of flap insetting. The venous pressures of the contralateral flaps were significantly higher at flap rotation and flap insetting compared with the ipsilateral group (p = 0.014 and p = 0.022 respectively). Perfusion pressures showed a greater decrease in the contralateral group from the time of pedicle division to the point of flap rotation and flap insetting compared with the ipsilateral group (p = 0.081 and p = 0.055). The authors conclude that pedicle tension in contralateral TRAM flaps is more common and results in greater venous resistance and decreased perfusion pressures. Versatility in flap shaping, improved maintenance of the IMF, and lack of disruption of the natural xyphoid hollow gives ipsilateral TRAM flaps additional advantages. PMID:9869135

Clugston, P A; Lennox, P A; Thompson, R P

1998-12-01

294

Long-term survival after chest-wall reconstruction with musculocutaneous flaps  

SciTech Connect

Reconstruction of chest-wall defects with musculocutaneous flaps permits resection of advanced chest-wall tumors and of tissues severely damaged by radiotherapy in patients who in a previous era were not surgically treatable. To determine the long-term outcome from this surgery, the records of 96 patients who had undergone chest-wall resection with musculocutaneous flap reconstruction were reviewed. Median survival for the entire group was 20.5 months, but a more accurate prediction of outcome could be obtained by dividing the patients into three groups. In group I, patients free of known malignancy and undergoing resection of radionecrotic tissues, median survival was 60.0 months. In group II, patients with resectable disease and free of tumor following surgery, median survival was 31.1 months. In group III, patients incompletely resected or known to have metastatic disease following surgery, median survival was only 12.5 months. Even in group III, however, some individuals achieved prolonged survival and lasting benefits from the surgery, so these data should not be used to exclude patients from undergoing necessary palliative procedures.

Kroll, S.S.; Schusterman, M.A.; Larson, D.L.; Fender, A. (Univ. of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (USA))

1990-10-01

295

The use of the temporoparietal fascial flap in temporal bone reconstruction.  

PubMed

After routine canal wall down mastoidectomy, local muscle flaps with and without bone paté, cartilage and fascia are the standard techniques available to otologists wishing to obliterate the mastoid and reconstruct the external auditory canal. Reconstructive options for temporal bone defects after extirpative surgery for cancer, osteoradionecrosis, and revision surgery for chronic granulomatous otitis media, however, are few. Although the neighboring temporoparietal fascia flap (TPFF), based on the superficial temporal vessels, has been frequently employed for auricular reconstruction, its versatility in temporal bone reconstruction has not been widely explored. The TPFF has recently been employed at our institution in 11 patients who presented with a variety of reconstructive problems, including defects after temporal bone resection, surgery for malignant otitis externa, and revision mastoid surgery. Follow-up in these patients ranged from 1 to 43 months (average 18.4 months) and surgical objectives of achieving a dry mastoid bowl, fully epithelialized canal, and/or reduction of mastoid cavity volume was attained in 100% of cases. The TPFF offers many advantages to the otologic surgeon when faced with reconstruction dilemmas that center around a poorly vascularized mastoid cavity and temporal bone. The TPFF is a reliable source of local well-vascularized tissue that is extremely pliable and facilitates both hearing and nonhearing preservation temporal bone reconstruction. PMID:8694118

Cheney, M L; Megerian, C A; Brown, M T; McKenna, M J; Nadol, J B

1996-01-01

296

Sural flap for coverage of a soft-tissue defect of a leg with an occluded fibular artery: a case report.  

PubMed

Coverage of soft-tissue defects of the leg has improved with the discovery of new flaps. However, surgeons now have to deal with new lesions on top of previous reconstructive surgeries. We present a case of soft-tissue defect of the anterior lower third of the leg presenting 20 years after reconstructive surgery for an open fracture and its management. The anterior tibial and fibular arteries were occluded with a retrograde vascularisation of the fibular artery; this provided a perforator artery that we used as a pivot point for an atypical sural island flap with a good result at 6 months. This case challenges the classic contraindication of this flap in case of occluded arteries. PMID:24476703

Kermarrec, Gwénolé; Masquelet, Alain-Charles

2014-05-01

297

Osteo-periosteal-cutaneous flaps of the medial femoral condyle: a valuable modification for selected clinical situations.  

PubMed

In situations of bony nonunions with poor skin coverage, transplantation of vascularized soft tissue in addition to bone graft is desirable. The use of the corticoperiosteal vascularized bone graft from the medial femoral condyle is well described. There are only anecdotal reports about its use as an osteocutaneous flap. This article presents our results with the use of an osteocutaneous flap from the medial femoral condyle. Between 2004 and 2009, four patients were treated with supracondylar osteocutaneous flaps for bony nonunions (tibia, ankle, calcaneous) with concomitant soft tissue defects. The size of the osseous grafts ranged from 3 x 5 to 6 x 5 cm. The supplying cutaneous vessels were an unnamed perforator of the descending genicular artery (two cases) or the saphenous branch (two cases). The first three cases healed primarily. Bony union was achieved between 32 and 170 days. The follow-up of the fourth case was too short to achieve a bony union. There was no flap loss or surgery-related complications at the donor site. The transfer of free combined vascularized corticoperiosteal-cutaneous flaps seems to be ideally suited for postradiation-induced fractures or chronic nonunions with poor chances of spontaneous healing and a concomitant small skin defect. PMID:20143299

Pelzer, Michael; Reichenberger, Matthias; Germann, Günter

2010-07-01

298

Robot-assisted technique for boari flap ureteral reimplantation: is robot assistance beneficial?  

PubMed

Abstract Background and Purpose: Ureteral reconstructive surgery necessitates adequate exposure of the ureteral lesion and results in large abdominal incisions. Robot assistance allows the performance of complex ureteral reconstructive surgery through small incisions. The current series includes only cases of Boari flaps performed by robot assistance and attempts to describe in detail the technique, review the literature, as well as to expand the experience in the current literature. Patients and Methods: Eight patients underwent ureteral reimplantation by Boari flap technique. The indications for the performance of the procedure included ureteral stricture from iatrogenic injury in three patients, recurrent ureteral stricture after multiple endoscopic stone management procedures in one patient, ureteral stricture from previous malignant disease in the pelvis or abdomen in three patients, and ureteral stricture due to trauma in one patient. Five cases were located in the left side and three cases in the right side. A variety of parameters were recorded in a prospective database including the time for robot docking and total operative time as well as catheterization and drainage time. The follow-up of the patients included the performance of renal ultrasonography 4 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure. Results: Mean age of the patients was 50.8 (range 39-62) years and mean body mass index was 26.2 (range 23.22-29.29) kg/m(2). Operative time ranged 115 and 240 (mean 171.9) minutes. Mean blood loss was 161.3 (50-250) mL. Conversion to open surgery did not take place in the current series. No intraoperative complications were observed. Postoperative complications included one case of prolonged anastomotic leakage. Conclusion: The robot-assisted approach is efficient in the performance of ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap. Low blood loss, short catheterization time, low complication rate, and excellent reconstructive outcome are associated with the approach. Robot assistance seems to be beneficial for ureteral reconstructive surgery. PMID:24428629

Do, Minh; Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Qazi, Hasan; Liatsikos, Evangelos; Ho Thi, Phuc; Dietel, Anja; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

2014-06-01

299

The trap door flap for reconstructing defects of the concha.  

PubMed

We report six cases of conchal neoplasms where the defect was reconstructed with a Trap Door Flap based on the post auricular vessels. The flap was reliable and gave good cosmetic results. PMID:12969673

Lynch, J; Mahajan, A L; Regan, P

2003-10-01

300

Microsurgical free flap transfer to amputation sites: indications and results.  

PubMed

A series of microsurgical free flap reconstructions to amputation stumps of the upper as well as the lower extremities was reviewed in 7 male and 2 female patients. Indications included preservation of length after trauma in 6 patients and cure of local infection in 2 patients. In 1 patient an extensive defect after resection of a recurrent shoulder sarcoma required use of a complete arm fillet free flap for tumor reconstruction. Microvascular free flaps used included four scapular flaps, two fillet flaps from the amputated extremity, one anterolateral thigh flap, and one lateral arm flap. Seven of 9 patients were fitted with a prosthesis and underwent occupational therapy resulting in ambulatory and improved functional status. Microvascular reconstruction is indicated in emergency settings as well as for elective reconstruction of amputation sites. Using uninjured "spare parts" of the amputated extremity should be considered. Elective reconstruction is performed preferably with free flaps based on the subscapular vascular system. PMID:11910222

Erdmann, Detlev; Sundin, Burton M; Yasui, Koji; Wong, Michael S; Levin, L Scott

2002-02-01

301

Design and Control of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Flapping wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) continues to be a growing field, with ongoing research into unsteady, low Re aerodynamics, micro- fabrication, and fluid-structure interaction. However, research into flapping wing control of such MAVs continues to ...

M. L. Anderson

2011-01-01

302

14 CFR 25.701 - Flap and slat interconnection.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.701 Flap...interconnection. (a) Unless the airplane has safe flight characteristics...takeoff power. (c) For airplanes with flaps or slats...

2014-01-01

303

Use of a preputial circumferential mucosal flap for hypospadias management in a Boston terrier.  

PubMed

An eight-week-old male Boston terrier presented for penile desiccation and urine pooling in the prepuce due to congenital hypospadias. An advancement flap was created from the dorsal mucosa of the incompletely formed prepuce and sutured circumferentially to construct a longer distal preputial mucosa. V- to Y-plasty of the ventral abdominal skin was utilised to create the preputial skin overlying the mucosal flap. Urethrostomy and partial penile amputation were also performed. Following surgery, the clinical signs of penile desiccation and preputial urine pooling resolved and acceptable cosmetic appearance was achieved. This technique may be considered for glandular or penile hypospadias or following resection of the ventral aspect of the distal prepuce when inadequate tissue is present for a simple two-layer closure of the preputial mucosa and skin. PMID:22276748

Grossman, J; Baltzer, W

2012-05-01

304

The use of bone anchors for autologous flap fixation in perineal reconstruction: a case report.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of bone anchors with an autologous flap in perineal reconstruction. This technique has not been reported before. A 64-year-old female presented to our office with a chief complaint of perineal hernia 1.5 years after abdominoperineal resection. She had a history of recurrent rectal cancer for which she received chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. To repair the hernia, a standard vertical rectus abdominismyocutaneous was harvested and de-epithelialized. It was secured into place in the pelvis utilizing several bone anchors. Mesh was used to repair the donor site defect. At 18 month follow-up, there was good healing of all the wounds and no recurrence of the hernia. She was pain free and able to resume her activities of daily living. Bone anchor fixation is a viable technique for fixation of autologous flaps in perineal reconstruction. PMID:24964462

Saad, Adam; Cece, John A; Arvanitis, Michael L; Elkwood, Andrew I

2013-01-01

305

The use of bone anchors for autologous flap fixation in perineal reconstruction: a case report  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of bone anchors with an autologous flap in perineal reconstruction. This technique has not been reported before. A 64-year-old female presented to our office with a chief complaint of perineal hernia 1.5 years after abdominoperineal resection. She had a history of recurrent rectal cancer for which she received chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. To repair the hernia, a standard vertical rectus abdominismyocutaneous was harvested and de-epithelialized. It was secured into place in the pelvis utilizing several bone anchors. Mesh was used to repair the donor site defect. At 18 month follow-up, there was good healing of all the wounds and no recurrence of the hernia. She was pain free and able to resume her activities of daily living. Bone anchor fixation is a viable technique for fixation of autologous flaps in perineal reconstruction.

Saad, Adam; Cece, John A.; Arvanitis, Michael L.; Elkwood, Andrew I.

2013-01-01

306

Hemimandibulectomy and vascularized fibula flap in bisphosphonate-induced mandibular osteonecrosis with polycythaemia rubra vera.  

PubMed

This report presents the successful management of an advanced and refractory bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) by hemimandibulectomy and an osteocutaneous fibula flap reconstruction in a patient with polycythaemia rubra vera, a rare haematological condition in which there is increased risk of thrombosis and haemorrhage. Union of the vascularized bone with the mandible depends on obtaining a BRONJ-free margin and rigid fixation of the bony ends. Magnetic resonance imaging can provide accurate delineation of necrotic bone and area of osteomyelitis. Placement of a 1cm margin beyond this can envisage a BRONJ-free margin. Aggressive medical management of polycythaemia rubra vera by venesection, asprin and cytoreduction therapy along with anticoagulant prophylaxis against thromboembolic events in the first 2 weeks following major surgery can provide the basis of a good surgical and flap outcome. Nevertheless, the possibility of unpredictable haemorrhage must be considered throughout. PMID:22520725

Ghazali, N; Collyer, J C; Tighe, J V

2013-01-01

307

Indications, Outcomes, and Complications of Pedicled Propeller Perforator Flaps for Upper Body Defects: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this investigation was to systematically review the current literature to provide the best data for indications, outcomes, survival, and complication rates of pedicled propeller perforator flaps for upper body defects. Methods A comprehensive literature review for articles published from January 1991 to December 2011 was performed using the PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Databases. Articles without available full-text, single case reports or papers with excessive missing data were excluded. Papers reporting pedicle-perforator (propeller) flaps used for lower extremity reconstruction were excluded from meta-analysis. Results From the initial 1,736 studies our search yielded, 343 studies qualified for the second stage of selection. Of 117 full-text reports screened, 41 studies, met the definitive inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the selected 41 articles, 26 were case series, original papers or retrospective reviews and were included, whereas 15 were case report papers and therefore were excluded. Two hundred ninety-five propeller flaps were reported to have been used in a total of 283 patients. Indications include repair of trauma-induced injuries, post-trauma revision surgery, cancer resection, chronic infection, pressure sores, and chronic ulcers with a major complication rate (3.3%) comparable to that of free flaps. No specific exclusion criteria for the procedure were presented in the studies reviewed. Conclusions Pedicled propeller flaps are a versatile and safe reconstructive option that are easy and quick to raise and that provide unlimited clinical solutions because of the theoretical possibility of harvesting them based on any perforator chosen among those classified in the body.

Lazzeri, Davide; Huemer, Georg M.; Nicoli, Fabio; Larcher, Lorenz; Dashti, Talal; Grassetti, Luca; Li, Qingfeng; Spinelli, Giuseppe; Agostini, Tommaso

2013-01-01

308

Deep inferior epigastric artery perforated rectus abdominis free flap for head and neck reconstruction.  

PubMed

The deep inferior epigastric artery perforated rectus abdominis (DIEAP-ra) free flap is a modification of the classic myocutaneous DIEA free flap in which only fasciocutaneous tissue is harvested based on the paraumbilical perforators of the medial row. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe our experience with this reconstructive technique in head and neck surgery. Between 2004 and 2009, 24 patients affected by oncologic maxillofacial, skull base, oral, and oropharyngeal defects were submitted to reconstruction with DIEAP-ra. After harvesting the DIEAP-ra, the longitudinally split muscular belly was sutured and the anterior rectus sheath closed with a nonabsorbable mattress suture without inlay mesh interposition. Surgical defects encompassed half of the hard palate in ten patients, orbit and part of the cranial vault in one, radical extended parotidectomy in four, subtotal glossectomy in seven, and total glossectomy in two cases. The only complete flap necrosis (4%) developed as a consequence of an orocutaneous fistula and required a second latissimus dorsi free flap. Another case (4%) developed a partial necrosis for oropharyngeal fistula after total glossectomy that healed after transposition of a pedicled myofascial pectoralis major. Two patients (8%) presented a minor salivary fistula that healed by medication alone. No major complication of the donor site was observed. DIEAP-ra is a valid alternative to the DIEA free flap when applied to complex maxillofacial or tongue major defects. Its greatest advantages are the reduced donor site morbidity and a more adjustable thickness of the skin paddle, particularly in females and obese patients. PMID:21866360

Cappiello, Johnny; Piazza, Cesare; Taglietti, Valentina; Nicolai, Piero

2012-04-01

309

The use of propeller perforator flaps for diabetic limb salvage: a retrospective review of 25 cases  

PubMed Central

Background Peripheral vascular disease and/or diabetic neuropathy represent one of the main etiologies for the development of lower leg and/or diabetic foot ulcerations, and especially after acute trauma or chronic mechanical stress. The reconstruction of such wounds is challenging due to the paucity of soft tissue resources in this region. Various procedures including orthobiologics, skin grafting (SG) with or without negative pressure wound therapy and local random flaps have been used with varying degrees of success to cover diabetic lower leg or foot ulcerations. Other methods include: local or regional muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps, free muscle and fasciocutaneous, or perforator flaps, which also have varying degrees of success. Patients and methods This article reviews 25 propeller perforator flaps (PPF) which were performed in 24 diabetic patients with acute and chronic wounds involving the foot and/or lower leg. These patients were admitted beween 2008 and 2011. Fifteen PPF were based on perforators from the peroneal artery, nine from the posterior tibial artery, and one from the anterior tibial artery. Results A primary healing rate (96%) was obtained in 18 (72%) cases. Revisional surgery and SG for skin necrosis was performed in six (24%) cases with one complete loss of the flap (4%) which led to a lower extremity amputation. Conclusions The purpose of this article is to review the use of PPF as an effective method for soft tissue coverage of the diabetic lower extremity and/or foot. In well-controlled diabetic patients that present with at least one permeable artery in the affected lower leg, the use of PPF may provide an alternative option for soft tissue reconstruction of acute and chronic diabetic wounds.

Georgescu, Alexandru V.; Matei, Ileana R.; Capota, Irina M.

2012-01-01

310

Flapping wing PIV and force measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flapping wing aerodynamics has been of interest to engineers recently due in part to the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) MAV (Micro-Aerial Vehicle) initiative. MAVs are small unmanned aerial vehicles with length scales similar to birds and insects. Flapping wing MAVs would serve as mobile and stealthy sensing platforms capable of gathering intelligence in hazardous and physically inaccessible locations. Traditional means of lift and thrust generation become inefficient when scaled to these sizes, therefore a flapping wing propulsion system will be necessary. The design of a flapping wing MAV requires the ability to measure forces and velocities around the wing. Three components of velocity were measured in the wake of a two dimensional (2D) flapping airfoil model using a novel application of stereoscopic DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry). One component of force was measured using a newly proposed method outlined in the dissertation. The force measurement technique relies on a specific sequence of data acquisition, which has the benefit of reducing measurement uncertainty and noise. No experiments of this type have been conducted, and no direct aerodynamic force data exists for the low Reynolds numbers applicable to flapping wing MAVs. The well-established stereoscopic DPIV technique produces relatively low uncertainties while the new force measurement technique has not been previously tested. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that aerodynamic forces are attainable for chord Reynolds numbers as low as 1,000, which is significantly lower than previous studies. PIV measurements reveal symmetric and asymmetric wake topologies for a NACA 0012 and flat plate airfoil. A sinusoidally heaving flat plate airfoil produces highly deflected wakes for a wider range of flapping conditions than a NACA 0012 airfoil. Deflected wakes are of potentially interest since both lift and thrust components of force are developed. The flat plate also produces larger aerodynamic forces as measured perpendicularly to the free stream velocity. Experimental data for the NACA airfoil compares favorably with a computational fluid dynamics model of a 2D flapping airfoil at similar flapping conditions. Qualitative flow topologies and quantitative velocity and force magnitudes agree with a high degree of certainty.

Cameron, Benjamin H.

311

Flow field of flexible flapping wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded details of where along the wing the forces were generated. As expected, these results indicated that the spanwise location of where the forces were generated depended upon the wings membrane material and reinforcement pattern, but in general it was in the outer third of the wing. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

Sallstrom, Erik

312

Advancement flap as a novel treatment for a pododermatitis lesion in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).  

PubMed

Pododermatitis is a pathologic condition commonly reported in captive raptors and characterized by swelling, excoriation, ulceration, cellulitis, or abscessation of the plantar aspect of the foot. Its cause can be multifactorial, often involving abnormal weight bearing or poor sanitation, and medical and surgical techniques, in addition to environmental alterations, are hallmarks of treatment. In this case, a single pedicle advancement flap was used to treat chronic, nonresponsive grade V/VII pododermatitis of the right metatarsal pad in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). The advancement flap was formed by using the interdigital skin between digits 3 and 4. The double layer of skin was incised and separated, and the leading edge of the flap was then advanced over the defect and secured with simple interrupted subcutaneous and skin sutures. The foot was bandaged after surgery to take pressure off the surgical site. At 58 days after the surgery, the hawk was deemed medically sound with no signs of pododermatitis and was released to a wildlife rehabilitator. The use of a single pedicle advancement flap has not previously been reported for the treatment of pododermatitis. PMID:24640931

Sander, Samantha; Whittington, Julia K; Bennett, Avery; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Mitchell, Mark A

2013-12-01

313

Quantitative assessment of partial vascular occlusions in a swine pedicle flap model using spatial frequency domain imaging  

PubMed Central

The use of tissue transfer flaps has become a common and effective technique for reconstructing or replacing damaged tissue. While the overall failure rate associated with these procedures is relatively low (5-10%), the failure rate of tissue flaps that require additional surgery is significantly higher (40-60%). The reason for this is largely due to the absence of a technique for objectively assessing tissue health after surgery. Here we have investigated spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) as a potential tool to do this. By projecting wide-field patterned illumination at multiple wavelengths onto a tissue surface, SFDI is able to quantify absolute concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin over a large field of view. We have assessed the sensitivity of SFDI in a swine pedicle flap model by using a controlled vascular occlusion system that reduced blood flow by 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the baseline values in either the vein or artery. SFDI was able to detect significant changes for oxygenated hemoglobin, deoxygenated hemoglobin, or tissue oxygen saturation in partial arterial occlusions of at least 50% and partial venous occlusions of at least 25%. This shows SFDI is sensitive enough to quantify changes in the tissue hemoglobin state during partial occlusions and thus has the potential to be a powerful tool for the early prediction of tissue flap failure.

Ponticorvo, Adrien; Taydas, Eren; Mazhar, Amaan; Scholz, Thomas; Kim, Hak-Su; Rimler, Jonathan; Evans, Gregory R. D.; Cuccia, David J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

314

The forked flap repair for hypospadias  

PubMed Central

Context: Despite the abundance of techniques for the repair of Hypospadias, its problems still persist and a satisfactory design to correct the penile curvature with the formation of neourethra from the native urethral tissue or genital or extragenital tissues, with minimal postoperative complications has yet to evolve. Aim: Persisting with such an endeavor, a new technique for the repair of distal and midpenile hypospadias is described. Materials and Methods: The study has been done in 70 cases over the past 11 years. The “Forked-Flap” repair is a single stage method for the repair of such Hypospadias with chordee. It takes advantage of the rich vascular communication at the corona and capitalizes on the established reliability of the meatal based flip–flap. The repair achieves straightening of the curvature of the penis by complete excision of chordee tissue from the ventral surface of the penis beneath the urethral plate. The urethra is reconstructed using the native plate with forked flap extensions and genital tissue relying on the concept of meatal based flaps. Water proofing by dartos tissue and reinforcement by Nesbit's prepucial tissue transfer completes the one stage procedure. Statistical Analysis: An analysis of 70 cases of this single stage technique of repair of penile hypospadias with chordee, operated at 3 to 5 years of age over the past 11 years is presented. Results and Conclusion: The Forked Flap gives comparable and replicable results; except for a urethrocutaneous fistula rate of 4% no other complications were observed.

Chadha, Anil; Singh, Amitabh

2012-01-01

315

Flap endonuclease 1 and its role in eukaryotic DNA metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is strongly specific for the substrate structure. The natural substrates of FEN1 are 5?-flap structures\\u000a formed by three DNA strands one of which has an unpaired 5? portion (a flap). Flap structures occur as intermediates in various\\u000a processes of DNA metabolism such as DNA replication, Okazaki fragment maturation during replication of the lagging strand,\\u000a and strand

Zh. K. Nazarkina; O. I. Lavrik; S. N. Khodyreva

2008-01-01

316

Perforator flaps-how many perforators are necessary to keep a flap alive?  

PubMed

Perforator flaps are becoming increasingly important in reconstructive microsurgery because of their reduced donor-site morbidity. However, one drawback is partial necrosis caused by vasospasm or inconsistency of delicate perforator vessels. In this study we have evaluated the number and capacity of perforator vessels with respect to the size of a flap, and the influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the capacity of perforators in a standard animal model. We realised an epigastric perforator flap 4cm×7cm in 36 rats. In 3 control groups (n=6 in each), flaps were raised based on 4, 2, or 1 perforator vessel(s), while all other perforators as well as the epigastric vessels were ligated. In three study groups (n=6 in each), set up in the same way as the control groups, we also injected a single dose of VEGF into the wound area. After one week, all areas of necrosis were assessed planimetrically. We also evaluated the wounds by laser Doppler flowmetry preoperatively and after one week, and by histological and immunohistochemical examination. An increased number of perforators, together with VEGF, was associated with a significant reduction in the areas of necrosis. This observation was particularly true in flaps based on only one perforator. The inclusion of additional perforators has a more important role in the success of a flap than theoretical models suggest. Proangiogenetic factors may improve the viability of perforator flaps. PMID:24629454

Fichter, Andreas M; Borgmann, Anna; Ritschl, Lucas M; Mitchell, David A; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Dornseifer, Ulf; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Mücke, Thomas

2014-05-01

317

Biomechanical Analysis of the Pharyngeal Swallow in Postsurgical Patients With Anterior Tongue and Floor of Mouth Resection and Distal Flap Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the biomechanics of pharyngeal swallow after surgery in eight patients (six men and two women) with anterior tongue and floor of mouth resections with distal flap reconstruction. Eight normal age-matched subjects were also studied. Swallowing performance was assessed following a standardized protocol with videofluoroscopy preoperatively and at 1 and 3

Barbara Roa Pauloski; Jeri A. Logemann; Joan Cheng Fox; Laura A. Colangelo

318

Reverse Island Sural Flap for Lower Leg and Ankle Reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction & Objective: The repair of soft tissue defect in lower leg and heel area with free flap is still a standard in reference books. However, there are disadvantages in the use of free flap like increased operative time, the damage of major vessels and the need for experienced microsurgeon. The use of local fasciocutaneous flap is usually impossible in

Hadian Jazi

319

An Analysis on Feathering Motion Passively Generated by Flapping Motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All the flapping-wing micro air vehicles which have succeeded in flying make the feathering motions generated passively by their flapping motions. Parameters determining the passive feathering motion are identified and it is discussed what are required in these parameters for enabling a flapping-wing micro air vehicle to fly.

Sunada, Shigeru; Tokutake, Hiroshi; Hatayama, Yuhki; Ohtsuka, Yukio; Ishida, Ryohei

320

Management of radiated reoperative wounds of the cervicothoracic spine: the role of the trapezius turnover flap.  

PubMed

Reoperation for malignant disease of the cervicothoracic spine can lead to compromised wound healing secondary to poor tissue quality from previous operations, heavily irradiated beds, and concomitant steroid therapy. Other complicating factors include exposed dura and spinal implants. Introducing well-vascularized soft tissue to obliterate dead space is critical to reliable wound healing. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the trapezius turnover flap in the management of these complex wounds. This study is a retrospective review of all patients undergoing trapezius muscle turnover flaps for closure of complex cervicothoracic wounds after spinal operations for metastatic or primary tumors. Six patients (3 male/3 female) were operated over an 18-month period (mean patient age, 43 years). Primary pathologies included radiation-induced peripheral nerve sheath tumor (N = 2), chondrosarcoma (N = 1), nonsmall-cell lung cancer (N = 1), paraganglioma (N = 1), and spindle cell sarcoma (N = 1). Trapezius muscle turnover flaps were unilateral and based on the transverse cervical artery in every patient. Indication for flap closure included inability to perform primary layered closure (N = 3), open wound with infection (N = 2), and exposed hardware (N = 1). All patients had previous operations of the cervicothoracic spine (mean, 5.8 months; range 2-9 months) for malignant disease and prior radiation therapy. Exposed dura was present in all patients, and 2 patients had dural repairs with bovine pericardial patches. Spinal stabilization hardware was present in 4 patients. All patients underwent perioperative treatment with systemic corticosteroids. All flaps survived, and primary wound healing was achieved in each patient. The only wound complication was a malignant pleural effusion communicating with the back wound, which was controlled with a closed suction drain. All wounds remained healed during the follow-up period. Four patients died from progression of disease within 10 months of surgery. The trapezius turnover flap has been used successfully when local tissue conditions prevent primary closure, or in the setting of open, infected wounds with exposed dura and hardware. The ease of flap elevation and minimal donor site morbidity make it a useful, single-stage reconstructive option in these difficult wounds. PMID:11601574

Disa, J J; Smith, A W; Bilsky, M H

2001-10-01

321

Plastic Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... aftermath of disease treatments like rebuilding a woman's breast after surgery for breast cancer. Cosmetic (also called aesthetic ) procedures ... plan will and won't cover. For example, breast enlargement surgery is considered a purely cosmetic procedure and is ...

322

Heart Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... common type of heart surgery for adults is coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). During CABG, a healthy artery ... body is connected, or grafted, to a blocked coronary (heart) artery. Doctors also use heart surgery to Repair or ...

323

After Surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... side effects. There is usually some pain with surgery. There may also be swelling and soreness around ... the first few days, weeks, or months after surgery. Some other questions to ask are How long ...

324

Cataract Surgery  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... truck driver from Chandler, Arizona, is having cataract surgery today on his left eye. A month ago ... anesthesia to numb the eye area. With microscopic surgery the surgeon can make a very small incision, ...

325

Nasolabial flap reconstruction of floor of mouth.  

PubMed

We treated two patients requiring nasolabial flap reconstruction. The first patient was a 75-year-old man with mucoepidermoid carcinoma in the left-side floor of the mouth; requiring resection of the floor of the mouth, partial mandibulectomy, and left supraomohyoid neck dissection. The second patient was a 74-year-old man with recurrent acinic cell carcinoma in the anterior oral floor infiltrating as far as the mandible. This patient required wide excision of the anterior part of the oral cavity, including amputation of the mandible. After tumor resection, both cases had a nasolabial flap reconstruction. The postoperative course of both cases was good; neither postoperative flap necrosis nor infection developed. PMID:18360105

Ikeda, Chihaya; Katakura, Akira; Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Kamiyama, Isao; Shibahara, Takahiko; Onoda, Norio; Tamura, Hidetoshi

2007-11-01

326

Flapping dynamics of a flexible filament  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the dynamics of the flapping regime of a filament placed in a two-dimensional soap-film flow for different filament lengths and flow speeds. It was found that the onset of flapping is quasiperiodic, with the main flapping amplitude and frequency modulated by low-amplitude, low-frequency oscillation. At higher flow velocities, the oscillation becomes chaotic. The transition to chaos occurs via the quasiperiodic route to chaos. A new bistability phenomenon was discovered in which the system alternates between the stretched-straight and oscillatory states, which is here referred to as “switching oscillation.” Unlike some previously reported forms of bistability, in this case the system alternates between the two states continuously, without any external perturbation.

Ait Abderrahmane, H.; Paidoussis, M. P.; Fayed, M.; Ng, H. D.

2011-12-01

327

Combined cremaster muscle and inner thigh skin composite flap: a novel experimental flap model in the rat.  

PubMed

Unlike the composite musculocutaneous flap models, the combined composite muscle-skin flap model allows evaluating muscle and skin viability independently, because it has an independent blood supply to the muscle and skin component. However, to our knowledge, only two combined muscle-skin flaps have been reported to date. During our cremaster dissection in our laboratory, we perceived a new vessel as a terminal continuation of the pudic-epigastric artery (PEA) on which the cremaster muscle flap is raised. Therefore, we designed this study to determine whether the scrotal and inner thigh skin can be harvested with the cremaster muscle as a combined cremaster muscle-skin composite flap. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. In five rats, ink study selective to the PEA marked a skin territory. In 15 rats, cremaster muscle and 4 x 3 cm ipsilateral scrotal and medial thigh skin flap was raised on the PEA. Fluorescein study after 4 hours showed fluorescein stain in the skin island. On postoperative day 7, both muscle and skin components of the flaps were viable. Microangiographic study after the flap elevation revealed the vascularity of all components of the flap and clearly identified the branch to the skin island. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the combined flap model including the cremaster muscle. Our flap seems to have an important advantage over the other combined muscle-skin flap models in terms of the cremaster muscle being suitable for the intravital microscopy. Additionally, the two components of the flap have separate nutrient vessels with adequate length, which gives the flap flexibility in the placement of the skin component in a location distant from the muscle component. The flap may be also be raised as a skin flap without the cremaster muscle. It can be used for different applications, including microcirculatory, pharmacological, physiological, biochemical, and immunological studies as well as for transplantation studies. PMID:18548374

Cinar, Can; Ogur, Simin; Ozturk, Can

2008-01-01

328

The Flexible Learning Approach to Physics (FLAP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Flexible Learning Approach to Physics (FLAP) is an extensive, high quality, supported self-study teaching resource, developed on behalf of the whole UK university sector. FLAP addresses the twin problems of an increasing diversity of intake into physics degree courses and their decreasing familiarity with the use of mathematics in a physical context. It has been developed over a three year period, funded ($1M) by the UK Higher Education Funding Councils. It offers a new approach to the teaching of physics and its associated mathematics. FLAP includes 83 free-standing modules of physics and mathematics, ranging from pre-university level to some point within the first or second year of a physics or engineering degree course. Its range also makes it useful at upper high school level. It presents an integrated approach to physics and mathematics, introducing mathematics within a physical context, where possible, and sharing a common notation with the physics. FLAP includes about 2500 pages of text, with video, audio and CAL support and has a Tutor Guide with an electronic question bank of about 1700 questions and solutions. A feature of the resource is that the modular text is photocopiable by departments for their own students, giving maximum flexibility of use. Physics departments can use this as they choose, to support their present courses or to create new courses of their own design. The FLAP self-study teaching style encourages active learning and gives students more ownership of this learning. Field trials show that it can increase student self-motivation and its style is welcomed. It offers gains in the quality and efficiency of teaching and learning and is expected to make a considerable impact wherever teaching quality has to be maintained or improved, particularly with reducing staff resources. FLAP is now being made available world-wide.

Lambourne, R. J.; Tinker, M. H.; Windsor, S. A.

1997-03-01

329

Prelaminated calvarial osteofascial flap for palatal reconstruction.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of the hard palate defects is among the most challenging problems for plastic surgeons. Prosthetic obturations and local flaps for small defects have been used, whereas numerous regional and free flaps have been described for larger defects. The search for the ideal method offering a natural palatal structure is still ongoing.Five male patients with a mean age of 30.4 years experiencing hard palate defects due to congenital cleft palate or tumor excisions were repaired by prelaminated calvarial osteofascial flap. The mean defect size was 3.14 × 2.48 cm. Both of the surfaces of the calvarial bone elevated with superficial temporal fascia were wrapped with fascia and covered with split-thickness skin graft. The interval between the 2 sessions ranged from 3 to 6 weeks. In the second session, triple layered reconstruction involving the bony layer as well as the oral and nasal mucosa was performed.In 1 case, partial skin loss on the oral surface of the flap was seen in the second session but epithelialized spontaneously. The mean follow-up period was 21.8 months, and no complication such as wound detachment, infection, flap loss, as well as fistula or nasal regurgitation was encountered. A hard palatal reconstruction was performed, offering a natural anatomy in terms of structure and shape.This reliable technique, which is convenient for the three-dimensional reconstruction of the hard palate defects offering a near-normal anatomy owing to its triple layered structure, thickness, and the compatible shape of the calvarial bone to the palate, can be a good alternative against other regional and free flaps. PMID:24531246

Kilinc, Hidir; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

2014-07-01

330

Investigating deeper: muscularis propria to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery.  

PubMed

Submucosal endoscopy with a mucosal flap (SEMF) safety valve technique is a global concept in which the submucosa is a free working space for endoscopic interventions. A purposefully created intramural space provides an endoscopic access route to the deeper layers and into the extraluminal cavities. The mucosa overlying the intramural space is protective, reducing contamination during natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures and providing a sealant flap to repair the entry point and the submucosal space. In addition to NOTES, SEMF enables endoscopic achalasia myotomy, histologic analysis of the muscularis propria, and submucosal tumor removal. PMID:24679237

Sumiyama, Kazuki; Gostout, Christopher J; Tajiri, Hisao

2014-04-01

331

Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady surface pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and surface roughness were successfully scaled by utilizing aerodynamic performance and boundary layer scaling methods developed herein.

Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

2000-01-01

332

Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define, the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and surface roughness were successfully scaled by utilizing aerodynamic performance and boundary layer scaling method developed herein.

Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

2000-01-01

333

To reduce drag, flap in front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that, opposite of drafting racecars or cylinders, the leader of tandem flapping bodies in a moving fluid suffers less drag than the follower. Flexible rubber filaments interacting in a fast-flowing soap film synchronize frequency, though the bodies experience different streamwise forces correlated with amplitude of flapping. Drag reduction for the leading body is associated with the formation of a single coherent wake for the pair. This inverted drafting is robust to changes in material parameters and relative location of the bodies. The effect is also present in longer arrays of filaments.

Ristroph, Leif; Zhang, Jun

2007-11-01

334

Results and Complications of 1104 Surgeries for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) means that the velopharyngeal closure is inadequate or disturbed. VPI may be organic or functional, congenital or acquired and is caused by structural alterations or paresis. The symptoms are primarily to be found in speech (hypernasality), more rarely in swallowing and hearing. The management types are as follows: speech therapy, surgery, speech bulb, and others. Surgery is indicated if the symptoms of VPI cannot be improved by speech therapy. Among the operative methods, velopharyngoplasty constitutes the basis of the surgery. The pharyngeal flap was incorporated and survived in 98.1% of the cases, hyperrhinophony disappeared or became minimal in 90% after surgery in our material (1104 cases). The speech results seemed to be the same with superiorly or inferiorly based pharyngeal flap. The Furlow technique, push-back procedure, the sphincteroplasty, and the augmentation were indicated by us if the VP gap was less than 7?mm; these methods may also be used as secondary operation. We observed among 1104 various surgeries severe hemorrhage in 5 cases, aspiration in 2 cases, significant nasal obstruction in 68 patients, OSAS in 5 cases; tracheotomy was necessary in 2 cases. Although the complication rate is rare, it must always be considered that this is not a life-saving but a speech-correcting operation. A tailor-made superiorly based pharyngeal flap is suggested today, possibly in the age of 5 years.

Hirschberg, Jeno

2012-01-01

335

Treatment of unfavourable results of flexor tendon surgery: Skin deficiencies  

PubMed Central

We recently reported a small study at the Federation of European Societies for Surgery of the hand, which was entitled ‘What is secondary flexor tendon surgery’? This study concluded that ‘secondary flexor tendon surgery’ was a generic name encompassing a multitude of pathologies. Between 10% and 15% of cases exhibited pathology of the skin and subcutaneous fat and required flap reconstruction of these tissues. Skin replacement may be used prophylactically at primary surgery or become necessary at secondary surgery after release of scar contractures, to achieve cover of vital structures. The long-term problem of skin deficiency relating to flexor tendon function is one of loss of extension from longitudinal scar shortening of the integument, even if the flexor tendons are primarily concerned with bending the digits, not straightening them. This loss of extension can only be tolerated in a hand to a certain degree without significant loss of function. This paper is largely an analysis of the flaps available and suitable for different degrees of skin deficiency and at different places along the course of the flexor system. It attempts to dispel the idea that ‘any flap will do’ provided the flexors are adequately covered.

Elliot, David; Giesen, Thomas

2013-01-01

336

The reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap for the coverage of soft tissue defect of lower extremities (distal 1/3 leg and foot).  

PubMed

Soft tissue defect of the lower extremities especially over the distal third leg, ankle region, tendo achilies area, heel and foot has always been challenging for the Plastic surgeon. Though with introduction of Microsurgery, the expertise and its advances, free flap surgery to cover the defect is not possible in every center due to the sophisticated instruments, equipments and lengthy procedures. The reverse sural fasciocutaneous flap is a viable option for the soft tissue coverage of distal third leg and foot. Between Nov 2008 till Nov 2010, 11 patients with moderate size soft tissue defect (5-15 cm defect) with exposed bone, tendons and hardware of ankle joint, posterior aspect of heel, and dorsum of the hind foot and mid foot were treated with reverse sural artery fasciocutaneous flap. Out of 11 cases, 10 cases had uneventful postoperative course. In one case, we encountered complete necrosis of the flap due to venous congestion that occurred in 3rd post op day. In all other cases, the flap survived completely without any marginal necrosis. Split thickness skin graft was well taken in donor site in all other cases. The sural artery fasciocutaneous flap is versatile and reliable procedure, easy and quick to elevate, due to the long pedicle, distalization up to the dorsum of the mid foot can be achieved and also a good alternative to microsurgical procedures where such facilities are not available and the surgeon is not well familiar with the procedure. PMID:24592796

Bista, N; Shrestha, K M; Bhattachan, C L

2013-03-01

337

Vortex-induced heating to cone flaps at Mach 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the local heating effect on the lee-side control flaps of supersonic configurations due to the interaction between vortices and leeward control surfaces at an angle of attack. Considerations are given for an appropriate positioning of control flaps to alleviate such interactions and the resulting thermal effect. Tests are carried out on a sharp right circular cone with two types of flap configurations in a study of oil flow patterns about the cone at selected angles of attack. Splitting of flaps and moving them to positions away from the symmetry plane did reduce the heating but also reduced the average flap pressure and increased flow complexity.

Hefner, J. N.; Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

1974-01-01

338

The creation of new rotation arc to the rat latissimus dorsi musculo-cutaneous flap with delay procedures  

PubMed Central

Background Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap is one of the most frequently performed reconstructive techniques in surgery. Latissimus dorsi muscle has two arcs of rotation. It is classified as type V muscle. This muscle can be elevated on the thoracodorsal artery to cover large defects in the anterior chest and also, the muscle can be elevated on the segmental vessels to cover midline defects posteriorly. The aim of this study was to create a new arc of rotation on a vertical axis for the muscle and investigate effectiveness of vascular and chemical delays on the latissimus dorsi muscle flap with an inferior pedicle in an experimental rat model. We hypothesized that the latissimus dorsi muscle would be based on inferior pedicle by delay procedures. Methods We tested two different types of delay: vascular and combination of vascular and chemical. We also tried to determine how many days of "delay" can elicit beneficial effects of vascular and combination delays in an inferior pedicled latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap. To accomplish this, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly subjected to vascular or combination delay (vascular and chemical). In addition, one ear of each rat was assigned into a delay procedure and the other ear was used as a control. Results were evaluated macroscopically, and micro-angiography and histological examinations were also performed. As a result, there was a significant difference in viable flap areas between vascular delay alone and control groups (p < 0.05). Results The higher rate of flap viability was obtained in seven-day vascular delay alone. However, there was no significant difference in the viability between seven-day vascular delay and five-day vascular delay (p < 0.05), so the earliest time when the flap viability could be obtained was at five days. The rate of flap viability was significantly higher in the vascular delay combined with chemical delay than the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The combination of vascular and chemical delays increased the rate of viability. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between vascular delay alone and combination of vascular and chemical delays. Chemical delay did not significantly decrease the delay period. Better histological and microangiographical results were achieved in delay groups compared to control groups. We concluded that the arch of the latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap can be changed and the flap can be used for various purposes with the delay procedures.

Copcu, Eray; Sivrioglu, Nazan; Aktas, Alper; Oztan, Yucel

2003-01-01

339

Effect of flap modifications on human FEN1 cleavage.  

PubMed

The flap endonuclease, FEN1, plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. Human FEN1 exhibits both a 5' to 3' exonucleolytic and a structure-specific endonucleolytic activity. On primer-template substrates containing an unannealed 5'-tail, or flap structure, FEN1 employs a unique mechanism to cleave at the point of annealing, releasing the 5'-tail intact. FEN1 appears to track along the full length of the flap from the 5'-end to the point of cleavage. Substrates containing structural modifications to the flap have been used to explore the mechanism of tracking. To determine whether the nuclease must recognize a succession of nucleotides on the flap, chemical linkers were used to replace an interior nucleotide. The nuclease could readily traverse this site. The footprint of the nuclease at the time of cleavage does not extend beyond 25 nucleotides on the flap. Eleven-nucleotide branches attached to the flap beyond the footprinted region do not prevent cleavage. Single- or double-thymine dimers also allow cleavage. cis-Platinum adducts outside the protected region are moderately inhibitory. Platinum-modified branch structures are completely inert to cleavage. These results show that some flap modifications can prevent or inhibit tracking, but the tracking mechanism tolerates a variety of flap modifications. FEN1 has a flexible loop structure through which the flap has been proposed to thread. However, efficient cleavage of branched structures is inconsistent with threading the flap through a hole in the protein. PMID:10529210

Bornarth, C J; Ranalli, T A; Henricksen, L A; Wahl, A F; Bambara, R A

1999-10-01

340

Gurney flap—Lift enhancement, mechanisms and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its invention by a race car driver Dan Gurney in 1960s, the Gurney flap has been used to enhance the aerodynamics performance of subsonic and supercritical airfoils, high-lift devices and delta wings. In order to take stock of recent research and development of Gurney flap, we have carried out a review of the characteristics and mechanisms of lift enhancement by the Gurney flap and its applications. Optimum design of the Gurney flap is also summarized in this paper. For the Gurney flap to be effective, it should be mounted at the trailing edge perpendicular to the chord line of airfoil or wing. The flap height must be of the order of local boundary layer thickness. For subsonic airfoils, an additional Gurney flap increases the pressure on the upstream surface of the Gurney flap, which increases the total pressure of the lower surface. At the same time, a long wake downstream of the flap containing a pair of counter-rotating vortices can delay or eliminate the flow separation near the trailing edge on the upper surface. Correspondingly, the total suction on the airfoil is increased. For supercritical airfoils, the lift enhancement of the Gurney flap mainly comes from its ability to shift the shock on the upper surface in the downstream. Applications of the Gurney flap to modern aircraft design are also discussed in this review.

Wang, J. J.; Li, Y. C.; Choi, K.-S.

2008-01-01

341

Correction of syndactyly using a dorsal omega flap and two lateral and volar flaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term results of a technique for correction of syndactyly are reported. The technique consists of a dorsal omega flap and a palmar anchor forming two palmar and lateral flaps. A long-term review was made of 50 patients with a minimum of 8 years follow-up operated over a period of 10 years. A total of 122 web spaces in simple,

M. D'Arcangelo; A. Gilbert; R. Pirrello

1996-01-01

342

Herpes simplex virus 1 infection on a reconstructive free flap.  

PubMed

Objective: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) is a widespread virus that primarily causes orofacial infection. Methods: We present a case of HSV1 infection on a free radial forearm flap used to reconstruct a palate defect. Initially, the free flap appeared healthy; however, after 48 hours the free flap appeared in distress, with dark red colour and fast capillary refill. Venous congestion was suspected, and the patient underwent a second operation where no vascular compromise was found. Vesicles were noted on the free flap; swabs revealed HSV1 infection. Results: Complete recovery of the free flap was achieved with acyclovir. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of HSV1 infection on a free flap that was found to be responsible for the free flap appearing distressed. PMID:23837109

Parys, Simon P; Leman, Thea; Gurfinkel, Reuven

2013-01-01

343

Unsteady airfoil with a harmonically deflected trailing-edge flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of a harmonically deflected trailing-edge flap, actuated at different start times and amplitudes but with frequency different from the airfoil motion, on the aerodynamic loads of an oscillating NACA 0015 airfoil were investigated experimentally at Re=2.51×105. Both in-phase and 180° out-of-phase flap deflections, relative to the airfoil motion, were tested. The results show that there was a large change in the hysteretic behavior of the dynamic load loops, and that the formation and detachment of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) were not affected by the flap motion, while the low pressure signature of the vortex was affected by the flap actuation start time. The later the flap actuation the larger the change in the strength of the LEV. The present flap control scheme was also found to be as effective as that achieved by a pulsed ramp flap motion, but with a reduced number of control parameters.

Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

2011-11-01

344

Bio-inspired thorax for flapping-wing robotfly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects are impressive natural flyers. They fly with high agility and maneuverability by flapping their wings. Emulating their flight capability and flight mechanisms may provide a good start in the design of a micro air vehicle (MAV). In this paper, wing flappers are designed and developed with reference to the blueprint of the flight thorax of insects. The developed wing flappers consist of a thoracic frame structure as a flapping mechanism and a vibration motor as a driver. The bio-inspired thorax design is evaluated and its performances are compared with those of the flapping wing insects. The initial prototype demonstrates that the wing flappers are comparable to the insects in terms of the wingbeat frequency and body mass. The initial wing flappers can flaps at a flapping angle of 30°. In addition, simplified analytic model of the wing flappers are derived to optimized the design. Upon redesigned, an improved wing flappers can flaps at a large flapping angle of 75°.

Xiong, Teo Wei; Keong, Lau Gih; Holden, Li King Ho

2010-03-01

345

The Split Radial Forearm Flap for Lower Leg Defects.  

PubMed

The conventional free radial forearm flap is a very reliable, long-pedicled flap with thin, pliable skin. These properties make it an excellent choice for high-risk reconstructions or defects requiring only a thin cover. The split radial forearm flap allows primary closure of the donor site and has a large variability in shape and size. In this report, the cutaneous perforators of the radial artery were investigated in fresh cadavers and we present our clinical experience with the split radial artery flap in 9 patients with lower leg defects.Sufficient perforators exist to safely divide the flap proximally and distally into segments. In all clinical cases, the donor site could be closed primarily. All flaps remained viable and 8 of 9 patients obtained an esthetically pleasing result. The split radial forearm free flap is an elegant option for reconstruction of small- to moderate-sized soft tissue defects in the lower extremity. PMID:23657049

van Kampen, Robert J; Corten, Eveline M L; Schellekens, Pascal P A

2013-05-01

346

Dorsalis Pedis Free Flap: The Salvage Option following Failure of the Radial Forearm Flap in Total Lower Lip Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction after resection of large tumors of the lower lip requires the use of free flaps in order to restore the shape and the function of the lip, with the free radial forearm flap being the most popular. In this study we describe our experience in using the dorsalis pedis free flap as a salvage option in reconstruction of total lower lip defect in a patient with an extended lower lip carcinoma after failure of the radial forearm free flap, that was initially used. The flap was integrated excellently and on the followup the patient was free of disease and fully satisfied with the aesthetic and functional result.

Stathas, Theodoros; Tsiliboti, Dimitra; Tsiros, Aris; Mastronikolis, Nicholas; Goumas, Panos

2014-01-01

347

Lift enhancement and flow structure of airfoil with joint trailing-edge flap and Gurney flap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of Gurney flaps (GF), of different heights and perforations, on the aerodynamic and wake characteristics of a NACA 0015 airfoil equipped with a trailing-edge flap (TEF) was investigated experimentally at Re = 2.54 × 105. The addition of the Gurney flap to the TEF produced a further increase in the downward turning of the mean flow (increased aft camber), leading to a significant increase in the lift, drag, and pitching moment compared to that produced by independently deployed TEF or GF. The maximum lift increased with flap height, with the maximum lift-enhancement effectiveness exhibited at the smallest flap height. The near wake behind the joint TEF and GF became wider and had a larger velocity deficit and fluctuations compared to independent GF and TEF deployment. The Gurney flap perforation had only a minor impact on the wake and aerodynamics characteristics compared to TEF with a solid GF. The rapid rise in lift generation of the joint TEF and GF application, compared to conventional TEF deployment, could provide an improved off-design high-lift device during landing and takeoff.

Lee, T.; Su, Y. Y.

2011-06-01

348

Tubularized Penile-Flap Urethroplasty Using a Fasciocutaneous Random Pedicled Flap for Recurrent Anterior Urethral Stricture  

PubMed Central

This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique.

Lee, Byung Kwon

2012-01-01

349

Tubularized penile-flap urethroplasty using a fasciocutaneous random pedicled flap for recurrent anterior urethral stricture.  

PubMed

This report describes the use of a tubularized random flap for the curative treatment of recurrent anterior urethral stricture. Under the condition of pendulous lithotomy and suprapubic cystostomy, the urethral stricture was removed via a midline ventral penile incision followed by elevation of the flap and insertion of an 18-Fr catheter. Subcutaneous buried interrupted sutures were used to reapproximate the waterproof tubularized neourethra and to coapt with the neourethra and each stump of the urethra, first proximally and then distally. The defect of the penile shaft was covered by advancement of the surrounding scrotal flap. The indwelling catheter was maintained for 21 days. A 9 month postoperative cystoscopy showed no flap necrosis, no mechanical stricture, and no hair growth on the lumen of the neourethra. The patient showed no voiding discomfort 6 months after the operation. The advantages of this procedure are the lack of need for microsurgery, shortening of admission, the use of only spinal anesthesia (no general anesthesia), and a relatively short operative time. The tubularized unilateral penile fasciocutaneous flap should be considered an option for initial flap urethroplasty as a curative technique. PMID:22783537

Lee, Yong Jig; Lee, Byung Kwon

2012-05-01

350

Pulverised Fuel Non-Return Flap Valve.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All previous nonreturn flap valves for P.F. pipelines have been fabricated or cast with bodies of rectangular section. These are inherently weak when subject to an internal pressure. As some P.F. systems now have to withstand an internal pressure of 31 ba...

P. Holdsworth

1978-01-01

351

Computational Aerodynamics of Insects' Flapping Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematics of the Insects' flapping flight is modeled through mathematical and computational observations with commercial software. Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present paper, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings is carried out by utilizing computer software e-AIRS. The e-AIRS (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) analyzes and models the results of computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. Stroke angles and phase angles, the important two factors in producing lift of the airfoils are set as main parameters to determine aerodynamic characteristics of the insects' flapping flight. As a result, the optimal phase angle to minimize the drag and to maximize the lift are found. Various simulations indicate that using proper value of variables produce greater thrust due to an optimal angle of attack at the initial position during down stroke motion.

Yang, Kyung Dong; Kyung, Richard

2011-11-01

352

The "Skull Flap" a new conceived device for decompressive craniectomy/cranioplasty: Feasibility study on cadaver specimen  

PubMed Central

Background: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a procedure that is currently performed with increasing frequency. The reason is that its indications have become much broader. This procedure may be associated with the relevant morbidity in the postoperative stage due to the creation of a large bone defect. On the other hand, cranioplasty is associated too with some of the common complications related to any reconstructive head surgery. The authors present a newly developed device: The “Skull Flap” (SF). This new device allows the surgeon to complete a DC, yet providing at the same time a cranial reconstruction that will not require the patient to undergo a second reconstructive procedure. Materials and Methods: Different size and location craniectomies were carried out on four human cadaveric heads; the bone flaps were then repositioned in a more elevated position with respect to the skull edges. The flaps were placed at a distance of 12 and 15 mm from the skull edges using the SF system. Crash tests were conducted on each flap while in open and closed positions to assess its reliability and efficacy. Results: SF was shown to be a strong fixation device that allows satisfactory brain decompression by keeping the original bone flap away from the swollen brain; at the same time, in a later stage, it allows cranial reconstruction in a simple way. Conclusion: The SF device was shown to be very easy to use, adaptable, and practical to apply; thus, allowing both satisfactory brain decompression as well as bone flap repositioning at a later time after the brain swelling has subsided.

Chibbaro, Salvatore; Tigan, L.; Marsella, M.; George, B.; Galzio, R.; Kehrli, P.; Vicaut, E.; Diemidio, P.

2013-01-01

353

A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental characterization is performed on the proposed design, yielding acceptable coupling and rigidity characteristics. A working prototype is manufactured from carbon composites and characterized for its lift production capabilities. A scaling law based on momentum flow theory and design scaling arguments is developed, predicting an increase of lift-to-weight ratio of the robot with decreasing size. Per the theoretical considerations, a scaled down prototype of the robot is manufactured and experimentally characterized. System geometry and parameters were optimized based on the developed full system theoretical model to yield maximum lift force. Finally, preliminary control is attempted on the flapping platform employing a decoupled methodology for the roll and pitch direction. A simple Proportional Integral Derivative controller is implemented on the experimental prototype mounted on a motion constraining rig, yielding acceptable trajectory tracking characteristics.

Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

354

Glans reconstruction with the use of an inverted urethral flap after distal penile amputation for carcinoma.  

PubMed

Restoration of adequate cosmesis and preservation of sexual and urinary function are the main goals of penile reconstructive surgery following amputation for carcinoma. Split thickness skin grafts and oral mucosa grafts have been widely used for the creation of a pseudoglans with excellent cosmetic and functional results. The main drawbacks associated with the use of grafts are donor site morbidity, the lack of engorgement of the pseudoglans and the risk of poor graft take, which may lead to contracture and poor cosmetic results. In the present series the long term cosmetic and functional outcomes of glans reconstruction with an inverted distal urethral flap are described. PMID:23695401

Sansalone, Salvatore; Garaffa, Giulio; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Zucchi, Alessandro; Kuehhas, Franklin Emmanuel; Herwig, Ralf; Silvani, Mauro; Pecoraro, Stefano; Loreto, Carla; Leonardi, Rosario

2013-03-01

355

On the selection of the nozzle geometry and other parameters for cutting corneal flaps with waterjets.  

PubMed

A cutting waterjet to produce corneal flaps during refractive surgery or to slice donor corneas for corneal grafting was developed. Jets generated with several different nozzles were compared to determine the most appropriate nozzle geometry for this application. In this paper, it is also discussed how other variables, such as stand-off distance and transverse velocity, can affect the characteristics of the cut. The cutting mechanisms, giving bases for an application of waterjets for cutting other types of tissues, are also discussed. PMID:19469663

Cadavid, Ricardo; Jean, Benedikt; Wüstenberg, Dieter

2009-06-01

356

One-stage reconstruction of a tracheal defect with a free radial forearm flap and free costal cartilage grafts.  

PubMed

Reconstructing the trachea is challenging because of its multilayer structure and airway function; multiple procedures are often required. We report a case of one-stage reconstruction for a tracheal defect. The surgery was performed with a free radial forearm flap and free costal cartilage grafts. Air leakage occurred postoperatively but healed without additional surgery. The reconstructed trachea has retained its shape, diameter and airway function for 14 months despite the patient's history of radiotherapy. This one-stage procedure with well-vascularised tissue was successfully used to reconstruct a stable, well-functioning trachea. PMID:24476705

Fukunaga, Yutaka; Sakuraba, Minoru; Miyamoto, Shimpei; Kayano, Shuji; Kurosawa, Koreyuki; Fujiki, Masahide; Sakisaka, Masanobu; Yoshimoto, Seiichi

2014-06-01

357

Plantar rotational flap technique for panmetatarsal head resection and transmetatarsal amputation: a revision approach for second metatarsal head transfer ulcers in patients with previous partial first ray amputation.  

PubMed

Transfer ulcers beneath the second metatarsal head are common after diabetes-related partial first ray amputation. Subsequent osteomyelitis of the second ray can further complicate this difficult situation. We present 2 cases depicting our plantar rotational flap technique for revision surgery involving conversion to either panmetatarsal head resection or transmetatarsal amputation (TMA). These cases are presented to demonstrate our indications, procedure selection criteria, flap technique, operative pearls, and staging protocol. The goals of this surgical approach are to excise and close the plantar ulcer beneath the second metatarsal head, remove any infected bone, allow staged surgery if needed, remove all remaining metatarsal heads to decrease the likelihood of repeat transfer ulcers, preserve the toes when practical, avoid excessive shortening of the foot, avoid multiple longitudinal dorsal incisions, and create a functional and cosmetically appealing foot. The flap is equally suited for either panmetatarsal head resection or TMA. The decision to pursue panmetatarsal head resection versus TMA largely depends on the condition of the remaining toes. Involvement of osteomyelitis in the base of the second proximal phalanx, the soft tissue viability of the remaining toes, the presence of a preoperative digital deformity, and the likelihood that saving the lesser toes will be beneficial from a cosmetic or footwear standpoint are factors we consider when deciding between panmetatarsal head resection and TMA. Retrospective chart review identified prompt healing of the flap in both patients. Neither patient experienced recurrent ulcers or required subsequent surgery within the first 12 months postoperatively. PMID:23910736

Boffeli, Troy J; Reinking, Ryan

2014-01-01

358

Accidental injury of the latissimus dorsi flap pedicle during axillae dissection: types and reconstruction algorithm.  

PubMed

The intra-operative latissimus dorsi (LD) pedicle damage during axillary lymph-node dissection by the general surgeon is a rare complication leading to flap failure and poor outcomes. The authors present their experience on this topic and develop a classification of the thoracodorsal (TD) pedicle injuries and reconstruction algorithm. Pedicle damage of LD occurred in five cases, three of which were experienced during immediate breast reconstruction and two observed in patients who underwent prior surgery. In two cases the thoracodorsal vein (TDV) was damaged in its proximal segment, thus end-to-end anastomosis was performed between distal stump of TDV and circumflex scapular vein (CSV). In one case the TDV required simple microsurgical repair while in other two cases the severe damage of vein and artery required more complex surgical strategies in attempt to salvage the flap. Four cases completely survived with one case of rippling phenomenon. One case had partial flap necrosis that required subtotal muscle resection. Based on these cases, the authors have developed a reconstruction algorithm in attempt to repair LD pedicle damage while preserving breast reconstruction. Taking into account its anatomical conformation, TD pedicle injuries are classified in four different types and available options are suggested for all of them according to the anatomical site and to the mechanism and timing of injury. PMID:23836695

Laporta, Rosaria; Longo, Benedetto; Pagnoni, Marco; Catta, Federico; Garbarino, Giovanni Maria; Santanelli, Fabio

2014-01-01

359

RISK OF SEVERE AND REFRACTORY POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING DIEP FLAP BREAST RECONSTRUCTION  

PubMed Central

Background Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are commonly feared after general anesthesia and can impact results. The primary aim of our study was to examine incidence and severity of PONV by investigating complete response, or absence of PONV, to prophylaxis used in patients undergoing DIEP flaps. Our secondary aims were definition of the magnitude of risk, state of the art of interventions, clinical sequelae of PONV, and interaction between these variables, specifically for DIEP patients. Methods A retrospective chart review occurred for 29 patients undergoing DIEP flap breast reconstruction from September 2007 to February 2008. We assessed known patient and procedure-specific risks for PONV after DIEPs, prophylactic antiemetic regimens, incidence, and severity of PONV, postoperative antiemetic rescues, and effects of risks and treatments on symptoms. Results Three or more established risks existed in all patients, with up to seven risks per patient. Although 90% of patients received diverse prophylaxis, 76% of patients experienced PONV, and 66% experienced its severe form, emesis. Early PONV (73%) was frequent; symptoms were long lasting (average 20 hours for nausea and emesis); and multiple rescue medications were frequently required (55% for nausea, 58% for emesis). Length of surgery and nonsmoking statistically significantly impacted PONV. Conclusion We identify previously undocumented high risks for PONV in DIEP patients. High frequency, severity, and refractoriness of PONV occur despite standard prophylaxis. Plastic surgeons and anesthesiologists should further investigate methods to optimize PONV prophylaxis and treatment in DIEP flap patients.

MANAHAN, MICHELE A.; BASDAG, BASAK; KALMAR, CHRISTOPHER L.; SHRIDHARANI, SACHIN M.; MAGARAKIS, MICHAEL; JACOBS, LISA K.; THOMSEN, ROBERT W.; ROSSON, GEDGE D.

2014-01-01

360

Assessment of mucocele formation after endoscopic nasoseptal flap reconstruction of skull base defects  

PubMed Central

Advances in endoscopic skull base (SB) surgery have led to the resection of increasingly larger cranial base lesions, resulting in large SB defects. These defects have initially led to increased postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. The development of the vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF) has successfully reduced postoperative CSF leaks. Mucocele formation, however, has been reported as a complication of this technique. In this study, we analyze the incidence of mucocele formation after repair of SB defects using a PNSF. A retrospective review was performed from December 2008 to December 2011 to identify patients who underwent PNSF reconstruction for large ventral SB defects. Demographic data, defect site, incidence of postoperative CSF leaks, and rate of mucocele formation were collected. Seventy patients undergoing PNSF repair of SB defects were identified. No postoperative mucocele formation was noted at an average radiological follow-up of 11.7 months (range, 3–36.9 months) and clinical follow-up of 13.8 months (range, 3–38.9 months), making the overall mucocele rate 0%. The postoperative CSF leak rate was 2.9%. Proper closure of SB defects is crucial to prevent CSF leaks. The PNSF is an efficient technique for these repairs. Although this flap may carry an inherent risk of mucocele formation when placed over mucosalized bone during repair, we found that meticulous and strategic removal of mucosa from the site of flap placement resulted in a 0% incidence of postoperative mucocele formation in our cohort.

Husain, Qasim; Sanghvi, Saurin; Kovalerchik, Olga; Shukla, Pratik A.; Choudhry, Osamah J.; Liu, James K.

2013-01-01

361

Antioxidant support in composite musculo-adipose-fasciocutaneous flap applications: an experimental study.  

PubMed

Free radicals are chemicals that play roles in the etio-pathogenesis of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Various antioxidants have been used in an attempt to mitigate the damage induced by these chemicals. In the present study, the antioxidative effects of grape seed extract (proanthocyanidin), tomato extract (lycopene), and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on a composite re-established-flow inferior epigastric artery based rectus abdominis muscle-skin flap model on which experimental ischaemia was induced were investigated. The rats have been administered antioxidants for 2 weeks prior to the surgery and for 2 more weeks thereafter. Macroscopic, histopathological, and biochemical analyses were carried out at the decision of the experiment. It was found that flap skin island necrosis was significantly reduced in the proanthocyanidin, lycopene, vitamin C groups (p < 0.001). Statistical analyses showed significant decreases in inflammation, oedema, congestion, and granulation tissue in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups compared to the vitamin C and control groups (p < 0.001). When the viability rates of fat and muscle tissues were examined, significant improvements were found in the proanthocyanidin and lycopene groups in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.001). Serum antioxidant capacity measurements revealed significant differences in the lycopene group compared to all other groups (p < 0.001). It is concluded that lycopene and proanthocyanidin are protective antioxidants in rat composite muscle-skin flap ischaemia-reperfusion models. PMID:23731129

Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapi, Emin; Kulahci, Yalcin; Gedik, Ercan; Ozekinci, Selver; Isik, Fatma Birgul; Celik, Yusuf; Selcuk, Caferi Tayyar; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

2014-02-01

362

Reconstruction of the Lower Extremity Using Free Flaps  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of lower-extremity reconstruction has focused on wound coverage and functional recovery. However, there are limitations in the use of a local flap in cases of extensive defects of the lower-extremities. Therefore, free flap is a useful option in lower-extremity reconstruction. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 49 patients (52 cases) who underwent lower-extremity reconstruction at our institution during a 10-year period. In these patients, we evaluated causes and sites of defects, types of flaps, recipient vessels, types of anastomosis, survival rate, and complications. Results There were 42 men and 10 women with a mean age of 32.7 years (range, 3-72 years). The sites of defects included the dorsum of the foot (19), pretibial area (17), ankle (7), heel (5) and other sites (4). The types of free flap included latissimus dorsi muscle flap (10), scapular fascial flap (6), anterolateral thigh flap (6), and other flaps (30). There were four cases of vascular complications, out of which two flaps survived after intervention. The overall survival of the flaps was 96.2% (50/52). There were 19 cases of other complications at recipient sites such as partial graft loss (8), partial flap necrosis (6) and infection (5). However, these complications were not notable and were resolved with skin grafts. Conclusions The free flap is an effective method of lower-extremity reconstruction. Good outcomes can be achieved with complete debridement and the selection of appropriate recipient vessels and flaps according to the recipient site.

Kang, Min Jo; Chang, Yong Joon; Kim, Kyul Hee

2013-01-01

363

Intraoperative template-molded bone flap reconstruction for patient-specific cranioplasty.  

PubMed

Cranioplasty is a common neurosurgical procedure. Free-hand molding of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cement into complex three-dimensional shapes is often time-consuming and may result in disappointing cosmetic outcomes. Computer-assisted patient-specific implants address these disadvantages but are associated with long production times and high costs. In this study, we evaluated the clinical, radiological, and cosmetic outcomes of a time-saving and inexpensive intraoperative method to mold custom-made implants for immediate single-stage or delayed cranioplasty. Data were collected from patients in whom cranioplasty became necessary after removal of bone flaps affected by intracranial infection, tumor invasion, or trauma. A PMMA replica was cast between a negative form of the patient's own bone flap and the original bone flap with exactly the same shape, thickness, and dimensions. Clinical and radiological follow-up was performed 2 months post-surgery. Patient satisfaction (Odom criteria) and cosmesis (visual analogue scale for cosmesis) were evaluated 1 to 3 years after cranioplasty. Twenty-seven patients underwent intraoperative template-molded patient-specific cranioplasty with PMMA. The indications for cranioplasty included bone flap infection (56%, n?=?15), calvarian tumor resection (37%, n?=?10), and defect after trauma (7%, n?=?2). The mean duration of the molding procedure was 19?±?7 min. Excellent radiological implant alignment was achieved in 94% of the cases. All (n?=?23) but one patient rated the cosmetic outcome (mean 1.4 years after cranioplasty) as excellent (70%, n?=?16) or good (26%, n?=?6). Intraoperative cast-molded reconstructive cranioplasty is a feasible, accurate, fast, and cost-efficient technique that results in excellent cosmetic outcomes, even with large and complex skull defects. PMID:22391771

Marbacher, Serge; Andereggen, Lukas; Erhardt, Salome; Fathi, Ali-Reza; Fandino, Javier; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

2012-10-01

364

Scapular free flap harvest site: recognising the spectrum of radiographic post-operative appearance  

PubMed Central

Objective: Scapular free flap harvesting for oral cavity cancer reconstruction is an increasingly used and versatile option. We aim to describe the appearance of the scapula harvest site on chest radiograph and CT. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a surgical database of 82 patients who underwent scapular osteocutaneous flap harvesting for oral cavity cancer reconstruction and had imaging performed at our institution. We searched the picture archiving and communications system for all associated imaging. Results: Characteristic radiographic appearance in the immediate post-operative period as well as in the remote post-operative period is described, including an upside-down V-shaped paraglenoid notch, rectangular (or triangular) lateral border defects and a sharply pointed inferior scapular body. Additionally, common CT appearances are discussed, including an abrupt gleno-scapular interval, an absent axillary rim bulge and a Z-shaped scapula. Conclusion: The altered appearance of the scapular defect following surgical harvest is easily recognised. Although the description of this defect may not alter management and may reasonably be omitted, a radiologist’s comfort with these appearances may potentially enhance the understanding of patient management and recognition of superimposed complications, such as infection. Advances in knowledge: Scapular osteocutaneous free flap reconstruction is an increasingly used technique after oral cavity surgery. Very few radiologists reported in our review the surgical scapular defects, and there is apparent ignorance of their appearance. We described characteristic radiographic and CT signs of scapular free flap harvesting to increase radiologists’ familiarity with these defects, which may provide clinical information and possibly contribute to detection of complications.

Nwoke, F; Urken, M L; Buchbinder, D; Jacobson, A S; Silberzweig, J E; Khorsandi, A S

2013-01-01

365

Evaluation of ocular surface and tear film function following modified Hughes tarsoconjunctival flap procedure.  

PubMed

Purpose:? To evaluate ocular surface characteristics and tear film function following modified Hughes flap for eyelid reconstruction. Methods:? This is an institutional study including 18 patients (6 male, 12 female) who underwent a tarsoconjunctival flap for reconstructing the lower eyelid's posterior lamella in one eye between 2005 and 2010. The median age of the patients was 72 (49-93)?years at the time of surgery and 77 (51-97)?years at the time of evaluation. The median follow-up time was 34 (9-69)?months. All patients had large malignant or semi-malignant lid tumours. Data for subjective symptoms (OSDI questionnaire), lid margin morphology, tear break-up time (BUT), vital staining, Schirmer test, impression cytology, tear film osmolarity, lipid layer interference patterns, meibography and the size of the tumour and flap were recorded and compared with the contralateral side. Results:? Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant difference between the surgically treated lid and the untreated side in meibomian gland loss, more lid margin abnormalities in the upper and lower eyelid (p?flap, our results indicate that this procedure does affect the ocular surface health in the treated eyes. PMID:23464849

Klein-Theyer, Angelika; Horwath-Winter, Jutta; Rabensteiner Dieter, Franz; Haller-Schober, Eva-Maria; Riedl, Regina; Boldin, Ingrid

2014-05-01

366

Reconstruction of extensive abdominal wall defect using an eccentric perforator-based pedicled anterolateral thigh flap: a case report.  

PubMed

Reconstruction of extensive abdominal wall defects is a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. In this report, a case of reconstruction of a large abdominal wall defect using an eccentric perforator-based pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is presented. A 30-year-old man presented with recurrent desmoid-type fibromatosis in the abdominal wall. The recurrent tumor was radically excised, and the en bloc excision resulted in a full-thickness, large abdominal wall defect (25 cm × 20 cm). An eccentric perforator-based pedicled ALT flap, including wide fascial extension, was transferred to the abdominal defect; fascial portions were sutured to the remnant abdominal fascia. Plication of the fascia along the sutured portion was performed to relieve the skin tension between the flap and the marginal skin of the abdominal defect. Eight months after surgery, the reconstructed abdomen had an acceptable esthetic appearance without tumor recurrence or hernia. The use of an eccentric perforator-based pedicled ALT flap may be an alternative method for the reconstruction of extensive abdominal wall defects. PMID:23836365

Jang, Joonchul; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Han, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Kyung

2013-09-01

367

Aerodynamic flight performance in flap-gliding birds and bats.  

PubMed

Many birds use a flight mode called undulating or flap-gliding flight, where they alternate between flapping and gliding phases, while only a few bats make use of such a flight mode. Among birds, flap-gliding is commonly used by medium to large species, where it is regarded to have a lower energetic cost than continuously flapping flight. Here, we introduce a novel model for estimating the energetic flight economy of flap-gliding animals, by determining the lift-to-drag ratio for flap-gliding based on empirical lift-to-drag ratio estimates for continuous flapping flight and for continuous gliding flight, respectively. We apply the model to flight performance data of the common swift (Apus apus) and of the lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae). The common swift is a typical flap-glider while-to the best of our knowledge-the lesser long-nosed bat does not use flap-gliding. The results show that, according to the model, the flap-gliding common swift saves up to 15% energy compared to a continuous flapping swift, and that this is primarily due to the exceptionally high lift-to-drag ratio in gliding flight relative to that in flapping flight for common swifts. The lesser long-nosed bat, on the other hand, seems not to be able to reduce energetic costs by flap-gliding. The difference in relative costs of flap-gliding flight between the common swift and the lesser long-nosed bat can be explained by differences in morphology, flight style and wake dynamics. The model presented here proves to be a valuable tool for estimating energetic flight economy in flap-gliding animals. The results show that flap-gliding flight that is naturally used by common swifts is indeed the most economic one of the two flight modes, while this is not the case for the non-flap-gliding lesser long-nosed bat. PMID:22726811

Muijres, Florian T; Henningsson, Per; Stuiver, Melanie; Hedenström, Anders

2012-08-01

368

Surgical Techniques for Personalized Oncoplastic Surgery in Breast Cancer Patients with Small- to Moderate-Sized Breasts (Part 2): Volume Replacement  

PubMed Central

Oncoplastic breast surgery has become a popular choice of treatment for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. There are two different techniques in oncoplastic surgery depending on the volume of the excised breast tissue. One is the volume displacement procedure, which combines resection with a variety of different breast-reshaping and breast-reduction techniques; the other is the volume replacement procedure in which the volume of excised breast tissue is replaced with autologous tissue. In this study, current authors performed various volume replacement techniques based on the weight of the excised tumor and its margin of resection. We used a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for cases in which the resection mass was greater than 150 g, and for cases in which the resection mass was less than 150 g, we used a regional flap, such as a lateral thoracodorsal flap, a thoracoepigastric flap, or perforator flaps, such as an intercostal artery perforator flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator flap. In the patients with small to moderate-sized breasts, when a postoperative deformity is expected due to a large-volume tumor resection, the replacement of non-breast tissue is required. Many of whom have small breasts, oncoplastic volume replacement techniques in breast-conserving surgery allow an extensive tumor excision without concern of compromising the cosmetic outcome and can be reliable and useful techniques with satisfactory aesthetic results.

Yang, Jung Dug; Lee, Jeong Woo; Cho, Young Kyoo; Kim, Wan Wook; Hwang, Seung Ook; Jung, Jin Hyang

2012-01-01

369

Refractive Surgery  

PubMed Central

The concept of surgically altering the eye to correct refractive errors has been considered for hundreds of years, but only in the past 60 years has interest grown considerably due to the development of modern refractive surgery techniques such as astigmatic keratotomies to correct astigmatism induced by cataract surgery and future technologies currently being investigated. Modern refractive surgery is more involved than setting the correct parameters on the laser. Patient selection and examination, proper technique, and postoperative follow-up for potential complications are essential for a successful refractive procedure. Critical evaluation of new techniques is vital to avoid the pitfall of overly exuberant enthusiasm for new and unproven methods of refractive surgery. Kellum K. Refractive surgery. The Ochsner Journal 2000; 2:164-167.

Kellum, Keith

2000-01-01

370

Refractive surgery.  

PubMed

The concept of surgically altering the eye to correct refractive errors has been considered for hundreds of years, but only in the past 60 years has interest grown considerably due to the development of modern refractive surgery techniques such as astigmatic keratotomies to correct astigmatism induced by cataract surgery and future technologies currently being investigated. Modern refractive surgery is more involved than setting the correct parameters on the laser. Patient selection and examination, proper technique, and postoperative follow-up for potential complications are essential for a successful refractive procedure. Critical evaluation of new techniques is vital to avoid the pitfall of overly exuberant enthusiasm for new and unproven methods of refractive surgery.Kellum K. Refractive surgery. The Ochsner Journal 2000; 2:164-167. PMID:21765686

Kellum, K

2000-07-01

371

Flap Coverage of Anterior Abdominal Wall Defects  

PubMed Central

Reconstruction of complex defects of the anterior abdomen is both challenging and technically demanding for reconstructive surgeons. Advancements in the use of pedicle and free tissue transfer along with the use of bioprosthetic and synthetic meshes have provided for novel approaches to these complex defects. Accordingly, detailed knowledge of abdominal wall and lower extremity anatomy in combination with insight into the design, implementation, and limitations of various flaps is essential to solve these complex clinical problems. Although these defects can be attributed to a myriad of etiologic factors, the objectives in abdominal wall reconstruction are consistent and include the restoration of abdominal wall integrity, protection of intraabdominal viscera, and the prevention of herniation. In this article, the authors review pertinent anatomy and the various local, regional, and distant flaps that can be utilized in the reconstruction of these complex clinical cases of the anterior abdomen.

Sacks, Justin M.; Broyles, Justin M.; Baumann, Donald P.

2012-01-01

372

Aerosound from corner flow and flap flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noise generation at the edge of a wing flap is analyzed. The phenomenon as a single vortex moving around a corner in an incompressible, potential flow is modelled. Vortex image retarding effects are proposed as an explanation for small Strouhal numbers. The model surface pressures, sound pressures (using Curle's theory), and Mach number dependencies agree with wind tunnel experiments. A double pressure peak is found in the model (credited to image action) which is qualitatively similar to measured sound correlations. Incompressible flow aerosound calculations are discussed. The effects of a series of vortices moving in the same idealized potential flow are also studied. The vortices are assumed to be statistically independent so their intensities can be added. The frequency of appearance of the vortices are determined from measurements. Diffraction effects caused by the presence of the wing near the dipole sound radiators on the flap surfaces are included.

Meecham, W. C.

1982-01-01

373

Forward speed effects on blown flap noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of forward speed on the noise of under-the-wing (externally blown flaps, EBF) and over-the-wing (upper surface blown, USB) blown flap configurations were measured in wind tunnel model tests with cold jets. The results are presented without correction for the effects (e.g., signal convection, shear layer refraction) associated with flight simulation in a wind tunnel or free jet facility. Noise decreases were generally observed at microphones forward of the wing. The reductions were larger at the low frequencies (below peak SPL) than at the high (above peak SPL). Noise increases of 10 dB or more were observed at the aft microphones, especially in the high frequency range.

Pennock, A. P.

1977-01-01

374

The extraperitoneal laparoscopic TRAM flap delay procedure: an alternative approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Ligation of the deep inferior epigastric vessels prior to transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction\\u000a (delay procedure) was introduced to augment vascularity to the island flap through improved superior epigastric flow, thus\\u000a decreasing flap morbidity. There are various surgical approaches described, including open and laparoscopic approaches, for\\u000a ligation of inferior epigastric arteries. We describe an extraperitoneal laparoscopic technique (EPLT)

Panduranga Yenumula; Erick F. Rivas; Keith M. Cavaness; Ed Kang; Edward Lanigan

2011-01-01

375

Customizing the paramedian forehead flap for total nasal reconstruction.  

PubMed

Secondary squamous cell carcinoma eroding the entire nasal architecture is rare. Wide local excision leaves a debilitating central defect over the face. Total reconstruction of the nose is best performed in stages. The forehead flap is a workhorse flap in nasal reconstruction. We describe a few technical modifications of this flap in a patient who underwent this treatment with acceptable cosmetic result and minimal donor-site morbidity. PMID:24978446

Tripathy, Satyaswarup; John, Jerry R

2014-07-01

376

USB noise reduction by nozzle and flap modifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of concepts for reducing upper surface blown flap noise at the source through flap modifications and special nozzles is reviewed. In particular, recent results obtained on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of flaps with porous surfaces near the trailing edge and multi-slotted nozzles are reviewed. Considerable reduction (6-10 db) of the characteristic low frequency peak is shown. The aerodynamic performance is compared with conventional systems, and prospects for future improvements are discussed.

Hayden, R. E.

1976-01-01

377

Aerodynamic characteristics of flapping motion in hover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work is to understand the aerodynamic phenomena and the vortex topology of an unsteady flapping motion\\u000a by means of numerical and experimental methods. Instead of the use of real insect\\/bird wing geometries and kinematics which\\u000a are highly complex and difficult to imitate by an exact modeling, a simplified model is used in order to understand

D. Funda Kurtulus; Laurent David; Alain Farcy; Nafiz Alemdaroglu

2008-01-01

378

Vestibular deepening by periosteal fenestration and its use as a periosteal pedicle flap for root coverage  

PubMed Central

Gingival recession along with reduced width of attached gingiva and inadequate vestibular depth is a very common finding. Multiple techniques have been developed to obtain predictable root coverage and to increase the width of attached gingiva. Usually, the width of gingiva is first increased and then the second surgery is caried out for root coverage. The newer methods of root coverage are needed, not only to reconstruct the lost periodontal tissues but also to increase predictability, reduce the number of surgical sites, reduce the number of surgeries and improve patient comfort. Hence, this paper describes a single stage technique for increasing the width of attached gingiva and root coverage by using the periosteal pedicle flap.

Rajpal, Jaisika; Gupta, Krishna K.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Arora, Aakash

2013-01-01

379

Sushruta: father of plastic surgery.  

PubMed

Sushruta is considered the "Father of Plastic Surgery." He lived in India sometime between 1000 and 800 BC, and is responsible for the advancement of medicine in ancient India. His teaching of anatomy, pathophysiology, and therapeutic strategies were of unparalleled luminosity, especially considering his time in the historical record. He is notably famous for nasal reconstruction, which can be traced throughout the literature from his depiction within the Vedic period of Hindu medicine to the era of Tagliacozzi during Renaissance Italy to modern-day surgical practices. The primary focus of this historical review is centered on Sushruta's anatomical and surgical knowledge and his creation of the cheek flap for nasal reconstruction and its transition to the "Indian method." The influential nature of the Sushruta Samhita, the compendium documenting Sushruta's theories about medicine, is supported not only by anatomical knowledge and surgical procedural descriptions contained within its pages, but by the creative approaches that still hold true today. PMID:23788147

Champaneria, Manish C; Workman, Adrienne D; Gupta, Subhas C

2014-07-01

380

Long posterior flap amputation in geriatric patients with ischaemic disease.  

PubMed Central

A series of 165 primary amputations performed on 148 patients at Queen Mary's Hospital, Roehampton, from 1967 to 1975 is reported. The average age of these patients was 70 years, the oldest being 95. Those aged 70 years and over are considered in special detail. The problems of management of these elderly patients are complex, involving medical, surgical, and social problems. The object of treatment is to restore these patients to their previous way of life with the shortest possible time in hospital. Every patient is assessed with a view to arterial surgery, and amputation is avoided where possible by a lumbar sympathetic block or direct arterial surgery. When amputation cannot be avoided a below-knee level is selected if possible. A long posterior flap technique is used which forms a myoplasty of the gastrocnemius muscle; thus the ischaemic anterior tibial skin is avoided. Before the operation the patient is assessed by a specialist team and the management is discussed in detail. Every patient is kept in hospital until rehabilitation is achieved to the point of independence inside the home. Of the 90 patients in the group aged 70 years and over, 22% had above-knee amputations and 75% had below-knee amputations, with the result that 69% of the latter were discharged home walking. This result is contrasted with the smaller number who had an above-knee amputation. Below-knee amputation gives the elderly patient a better chance of walking because of the use of the patellar tendon bearing prosthesis. When followed up 36% of those patients with below-knee amputation were fully independent for periods exceeding six months. The price of a below-knee level of amputation is a longer hospital stay, but the quality of function and mobility obtained by the patient makes this worth while. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9

Robinson, K. P.

1976-01-01

381

THEMIS Observations of Current Sheet Flapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a 4-hour interval of periodic current sheet flapping observed by the three inner THEMIS probes (P3, 4 and 5) and the outermost probe P1 (at X=-24 RE). These probes were located post-midnight in radial alignment. Substorm onsets bounded the interval of flapping. Several substorm-like activations were observed as the current sheet kinks propagated past the spacecraft. The field at the location of the inner probes dipolarized and disrupted the kink structure locally, but did not appear to disrupt the generation of the periodic kinks. This is strong evidence that the periodic kinks were unrelated to the geomagnetic activity occurring in the post-midnight sector. THEMIS probe P2 was located in the near-Earth, pre-midnight sector, and did not observe kinks. This suggests the periodic kinks were generated near the midnight meridian and propagated in one direction, eastward. Using auroral imagery, ground magnetometers, and multi-point magnetospheric measurements, we discuss the source of the kink structures, the relationship of the flapping to geomagnetic activity, and examine the role of external solar wind driving.

Kepko, L.; Raeder, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Carlson, C. W.; Glassmeier, K.; Mende, S.; McFadden, J. L.; Singer, H.; Parks, G.; Fillingim, M.; Mann, I.; Donovan, E.; Russell, C. T.

2008-12-01

382

Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

2010-11-01

383

The angel flap for nipple reconstruction.  

PubMed

Creation of an aesthetically pleasing nipple plays a significant role in breast reconstruction as a determining factor in patient satisfaction. The goals for nipple reconstruction include minimal donor site morbidity and appropriate, long-lasting projection. Currently, the most popular techniques used are associated with a significant loss of projection postoperatively. Accordingly, the authors introduce the angel flap, which is designed to achieve nipple projection with lasting results. The lateral edges of the flap and the area surrounding the top of the nipple are de-epithelialized and the flaps are wrapped to create a nipple mound composed primarily of dermis. Decreasing the amount of fat within core of the nipple and enhancing dermal content promotes long-lasting projection. Furthermore, the incision pattern fits within a desired areolar size, preventing unnecessary superfluous extension of the incisions. Thus, the technique described herein achieves the goals of nipple reconstruction, including adequate and long-lasting projection, without extension of the lateral limb scars. PMID:24431944

Wong, Wendy W; Hiersche, Matthew A; Martin, Mark C

2013-01-01

384

Flow Field of Flexible Flapping Wings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow field around several flexible flapping Zimmerman planform wings of aspect ratio 7.65 and a semispan of 75 mm is investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a quiescent environment. The wings are made from carbon fiber skeletons and covered with a thin layer of Capran. The skeletons consist of reinforced leading edges and chordwise battens in an attempt to decouple chordwise and spanwise flexibility as much as possible. The flow field from several phases throughout the flapping cycle will be presented. These flow fields consist of the phase averaged velocities in multiple PIV planes. These planes will include both those orientated in the streamwise and spanwise directions to build up a three dimensional representation of the flow in the vicinity of the wing and calculate the resultant vorticity field. The vortical features of these flow fields will be identified and discussed through the use of vortex identification methods. The discussion of the flow measurements will be coupled with force measurements and wing deflection data for a detailed view of mechanisms related to flapping flight and study how the formation of vorticity relates to the generation of aerodynamic forces.

S"{A}Llstr"{O}M, Erik; Ukeiley, Lawrence

2009-11-01

385

Evaluation of flexible flapping wing concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab - has launched an internal program on biologically-inspired Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs), coveri