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Sample records for gunther tulip retrievable

  1. Evaluation of Retrievability of the Gunther Tulip Vena Cava Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Kato, Takeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2007-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of withdrawal of a Gunther tulip retrievable vena cava filter (GTF). Methods. Between June 2001 and December 2005, at our institution 86 GTFs were implanted for temporary caval filtration in 59 patients (37 women, 22 men; mean age 59.3 years, range 18-87 years). For GTFs retrieved thereafter, we retrospectively reviewed the following parameters: rate of success in retrieval, degree of trapped thrombus in the filter, and complications during retrieval. Results. Worsening of or new development of pulmonary embolism after filter implantation did not occur in any patient. Of the 86 GTFs implanted, retrieval of 80 was attempted. Among those 80 filters, 77 (96%) were successfully retrieved (with the standard method, n = 72; with the modified method, n = 5) without any complication. The period of implantation of the retrieved filters was 13.4 {+-} 4.2 days. In the 5 filters that were filled to a height of {>=} 1/4 with trapped thrombus, retrieval was performed after attempts were made to decrease trapped thrombi. In addition, a temporary filter or another GTF was temporarily placed at the cephalad level of the GTF during this removal procedure. Conclusion. GTFs can be retrieved in the majority of cases. Even when encountering situations in which the filter could not be removed using the standard method, withdrawal was possible in a high frequency of cases through various trials using modified methods.

  2. Gunther Tulip Retrievable Inferior Vena Caval Filters: Indications, Efficacy, Retrieval, and Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Looby, S.; Given, M.F.; Geoghegan, T.; McErlean, A.; Lee, M.J.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. We evaluated the Gunther Tulip (GT) retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filter with regard to indications, filtration efficacy, complications, retrieval window, and use of anticoagulation. Method. A retrospective study was performed of 147 patients (64 men, 83 women; mean age 58.8 years) who underwent retrievable GT filter insertion between 2001 and 2005. The indications for placement included a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis with a contraindication to anticoagulation (n = 68), pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis while on anticoagulation (n = 49), prophylactic filter placement for high-risk surgical patients with a past history of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 20), and a high risk of pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombosis (n = 10). Forty-nine of the 147 patients did not receive anticoagulation (33.7%) while 96 of 147 patients did, 82 of these receiving warfarin (56.5%), 11 receiving low-molecular weight heparins (7.58%), and 3 receiving antiplatelet agents alone (2.06%). Results. Filter placement was successful in 147 patients (100%). Two patients had two filters inserted. Of the 147 patients, filter deployment was on a permanent basis in 102 and with an intention to retrieve in 45 patients. There were 36 (80%) successful retrievals and 9 (20%) failed retrievals. The mean time to retrieval was 33.6 days. The reasons for failed retrieval included filter struts tightly adherent to the IVC wall (5/9), extreme filter tilt (2/9), and extensive filter thrombus (2/9). Complications included pneumothorax (n = 4), failure of filter expansion (n = 1), and breakthrough pulmonary embolism (n = 1). No IVC thrombotic episodes were recorded. Discussion. The Gunther Tulip retrievable filter can be used as a permanent or a retrievable filter. It is safe and efficacious. GT filters can be safely retrieved at a mean time interval of 33.6 days. The newly developed Celect filter may extend the retrieval interval.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of the Gunther Tulip Retrievable Vena Cava Filter: Midterm Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, Eric K. Mueller, Rebecca J.; Luciano, Marcus R.; Lee, Nicole N.; Michaels, Anne T.; Gemery, John M.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo evaluate of the medium-term integrity, efficacy, and complication rate associated with the Gunther Tulip vena cava filter.MethodsA retrospective study was performed of 369 consecutive patients who had infrarenal Gunther Tulip inferior vena cava filters placed over a 5-year period. The mean patient age was 61.8 years, and 59 % were men. Venous thromboembolic disease and a contraindication to or complication of anticoagulation were the indications for filter placement in 86 % of patients; 14 % were placed for prophylaxis in patients with a mean of 2.3 risk factors. Follow-up was obtained by review of medical and radiologic records.ResultsMean clinical follow-up was 780 days. New or recurrent pulmonary embolus occurred in 12 patients (3.3 %). New or recurrent deep-vein thrombosis occurred in 53 patients (14.4 %). There were no symptomatic fractures, migrations, or caval perforations. Imaging follow-up in 287 patients (77.8 %) at a mean of 731 days revealed a single (0.3 %) asymptomatic fracture, migration greater than 2 cm in 36 patients (12.5 %), and no case of embolization. Of 122 patients with CT scans, asymptomatic perforations were identified in 53 patients (43.4 %) at a mean 757 days.ConclusionThe Gunther Tulip filter was safe and effective at 2-year follow-up. Complication rates were similar to those reported for permanent inferior vena cava filters.

  4. Endovascular Repair of a Perforation of the Vena Caval Wall Caused by the Retrieval of a Gunther Tulip Filter After Long-Term Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Morishita, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Sato, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2011-02-15

    Symptomatic penetration of the inferior vena cava (IVC) wall reportedly occurs in 0.3% of patients in whom a filter has been implanted, and it causes injury to the adjacent structures (Bogue et al. in Pediatr Radiol 39(10):1110-1113, 1; Brzezinski et al. in Burns 32(5):640-643, 2). We succeeded in the endovascular repair of perforation of the IVC wall occurring during the retrieval of a penetrated Gunther tulip vena cava filter (Cook, Bjaeverskov, Denmark) after long-term implantation.

  5. Gunther Tulip Inferior Vena Cava Filter Placement During Treatment for Deep Venous Thrombosis of the Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji Kato, Takeharu; Iida, Shigeharu; Hirota, Tatsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2005-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Gunther tulip retrievable vena cava filter (GTF) implantation to prevent pulmonary embolism during intravenously administered thrombolytic and anticoagulation therapy and interventional radiological therapy for occlusive or nonocclusive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity. Methods. We evaluated placement of 55 GTFs in 42 patients with lower extremity DVT who had undergone various treatments including those utilizing techniques of interventional radiology. Results. Worsening of pulmonary embolism in patients with existing pulmonary embolism or in those without pulmonary embolism at the time of GTF insertion was avoided in all patients. All attempts at implantation of the GTF were safely accomplished. Perforation and migration experienced by one patient was the only complication. Mean period of treatment for DVT under protection from pulmonary embolism by the GTF was 12.7 {+-} 8.3 days (mean {+-} SD, range 4-37 days). We attempted retrieval of GTFs in 18 patients in whom the venous thrombus had disappeared after therapy, and retrieval in one of these 18 cases failed. GTFs were left in the vena cava in 24 patients for permanent use when the DVT was refractory to treatment. Conclusion. The ability of the GTF to protect against pulmonary embolism during treatment of DVT was demonstrated. Safety in both placement and retrieval was clarified. Because replacement with a permanent filter was not required, use of the GTF was convenient when further protection from complicated pulmonary embolism was necessary.

  6. Guenter Tulip Filter Retrieval Experience: Predictors of Successful Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Turba, Ulku Cenk Arslan, Bulent Meuse, Michael Sabri, Saher; Macik, Barbara Gail

    2010-08-15

    We report our experience with Guenter Tulip filter placement indications, retrievals, and procedural problems, with emphasis on alternative retrieval techniques. We have identified 92 consecutive patients in whom a Guenter Tulip filter was placed and filter removal attempted. We recorded patient demographic information, filter placement and retrieval indications, procedures, standard and nonstandard filter retrieval techniques, complications, and clinical outcomes. The mean time to retrieval for those who experienced filter strut penetration was statistically significant [F(1,90) = 8.55, p = 0.004]. Filter strut(s) IVC penetration and successful retrieval were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.043). The filter hook-IVC relationship correlated with successful retrieval. A modified guidewire loop technique was applied in 8 of 10 cases where the hook appeared to penetrate the IVC wall and could not be engaged with a loop snare catheter, providing additional technical success in 6 of 8 (75%). Therefore, the total filter retrieval success increased from 88 to 95%. In conclusion, the Guenter Tulip filter has high successful retrieval rates with low rates of complication. Additional maneuvers such as a guidewire loop method can be used to improve retrieval success rates when the filter hook is endothelialized.

  7. Guenther Tulip Filter Retrieval from a Left-sided Inferior Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, Elias N.; Kaufman, John A. Lakin, Paul L.

    2004-01-15

    Optional (retrievable) inferior cava filters (IVC) may have advantages over permanent filters in a certain subset of patients, especially in view of recent concerns about the long-term thrombotic complications of the latter. Retrieval of the Guenther Tulip Filter (GTF), an optional filter, has been reported in a total of 76 patients. We present the first description of GTF retrieval from a left-sided IVC using the right internal jugular approach.

  8. Dialysis grafts arterial plug: Retrieval using the tulip sheath device in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Sharafuddin, Melhem J.; Titus, Jack L.

    1997-03-15

    The 'arterial plug' is a resistant thrombus that frequently persists at the arterial anastomosis of clotted hemodialysis grafts following thrombolytic therapy. We studied the physical and morphological characteristics of the plug and determined the feasibility of transcatheter removal in vitro using the tulip compression thrombectomy system. Sixteen thrombus plugs were recovered during surgical thrombectomy of clotted human dialysis grafts. The physical and gross physical characteristics of all plugs were analyzed. Eight specimens were evaluated microscopically. Transcatheter compression thrombectomy of eight plugs was attempted in vitro. Each plug was embedded in a polyvinyl tube filled with newly clotted blood and connected to a flow circuit. First, balloon-assisted aspiration thrombectomy (BAT) of soft thrombus was performed, while sparing the distal-most segment containing the plug. The tulip sheath was then introduced facing the 'arterial end' of the tube. The thrombus segment containing the plug was pulled back into the tulip mesh using either a 3 Fr Fogarty balloon catheter or a self-expanding rake. The tulip was closed to compress and remove the trapped plug. Near-complete thrombectomy of soft clot was achieved in all tested tubes. Compression and retrieval of the entire arterial plug was successful in all except one, where only partial compression of the plug occurred, presumably due to fibrotic changes. No fragmentation or embolization occurred in the remaining procedures. Spongy consistency was noted in 94% of the specimens. Microscopic evaluation showed organized layered thrombus with compaction in five plugs. Transcatheter removal of a thrombus plug is feasible in vitro using the tulip compression-thrombectomy system.

  9. Results of a multicenter study of the retrievable Tulip vena cava filter: Early clinical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Neuerburg, Joerg M.; Guenther, Rolf W.; Vorwerk, Dierk; Dondelinger, Robert F.; Jaeger, Horst; Lackner, Klaus J.; Schild, Hans H.; Plant, Graham R.; Joffre, Francis G.; Schneider, Pierre A.; Janssen, Johan H. A.

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To evaluate clinically a new, retrievable vena caval filter in a multicenter study. Methods. The Tulip filter is a stainless steel half-basket that is suitable for antegrade or retrograde insertion via an 8.5 Fr introducer sheath. The filter can be retrieved via the jugular approach using an 11 Fr coaxial retrieval system. Forty-eight filters were implanted via the femoral approach and 38 via the jugular approach in 83 patients. Follow-up examinations (plain films, colorcoded duplex sonography) were performed up to 3 years after filter insertion (mean 136 days) in 75 patients. Twenty-seven patients were screened by colorcoded duplex sonography for insertion site thrombosis. Results. An appropriate filter position was achieved in all cases. Insertion problems occurred in 3 cases; these were not due to the filter design but to an imperfect prototype insertion mechanism that has now been modified (n=2) or a manipulation error (n=1). In 2 of these cases the filters were replaced percutaneously; 1 patient required venotomy for filter removal. No further complications due to filter insertion occurred. Two filters were used as temporary devices and were successfully removed after 6 and 11 days, respectively. There was 1 fatal recurrent pulmonary embolism (PE) and 2 non-fatal PE, 5 complete and 3 partial caval occlusions, and 3 caudal migrations of the filter. Insertion site venous thrombosis was not seen in the 27 patients monitored for this complication. Conclusion. Precise placement of the Tulip filter is feasible by either access route and the device appears mechanically stable. Further observations are needed to confirm that safe filter removal is practical up to 10 days after its insertion.

  10. Perforation of the IVC: Rule Rather Than Exception After Longer Indwelling Times for the Guenther Tulip and Celect Retrievable Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Durack, Jeremy C. Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kekulawela, Stephanie; Bhanu, Shiv B.; Avrin, David E.; Gordon, Roy L.; Kerlan, Robert K.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the incidence, magnitude, and impact upon retrievability of vena caval perforation by Guenther Tulip and Celect conical inferior vena cava (IVC) filters on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Methods: Guenther Tulip and Celect IVC filters placed between July 2007 and May 2009 were identified from medical records. Of 272 IVC filters placed, 50 (23 Guenther Tulip, 46%; 27 Celect, 54%) were retrospectively assessed on follow-up abdominal CT scans performed for reasons unrelated to the filter. Computed tomography scans were examined for evidence of filter perforation through the vena caval wall, tilt, or pericaval tissue injury. Procedure records were reviewed to determine whether IVC filter retrieval was attempted and successful. Results: Perforation of at least one filter component through the IVC was observed in 43 of 50 (86%) filters on CT scans obtained between 1 and 880 days after filter placement. All filters imaged after 71 days showed some degree of vena caval perforation, often as a progressive process. Filter tilt was seen in 20 of 50 (40%) filters, and all tilted filters also demonstrated vena caval perforation. Transjugular removal was attempted in 12 of 50 (24%) filters and was successful in 11 of 12 (92%). Conclusions: Longer indwelling times usually result in vena caval perforation by retrievable Guenther Tulip and Celect IVC filters. Although infrequently reported in the literature, clinical sequelae from IVC filter components breaching the vena cava can be significant. We advocate filter retrieval as early as clinically indicated and increased attention to the appearance of IVC filters on all follow-up imaging studies.

  11. Placement of a Retrievable Guenther Tulip Filter in the Superior Vena Cava for Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nadkarni, Sanjay; Macdonald, Sumaira; Cleveland, Trevor J.; Gaines, Peter A.

    2002-12-15

    A retrievable Guenther Tulip caval filter(William Cook, Europe) was successfully placed and retrieved in the superior vena cava for upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in a 56-year-old woman. Bilateral subclavian and internal jugular venous thromboses thought secondary to placement of multiple central venous catheters were present. There have been reports of the use of permanent Greenfield filters and a single case report of a temporary filter in the superior vena cava. As far as we are aware this is the first reported placement and successful retrieval of a filter in these circumstances.

  12. The CIRSE Retrievable IVC Filter Registry: Retrieval Success Rates in Practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J; Valenti, D; de Gregorio, M A; Minocha, J; Rimon, U; Pellerin, O

    2015-12-01

    CIRSE established a registry of retrievable filter use with the primary aim of determining the success of IVC Filter retrieval and associated complications. Secondary endpoints included filter indications, imaging strategies before retrieval, filter dwell times, and anticoagulation status. A web-based electronic registry was hosted between 01/12/2010 and 30/06/2012. Data entry occurred at the date of IVC filter retrieval and included items such as filter type, indication for filter insertion, access route, dwell time, retrieval success, complications, reasons for failed retrieval, and anticoagulation status. 671 filter retrievals were entered (male:female 333:295, mean age 55, median 57). Retrieval data were not entered in 43/671 leaving 628 patients for analysis. The 4 commonest retrievable filters used were the Celect in 182 patients, the OPTEASE in 161, ALN in 120, and Gunther Tulip in 98. Filters were inserted for absolute indications 40%, relative indications in 31%, and prophylactic in 24%, with 5% missing. Mean filter dwell time was 90 days. Filters were successfully retrieved in 576/628 patients (92%). The mean dwell time for successful retrievals was 85 days versus 145 days for unsuccessful retrievals (p = 0.001). Major complications occurred in 2 patients (0.03%). In summary, the CIRSE retrievable filter registry demonstrates a retrieval rate of 92% across a range of filter types, with a low major complication rate, reflecting current practice. There is an increase in trend of retrievable filter use for relative and prophylactic indications. PMID:25933644

  13. Retrievable Vena Cava Filters in Major Trauma Patients: Prevalence of Thrombus Within the Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrer, Arie; Zippel, Douglas; Garniek, Alexander; Golan, Gil; Bensaid, Paul; Simon, Daniel; Rimon, Uri

    2008-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of thrombus within a retrievable vena cava filter inserted prophylactically in major trauma patients referred for filter extraction. Between November 2002 and August 2005, 80 retrievable inferior vena cava filters (68 Optease and 12 Gunther-Tulip) were inserted into critically injured trauma patients (mean injury severity score 33.5). The filters were inserted within 1 to 6 (mean 2) days of injury. Thirty-seven patients were referred for filter removal (32 with Optease and 5 with Gunther-Tulip). The indwelling time was 7 to 22 (mean 13) days. All patients underwent inferior vena cavography prior to filter removal. There were no insertion-related complications and all filters were successfully deployed. Forty-three (54%) of the 80 patients were not referred for filter removal, as these patients continued to have contraindications to anticoagulation. Thirty-seven patients (46%) were referred for filter removal. In eight of them (22%) a large thrombus was seen within the filters and they were left in place, all with the Optease device. The other 29 filters (36%) were removed uneventfully.We conclude that the relatively high prevalence of intrafilter thrombi with the Optease filter may be explained by either spontaneous thrombus formation or captured emboli.

  14. The TULIP Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusack, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Contains 11 articles that describe different university access systems designed and built to provide access to journals via The University Licensing Program (TULIP), a science journal access project, involving Elsevier Science Publishing and major universities. The project produced insights to help with future electronic information delivery…

  15. The initial development of a tulip flame

    SciTech Connect

    Matalon, M.; Mcgreevy, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    The initial development of a ``tulip flame``, often observed during flame propagation in closed tubes, is attributed to a combustion instability. The roles of hydrodynamic and of the diffusional-thermal processes on the onset of instability are investigated through a linear stability analysis in which the growth or decay of small disturbances, superimposed on an otherwise smooth and planar flame front, are followed. A range of the Markstein parameter, related to the mixture composition through an appropriately defined Lewis number, has been identified where a tulip flame could be observed. For a given value of the Markstein parameter within this range, a critical wavelength is identified as the most unstable mode. This wavelength is directly related to the minimal aspect ratio of the tube where a tulip flame could be observed. The time of onset of instability is identified as the time when the most unstable disturbance, associated with the critical wavelength, grows at a faster rate than the flame front itself and exceeds a certain threshold. This occurs after the flame has propagated a certain distance down the tube: a value which has been explicitly determined in terms of the relevant parameters. Experimental records on the tulip flame phenomenon support the finding of the analysis. That is, the tulip flame forms after the flame has traveled half the tube`s length, it does not form in short tubes, and its formation depends on the mixture composition and on the initial pressure in the tube.

  16. Tulip, a Modified Munsell Color Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Uri

    1990-03-01

    The "Tulip" is a modified Munsell Color Space in which equal hue spacing is converted to variable hue spacing, reflecting the differential sensitivity to hue as a function of value, for a fixed chroma. Number of discernible hues, when plotted on a hue-value plane, results in the proposed tulip shape, with curved lines delineating the boundaries between hues. By means of a signal detection experiment, the tulip for yellow-green and for blue is determined. It is shown that more distinct hues of yellow-green are discernible at a high value than at low value. Conversely, for blue, more distinct hues are discernible at low value than at high value.

  17. Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1991-11-30

    A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a ``tulip flame`` in the literature, occurred. The ``tulip flame`` was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.

  18. Numerical simulation of tulip flame dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1991-11-30

    A finite difference reactive flow hydrodynamics program based on the full Navier-Stokes equations was used to simulate the combustion process in a homogeneous-charge, constant-volume combustion bomb in which an oddly shaped flame, known as a tulip flame'' in the literature, occurred. The tulip flame'' was readily reproduced in the numerical simulations, producing good agreement with the experimental flame shapes and positions at various times. The calculations provide sufficient detail about the dynamics of the experiment to provide some insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the peculiar flame shape. Several factors seem to contribute to the tulip formation. The most important process is the baroclinic production of vorticity by the flame front, and this rate of production appears to be dramatically increased by the nonaxial flow generated when the initial semicircular flame front burns out along the sides of the chamber. The vorticity produces a pair of vortices behind the flame that advects the flame into the tulip shape. Boundary layer effects contribute to the details of the flame shape next to the walls of the chamber, but are otherwise not important. 24 refs.

  19. Gunther von Hagens' BODY WORLDS: selling beautiful education.

    PubMed

    Burns, Lawrence

    2007-04-01

    In the BODY WORLDS exhibitions currently touring the United States, Gunther von Hagens displays human cadavers preserved through plastination. Whole bodies are playfully posed and exposed to educate the public. However, the educational aims are ambiguous, and some aspects of the exhibit violate human dignity. In particular, the signature cards attached to the whole-body plastinates that bear the title, the signature of Gunther von Hagens, and the date of creation mark the plastinates as artwork and von Hagens as the artist in a gesture that strips the personal dignity from the donors. I conclude that the educational use of cadavers is compatible with respect for dignity if: 1) the utility of such use is great enough; 2) there are no other ways of achieving these ends; and 3) every effort is made to honor the dignity of the donors. PMID:17454986

  20. Tulip deformity with Cera atrial septal defect devices: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Vikas

    2015-02-01

    Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is the treatment of choice when anatomy is favourable. Amplatzer device has remained the gold standard for closure of ASD. Cobra deformity is a well-reported problem with devices. Recently, Tulip deformity has been reported in a single case. We report a series of cases where we noted Tulip deformity along with inability to retract the device in the sheath in Cera Lifetech devices. This resulted in prolongation of procedure, excessive fluoroscopic exposure and additional interventional procedures not usually anticipated in ASD device closure. We believe that the problem is due to the stiffness of the device resulting in its inability to be retracted into the sheath. We also report a unique way of retrieving the device. PMID:25179458

  1. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  2. Growth Attenuation and Due Process: "A Response to Gunther and Diekema (2006)"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Rud; Wehmeyer, Michael; Turnbull, Ann; Stowe, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Gunther and Diekema's argument about growth attenuation and due process. As a case study, growth attenuation raises complicated issues. The authors address some issues that have not been sufficiently addressed. Those involve family support, assistive technology, constitutional rights to "self," the…

  3. A Discussion of Gunther Schuller's Approach to Conducting: Implications for the Instrumental Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Janice

    2008-01-01

    What professional musicians say and do affects the attitudes and actions of music educators in the classroom. One example comes from influential conductor/composer, Gunther Schuller, who, in his controversial 1997 book, "The Compleat Conductor", defines, espouses, and recommends his own "philosophy of conducting." An examination of his ideas and,…

  4. Attenuating Growth: A More Humane Alternative--A Response to Gunther and Diekema

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Lyle T; Crocker, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    An astonishing tract has been published that involves a plan for the modification of the growth of children with severe developmental disabilities by administering hormonal treatments designed to arrest growth at an early age (Gunther & Diekema, 2006). The schema put forth is based upon the concern of the authors for the burdensome effect families…

  5. Identification of jasmonic acid and its methyl ester as gum-inducing factors in tulips.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Edyta; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Saniewski, Marian; Ueda, Junichi

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify endogenous factors that induce gummosis and to show their role in gummosis in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana L. cv. Apeldoorn) stems. Using procedures to detect endogenous factors that induce gum in the stem of tulips, jasmonic acid (JA) and methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) were successfully identified using gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total amounts of JA and JA-Me designated as jasmonates in tulip stems were also estimated at about 70-80 ng/g fresh weight, using deuterium-labeled jasmonates as internal standards. The application of JA and JA-Me as lanolin pastes substantially induced gums in tulip stems with ethylene production. The application of ethephon, an ethylene-generating compound, however, induced no gummosis although it slightly affected jasmonate content in tulip stems. These results strongly suggest that JA and JA-Me are endogenous factors that induce gummosis in tulip stems. PMID:15654503

  6. Nitrogen ion utilization by tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L. ) seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.

    1982-01-01

    Growth responses of one-year-old tulip poplar seedlings were determined for different nitrogen sources (HN/sub 4/NO/sub 3/, NH+/sub 4/, NO-/sub 3/, no nitrogen) at 336 ppm N in nutrient culture. At the end of three months, there were no significant differences in growth observed among treatments in terms of stem elongation, leaf area, and leaf size. After four months, however, seedlings of the NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ treatment exhibited significantly (P<0.05) greater growth (final weight gain and stem elongation) than all other nitrogen sorces. Growth was slightly less for the NO-/sub 3/ treatment plants, but compared with NH+/sub 4/ and no nitrogen treatment, both NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ and NO-/sub 3/ treatments exhibited significantly greater growth responses. NO-/sub 3/ is recommended as the sole nitrogen source, especially for small seedlings of tulip poplar.

  7. An evolution equation modeling inversion of tulip flames

    SciTech Connect

    Dold, J.W.; Joulin, G.

    1995-02-01

    The authors attempt to reduce the number of physical ingredients needed to model the phenomenon of tulip-flame inversion to a bare minimum. This is achieved by synthesizing the nonlinear, first-order Michelson-Sivashinsky (MS) equation with the second order linear dispersion relation of Landau and Darrieus, which adds only one extra term to the MS equation without changing any of its stationary behavior and without changing its dynamics in the limit of small density change when the MS equation is asymptotically valid. However, as demonstrated by spectral numerical solutions, the resulting second-order nonlinear evolution equation is found to describe the inversion of tulip flames in good qualitative agreement with classical experiments on the phenomenon. This shows that the combined influences of front curvature, geometric nonlinearity and hydrodynamic instability (including its second-order, or inertial effects, which are an essential result of vorticity production at the flame front) are sufficient to reproduce the inversion process.

  8. Tulip flames: changes in shape of premixed flames propagating in closed tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn-Rankin, D.; Sawyer, R. F.

    The experimental results that are the subject of this communication provide high-speed schlieren images of the closed-tube flame shape that has come to be known as the tulip flame. The schlieren images, along with in-chamber pressure records, help demonstrate the effects of chamber length, equivalence ratio, and igniter geometry on formation of the tulip flame. The pressure/time records show distinct features which correlate with flame shape changes during the transition to tulip. The measurements indicate that the basic tulip flame formation is a robust phenomenon that depends on little except the overall geometry of the combustion vessel.

  9. [A "German" history of population? Gunther Ipsen's historical-sociological theory of population].

    PubMed

    Ehmer, J

    1992-01-01

    "German population historians refer to Gunther Ipsen (1899-1984) as the founder of a 'historical-sociological population theory'. Reviewing Ipsen's most important publications in the field of population theory and population history, which mainly appeared in 1933, the author reconstructs the central features of Ipsen's demographic and historical thinking. His system appears as an attempt to create a peculiar 'German population theory' closely related to the ideologies and politics of the National-Socialist state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12286943

  10. Isolation of immunochemically distinct form of cytochrome P-450 from microsomes of tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Higashi, K; Ikeuchi, K; Karasaki, Y; Obara, M

    1983-08-30

    A highly purified cytochrome P-450 was obtained from the microsomes of tulip bulbs (Tulipa gesneriana L.). The molecular weight (Mr = 52,500) and amino acid composition of this plant cytochrome P-450 are similar to those reported for rat livers. On the contrary, Ouchterlony double diffusion analyses indicated that cytochrome P-450 isolated from tulip bulbs shares no common antigenic determinants with those of 9 other plants, in spite of the presence of comparable contents of cytochrome P-450 and/or trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase with tulip bulbs. PMID:6412714

  11. Hydrolysis kinetics of tulip tree xylan in hot compressed water.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Junho; Lee, Hun Wook; Sim, Seungjae; Myint, Aye Aye; Park, Hee Jeong; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, a promising renewable resource, can be converted into numerous valuable chemicals post enzymatic saccharification. However, the efficacy of enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass is low; therefore, pretreatment is necessary to improve the efficiency. Here, a kinetic analysis was carried out on xylan hydrolysis, after hot compressed water pretreatment of the lignocellulosic biomass conducted at 180-220°C for 5-30min, and on subsequent xylooligosaccharide hydrolysis. The weight ratio of fast-reacting xylan to slow-reacting xylan was 5.25 in tulip tree. Our kinetic results were applied to three different reaction systems to improve the pretreatment efficiency. We found that semi-continuous reactor is promising. Lower reaction temperatures and shorter space times in semi-continuous reactor are recommended for improving xylan conversion and xylooligosaccharide yield. In the theoretical calculation, 95% of xylooligosaccharide yield and xylan conversion were achieved simultaneously with high selectivity (desired product/undesired product) of 100 or more. PMID:27208738

  12. Use of metabolic activation systems of tulip bulbs in the Ames test for environmental mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, K.; Ikeuchi, K.; Karasaki, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of trace amounts of PAH on the carcinogenesis in animals and human beings and on the ecology of plants are examined. An in vitro method has been developed which traces the metabolic fate of environmental mutagens in tulip bulbs. The method has been successful in confirming the presence of metabolic activation systems only for potent carcinogens. (JMT)

  13. Gunther von Hagens and Body Worlds part 2: The anatomist as priest and prophet.

    PubMed

    Moore, Charleen M; Brown, C Mackenzie

    2004-03-01

    Part 1 of this two-part series highlighted tensions between the anatomical quest for scientific knowledge about the human interior and artistic representations of the anatomized body, contrasting the roles of Goethe's scientific Prosektor and humanistic Proplastiker-roles disturbingly fused in Gunther von Hagens. Part 2 first examines religious interpretations of the human body that fuel the tensions manifest in anatomy art. The body in Western cultures is a sacred text amenable to interpretation as handiwork of God, habitation for the soul, and vehicle for resurrection. As handiwork of God the body beckons the anatomist's scalpel, helping establish dissection as the hallmark of Western medicine. The body as divinely designed machine encompasses the idea of an indwelling soul expressing its will in actions mediated through the intricate network of muscles-an understanding reflected in the oft occurring muscle men of early anatomical textbooks. Interconnections of body and soul in medieval somatic spirituality are examined with reference to ideas of resurrection and their impact on anatomical illustration. Part 2 concludes with consideration of von Hagens as priest and prophet, culminating in the Promethean impulse that recognizes not God but ourselves as proper owners and molders of our destiny, embodied in the plastinator's visionary quest to create the superhuman. PMID:15052650

  14. Infinitely robust order and local order-parameter tulips in Apollonian networks with quenched disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, C. Nadir; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2009-06-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder. We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns.

  15. Use of Retrievable Compared to Permanent Inferior Vena Cava Filters: A Single-Institution Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Thuong G. Van Chien, Andy S.; Funaki, Brian S.; Lorenz, Jonathan; Piano, Giancarlo; Shen, Maxine; Leef, Jeffrey

    2008-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to review the use, safety, and efficacy of retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in their first 5 years of availability at our institution. Comparison was made with permanent filters placed in the same period. A retrospective review of IVC filter implantations was performed from September, 1999, to September, 2004, in our department. These included both retrievable and permanent filters. The Recovery nitinol and Guenther tulip filters were used as retrievable filters. The frequency of retrievable filter used was calculated. Clinical data and technical data related to filter placement were reviewed. Outcomes, including pulmonary embolism, complications associated with placement, retrieval, or indwelling, were calculated. During the study period, 604 IVC filters were placed. Of these, 97 retrievable filters (16%) were placed in 96 patients. There were 53 Recovery filter and 44 Tulip filter insertions. Subjects were 59 women and 37 men; the mean age was 52 years, with a range of from 18 to 97 years. The placement of retrievable filters increased from 2% in year 1 to 32% in year 5 of the study period. The total implantation time for the permanent group was 145,450 days, with an average of 288 days (range, 33-1811 days). For the retrievable group, the total implantation time was 21,671 days, with an average of 226 days (range, 2-1217 days). Of 29 patients who returned for filter retrieval, the filter was successfully removed in 28. There were 14 of 14 successful Tulip filter retrievals and 14 of 15 successful Recovery filter retrievals. In one patient, after an indwelling period of 39 days, a Recovery nitinol filter could not be removed secondary to a large clot burden within the filter. For the filters that were removed, the mean dwell time was 50 days for the Tulip type and 20 days for the Recovery type. Over the follow-up period there was an overall PE incidence of 1.4% for the permanent group and 1% for the retrieval group. In

  16. Infinitely Robust Order and Local Order-Parameter Tulips in Apollonian Networks with Quenched Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadir Kaplan, C.; Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2009-03-01

    For a variety of quenched random spin systems on an Apollonian network, including ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bond percolation and the Ising spin glass, we find the persistence of ordered phases up to infinite temperature over the entire range of disorder.[1] We develop a renormalization-group technique that yields highly detailed information, including the exact distributions of local magnetizations and local spin-glass order parameters, which turn out to exhibit, as function of temperature, complex and distinctive tulip patterns. [1] C.N. Kaplan, M. Hinczewski, and A.N. Berker, arXiv:0811.3437v1 [cond-mat.dis-nn] (2008).

  17. Tulip-form variable-curvature mirrors: interferometry and field compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Mazzanti, Silvio; Ferrari, Marc

    1998-07-01

    Active Optics methods are now capable to provide variable curvature mirrors (VCMs) having controlled sags in the focal range from f/(infinity) to f/2.5. Those development have been carried out by the authors for the optical path equalizer dedicated to each Mersenne focus of the VLTI. The basic principle is to use VCMs as cat's eye mirrors in each delay line in order to achieve field compensations at the recombined Mersenne focii. During the VLTI development phase, cycloid form VCMs controlled by air pressure have been performed with a 10(superscript -4) mirror sag resolution. The cycloid form has been selected for the VLTi delay lines. However, other analytical solutions from circular plates elasticity theory have been found. Two thickness distributions lead to tulip form VCMs controlled by a central force. One of them, using a lineic reaction at the edge is the object of this paper. Active optics design, construction features, test and experimental He-Ne interferograms obtained with 16mm boundary aperture and 10mm clear aperture are presented. The mean aspect-ratio of the tulip from VCM is d/t(subscript 0.5) approximately equals 60, providing a focal zoom range from f/(infinity) to f/2.5. The experiment is carried out form f/(infinity) to f/5.

  18. Tulip-poplar leaf diffusion resistance calculated from stomatal dimensions and varying environmental parameters

    SciTech Connect

    McConathy, R.K.

    1983-03-01

    The study describes the gradients of stomatal size and density in the crown of a mature forest-grown tulip-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in eastern Tennessee. These data are used to predict leaf resistance to vapor diffusion in relation to stomatal width and boundary layer resistance. Stomatal density on individual leaves did not vary, but density increased with increasing crown height. Stomatal size decreased with increasing height of leaves within the crown. Stomatal size and density variations interacted to result in a constant number of stomata per leaf at all crown heights. Stomatal diffusive resistance values calculated from stomatal measurements and varying environmental parameters indicated that stomatal resistance controlled transpiration water losses only at small apertures (<0.6 ..mu..m). Boundary layer resistance was controlling at large stomatal apertures (>0.6 ..mu..m) and at low wind speeds (approx.100 cm/s). Under normal forest conditions tulip-poplar stomatal resistance exercised more control over transpiration than did boundary layer resistance.

  19. In-vitro and clinical evaluation of transurethral laser-induced prostatectomy (TULIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Mooibroek, Jaap; Boon, Tom A.

    1993-05-01

    Transurethral ultrasound-guided laser induced prostatectomy (TULIP) is a recent development in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The system is based upon Nd:YAG laser irradiation delivered by a right angled fiber. The dosimetry used in a clinical situation is mostly based upon animal studies. In this study, the light and temperature distribution in the prostate during Nd:YAG laser irradiation were modeled using Monte Carlo and finite differences theory. The results of this model were compared with in vitro experiments. The influence of the different parameters involved, e.g., the scanning speed and the power of the laser beam, were evaluated. Initial results show the temperature distribution and thus the therapeutic effect of the TULIP procedure. Until now 36 patients have been treated successfully. The mean in-hospital time was somewhat shorter than for a TURP treatment while the results were comparable. These treatments, however, show the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. Modeling and subsequent in vitro and in vivo measurements might improve the understanding and safe and successful application of prostate treatment using laser based systems.

  20. Experimental Impeller Fragmentation of Iliocaval Thrombosis Under Tulip Filter Protection: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Vorwerk, Dierk; Schuermann, Karl; Guenther, Rolf W.

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of catheter fragmentation of massive caval thrombosis and of filter protection against procedure-related pulmonary embolism. Methods: In 10 sheep, a self-expanding tulip-shaped filter made from Wallstent mesh (diameter 25 mm) was introduced from the right jugular approach into the proximal inferior vena cava. Experimentally induced massive iliocaval thrombosis was fragmented by an impeller catheter (expanded diameter 14 mm), which was advanced coaxially through the sheath of the expanded filter. Post-procedural cavography and pulmonary angiography were performed to document the extent of caval recanalization and pulmonary embolism. Results: In all cases, impeller fragmentation cleared the inferior vena cava and the iliac veins of thrombi completely. Fragments washed downstream were trapped in the filter. In two of the first cases, parts of the clots caused pulmonary embolism before the filter was in place. Further events were avoided by a modification of the experimental setup. Except for some small peripheral perfusion defects in two cases, pulmonary angiograms did not show any incidence of pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that impeller fragmentation of iliocaval thrombi under tulip filter protection is effective and does not cause significant pulmonary embolism.

  1. From Tulip Bulbs to Sub-Prime Mortgages Examining the Sub-Prime Crisis: The Case for a Systemic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Alan A.; Atwater, J. Brian; Kannan, Vijay R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The collapse of the sub-prime mortgage market parallels several earlier failures within the financial services sector, begging the question why the lessons of past failures were not learned. Throughout history from the tulip bulb crisis of the 1600s to the most recent economic crisis, decision-makers keep making the same mistakes. This…

  2. New trichoscopy findings in trichotillomania: flame hairs, V-sign, hook hairs, hair powder, tulip hairs.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Slowinska, Monika; Olszewska, Malgorzata; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2014-05-01

    Differential diagnosis of trichotillomania is often difficult in clinical practice. Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) effectively supports differential diagnosis of various hair and scalp diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of trichoscopy in diagnosing trichotillomania. The study included 370 patients (44 with trichotillomania, 314 with alopecia areata and 12 with tinea capitis). Statistical analysis revealed that the main and most characteristic trichoscopic findings of trichotillomania are: irregularly broken hairs (44/44; 100% of patients), v-sign (24/44; 57%), flame hairs (11/44; 25%), hair powder (7/44; 16%) and coiled hairs (17/44; 39%). Flame hairs, v-sign, tulip hairs, and hair powder were newly identified in this study. In conclusion, we describe here specific trichoscopy features, which may be applied in quick, non-invasive, in-office differential diagnosis of trichotillomania. PMID:24096547

  3. A force transmission system based on a tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch for haptic display devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a novel type of force transmission system for haptic display devices. The system consists of an array of end-effecter elements, a force/displacement transmitter and a single actuator producing a large force/displacement. It has tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch devices to distribute the force/displacement from the actuator among the individual end effecters. The specifications of three components were determined to stimulate touched human fingers. The components were fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and conventional machining technologies, and finally they were assembled by hand. The performance of the assembled transmission system was experimentally examined and it was confirmed that each projection in the arrayed end effecters could be moved individually. The actuator in a system whose total size was only 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 4.0 cm produced a 600 mN force and displaced individual array elements by 18 µm.

  4. Neoseiulus paspalivorus, a predator from coconut, as a candidate for controlling dry bulb mites infesting stored tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Lesna, Izabela; da Silva, Fernando R; Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Lommen, Suzanne T E

    2014-06-01

    The dry bulb mite, Aceria tulipae, is the most important pest of stored tulip bulbs in The Netherlands. This tiny, eriophyoid mite hides in the narrow space between scales in the interior of the bulb. To achieve biological control of this hidden pest, candidate predators small enough to move in between the bulb scales are required. Earlier experiments have shown this potential for the phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus cucumeris, but only after the bulbs were exposed to ethylene, a plant hormone that causes a slight increase in the distance between tulip bulb scales, just sufficient to allow this predator to reach the interior part of the bulb. Applying ethylene, however, is not an option in practice because it causes malformation of tulip flowers. In fact, to prevent this cosmetic damage, bulb growers ventilate rooms where tulip bulbs are stored, thereby removing ethylene produced by the bulbs (e.g. in response to mite or fungus infestation). Recently, studies on the role of predatory mites in controlling another eriophyoid mite on coconuts led to the discovery of an exceptionally small phytoseiid mite, Neoseiulus paspalivorus. This predator is able to move under the perianth of coconuts where coconut mites feed on meristematic tissue of the fruit. This discovery prompted us to test N. paspalivorus for its ability to control A. tulipae on tulip bulbs under storage conditions (ventilated rooms with bulbs in open boxes; 23 °C; storage period June-October). Using destructive sampling we monitored predator and prey populations in two series of replicated experiments, one at a high initial level of dry bulb mite infestation, late in the storage period, and another at a low initial dry bulb mite infestation, halfway the storage period. The first and the second series involved treatment with N. paspalivorus and a control experiment, but the second series had an additional treatment in which the predator N. cucumeris was released. Taking the two series of experiments together

  5. A Novel Lactone-Forming Carboxylesterase: Molecular Identification of a Tuliposide A-Converting Enzyme in Tulip1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Taiji; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Tuliposides, the glucose esters of 4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate, are major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chemicals due to their biological activities. We recently found that tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE) purified from tulip bulbs catalyzed the conversion of tuliposides to tulipalins, but the possibility of the presence of several TCE isozymes was raised: TCE in tissues other than bulbs is different from bulb TCE. Here, to prove this hypothesis, TCE was purified from petals, which have the second highest TCE activity after bulbs. The purified enzyme, like the bulb enzyme, preferentially accepted tuliposides as substrates, with 6-tuliposide A the best substrate, which allowed naming the enzyme tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA), but specific activity and molecular mass differed between the petal and bulb enzymes. After peptide sequencing, a novel cDNA (TgTCEA) encoding petal TCEA was isolated, and the functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to tulipalin A. TgTCEA was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in bulbs, indicating the presence of a bulb-specific TgTCEA, as suggested by the distinct enzymatic characters between the petal and bulb enzymes. Plastidial localization of TgTCEA enzyme was revealed, which allowed proposing a cytological mechanism of TgTCE-mediated tulipalin formation in the tulip defensive strategy. Site-directed mutagenesis of TgTCEA suggested that the oxyanion hole and catalytic triad characteristic of typical carboxylesterases are essential for the catalytic process of TgTCEA enzyme. To our knowledge, TgTCEA is the first identified member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases, specifically catalyzing intramolecular transesterification. PMID:22474185

  6. A novel lactone-forming carboxylesterase: molecular identification of a tuliposide A-converting enzyme in tulip.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2012-06-01

    Tuliposides, the glucose esters of 4-hydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylenebutanoate, are major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). Their lactonized aglycons, tulipalins, function as defensive chemicals due to their biological activities. We recently found that tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE) purified from tulip bulbs catalyzed the conversion of tuliposides to tulipalins, but the possibility of the presence of several TCE isozymes was raised: TCE in tissues other than bulbs is different from bulb TCE. Here, to prove this hypothesis, TCE was purified from petals, which have the second highest TCE activity after bulbs. The purified enzyme, like the bulb enzyme, preferentially accepted tuliposides as substrates, with 6-tuliposide A the best substrate, which allowed naming the enzyme tuliposide A-converting enzyme (TCEA), but specific activity and molecular mass differed between the petal and bulb enzymes. After peptide sequencing, a novel cDNA (TgTCEA) encoding petal TCEA was isolated, and the functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEA catalyzes the conversion of 6-tuliposide A to tulipalin A. TgTCEA was transcribed in all tulip tissues but not in bulbs, indicating the presence of a bulb-specific TgTCEA, as suggested by the distinct enzymatic characters between the petal and bulb enzymes. Plastidial localization of TgTCEA enzyme was revealed, which allowed proposing a cytological mechanism of TgTCE-mediated tulipalin formation in the tulip defensive strategy. Site-directed mutagenesis of TgTCEA suggested that the oxyanion hole and catalytic triad characteristic of typical carboxylesterases are essential for the catalytic process of TgTCEA enzyme. To our knowledge, TgTCEA is the first identified member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases, specifically catalyzing intramolecular transesterification. PMID:22474185

  7. Interaction of a flame front with its self-generated flow in an enclosure; The tulip flame phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.; Borghi, R.; Saouab, A. )

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports on the propagation of a flame front under nonturbulent condition in a closed tube ignited at one end which is numerically investigated using a computing procedure based on finite volumes technique and devoted to two-dimensional, compressible, reacting flows. A global one-step reaction for the chemical process and an Arrhenius law for fuel consumption are assumed. The detailed analysis of the results of computations in which wall friction, tube aspect ratio and initial flame configuration are varied allows to highlight the influence of different parameters and to get more insight into the tulip-shaped flame phenomenon. In particular, Darrieus-landau instability is examined by comparing the shape variations of an initially perturbed flat front in a tube closed at both ends to those in a tube in which the ignition end is open while the opposite one is closed. Attention is also given to the computed flame generated flowfield; the flame front-confined flow interaction is specially scrutinized. Furthermore, the oscillatory acoustic regime occurring during tulip flame appearance, as well as the collapse of the tulip shape in tubes of large aspect ratio, already experimentally put into evidence but never numerically addressed, have also been simulated and discussed.

  8. Environmentally benign process for the preparation of antimicrobial α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (tulipalin B) from tulip biomass.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Hayashi, Emiko; Kawakami, Shohei; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Tulipalin B (α-methylene-β-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone, PaB) is an antimicrobial natural product occurring in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana). PaB is directly formed from the precursor glucose ester 6-tuliposide B (PosB) by endogenous Pos-converting enzyme (TCE). Despite the potential usefulness of antibacterial PaB in various industrial applications, lack of facile synthetic schemes hampers its practical use. Herein, we describe an environmentally benign and facile process for the preparation of PaB using tulip biomass materials based on one-step enzyme reaction catalyzed by TCE without the use of petroleum-derived solvents. By screening 115 tulip cultivars, we found three elite cultivars, which accumulated PosB almost exclusively in flower tissues. The flower extracts with aqueous ethanol were partially purified with activated charcoal and subjected to the enzyme reaction with reusable immobilized TCE prepared from bulb crude extracts. The reaction was completed in a few hours at room temperature, and PaB was purified with activated charcoal and ethanol in a batch-wise manner. PMID:25126881

  9. Assessment of Snared-Loop Technique When Standard Retrieval of Inferior Vena Cava Filters Fails

    SciTech Connect

    Doody, Orla Noe, Geertje; Given, Mark F.; Foley, Peter T.; Lyon, Stuart M.

    2009-01-15

    Purpose To identify the success and complications related to a variant technique used to retrieve inferior vena cava filters when simple snare approach has failed. Methods A retrospective review of all Cook Guenther Tulip filters and Cook Celect filters retrieved between July 2006 and February 2008 was performed. During this period, 130 filter retrievals were attempted. In 33 cases, the standard retrieval technique failed. Retrieval was subsequently attempted with our modified retrieval technique. Results The retrieval was successful in 23 cases (mean dwell time, 171.84 days; range, 5-505 days) and unsuccessful in 10 cases (mean dwell time, 162.2 days; range, 94-360 days). Our filter retrievability rates increased from 74.6% with the standard retrieval method to 92.3% when the snared-loop technique was used. Unsuccessful retrieval was due to significant endothelialization (n = 9) and caval penetration by the filter (n = 1). A single complication occurred in the group, in a patient developing pulmonary emboli after attempted retrieval. Conclusion The technique we describe increased the retrievability of the two filters studied. Hook endothelialization is the main factor resulting in failed retrieval and continues to be a limitation with these filters.

  10. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p < 0.0001). Comparing the Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p < 0.0001). Forty-seven (78%) users favoured the Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. PMID:26684684

  11. Intracellular energy depletion triggers programmed cell death during petal senescence in tulip

    PubMed Central

    Azad, A. K.; Ishikawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, H.

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in petals provides a model system to study the molecular aspects of organ senescence. In this study, the very early triggering signal for PCD during the senescence process from young green buds to 14-d-old petals of Tulipa gesneriana was determined. The opening and closing movement of petals of intact plants increased for the first 3 d and then gradually decreased. DNA degradation and cytochrome c (Cyt c) release were clearly observed in 6-d-old flowers. Oxidative stress or ethylene production can be excluded as the early signal for petal PCD. In contrast, ATP was dramatically depleted after the first day of flower opening. Sucrose supplementation to cut flowers maintained their ATP levels and the movement ability for a longer time than in those kept in water. The onset of DNA degradation, Cyt c release, and petal senescence was also delayed by sucrose supplementation to cut flowers. These results suggest that intracellular energy depletion, rather than oxidative stress or ethylene production, may be the very early signal to trigger PCD in tulip petals. PMID:18515833

  12. Molecular identification of tuliposide B-converting enzyme: a lactone-forming carboxylesterase from the pollen of tulip.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Taiji; Murase, Tatsunori; Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Yasuo

    2015-07-01

    6-Tuliposides A (PosA) and B (PosB), which are the major secondary metabolites in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), are enzymatically converted to the antimicrobial lactonized aglycons, tulipalins A (PaA) and B (PaB), respectively. We recently identified a PosA-converting enzyme (TCEA) as the first reported member of the lactone-forming carboxylesterases. Herein, we describe the identification of another lactone-forming carboxylesterase, PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB), which preferentially reacts with PosB to give PaB. This enzyme was isolated from tulip pollen, which showed high PosB-converting activity. Purified TCEB exhibited greater activity towards PosB than PosA, which was contrary to that of the TCEA. Novel cDNA (TgTCEB1) encoding the TCEB was isolated from tulip pollen. TgTCEB1 belonged to the carboxylesterase family and was approximately 50% identical to the TgTCEA polypeptides. Functional characterization of the recombinant enzyme verified that TgTCEB1 catalyzed the conversion of PosB to PaB with an activity comparable with the native TCEB. RT-qPCR analysis of each part of plant revealed that TgTCEB1 transcripts were limited almost exclusively to the pollen. Furthermore, the immunostaining of the anther cross-section using anti-TgTCEB1 polyclonal antibody verified that TgTCEB1 was specifically expressed in the pollen grains, but not in the anther cells. N-terminal transit peptide of TgTCEB1 was shown to function as plastid-targeted signal. Taken together, these results indicate that mature TgTCEB1 is specifically localized in plastids of pollen grains. Interestingly, PosB, the substrate of TgTCEB1, accumulated on the pollen surface, but not in the intracellular spaces of pollen grains. PMID:25997073

  13. In vitro comparison of Günther Tulip and Celect filters: testing filtering efficiency and pressure drop.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, M; Malvé, M; Peña, E; Martínez, M A; Leask, R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the trapping ability of the Günther Tulip and Celect inferior vena cava filters was evaluated. Thrombus capture rates of the filters were tested in vitro in horizontal position with thrombus diameters of 3 and 6mm and tube diameter of 19mm. The filters were tested in centered and tilted positions. Sets of 30 clots were injected into the model and the same process was repeated 20 times for each different condition simulated. Pressure drop experienced along the system was also measured and the percentage of clots captured was recorded. The Günther Tulip filter showed superiority in all cases, trapping almost 100% of 6mm clots both in an eccentric and tilted position and trapping 81.7% of the 3mm clots in a centered position and 69.3% in a maximum tilted position. The efficiency of all filters tested decreased as the size of the embolus decreased and as the filter was tilted. The injection of 6 clots raised the pressure drop to 4.1mmHg, which is a reasonable value that does not cause the obstruction of blood flow through the system. PMID:25553669

  14. A pilot study to examine the effect of the Tulip oropharyngeal airway on ventilation immediately after mask ventilation following the induction of anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P N; Shaikh, A; Sabir, N M; Vaughan, D J A; Kynoch, M; Hasan, M

    2014-07-01

    The Tulip airway is an adult, disposable, single-sized oropharyngeal airway, that is connectable to an anaesthetic circuit. After a standardised induction of anaesthesia in 75 patients, the ease of insertion, intracuff pressure and intracuff volume were measured, as were the end-tidal carbon dioxide levels, airway pressures and tidal volumes over three breaths. Successful first-time insertion was achieved in 72 patients (96%, CI 88.8-99.2%) and after two attempts in 74 patients (99%, CI 92.8-100%). There was outright failure only in one patient. In 60 patients (80%, CI 72.2-90.4%), the Tulip airway provided a patent airway without additional manoeuvres, but in 14 patients, jaw thrust or head extension was necessary for airway patency. The main need for these adjuncts appeared to be an initial under-inflation of the cuff. These promising results are consistent with recent manikin studies using this device. PMID:24773326

  15. Combined use of clips and nylon snare ("tulip-bundle") as a rescue endoscopic bleeding control in a mallory-weiss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ivekovic, Hrvoje; Radulovic, Bojana; Jankovic, Suzana; Markos, Pave; Rustemovic, Nadan

    2014-01-01

    Mallory-Weiss syndrome (MWS) accounts for 6-14% of all cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Prognosis of patients with MWS is generally good, with a benign course and rare recurrence of bleeding. However, no strict recommendations exist in regard to the mode of action after a failure of primary endoscopic hemostasis. We report a case of an 83-year-old male with MWS and rebleeding after the initial endoscopic treatment with epinephrine and clips. The final endoscopic control of bleeding was achieved by a combined application of clips and a nylon snare in a "tulip-bundle" fashion. The patient had an uneventful postprocedural clinical course and was discharged from the hospital five days later. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report showing the "tulip-bundle" technique as a rescue endoscopic bleeding control in the esophagus. PMID:25328727

  16. The TULIP superfamily of eukaryotic lipid-binding proteins as a mediator of lipid sensing and transport.

    PubMed

    Alva, Vikram; Lupas, Andrei N

    2016-08-01

    The tubular lipid-binding (TULIP) superfamily has emerged in recent years as a major mediator of lipid sensing and transport in eukaryotes. It currently encompasses three protein families, SMP-like, BPI-like, and Takeout-like, which share a common fold. This fold consists of a long helix wrapped in a highly curved anti-parallel β-sheet, enclosing a central, lipophilic cavity. The SMP-like proteins, which include subunits of the ERMES complex and the extended synaptotagmins (E-Syts), appear to be mainly located at membrane contacts sites (MCSs) between organelles, mediating inter-organelle lipid exchange. The BPI-like proteins, which include the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), the LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-binding protein (LBP), the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), are either involved in innate immunity against bacteria through their ability to sense lipopolysaccharides, as is the case for BPI and LBP, or in lipid exchange between lipoprotein particles, as is the case for CETP and PLTP. The Takeout-like proteins, which are comprised of insect juvenile hormone-binding proteins and arthropod allergens, transport, where known, lipid hormones to target tissues during insect development. In all cases, the activity of these proteins is underpinned by their ability to bind large, hydrophobic ligands in their central cavity and segregate them away from the aqueous environment. Furthermore, where they are involved in lipid exchange, recent structural studies have highlighted their ability to establish lipophilic, tubular channels, either between organelles in the case of SMP domains or between lipoprotein particles in the case of CETP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the structure, versatile functions, and evolution of the TULIP superfamily. We propose a deep evolutionary split in this superfamily, predating the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, between the SMP-like proteins, which act on

  17. Liberty Bell 7 is retrieved from Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Gunther Wendt takes a turn at the podium after viewing the recovered Liberty Bell 7 Project Mercury capsule, seen in the background. At right is Curt Newport who led the expedition to find and retrieve the capsule. The expedition was sponsored by the Discovery Channel. Wendt worked on the Liberty Bell 7 before its launch July 21, 1961. After its successful 16-minute suborbital flight, the Liberty Bell 7, with astronaut Virgil 'Gus' Grissom aboard, splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean. A prematurely jettisoned hatch caused the capsule to flood and a Marine rescue helicopter was unable to lift it. It quickly sank to a three-mile depth. Grissom was rescued but his spacecraft remained lost on the ocean floor, until now. An underwater salvage expert, Newport located the capsule through modern technology, and after one abortive attempt, successfully raised it and brought it to Port Canaveral. The recovery of Liberty Bell 7 fulfilled a 14-year dream for the expedition leader. The capsule is being moved to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas, where it will be restored for eventual public display. Newport has also been involved in salvage operations of the Space Shuttle Challenger and TWA Flight 800 that crashed off the coast of Long Island, N.Y.

  18. Golden Retrievers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Provides a basic definition of metadata, including the usefulness of metatags for online information retrieval and documentation. Defines the elements of the Dublin Core, the next level of metadata. Discusses how librarians can take advantage of metadata. Describes the Gateway to Educational Materials (GEM) Project whose goal is to use metadata to…

  19. Concurrent growth of InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures in the Au-catalytic vapour-liquid-solid process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurino, A.; Signore, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the concurrent growth of InSe and In2O3 nanostructures, obtained by thermal evaporation of InSe powders on Au-covered Si substrates, has been investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The vapour-solid and Au catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanisms, responsible of the simultaneous development of the two different types of nanostructures, i.e. InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures respectively, are discussed in detail. The thermodynamic processes giving rise to the obtained morphologies and materials are explained.

  20. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaître, Gérard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey - and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces - the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images.

  1. Active optics and modified-Rumsey wide-field telescopes: MINITRUST demonstrators with vase- and tulip-form mirrors.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Gérard R; Montiel, Pierre; Joulié, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires the development of larger aperture telescopes. The optical properties of a three-mirror modified-Rumsey design provide significant advantages when compared to other telescope designs: (i) at any wavelength, the design has a flat field and is anastigmatic; (ii) the system is extremely compact, i.e., it is almost four times shorter than a Schmidt. Compared to the equally compact flat-field Ritchey-Chrétien with a doublet-lens corrector, as developed for the Sloan digital sky survey-and which requires the polishing of six optical surfaces-the proposed modified-Rumsey design requires only a two-surface polishing and provides a better imaging quality. All the mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. Starting from the classical Rumsey design, it is shown that the use of all eight available free parameters allows the simultaneous aspherization of the primary and tertiary mirrors by active optics methods from a single deformable substrate. The continuity conditions between the primary and the tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by an intermediate narrow ring of constant thickness that is not optically used. After the polishing of a double vase form in a spherical shape, the primary-tertiary hyperbolizations are achieved by in situ stressing. The tulip-form secondary is hyperbolized by stress polishing. Other active optics alternatives are possible for a space telescope. The modified-Rumsey design is of interest for developing large space- and ground-based survey telescopes in UV, visible, or IR ranges, such as currently demonstrated with the construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5-2 degrees field of view. Double-pass optical tests show diffraction-limited images. PMID:16353802

  2. Skill in Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan

    2008-01-01

    Retrieval Skill quantifies the ability of one retrieval from a sounder to be more accurate than the best forecast relative to another with the same of another sounder. This is summarized using a Retrieval Anomaly Skill Score (RASS) which is the cor (retrieved-background, truth-background) * sqrt(f), Where f is defined as the ratio of accepted to the possible retrievals. Charts show various features and comparisons of RASS to other methods of retrieval.

  3. Complex Retrieval of Embedded IVC Filters: Alternative Techniques and Histologic Tissue Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, William T.; Cupp, John S.; Louie, John D.; Kothary, Nishita; Hofmann, Lawrence V.; Sze, Daniel Y.; Hovsepian, David M.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods to retrieve embedded optional and permanent filters in order to manage or reduce risk of long-term complications from implantation. Histologic tissue analysis was performed to elucidate the pathologic effects of chronic filter implantation. Methods: We studied the safety and effectiveness of alternative endovascular methods for removing embedded inferior vena cava (IVC) filters in 10 consecutive patients over 12 months. Indications for retrieval were symptomatic chronic IVC occlusion, caval and aortic perforation, and/or acute PE (pulmonary embolism) from filter-related thrombus. Retrieval was also performed to reduce risk of complications from long-term filter implantation and to eliminate the need for lifelong anticoagulation. All retrieved specimens were sent for histologic analysis. Results: Retrieval was successful in all 10 patients. Filter types and implantation times were as follows: one Venatech (1,495 days), one Simon-Nitinol (1,485 days), one Optease (300 days), one G2 (416 days), five Guenther-Tulip (GTF; mean 606 days, range 154-1,010 days), and one Celect (124 days). There were no procedural complications or adverse events at a mean follow-up of 304 days after removal (range 196-529 days). Histology revealed scant native intima surrounded by a predominance of neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis in all specimens. Histologic evidence of photothermal tissue ablation was confirmed in three laser-treated specimens. Conclusion: Complex retrieval methods can now be used in select patients to safely remove embedded optional and permanent IVC filters previously considered irretrievable. Neointimal hyperplasia and dense fibrosis are the major components that must be separated to achieve successful retrieval of chronic filter implants.

  4. Tracking through the Tulips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, teachers at the author's school were expressing interest in finding new ways to teach science as inquiry--and she was looking for an interesting plant inquiry for second-grade students. That November, She attended a Journey North workshop at the Tennessee Science Teachers Association convention and had an "a-ha" moment:…

  5. Long-Term Retrievability of IVC Filters: Should We Abandon Permanent Devices?

    SciTech Connect

    Berczi, V. Bottomley, J. R.; Thomas, S. M.; Taneja, S.; Gaines, P. A.; Cleveland, T. J.

    2007-09-15

    Thromboembolic disease produces a considerable disease burden, with death from pulmonary embolism in the UK alone estimated at 30,000-40,000 per year. Whilst it is unproven whether filters actually improve longevity, the morbidity and mortality associated with thromboembolic disease in the presence of contraindications to anticoagulation is high. Thus complications associated with filter insertion, and whilst they remain in situ, must be balanced against the alternatives. Permanent filters remain in situ for the remainder of the patient's life and any complications from the filters are of significant concern. Filters that are not permanent are therefore attractive in these circumstances. Retrievable filters, to avoid or decrease long-term filter complications, appear to be a significant advance in the prevention of pulmonary embolism. In this review, we discuss the safety and effectiveness of both permanent and retrievable filters as well as the retrievability of retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters, to explore whether the use of permanent IVC filters can be abandoned in favor of retrievable filters. Currently four types of retrievable filters are available: the Recovery filter (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ, USA), the Guenther Tulip filter (Cook, Bloomington, IN, USA), the OptEase Filter (Cordis, Roden, The Netherlands), and the ALN filter (ALN Implants Chirurgicaux, Ghisonaccia, France). Efficacy and safety data for retrievable filters are as yet based on small series, with a total number of fewer than 1,000 insertions, and follow-up is mostly short term. Current long-term data are poor and insufficient to warrant the long-term implantation of these devices into humans. The case of fractured wire from a Recovery filter that migrated to the heart causing pericardial tamponade requiring open heart surgery is a reminder that any new endovascular device remaining in situ in the long term may produce unexpected problems. We should also bear in mind that

  6. Analyzing Document Retrievability in Patent Retrieval Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Shariq; Rauber, Andreas

    Most information retrieval settings, such as web search, are typically precision-oriented, i.e. they focus on retrieving a small number of highly relevant documents. However, in specific domains, such as patent retrieval or law, recall becomes more relevant than precision: in these cases the goal is to find all relevant documents, requiring algorithms to be tuned more towards recall at the cost of precision. This raises important questions with respect to retrievability and search engine bias: depending on how the similarity between a query and documents is measured, certain documents may be more or less retrievable in certain systems, up to some documents not being retrievable at all within common threshold settings. Biases may be oriented towards popularity of documents (increasing weight of references), towards length of documents, favour the use of rare or common words; rely on structural information such as metadata or headings, etc. Existing accessibility measurement techniques are limited as they measure retrievability with respect to all possible queries. In this paper, we improve accessibility measurement by considering sets of relevant and irrelevant queries for each document. This simulates how recall oriented users create their queries when searching for relevant information. We evaluate retrievability scores using a corpus of patents from US Patent and Trademark Office.

  7. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  8. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  9. Multilingual information retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hong; Chan, Syin; Lai, Kok-Fung

    1996-11-01

    In this paper, we present an approach in implementing intelligent information retrieval systems. We have constructed a multilingual information system which combines both image and text retrieval. We have developed an English/Chinese text retrieval tool on the WWW, and later incorporated an image retrieval tool based on associated multilingual captions. The system allows the general public to locate and keep abreast of information about Singapore. It has a novel user interface which accepts queries that are expressed in English, Chinese and mixed text into its database. The titles, summaries, URLs and the matching scores of retrieved documents will then be returned, and a thumbnail will be displayed as well if an image document is retrieved.

  10. Active optics and the axisymmetric case: MINITRUST wide-field three-reflection telescopes with mirrors aspherized from tulip and vase forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, Gerard R.; Montiel, Pierre; Joulie, Patrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Lanzoni, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Wide-field astronomy requires larger size telescopes. Compared to the catadioptric Schmidt, the optical properties of a three mirror telescope provides significant advantages. (1) The flat field design is anastigmatic at any wavelength, (2) the system is extremely compact -- four times shorter than a Schmidt -- and, (3) compared to a Schmidt with refractive corrector -- requiring the polishing of three optical surfaces --, the presently proposed Modified-Rumsey design uses all of eight available free parameters of a flat fielded anastigmatic three mirror telescope for mirrors generated by active optics methods. Compared to a Rumsey design, these parameters include the additional slope continuity condition at the primary-tertiary link for in-situ stressing and aspherization from a common sphere. Then, active optics allows the polishing of only two spherical surfaces: the combined primary-tertiary mirror and the secondary mirror. All mirrors are spheroids of the hyperboloid type. This compact system is of interest for space and ground-based astronomy and allows to built larger wide-field telescopes such as demonstrated by the design and construction of identical telescopes MINITRUST-1 and -2, f/5 - 2° FOV, consisting of an in-situ stressed double vase form primary-tertiary and of a stress polished tulip form secondary. Optical tests of these telescopes, showing diffraction limited images, are presented.

  11. Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahle, Jack D., Jr.

    The Fort Detrick Information Retrieval System is a system of computer programs written in COBOL for a CDC 3150 to store and retrieve information about the scientific and technical reports and documents of the Fort Detrick Technical Library. The documents and reports have been abstracted and indexed. This abstract, the subject matter descriptors,…

  12. RETRIEVAL EVENTS EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    T. Wilson

    1999-11-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate impacts to the retrieval concept presented in the Design Analysis ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' (Reference 6), from abnormal events based on Design Basis Events (DBE) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDBE) as defined in two recent analyses: (1) DBE/Scenario Analysis for Preclosure Repository Subsurface Facilities (Reference 4); and (2) Preliminary Preclosure Design Basis Event Calculations for the Monitored Geologic Repository (Reference 5) The objective of this task is to determine what impacts the DBEs and BDBEs have on the equipment developed for retrieval. The analysis lists potential impacts and recommends changes to be analyzed in subsequent design analyses for developed equipment, or recommend where additional equipment may be needed, to allow retrieval to be performed in all DBE or BDBE situations. This analysis supports License Application design and therefore complies with the requirements of Systems Description Document input criteria comparison as presented in Section 7, Conclusions. In addition, the analysis discusses the impacts associated with not using concrete inverts in the emplacement drifts. The ''Retrieval Equipment and Strategy'' analysis was based on a concrete invert configuration in the emplacement drift. The scope of the analysis, as presented in ''Development Plan for Retrieval Events Evaluation'' (Reference 3) includes evaluation and criteria of the following: Impacts to retrieval from the emplacement drift based on DBE/BDBEs, and changes to the invert configuration for the preclosure period. Impacts to retrieval from the main drifts based on DBE/BDBEs for the preclosure period.

  13. Knowledge Retrieval Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Kamran

    1998-01-01

    Excalibur RetrievalWare offers true knowledge retrieval solutions. Its fundamental technologies, Adaptive Pattern Recognition Processing and Semantic Networks, have capabilities for knowledge discovery and knowledge management of full-text, structured and visual information. The software delivers a combination of accuracy, extensibility,…

  14. Efficient Graffiti Image Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chunlei; Wong, Pak C.; Ribarsky, William; Fan, Jianping

    2012-07-05

    Research of graffiti character recognition and retrieval, as a branch of traditional optical character recognition (OCR), has started to gain attention in recent years. We have investigated the special challenge of the graffiti image retrieval problem and propose a series of novel techniques to overcome the challenges. The proposed bounding box framework locates the character components in the graffiti images to construct meaningful character strings and conduct image-wise and semantic-wise retrieval on the strings rather than the entire image. Using real world data provided by the law enforcement community to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we show that the proposed framework outperforms the traditional image retrieval framework with better retrieval results and improved computational efficiency.

  15. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  16. Retrieval options study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  17. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  18. Retrieving Patent Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses patent information retrieval from online files in terms of types of questions, file contents, coverage, timeliness, and other file variations. CLAIMS, Derwent, WPI, APIPAT and Chemical Abstracts Service are described. (KP)

  19. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  20. Retrievability Strategy Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gehner, P; Gilstrap, O J; Memory, R D; Wagner, R C

    1997-04-30

    Section 122 of the ''Nuclear Waste Policy Act'' requires that a repository be designed and constructed to permit retrieval of any spent fuel placed in such repository, during an appropriate period of operation of the facility, for one of these reasons: (1) to protect public health and safety, or the environment; and (2) to permit the recovery of the economically valuable contents of such spent fuel. The Act also requires the Secretary to specify an appropriate period of retrievability at the time of the design of a repository. The Secretary has not yet defined any such period. However, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 Part 60.111, requires the design of a geologic repository operations area to allow the retrieval of any or all waste on a reasonable schedule starting at any time up to 50 years after waste operations are initiated. NRC describes a reasonable schedule as one that would permit retrieval in about the same time as it took to construct the repository and emplace the waste. Based on the existing conceptual repository and waste package design and analysis, the Yucca Mountain Project described retrieval operations under normal and abnormal conditions in the 1988 ''Site Characterization Plan (SCP)'' document. In 1991, under the same design assumptions, the Project issued a ''Retrieval Strategy Report for a Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository''. Both the conceptual design of the waste package and the emplacement methods have since changed significantly. This report presents the results of a study to determine whether and to what degree these design and other changes require a revision of the retrieval strategy and, if they do, to recommend a revised strategy. The aim of such a revised strategy was to inform decision makers on how to proceed with design to allow retrievability.

  1. Retrieval with gene queries

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Aditya K; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2006-01-01

    Background Accuracy of document retrieval from MEDLINE for gene queries is crucially important for many applications in bioinformatics. We explore five information retrieval-based methods to rank documents retrieved by PubMed gene queries for the human genome. The aim is to rank relevant documents higher in the retrieved list. We address the special challenges faced due to ambiguity in gene nomenclature: gene terms that refer to multiple genes, gene terms that are also English words, and gene terms that have other biological meanings. Results Our two baseline ranking strategies are quite similar in performance. Two of our three LocusLink-based strategies offer significant improvements. These methods work very well even when there is ambiguity in the gene terms. Our best ranking strategy offers significant improvements on three different kinds of ambiguities over our two baseline strategies (improvements range from 15.9% to 17.7% and 11.7% to 13.3% depending on the baseline). For most genes the best ranking query is one that is built from the LocusLink (now Entrez Gene) summary and product information along with the gene names and aliases. For others, the gene names and aliases suffice. We also present an approach that successfully predicts, for a given gene, which of these two ranking queries is more appropriate. Conclusion We explore the effect of different post-retrieval strategies on the ranking of documents returned by PubMed for human gene queries. We have successfully applied some of these strategies to improve the ranking of relevant documents in the retrieved sets. This holds true even when various kinds of ambiguity are encountered. We feel that it would be very useful to apply strategies like ours on PubMed search results as these are not ordered by relevance in any way. This is especially so for queries that retrieve a large number of documents. PMID:16630348

  2. Retrieval Studies with LIDORT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor); Spurr, Robert J. D.; Chance, K. V.

    2003-01-01

    This short program of LIDORT-based research in atmospheric trace gas retrieval was conducted over the 1 year period 01 July 2002 to 30 June 2003. After consultation with the NASA reporting officer, the first of the two original proposal activities (development of a direct-fitting total O3 column retrieval algorithm with operational capability for GOME data) was replaced by other tasks. The three activities addressed were: (1) Sensitivity studies for column and profile retrieval of NO2 distributions from a new generation of multi-axis ground-based spectrometers; (2) use of the LIDORT-RRS model to determine the effect of inelastic rotational Raman scattering at SBUV wavelengths; (3) an examination of ozone profile weighting functions in the presence of optically thick tropospheric clouds.

  3. The D299G/T399I Toll-Like Receptor 4 Variant Associates with Body and Liver Fat: Results from the TULIP and METSIM Studies

    PubMed Central

    Weyrich, Peter; Staiger, Harald; Stančáková, Alena; Machicao, Fausto; Machann, Jürgen; Schick, Fritz; Stefan, Norbert; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Schäfer, Silke; Fritsche, Andreas; Häring, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background Toll-like-receptor 4 (TLR) is discussed to provide a molecular link between obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. Genetic studies with replications in non-diabetic individuals in regard to their fat distribution or insulin resistance according to their carrier status of a common toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant (TLR4D299G/T399I) are still lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis in individuals phenotyped for prediabetic traits as body fat composition (including magnetic resonance imaging), blood glucose levels and insulin resistance (oral glucose tolerance testing, euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp), according to TLR4 genotype determined by candidate SNP analyses (rs4986790). We analyzed N = 1482 non-diabetic individuals from the TÜF/TULIP cohort (South Germany, aged 39±13 y, BMI 28.5±7.9, mean±SD) and N = 5327 non-diabetic participants of the METSIM study (Finland, males aged 58±6 y, BMI 26.8±3.8) for replication purposes. German TLR4D299G/T399I carriers had a significantly increased body fat (XG in rs4986790: +6.98%, p = 0.03, dominant model, adjusted for age, gender) and decreased insulin sensitivity (XG: −15.3%, Matsuda model, p = 0.04; XG: −20.6%, p = 0.016, clamp; both dominant models adjusted for age, gender, body fat). In addition, both liver fat (AG: +49.7%; p = 0.002) and visceral adipose tissue (AG: +8.2%; p = 0.047, both adjusted for age, gender, body fat) were significantly increased in rs4986790 minor allele carriers, and the effect on liver fat remained significant also after additional adjustment for visceral fat (p = 0.014). The analysis in METSIM confirmed increased body fat content in association with the rare G allele in rs4986790 (AG: +1.26%, GG: +11.0%; p = 0.010, additive model, adjusted for age) and showed a non-significant trend towards decreased insulin sensitivity (AG: −0.99%, GG: −10.62%). Conclusions/Significance TLR4D299G/T399

  4. Retrieving Product Documentation Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

  5. Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Losee, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    As Information Retrieval (IR) has evolved, it has become a highly interactive process, rooted in cognitive and situational contexts. Consequently the traditional cybernetic-based IR model does not suffice for interactive IR or the human approach to IR. Reviews different views of feedback in IR and their relationship to cybernetic and social…

  6. Information Retrieval by Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billowes, C. A.

    1968-01-01

    Bell Canada, the Public School and Collegiate Institute Boards of Ottawa, and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are collaborating on an educational television project which will provide a retrieval system that can supply any given program at any time under the control of the classroom teacher. Four schools in Ottawa will participate…

  7. Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basinger, Scott A.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Cohen, David; Green, Joseph J.; Lou, John; Ohara, Catherine; Redding, David; Shi, Fang

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval software uses the Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm, an image-based sensing method that can turn any focal plane science instrument into a wavefront sensor, avoiding the need to use external metrology equipment. Knowledge of the wavefront enables intelligent control of active optical systems.

  8. Information Retrieval Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantor, Paul B.

    1994-01-01

    Identifies current trends in the automation of indexing, of information retrieval, and of interaction between the system and the users. Topics discussed include location, navigation, and indexing; digital libraries; matching documents to queries; weight of concepts; query structure, including fuzzy sets; algorithms; stemming; clustering; users'…

  9. Dropout Retrieval Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Anne; Fink, Mary

    This paper describes 15 dropout retrieval programs that have components with potential for helping migrant dropout youth return to an educational program. Each profile contains information on eligibility, identification or recruitment method, funding, services, and contacts. In addition, each program is categorized as to type of sponsoring…

  10. OPAC Missing Record Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1996-01-01

    When the Higher Education Library Information Network of Rhode Island transferred members' bibliographic data into a shared online public access catalog (OPAC), 10% of the University of Rhode Island's monograph records were missing. This article describes the consortium's attempts to retrieve records from the database and the effectiveness of…

  11. Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC. Office of Records Management.

    Descriptions of representative nonconventional information systems in use today are given in order to provide managers, management analysts, supervisors, and others with ideas as to how they might improve the dissemination, storage, and retrieval of information in their offices. No attempt was made to evaluate the relative merits of the systems…

  12. Collaborative Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry; Fidel, Raya

    1999-01-01

    Researchers from the University of Washington, Microsoft Research, Boeing, and Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark have embarked on a project to explore the manifestations of Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR) in work settings and to propose technological innovations and organizational changes that can support, facilitate, and improve CIR.…

  13. Music Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  14. Alcohol and Memory: Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Isabel M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The influence of alcohol intoxication on the retrieval of information from memory was investigated in nonalcoholic subjects Intoxicated subjects recalled fewer categories and words within categories. The retrieval stage of memory did not appear to be affected by alcohol. (SW)

  15. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  16. Satellite services and orbital retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adornato, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Within the capabilities of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, a broad range of services which can be made available to the satellite user community as summarized. Payload deployment, close proximity retrieval, and a number of other mission related functions are discussed. The focus here is on close proximity retrieval and retrieval of payloads in higher energy low Earth orbits.

  17. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  18. Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doszkocs, Tamase

    1986-01-01

    Examines role and contributions of natural-language processing in information retrieval and artificial intelligence research in context of large operational information retrieval systems and services. State-of-the-art information retrieval systems combining the functional capabilities of conventional inverted file term adjacency approach with…

  19. Practical quantum retrieval games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Karasamanis, Markos; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2016-06-01

    Complex cryptographic protocols are often constructed from simpler building blocks. In order to advance quantum cryptography, it is important to study practical building blocks that can be used to develop new protocols. An example is quantum retrieval games (QRGs), which have broad applicability and have already been used to construct quantum money schemes. In this work, we introduce a general construction of quantum retrieval games based on the hidden matching problem and show how they can be implemented in practice using available technology. More precisely, we provide a general method to construct (1-out-of-k ) QRGs, proving that their cheating probabilities decrease exponentially in k . In particular, we define QRGs based on coherent states of light, which can be implemented even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results constitute a tool in the arsenal of the practical quantum cryptographer.

  20. Magnetic junk retriever

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, M.D.

    1980-10-07

    An improved magnetic junk retriever arranged to magnetize a drill bit just prior to its removal from the bottom of the well bore. A wound, electromagnet subassembly is connected between the drill bit and the drill collar. A battery-pack tool is used to energize the electromagnet by lowering the tool through the bore of the drill pipe and collars to contact pins projecting into the bore of the sub. Energizing the electromagnet causes the drill bit to be magnetized.

  1. Satellite retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, E. C.; Robertson, K. B.; Loughead, T. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A satellite retrieval system with first and second pairs of coacting parallel bars are separately mounted in spaced parallel planes on the front of a spacecraft. The bars of one pair are at right angles to bars of the other pair, and together the two pairs of bars effect a variable aperture adapted to close around a rod extending from a second spacecraft to effect the capture of the latter.

  2. REMOTE RETRIEVING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Fromm, L.W. Jr.

    1958-08-19

    A retrieving tool is described to securely grasp an object for emplacement in, or withdrawal from, an elongated tube. The object is grasped by hooks actuated by a wedge and cann mechanism. The mechanism on the end of a long rodlike structure is controlled by levers or bars at the access end of the tube. This device is particularly useful for positioning fuel elements within a reactor core.

  3. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Factors that Affect Retrieval Success

    SciTech Connect

    Geisbuesch, Philipp Benenati, James F.; Pena, Constantino S.; Couvillon, Joseph; Powell, Alex; Gandhi, Ripal; Samuels, Shaun; Uthoff, Heiko

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To report and analyze the indications, procedural success, and complications of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCF) placement and to identify parameters that influence retrieval attempt and failure. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2010, a total of 200 patients (80 men, median age 67 years, range 11-95 years) received a rIVCF with the clinical possibility that it could be removed. All patients with rIVCF were prospectively entered into a database and followed until retrieval or a decision not to retrieve the filter was made. A retrospective analysis of this database was performed. Results: Sixty-one percent of patients had an accepted indication for filter placement; 39% of patients had a relative indication. There was a tendency toward a higher retrieval rate in patients with relative indications (40% vs. 55%, P = 0.076). Filter placement was technically successful in all patients, with no procedure-related mortality. The retrieval rate was 53%. Patient age of >80 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.056, P > 0.0001) and presence of malignancy (OR 0.303, P = 0.003) was associated with a significantly reduced probability for attempted retrieval. Retrieval failure occurred in 7% (6 of 91) of all retrieval attempts. A time interval of > 90 days between implantation and attempted retrieval was associated with retrieval failure (OR 19.8, P = 0.009). Conclusions: Patient age >80 years and a history of malignancy are predictors of a reduced probability for retrieval attempt. The rate of retrieval failure is low and seems to be associated with a time interval of >90 days between filter placement and retrieval.

  4. JURASSIC Retrieval Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, J.; Ungermann, J.; Guggenmoser, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Riese, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging in the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an aircraft based infrared limb-sounder. This presentation will give an overview of the retrieval techniques used for the analysis of data produced by the GLORIA instrument. For data processing, the JUelich RApid Spectral SImulation Code 2 (JURASSIC2) was developed. It consists of a set of programs to retrieve atmospheric profiles from GLORIA measurements. The GLORIA Michelson interferometer can run with a wide range of parameters. In the dynamics mode, spectra are generate with a medium spectral and a very high temporal and spatial resolution. Each sample can contain thousands of spectral lines for each contributing trace gas. In the JURASSIC retrieval code this is handled by using a radiative transport model based on the Emissivity Growth Approximation. Deciding which samples should be included in the retrieval is a non-trivial task and requires specific domain knowledge. To ease this problem we developed an automatic selection program by analysing the Shannon information content. By taking into account data for all relevant trace gases and instrument effects, optimal integrated spectral windows are computed. This includes considerations for cross-influence of trace gases, which has non-obvious consequence for the contribution of spectral samples. We developed methods to assess the influence of spectral windows on the retrieval. While we can not exhaustively search the whole range of possible spectral sample combinations, it is possible to optimize information content using a genetic algorithm. The GLORIA instrument is mounted with a viewing direction perpendicular to the flight direction. A gimbal frame makes it possible to move the instrument 45° to both direction. By flying on a circular path, it is possible to generate images of an area of interest from a wide range of angles. These can be analyzed in a 3D-tomographic fashion, which yields superior spatial resolution along line of

  5. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    PubMed

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding. PMID:22547161

  6. Music retrieval in ICOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  7. Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara A.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel M.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Schoolcraft, Josua B.; Oyake, Amalaye; Vaughs, Ashton G.; Torgerson, Jordan L.

    2011-01-01

    The Palomar Adaptive Optics System actively corrects for changing aberrations in light due to atmospheric turbulence. However, the underlying internal static error is unknown and uncorrected by this process. The dedicated wavefront sensor device necessarily lies along a different path than the science camera, and, therefore, doesn't measure the true errors along the path leading to the final detected imagery. This is a standard problem in adaptive optics (AO) called "non-common path error." The Autonomous Phase Retrieval Calibration (APRC) software suite performs automated sensing and correction iterations to calibrate the Palomar AO system to levels that were previously unreachable.

  8. 2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF XY RETRIEVER. THE XY RETRIEVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF INTERIOR OF X-Y RETRIEVER. THE X-Y RETRIEVER WAS HOUSED IN MODULE K AND WAS USED TO SORT AND RETRIEVE PLUTONIUM METAL FROM A STORAGE VAULT FOR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHER PROCESSES IN BUILDING 707. (11/29/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Enhanced Information Retrieval Using AJAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachhwaha, Rajendra; Rajvanshi, Nitin

    2010-11-01

    Information Retrieval deals with the representation, storage, organization of, and access to information items. The representation and organization of information items should provide the user with easy access to the information with the rapid development of Internet, large amounts of digitally stored information is readily available on the World Wide Web. This information is so huge that it becomes increasingly difficult and time consuming for the users to find the information relevant to their needs. The explosive growth of information on the Internet has greatly increased the need for information retrieval systems. However, most of the search engines are using conventional information retrieval systems. An information system needs to implement sophisticated pattern matching tools to determine contents at a faster rate. AJAX has recently emerged as the new tool such the of information retrieval process of information retrieval can become fast and information reaches the use at a faster pace as compared to conventional retrieval systems.

  10. EM-21 Retrieval Knowledge Center: Waste Retrieval Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, Andrew P.; Rinker, Michael W.; Berglin, Eric J.; Minichan, Richard L.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Martin, Bruce A.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Saldivar, Eloy; Mullen, O Dennis; Chapman, Noel F.; Wells, Beric E.; Gibbons, Peter W.

    2009-04-10

    EM-21 is the Waste Processing Division of the Office of Engineering and Technology, within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). In August of 2008, EM-21 began an initiative to develop a Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) to provide the DOE, high level waste retrieval operators, and technology developers with centralized and focused location to share knowledge and expertise that will be used to address retrieval challenges across the DOE complex. The RKC is also designed to facilitate information sharing across the DOE Waste Site Complex through workshops, and a searchable database of waste retrieval technology information. The database may be used to research effective technology approaches for specific retrieval tasks and to take advantage of the lessons learned from previous operations. It is also expected to be effective for remaining current with state-of-the-art of retrieval technologies and ongoing development within the DOE Complex. To encourage collaboration of DOE sites with waste retrieval issues, the RKC team is co-led by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Two RKC workshops were held in the Fall of 2008. The purpose of these workshops was to define top level waste retrieval functional areas, exchange lessons learned, and develop a path forward to support a strategic business plan focused on technology needs for retrieval. The primary participants involved in these workshops included retrieval personnel and laboratory staff that are associated with Hanford and Savannah River Sites since the majority of remaining DOE waste tanks are located at these sites. This report summarizes and documents the results of the initial RKC workshops. Technology challenges identified from these workshops and presented here are expected to be a key component to defining future RKC-directed tasks designed to facilitate tank waste retrieval solutions.

  11. Information Retrieval Systems and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locatis, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Discusses instructional systems and information retrieval systems and highlights the growing role of retrieval systems in learning. Topics discussed include cognitive psychology; degree of learner control; interaction with the systems; technological trends, including storage capacity, integrated media, and interlinked systems; hypermedia; and…

  12. A Computerized Reference Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harline, N. La Var

    An automated retrieval system for reference works was constructed as a prototype in order to illustrate the capabilities and potentialities of future retrieval systems. More than 170 biographical works were indexed and stored in a computer disk to form a biographical data base, and a computer program was written to match patron queries. Consistent…

  13. Document Retrieval: A Structural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xin

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of a structural model of document retrieval based on lexical-semantic relationships between index terms. An algorithm that uses tree-to-tree distance to measure structural closeness between a document and a query statement is explained, and the proposed model is compared to a vector retrieval model. (18 references) (LRW)

  14. NASA develops teleoperator retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The teleoperator retrieval system vehicle was designed to reboost and/or deorbit the Skylab; however, usefulness in survey, stabilization, retrieval and delivery was examined. Thrusters, designed for cold gas propulsion, were adapted to hydrazine propulsion. Design specifications and cost analysis are given.

  15. Detecting Mood-Dependent Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Bower, Gordon H.

    The mood-dependent retrieval hypothesis states that mood will enhance recall by acting as a recall cue if the stimuli have been learned initially in the same mood. Material learned in a happy mood will be best recalled when the person returns to a happy mood; the same holds for a sad mood. Mood-dependent retrieval effect has been regulary…

  16. Topology of Document Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Daniel M.; Cater, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of a topological structure to examine the closeness between documents in retrieval systems and analyzes the topological structure of a vector-space model, a fuzzy-set model, an extended Boolean model, a probabilistic model, and a TIRS (Topological Information Retrieval System) model. Proofs for the results are appended. (17…

  17. Retrieval Effectiveness on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques; Picard, Justin

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the role of search engines in Web usability and analyzes and evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of various indexing and searching strategies on a new Web text collection. Highlights include preprocessing techniques that might improve retrieval effectiveness; and hyperlinks as useful sources of evidence in improving retrieval…

  18. Web Mining for Web Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zheng; Wenyin, Liu; Zhang, Feng; Li, Mingjing; Zhang, Hongjiang

    2001-01-01

    Presents a prototype system for image retrieval from the Internet using Web mining. Discusses the architecture of the Web image retrieval prototype; document space modeling; user log mining; and image retrieval experiments to evaluate the proposed system. (AEF)

  19. Antigen Retrieval Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Shi, Yan; Taylor, Clive R.

    2011-01-01

    As a review for the 20th anniversary of publishing the antigen retrieval (AR) technique in this journal, the authors intend briefly to summarize developments in AR-immunohistochemistry (IHC)–based research and diagnostics, with particular emphasis on current challenges and future research directions. Over the past 20 years, the efforts of many different investigators have coalesced in extending the AR approach to all areas of anatomic pathology diagnosis and research and further have led to AR-based protein extraction techniques and tissue-based proteomics. As a result, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) archival tissue collections are now seen as a literal treasure of materials for clinical and translational research to an extent unimaginable just two decades ago. Further research in AR-IHC is likely to focus on tissue proteomics, developing a more efficient protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue based on the AR principle, and combining the proteomics approach with AR-IHC to establish a practical, sophisticated platform for identifying and using biomarkers in personalized medicine. PMID:21339172

  20. Solid rocket booster retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster Retrieval operations are discussed in detail. The recovery of expended boosters and associated hardware without damage attributable to retrieval procedures is the main goal. The retrieval force consists tof ship's personnel and retrieval team members, each of whom has been trained and is highly skilled in multi-faceted operations. The retrieval force is equipped with two specially-built, highly maneuverable ships outfitted with parachute reels, retrieval cranes, towing winches, large volume-low pressure air compressors, SCUBA diving gear, inflatable boats with outboard motors and diver-operated SRB dewatering devices. The two ships are deployed in sufficient time to conduct an electronic and visual search of the impact area prior to launch. Upon search completeion, each ship takes station a safe distance from the predetermined impact point initiating both visual and electronic search in the direction of flight path, ensuring SRB acquisition at splashdown. When safe, the ships enter the impact area and commence recovery of all floating flight hardware which is subsequently returned to the Disassembly Facility for refurbishment and reuse. Retrieval techniques have evolved in parallel with equipment and flight hardware configuration changes. Additional changes have been initiated to improve personnel safety.

  1. Interactive Exploration for Image Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cord, Matthieu; Philipp-Foliguet, Sylvie; Gosselin, Philippe-Henri; Fournier, Jérôme

    2005-12-01

    We present a new version of our content-based image retrieval system RETIN. It is based on adaptive quantization of the color space, together with new features aiming at representing the spatial relationship between colors. Color analysis is also extended to texture. Using these powerful indexes, an original interactive retrieval strategy is introduced. The process is based on two steps for handling the retrieval of very large image categories. First, a controlled exploration method of the database is presented. Second, a relevance feedback method based on statistical learning is proposed. All the steps are evaluated by experiments on a generalist database.

  2. Information retrieval at the millenium.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W.

    1998-01-01

    Information retrieval systems were among the first medical informatics applications, yet their use has changed substantially in this decade with the growth of end-user computers and the Internet. While early challenges revolved around how to increase the amount of information available in electronic form, more recent challenges center on how to manage the growing volume. Traditional information retrieval issues--such as how to organize and index information to make it more retrievable as well as how to evaluate the effectiveness of systems--are still as pertinent as ever. PMID:9929180

  3. System For Retrieving Reusable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Warren, Lloyd; Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Software Components (ESC) is information-retrieval system of computer hardware and software providing access to generic reusable software tools and parts. Core of ESC is central tool base, which is repository of reusable software. It receives queries and submissions from user through local browser subsystem and receives authorized updates from maintenance subsystem. Sends retrievals to local browser subsystem and user's submissions to maintenance subsystem. Future versions will provide for advanced media, including voice and video, and will link system to database-management system. Programmers will not only retrieve software, but also modify, execute, and cross-link with other software.

  4. Image retrieval for information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, Thorsten; Klauck, Christoph; Kreyss, Jutta; Zhang, J.

    1995-03-01

    In order to retrieve a set of intended images from a huge image archive, human beings think of special contents with respect to the searched scene, like a countryside or a technical drawing. Therefore, in general it is harder to retrieve images by using a syntactical feature- based language than a language which offers the selection of examples concerning color, texture, and contour in combination with natural language concepts. This motivation leads to a content-based image analysis and goes on to a content-based storage and retrieval of images. Furthermore, it is unreasonable for any human being to make the content description for thousands of images manually. From this point of view, the project IRIS (image retrieval for information systems) combines well-known methods and techniques in computer vision and AI in a new way to generate content descriptions of images in a textual form automatically. IRIS retrieves the images by means of text retrieval realized by the SearchManager/6000. The textual description is generated by four sub-steps: feature extraction like colors, textures, and contours, segmentation, and interpretation of part-whole relations. The system is implemented on IBM RS/6000 using AIX. It has already been tested with 350 images.

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Image Retrieval Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the problems of developing a framework and testbed for quantitative assessment of image retrieval effectiveness. To better harness the extensive research on content-based retrieval and improve capabilities of image retrieval systems, this article advocates the establishment of common image retrieval testbeds consisting of standardized…

  6. Temporal structure in associative retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Barnes, Gareth; Sejdinovic, Dino; Dolan, Ray; Dayan, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological data disclose rich dynamics in patterns of neural activity evoked by sensory objects. Retrieving objects from memory reinstates components of this activity. In humans, the temporal structure of this retrieved activity remains largely unexplored, and here we address this gap using the spatiotemporal precision of magnetoencephalography (MEG). In a sensory preconditioning paradigm, 'indirect' objects were paired with 'direct' objects to form associative links, and the latter were then paired with rewards. Using multivariate analysis methods we examined the short-time evolution of neural representations of indirect objects retrieved during reward-learning about direct objects. We found two components of the evoked representation of the indirect stimulus, 200 ms apart. The strength of retrieval of one, but not the other, representational component correlated with generalization of reward learning from direct to indirect stimuli. We suggest the temporal structure within retrieved neural representations may be key to their function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04919.001 PMID:25615722

  7. Retrieval for color artistry concepts.

    PubMed

    Lay, Jose A; Guan, Ling

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents a work on the retrieval of artworks for color artistry concepts. First we affirm the view that the Query-by-Example paradigm fundamental to the current content-based retrieval systems is able to extend only limited usefulness. We then propose a concept-based retrieval engine based on the generative grammar of elemental concepts methodology. In the latter, the language by which color artistry concepts are communicated in artworks is used to operate semantic searches. The color artistry language is explicated into elemental concepts and the associated generative grammar. The elemental concepts are used to index the artworks, while the generative grammar is used to facilitate post-coordinate expression of color artistry concept queries by using the elemental concepts. PMID:15376925

  8. Multimedia Information Retrieval Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah A.

    2010-10-12

    This survey paper highlights some of the recent, influential work in multimedia information retrieval (MIR). MIR is a branch area of multimedia (MM). The young and fast-growing area has received strong industrial and academic support in the United States and around the world (see Section 7 for a list of major conferences and journals of the community). The term "information retrieval" may be misleading to those with different computer science or information technology backgrounds. As shown in our discussion later, it indeed includes topics from user interaction, data analytics, machine learning, feature extraction, information visualization, and more.

  9. Information retrieval for patient care.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, M.

    1997-01-01

    Doctors need clinical information during most consultations with patients, and much of this need could be satisfied by material from online sources. Advances in data communication technologies mean that multimedia information can be transported rapidly to various clinical care locations. However, selecting the few items of information likely to be useful in a particular clinical situation from the mass of information available is a major problem. Current information retrieval systems are designed primarily for use in research rather than clinical care. The design, implementation, and critical evaluation of new information retrieval systems for clinical care should be guided by knowledgeable clinical users. PMID:9099122

  10. Publication search and retrieval system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winget, Elizabeth A.

    1981-01-01

    The publication search and retrieval system of the Branch of Atlantic-Gulf of Mexico Geology, U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, Mass., is a procedure for listing and describing branch-sponsored publications. It is designed for maintenance and retrieval by those having limited knowledge of computer languages and programs. Because this branch currently utilizes the Hewlett-Packard HP-1000 computer with RTE-IVB operating system, database entry and maintenance is performed in accordance with the TE-IVB Terminal User’s Reference Manual (Hewlett-Packard Company, 1980) and within the constraints of GRASP (Bowen and Botbol, 1975) and WOLF (Evenden, 1978).

  11. Text Passage Retrieval Based on Colon Classification: Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    Reports the results of experiments using colon classification for the analysis, representation, and retrieval of primary information from the full text of documents. Recall, precision, and search length measures indicate colon classification did not perform significantly better than Boolean or simple word occurrence systems. Thirteen references…

  12. Deletions and recombinations with the RNA1 3' ends of different tobraviruses have created a multitude of tobacco rattle virus TCM-related RNA2 species in Alstroemeria and tulip.

    PubMed

    Koenig, R; Lesemann, D-E; Pfeilstetter, E; Winter, S; Pleij, C W A

    2011-04-01

    In vegetatively propagated Alstroemeria plants that showed pronounced stunting and necrotic leaf spots, a tobravirus infection was diagnosed in which one tobacco rattle virus (TRV, strain AL) RNA1 species was associated with seven different RNA2 species. The latter differed considerably in size and in the types of their 3' RNA1-related sequences. The 5' RNA2-specific part of all these RNA2 molecules showed almost 100% sequence identity with that of RNA2 of the TRV isolate TCM from tulip, but in some of these RNA2 molecules it was shorter than in the TCM isolate, whereas in others it was longer. One of the TRV AL RNA2 molecules, i.e. TC3'PE-a, contained the full set of three full-length RNA2-specific ORFs (ORF2a, -2b and -2c), whereas the previously analysed TCM sequence contained only ORF2a and -2b. In four of these TRV AL RNA2 molecules, i.e. those that had a relatively short RNA2-specific part, the 3' end was identical to that of the cognate TRV AL RNA1, but in the other three, which had a long RNA2-specific part, it was closely related to that of pea early browning virus (PEBV) RNA1, which was not detected in the infected plants. A comparison with previously described TRV/PEBV RNA2 recombinants suggested that the various TRV AL RNA2 molecules may represent various steps and side steps in an evolutionary process, which is apt to open the wide host range of TRV also to PEBV-derived RNA2 species. PMID:21169212

  13. Photopolarimetric Retrievals of Snow Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  14. Hypermedia and Free Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Mark D.; van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses access to nontextual documents in large multimedia document bases. A hybrid information retrieval model, using queries in a hypertext environment for location of browsing areas, is presented; and two experiments using cluster-based descriptions of content are reported. (23 references) (EA)

  15. The Intrex Retrieval System Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlburt, Charles E.; And Others

    The report describes the general structure of the Intrex Retrieval Systems and each of the component subroutines. The report is not an introduction to Intrex. In addition to a general description, the report covers the following topics: (1) system architecture, (2) software details, (3) command control logic, (4) list manipulation logic, (5)…

  16. Photopolarimetric retrievals of snow properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-10-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on airborne and spaceborne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited data set, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  17. Photopolarimetric retrievals of snow properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottaviani, M.; van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.

    2015-05-01

    Polarimetric observations of snow surfaces, obtained in the 410-2264 nm range with the Research Scanning Polarimeter onboard the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, are analyzed and presented. These novel measurements are of interest to the remote sensing community because the overwhelming brightness of snow plagues aerosol and cloud retrievals based on air- and space-borne total reflection measurements. The spectral signatures of the polarized reflectance of snow are therefore worthwhile investigating in order to provide guidance for the adaptation of algorithms currently employed for the retrieval of aerosol properties over soil and vegetated surfaces. At the same time, the increased information content of polarimetric measurements allows for a meaningful characterization of the snow medium. In our case, the grains are modeled as hexagonal prisms of variable aspect ratios and microscale roughness, yielding retrievals of the grains' scattering asymmetry parameter, shape and size. The results agree with our previous findings based on a more limited dataset, with the majority of retrievals leading to moderately rough crystals of extreme aspect ratios, for each scene corresponding to a single value of the asymmetry parameter.

  18. Information Retrieval Systems for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiden, Peggy; Kibbey, Mark

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of information retrieval software and examines several capabilities of two systems, SIRE and ZyINDEX--creating a database, indexing the database, maintaining the database, and searching the database. Each system's strengths and weaknesses in bibliographic record and full text applications are analyzed. A glossary is…

  19. An Introduction to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., White Plains, NY. Data Processing Div.

    The ways in which digital computers can be used in information storage and retrieval are presented in the language of the nonspecialist. Indexing methods, file organization, and search strategies are discussed and a brief bibliography containing 30 IBM publications is given. The manual is intended as a first reader for those interested in the…

  20. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EXPERIMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SELYE, HANS

    THIS REPORT IS A BRIEF REVIEW OF RESULTS OF AN EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EFFICIENCY OF A MANUAL SPECIALIZED INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON 700,000 DOCUMENTS IN THE FIELDS OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, STRESS, MAST CELLS, AND ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS. THE SYSTEM RECEIVES 30,000 PUBLICATIONS ANNUALLY. DETAILED INFORMATION IS REPRESENTED BY…

  1. Artificial Intelligence and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Ioana

    1987-01-01

    Compares artificial intelligence and information retrieval paradigms for natural language understanding, reviews progress to date, and outlines the applicability of artificial intelligence to question answering systems. A list of principal artificial intelligence software for database front end systems is appended. (CLB)

  2. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  3. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  4. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  5. The Ecosystem of Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose-Vicente; Martinez-Mendez, Francisco-Javier; Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an initial proposal for a formal framework that, by studying the metric variables involved in information retrieval, can establish the sequence of events involved and how to perform it. Method: A systematic approach from the equations of Shannon and Weaver to establish the decidability of information retrieval…

  6. Information Retrieval in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oley, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Explores aspects of information retrieval skills such as end user training, indexing, controlled vocabulary systems, search protocol, boolean logic, problem analysis, and decision making. Suggests techniques for classroom instruction using simulations of online databases, CD-ROMs, and DIALOG's classroom instruction program. Describes several…

  7. Satellite Retrieval of Aerosol Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G.; Robles Gonzalez, C.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Decae, R.

    SATELLITE RETRIEVAL of AEROSOL PROPERTIES G. de Leeuw, C. Robles Gonzalez, J. Kusmierczyk-Michulec and R. Decae TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague, The Netherlands; deleeuw@fel.tno.nl Methods to retrieve aerosol properties over land and over sea were explored. The dual view offered by the ATSR-2 aboard ERS-2 was used by Veefkind et al., 1998. The retrieved AOD (aerosol optical depth) values compare favourably with collocated sun photometer measurements, with an accuracy of 0.06 +/- 0.05 in AOD. An algorithm developed for GOME on ERS-2 takes advantage of the low surface reflection in the UV (Veefkind et al., 2000). AOD values retrieved from ATSR-2 and GOME data over western Europe are consistent. The results were used to produce a map of mean AOD values over Europe for one month (Robles-Gonzalez et al., 2000). The ATSR-2 is al- gorithm is now extended with other aerosol types with the aim to apply it over the In- dian Ocean. A new algorithm is being developed for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to be launched in 2003 on the NASA EOS-AURA satellite. It is expected that, based on the different scattering and absorption properties of various aerosol types, five major aerosol classes can be distinguished. The experience with the retrieval of aerosol properties by using several wavelength bands is used to develop an algorithm for Sciamachy to retrieve aerosol properties both over land and over the ocean which takes advantage of the wavelengths from the UV to the IR. The variation of the AOD with wavelength is described by the Angstrom parameter. The AOD and the Angstrom parameter together yield information on the aerosol size distribution, integrated over the column. Analysis of sunphotometer data indicates a relation between the Angstrom parameter and the mass ratio of certain aerosols (black carbon, organic carbon and sea salt) to the total particulate matter. This relation has been further explored and was applied to satellite data over land to

  8. Context Effects and Retrieval in Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Lawrence M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to test predictions derived from a model of recognition memory that assumes no retrieval processes. It is argued that context effects do not necessarily imply retrieval processes in recognition. (Author/AM)

  9. Brewer Umkehr ozone profile retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Disterhoft, P.; Lantz, K. O.; Bhartia, P. K.; McPeters, R. D.; Flynn, L. E.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Stanek, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Dobson Umkehr network has been a key data set for stratospheric ozone trend calculations (WMO Ozone assessments) and has earned its place as a benchmark network for stratospheric ozone profile observations. The Umkehr data has also been used to provide a long-term reference to the merging of the satellite ozone records (MOD), estimate the seasonal influence of an 11-year solar signal in the vertical distribution of stratospheric ozone, and to assess the ability of several remote and in-situ sensing systems in capturing ozone variability. It was found that Dobson Umkehr measurement errors were often comparable to errors derived for satellite and ozone-sounding methods. The Umkehr measurements are also available from the Brewer spectrophotometers [McElroy et al., 1995]. In 2005, the Dobson Umkehr algorithm (UMK04) was modified to retrieve ozone profile data from Brewer Umkehr measurements taken at two spectral channels [Petropavlovskikh et al, 2011]. The PC version of the Brewer algorithm was developed by M. Stanek (IOC, Canada and Czech Republic Meteorological Institute) in close collaboration with I. Petropavlovskikh. It was implemented at the NEUBrew network for operational processing of Umkehr data retrieved daily for all operational sites. The most recently developed Brewer ozone retrieval algorithm (MSBU) utilizes measurements that are currently available from the operational Brewer instruments. Umkehr measurements at multiple wavelength channels (similar to the satellite BUV method) and significantly reduced range of solar zenith angle are used for the twice a day operational ozone profile retrievals. Intercomparisons against ozone climatology, sounding, satellite overpasses and Dobson ozone datasets for NOASA/Goddard, Boulder, CO and MLO, HI sites are presented in this paper. The MSBU algorithm reduces noise in the intra-annual variability of the Brewer retrieved ozone as compared to the single pair ozone retrieval. Tropospheric ozone retrievals also

  10. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  11. Online Retrieval Systems Users Survey from Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Phillip M.

    Based on a survey of 160 Texas college and university libraries, this study reports on their access to and usage of 3 online information retrieval systems: Bibliographic Retrieval Services (BRS), Lockheed's DIALOG Information Services, and System Development Corporation's ORBIT Information Retrieval System. The study finds that 24 percent of all…

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS STUDIES, REPORT NUMBER 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, RONALD R.; AND OTHERS

    CONTENTS--(1) AN ASSOCIATIVITY TECHNIQUE FOR AUTOMATICALLY OPTIMIZING RETRIEVAL RESULTS BY RONALD R. ANDERSON. AN ASSOCIATIVE TECHNIQUE BY WHICH IT IS POSSIBLE TO AUTOMATICALLY EXPAND AND NARROW THE NUMBER OF DOCUMENTS RETRIEVED AND TO RETRIEVE DOCUMENTS RELATED TO A REQUEST EVEN THOUGH THEY MAY NOT BE INDEXED BY THE EXACT TERMS OF THE REQUEST IS…

  13. Validating a Geographical Image Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Bin; Chen, Hsinchun

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes a prototype geographical image retrieval system that demonstrates how to integrate image processing and information analysis techniques to support large-scale content-based image retrieval. Describes an experiment to validate the performance of this image retrieval system against that of human subjects by examining similarity analysis…

  14. A Fuzzy Model of Document Retrieval Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahani, Valiollah

    1976-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the organization and retrieval of records in document retrieval systems which admit of imprecision in the form of fuzziness in document characterization and retrieval rules. A mathematical model for such systems, based on the theory of fuzzy sets, is introduced. (Author)

  15. Modeling and Retrieving Images by Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudivada, Venkat N.; Raghavan, Vijay V.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses content-based image retrieval systems that effectively utilize information from image databases, and provides a taxonomy for approaches to image retrieval. Highlights include image retrieval architecture that supports query operators; conceptual issues; and two application prototypes. (100 references) (Author/LRW)

  16. Image Indexing and Retrieval by Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, Tony

    2000-01-01

    Reviews content-based image retrieval and discusses the increase in large picture databases that are now available. Describes some of the proceedings from the Brighton (United Kingdom) conference, including the retrieval of video clips; discusses image indexing; and provides examples of image indexing and retrieval projects. (Author/LRW)

  17. The Networking of Interactive Bibliographic Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Richard S.; Reintjes, J. Francis

    Research in networking of heterogeneous interactive bibliographic retrieval systems is being conducted which centers on the concept of a virtual retrieval system. Such a virtual system would be created through a translating computer interface that would provide access to the different retrieval systems and data bases in a uniform and convenient…

  18. Natural Language Information Retrieval: Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Carballo, Jose; Strzalkowski, Tomek

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the progress of the natural language information retrieval project, a joint effort led by GE (General Electric) Research, and its evaluation at the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference). Discusses stream-based information retrieval, which uses alternative methods of document indexing; advanced linguistic streams; weighting; and query…

  19. Some Mathematics of Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammon, John W., Jr.

    This report explains the following mathematical techniques which may be used for relating search requests to documents contained in a library: (1) Boolean Algebraic Retrieval, (2) Linear Statistical Retrieval, (3) Statistical Association Techniques for expanding a query and/or for expanding the set of retrieval documents, (4) Vector Space…

  20. Covert Retrieval Practice Benefits Retention as Much as Overt Retrieval Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Megan A.; Roediger, Henry L., III; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Many experiments provide evidence that practicing retrieval benefits retention relative to conditions of no retrieval practice. Nearly all prior research has employed retrieval practice requiring overt responses, but a few experiments have shown that covert retrieval also produces retention advantages relative to control conditions. However,…

  1. Toward an Episodic Context Account of Retrieval-Based Learning: Dissociating Retrieval Practice and Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Melissa; Smith, Megan A.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the predictions of 2 explanations for retrieval-based learning; while the elaborative retrieval hypothesis assumes that the retrieval of studied information promotes the generation of semantically related information, which aids in later retrieval (Carpenter, 2009), the episodic context account proposed by Karpicke, Lehman, and Aue (in…

  2. Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning, but Retrieval Success (versus Failure) Does Not Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Klein, Patricia Jacobs; Rawson, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory enhances learning. We propose a 2-stage framework to explain the benefits of retrieval. Stage 1 takes place as one attempts to retrieve an answer, which activates knowledge related to the retrieval cue. Stage 2 begins when the answer becomes available, at which point appropriate connections are strengthened and…

  3. IRES: image retrieval expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu Sheng, Olivia R.; Wang, Hui-Chin; Garcia, Hong-Mei C.

    1990-08-01

    Image Retrieval Expert System (IRES), a knowledge-based system for automatic image retrieval, is being prototyped at the University of Arizona (U of A). IRES is to couple with the distributed database system designed for Structured PACS (S-PACS)1 to achieve the high system performance required by radiologists. IRES encompasses the "intelligence" of multiple expert radiologists. The system will predict and migrate the "old" images needed for comparison purposes during radiological exam readings from slower or remote storage devices to the local buffers of workstations. The use of IRES with the PACS Distributed Database System (DDBS) is expected to shorten the PACS system response time, save the time of radiologists in selecting films, minimize the turnaround time of the exam interpretation function, and increase diagnostic effectiveness by providing relevant images automatically. This paper presents the implementation details of this IRES prototype.

  4. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  5. Desert Dust Satellite Retrieval Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carboni, E.; Thomas, G. E.; Sayer, A. M.; Siddans, R.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.; Ahn, C.; Antoine, D.; Bevan, S.; Braak, R.; Brindley, H.; DeSouza-Mchado, S.; Deuze, J. L.; Diner, D.; Ducos, F.; Grey, W.; Hsu, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Kahn, R.; North, P. R. J.; Salustro, C.; Smith, A.; Tanre, D.; Torres, O.; Veihelmann, B.

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify and understand the differences between current algorithms, and hence improve future retrieval algorithms. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR), polarisation measurements (POLDER), single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS), and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS). Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as as20 sumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, at least as significant as these differences are sampling issues related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset.

  6. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  7. Initial retrieval sequence and blending strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Pemwell, D.L.; Grenard, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report documents the initial retrieval sequence and the methodology used to select it. Waste retrieval, storage, pretreatment and vitrification were modeled for candidate single-shell tank retrieval sequences. Performance of the sequences was measured by a set of metrics (for example,high-level waste glass volume, relative risk and schedule).Computer models were used to evaluate estimated glass volumes,process rates, retrieval dates, and blending strategy effects.The models were based on estimates of component inventories and concentrations, sludge wash factors and timing, retrieval annex limitations, etc.

  8. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  9. Using Induction to Refine Information Retrieval Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Pell, Barney; Kedar, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual information retrieval systems use structured document indices, domain knowledge and a set of heuristic retrieval strategies to match user queries with a set of indices describing the document's content. Such retrieval strategies increase the set of relevant documents retrieved (increase recall), but at the expense of returning additional irrelevant documents (decrease precision). Usually in conceptual information retrieval systems this tradeoff is managed by hand and with difficulty. This paper discusses ways of managing this tradeoff by the application of standard induction algorithms to refine the retrieval strategies in an engineering design domain. We gathered examples of query/retrieval pairs during the system's operation using feedback from a user on the retrieved information. We then fed these examples to the induction algorithm and generated decision trees that refine the existing set of retrieval strategies. We found that (1) induction improved the precision on a set of queries generated by another user, without a significant loss in recall, and (2) in an interactive mode, the decision trees pointed out flaws in the retrieval and indexing knowledge and suggested ways to refine the retrieval strategies.

  10. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    1999-08-27

    Phase I retrieval of post-1970 TRU wastes from burial ground 218-W-4C can be done in a safe, efficient, and cost-effective manner. Initiating TRU retrieval by retrieving uncovered drums from Trenches 1, 20, and 29, will allow retrieval to begin under the current SWBG safety authorization basis. The retrieval of buried drums from Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29, which will require excavation, will commence once the uncovered drum are retrieved. This phased approach allows safety analysis for drum venting and drum module excavation to be completed and approved before the excavation proceeds. In addition, the lessons learned and the operational experience gained from the retrieval of uncovered drums can be applied to the more complicated retrieval of the buried drums. Precedents that have been set at SRS and LANL to perform retrieval without a trench cover, in the open air, should be followed. Open-air retrieval will result in significant cost savings over the original plans for Phase I retrieval (Project W-113). Based on LANL and SRS experience, open-air retrieval will have no adverse impacts to the environment or to the health and safety of workers or the public. Assaying the waste in the SWBG using a mobile assay system, will result in additional cost savings. It is expected that up to 50% of the suspect-TRU wastes will assay as LLW, allowing those waste to remain disposed of in the SWBG. Further processing, with its associated costs, will only occur to the portion of the waste that is verified to be TRU. Retrieval should be done, to the extent possible, under the current SWBG safety authorization basis as a normal part of SWBG operations. The use of existing personnel and existing procedures should be optimized. By working retrieval campaigns, typically during the slow months, it is easier to coordinate the availability of necessary operations personnel, and it is easier to coordinate the availability of a mobile assay vendor.

  11. Multisensor Retrieval of Atmospheric Properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boba Stankov, B.

    1998-09-01

    A new method, Multisensor Retrieval of Atmospheric Properties (MRAP), is presented for deriving vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters throughout the troposphere. MRAP integrates measurements from multiple, diverse, remote sensing, and in situ instruments, the combination of which provides better capabilities than any instrument alone. Since remote sensors can deliver measurements automatically and continuously with high time resolution, MRAP provides better coverage than traditional rawinsondes. MRAP's design is flexible, being capable of incorporating measurements from different instruments in order to take advantage of new or developing advanced sensor technology. Furthermore, new or alternative atmospheric parameters for a variety of applications may be easily added as products of MRAP.A combination of passive radiometric, active radar, and in situ observations provide the best temperature and humidity profile measurements. Therefore, MRAP starts with a traditional, radiometer-based, physical retrieval algorithm provided by the International TOVS (TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder) Processing Package (ITPP) that constrains the retrieved profiles to agree with brightness temperature measurements. The first-guess profiles required by the ITPP's iterative retrieval algorithm are obtained by using a statistical inversion technique and ground-based remote sensing measurements. Because the individual ground-based remote sensing measurements are usually of sufficiently high quality, the first-guess profiles by themselves provide a satisfactory solution to establish the atmospheric water vapor and temperature state, and the TOVS data are included to provide profiles with better accuracy at higher levels, MRAP provides a physically consistent mechanism for combining the ground- and space-based humidity and temperature profiles.Data that have been used successfully to retrieve humidity and temperature profiles with MRAP are the following: temperature profiles in

  12. Covert retrieval practice benefits retention as much as overt retrieval practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan A; Roediger, Henry L; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2013-11-01

    Many experiments provide evidence that practicing retrieval benefits retention relative to conditions of no retrieval practice. Nearly all prior research has employed retrieval practice requiring overt responses, but a few experiments have shown that covert retrieval also produces retention advantages relative to control conditions. However, direct comparisons between overt and covert retrieval are scarce: Does covert retrieval-thinking of but not producing responses-on a first test produce the same benefit as overt retrieval on a criterial test given later? We report 4 experiments that address this issue by comparing retention on a second test following overt or covert retrieval on a first test. In Experiment 1 we used a procedure designed to ensure that subjects would retrieve on covert as well as overt test trials and found equivalent testing effects in the 2 cases. In Experiment 2 we replicated these effects using a procedure that more closely mirrored natural retrieval processes. In Experiment 3 we showed that overt and covert retrieval produced equivalent testing effects after a 2-day delay. Finally, in Experiment 4 we showed that covert retrieval benefits retention more than restudying. We conclude that covert retrieval practice is as effective as overt retrieval practice, a conclusion that contravenes hypotheses in the literature proposing that overt responding is better. This outcome has an important educational implication: Students can learn as much from covert self-testing as they would from overt responding. PMID:23815513

  13. Innovative grout/retrieval demonstration final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Thompson, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of an innovative retrieval technique for buried transuranic waste. Application of this retrieval technique was originally designed for full pit retrieval; however, it applies equally to a hot spot retrieval technology. The technique involves grouting the buried soil waste matrix with a jet grouting procedure, applying an expansive demolition grout to the matrix, and retrieving the debris. The grouted matrix provides an agglomeration of fine soil particles and contaminants resulting in an inherent contamination control during the dusty retrieval process. A full-scale field demonstration of this retrieval technique was performed on a simulated waste pit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Details are reported on all phases of this proof-of-concept demonstration including pit construction, jet grouting activities, application of the demolition grout, and actual retrieval of the grouted pit. A quantitative evaluation of aerosolized soils and rare earth tracer spread is given for all phases of the demonstration, and these results are compared to a baseline retrieval activity using conventional retrieval means. 8 refs., 47 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Solar Occultation Retrieval Algorithm Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumpe, Jerry D.

    2004-01-01

    This effort addresses the comparison and validation of currently operational solar occultation retrieval algorithms, and the development of generalized algorithms for future application to multiple platforms. initial development of generalized forward model algorithms capable of simulating transmission data from of the POAM II/III and SAGE II/III instruments. Work in the 2" quarter will focus on: completion of forward model algorithms, including accurate spectral characteristics for all instruments, and comparison of simulated transmission data with actual level 1 instrument data for specific occultation events.

  15. The validation of AIRS retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Olsen, Edward T.; Chen, Luke L.; Hagan, Denise E.; Fishbein, Evan; McMillin, Larry; Zhou, Jiang; McMillan, Wallace W.

    2003-01-01

    The initial validation of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (SIRS) experiment retrievals were completed in August 2003 as part of public release of version 3.0 data. The associated analyses are reported at http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmodyn/airs/, where data may be accessed. Here we describe some of those analyses, with an emphasis on cloud cleared radiances, atmospheric temperature profiles, sea surface temperature, total water vapor and atmospheric water vapor profiles. The results are applicable over ocean in the latitude band +/-40 degrees.

  16. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  17. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    PubMed

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting. PMID:17541863

  18. Retrieving fear memories, as time goes by….

    PubMed

    Do Monte, F H; Quirk, G J; Li, B; Penzo, M A

    2016-08-01

    Research in fear conditioning has provided a comprehensive picture of the neuronal circuit underlying the formation of fear memories. In contrast, our understanding of the retrieval of fear memories is much more limited. This disparity may stem from the fact that fear memories are not rigid, but reorganize over time. To bring some clarity and raise awareness about the time-dependent dynamics of retrieval circuits, we review current evidence on the neuronal circuitry participating in fear memory retrieval at both early and late time points following auditory fear conditioning. We focus on the temporal recruitment of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) for the retrieval and maintenance of fear memories. Finally, we speculate as to why retrieval circuits change with time, and consider the functional strategy of recruiting structures not previously considered as part of the retrieval circuit. PMID:27217148

  19. Scalable ranked retrieval using document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajiv; Oard, Douglas W.; Doermann, David

    2013-12-01

    Despite the explosion of text on the Internet, hard copy documents that have been scanned as images still play a significant role for some tasks. The best method to perform ranked retrieval on a large corpus of document images, however, remains an open research question. The most common approach has been to perform text retrieval using terms generated by optical character recognition. This paper, by contrast, examines whether a scalable segmentation-free image retrieval algorithm, which matches sub-images containing text or graphical objects, can provide additional benefit in satisfying a user's information needs on a large, real world dataset. Results on 7 million scanned pages from the CDIP v1.0 test collection show that content based image retrieval finds a substantial number of documents that text retrieval misses, and that when used as a basis for relevance feedback can yield improvements in retrieval effectiveness.

  20. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  1. PICTURES OF A SUSPECT-TRU RETRIEVAL

    SciTech Connect

    GADD, R.R.

    2007-05-24

    Retrieving ''suspect'' transuranic (TRU) waste from the Hanford Site's low-level waste burial grounds is a tall order, due to conditions that have changed as the work progresses. Project personnel developed several new methods for handling the waste that other retrieval operations may find useful. The Waste Retrieval Project is operated by Fluor Hanford, a prime contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office since 1996.

  2. Medical Image Retrieval: Past and Present

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Haejun

    2012-01-01

    With the widespread dissemination of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs) in hospitals, the amount of imaging data is rapidly increasing. Effective image retrieval systems are required to manage these complex and large image databases. The authors reviewed the past development and the present state of medical image retrieval systems including text-based and content-based systems. In order to provide a more effective image retrieval service, the intelligent content-based retrieval systems combined with semantic systems are required. PMID:22509468

  3. Wellhead bowl protector and retrieving tool

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a wellhead protection system including a wear bushing and a retrieving tool. The improvement comprises a wear bushing supported within the wellhead, wherein the wear bushing includes an enlarged upper end having an external support shoulder for engagement with an internal support shoulder formed in the wellhead; wherein the wear bushing further includes an internal circumferential slot intersected by at least one vertically extending slot, the vertical slot extending from the circumferential slot to the upper end of the wear bushing; a retrieving tool having at least one outwardly biased, retractable lug member mounted thereon; and wherein the retrieving tool includes an enlarged portion adapted to be received within the enlarged upper end of the wear bushing. This patent also describes a method of retrieving a wear bushing from a wellhead comprising the steps of: lowering a retrieving tool into the wellhead for locking engagement with the wear bushing; aligning the retrieving tool with the wear bushing for automatically forcing lug members carried by the retrieving tool outwardly into locking engagement with the wear bushing; monitoring drill string weight for determining engagement of the retrieving tool with the wear bushing, wherein a substantial decrease in drill string weight is an indication that the retrieving tool is engaged with the wear bushing; and removing the wear bushing from the wellhead.

  4. Trends in Research on Information Retrieval--The Potential for Improvements in Conventional Boolean Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the inability of the standard Boolean logic model of information retrieval to deal effectively with the inherent fallibility of retrieval decisions. Recent advances in information retrieval research are reviewed, and their practical potential for overcoming the deficiencies of the Boolean model is examined. (45 references) (Author/CLB)

  5. MODIS Retrieval of Dust Aerosol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier

    2003-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) currently aboard both the Terra and Aqua satellites produces a suite of products designed to characterize global aerosol distribution, optical thickness and particle size. Never before has a space-borne instrument been able to provide such detailed information, operationally, on a nearly global basis every day. The three years of Terra-MODIS data have been validated by comparing with co-located AERONET observations of aerosol optical thickness and derivations of aerosol size parameters. Some 8000 comparison points located at 133 AERONET sites around the globe show that the MODIS aerosol optical thickness retrievals are accurate to within the pre-launch expectations. However, the validation in regions dominated by desert dust is less accurate than in regions dominated by fine mode aerosol or background marine sea salt. The discrepancy is most apparent in retrievals of aerosol size parameters over ocean. In dust situations, the MODIS algorithm tends to under predict particle size because the reflectances at top of atmosphere measured by MODIS exhibit the stronger spectral signature expected by smaller particles. This pattern is consistent with the angular and spectral signature of non-spherical particles. All possible aerosol models in the MODIS Look-Up Tables were constructed from Mie theory, assuming a spherical shape. Using a combination of MODIS and AERONET observations, in regimes dominated by desert dust, we construct phase functions, empirically, with no assumption of particle shape. These new phase functions are introduced into the MODIS algorithm, in lieu of the original options for large dust-like particles. The results will be analyzed and examined.

  6. Flames in vortices & tulip-flame inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dold, J. W.

    This article summarises two areas of research regarding the propagation of flames in flows which involve significant fluid-dynamical motion [1]-[3]. The major difference between the two is that in the first study the fluid motion is present before the arrival of any flame and remains unaffected by the flame [1, 2] while, in the second study it is the flame that is responsible for all of the fluid dynamical effects [3]. It is currently very difficult to study flame-motion in which the medium is both highly disturbed before the arrival of a flame and is further influenced by the passage of the flame.

  7. Tulips, Tagmemics, and the Ghost of Dartmouth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster, John

    1979-01-01

    Provides the author's impressions of the 1979 Canadian Council of Teachers of English Conference at Ottawa, noting the three prominent areas of concern: the assessment of writing at all educational levels, the teaching of writing to non-matriculation students, and continuing education for the writing teacher. (RL)

  8. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.A.; Roberts, R.S.; Faass, G.S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Colcord, A.R.; Bery, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous hydrolysis of poplar chips by steam at 300-350 psi resulted in the separation of hemicellulose (I) cellulose and lignin components. The I fraction was readily depolymerised by steam to acetic acid, furfural, methanol, and xylose.

  9. Exploiting Multimodal Context in Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srihari, Rohini K.; Zhang, Zhongfei

    1999-01-01

    Finding information on the Web without encountering numerous false positives poses a challenge to multimedia information retrieval systems (MMIR). This research focuses on improving precision and recall in an MMIR system by interactively combining text processing with image processing in both the indexing and retrieval phases. A picture search…

  10. Retrieval from Memory: Vulnerable or Inviolable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dylan M.; Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    We show that retrieval from semantic memory is vulnerable even to the mere presence of speech. Irrelevant speech impairs semantic fluency--namely, lexical retrieval cued by a semantic category name--but only if it is meaningful (forward speech compared to reversed speech or words compared to nonwords). Moreover, speech related semantically to the…

  11. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  12. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  13. Experiments in Multi-Lingual Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    A comparison was made of the performance in an automatic information retrieval environment of user queries and document abstracts available in natural language form in both English and French. The results obtained indicate that the automatic indexing and retrieval techniques actually used appear equally effective in handling the query and document…

  14. Memory Retrieval and Interference: Working Memory Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity has been suggested as a factor that is involved in long-term memory retrieval, particularly when that retrieval involves a need to overcome some sort of interference (Bunting, Conway, & Heitz, 2004; Cantor & Engle, 1993). Previous work has suggested that working memory is related to the acquisition of information during…

  15. Information Retrieval beyond the Text Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Yong; Ortega, Michael; Huang, Thomas S.; Mehrotra, Sharad

    1999-01-01

    Reports some of the progress made over the years toward exploring information beyond the text domain. Describes the Multimedia Analysis and Retrieval Systems (MARS), developed to increase access to non-textual information. Addresses the following aspects of MARS: (1) visual feature extraction; (2) retrieval models; (3) query reformulation…

  16. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  17. Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate; Hays, Matthew Jensen; Bjork, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Taking tests enhances learning. But what happens when one cannot answer a test question--does an unsuccessful retrieval attempt impede future learning or enhance it? The authors examined this question using materials that ensured that retrieval attempts would be unsuccessful. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked fictional…

  18. Representation of Legal Knowledge for Conceptual Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, George R.; deBessonet, Cary G.

    1985-01-01

    Describes traditional legal information retrieval systems--Juris, Lexis, Westlaw--and several new rule-based, knowledge-based, legal knowledge reasoning, and analytical legal information systems--Waterman and Peterson's Legal Decisionmaking System, Hafner's Legal Information Retrieval System, McCarty's TAXMAN, and the deBessonet representation of…

  19. Strategic Retrieval in a Reality Monitoring Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosburg, Timm; Mecklinger, Axel; Johansson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Strategic recollection refers to control processes that allow the retrieval of information that is relevant for a specific situation. These processes can be studied in memory exclusion tasks, which require the retrieval of particular kinds of episodic information. In the current study, we investigated strategic recollection in reality monitoring…

  20. Fuzzy Set Theoretical Approach to Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1979-01-01

    Presents a new method of document retrieval based on the fundamental operations of fuzzy set theory. Basic notions are introduced. Then the syntax and semantics of the proposed language for document retrieval is given, and an algorithm allocating documents to particular queries is described and its properties are discussed. (Author/CWM)

  1. Attentional Limits in Memory Retrieval--Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Collin; Johnston, James C.; Ruthruff, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Carrier and Pashler (1995) concluded--based on locus-of-slack dual-task methodology--that memory retrieval was subject to a central bottleneck. However, this conclusion conflicts with evidence from other lines of research suggesting that memory retrieval proceeds autonomously, in parallel with many other mental processes. In the present…

  2. Chinese Information Retrieval: Using Characters or Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Jian-Yun; Ren, Fuji

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of Chinese information retrieval proposes a relaxed segmentation process which extracts the longest words and also the short words implied. Experiments show that information retrieval based on this segmentation gives a slightly higher effectiveness than n-grams or bigrams, and requires less time and space for document and query…

  3. Employing Multiple Representations for Chinese Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval in the Chinese language and describes three representation methods for texts: 1-gram or character, bigram, and short-word. Describes a study that investigated using more than one method simultaneously to improve retrieval effectiveness and considers word segmentation and costs. (Author/LRW)

  4. Enhanced Text Retrieval Using Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddy, Elizabeth D.

    1998-01-01

    Defines natural language processing (NLP); describes the use of NLP in information retrieval (IR); provides seven levels of linguistic analysis: phonological, morphological, lexical, syntactic, semantic, discourse, and pragmatic. Discusses the commercial use of NLP in IR with the example of DR-LINK (Document Retrieval using LINguistic Knowledge)…

  5. Making Space: Automated Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanis, Norman; Ventuleth, Cindy

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot project in automated storage and retrieval of library materials which uses miniload cranes to retrieve bins of materials, and an interface with an online catalog that patrons use to request materials. Savings in space and money and potential problems with the system are discussed. (CLB)

  6. Statistical Inference in Retrieval Effectiveness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of evaluation methodology in information retrieval focuses on the average precision over a set of fixed recall values in an effort to evaluate the retrieval effectiveness of a search algorithm. Highlights include a review of traditional evaluation methodology with examples; and a statistical inference methodology called bootstrap.…

  7. Advanced Feedback Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In this study, automatic feedback techniques are applied to Boolean query statements in online information retrieval to generate improved query statements based on information contained in previously retrieved documents. Feedback operations are carried out using conventional Boolean logic and extended logic. Experimental output is included to…

  8. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  9. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Retrieval Over Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, Lorraine A.; Tanre, Didier; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Ichoku, Charles; Mattoo, Shana; Levy, Robert; Chu, D. Allen; Holben, Brent N.; Dubovik, Oleg; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) algorithm for determining aerosol characteristics over ocean is performing with remarkable accuracy. A two-month data set of MODIS retrievals co-located with observations from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) ground-based sunphotometer network provides the necessary validation. Spectral radiation measured by MODIS (in the range 550 - 2100 nm) is used to retrieve the aerosol optical thickness, effective particle radius and ratio between the submicron and micron size particles. MODIS-retrieved aerosol optical thickness at 660 nm and 870 nm fall within the expected uncertainty, with the ensemble average at 660 nm differing by only 2% from the AERONET observations and having virtually no offset. MODIS retrievals of aerosol effective radius agree with AERONET retrievals to within +/- 0.10 micrometers, while MODIS-derived ratios between large and small mode aerosol show definite correlation with ratios derived from AERONET data.

  10. Finding Good Elements for Focused Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, Carolyn J.; Crouch, Donald B.; Bapat, Salil; Mehta, Sarika; Paranjape, Darshan

    This paper describes the integration of our methodology for the dynamic retrieval of XML elements [2] with traditional article retrieval to facilitate the Focused and the Relevant-in-Context Tasks of the INEX 2008 Ad Hoc Track. The particular problems that arise for dynamic element retrieval in working with text containing both tagged and untagged elements have been solved [3]. The current challenge involves utilizing its ability to produce a rank-ordered list of elements in the context of focused retrieval. Our system is based on the Vector Space Model [8]; basic functions are performed using the Smart experimental retrieval system [7]. Experimental results are reported for the Focused, Relevant-in-Context, and Best-in-Context Tasks of both the 2007 and 2008 INEX Ad Hoc Tracks. These results indicate that the goal of our 2008 investigations—namely, finding good focused elements in the context of the Wikipedia collection-has been achieved.

  11. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  12. Development of concepts for satellite retrieval devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, E. C.; Robertson, K. B., III; Loughead, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    The teleoperator being developed to augment the Space Transportation System (STS) for satellite placement, retrieval, or servicing at altitudes or orbital planes where it would be impractical to use the shuttle is primarily a general purpose propulsion stage that can be fitted with manipulator arms, automated servicers and satellite retrieval devices for particular missions. Design concepts for a general purpose retrieval device for docking with a satellite to which a grappling fixture has been attached, and for a retrieval device for docking with the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were defined. The mechanical aspects of these two devices are discussed as well as the crew operations involved and problems created by the requirement for remote control. Drawings for the two retrieval device concepts are included.

  13. Below the Surface: Analogical Similarity and Retrieval Competition in Reminding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Charles M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Three experiments involving 222 undergraduates investigated whether and when human memory retrieval is influenced by structural consistency. In all experiments, retrieval competition was manipulated. Results indicate that both retrieval competition and structural consistency influence reminding. Implications for psychological and artificial…

  14. Respiratory-Induced Haemodynamic Changes: A Contributing Factor to IVC Filter Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Kuo, William T.; Ioakeim, Ignatios; De Blas, Ignacio; Malvè, Mauro; Lahuerta, Celia De Gregorio, Miguel A.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of respiratory-induced vena caval hemodynamic changes on filter migration/penetration.Materials and MethodsAfter placement of either a Gunther Tulip or Celect IVC filter, 101 consecutive patients scheduled for filter retrieval were prospectively enrolled in this study. Pre-retrieval CT scans were used to assess filter complications and to calculate cross-sectional area in three locations: at level of filter strut fixation, 3 cm above and 3 cm below. A 3D finite element simulation was constructed on these data and direct IVC pressure was recorded during filter retrieval. Cross-sectional areas and pressures of the vena cava were measured during neutral breathing and in Valsalva maneuver and identified filter complications were recorded. A statistical analysis of these variables was then performed.ResultsDuring Valsalva maneuvers, a 60 % decrease of the IVC cross-sectional area and a fivefold increase in the IVC pressure were identified (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the reduction of the cross-sectional area at the filter strut level (p < 0.001) in patient with filter penetration. Difficulty in filter retrieval was higher in penetrated or tilted filters (p < 0.001; p = 0.005). 3D computational models showed significant IVC deformation around the filter during Valsalva maneuver.ConclusionCaval morphology and hemodynamics are clearly affected by Valsalva maneuvers. A physiological reduction of IVC cross-sectional area is associated with higher risk of filter penetration, despite short dwell times. Physiologic data should be used to improve future filter designs to remain safely implanted over longer dwell times.

  15. Paraparesis in a Golden Retriever.

    PubMed

    Aschenbroich, S; Woolcock, A; Rissi, D R

    2014-09-01

    A 7-year-old female spayed Golden Retriever dog presented with fever and a 10-day history of neurological signs, including ambulatory paraparesis and pelvic limb ataxia. Neurological examination initially revealed a T3-L3 myelopathy. Thoracic radiographs revealed a diffuse miliary pulmonary pattern. Endotracheal washes and fine-needle aspirates from several organs aimed at identifying a potential infectious agent or neoplastic process were all unsuccessful. Due to worsening of the clinical signs, euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included multifocal, pale to dark red, firm nodules infiltrating the lungs, heart, mesentery, pancreas, small intestine, brain, and spinal cord. Cytological examination of impression smears obtained from the pulmonary nodules during necropsy revealed clusters of epithelioid cells admixed with fewer spindle cells, erythrocytes, and scattered leukocytes. Clinical signs and cytological findings initially suggested the possibility of a widespread granulomatous disease or a metastatic epithelial neoplasm as possible clinical differentials in this case. The final diagnosis was based on the gross and histological findings, with confirmation following histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. PMID:24193142

  16. Multilingual retrieval of radiology images.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    The multilingual search engine ARRS GoldMiner Global was created to facilitate broad international access to a richly indexed collection of more than 200,000 radiologic images. Images are indexed according to key-words and medical concepts that appear in the unstructured text of their English-language image captions. GoldMiner Global exploits the Unicode standard, which allows the accurate representation of characters and ideographs from virtually any language and which supports both left-to-right and right-to-left text directions. The user interface supports queries in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, or Spanish. GoldMiner Global incorporates an interface to the United States National Library of Medicine that translates queries into English-language Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. The translated MeSH terms are then used to search the image index and retrieve relevant images. Explanatory text, pull-down menu choices, and navigational guides are displayed in the selected language; search results are displayed in English. GoldMiner Global is freely available on the World Wide Web. PMID:19019997

  17. Tag Completion for Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Jin, Rong; Jain, Anil K

    2013-03-01

    Many social image search engines are based on keyword/tag matching. This is because tag-based image retrieval (TBIR) is not only efficient but also effective. The performance of TBIR is highly dependent on the availability and quality of manual tags. Recent studies have shown that manual tags are often unreliable and inconsistent. In addition, since many users tend to choose general and ambiguous tags in order to minimize their efforts in choosing appropriate words, tags that are specific to the visual content of images tend to be missing or noisy, leading to a limited performance of TBIR. To address this challenge, we study the problem of tag completion, where the goal is to automatically fill in the missing tags as well as correct noisy tags for given images. We represent the image-tag relation by a tag matrix, and search for the optimal tag matrix consistent with both the observed tags and the visual similarity. We propose a new algorithm for solving this optimization problem. Extensive empirical studies show that the proposed algorithm is significantly more effective than the state-of-the-art algorithms. Our studies also verify that the proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and scales well to large databases. PMID:22641703

  18. Hypermnesia and total retrieval time.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W

    2006-05-01

    Recall performance sometimes improves over repeated recall attempts, a phenomenon dubbed hypermnesia. A critical theoretical issue is whether hypermnesia is due to repeated testing per se or increased retrieval time. The present experiments investigated by contrasting five testing conditions. All participants were presented with the same study list followed by either two shorter recall tests or a single longer test. In the multiple test conditions, the tests were either separated by a (filled) 7-minute interval (the multiple-split condition), or presented consecutively, with no break (the multiple-immediate condition). In the single test conditions, the test either began at the start of the recall session, after a (filled) 7-minute delay, or with a 7-minute interruption inserted in the middle. The multiple-split condition produced more reminiscence and hypermnesia than the multiple-immediate condition. More importantly, the multiple-split condition produced greater cumulative recall than any of the other conditions (which did not differ among themselves). That is, single and repeated recall tests of equal total duration are not functionally equivalent. PMID:16766451

  19. Data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Glen

    1992-01-01

    The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9-track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to 'shrink' the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

  20. Data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamoto, Glen

    1991-01-01

    The Data Storage and Retrieval System (DSRS) consists of off-the-shelf system components integrated as a file server supporting very large files. These files are on the order of one gigabyte of data per file, although smaller files on the order of one megabyte can be accommodated as well. For instance, one gigabyte of data occupies approximately six 9 track tape reels (recorded at 6250 bpi). Due to this large volume of media, it was desirable to shrink the size of the proposed media to a single portable cassette. In addition to large size, a key requirement was that the data needs to be transferred to a (VME based) workstation at very high data rates. One gigabyte (GB) of data needed to be transferred from an archiveable media on a file server to a workstation in less than 5 minutes. Equivalent size, on-line data needed to be transferred in less than 3 minutes. These requirements imply effective transfer rates on the order of four to eight megabytes per second (4-8 MB/s). The DSRS also needed to be able to send and receive data from a variety of other sources accessible from an Ethernet local area network.

  1. Retrieved Latent Heating from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Smith, Eric A.; Houze Jr, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of precipitation formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the tropics with the associated latent heating (LH) accounting for three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. In the last decade, it has been established that standard products of LH from satellite measurements, particularly TRMM measurements, would be a valuable resource for scientific research and applications. Such products would enable new insights and investigations concerning the complexities of convection system life cycles, the diabatic heating controls and feedbacks related to meso-synoptic circulations and their forecasting, the relationship of tropical patterns of LH to the global circulation and climate, and strategies for improving cloud parameterizations in environmental prediction models. The status of retrieved TRMM LH products, TRMM LH inter-comparison and validation project, current TRMM LH applications and critic issues/action items (based on previous five TRMM LH workshops) is presented in this article.

  2. Spaced retrieval treatment of anomia

    PubMed Central

    Fridriksson, Julius; Holland, Audrey L.; Beeson, Pélagie; Morrow, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Background Spaced Retrieval (SR) is a treatment approach developed to facilitate recall of information by individuals with dementia. Essentially an errorless learning procedure that can be used to facilitate recall of a variety of information, SR gradually increases the interval between correct recall of target items. Aims Given the success of using SR in dementia, the purpose of this study was to explore its usefulness in improving naming by individuals with aphasia. The rate of acquisition and retention of items was compared between SR and a more traditional treatment technique—cueing hierarchy (CH). Also, each oral naming treatment was run concurrently with a single word writing treatment. Methods & Procedures Three participants who had moderate or severe naming impairments and agraphia were studied. Single-subject design was applied across oral and written naming and treated and untreated items. Outcomes & Results The results indicate that for these participants, SR resulted in improved naming of specific items. The data further suggest that SR compared favourably to CH with regard to both acquisition and retention of items. The participants also benefited nicely from the writing treatment. Conclusions These findings suggest SR may be an alternative for managing naming impairment resulting from aphasia. Furthermore, the study supports providing treatments aimed at two different modalities concurrently. PMID:16823467

  3. Glyoxal retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. C.; Abad, G. G.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Kurosu, T.; Jacob, D. J.; Chance, K.

    2014-06-01

    We present an algorithm for the retrieval of glyoxal from backscattered solar radiation, and apply it to spectra measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The algorithm is based on direct spectrum fitting, and adopts a two-step fitting routine to account for liquid water absorption. Previous studies have shown that glyoxal retrieval algorithms are highly sensitive to the position of the spectral fit window. This dependence was systematically tested on real and simulated OMI spectra. We find that a combination of errors resulting from uncertainties in reference cross sections and spectral features associated with the Ring effect are consistent with the fit-window dependence observed in real spectra. This implies an optimal fitting window of 435-461 nm, consistent with previous satellite glyoxal retrievals. The results from the retrieval of simulated spectra also support previous findings that have suggested that glyoxal is sensitive to NO2 cross section temperature. The retrieval window limits of the liquid water retrieval are also tested. A retrieval window 385-470 nm reduces interference with strong spectral features associated with sand. We show that cross track dependent offsets (stripes) present in OMI can be corrected using offsets derived from retrieved slant columns over the Sahara, and apply the correction to OMI data. Average glyoxal columns are on average lower than those of previous studies likely owing to the choice of reference sector for offset correction. OMI VCDs are lower compared to other satellites over the tropics and Asia during the monsoon season, suggesting that the new retrieval is less sensitive to water vapor abundance. Consequently we do not see significant glyoxal enhancements over tropical oceans. OMI derived glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios over biogenic and anthropogenic source regions are consistent with surface observations.

  4. Query Specific Rank Fusion for Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoting; Yang, Ming; Cour, Timothee; Yu, Kai; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2015-04-01

    Recently two lines of image retrieval algorithms demonstrate excellent scalability: 1) local features indexed by a vocabulary tree, and 2) holistic features indexed by compact hashing codes. Although both of them are able to search visually similar images effectively, their retrieval precision may vary dramatically among queries. Therefore, combining these two types of methods is expected to further enhance the retrieval precision. However, the feature characteristics and the algorithmic procedures of these methods are dramatically different, which is very challenging for the feature-level fusion. This motivates us to investigate how to fuse the ordered retrieval sets, i.e., the ranks of images, given by multiple retrieval methods, to boost the retrieval precision without sacrificing their scalability. In this paper, we model retrieval ranks as graphs of candidate images and propose a graph-based query specific fusion approach, where multiple graphs are merged and reranked by conducting a link analysis on a fused graph. The retrieval quality of an individual method is measured on-the-fly by assessing the consistency of the top candidates' nearest neighborhoods. Hence, it is capable of adaptively integrating the strengths of the retrieval methods using local or holistic features for different query images. This proposed method does not need any supervision, has few parameters, and is easy to implement. Extensive and thorough experiments have been conducted on four public datasets, i.e., the UKbench, Corel-5K, Holidays and the large-scale San Francisco Landmarks datasets. Our proposed method has achieved very competitive performance, including state-of-the-art results on several data sets, e.g., the N-S score 3.83 for UKbench. PMID:26353295

  5. Glyoxal retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. Chan; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Kurosu, T.; Jacob, D. J.; Chance, K.

    2014-11-01

    We present an algorithm for the retrieval of glyoxal from backscattered solar radiation, and apply it to spectra measured by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The algorithm is based on direct spectrum fitting, and adopts a two-step fitting routine to account for liquid water absorption. Previous studies have shown that glyoxal retrieval algorithms are highly sensitive to the position of the spectral fit window. This dependence was systematically tested on real and simulated OMI spectra. We find that a combination of errors resulting from uncertainties in reference cross sections and spectral features associated with the Ring effect are consistent with the fit-window dependence observed in real spectra. This implies an optimal fitting window of 435-461 nm, consistent with previous satellite glyoxal retrievals. The results from the retrieval of simulated spectra also support previous findings that have suggested that glyoxal is sensitive to NO2 cross-section temperature. The retrieval window limits of the liquid water retrieval are also tested. A retrieval window 385-470 nm reduces interference with strong spectral features associated with sand. We show that cross-track dependent offsets (stripes) present in OMI can be corrected using offsets derived from retrieved slant columns over the Sahara, and apply the correction to OMI data. Average glyoxal columns are on average lower than those of previous studies likely owing to the choice of reference sector for offset correction. OMI VCDs (vertical column densities)are lower compared to other satellites over the tropics and Asia during the monsoon season, suggesting that the new retrieval is less sensitive to water vapour abundance. Consequently we do not see significant glyoxal enhancements over tropical oceans. OMI-derived glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios over biogenic and anthropogenic source regions are consistent with surface observations.

  6. Practice of information retrieval technique and limitation of database usage (2) - Limitation of retrieval and retrieval by information broker -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shigekazu

    Nowadays everyone can enjoy an information retrieval, thanks for the advancement of computer usage in searching the literatures of science and technology. Regarding limitation for database usage in these days, the author divided searchers into four generations according to their skillful degree for the retrieval technics. In this paper, the author considered a blind spot from the view point of retrieval by searcher after the third generation, who started to have a suspicion to the content of database and emphasised the following three blind spots that we cannot aford to overlook, 1) limitation on input to database, 2) limitation of keyword and code search computer searching, 3) limitation on fitness evaluation of retrieved results.

  7. Solid waste retrieval. Phase 1, Operational basis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-30

    This Document describes the operational requirements, procedures, and options for execution of the retrieval of the waste containers placed in buried storage in Burial Ground 218W-4C, Trench 04 as TRU waste or suspect TRU waste under the activity levels defining this waste in effect at the time of placement. Trench 04 in Burial Ground 218W-4C is totally dedicated to storage of retrievable TRU waste containers or retrievable suspect TRU waste containers and has not been used for any other purpose.

  8. Integrating retrieved cloud information with model simulation to extend usability of tracer gas retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Q.; Prinn, R.

    2007-12-01

    We have explored the possibility of using retrieved cloud information to extend the usability of trace gas concentration retrievals from satellites, since choosing only cloud-free retrievals might lead to a bias in their source-sink estimates using inverse modeling, i.e. the geographic locations of cloud-free or cloudy regions and trace gas source or sink regions might be correlated. We used methane retrievals (IMAP) and cloud retrievals (FRESCO) from SCIAMACHY as an example for this study, and assumed agreement between 3D model simulations (MATCH) and cloud-free satellite retrievals as a proxy for defining usability of satellite data. We found that when the pixel is very cloudy (f>0.7), the model simulation, which is integrated with retrieved cloud top height and cloud fraction data, yields similar agreement with observations as obtained with cloud-free pixels (f=0). The addition of cloudy pixel data significantly extends the spatial and temporal coverage of methane retrievals that can be used in source and sink studies. We also tried to overlay the MODIS aerosol retrievals with SCIAMACHY methane data to test the impact of aerosols on trace gas retrievals. Since these two retrievals are somewhat orthogonal, i.e. stronger MODIS aerosol signals over the ocean, and stronger SCIAMACHY methane signals over the land, we have not found a significant correlation between these two retrievals. Other possible reasons for this result could be the different passing times of the two satellites and the wave length differences of the two retrievals.

  9. Accelerated Adaptive MGS Phase Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Raymond K.; Ohara, Catherine M.; Green, Joseph J.; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa A.; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.; Shi, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Modified Gerchberg-Saxton (MGS) algorithm is an image-based wavefront-sensing method that can turn any science instrument focal plane into a wavefront sensor. MGS characterizes optical systems by estimating the wavefront errors in the exit pupil using only intensity images of a star or other point source of light. This innovative implementation of MGS significantly accelerates the MGS phase retrieval algorithm by using stream-processing hardware on conventional graphics cards. Stream processing is a relatively new, yet powerful, paradigm to allow parallel processing of certain applications that apply single instructions to multiple data (SIMD). These stream processors are designed specifically to support large-scale parallel computing on a single graphics chip. Computationally intensive algorithms, such as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), are particularly well suited for this computing environment. This high-speed version of MGS exploits commercially available hardware to accomplish the same objective in a fraction of the original time. The exploit involves performing matrix calculations in nVidia graphic cards. The graphical processor unit (GPU) is hardware that is specialized for computationally intensive, highly parallel computation. From the software perspective, a parallel programming model is used, called CUDA, to transparently scale multicore parallelism in hardware. This technology gives computationally intensive applications access to the processing power of the nVidia GPUs through a C/C++ programming interface. The AAMGS (Accelerated Adaptive MGS) software takes advantage of these advanced technologies, to accelerate the optical phase error characterization. With a single PC that contains four nVidia GTX-280 graphic cards, the new implementation can process four images simultaneously to produce a JWST (James Webb Space Telescope) wavefront measurement 60 times faster than the previous code.

  10. Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Design Verification

    SciTech Connect

    YANOCHKO, R.M.

    2000-01-27

    This document was prepared as part of an independent review to explain design verification activities already completed, and to define the remaining design verification actions for the Fuel Retrieval System. The Fuel Retrieval Subproject was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) to retrieve and repackage the SNF located in the K Basins. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) construction work is complete in the KW Basin, and start-up testing is underway Design modifications and construction planning are also underway for the KE Basin. An independent review of the design verification process as applied to the K Basin projects was initiated in support of preparation for the SNF Project operational readiness review (ORR).

  11. Retrieval-induced forgetting and executive control.

    PubMed

    Román, Patricia; Soriano, M Felipa; Gómez-Ariza, Carlos J; Bajo, M Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Retrieving information from long-term memory can lead people to forget previously irrelevant related information. Some researchers have proposed that this retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) effect is mediated by inhibitory executive-control mechanisms recruited to overcome interference. We assessed whether inhibition in RIF depends on executive processes. The RIF effect observed in a standard retrieval-practice condition was compared to that observed in two different conditions in which participants had to perform two concurrent updating tasks that demanded executive attention. Whereas the usual RIF effect was observed when retrieval practice was performed singly, no evidence of forgetting was found in the dual-task conditions. Results strongly suggest that inhibition involved in RIF is the result of executive-control processes. PMID:19656337

  12. Generalized tetanus in a Labrador retriever

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, Kerri-Rae

    2008-01-01

    A 10-week-old, intact female, Labrador retriever was presented for progressive extensor rigidity, facial swelling, and difficulty in walking. Generalized tetanus was diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:19252716

  13. The JPL Library Information Retrieval System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Josephine

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. (Author)

  14. Passive microwave precipitation mapping and retrieval simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick, G. M.; Gasiewski, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the satellite-based multispectral passive microwave mapping and precipitation retrieval process is described. The simulation contains three major components: (1) the forward radiative transfer calculation; (2) the sensor observation simulation; and (3) the precipitation retrieval algorithm. Secondary components include a Karhunen-Loeve transformation module and antenna pattern deconvolution module. The simulation facilitates the investigation of candidate precipitation retrieval algorithms using sub-Nyquist brightness temperature imagery, and the comparison of the relative merits of proposed radiometric systems such as the EOS multispectral imaging microwave radiometer (MIMR), the tropical rainfall measurement mission (TRMM) microwave imager (TRMM TMI), and the geosynchronous satellite sensors. A procedure for retrieving rain rates using a statistical iterative approach is outlined.

  15. Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1996-09-26

    This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

  16. Environmental impacts of proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Scharber, Wayne K.; Macintire, H. A.; Davis, Paul E.; Cothron, Terry K.; Stephens, Barry K.; Travis, Norman; Walter, George; Mobley, Mike

    1985-12-17

    This report describes environmental impacts from a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility for spent fuels to be located in Tennessee. Areas investigated include: water supply, ground water, air quality, solid waste management, and health hazards. (CBS)

  17. Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Deserno, Thomas M.

    This chapter details the necessity for alternative access concepts to the currently mainly text-based methods in medical information retrieval. This need is partly due to the large amount of visual data produced, the increasing variety of medical imaging data and changing user patterns. The stored visual data contain large amounts of unused information that, if well exploited, can help diagnosis, teaching and research. The chapter briefly reviews the history of image retrieval and its general methods before technologies that have been developed in the medical domain are focussed. We also discuss evaluation of medical content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems and conclude with pointing out their strengths, gaps, and further developments. As examples, the MedGIFT project and the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) framework are presented.

  18. Using ontology for domain specific information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashirekha, H. L.; Murali, S.; Nagabhushan, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a system for retrieving information from a domain specific document collection made up of data rich unnatural language text documents. Instead of conventional keyword based retrieval, our system makes use of domain ontology to retrieve the information from a collection of documents. The system addresses the problem of representing unnatural language text documents and constructing a classifier model that helps in the efficient retrieval of relevant information. Query to this system may be either the key phrases in terms of concepts or a domain specific unnatural language text document. The classifier used in this system can also be used to assign multiple labels to the previously unseen text document belonging to the same domain. An empirical evaluation of the system is conducted on the domain of text documents describing the classified matrimonial advertisements to determine its performance.

  19. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  20. Improving case retrieval by remembering questions

    SciTech Connect

    Alterman, R.; Griffin, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses techniques that improve the performance of a case retrieval system, after it is deployed, as a result of the continued usage of the system, by remembering previous episodes of question answering. The user generates a request for information and the system responds with the retrieval of relevant case(s). A history of such transactional behavior over a given set of data is maintained by the system and used as a foundation for adapting its future retrieval behavior. With each transaction, the system acquires information about the usage of the system that is subsequently used to adjust the behavior of the system. This notion of a case retrieval system draws on a distinction between the system in isolation and the system as it is used for a particular set of cases. It also draws on distinctions between the designed system, the deployed system, and the system that emerges as it is used.

  1. The present status and problems in document retrieval system : document input type retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Hirohito

    The office-automation (OA) made many changes. Many documents were begun to maintained in an electronic filing system. Therefore, it is needed to establish efficient document retrieval system to extract useful information. Current document retrieval systems are using simple word-matching, syntactic-matching, semantic-matching to obtain high retrieval efficiency. On the other hand, the document retrieval systems using special hardware devices, such as ISSP, were developed for aiming high speed retrieval. Since these systems can accept a single sentence or keywords as input, it is difficult to explain searcher's request. We demonstrated document input type retrieval system, which can directly accept document as an input, and can search similar documents from document data-base.

  2. Evaluation of multi-layer cloud property retrievals from optimal estimation and Bayesian retrieval algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Y.; Yang, P.

    2015-12-01

    Three physical and radiative cloud properties, namely, optical thickness (tau), effective diameter (De), and cloud top height(h) can be simultaneously inferred from IR radiances for multi-layer cloud cases. The retrieval algorithm implementation is based on a computationally efficient radiative transfer model and spaceborne measurements of narrowband infrared (IR) radiances at the top of the atmosphere. This study focuses on the evaluation of the retrieval results derived from two different algorithms, optimal estimation (OE) algorithm and Bayesian retrieval algorithm. Both of the two methods are able to offer comprehensive error analysis and quality flags. The evaluation results can potentially useful for retrieving the multi-layer clouds properties, a research subject that receives little attention. This presentation will discuss the pros and cons of retrieving cloud properties from the aforesaid retrieval algorithms.

  3. RETRIEVAL & TREATMENT OF HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    EACKER, J.A.; SPEARS, J.A.; STURGES, M.H.; MAUSS, B.M.

    2006-01-20

    The Hanford Tank Farms contain 53 million gal of radioactive waste accumulated during over 50 years of operations. The waste is stored in 177 single-shell and double-shell tanks in the Hanford 200 Areas. The single-shell tanks were put into operation from the early 1940s through the 1960s with wastes received from several generations of processing facilities for the recovery of plutonium and uranium, and from laboratories and other ancillary facilities. The overall hanford Tank Farm system represents one of the largest nuclear legacies in the world driving towards completion of retrieval and treatment in 2028 and the associated closure activity completion by 2035. Remote operations, significant radiation/contamination levels, limited access, and old facilities are just some of the challenges faced by retrieval and treatment systems. These systems also need to be able to successfully remove 99% or more of the waste, and support waste treatment, and tank closure. The Tank Farm retrieval program has ramped up dramatically in the past three years with design, fabrication, installation, testing, and operations ongoing on over 20 of the 149 single-shell tanks. A variety of technologies are currently being pursued to retrieve different waste types, applications, and to help establish a baseline for recovery/operational efficiencies. The paper/presentation describes the current status of retrieval system design, fabrication, installation, testing, readiness, and operations, including: (1) Saltcake removal progress in Tanks S-102, S-109, and S-112 using saltcake dissolution, modified sluicing, and high pressure water lancing techniques; (2) Sludge vacuum retrieval experience from Tanks C-201, C-202, C-203, and C-204; (3) Modified sluicing experience in Tank C-103; (4) Progress on design and installation of the mobile retrieval system for sludge in potentially leaking single-shell tanks, particularly Tank C-101; and (5) Ongoing installation of various systems in the next

  4. Working memory retrieval as a decision process

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Benjamin; Raškevičius, Julius; Bays, Paul M.; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is a core cognitive process fundamental to human behavior, yet the mechanisms underlying it remain highly controversial. Here we provide a new framework for understanding retrieval of information from WM, conceptualizing it as a decision based on the quality of internal evidence. Recent findings have demonstrated that precision of WM decreases with memory load. If WM retrieval uses a decision process that depends on memory quality, systematic changes in response time distribution should occur as a function of WM precision. We asked participants to view sample arrays and, after a delay, report the direction of change in location or orientation of a probe. As WM precision deteriorated with increasing memory load, retrieval time increased systematically. Crucially, the shape of reaction time distributions was consistent with a linear accumulator decision process. Varying either task relevance of items or maintenance duration influenced memory precision, with corresponding shifts in retrieval time. These results provide strong support for a decision-making account of WM retrieval based on noisy storage of items. Furthermore, they show that encoding, maintenance, and retrieval in WM need not be considered as separate processes, but may instead be conceptually unified as operations on the same noise-limited, neural representation. PMID:24492597

  5. Video indexing and retrieval using MPEG-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, John R.

    2002-12-01

    The ongoing growth in digital video content is increasing the need for efficient and effective systems for video indexing and retrieval. Progress is gated by developments along a number of fronts including development of tools for content annotation, invention of methods for automatic labeling and computer-assisted annotation, investigation of new techniques for indexing and retrieval, and development of standards for interoperation of video indexing and retrieval systems. MPEG-7 addresses the interoperability requirements by providing a metadata system for describing multimedia content using XML. In general, MPEG-7 allows interoperable indexing, searching, and retrieval of video, images, audio, and other forms of multimedia data. More specifically for video, MPEG-7 standardizes a number of content description tools that allow effective indexing and retrieval of video content. These tools include video segment description tools, textual annotation and transcription description tools, feature description tools, and semantics and model description tools. In this paper, we investigate the application of MPEG-7 for indexing and retrieval of video content and give examples of MPEG-7 video descriptions.

  6. Operant conditioning of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Craeynest, Miet; Hermans, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Functional avoidance is considered as one of the key mechanisms underlying overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). According to this view OGM is regarded as a learned cognitive avoidance strategy, based on principles of operant conditioning; i.e., individuals learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. The aim of the present study was to test one of the basic assumptions of the functional avoidance account, namely that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control. Here 41 students were instructed to retrieve personal memories in response to 60 emotional cue words. Depending on the condition, they were punished with an aversive sound for the retrieval of specific or nonspecific memories in an operant conditioning procedure. Analyzes showed that the course of memory specificity significantly differed between conditions. After the procedure participants punished for nonspecific memories retrieved significantly more specific memories compared to participants punished for specific memories. However, whereas memory specificity significantly increased in participants punished for specific memories, it did not significantly decrease in participants punished for nonspecific memories. Thus, while our findings indicate that autobiographical memory retrieval can be brought under operant control, they do not support a functional avoidance view on OGM. PMID:23445114

  7. Easily retrievable objects among the NEO population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Yárnoz, D.; Sanchez, J. P.; McInnes, C. R.

    2013-08-01

    Asteroids and comets are of strategic importance for science in an effort to understand the formation, evolution and composition of the Solar System. Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are of particular interest because of their accessibility from Earth, but also because of their speculated wealth of material resources. The exploitation of these resources has long been discussed as a means to lower the cost of future space endeavours. In this paper, we consider the currently known NEO population and define a family of so-called Easily Retrievable Objects (EROs), objects that can be transported from accessible heliocentric orbits into the Earth's neighbourhood at affordable costs. The asteroid retrieval transfers are sought from the continuum of low energy transfers enabled by the dynamics of invariant manifolds; specifically, the retrieval transfers target planar, vertical Lyapunov and halo orbit families associated with the collinear equilibrium points of the Sun-Earth Circular Restricted Three Body problem. The judicious use of these dynamical features provides the best opportunity to find extremely low energy Earth transfers for asteroid material. A catalogue of asteroid retrieval candidates is then presented. Despite the highly incomplete census of very small asteroids, the ERO catalogue can already be populated with 12 different objects retrievable with less than 500 m/s of Δ v. Moreover, the approach proposed represents a robust search and ranking methodology for future retrieval candidates that can be automatically applied to the growing survey of NEOs.

  8. Retrieval techniques: LVLH and inertially stabilized payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yglesias, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures and techniques are discussed for retrieving payloads that are inertially or local vertical/local horizontal (LVLH) stabilized. Selection of the retrieval profile to be used depends on several factors: (1) control authority of the payload, (2) payload sensitivity to primary reaction control system (PRCS) plumes, (3) whether the payload is inertially or LVLH stabilized, (4) location of the grapple fixture, and (5) orbiter propellant consumption. The general retrieval profiles recommended are a V-bar approach for payloads that are LVLH or gravity-gradient stabilized, and the V-bar approach with one or two phase flyaround for inertially stabilized payloads. Once the general type of profile has been selected, the detailed retrieval profile and timeline should consider the various guidelines, groundrules, and constraints associated with a particular payload or flight. Reaction control system (RCS) propellant requirements for the recommended profiles range from 200 to 1500 pounds, depending on such factors as braking techniques, flyaround maneuvers (if necessary), and stationkeeping operations. The time required to perform a retrieval (starting from 1000 feet) varies from 20 to 130 minutes, depending on the complexity of the profile. The goals of this project are to develop a profile which ensures mission success; to make the retrieval profiles simple; and to keep the pilot workload to a minimum by making use of the automatic features of the orbiter flight software whenever possible.

  9. Neural systems behind word and concept retrieval.

    PubMed

    Damasio, H; Tranel, D; Grabowski, T; Adolphs, R; Damasio, A

    2004-01-01

    Using both the lesion method and functional imaging (positron emission tomography) in large cohorts of subjects investigated with the same experimental tasks, we tested the following hypotheses: (A) that the retrieval of words which denote concrete entities belonging to distinct conceptual categories depends upon partially segregated regions in higher-order cortices of the left temporal lobe; and (B) that the retrieval of conceptual knowledge pertaining to the same concrete entities also depends on partially segregated regions; however, those regions will be different from those postulated in hypothesis A, and located predominantly in the right hemisphere (the second hypothesis tested only with the lesion method). The analyses provide support for hypothesis A in that several regions outside the classical Broca and Wernicke language areas are involved in name retrieval of concrete entities, and that there is a partial segregation in the temporal lobe with respect to the conceptual category to which the entities belong, and partial support for hypothesis B in that retrieval of conceptual knowledge is partially segregated from name retrieval in the lesion study. Those regions identified here are seen as parts of flexible, multi-component systems serving concept and word retrieval for concrete entities belonging to different conceptual categories. By comparing different approaches the article also addresses a number of method issues that have surfaced in recent studies in this field. PMID:15037130

  10. Retrieval-Based Learning: Positive Effects of Retrieval Practice in Elementary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Blunt, Janell R.; Smith, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years) studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2) or recognition test (Experiment 3). In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed. PMID:27014156

  11. Activities of information retrieval in Daicel Corporation : The roles and efforts of information retrieval team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Towako

    In order to stabilize and improve quality of information retrieval service, the information retrieval team of Daicel Corporation has given some efforts on standard operating procedures, interview sheet for information retrieval, structured format for search report, and search expressions for some technological fields of Daicel. These activities and efforts will also lead to skill sharing and skill tradition between searchers. In addition, skill improvements are needed not only for a searcher individually, but also for the information retrieval team totally when playing searcher's new roles.

  12. Retrieval-Based Learning: Positive Effects of Retrieval Practice in Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D; Blunt, Janell R; Smith, Megan A

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of research has demonstrated that practicing retrieval is a powerful way to enhance learning. However, nearly all prior research has examined retrieval practice with college students. Little is known about retrieval practice in children, and even less is known about possible individual differences in retrieval practice. In three experiments, 88 children (mean age 10 years) studied a list of words and either restudied the items or practiced retrieving them. They then took a final free recall test (Experiments 1 and 2) or recognition test (Experiment 3). In all experiments, children showed robust retrieval practice effects. Although a range of individual differences in reading comprehension and processing speed were observed among these children, the benefits of retrieval practice were independent of these factors. The results contribute to the growing body of research supporting the mnemonic benefits of retrieval practice and provide preliminary evidence that practicing retrieval may be an effective learning strategy for children with varying levels of reading comprehension and processing speed. PMID:27014156

  13. Aerosol and cloud retrieval using AATSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; Kolmonen, Pekka; Virtanen, Timo; Saponaro, Giulia; Kokhanovsky, Alexander; de Leeuw, Gerrit

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols and clouds play an important role in terrestrial atmospheric dynamics, thermodynamics, chemistry, and radiative transfer and are key elements of the water and energy cycles. Accurate evaluation of the effects of aerosols and clouds on climate requires global information on aerosol properties. Such global information can only be provided using satellite remote sensing. Among the satellite instruments used for aerosol and cloud retrieval is the Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the European Space Agency (ESA) satellite ENVISAT. Many instruments and retrieval techniques have been developed and applied to satellite data to derive cloud data products (Kokhanonsky et al., 2009). However, many problems still remain to be solved. They are mostly related to the usage of homogeneous, single-layered cloud model. Further issues exist for studies of thin clouds, where both cloud inhomogeniety, cloud fraction and the underlying surface bi-directional reflectance must be accounted for in the retrieval process. The aerosol retrieval algorithm (dual-view over land and single-view over ocean) was constructed for ATSR-2 data (e.g. Veefkind et al. 1998). The most recent version of ADV (AATSR Dual View) is described in Kolmenen et al. (2012). The ATSR dual-view allows retrieval without prior information about land surface reflectance. A semi-analytical cloud retrieval algorithm using backscattered radiation in 0.4-2.4 μm spectral region has recently been implemented to ADV for the determination of the optical thickness, the liquid water path, and the effective size of droplets from spectral measurements of the intensity of light reflected from water clouds with large optical thickness. In AacDV (AATSR aerosol and cloud Dual View) aerosol and cloud retrievals are combined. Cloud retrieval starts when cloud tests for aerosol retrieval show the presence of clouds. The algorithm was early introduced in Kokhanovsky et al. (2003). It works well for thick

  14. Overview of the Sixth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Ellen M.; Harman, Donna

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Text Retrieval Conference (TREC), a workshop series designed to encourage research on text retrieval for realistic applications by providing large test collections and uniform scoring procedures. Highlights include routing tasks; Chinese language retrieval; cross-language information retrieval; filtering; high…

  15. Transuranic (TRU) Waste Phase I Retrieval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD, K.M.

    2000-09-28

    From 1970 to 1987, TRU and suspect TRU wastes at Hanford were placed in the SWBG. At the time of placement in the SWBG these wastes were not regulated under existing Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations, since they were generated and disposed of prior to the effective date of RCRA at the Hanford Site (1987). From the standpoint of DOE Order 5820.2A1, the TRU wastes are considered retrievably stored, and current plans are to retrieve these wastes for shipment to WIPP for disposal. This plan provides a strategy for the Phase I retrieval that meets the intent of TPA milestone M-91 and Project W-113, and incorporates the lessons learned during TRU retrieval campaigns at Hanford, LANL, and SRS. As in the original Project W-113 plans, the current plan calls for examination of approximately 10,000 suspect-TRU drums located in the 218-W-4C burial ground followed by the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Unlike the older plan, however, this plan proposes an open-air retrieval scenario similar to those used for TRU drum retrieval at LANL and SRS. Phase I retrieval consists of the activities associated with the assessment of approximately 10,000 55-gallon drums of suspect TRU-waste in burial ground 218-W-4C and the retrieval of those drums verified to contain TRU waste. Four of the trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 1, 4, 20, and 29) are prime candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain large numbers of suspect TRU drums, stacked from 2 to 5 drums high, on an asphalt pad. In fact, three of the trenches (Trenches 1 , 20, and 29) contain waste that has not been covered with soil, and about 1500 drums can be retrieved without excavation. The other three trenches in 218-W-4C (Trenches 7, 19, and 24) are not candidates for Phase I retrieval because they contain significant numbers of boxes. Drums will be retrieved from the four candidate trenches, checked for structural integrity, overpacked, if necessary, and assayed at the burial

  16. On-Line Retrieval System Design; Part V of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    On-line retrieval system design is discussed in the two papers which make up Part Five of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Prototype On-Line Document Retrieval System" by D. Williamson and R. Williamson outlines a design for a SMART on-line document retrieval system using…

  17. Challenging Conventional Assumptions of Automated Information Retrieval with Real Users: Boolean Searching and Batch Retrieval Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, William; Turpin, Andrew; Price, Susan; Kraemer, Dale; Olson, Daniel; Chan, Benjamin; Sacherek, Lynetta

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted at the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) interactive track that compared Boolean and natural language searching, showing they achieved comparable results; and assessed the validity of batch-oriented retrieval evaluations, showing that the results from batch evaluations were not comparable to those obtained in…

  18. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  19. System engineering approach to GPM retrieval algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C. R.; Chandrasekar, V.

    2004-01-01

    System engineering principles and methods are very useful in large-scale complex systems for developing the engineering requirements from end-user needs. Integrating research into system engineering is a challenging task. The proposed Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) satellite will use a dual-wavelength precipitation radar to measure and map global precipitation with unprecedented accuracy, resolution and areal coverage. The satellite vehicle, precipitation radars, retrieval algorithms, and ground validation (GV) functions are all critical subsystems of the overall GPM system and each contributes to the success of the mission. Errors in the radar measurements and models can adversely affect the retrieved output values. Ground validation (GV) systems are intended to provide timely feedback to the satellite and retrieval algorithms based on measured data. These GV sites will consist of radars and DSD measurement systems and also have intrinsic constraints. One of the retrieval algorithms being studied for use with GPM is the dual-wavelength DSD algorithm that does not use the surface reference technique (SRT). The underlying microphysics of precipitation structures and drop-size distributions (DSDs) dictate the types of models and retrieval algorithms that can be used to estimate precipitation. Many types of dual-wavelength algorithms have been studied. Meneghini (2002) analyzed the performance of single-pass dual-wavelength surface-reference-technique (SRT) based algorithms. Mardiana (2003) demonstrated that a dual-wavelength retrieval algorithm could be successfully used without the use of the SRT. It uses an iterative approach based on measured reflectivities at both wavelengths and complex microphysical models to estimate both No and Do at each range bin. More recently, Liao (2004) proposed a solution to the Do ambiguity problem in rain within the dual-wavelength algorithm and showed a possible melting layer model based on stratified spheres. With the No and Do

  20. Retrieval plus scanning: does it occur?

    PubMed

    Brannelly, S; Tehan, G; Humphreys, M S

    1989-11-01

    In the two experiments reported here, we tested the retrieval-plus-scan model of delayed probe recognition by adding a second probe 2 sec after subjects had responded to the first probe. According to this model, the list items should still be in consciousness from the first probe at the time of the second probe. Consequently, on tests in which the first probe had been tested immediately, we expected to find the same pattern of performance on both first and second probes. On tests in which the first probe came after a filled delay, we expected the first-probe data to show the effects of retrieval and proactive interference. These effects should not be present on the second probe. The results of the first-probe data in both experiments were consistent with the retrieval-plus-scan model. The second-probe data did not fit the model, however. In the first experiment, the second probe on what had been delayed first-probe trials still produced intercept differences, indicating the presence of retrieval. In the second experiment, the effects of proactive interference were still present on the second probe. It is suggested that these results not only invalidate the retrieval-plus-scan model for delayed probe recognition but that they, along with other results, cast doubt on a scanning operation in immediate probe recognition. PMID:2811668

  1. Ultraspectral Sounding Retrieval Error Budget and Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Strow, L. Larrabee; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)..

  2. AIRS Retrieval Validation During the EAQUATE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Barnet, Christopher D.; DiGirolamo, Paolo; Pappalardo, Gelsomina; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Newman, Stuart M.

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric and surface thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced hyperspectral remote sensors of Earth observing satellites are critical for weather prediction and scientific research. The retrieval algorithms and retrieved parameters from satellite sounders must be validated to demonstrate the capability and accuracy of both observation and data processing systems. The European AQUA Thermodynamic Experiment (EAQUATE) was conducted mainly for validation of the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the AQUA satellite, but also for assessment of validation systems of both ground-based and aircraft-based instruments which will be used for other satellite systems such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the European MetOp satellite, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) from the NPOESS Preparatory Project and the following NPOESS series of satellites. Detailed inter-comparisons were conducted and presented using different retrieval methodologies: measurements from airborne ultraspectral Fourier transform spectrometers, aircraft in-situ instruments, dedicated dropsondes and radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar, as well as from the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) modeled thermal structures. The results of this study not only illustrate the quality of the measurements and retrieval products but also demonstrate the capability of these validation systems which are put in place to validate current and future hyperspectral sounding instruments and their scientific products.

  3. Web information retrieval based on ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Information Retrieval (IR) is to find a set of documents that are relevant for a specific information need of a user. Traditional Information Retrieval model commonly used in commercial search engine is based on keyword indexing system and Boolean logic queries. One big drawback of traditional information retrieval is that they typically retrieve information without an explicitly defined domain of interest to the users so that a lot of no relevance information returns to users, which burden the user to pick up useful answer from these no relevance results. In order to tackle this issue, many semantic web information retrieval models have been proposed recently. The main advantage of Semantic Web is to enhance search mechanisms with the use of Ontology's mechanisms. In this paper, we present our approach to personalize web search engine based on ontology. In addition, key techniques are also discussed in our paper. Compared to previous research, our works concentrate on the semantic similarity and the whole process including query submission and information annotation.

  4. Reward eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hisato; Kim, Dongho; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well known that reward enhances learning and memory, how extensively such enhancement occurs remains unclear. To address this question, we examined how reward influences retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) in which the retrieval of a nonpracticed item under the same category as a practiced item is worse than the retrieval of a nonpracticed item outside the category. Subjects were asked to try to encode category-exemplar pairs (e.g., FISH–salmon). Then, they were presented with a category name and a two-letter word stem (e.g., FISH–sa) and were asked to complete an encoded word (retrieval practice). For a correct response, apple juice was given as a reward in the reward condition and a beeping sound was presented in the no-reward condition. Finally, subjects were asked to report whether each exemplar had been presented in the first phase. RIF was replicated in the no-reward condition. However, in the reward condition, RIF was eliminated. These results suggest that reward enhances processing of retrieval of unpracticed members by mechanisms such as spreading activation within the same category, irrespective of whether items were practiced or not. PMID:25404297

  5. Retrieving autobiographical memories: How different retrieval strategies associated with different cues explain reaction time differences.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Tugba

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that memories cued by concrete concepts, such as objects, are retrieved faster than those cued by more abstract concepts, such as emotions. This effect has been explained by the fact that more memories are directly retrieved from object versus emotion cues. In the present study, we tested whether RT differences between memories cued by emotion versus object terms occur not only because object cues elicit direct retrieval of more memories (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012), but also because of differences in memory generation in response to emotions versus objects. One hundred university students retrieved memories in response to basic-level (e.g. orange), superordinate-level (e.g. plant), and emotion (e.g. surprised) cues. Retrieval speed was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that memories were retrieved faster in response to basic-level versus superordinate-level and emotion cues because a) basic-level cues elicited more directly retrieved memories, and b) generating memories was more difficult when cues were abstract versus concrete. These results suggest that generative retrieval is a cue generation process in which additional cues that provide contextual information including the target event are produced. Memories are retrieved more slowly in response to emotion cues in part because emotion labels are less effective cues of appropriate contextual information. This particular finding is inconsistent with the idea that emotion is a primary organizational unit for autobiographical memories. In contrast, the difficulty of emotional memory generation implies that emotions represent low-level event information in the organization of autobiographical memory. PMID:26802518

  6. Dissociating the "retrieval success" regions of the brain: effects of retrieval delay.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, W; Pennartz, C M A; Daselaar, S M

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the hippocampal formation critically supports episodic memory retrieval, the remembering of episodes including contextual details. Yet, a group of other brain regions has also been consistently implicated in successful episodic retrieval. This retrieval success network (RSN) includes the posterior midline region, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Despite these consistent findings, the functional roles of the RSN regions remain poorly understood. Given that vivid remembering leads to high-confidence retrieval decisions, it is unclear whether activity in these regions reflects episodic long-term memory, or is merely associated with retrieval confidence. In order to distinguish between these alternatives, we manipulated study-test delays within the context of a continuous recognition task during fMRI-scanning. The design was based on previous evidence indicating that retrieval at short delays is easier leading to high-evidence mnemonic decisions, whereas retrieval at longer delays is more difficult but also more hippocampus-dependent. Confirming previous findings, we found that retrieval decisions at short delays were more accurate and faster, and that the hippocampus showed greater activity at longer delays. Within the other RSN regions, we found three distinct activation patterns as a function of delay. Similar to the hippocampus, the retrosplenial cortex showed increased activity as a function of retrieval delay. Dorsal PPC and the precuneus showed decreased activity. Finally, the posterior cingulate, medial PFC and ventral PPC showed a V-shaped pattern. These findings support the idea that dorsal PPC and the precuneus are involved in decision-related retrieval processes rather than successful remembering. PMID:19835893

  7. Dissociating retrieval success from incidental encoding activity during emotional memory retrieval, in the medial temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Andrea T.; Dolcos, Florin

    2014-01-01

    The memory-enhancing effect of emotion has been linked to the engagement of emotion- and memory-related medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions (amygdala-AMY; hippocampus-HC; parahippocampus-PHC), during both encoding and retrieval. However, recognition tasks used to investigate the neural correlates of retrieval make it difficult to distinguish MTL engagement linked to retrieval success (RS) from that linked to incidental encoding success (ES) during retrieval. This issue has been investigated for retrieval of non-emotional memories, but not for emotional memory retrieval. To address this, we used event-related functional MRI in conjunction with an emotional distraction and two episodic memory tasks (one testing memory for distracter items and the other testing memory for new/lure items presented in the first memory task). This paradigm allowed for dissociation of MTL activity specifically linked to RS from that linked to both RS and incidental ES during retrieval. There were two novel findings regarding the neural correlates of emotional memory retrieval. First, greater emotional RS was identified bilaterally in AMY, HC, and PHC. However, AMY activity was most impacted when accounting for ES activity, as only RS activity in left AMY was dissociated from ES activity during retrieval, whereas portions of HC and PHC showing greater emotional RS were largely uninvolved in ES. Second, an earlier and more anteriorly spread response (left AMY and bilateral HC, PHC) was linked to greater emotional RS activity, whereas a later and more posteriorly localized response (right posterior PHC) was linked to greater neutral RS activity. These findings shed light on MTL mechanisms subserving the memory-enhancing effect of emotion at retrieval. PMID:24917798

  8. Retrieving Similar Styles to Parse Clothing.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kota; Kiapour, M Hadi; Ortiz, Luis E; Berg, Tamara L

    2015-05-01

    Clothing recognition is a societally and commercially important yet extremely challenging problem due to large variations in clothing appearance, layering, style, and body shape and pose. In this paper, we tackle the clothing parsing problem using a retrieval-based approach. For a query image, we find similar styles from a large database of tagged fashion images and use these examples to recognize clothing items in the query. Our approach combines parsing from: pre-trained global clothing models, local clothing models learned on the fly from retrieved examples, and transferred parse-masks (Paper Doll item transfer) from retrieved examples. We evaluate our approach extensively and show significant improvements over previous state-of-the-art for both localization (clothing parsing given weak supervision in the form of tags) and detection (general clothing parsing). Our experimental results also indicate that the general pose estimation problem can benefit from clothing parsing. PMID:26353326

  9. Simaltaneous Retrieval System for "Kanji" and "Kana"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Ayetsu; Matsuda, Masahisa; Kanagawa, Arata

    The ABC News Information Retrieval System was developed by Asahi Broadcasting Corporation and has been in operation since October 1985. The system is designed to give people involved in the News Department easy access to library sources such as news films and video tapes. It has an initial file size of 100,000 items with a monthly update of 900 records. The system also has an interactive free keyword information retrieval system featuring keyword entry in Kanji (Japanese ideographs) for online retrieval in Kanji and Kana (Japanese syllabic symbols). In addition, it employs automatic sampling software enabling relevant keywords to be extracted from the contents of the database. Each record consist of a title, news summary and a description of visual materials, providing content references concerning a certain incident, accident or event which took place, and a brief description of each.

  10. Quantum image with high retrieval performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Yue; Chen, Hanwu; Liu, Zhihao; Tan, Jianing

    2016-02-01

    Quantum image retrieval is an exhaustive work due to exponential measurements. Casting aside the background of image processing, quantum image is a pure many-body state, and the retrieval task is a physical process named as quantum state tomography. Tomography of a special class of states, permutationally symmetric states, just needs quadratic measurement scales with the number of qubits. In order to take advantage of this result, we propose a method to map the main energy of the image to these states. First, we deduce that n+1 permutationally symmetric states can be constructed as bases of 2^n Hilbert space ( n qubits) at least. Second, we execute Schmidt decomposition by continually bipartite splitting of the quantum image (state). At last, we select n+1 maximum coefficients, do base transformation to map these coefficients to new bases (permutationally symmetric states). By these means, the quantum image with high retrieval performance can be gotten.

  11. Evolutionary Computing Methods for Spectral Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, Richard; Fink, Wolfgang; Huntsberger, Terrance; Lee, Seugwon; Tisdale, Edwin; VonAllmen, Paul; Tinetti, Geivanna

    2009-01-01

    A methodology for processing spectral images to retrieve information on underlying physical, chemical, and/or biological phenomena is based on evolutionary and related computational methods implemented in software. In a typical case, the solution (the information that one seeks to retrieve) consists of parameters of a mathematical model that represents one or more of the phenomena of interest. The methodology was developed for the initial purpose of retrieving the desired information from spectral image data acquired by remote-sensing instruments aimed at planets (including the Earth). Examples of information desired in such applications include trace gas concentrations, temperature profiles, surface types, day/night fractions, cloud/aerosol fractions, seasons, and viewing angles. The methodology is also potentially useful for retrieving information on chemical and/or biological hazards in terrestrial settings. In this methodology, one utilizes an iterative process that minimizes a fitness function indicative of the degree of dissimilarity between observed and synthetic spectral and angular data. The evolutionary computing methods that lie at the heart of this process yield a population of solutions (sets of the desired parameters) within an accuracy represented by a fitness-function value specified by the user. The evolutionary computing methods (ECM) used in this methodology are Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing, both of which are well-established optimization techniques and have also been described in previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. These are embedded in a conceptual framework, represented in the architecture of the implementing software, that enables automatic retrieval of spectral and angular data and analysis of the retrieved solutions for uniqueness.

  12. Nonsurgical retrieval of embolized coronary stents.

    PubMed

    Eggebrecht, H; Haude, M; von Birgelen, C; Oldenburg, O; Baumgart, D; Herrmann, J; Welge, D; Bartel, T; Dagres, N; Erbel, R

    2000-12-01

    Embolization of coronary stents before deployment is a rare but challenging complication of coronary stenting. Different methods for nonsurgical stent retrieval have been suggested. There were 20 cases (0.90%) of intracoronary stent embolization among 2,211 patients who underwent implantation of 4,066 stents. Twelve of 1,147 manually crimped stents (1.04%) and eight of 2,919 premounted stents were lost (0.27%, P < 0.01) during retraction of the delivery system, because the target lesion could not be either reached or crossed. Percutaneous retrieval was successfully carried out in 10 of 14 patients (71%) in whom retrieval was attempted. In 10 patients, stent retrieval was tried with 1.5-mm low-profile angioplasty balloon catheters (success in 7/10) and in seven cases with myocardial biopsy forceps or a gooseneck snare (success in 3/7). Three patients (15%) underwent urgent coronary artery bypass surgery after failed percutaneous retrieval, but their outcomes were fatal. In two patients, stents were compressed against the vessel wall by another stent, without compromising coronary blood flow. In two patients, a stent was lost to the periphery without clinical side effects; treatment was conservative in these cases. Embolization of stents before deployment is a rare but serious complication of coronary stenting, with hazardous potential for the patient. Manual mounting of stents is associated with a significantly higher risk of stent embolization. Stent retrieval from the coronary circulation with low-profile angioplasty balloon catheters is a readily available and technically familiar approach that has a relatively high success rate. PMID:11108675

  13. [Brain Mechanism for Successful Memory Retrieval].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    Previous neuropsychological studies that investigated patients with brain injury have revealed the presense of multiple memory systems and the related brain regions. Recent functional imaging studies have identified a neuronal network including the temporal cortex and hippocampus that is responsible for the retrieval of semantic memory. This memory network was further investigated by electrophysiology using a simultaneous recording technique. This new technique revealed that a coupling of inter-area top-down signal within the temporal cortex with translaminar signal processing is required for successful memory retrieval of visual objects. PMID:27056865

  14. Retrieval of Aerosol Height with TROPOMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, A. F. J.; de Haan, J. F.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), to be launched in 2015, will feature a new aerosol product providing the height of aerosol layers. Aerosol Layer Height will be one of two aerosol products, the other one being the Absorbing Aerosol Index. TROPOMI is a UV-VIS-NIR imaging spectrometer with daily global coverage. It will be part of ESA's Sentinel-5 Precursor mission. Algorithm development for the aerosol height product is currently underway at KNMI. In this presentation we will introduce the algorithm, highlight some of the development issues and discuss possible applications and example aerosol cases. Aerosol height observations from the near-infrared wavelength range will improve retrieval of other aerosol properties, particularly retrieval of absorption optical thickness. An increase in absorption in the ultraviolet wavelength range can be due to a higher imaginary part of the refractive index or to the aerosol layer being at a higher altitude. Independent height observations will therefore further constrain retrieval of the single scattering albedo. Furthermore, aerosol profile information is an important parameter when estimating radiative forcings and climate impacts of aerosol, it is a significant source of uncertainty in trace gas retrieval and it helps in understanding atmospheric transport mechanisms. Finally, timely available, global observations of aerosol height will be of interest to aviation safety agencies. The retrieval algorithm for aerosol height will be based on absorption by oxygen in the A-band (759-770 nm). Aerosols are assumed to be contained in a single layer. A spectral fit of reflectance (resolution 0.5 nm) across the absorption band provides layer height. The retrieval method will be optimal estimation to ensure a proper error analysis. Sensitivity studies have indicated that accuracy and precision of retrieved height for cloud-free scenes will be well below the TROPOMI science requirements (1 km). They have also shown that

  15. Trends in medical information retrieval on Internet.

    PubMed

    Baujard, O; Baujard, V; Aurel, S; Boyer, C; Appel, R D

    1998-09-01

    Information on the World Wide Web is unstructured, distributed, multimedia and multilingual. Many tools have been developed to help users search for useful information: subject hierarchies, general search engines, browsers and search assistants. Although helpful, they present serious limitations, mainly in terms of precision, multilingual indexing and distribution. In this paper, we cover some on-line solutions to medical information discovery and present our own approach, the MARVIN (multi-agent retrieval vagabond on information network) project, which tackles medical information research with specialized cooperative retrieval agents. We also draw some outlines for future extensions. PMID:9861514

  16. Practical video indexing and retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yiqing; Wolf, Wayne H.; Liu, Bede; Huang, Jeffrey R.

    1998-03-01

    We integrated a practical digital video database system based on language and image analysis with components from digital video processing, still image search, information retrieval, closed captioning processing. The attempt is to utilize the multiple modalities of information in video and implement data fusion among the multiple modalities; image information, speech/dialog information, closed captioning information, sound track information such as music, gunfire, explosion, caption information, motion information, temporal information. Effort is made to allow access video contents at different levels including video program level, scene level, shot level, and object level. Approaches of browsing, subject-based classification, and random retrieving are available to gain access to the contents.

  17. Optimal Aerosol Parameterization for Remote Sensing Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newchurch, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol and gases from SAGE It1 solar transmission measurements. This algorithm improves upon the NASA operational algorithm in several key aspects, including solving the problem non-linearly and incorporating a new methodology for separating the contribution of aerosols and gases. In order to extract aerosol information we have built a huge database of aerosol models for both stratospheric and tropospheric aerosols, and polar stratospheric cloud particles. This set of models allows us to calculate a vast range of possible extinction spectra for aerosols. and from these, derive a set of eigenvectors which then provide the basis set used in our inversion algorithm. Our aerosol algorithm and retrievals are described in several articles (listed in References Section) published under this grant. In particular they allow us to analyze the spectral properties of aerosols and PSCs and ultimately derive their microphysical properties. We have found some considerable differences between our spectra and the ones derived from the SAGE III operational algorithm. These are interesting as they provide an independent check on the validity of published aerosol data and, in particular, on their associated uncertainties. In order to understand these differences, we are assembling independent aerosol data from other sources with which to make comparisons. We have carried out extensive comparisons of our ozone retrievals with both SAGE III and independent lidar, ozonesonde, and satellite measurements (Polyakov et al., 2004). These show very good agreement throughout the stratosphere and help to quantify differences which can be attributed to natural variation in ozone versus that produced by algorithmic differences. In the mid - upper stratosphere, agreement with independent data was generally within 5 - 20%. but in the lower stratosphere the differences were considerably larger. We believe that a large proportion of this

  18. Science information systems: Archive, access, and retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop technology for the automated characterization and interactive retrieval and visualization of very large, complex scientific data sets. Technologies will be developed for the following specific areas: (1) rapidly archiving data sets; (2) automatically characterizing and labeling data in near real-time; (3) providing users with the ability to browse contents of databases efficiently and effectively; (4) providing users with the ability to access and retrieve system independent data sets electronically; and (5) automatically alerting scientists to anomalies detected in data.

  19. Forgetting as a consequence of retrieval: a meta-analytic review of retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Kou; Miyatsu, Toshiya; Buchli, Dorothy; Storm, Benjamin C

    2014-09-01

    Retrieving a subset of items can cause the forgetting of other items, a phenomenon referred to as retrieval-induced forgetting. According to some theorists, retrieval-induced forgetting is the consequence of an inhibitory mechanism that acts to reduce the accessibility of nontarget items that interfere with the retrieval of target items. Other theorists argue that inhibition is unnecessary to account for retrieval-induced forgetting, contending instead that the phenomenon can be best explained by noninhibitory mechanisms, such as strength-based competition or blocking. The current article provides the first major meta-analysis of retrieval-induced forgetting, conducted with the primary purpose of quantitatively evaluating the multitude of findings that have been used to contrast these 2 theoretical viewpoints. The results largely supported inhibition accounts but also provided some challenging evidence, with the nature of the results often varying as a function of how retrieval-induced forgetting was assessed. Implications for further research and theory development are discussed. PMID:25180807

  20. Recollection-Based Retrieval Is Influenced by Contextual Variation at Encoding but Not at Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Rosenstreich, Eyal; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigated the effects of variations at encoding and retrieval on recollection. We argue that recollection is more likely to be affected by the processing that information undergoes at encoding than at retrieval. To date, manipulations shown to affect recollection were typically carried out at encoding. Therefore, an open question is whether these same manipulations would also affect recollection when carried out at retrieval, or whether there is an inherent connection between their effects on recollection and the encoding stage. We therefore manipulated, at either encoding or retrieval, fluency of processing (Experiment 1)—typically found not to affect recollection—and the amount of attentional resources available for processing (Experiments 2 and 3)—typically reported to affect recollection. We found that regardless of the type of manipulation, recollection was affected more by manipulations carried out at encoding and was essentially unaffected when these manipulations were carried out at retrieval. These findings suggest an inherent dependency between recollection-based retrieval and the encoding stage. It seems that because recollection is a contextual-based retrieval process, it is determined by the processing information undergoes at encoding—at the time when context is bound with the items—but not at retrieval—when context is only recovered. PMID:26135583

  1. A comparison of Boolean-based retrieval to the WAIS system for retrieval of aeronautical information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionini, Gary; Barlow, Diane

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of an information retrieval system using a Boolean-based retrieval engine and inverted file architecture and WAIS, which uses a vector-based engine, was conducted. Four research questions in aeronautical engineering were used to retrieve sets of citations from the NASA Aerospace Database which was mounted on a WAIS server and available through Dialog File 108 which served as the Boolean-based system (BBS). High recall and high precision searches were done in the BBS and terse and verbose queries were used in the WAIS condition. Precision values for the WAIS searches were consistently above the precision values for high recall BBS searches and consistently below the precision values for high precision BBS searches. Terse WAIS queries gave somewhat better precision performance than verbose WAIS queries. In every case, a small number of relevant documents retrieved by one system were not retrieved by the other, indicating the incomplete nature of the results from either retrieval system. Relevant documents in the WAIS searches were found to be randomly distributed in the retrieved sets rather than distributed by ranks. Advantages and limitations of both types of systems are discussed.

  2. Long-term health effects of neutering dogs: comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers.

    PubMed

    Hart, Benjamin L; Hart, Lynette A; Thigpen, Abigail P; Willits, Neil H

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6-11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4-5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3-4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  3. Long-Term Health Effects of Neutering Dogs: Comparison of Labrador Retrievers with Golden Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.; Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.

    2014-01-01

    Our recent study on the effects of neutering (including spaying) in Golden Retrievers in markedly increasing the incidence of two joint disorders and three cancers prompted this study and a comparison of Golden and Labrador Retrievers. Veterinary hospital records were examined over a 13-year period for the effects of neutering during specified age ranges: before 6 mo., and during 6–11 mo., year 1 or years 2 through 8. The joint disorders examined were hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament tear and elbow dysplasia. The cancers examined were lymphosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, and mammary cancer. The results for the Golden Retriever were similar to the previous study, but there were notable differences between breeds. In Labrador Retrievers, where about 5 percent of gonadally intact males and females had one or more joint disorders, neutering at <6 mo. doubled the incidence of one or more joint disorders in both sexes. In male and female Golden Retrievers, with the same 5 percent rate of joint disorders in intact dogs, neutering at <6 mo. increased the incidence of a joint disorder to 4–5 times that of intact dogs. The incidence of one or more cancers in female Labrador Retrievers increased slightly above the 3 percent level of intact females with neutering. In contrast, in female Golden Retrievers, with the same 3 percent rate of one or more cancers in intact females, neutering at all periods through 8 years of age increased the rate of at least one of the cancers by 3–4 times. In male Golden and Labrador Retrievers neutering had relatively minor effects in increasing the occurrence of cancers. Comparisons of cancers in the two breeds suggest that the occurrence of cancers in female Golden Retrievers is a reflection of particular vulnerability to gonadal hormone removal. PMID:25020045

  4. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.; Pinardi, G.; van Roozendael, M.

    2008-11-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds show that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column density (VCD) retrievals is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1) are lower than the tropospheric NO2VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04), in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about -2.12×1014molec cm-2.

  5. Microwave soil moisture retrieval under trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2007 a field experiment was conducted with a goal of optimizing microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms for small to medium deciduous trees. After initial field checkout in Fall 2006, the ComRAD microwave truck instrument system was deployed to a test site with several stands of deciduo...

  6. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Ruth M.; Keating, Sam; Patel, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Two studies examined the possibility of retrieval-induced forgetting by 7-year-olds. Children heard a story while viewing pictures of events mentioned in the story, each highlighting objects drawn from two distinct semantic categories (e.g. animals and food). Over the next several days, children were asked the same yes/no questions about half the…

  7. Simulating Network Retrieval of Arithmetic Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Mark H.

    This report describes a simulation of adults' retrieval of arithmetic facts from a network-based memory representation. The goals of the simulation project are to: demonstrate in specific form the nature of a spreading activation model of mental arithmetic; account for three important reaction time effects observed in laboratory investigations;…

  8. Learning with Retrieval-Based Concept Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Janell R.; Karpicke, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Students typically create concept maps while they view the material they are trying to learn. In these circumstances, concept mapping serves as an elaborative study activity--students are not required to retrieve the material they are learning. In 2 experiments, we examined the effectiveness of concept mapping when it is used as a retrieval…

  9. Teaching Information Retrieval Using Telediscussion Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiliger, Edward M.

    This paper concerns an experiment in teaching a graduate seminar on Information Retrieval using telediscussion techniques. Outstanding persons from Project INTREX, MEDLARS, Chemical Abstracts, the University of Georgia, the SUNY biomedical Network, AEC, NASA, and DDC gave hour-long telelectures. A Conference Telephone Set was used with success.…

  10. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  11. Interaction in Information Searching and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Micheline

    2000-01-01

    Explores the concepts of interaction and interactivity presented in different theoretical models in the fields of human-computer interaction (HCI) and information-seeking/searching behavior, and relates these to information retrieval (IR) research. Suggests that interaction in HCI is primarily concerned with establishing a user/system dialogue at…

  12. A Context Vector Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billhardt, Holger; Borrajo, Daniel; Maojo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Presents an indexing and information retrieval method that, based on the vector space model, incorporates term dependencies and thus obtains semantically richer representations of documents. Highlights include term context vectors; techniques for estimating the dependencies among terms; term weights; experimental results on four text collections;…

  13. Loss of Retrieval Information in Prose Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehulster, Jerome R.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to experimentally manipulate input and output orders of information and separate storage and retrieval components of prose free recall. The cued partial recall method, used in word list recall, was adapted to a prose learning task. Four short biographical stories of about 55 words each were systematically combined…

  14. Test plan for the retrieval demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-05-01

    This test plan describes a simulated buried waste retrieval demonstration that will be performed at the Caterpillar, Inc., Edwards Training Center located near Peoria, Illinois. The purpose of the demonstration is to determine the effectiveness of using readily available excavation equipment to retrieve, size, and handle various simulated waste forms that are similar in size, structure, and composition to those expected to be found in US Department of Energy contaminated waste pits and trenches. The objectives of this demonstration are to: meet and maintain daily production goals of 80 yd{sup 3}/day; minimize spillage and dust generation through careful and deliberate operations; document and evaluate methods for manipulating, sizing, and/or working around large objects; and document and evaluate requirements for operator augmentation and remote operation for hot test pit excavation operations. Four conditions comprising the range of environments to be evaluated include excavation of random material from below grade; stacked boxes and barrels from below grade; random materials from at grade; and stacked boxes and barrels from at grade. Results of the retrieval demonstration will reduce unknowns in the body of knowledge about retrieval equipment and procedural options for removal of buried transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It is anticipated that DOE will factor this information into a remedial investigation/feasibility plan leading to a final record of decision for disposition of buried TRU waste.

  15. CALIPSO lidar ratio retrieval over the ocean.

    PubMed

    Josset, Damien; Rogers, Raymond; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-09-12

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type. PMID:21935239

  16. CALIPSO Lidar Ratio Retrieval Over the Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josset, Damien B.; Rogers, Raymond R.; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali H.; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-01-01

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type

  17. Document Retrieval Systems; Factors Affecting Search Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, K. Leon, Ed.

    An experiment was conducted to identify some of the important parameters affecting search time, a critical cost factor in retrieval systems. Using actual computer searches of Chemical Abstracts Condensate, a comparison was made between the effectiveness of linear and inverted filing systems. Since the results indicated that it was the type and…

  18. Introduction and Overview: Visualization, Retrieval, and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorvig, Mark; Lunin, Lois F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes this perspectives issue that was designed to provide an historical background to visualization in information retrieval. Topics include knowledge, digital technology, the first visual interface to a collection at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), theoretical foundations, and applications. (LRW)

  19. Amphetamine increases errors during episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-02-01

    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counterbalanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse. PMID:24135845

  20. CRISP (COMPUTER RETRIEVED INFORMATION ON SCIENTIFIC PROJECTS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CRISP (Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects) is a biomedical database system containing information on research projects and programs supported by the Department of Health and Human Services. Most of the research falls within the broad category of extramural p...

  1. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ``fair to good`` using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Telerobotic excavation system for unexploded ordnance retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Rossi, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The small emplacement excavator (SEE) is a ruggedized military vehicle with backhoe and front loader used by the US Army for unexploded ordnance (UXO) retrieval and general utility excavation activities. In order to evaluate the feasibility of removing personnel from the vehicle during high-risk excavation tasks a development and demonstration project was initiated to evaluate performance capabilities of the SEE under telerobotic control. A technology demonstration of the TSEE was conducted at McKinley Range, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama on 13--17 September, 1993. The primary objective of the demonstration was to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of remote UXO retrieval. During the demonstration, explosive ordnance disposal specialists were instructed on telerobotic operation of the TSEE, and then were asked to complete a simulated UXO retrieval task. Participants then submitted an evaluation of the system including human factors performance data. This presentation will describe the TSEE, retrieval demonstration, and summarize results of the performance evaluations. Some examples of the results are given below. Seventy percent of the demonstration participants found the tasks were as easy or easier to accomplish utilizing the remote system than with an unmodified system. Similarly, eighty percent of the participants found the TSEE hand controller was as easy or easier to use than the normal manual controls.

  3. 3D object retrieval using salient views.

    PubMed

    Atmosukarto, Indriyati; Shapiro, Linda G

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a method for selecting salient 2D views to describe 3D objects for the purpose of retrieval. The views are obtained by first identifying salient points via a learning approach that uses shape characteristics of the 3D points (Atmosukarto and Shapiro in International workshop on structural, syntactic, and statistical pattern recognition, 2008; Atmosukarto and Shapiro in ACM multimedia information retrieval, 2008). The salient views are selected by choosing views with multiple salient points on the silhouette of the object. Silhouette-based similarity measures from Chen et al. (Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223-232, 2003) are then used to calculate the similarity between two 3D objects. Retrieval experiments were performed on three datasets: the Heads dataset, the SHREC2008 dataset, and the Princeton dataset. Experimental results show that the retrieval results using the salient views are comparable to the existing light field descriptor method (Chen et al. in Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223-232, 2003), and our method achieves a 15-fold speedup in the feature extraction computation time. PMID:23833704

  4. The Emerging Internationalism of Online Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summit, Roger K.

    Until 1980 online information retrieval and dissemination services were for the most part based in the United States. Today, however, a variety of information services as well as packet-switched networks are emerging in other countries. Although U.S. developed software still predominates in overall use, activity in Europe and other countries is…

  5. Exploring biases in exoplanet spectroscopy retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ying; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael R.; Morley, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    Spectra from the atmospheres of transiting planets and imaged planets are now being routinely achieved. The interpretation of these spectra gives us a window into the physics and chemistry of these atmospheres, as well as a better understanding of planet formation. Over the past several years retrievals of exoplanet spectra have been used to obtain chemical abundances and thermal structures, along with assessments of uncertainties on these quantities. However, any potential biases inherent in these methods have yet to be fully explored. The atmospheres we observe are inherently three-dimensional (3D) structures that feature gradients in temperatures and chemical abundances, as well as hot spots, cold spots, storms, and cloud patchiness. How well does the assumption of retrieving 1D hemispheric average conditions represent the true state of a 3D atmosphere? Can we be led astray? Answering these questions are important today, and will only become more important as data quality improves. Using a descendent of the CHIMERA retrieval code, here I present the results of how retrievals perform on more complex scenarios. We start with the emitted spectrum from the average of two pressure-temperature profiles, one warmer, one colder, and move on to more sophisticated, but still realistic, scenarios. Our work makes use of a new code we have developed to construct spectra from arbitrary 3D model atmospheres.

  6. Improving aerosol retrieval over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, A. J.; Wu, Y.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol retrieval over urban areas is complicated since surface models in the operational algorithms are based on vegetation models such as the case of MODIS. To improve satellite retrieval of aerosols in urban areas, we use simultaneous AERONET radiometer and MODIS measurements in combination to refine surface albedo models. Refined surface models have been implemented for NYC and Mexico City demonstrating significant improvement in AOD in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution. Based on these direct retrievals of the surface reflection for the MODIS Land Aerosol Bands, we were able to show that current parameterizations of the surface as a function of the Modified Vegetation Index are not in good agreement either quantitatively or qualitatively. Further comparisons in other urban areas (eg. Beijing) show that for cases with surface reflectance ratios sufficiently high at the AERONET site, similar over biases can be observed. On the other hand, other cities such as Kanpur, Buenos Aires and Rome do not show any significant bias which can be traced to the fact that these sites are located in regions with less urban surface correlations. Further comparisons in these urban centers are also made with other satellites aerosol retrievals such as POLDER, MISR and OMI.

  7. Prediction During Learning of Later Retrievability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Eugene A.

    Evidence was found for an ability to monitor during learning the degree of retrievability of the to-be-learned material from memory at time of a subsequent test. Students were given three successive study trials to learn either a list of 60 paired associates or a free-recall list of 60 "unrelated" words. During a fourth study trial, they rated on…

  8. Fernald Silo Remote Retrieval Tool Development

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, V.K.

    2004-05-18

    A long-reach tool was developed to remove discrete objects from the silos at the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. If they are not removed, these objects can potentially cause problems during the retrieval and transfer of waste from the silos. Most of the objects are on top of the Bentogrout cap inside the silos at or near the primary opening into the tank and will therefore require only vertical lifting. The objects are located about 20 ft from the top of the silo. Although most of the objects can be retrieved from 20 ft, the long-reach tool was designed to for a reach up to 40 ft in case objects roll towards the walls of the tank or need to be removed during heel retrieval operations. This report provides a detailed description of the tool that was developed, tested, and demonstrated at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scaffolding was erected over two experimental cells to simulate the 40-ft maximum working depth anticipated in the silos at Fernald. Plastic bottles and plastic sheeting simulated the debris that could be encountered during waste retrieval operations.

  9. Retrievals with the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schlussel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Calbet, Xavier; Mango, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite was launched on October 19, 2006. The Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx) was conducted during April 2007 mainly for validation of the IASI on the MetOp satellite. IASI possesses an ultra-spectral resolution of 0.25/cm and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760/cm. Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. An advanced retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. Preliminary retrievals of atmospheric soundings, surface properties, and cloud optical/microphysical properties with the IASI observations during the JAIVEx are obtained and presented. These retrievals are further inter-compared with those obtained from airborne FTS system, such as the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I), dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and ground based Raman Lidar. The capabilities of satellite ultra-spectral sounder such as the IASI are investigated.

  10. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  11. An improved glyoxal retrieval from OMI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, L. M. A.; Richter, A.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Hilboll, A.; Schreier, S. F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    Satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI spectrometers have been used to retrieve atmospheric columns of glyoxal (CHOCHO) with the DOAS method. High CHOCHO levels are found over regions with large biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and hot-spots have been identified over areas of anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on the development of an improved retrieval for CHOCHO from measurements by the OMI instrument. From sensitivity tests, an optimal fitting window and polynomial degree are determined. Two different approaches to reduce the interference of liquid water absorption over oceanic regions are evaluated, achieving significant reduction of negative columns over clear water regions. Moreover, a high temperature absorption cross-section of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is introduced in the DOAS retrieval to account for potential interferences of NO2 over regions with large anthropogenic emissions, leading to improved fit quality over these areas. A comparison with vertical CHOCHO columns retrieved from measurements of the GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY instruments over continental regions is performed, showing overall good consistency. Using the new OMI CHOCHO data set, the link between fires and glyoxal columns is investigated for two selected regions in Africa. In addition, mapped averages are computed for a fire event in the east of Moscow between mid-July and mid-August 2010. In both cases, enhanced CHOCHO levels are found in close spatial and temporal proximity to MODIS fire radiative power, demonstrating that pyrogenic emissions can be clearly identified in the OMI CHOCHO product.

  12. Encoding and Retrieval During Bimanual Rhythmic Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, Kevin; Turvey, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2 experiments, bimanual 1:1 rhythmic coordination was performed concurrently with encoding or retrieval of word lists. Effects of divided attention (DA) on coordination were indexed by changes in mean relative phase and recurrence measures of shared activity between the 2 limbs. Effects of DA on memory were indexed by deficits in recall…

  13. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first-year college students' online search habits in order to identify patterns in millennials' mental models of information retrieval. The study employed a combination of modified contextual inquiry and concept mapping methodologies to elicit students' mental models. The researcher confirmed previously observed…

  14. A Written Experiment on Retrieval Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Miles

    An experiment is described for determining the vocabulary and grammar of user retrieval requests in natural English as a guide in the design of a language for man-machine communication through a typewriter console. This experiment tested written dialog in follow-up to an experiment that tested oral dialog. Subjects repeated behavior observed in…

  15. An Oral Experiment on Retrieval Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John Miles

    An experiment is described for determining the vocabulary and grammar of user retrieval requests in natural English as a guide in the design of a language for man-machine communication through a typewriter console. Results of ten question-answer dialogs are discussed. In oral communication, initial requests were most frequently declarative and…

  16. Document Retrieval Based on Clustered Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Daniel McClure

    A retrieval system is considered in which document descriptions are stored and accessed in groups called clusters. All items in a cluster meet common similarity criteria and are represented by a composite entity called a profile. In large collections, profiles themselves are clustered and additional levels of profiles are generated. This entire…

  17. Artist drawings of the Teleoperator Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A drawing of a Teleoperator Retrieval System (TRS) which is being developed by NASA for use begining in late 1979. This spacecraft is illustrated being used to re-boost the Skylab space station to a higher orbit (23630); A labeled drawing of a TRS which is being developed by NASA (23631).

  18. Introduction: Natural Language Processing and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of research into information and text retrieval problems highlights the work with automatic natural language processing (NLP) that is reported in this issue. Topics discussed include the occurrences of nominal compounds; anaphoric references; discontinuous language constructs; automatic back-of-the-book indexing; and full-text analysis.…

  19. NATIONAL PESTICIDE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (NPIRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Pesticide Information Retrieval System (NPIRS) is a collection of pesticide-related databases available through subscription to the Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems, CERIS. The following is a summary of data found in the databases, data sou...

  20. Neural Systems behind Word and Concept Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damasio, H.; Tranel, D.; Grabowski, T.; Adolphs, R.; Damasio, A.

    2004-01-01

    Using both the lesion method and functional imaging (positron emission tomography) in large cohorts of subjects investigated with the same experimental tasks, we tested the following hypotheses: (A) that the retrieval of words which denote concrete entities belonging to distinct conceptual categories depends upon partially segregated regions in…

  1. Applications of Machine Learning in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Witten, Ian H.; Littin, James

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the basic ideas that underpin applications of machine learning to information retrieval. Describes applications of machine learning to text categorization. Considers how machine learning can be applied to the query-formulation process. Examines methods of document filtering, where the user specifies a query that is to be applied to an…

  2. Is Retrieval Mediated after Repeated Testing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kole, James A.; Healy, Alice F.

    2013-01-01

    In 2 main experiments, the mediated priming effect was used to determine whether retrieval continues to be mediated after repeated testing. In each experiment, participants used the keyword method to learn French vocabulary, then completed a modified lexical decision task in which they first translated a French word, and then made a lexical…

  3. Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Arithmetic Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2012-01-01

    Retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) is a widely studied phenomenon of human memory, but RIF of arithmetic facts remains relatively unexplored. In 2 experiments, we investigated RIF of simple addition facts (2 + 3 = 5) from practice of their multiplication counterparts (2 x 3 = 6). In both experiments, robust RIF expressed in response times occurred…

  4. Understanding Student Article Retrieval Behaviors: Instructional Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P.; Dutt-Doner, Karen; Schoen, David

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of full-text databases amongst 425 undergraduate and graduate students in western New York. A review of literature implicated convenience, time issues, article retrieval option knowledge, and the appreciation and understanding of research article quality as potential predictors of full-text reliance. These variables…

  5. 3D object retrieval using salient views

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Linda G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for selecting salient 2D views to describe 3D objects for the purpose of retrieval. The views are obtained by first identifying salient points via a learning approach that uses shape characteristics of the 3D points (Atmosukarto and Shapiro in International workshop on structural, syntactic, and statistical pattern recognition, 2008; Atmosukarto and Shapiro in ACM multimedia information retrieval, 2008). The salient views are selected by choosing views with multiple salient points on the silhouette of the object. Silhouette-based similarity measures from Chen et al. (Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223–232, 2003) are then used to calculate the similarity between two 3D objects. Retrieval experiments were performed on three datasets: the Heads dataset, the SHREC2008 dataset, and the Princeton dataset. Experimental results show that the retrieval results using the salient views are comparable to the existing light field descriptor method (Chen et al. in Comput Graph Forum 22(3):223–232, 2003), and our method achieves a 15-fold speedup in the feature extraction computation time. PMID:23833704

  6. BELTracker: evidence sentence retrieval for BEL statements.

    PubMed

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the main formal representation models of biological networks. The primary source of information for curating biological networks in BEL representation has been literature. It remains a challenge to identify relevant articles and the corresponding evidence statements for curating and validating BEL statements. In this paper, we describe BELTracker, a tool used to retrieve and rank evidence sentences from PubMed abstracts and full-text articles for a given BEL statement (per the 2015 task requirements of BioCreative V BEL Task). The system is comprised of three main components, (i) translation of a given BEL statement to an information retrieval (IR) query, (ii) retrieval of relevant PubMed citations and (iii) finding and ranking the evidence sentences in those citations. BELTracker uses a combination of multiple approaches based on traditional IR, machine learning, and heuristics to accomplish the task. The system identified and ranked at least one fully relevant evidence sentence in the top 10 retrieved sentences for 72 out of 97 BEL statements in the test set. BELTracker achieved a precision of 0.392, 0.532 and 0.615 when evaluated with three criteria, namely full, relaxed and context criteria, respectively, by the task organizers. Our team at Mayo Clinic was the only participant in this task. BELTracker is available as a RESTful API and is available for public use.Database URL: http://www.openbionlp.org:8080/BelTracker/finder/Given_BEL_Statement. PMID:27173525

  7. Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

    2009-01-01

    Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

  8. BELTracker: evidence sentence retrieval for BEL statements

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Biological expression language (BEL) is one of the main formal representation models of biological networks. The primary source of information for curating biological networks in BEL representation has been literature. It remains a challenge to identify relevant articles and the corresponding evidence statements for curating and validating BEL statements. In this paper, we describe BELTracker, a tool used to retrieve and rank evidence sentences from PubMed abstracts and full-text articles for a given BEL statement (per the 2015 task requirements of BioCreative V BEL Task). The system is comprised of three main components, (i) translation of a given BEL statement to an information retrieval (IR) query, (ii) retrieval of relevant PubMed citations and (iii) finding and ranking the evidence sentences in those citations. BELTracker uses a combination of multiple approaches based on traditional IR, machine learning, and heuristics to accomplish the task. The system identified and ranked at least one fully relevant evidence sentence in the top 10 retrieved sentences for 72 out of 97 BEL statements in the test set. BELTracker achieved a precision of 0.392, 0.532 and 0.615 when evaluated with three criteria, namely full, relaxed and context criteria, respectively, by the task organizers. Our team at Mayo Clinic was the only participant in this task. BELTracker is available as a RESTful API and is available for public use. Database URL: http://www.openbionlp.org:8080/BelTracker/finder/Given_BEL_Statement PMID:27173525

  9. A Developmental Study of Intelligent Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keniston, Allen H.; Flavell, John H.

    1979-01-01

    Among elementary, junior high, and college students, intelligent retrieval methods for recalling 20 letters of the alphabet consisted either of mentally proceeding through the alphabet from the onset and writing down each previously written letter as encountered and recognized, or else first rote recalling some letters and then switching to the…

  10. Multiple image encryption by phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Hong; Kang, Yanmei; Liu, Yueqin; Zhang, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Multiple image encryption (MIE) was proposed to increase the efficiency of encrypting images by processing several images simultaneously. Because of the advantage of optical technology in processing twodimensional images at high throughput, MIE has been significantly improved by use of methods originating from optics. Phase retrieval was the process of algorithmically finding solutions to the phase loss problem due to light detectors only capturing the intensity. It was to retrieve phase information for the determination of a structure from diffraction data. Error-reduction algorithm is a typical phase retrieval method. Here, we employ it to illustrate that methods in phase retrieval are able to encrypt multiple images and compress them into encrypted data simultaneously. Moreover, the decryption is also designed to handle multiple images at the same time. The whole process including both the encryption and decryption is proposed to improve MIE with respect to the compression and efficiency. The feasibility and encryption of the MIE scheme is demonstrated with encryption experiments under Gaussian white noise and unauthorized access.

  11. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  12. Robust keyword retrieval method for OCRed text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku; Takebe, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hotta, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    Document management systems have become important because of the growing popularity of electronic filing of documents and scanning of books, magazines, manuals, etc., through a scanner or a digital camera, for storage or reading on a PC or an electronic book. Text information acquired by optical character recognition (OCR) is usually added to the electronic documents for document retrieval. Since texts generated by OCR generally include character recognition errors, robust retrieval methods have been introduced to overcome this problem. In this paper, we propose a retrieval method that is robust against both character segmentation and recognition errors. In the proposed method, the insertion of noise characters and dropping of characters in the keyword retrieval enables robustness against character segmentation errors, and character substitution in the keyword of the recognition candidate for each character in OCR or any other character enables robustness against character recognition errors. The recall rate of the proposed method was 15% higher than that of the conventional method. However, the precision rate was 64% lower.

  13. General-Purpose Compression for Efficient Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannane, Adam; Williams, Hugh E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses compression of databases that reduces space requirements and retrieval times; considers compression of documents in text databases based on semistatic modeling with words; and proposes a scheme for general purpose compression that can be applied to all types of data stored in large collections. (Author/LRW)

  14. Vertical grid of retrieved atmospheric profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2016-05-01

    The choice of the vertical grid of atmospheric profiles retrieved from remote sensing observations is discussed considering the two cases of profiles used to represent the results of individual measurements and of profiles used for subsequent data fusion applications. An ozone measurement of the MIPAS instrument is used to assess, for different vertical grids, the quality of the retrieved profiles in terms of profile values, retrieval errors, vertical resolutions and number of degrees of freedom. In the case of individual retrievals no evident advantage is obtained with the use of a grid finer than the one with a reduced number of grid points, which are optimized according to the information content of the observations. Nevertheless, this instrument dependent vertical grid, which seems to extract all the available information, provides very poor results when used for data fusion applications. A loss of about a quarter of the degrees of freedom is observed when the data fusion is made using the instrument dependent vertical grid relative to the data fusion made using a vertical grid optimized for the data fusion product. This result is explained by the analysis of the eigenvalues of the Fisher information matrix and leads to the conclusion that different vertical grids must be adopted when data fusion is the expected application.

  15. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  16. Knowledge Retrieval through Virtual Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) manages knowledge retrieval by employees when they need to access documents written by colleagues in geographically distant units. CSC's establishment of virtual communities of practice facilitates the coordination of knowledge, and minimises contextual gaps between senders and…

  17. Gastroesophageal intussusception in a Labrador retriever.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, K L; Buss, M S; Dhein, C R; Barbee, D D; Seitz, S E

    1998-01-01

    A 14-month-old, intact male Labrador retriever was referred for evaluation of vomiting and regurgitation. A diagnosis of gastroesophageal intussusception with aspiration pneumonia was made. The patient responded favorably to aggressive surgical and medical management. The guarded to poor prognosis for gastroesophageal intussusception makes the successful outcome of this case unique. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9818138

  18. Holographic Information Storage and Retrieval. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, J. R.

    A four-month investigation was made of holographic information storage and retrieval. After an extensive review of the state of the art of various holographic systems, it was concluded that digital holographic storage techniques hold the greatest promise for commercial development, especially since they are particularly well suited to computer…

  19. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  20. A Bayesian Approach to Interactive Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tague, Jean M.

    1973-01-01

    A probabilistic model for interactive retrieval is presented. Bayesian statistical decision theory principles are applied: use of prior and sample information about the relationship of document descriptions to query relevance; maximization of expected value of a utility function, to the problem of optimally restructuring search strategies in an…

  1. How to Choose a Media Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Joe

    1995-01-01

    Provides guidelines for schools choosing a media retrieval system. Topics include broadband, baseband, coaxial cable, or fiber optic decisions; the control network; selecting scheduling software; presentation software; device control; control from the classroom; and a comparison of systems offered by five companies. (LRW)

  2. Amphetamine Increases Errors During Episodic Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael Edward; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Moderate doses of stimulant drugs are known to enhance memory encoding and consolidation, but their effects on memory retrieval have not been explored in depth. In laboratory animals, stimulants seem to improve retrieval of emotional memories, but comparable studies have not been carried out in humans. In the present study, we examined the effects of dextroamphetamine (AMP) on retrieval of emotional and unemotional stimuli in healthy young adults, using doses that enhanced memory formation when administered before encoding in our previous study. During 3 sessions, healthy volunteers (n = 31) received 2 doses of AMP (10 and 20 mg) and placebo in counter-balanced order under double-blind conditions. During each session, they first viewed emotional and unemotional pictures and words in a drug-free state, and then 2 days later their memory was tested, 1 hour after AMP or placebo administration. Dextroamphetamine did not affect the number of emotional or unemotional stimuli remembered, but both doses increased recall intrusions and false recognition. Dextroamphetamine (20 mg) also increased the number of positively rated picture descriptions and words generated during free recall. These data provide the first evidence that therapeutic range doses of stimulant drugs can increase memory retrieval errors. The ability of AMP to positively bias recollection of prior events could contribute to its potential for abuse. PMID:24135845

  3. IMIRSEL: a secure music retrieval testing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, John S.

    2004-10-01

    The Music Information Retrieval (MIR) and Music Digital Library (MDL) research communities have long noted the need for formal evaluation mechanisms. Issues concerning the unavailability of freely-available music materials have greatly hindered the creation of standardized test collections with which these communities could scientifically assess the strengths and weaknesses of their various music retrieval techniques. The International Music Information Retrieval Systems Evaluation Laboratory (IMIRSEL) is being developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) specifically to overcome this hindrance to the scientific evaluation of MIR/MDL systems. Together with its subsidiary Human Use of Music Information Retrieval Systems (HUMIRS) project, IMIRSEL will allow MIR/MDL researchers access to the standardized large-scale collection of copyright-sensitive music materials and standardized test queries being housed at UIUC's National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Virtual Research Labs (VRL), based upon NCSA's Data-to-Knowledge (D2K) tool set, are being developed through which MIR/MDL researchers will interact with the music materials under a "trusted code" security model.

  4. Third LDEF Post-Retrieval Symposium Abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Arlene S. (Compiler)

    1993-01-01

    This volume is a compilation of abstracts submitted to the Third Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Post-Retrieval Symposium. The abstracts represent the data analysis of the 57 experiments flown on the LDEF. The experiments include materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, science (cosmic ray, interstellar gas, heavy ions, micrometeoroid, etc.), electronics, optics, and life science.

  5. Knowledge Discovery in Spatial Cartographic Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Lixin

    1999-01-01

    Describes a prototype system--GeoMatch--that allows users to interactively define geographic areas of interest on a background map and to define, qualitatively or quantitatively, the relationship between the user-defined area and the map coverage. The knowledge discovery in database (KDD) factor is analyzed in the retrieval process. The MARC…

  6. The JPL Library information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, J.

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. Programs and documentation are available to the public through NASA's computer software dissemination program.

  7. On Selecting a Measure of Retrieval Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, William S.

    1973-01-01

    In part I (JASIS, March-April 1973) the author proposed a methodology for evaluating a retrieval system based on how much users are willing to pay to use the system. Part II sets forth steps in testing the methodology through the analysis of underlying assumptions and through experimentation. (3 references) (Author/RS)

  8. Block Addressing Indices for Approximate Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses indexing in large text databases, approximate text searching, and space-time tradeoffs for indexed text searching. Studies the space overhead and retrieval times as functions of the text block size, concludes that an index can be sublinear in space overhead and query time, and applies the analysis to the Web. (Author/LRW)

  9. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) EXECUTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  10. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM - AIRS FACILITY SUBSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  11. Robust retrieval from compressed medical image archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, Denis N.; Lerallut, Jean F.; Cocquerez, Jean-Pierre; Azpiroz, Joaquin

    2005-04-01

    Paper addresses the computational aspects of extracting important features directly from compressed images for the purpose of aiding biomedical image retrieval based on content. The proposed method for treatment of compressed medical archives follows the JPEG compression standard and exploits algorithm based on spacial analysis of the image cosine spectrum coefficients amplitude and location. The experiments on modality-specific archive of osteoarticular images show robustness of the method based on measured spectral spatial statistics. The features, which were based on the cosine spectrum coefficients' values, could satisfy different types of queries' modalities (MRI, US, etc), which emphasized texture and edge properties. In particular, it has been shown that there is wealth of information in the AC coefficients of the DCT transform, which can be utilized to support fast content-based image retrieval. The computational cost of proposed signature generation algorithm is low. Influence of conventional and the state-of-the-art compression techniques based on cosine and wavelet integral transforms on the performance of content-based medical image retrieval has been also studied. We found no significant differences in retrieval efficiencies for non-compressed and JPEG2000-compressed images even at the lowest bit rate tested.

  12. Neural Network Model of Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Recanatesi, Stefano; Katkov, Mikhail; Romani, Sandro; Tsodyks, Misha

    2015-01-01

    Human memory can store large amount of information. Nevertheless, recalling is often a challenging task. In a classical free recall paradigm, where participants are asked to repeat a briefly presented list of words, people make mistakes for lists as short as 5 words. We present a model for memory retrieval based on a Hopfield neural network where transition between items are determined by similarities in their long-term memory representations. Meanfield analysis of the model reveals stable states of the network corresponding (1) to single memory representations and (2) intersection between memory representations. We show that oscillating feedback inhibition in the presence of noise induces transitions between these states triggering the retrieval of different memories. The network dynamics qualitatively predicts the distribution of time intervals required to recall new memory items observed in experiments. It shows that items having larger number of neurons in their representation are statistically easier to recall and reveals possible bottlenecks in our ability of retrieving memories. Overall, we propose a neural network model of information retrieval broadly compatible with experimental observations and is consistent with our recent graphical model (Romani et al., 2013). PMID:26732491

  13. Bibliographic Information Retrieval Systems: Increasing Cognitive Compatibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Philip J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the impact of research in artificial intelligence and human computer interaction on the design of bibliographic information retrieval systems, and presents design principles of a prototype system that uses semantically based searches and a knowledge base consisting of conceptual frames. (10 references) (CLB)

  14. Information Retrieval and the Virtual Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Defines virtual documents and categorizes them, roughly, on how they are created, such as using templates, from computations, as composites, and as metadata. Describes the following information retrieval problems with virtual documents: search, revisiting, authentication, reference, version control, and annotation. (AEF)

  15. Use of Metadata Vocabularies in Data Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Edwin M.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a prototype system for devising and using a metadata vocabulary for data retrieval, based on a project at the United States Department of Agriculture. A unified information-access system called REEIS (Research, Education, Economics, Extension Information System) is being designed to provide a knowledge base of programs, projects, and…

  16. Iterative Algorithms for Ptychographic Phase Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Qian, Jianliang; Schirotzek, Andre; Maia, Filipe; Marchesini, Stefano

    2011-05-03

    Ptychography promises diffraction limited resolution without the need for high resolution lenses. To achieve high resolution one has to solve the phase problem for many partially overlapping frames. Here we review some of the existing methods for solving ptychographic phase retrieval problem from a numerical analysis point of view, and propose alternative methods based on numerical optimization.

  17. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  18. Interpolation of the Extended Boolean Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Daniel Z.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interpolation theorem for an extended Boolean information retrieval model. Results show that whenever two or more documents are similarly ranked at any two points for a query containing exactly two terms, then they are similarly ranked at all points in between; and that results can fail for queries with more than two terms. (Author/LRW)

  19. Retrievable IVC Square Stent Filter: Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pavcnik, Dusan; Uchida, Barry T.; Keller, Frederick S.; Corless, Christopher L.; Roesch, Josef

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a new retrievable, home-made, inferior vena cava (IVC) Square stent filter (SSF) with two trapping levels. Methods: In vitro, the SSF was compared in a flow model with the stainless steel Greenfield filter (SGF) for emboli- trapping efficiency by serially passing 300 emboli of 3 and 6 mm in diameter and 15-30 mm in length in each type of filter. Nine swine were used for the in vivo testing of the SSF for deployment and retrievability, emboli-trapping efficiency, stability, and self-centering ability and two were used (total of 11 swine) for testing repositioning and retrievability of the SSF at 2 weeks and for gross and histologic IVC changes at 2 months. Results: In vitro, the SSF and SGF had similar efficiency in trapping large emboli but the SSF had significantly better efficiency than the SGF for trapping all sizes of emboli (91.7% vs 81%), medium size emboli (93% vs 80%), and small emboli (86% vs 69%). Efficiency decreased in both filters from the first to the fifth embolus in each series but was still significantly better for the SSF. With the SSF, 89% of emboli were caught at the primary and 11% at the secondary filtration level. In the nine animals used for acute studies, the SSF was easily placed in all 27 attempts, assumed a central position 26 times, and was easily retrieved in 21 of 22 attempts. One tilted filter needed additional manipulation for retrieval. During emboli injection in five swine, the SSF had 97.2% emboli-trapping efficiency and demonstrated good stability. In the two animals used for longer-term evaluation, the filters were easily retrieved 2 weeks after implantation. Histologic evaluation at 2 months showed neointimal proliferation around the SSF wires in contact with the IVC wall, which was otherwise normal. Conclusion: The SSF is a promising filter. It is easy to place and retrieve, is stable after placement, and has high efficiency for trapping emboli. Promising results justify further

  20. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacement drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The WP emplacement gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The WP emplacement gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery

  1. Automatic Evidence Retrieval for Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Miew Keen; Galgani, Filippo; Dunn, Adam G

    2014-01-01

    Background Snowballing involves recursively pursuing relevant references cited in the retrieved literature and adding them to the search results. Snowballing is an alternative approach to discover additional evidence that was not retrieved through conventional search. Snowballing’s effectiveness makes it best practice in systematic reviews despite being time-consuming and tedious. Objective Our goal was to evaluate an automatic method for citation snowballing’s capacity to identify and retrieve the full text and/or abstracts of cited articles. Methods Using 20 review articles that contained 949 citations to journal or conference articles, we manually searched Microsoft Academic Search (MAS) and identified 78.0% (740/949) of the cited articles that were present in the database. We compared the performance of the automatic citation snowballing method against the results of this manual search, measuring precision, recall, and F1 score. Results The automatic method was able to correctly identify 633 (as proportion of included citations: recall=66.7%, F1 score=79.3%; as proportion of citations in MAS: recall=85.5%, F1 score=91.2%) of citations with high precision (97.7%), and retrieved the full text or abstract for 490 (recall=82.9%, precision=92.1%, F1 score=87.3%) of the 633 correctly retrieved citations. Conclusions The proposed method for automatic citation snowballing is accurate and is capable of obtaining the full texts or abstracts for a substantial proportion of the scholarly citations in review articles. By automating the process of citation snowballing, it may be possible to reduce the time and effort of common evidence surveillance tasks such as keeping trial registries up to date and conducting systematic reviews. PMID:25274020

  2. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft{sup 3} of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a ``cold test pit`` that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 {times} 9 {times} 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub`s proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

  3. Final report for the cryogenic retrieval demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.; Yokuda, E.L.

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a demonstration of a proposed buried transuranic waste retrieval concept that uses cryogenic ground freezing and remote excavation. At the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), there are over 8 million ft[sup 3] of intermingled soil and transuranic (TRU) wastes in shallow land burial, and retrieval of the material is one of the options being considered by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration for the Environmental Restoration program. Cryogenically freezing contaminated soil and buried waste has been proposed as a way to greatly reduce or eliminate the climate the threat of contamination spread during retrieval activities. In support of this idea, a demonstration of an innovative ground freezing and retrieval technology was performed at the INEL. This initial demonstration was held near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at a cold test pit'' that was built in 1988 as a test bed for the demonstration of retrieval contamination control technologies. This pit is not contaminated with any radioactive or hazardous wastes. Barrels and boxes filled with metals, plastics, tools, paper, cloth, etc. configured in the same manner as expected in contaminated pits and trenches are buried at the cold test pit. After design, fabrication, and shop testing, Sonsub mobilized to the field in early July 1992 to perform the field demonstration. It was planned to freeze and extract four pits, each 9 [times] 9 [times] 10 ft. Each pit represented a different configuration of buried waste (stacked boxes, stacked barrels, random dumped barrels and boxes, and random dumped barrels). Sonsub's proposed technology consisted of driving a series of freeze pipes into the soil and waste, using liquid nitrogen to freeze the mass, and extracting the soil and debris using a series of remote operated, bridge crane mounted tools. In conjunction with the freezing and removal activities, temperature and moisture measurements, and air monitoring were performed.

  4. Improved Stratospheric Temperature Retrievals for Climate Reanalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rokke, L.; Joiner, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is embarking on plans to generate a twenty year reanalysis data set of climatic atmospheric variables. One of the focus points will be in the evaluation of the dynamics of the stratosphere. The Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU), flown as part of the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), is one of the primary stratospheric temperature sensors flown consistently throughout the reanalysis period. Seven unique sensors made the measurements over time, with individual instrument characteristics that need to be addressed. The stratospheric temperatures being assimilated across satellite platforms will profoundly impact the reanalysis dynamical fields. To attempt to quantify aspects of instrument and retrieval bias we are carefully collecting and analyzing all available information on the sensors, their instrument anomalies, forward model errors and retrieval biases. For the retrieval of stratospheric temperatures, we adapted the minimum variance approach of Jazwinski (1970) and Rodgers (1976) and applied it to the SSU soundings. In our algorithm, the state vector contains an initial guess of temperature from a model six hour forecast provided by the Goddard EOS Data Assimilation System (GEOS/DAS). This is combined with an a priori covariance matrix, a forward model parameterization, and specifications of instrument noise characteristics. A quasi-Newtonian iteration is used to obtain convergence of the retrieved state to the measurement vector. This algorithm also enables us to analyze and address the systematic errors associated with the unique characteristics of the cell pressures on the individual SSU instruments and the resolving power of the instruments to vertical gradients in the stratosphere. The preliminary results of the improved retrievals and their assimilation as well as baseline calculations of bias and rms error between the NESDIS operational product and col-located ground measurements will be presented.

  5. Glyoxal Retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. E.; Jacob, D. J.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed an improved algorithm for the retrieval of glyoxal (CHOCHO) from OMI. Glyoxal is a short-lived product of volatile organic carbon (VOC) oxidation. Satellite glyoxal observations may provide a powerful addition to existing formaldehyde products for constraining VOC emissions. However, glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of current retrievals disagree with ground-based observations over anthropogenic and biogenic regions, inhibiting their combined use in top-down studies. To address these discrepancies we perform a series of sensitivity studies on real and simulated OMI spectra. We show that the sensitive fit window dependence found in previous studies is consistent with a combination of errors from reference cross section uncertainties and spectral interference due to the Ring effect. This implies an optimal fit window of 435-461 nm, consistent with previous retrievals. Using simulated spectra we confirm a NO2 interference associated with cross section temperature, that can be corrected using multiple cross sections. We show that cross-track biases in the OMI retrieval can be corrected by deriving offsets over the Sahara, and apply the correction to the OMI data. Average background concentrations are lower in the new product since the Sahara reference sector is free of liquid water interference associated with the oceanic regions used in previous studies. Concentrations measured over Asia during the monsoon season and the tropics are also lower, suggesting that the new retrieval is less sensitive to water vapor abundance. Consequently we do not see significant enhancements over tropical oceans. The glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratios of the new OMI product are consistent with surface observations.

  6. FRESCO+: an improved O2 A-band cloud retrieval algorithm for tropospheric trace gas retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P.; Stammes, P.; van der A, R.; Pinardi, G.; van Roozendael, M.

    2008-05-01

    The FRESCO (Fast Retrieval Scheme for Clouds from the Oxygen A-band) algorithm has been used to retrieve cloud information from measurements of the O2 A-band around 760 nm by GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2. The cloud parameters retrieved by FRESCO are the effective cloud fraction and cloud pressure, which are used for cloud correction in the retrieval of trace gases like O3 and NO2. To improve the cloud pressure retrieval for partly cloudy scenes, single Rayleigh scattering has been included in an improved version of the algorithm, called FRESCO+. We compared FRESCO+ and FRESCO effective cloud fractions and cloud pressures using simulated spectra and one month of GOME measured spectra. As expected, FRESCO+ gives more reliable cloud pressures over partly cloudy pixels. Simulations and comparisons with ground-based radar/lidar measurements of clouds shows that the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about the optical midlevel of the cloud. Globally averaged, the FRESCO+ cloud pressure is about 50 hPa higher than the FRESCO cloud pressure, while the FRESCO+ effective cloud fraction is about 0.01 larger. The effect of FRESCO+ cloud parameters on O3 and NO2 vertical column densities (VCD) is studied using SCIAMACHY data and ground-based DOAS measurements. We find that the FRESCO+ algorithm has a significant effect on tropospheric NO2 retrievals but a minor effect on total O3 retrievals. The retrieved SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs using FRESCO+ cloud parameters (v1.1) are lower than the tropospheric NO2 VCDs which used FRESCO cloud parameters (v1.04), in particular over heavily polluted areas with low clouds. The difference between SCIAMACHY tropospheric NO2 VCDs v1.1 and ground-based MAXDOAS measurements performed in Cabauw, The Netherlands, during the DANDELIONS campaign is about -2.12×1014 molec cm-2.

  7. Infrared Retrievals of Ice Cloud Properties and Uncertainties with an Optimal Estimation Retrieval Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Platnick, S. E.; Meyer, K.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    We developed an optimal estimation (OE)-based method using infrared (IR) observations to retrieve ice cloud optical thickness (COT), cloud effective radius (CER), and cloud top height (CTH) simultaneously. The OE-based retrieval is coupled with a fast IR radiative transfer model (RTM) that simulates observations of different sensors, and corresponding Jacobians in cloudy atmospheres. Ice cloud optical properties are calculated using the MODIS Collection 6 (C6) ice crystal habit (severely roughened hexagonal column aggregates). The OE-based method can be applied to various IR space-borne and airborne sensors, such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the enhanced MODIS Airborne Simulator (eMAS), by optimally selecting IR bands with high information content. Four major error sources (i.e., the measurement error, fast RTM error, model input error, and pre-assumed ice crystal habit error) are taken into account in our OE retrieval method. We show that measurement error and fast RTM error have little impact on cloud retrievals, whereas errors from the model input and pre-assumed ice crystal habit significantly increase retrieval uncertainties when the cloud is optically thin. Comparisons between the OE-retrieved ice cloud properties and other operational cloud products (e.g., the MODIS C6 and CALIOP cloud products) are shown.

  8. Retrievable Inferior Vena Cava Filters in Patients with Cancer: Complications and Retrieval Success Rate

    PubMed Central

    Casanegra, Ana I.; Landrum, Lisa M.; Tafur, Alfonso J.

    2016-01-01

    Active cancer (ACa) is strongly associated with venous thromboembolism and bleeding. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters (RIVCF) are frequently placed in these patients when anticoagulation cannot be continued. Objectives. To describe the complications and retrieval rate of inferior vena cava filters in patients with ACa. Methods. Retrospective review of 251 consecutive patients with RIVCF in a single institution. Results. We included 251 patients with RIVCF with a mean age of 58.1 years and a median follow-up of 5.4 months (164 days, IQR: 34–385). Of these patients 32% had ACa. There were no differences in recurrence rate of DVT between patients with ACa and those without ACa (13% versus 17%, p = ns). Also, there were no differences in major filter complications (11% ACa versus 7% no ACa, p = ns). The filter retrieval was not different between groups (log-rank = 0.16). Retrieval rate at 6 months was 49% in ACa patients versus 64% in patients without ACa (p = ns). Filter retrieval was less frequent in ACa patients with metastatic disease (p < 0.01) or a nonsurgical indication for filter placement (p = 0.04). Conclusions. No differences were noted in retrieval rate, recurrent DVT, or filter complications between the two groups. ACa should not preclude the use of RIVCF. PMID:26904290

  9. Retrieval Lesson Learned from NAST-I Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    The retrieval lesson learned is important to many current and future hyperspectral remote sensors. Validated retrieval algorithms demonstrate the advancement of hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities to be achieved with current and future satellite instruments.

  10. Application of Probabilistic Methods to Chinese Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiangji; Robertson, S. E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of text retrieval methods based on probabilistic models with Chinese language material, which are modeled on the Okapi information retrieval system. Topics include system architecture, test collections, weighting functions, and algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  11. Multiple Object Retrieval in Image Databases Using Hierarchical Segmentation Tree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei-Bang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a new visual information analysis, representation, and retrieval framework for automatic discovery of salient objects of user's interest in large-scale image databases. In particular, this dissertation describes a content-based image retrieval framework which supports multiple-object retrieval. The…

  12. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  13. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  14. The Effect of Indexing Exhaustivity on Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Describes results of a study that investigated the effect of variations in indexing exhaustivity on retrieval performance in a vector space retrieval system. The test collection of documents in the National Library of Medicine's Medline file indexed under cystic fibrosis is described, and use of the SMART information retrieval system is discussed.…

  15. 49 CFR 563.12 - Data retrieval tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data retrieval tools. 563.12 Section 563.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.12 Data retrieval tools. Each... tool(s) is commercially available that is capable of accessing and retrieving the data stored in...

  16. Visual Based Retrieval Systems and Web Mining--Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Briefly discusses Web mining and image retrieval techniques, and then presents a summary of articles in this special issue. Articles focus on Web content mining, artificial neural networks as tools for image retrieval, content-based image retrieval systems, and personalizing the Web browsing experience using media agents. (AEF)

  17. Data Compression in Full-Text Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Timothy C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes compression methods for components of full-text systems such as text databases on CD-ROM. Topics discussed include storage media; structures for full-text retrieval, including indexes, inverted files, and bitmaps; compression tools; memory requirements during retrieval; and ranking and information retrieval. (Contains 53 references.)…

  18. An Evaluation of On-Line Information Retrieval System Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Theodore

    This report presents a review and evaluation of three remote access on-line information retrieval systems and some ideas on what the capabilities of an ideal on-line information retrieval system should be. The three systems reviewed are the DDC Remote On-Line Retrieval System, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration RECON System, and the…

  19. 49 CFR 563.12 - Data retrieval tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data retrieval tools. 563.12 Section 563.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.12 Data retrieval tools. Each... tool(s) is commercially available that is capable of accessing and retrieving the data stored in...

  20. 49 CFR 563.12 - Data retrieval tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data retrieval tools. 563.12 Section 563.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.12 Data retrieval tools. Each... tool(s) is commercially available that is capable of accessing and retrieving the data stored in...

  1. 49 CFR 563.12 - Data retrieval tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data retrieval tools. 563.12 Section 563.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.12 Data retrieval tools. Each... tool(s) is commercially available that is capable of accessing and retrieving the data stored in...

  2. 49 CFR 563.12 - Data retrieval tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data retrieval tools. 563.12 Section 563.12... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.12 Data retrieval tools. Each... tool(s) is commercially available that is capable of accessing and retrieving the data stored in...

  3. Shape Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehtre, Babu M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Explores the evaluation of image and multimedia information-retrieval systems, particularly the effectiveness of several shape measures for content-based retrieval of similar images. Shape feature measures, or vectors, are computed automatically and can either be used for retrieval or stored in the database for future queries. (57 references)…

  4. Applying Genetic Algorithms To Query Optimization in Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Yeh, Ching-Chang

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a novel approach to automatically retrieve keywords and then uses genetic algorithms to adapt the keyword weights. Discusses Chinese text retrieval, term frequency rating formulas, vector space models, bigrams, the PAT-tree structure for information retrieval, query vectors, and relevance feedback. (Author/LRW)

  5. Variation in Relevance Judgments and the Measurement of Retrieval Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Ellen M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the test collections developed in the TREC (Text REtrieval Conference) workshops for information retrieval research and describes a study by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) that verified their reliability by investigating the effect changes in the relevance assessments have on the evaluation of retrieval results.…

  6. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  7. Data Discretization for Novel Relationship Discovery in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval, visualization, and manipulation model which offers the user multiple ways to exploit the retrieval set, based on weighted query terms, via an interactive interface. Outlines the mathematical model and describes an information retrieval application built on the model to search structured and full-text files.…

  8. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  9. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…

  10. Retrieval of RTG'S in earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, B.; Frieder, M.A.; Skrabek, A.

    1982-08-01

    Since 1961, some ten Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) have been placed into a variety of spacecraft which are now in earth orbit. All of these spacecraft are in orbits with lifetimes in excess of 100 years and pose no risk. However, since most of these spacecraft are no longer being actively used, these may be subject to an active removal program to reduce the population of objects in space. Therefore, a study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of retrieving or disposing of spacecraft with RTGs on board. Intervention scenarios are developed and an orbital rendezvous vehicle is conceptualized. The costs of RTG retrieval are derived and compared to the costs of RTG disposal, i.e., boost to a higher, multi-millenium-lifetime orbit, and are found to be not significantly different.

  11. Users guide for information retrieval using APL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A.

    1974-01-01

    A Programming Language (APL) is a precise, concise, and powerful computer programming language. Several features make APL useful to managers and other potential computer users. APL is interactive; therefore, the user can communicate with his program or data base in near real-time. This, coupled with the fact that APL has excellent debugging features, reduces program checkout time to minutes or hours rather than days or months. Of particular importance is the fact that APL can be utilized as a management science tool using such techniques as operations research, statistical analysis, and forecasting. The gap between the scientist and the manager could be narrowed by showing how APL can be used to do what the scientists and the manager each need to do, retrieve information. Sometimes, the information needs to be retrieved rapidly. In this case APL is ideally suited for this challenge.

  12. Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System transports Waste Packages (WPs) from the Waste Handling Building (WHB) to the subsurface area of emplacement, and emplaces the WPs once there. The system also, if necessary, removes some or all of the WPs from the underground and transports them to the surface. Lastly, the system is designed to remediate abnormal events involving the portions of the system supporting emplacement or retrieval. During emplacement operations, the system operates on the surface between the WHB and North Portal, and in the subsurface in the North Ramp, access mains, and emplacement drifts. During retrieval or abnormal conditions, the operations areas may also extend to a surface retrieval storage site and South Portal on the surface, and the South Ramp in the subsurface. A typical transport and emplacement operation involves the following sequence of events. A WP is loaded into a WP transporter at the WHB, and coupled to a pair of transport locomotives. The locomotives transport the WP from the WHB, down the North Ramp, and to the entrance of an emplacement drift. Once docked at the entrance of the emplacment drift, the WP is moved outside of the WP transporter, and engaged by a WP emplacement gantry. The gantry lifts the WP, and transports it to its emplacement location, where the WP is then lowered to its final resting position. The gantry remains in the drift while the WP transporter is returned to the WHB by the locomotives. When the transporter reaches the WHB, the sequence of operations is repeated. Retrieval of all the WPs, or a large group of WPs, under normal conditions is achieved by reversing the emplacement operations. Retrieval of a small set of WPs, under normal or abnormal conditions, is known as recovery. Recovery performed under abnormal conditions will involve a suite of specialized equipment designed to perform a variety of tasks to enable the recovery process. Recovery after abnormal events may require clearing of equipment

  13. Automatic information retrieval of Chinese business card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, GuangShun; Pan, Wumo; Jin, Jianming

    2003-01-01

    Document image understanding techniques have been widely used in many application domains. Various kinds of documents have been researched and different methods are developed for information retrieval purpose. In this paper we present a practical method to extract information items from Chinese business card. Before retrieval information in business card, the image of business card had been segmented into little text regions and each text region had been recognized. Because the typeset of business card is variable, and both English and Chinese characters are used, so there are errors in segmentation and recognition result. We focus on building a robust model that can tolerate errors and extract syntax pattern of each text lines in business card, which using both layout information and logical information. By this model, many errors will be identified and adjusted. Finally, correct property will be assigned to each text region in business card, and recognition errors will be corrected.

  14. Aerosol Retrievals from ARM SGP MFRSR Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Alexandrov, Mikhail

    2008-01-15

    The Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) makes precise simultaneous measurements of the solar direct normal and diffuse horizontal irradiances at six wavelengths (nominally 415, 500, 615, 673, 870, and 940 nm) at short intervals (20 sec for ARM instruments) throughout the day. Time series of spectral optical depth are derived from these measurements. Besides water vapor at 940 nm, the other gaseous absorbers within the MFRSR channels are NO2 (at 415, 500, and 615 nm) and ozone (at 500, 615, and 670 nm). Aerosols and Rayleigh scattering contribute atmospheric extinction in all MFRSR channels. Our recently updated MFRSR data analysis algorithm allows us to partition the spectral aerosol optical depth into fine and coarse modes and to retrieve the fine mode effective radius. In this approach we rely on climatological amounts of NO2 from SCIAMACHY satellite retrievals and use daily ozone columns from TOMS.

  15. Holographic system for filing and retrieving patents.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, T; Ishikawa, M; Hoshino, I; Iwamoto, A

    1981-09-15

    A large-capacity high-speed holographic system has been developed for filing and retrieving the patent literature. This machine can store 280,000 pages of the Japanese patents journal (or the U.S. Official Gazette) and any one page can be retrieved within 1 sec. A high-resolution TV camera with 2110 scanning lines and a CRT display terminal with 1055 scanning lines were also developed to clearly represent fine drawings and letters in the patents. The system developed is equipped with a momentary 2.6-Mbyte electric one-frame memory for scanning mode conversion. Any image on the CRT can be printed out on a plain sheet of paper with a laser beam printer. PMID:20333108

  16. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  17. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Right Atrioventricular Embolus

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Roger Philip; Harding, James; Hassam, Rhonda

    1998-09-15

    Percutaneous retrieval of a 12-cm-long serpiginous clot lodged in the right atrium and ventricle is reported. Following bilateral common femoral vein puncture, a Bird's Nest cava filter was first positioned ready to deploy immediately below the renal veins via the right femoral vein. From the left femoral vein, a Cook intravascular retrieval basket was advanced to the right atrium. Under transthoracic echocardiographic visualization, the basket was used to engage, trap, and gently withdraw the clot in a single long strand below the prepositioned inferior vena cava filter. The filter was immediately deployed, leaving the clot trapped inferior to the renal veins, in the cava and left iliac vein. The patient remained well and asymptomatic at discharge.

  18. MOD06 Optical and Microphysical Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, G. T.; Dinsick, J.; Gatebe, C. K.; Gray, M. A.; Hubanks, P. A.; Moody, E. G.; Wind, B.; Wind, G.

    2003-01-01

    Major efforts over the past six months included: (1) submission of MOD06 Optical and Microphysical Retrieval recompetition proposal, (2) delivery of a MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 update, (3) delivery of the MODIS Atmosphere s new combined Level-2 product, (4) development of an above-cloud precipitable water research algorithm and a multi-layer cloud detection algorithm, (5) continued development of a Fortran 90 version of the retrieval code for use with MAS as well as operational MODIS processing, (6) preliminary analysis of CRYSTAL-FACE field experiment in July 2002, (7) continued analysis of data obtained during the SAFARI 2000 dry season campaign in southern Africa, and the Arctic FIRE-ACE experiment.

  19. Snippet Generation for Geographic Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Norihito; Okumura, Manabu; Matsuura, Yumiko; Kataoka, Ryoji

    Geographic information retrieval (GIR) aims at the retrieval of geographic-related documents based through the use of not only on keyword relevance but also on geographic relationships between the query and the geographic information in the texts. However, how to show search results in GIR has not been studied well, especially with regard to generating snippets that reflect the geographic part of the query. This paper proposes a novel snippet generation method. Our method first converts geographic phrases in the target text into geographic coordinates, then scores each of them according to their distance from the query using the coordinates. Next, it extracts fragments of the target text based on the distribution of the query keyword and geographic scores, and presents the combined fragments as a snippet. Evaluations are conducted with regard to two different aspects. Both attributes confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  20. Hemangiosarcoma in a geriatric Labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Diya

    2012-08-01

    A geriatric Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute collapse. The dog was conscious but lethargic, tachypneic, tachycardic with weak femoral pulses, occasional pulse deficits, and pale mucous membranes. Radiography, ultrasonography, quick assessment tests, and a complete blood (cell) count (CBC)/biochemistry panel indicated internal hemorrhage and potential problems with hemostasis. The dog was euthanized. A necropsy, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Factor VIII-related antigen cell markers supported a diagnosis of splenic hemangiosarcoma. PMID:23372199

  1. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    DOEpatents

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  2. An improved glyoxal retrieval from OMI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarado, L. M. A.; Richter, A.; Vrekoussis, M.; Wittrock, F.; Hilboll, A.; Schreier, S. F.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations from the SCIAMACHY, GOME-2 and OMI spectrometers have been used to retrieve atmospheric columns of glyoxal (CHOCHO) with the DOAS method. High CHOCHO levels were found over regions with large biogenic and pyrogenic emissions, and hot-spots have been identified over areas of anthropogenic activities. This study focuses on the development of an improved retrieval for CHOCHO from measurements by the OMI instrument. From sensitivity tests, a fitting window and a polynomial degree are determined. Two different approaches to reduce the interference of liquid water absorption over oceanic regions are evaluated, achieving significant reduction of the number of negative columns over clear water regions. The impact of using different absorption cross-sections for water vapour is evaluated and only small differences are found. Finally, a high-temperature (boundary layer ambient: 294 K) absorption cross-section of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is introduced in the DOAS retrieval to account for potential interferences of NO2 over regions with large anthropogenic emissions, leading to improved fit quality over these areas. A comparison with vertical CHOCHO columns retrieved from GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY measurements over continental regions is performed, showing overall good consistency. However, SCIAMACHY CHOCHO columns are systematically higher than those obtained from the other instruments. Using the new OMI CHOCHO data set, the link between fires and glyoxal columns is investigated for two selected regions in Africa. In addition, mapped averages are computed for a fire event in Russia between mid-July and mid-August 2010. In both cases, enhanced CHOCHO levels are found in close spatial and temporal proximity to elevated levels of MODIS fire radiative power, demonstrating that pyrogenic emissions can be clearly identified in the new OMI CHOCHO product.

  3. Water sprays in space retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freesland, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a ground based vacuum chamber to determine physical properties of water-ice in a space-like environment. Additional ices, alcohol and ammonia, were also studied. An analytical analysis based on the conservation of angular momentum, resulted in despin performance parameters, i.e., total water mass requirements and despin times. The despin and retrieval of a disabled spacecraft was considered to illustrate a potential application of the water spray technique.

  4. Electronic publishing and intelligent information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europeans are now taking steps to homogenize policies and standardize procedures in electronic publishing (EP) in astronomy and space sciences. This arose from an open meeting organized in Oct. 1991 at Strasbourg Observatory (France) and another business meeting held late Mar. 1992 with the major publishers and journal editors in astronomy and space sciences. The ultimate aim of EP might be considered as the so-called 'intelligent information retrieval' (IIR) or better named 'advanced information retrieval' (AIR), taking advantage of the fact that the material to be published appears at some stage in a machine-readable form. It is obvious that the combination of desktop and electronic publishing with networking and new structuring of knowledge bases will profoundly reshape not only our ways of publishing, but also our procedures of communicating and retrieving information. It should be noted that a world-wide survey among astronomers and space scientists carried out before the October 1991 colloquium on the various packages and machines used, indicated that TEX-related packages were already in majoritarian use in our community. It has also been stressed at each meeting that the European developments should be carried out in collaboration with what is done in the US (STELLAR project, for instance). American scientists and journal editors actually attended both meetings mentioned above. The paper will offer a review of the status of electronic publishing in astronomy and its possible contribution to advanced information retrieval in this field. It will also report on recent meetings such as the 'Astronomy from Large Databases-2 (ALD-2)' conference dealing with the latest developments in networking, in data, information, and knowledge bases, as well as in the related methodologies.

  5. Aerosol property retrieval from geostationary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves

    The Meteosat satellites play an important role for the generation of consistent long time series of aerosol properties. This importance relies on (i) the long duration of past (Meteosat First Generation, MFG) starting in 1982, present (Meteosat Second Generation, MSG) and future (Meteosat Third Generation, MTG) missions and (ii) their frequent cycle of acquisition that can be used to document the anisotropy of the surface and therefore the lower boundary condition for aerosol retrieval over land surfaces. Hence, a similar approach is used for the processing of each Meteosat generation based on a joint retrieval of surface reflectance and aerosol properties using an Optimal Estimation approach. Daily accumulation of the frequent Meteosat observations is used to discriminate the radiative effects that result from the surface anisotropy, from those caused by the aerosol scattering. The inverted forward model explicitly accounts for the surface anisotropy and the multiple scattering for the coupled surface-atmosphere system. Pinty et al. (2000) pioneered with the development of an original method to characterise simultaneously surface anisotropy and atmospheric scattering properties for the processing of MFG. Although these observations are limited to one single large VIS band poorly characterised, the main advantage of MFG relies in the duration of the archive (1982 - 2006), knowing that prior to 2000 space observations were very scarce. Despite these radiometric limitations, it is possible to detect major aerosol events like dust storms, fire plumes or pollution events, even over land surfaces. SEVIRI, on-board MSG, offers additional capabilities with its three solar channels and 15 min repeat cycle. AOD retrieval is much more accurate than with MFG and it is possible to discriminate among various aerosol classes. The additional FCI solar channels on-board MTG will offer improved capabilities with respect to MSG/SEVIRI for the retrieval of aerosol concentration and

  6. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  7. Memory deficits and retrieval processes in ALS.

    PubMed

    Mantovan, M C; Baggio, L; Dalla Barba, G; Smith, P; Pegoraro, E; Soraru', G; Bonometto, P; Angelini, C

    2003-05-01

    Subtle neuropsychological deficits have been described in patients affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) without dementia. Overall, selective impairment in memory function has been reported, but the source of memory impairment in ALS has yet to be defined. We performed neuropsychological screening in 20 ALS patients. Semantic encoding and post-encoding cue effects on the retrieval of word lists were investigated in the ALS patients and normal controls. Severity of memory impairment was correlated to cerebral blood perfusion detected by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). ALS patients showed moderate impairments in frontal and memory tests. Short-term memory was normal, while serial position retrieval of word lists with normal recency effect but poor primacy effect showed long-term memory deficit. ALS patients performed better in cued encoding than in cued post-encoding recall condition. In the cued post-encoding condition, the primacy effect in word list recall improved significantly in controls, but not in ALS patients, as compared with both the free recall and cued encoding conditions. SPECT hypoperfusion was observed in frontal and temporal areas in ALS patients. ALS patients showed a long-term memory deficit which did not improve in cued post-encoding condition as it does for controls. We hypothesize abnormal retrieval processes related to frontal lobe dysfunction which entails difficulties in generating stable long-memory traces at encoding. PMID:12752394

  8. Retrieval monitoring and anosognosia in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gallo, David A; Chen, Jennifer M; Wiseman, Amy L; Schacter, Daniel L; Budson, Andrew E

    2007-09-01

    This study explored the relationship between episodic memory and anosognosia (a lack of deficit awareness) among patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participants studied words and pictures for subsequent memory tests. Healthy older adults made fewer false recognition errors when trying to remember pictures compared with words, suggesting that the perceptual distinctiveness of picture memories enhanced retrieval monitoring (the distinctiveness heuristic). In contrast, although participants with AD could discriminate between studied and nonstudied items, they had difficulty recollecting the specific presentation formats (words or pictures), and they had limited use of the distinctiveness heuristic. Critically, the demands of the memory test modulated the relationship between memory accuracy and anosognosia. Greater anosognosia was associated with impaired memory accuracy when participants with AD tried to remember words but not when they tried to remember pictures. These data further delineate the retrieval monitoring difficulties among individuals with AD and suggest that anosognosia measures are most likely to correlate with memory tests that require the effortful retrieval of nondistinctive information. PMID:17784804

  9. Techniques for Soundscape Retrieval and Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechtley, Brandon Michael

    The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This dissertation examines the application of several computational tools in the realms of digital signal processing, multimedia information retrieval, and computer music synthesis to the analysis of the soundscape. Namely, these tools include a) an open source software library, Sirens, which can be used for the segmentation of long environmental field recordings into individual sonic events and compare these events in terms of acoustic content, b) a graph-based retrieval system that can use these measures of acoustic similarity and measures of semantic similarity using the lexical database WordNet to perform both text-based retrieval and automatic annotation of environmental sounds, and c) new techniques for the dynamic, realtime parametric morphing of multiple field recordings, informed by the geographic paths along which they were recorded.

  10. Differential absorption radar techniques: water vapor retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, Luis; Lebsock, Matthew; Livesey, Nathaniel; Tanelli, Simone

    2016-06-01

    Two radar pulses sent at different frequencies near the 183 GHz water vapor line can be used to determine total column water vapor and water vapor profiles (within clouds or precipitation) exploiting the differential absorption on and off the line. We assess these water vapor measurements by applying a radar instrument simulator to CloudSat pixels and then running end-to-end retrieval simulations. These end-to-end retrievals enable us to fully characterize not only the expected precision but also their potential biases, allowing us to select radar tones that maximize the water vapor signal minimizing potential errors due to spectral variations in the target extinction properties. A hypothetical CloudSat-like instrument with 500 m by ˜ 1 km vertical and horizontal resolution and a minimum detectable signal and radar precision of -30 and 0.16 dBZ, respectively, can estimate total column water vapor with an expected precision of around 0.03 cm, with potential biases smaller than 0.26 cm most of the time, even under rainy conditions. The expected precision for water vapor profiles was found to be around 89 % on average, with potential biases smaller than 77 % most of the time when the profile is being retrieved close to surface but smaller than 38 % above 3 km. By using either horizontal or vertical averaging, the precision will improve vastly, with the measurements still retaining a considerably high vertical and/or horizontal resolution.

  11. Iterative phase retrieval algorithms. I: optimization.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changliang; Liu, Shi; Sheridan, John T

    2015-05-20

    Two modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) iterative phase retrieval algorithms are proposed. The first we refer to as the spatial phase perturbation GS algorithm (SPP GSA). The second is a combined GS hybrid input-output algorithm (GS/HIOA). In this paper (Part I), it is demonstrated that the SPP GS and GS/HIO algorithms are both much better at avoiding stagnation during phase retrieval, allowing them to successfully locate superior solutions compared with either the GS or the HIO algorithms. The performances of the SPP GS and GS/HIO algorithms are also compared. Then, the error reduction (ER) algorithm is combined with the HIO algorithm (ER/HIOA) to retrieve the input object image and the phase, given only some knowledge of its extent and the amplitude in the Fourier domain. In Part II, the algorithms developed here are applied to carry out known plaintext and ciphertext attacks on amplitude encoding and phase encoding double random phase encryption systems. Significantly, ER/HIOA is then used to carry out a ciphertext-only attack on AE DRPE systems. PMID:26192504

  12. Radiative Transfer and Retrievals in EOF Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is a hyperspectral sensor with 8461 spectral channels and a nominal spectral resolution of 0.25 cm(sup -1). It is computationally intensive to perform radiative transfer calculations and inversions using all these channels. We will present a Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) and a retrieval algorithm which perform all the necessary calculations in EOF domain. Since the EOFs are orthogonal to each other, only about 100 principal components are needed to represent the information content of the 8461 channels. The PCRTM provides the EOF coefficients and associated derivatives with respect to atmospheric and surface parameters needed by the inversion algorithm. The inversion algorithm is based on a non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt method with climatology covariance and a priori information as constraints. The retrieved parameters include atmospheric temperature, moisture and ozone profiles, cloud parameters, surface skin temperature, and surface emissivities. To make the retrieval system even more compact and stable. The atmospheric vertical profiles are compressed into the EOF space as well. The surface emissivities are also compressed into EOF space.

  13. Extended query refinement for medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Deserno, Thomas M; Güld, Mark O; Plodowski, Bartosz; Spitzer, Klaus; Wein, Berthold B; Schubert, Henning; Ney, Hermann; Seidl, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    The impact of image pattern recognition on accessing large databases of medical images has recently been explored, and content-based image retrieval (CBIR) in medical applications (IRMA) is researched. At the present, however, the impact of image retrieval on diagnosis is limited, and practical applications are scarce. One reason is the lack of suitable mechanisms for query refinement, in particular, the ability to (1) restore previous session states, (2) combine individual queries by Boolean operators, and (3) provide continuous-valued query refinement. This paper presents a powerful user interface for CBIR that provides all three mechanisms for extended query refinement. The various mechanisms of man-machine interaction during a retrieval session are grouped into four classes: (1) output modules, (2) parameter modules, (3) transaction modules, and (4) process modules, all of which are controlled by a detailed query logging. The query logging is linked to a relational database. Nested loops for interaction provide a maximum of flexibility within a minimum of complexity, as the entire data flow is still controlled within a single Web page. Our approach is implemented to support various modalities, orientations, and body regions using global features that model gray scale, texture, structure, and global shape characteristics. The resulting extended query refinement has a significant impact for medical CBIR applications. PMID:17497197

  14. Retrieving the sources in historical sound recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock-Nannestad, George

    2001-05-01

    Broadly speaking, historical recordings (ca. 1880-1950) are considered low quality, and when they are reissued it is regarded as an improvement when noises are removed, or according to modern psychoacoustic criteria, pushed into frequency bands where they are masked. However, a recording is a report of an acoustic event, and some of the elements or features of the original sounds must have been available to contemporary listeners, or they would not have accepted the recordings in the first place. Similarly, we may want to retrieve these elements, and for that purpose it is important to identify them. The paper points out some of the fundamental elements of the sounds that have been recorded and discusses the degree to which they may be retrieved in modern replay, either directly from original recordings or via signal-processed transfers. Reference is made to work by D. C. Miller based on his early recognition that the recording process transforms the elements it is desired to retrieve. In a similar manner that Miller compensated his recordings for measurement purposes, we may today compensate early recordings for replay purposes. The presentation will be accompanied by very short comparative excerpts of historical sound recordings.

  15. Polar Embedding for Aurora Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Gao, Xinbo; Tian, Qi

    2015-11-01

    Exploring the multimedia techniques to assist scientists for their research is an interesting and meaningful topic. In this paper, we focus on the large-scale aurora image retrieval by leveraging the bag-of-visual words (BoVW) framework. To refine the unsuitable representation and improve the retrieval performance, the BoVW model is modified by embedding the polar information. The superiority of the proposed polar embedding method lies in two aspects. On the one hand, the polar meshing scheme is conducted to determine the interest points, which is more suitable for images captured by circular fisheye lens. Especially for the aurora image, the extracted polar scale-invariant feature transform (polar-SIFT) feature can also reflect the geomagnetic longitude and latitude, and thus facilitates the further data analysis. On the other hand, a binary polar deep local binary pattern (polar-DLBP) descriptor is proposed to enhance the discriminative power of visual words. Together with the 64-bit polar-SIFT code obtained via Hamming embedding, the multifeature index is performed to reduce the impact of false positive matches. Extensive experiments are conducted on the large-scale aurora image data set. The experimental result indicates that the proposed method improves the retrieval accuracy significantly with acceptable efficiency and memory cost. In addition, the effectiveness of the polar-SIFT scheme and polar-DLBP integration are separately demonstrated. PMID:26068312

  16. Expanding Retrieval Practice Promotes Short-Term Retention, but Equally Spaced Retrieval Enhances Long-Term Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2007-01-01

    Expanding retrieval practice (T. K. Landauer & R. A. Bjork, 1978) is regarded as a superior technique for promoting long-term retention relative to equally spaced retrieval practice. In Experiments 1 and 2, the authors found that expanding retrieval practice of vocabulary word pairs produced short-term benefits 10 min after learning, conceptually…

  17. When Does Retrieval Induce Forgetting and when Does It Induce Facilitation? Implications for Retrieval Inhibition, Testing Effect, and Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jason C. K.

    2009-01-01

    Retrieval practice can enhance long-term retention of the tested material (the testing effect), but it can also impair later recall of the nontested material--a phenomenon known as retrieval-induced forgetting (Anderson, M. C., Bjork, R. A., & Bjork, E. L. (1994). "Remembering can cause forgetting: retrieval dynamics in long-term memory." "Journal…

  18. Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, W.J.

    1998-08-11

    This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

  19. Retrieval interval mapping, a tool to optimize the spectral retrieval range in differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, L.; Sihler, H.; Lampel, J.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.

    2012-06-01

    Remote sensing via differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) has become a standard technique to identify and quantify trace gases in the atmosphere. The technique is applied in a variety of configurations, commonly classified into active and passive instruments using artificial and natural light sources, respectively. Platforms range from ground based to satellite instruments and trace-gases are studied in all kinds of different environments. Due to the wide range of measurement conditions, atmospheric compositions and instruments used, a specific challenge of a DOAS retrieval is to optimize the parameters for each specific case and particular trace gas of interest. This becomes especially important when measuring close to the detection limit. A well chosen evaluation wavelength range is crucial to the DOAS technique. It should encompass strong absorption bands of the trace gas of interest in order to maximize the sensitivity of the retrieval, while at the same time minimizing absorption structures of other trace gases and thus potential interferences. Also, instrumental limitations and wavelength depending sources of errors (e.g. insufficient corrections for the Ring effect and cross correlations between trace gas cross sections) need to be taken into account. Most often, not all of these requirements can be fulfilled simultaneously and a compromise needs to be found depending on the conditions at hand. Although for many trace gases the overall dependence of common DOAS retrieval on the evaluation wavelength interval is known, a systematic approach to find the optimal retrieval wavelength range and qualitative assessment is missing. Here we present a novel tool to determine the optimal evaluation wavelength range. It is based on mapping retrieved values in the retrieval wavelength space and thus visualize the consequence of different choices of retrieval spectral ranges, e.g. caused by slightly erroneous absorption cross sections, cross correlations and

  20. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  1. Implementation of Cloud Retrievals for Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Atmospheric Retrievals: Part 1. Description and Characterization of Errors on Trace Gas Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulawik, Susan S.; Worden, John; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin; Gunson, Michael; Osterman, Gregory B.; Zhang, Lin; Clough, Shepard A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Beer, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    We develop an approach to estimate and characterize trace gas retrievals in the presence of clouds in high spectral measurements of upwelling radiance in the infrared spectral region (650-2260/cm). The radiance contribution of clouds is parameterized in terms of a set of frequency-dependent nonscattering optical depths and a cloud height. These cloud parameters are retrieved jointly with surface temperature, emissivity, atmospheric temperature, and trace gases such as ozone from spectral data. We demonstrate the application of this approach using data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and test data simulated with a scattering radiative transfer model. We show the value of this approach in that it results in accurate estimates of errors for trace gas retrievals, and the retrieved values improve over the initial guess for a wide range of cloud conditions. Comparisons are made between TES retrievals of ozone, temperature, and water to model fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), temperature retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), tropospheric ozone columns from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) GEOS-Chem, and ozone retrievals from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). In each of these cases, this cloud retrieval approach does not introduce observable biases into TES retrievals.

  2. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a - possibly unfinished - care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task. PMID:26099735

  3. Extinction learning, which consists of the inhibition of retrieval, can be learned without retrieval

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Schmidt, Bianca; Ferreira, Flávia; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we test the hypothesis that extinction is not a consequence of retrieval in unreinforced conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation but the mere perception of the CS in the absence of a conditioned response. Animals with cannulae implanted in the CA1 region of hippocampus were subjected to extinction of contextual fear conditioning. Muscimol infused intra-CA1 before an extinction training session of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) blocks retrieval but not consolidation of extinction measured 24 h later. Additionally, this inhibition of retrieval does not affect early persistence of extinction when tested 7 d later or its spontaneous recovery after 2 wk. Furthermore, both anisomycin, an inhibitor of ribosomal protein synthesis, and rapamycin, an inhibitor of extraribosomal protein synthesis, given into the CA1, impair extinction of CFC regardless of whether its retrieval was blocked by muscimol. Therefore, retrieval performance in the first unreinforced session is not necessary for the installation, maintenance, or spontaneous recovery of extinction of CFC. PMID:25550507

  4. Sensitivity Analysis for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) CO2 Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a thermal infrared sensor able to retrieve the daily atmospheric state globally for clear as well as partially cloudy field-of-views. The AIRS spectrometer has 2378 channels sensing from 15.4 micrometers to 3.7 micrometers, of which a small subset in the 15 micrometers region has been selected, to date, for CO2 retrieval. To improve upon the current retrieval method, we extended the retrieval calculations to include a prior estimate component and developed a channel ranking system to optimize the channels and number of channels used. The channel ranking system uses a mathematical formalism to rapidly process and assess the retrieval potential of large numbers of channels. Implementing this system, we identifed a larger optimized subset of AIRS channels that can decrease retrieval errors and minimize the overall sensitivity to other iridescent contributors, such as water vapor, ozone, and atmospheric temperature. This methodology selects channels globally by accounting for the latitudinal, longitudinal, and seasonal dependencies of the subset. The new methodology increases accuracy in AIRS CO2 as well as other retrievals and enables the extension of retrieved CO2 vertical profiles to altitudes ranging from the lower troposphere to upper stratosphere. The extended retrieval method for CO2 vertical profile estimation using a maximum-likelihood estimation method. We use model data to demonstrate the beneficial impact of the extended retrieval method using the new channel ranking system on CO2 retrieval.

  5. Surface Emissivity Effects on Thermodynamic Retrieval of IR Spectral Radiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu

    2006-01-01

    The surface emissivity effect on the thermodynamic parameters (e.g., the surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture) retrieved from satellite infrared (IR) spectral radiance is studied. Simulation analysis demonstrates that surface emissivity plays an important role in retrieval of surface skin temperature and terrestrial boundary layer (TBL) moisture. NAST-I ultraspectral data collected during the CLAMS field campaign are used to retrieve thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere and surface. The retrievals are then validated by coincident in-situ measurements, such as sea surface temperature, radiosonde temperature and moisture profiles. Retrieved surface emissivity is also validated by that computed from the observed radiance and calculated emissions based on the retrievals of surface temperature and atmospheric profiles. In addition, retrieved surface skin temperature and emissivity are validated together by radiance comparison between the observation and retrieval-based calculation in the window region where atmospheric contribution is minimized. Both simulation and validation results have lead to the conclusion that variable surface emissivity in the inversion process is needed to obtain accurate retrievals from satellite IR spectral radiance measurements. Retrieval examples are presented to reveal that surface emissivity plays a significant role in retrieving accurate surface skin temperature and TBL thermodynamic parameters.

  6. Effortful retrieval reduces hippocampal activity and impairs incidental encoding.

    PubMed

    Reas, Emilie T; Brewer, James B

    2013-05-01

    Functional imaging studies frequently report that the hippocampus is engaged by successful episodic memory retrieval. However, considering that concurrent encoding of the background environment occurs during retrieval and influences medial temporal lobe activity, it is plausible that hippocampal encoding functions are reduced with increased attentional engagement during effortful retrieval. Expanding upon evidence that retrieval efforts suppress activity in hippocampal regions implicated in encoding, this study examines the influence of retrieval effort on encoding performance and the interactive effects of encoding and retrieval on hippocampal and neocortical activity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while subjects performed a word recognition task with incidental picture encoding. Both lower memory strength and increased search duration were associated with encoding failure and reduced hippocampal and default network activity. Activity in the anterior hippocampus tracked encoding, which was more strongly deactivated when incidental encoding was unsuccessful. These findings highlight potential contributions from background encoding processes to hippocampal activations during neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval. PMID:23378272

  7. AX Tank Farm waste retrieval alternatives cost estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Krieg, S.A.

    1998-07-21

    This report presents the estimated costs associated with retrieval of the wastes from the four tanks in AX Tank Farm. The engineering cost estimates developed for this report are based on previous cost data prepared for Project W-320 and the HTI 241-C-106 Heel Retrieval System. The costs presented in this report address only the retrieval of the wastes from the four AX Farm tanks. This includes costs for equipment procurement, fabrication, installation, and operation to retrieve the wastes. The costs to modify the existing plant equipment and systems to support the retrieval equipment are also included. The estimates do not include operational costs associated with pumping the waste out of the waste receiver tank (241-AY-102) between AX Farm retrieval campaigns or transportation, processing, and disposal of the retrieved waste.

  8. Throw-away digits fast retrieval engines: New concepts in data storage and retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnai, A. )

    1990-02-01

    Although a great deal has been written about emerging optical technologies, the resultant cheap, fast, and large-scale data storage and retrieval techniques are becoming apparent only with increased use. Two of these - throw-away digits and fast retrieval engines - can be a boost to microcomputer mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Only quasi-instant access (minutes if not seconds) of a very generous medium (less than 1.5 Gb, 1,500 Mb) will allow corporate vendor, and government data banks to be used effectively by a growing and increasingly sophisticated user base of professionals and technicians. The ability to put digits on optical media, however, dwarfs the number of applications that effectively retrieve needles from gigabyte haystacks.

  9. Ranked retrieval of Computational Biology models

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The study of biological systems demands computational support. If targeting a biological problem, the reuse of existing computational models can save time and effort. Deciding for potentially suitable models, however, becomes more challenging with the increasing number of computational models available, and even more when considering the models' growing complexity. Firstly, among a set of potential model candidates it is difficult to decide for the model that best suits ones needs. Secondly, it is hard to grasp the nature of an unknown model listed in a search result set, and to judge how well it fits for the particular problem one has in mind. Results Here we present an improved search approach for computational models of biological processes. It is based on existing retrieval and ranking methods from Information Retrieval. The approach incorporates annotations suggested by MIRIAM, and additional meta-information. It is now part of the search engine of BioModels Database, a standard repository for computational models. Conclusions The introduced concept and implementation are, to our knowledge, the first application of Information Retrieval techniques on model search in Computational Systems Biology. Using the example of BioModels Database, it was shown that the approach is feasible and extends the current possibilities to search for relevant models. The advantages of our system over existing solutions are that we incorporate a rich set of meta-information, and that we provide the user with a relevance ranking of the models found for a query. Better search capabilities in model databases are expected to have a positive effect on the reuse of existing models. PMID:20701772

  10. Elf studies retrievable packers for HPHT wells

    SciTech Connect

    Fennell, B. ); Henderson, D. )

    1994-10-01

    In the past, HPHT conditions--temperatures greater than 300 F, pressures greater than 10,000 psi and tubing-to-packer loads greater than 100,000 lb--ruled out use of retrievable production packers. However, new technology is increasing their operating envelope. Choosing a permanent packer, retrievable packer; inflatable packer, polished bore receptacle (PBR) or packerless completion is a fundamental question at the start of any completion design. The answer has immense impact, not only on the rest of the completion, but also on the casing architecture. Certain options can be ruled out immediately, depending on the type of well being completed. In the case of high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) wells, the choice has traditionally been limited to PBR or permanent packer completions. Although use of field-proven equipment is highly recommended, particularly in severe environments, completion design should not always be (and in some cases, cannot be) confined to the use of what currently exists. Depending on project magnitude and timing, the best approach is to clearly define completion goals and then satisfy those requirements. This process can have three possible end results: an ideal match between requirements and existing equipment; the decision to use only existing equipment at the expense of completion performance; development of new equipment. Elf Aquitaine Production took this approach when considering how to complete their future severe-condition fields. Several completion requirements/philosophies were stated, assuming an ideal world whereby equipment either existed or could be designed to meet the requirements. Depending on field conditions, PBR, retrievable packer or permanent packer completions can satisfy these philosophies.

  11. Neuromodulatory signaling in hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Considerable advances have been made toward understanding the molecular signaling events that underlie memory acquisition and consolidation. In contrast, less is known about memory retrieval, despite its necessity for utilizing learned information. This review focuses on neuromodulatory and intracellular signaling events that underlie memory retrieval mediated by the hippocampus, for which the most information is currently available. Among neuromodulators, adrenergic signaling is required for the retrieval of various types of hippocampus-dependent memory. Although they contribute to acquisition and/or consolidation, cholinergic and dopaminergic signaling are generally not required for retrieval. Interestingly, while not required for retrieval, serotonergic and opioid signaling may actually constrain memory retrieval. Roles for histamine and non-opioid neuropeptides are currently unclear but possible. A critical effector of adrenergic signaling in retrieval is reduction of the slow afterhyperpolarization mediated by β1 receptors, cyclic AMP, protein kinase A, Epac, and possibly ERK. In contrast, stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval by decreasing cyclic AMP, mediated in part by the activation of β2 -adrenergic receptors. Clinically, alterations in neuromodulatory signaling and in memory retrieval occur in Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder, and recent evidence has begun to link changes in neuromodulatory signaling with effects on memory retrieval. PMID:25475876

  12. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  13. Geosemantic Information Retrieval Using a Geoontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Currently, most users prefer searching for the information using the more convenient and dynamic mobile information retrieval services to using the existing desktop PC services in the limited space, according as a lot of mobile terminals have been provided with the development of a variety of techniques. Information retrieval service using the mobile terminals has the strength that provides the personalized information results related to the users' information request anytime and anywhere, considering the users' mobility and portability. Therefore, for the information retrieval using the mobile devices I need the context awareness techniques which have been researched actively. In this thesis, I developed the context awareness ontology model for Geotourism as the representative method of the context awareness techniques to predict the user's interest and foresee the information about which retrieval results and which places the user want to get. The proposed Geotour ontology model is extended and designed from W3C Time Ontology defined in the international standards and spatial geometry feature ontology supported by OGC GeoSPARQL, so it can provide the usability and the function. That is, GeotourFeature class is the subclass of ogc:Feature defined in OGC as in Figure 1. GeotourTime class which is for expressing temporal information of a certain Geotour features is the subclass of TemporalThing of W3C. Figure 1: Relationship between the international standard ontology and the geotour ontology model A Geotour features and a geotour map describes a part of ontology to represent the GeotourFeature composed of GeotourTime class and GeotourLocation class. The highest class to represent GeotourTime and GeotourLocation is GeotourFeature class. As mentioned in the previous section, our model inherited the temporal ontology of W3C. Figure 2 describes a part of ontology to represent the GeotourFeature composed of GeotourTime class and GeotourLocation class. The highest class

  14. Retrieval Algorithms for the Halogen Occultation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert E.; Gordley, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) provided high quality measurements of key middle atmosphere constituents, aerosol characteristics, and temperature for 14 years (1991-2005). This report is an outline of the Level 2 retrieval algorithms, and it also describes the great care that was taken in characterizing the instrument prior to launch and throughout its mission life. It represents an historical record of the techniques used to analyze the data and of the steps that must be considered for the development of a similar experiment for future satellite missions.

  15. Achievements in optical data storage and retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. H.; Shuman, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper deals with the current achievements in two technology efforts, one of which is a wideband holographic recorder which uses multichannel recording of data in the form of holograms on roll film for storage and retrieval of large unit records at hundreds of megabit per second. The second effort involves a system (termed DIGIMEN) which uses binary spot recording on photographic film in the form of microfiche to provide a mass storage capability with automatic computer-controlled random access to stored records. Some potential design improvements are noted.

  16. Data and data retrieval in space astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    To illustrate the range of storage and retrieval facilities and data products that are involved in space astronomy, the present situation on data from some instruments on the following missions is presented: Small Astronomy Satellite-B, Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 3, High Energy Astrophysics Observatory 2, International Ultraviolet Explorer, Viking Orbiter, and Solar Maximum Mission. In addition, the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops conducted at the National Space Science Data Center are outlined to demonstrate the usefulness of building a problem-oriented on-line data base from instruments flown on a number of spacecraft and operating from ground-based facilities.

  17. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  18. The concept of a retrievable microgravity platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtermann, E.

    1982-10-01

    The retrievable microgravity platform of the EURECA project and its working load are discussed. The hardware is described, especially that used in the solar generator and the propulsion system. The platform consists of a unit structure, which helps to hold down costs. The heat budget is separate and autonomous, permitting increased flexibility in the choice and organization of the working load. The system requires extensive installation of regulated heat pipes and heat pipe radiators. Data processing and telemetry are specially adapted for controlling and steering during orbital flight, positioning, and docking. The proposed MSF nuclear working load contains smelting ovens and an automatic sample changer.

  19. Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval Under Trees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Lang, R.; Kurum, M.; Joseph, A.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil moisture is recognized as an important component of the water, energy, and carbon cycles at the interface between the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Current baseline soil moisture retrieval algorithms for microwave space missions have been developed and validated only over grasslands, agricultural crops, and generally light to moderate vegetation. Tree areas have commonly been excluded from operational soil moisture retrieval plans due to the large expected impact of trees on masking the microwave response to the underlying soil moisture. Our understanding of the microwave properties of trees of various sizes and their effect on soil moisture retrieval algorithms at L band is presently limited, although research efforts are ongoing in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere to remedy this situation. As part of this research, a coordinated sequence of field measurements involving the ComRAD (for Combined Radar/Radiometer) active/passive microwave truck instrument system has been undertaken. Jointly developed and operated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and George Washington University, ComRAD consists of dual-polarized 1.4 GHz total-power radiometers (LH, LV) and a quad-polarized 1.25 GHz L band radar sharing a single parabolic dish antenna with a novel broadband stacked patch dual-polarized feed, a quad-polarized 4.75 GHz C band radar, and a single channel 10 GHz XHH radar. The instruments are deployed on a mobile truck with an 19-m hydraulic boom and share common control software; real-time calibrated signals, and the capability for automated data collection for unattended operation. Most microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms developed for use at L band frequencies are based on the tau-omega model, a simplified zero-order radiative transfer approach where scattering is largely ignored and vegetation canopies are generally treated as a bulk attenuating layer. In this approach, vegetation effects are parameterized by tau and omega, the microwave

  20. Test Objectives for the Saltcake Dissolution Retrieval Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    DEFIGH PRICE, C.

    2000-09-22

    This document describes the objectives the Saltcake Dissolution Retrieval Demonstration. The near term strategy for single-shell tank waste retrieval activities has shifted from focusing on maximizing the number of tanks entered for retrieval (regardless of waste volume or content) to a focus on scheduling the retrieval of wastes from those single-shell tanks with a high volume of contaminants of concern. These contaminants are defined as mobile, long-lived radionuclides that have a potential of reaching the groundwater and the Columbia River. This strategy also focuses on the performance of key retrieval technology demonstrations, including the Saltcake Dissolution Retrieval Demonstration, in a variety of waste forms and tank farm locations to establish a technical basis for future work. The work scope will also focus on the performance of risk assessment, retrieval performance evaluations (RPE) and incorporating vadose zone characterization data on a tank-by-tank basis, and on updating tank farm closure/post closure work plans. The deployment of a retrieval technology other than Past-Practice Sluicing (PPS) allows determination of limits of technical capabilities, as well as, providing a solid planning basis for future SST retrievals. This saltcake dissolution technology deployment test will determine if saltcake dissolution is a viable retrieval option for SST retrieval. CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG) recognizes the SST retrieval mission is key to the success of the River Protection Project (RPP) and the overall completion of the Hanford Site cleanup. The objectives outlined in this document will be incorporated into and used to develop the test and evaluation plan for saltcake dissolution retrievals. The test and evaluation plan will be developed in fiscal year 2001.

  1. Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einstein, Gilles O.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Thomas, Ruthann; Mayfield, Sara; Shank, Hilary; Morrisette, Nova; Breneiser, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1-4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on…

  2. Intelligent Interfaces and Retrieval Methods for Subject Searching in Bibliographic Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildreth, Charles R.

    This study was designed to be a state-of-the-art survey and investigation of intelligent "front end" design approaches and software for improving subject access and subject searching in today's large online bibliographic retrieval systems and online public access catalogs (OPACS). The report begins with an illustrated overview of retrieval…

  3. Contributions of the Medial Temporal Lobe to Declarative Memory Retrieval: Manipulating the Amount of Contextual Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tendolkar, Indira; Arnold, Jennifer; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Weis, Susanne; Brockhaus-Dumke, Anke; van Eijndhoven, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernandez, Guillen

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how the hippocampus and its adjacent mediotemporal structures contribute to contextual and noncontextual declarative memory retrieval by manipulating the amount of contextual information across two levels of the same contextual dimension in a source memory task. A first analysis identified medial temporal lobe (MTL) substructures…

  4. Using radiance of cloud shadow for retrieve Investigation of AOD retrieval with Himawari-8 satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ta-Min; Chang, Yuan-Hsiang; Chang, Kuo-En; Lin, Tang-Huang

    2016-04-01

    As we know, the emission of pollutants, such as dust storm, biomass burning and anthropogenic pollution are serious issues related to the environmental change and human health topics in Asia. With the high temporal observation over a broad area, the new generated geostationary satellite, Himawari-8 (H-8) seems to be a good choice for atmospheric pollution monitor. It can provide the observation over Asia with 16 bands in visible and thermal infrared spectral every 10 minutes. For the atmospheric pollutant monitor by means of remote sensing, the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) is the most important index. In this study, the long method is employed for AOD retrieval which depends on the path radiance significantly. Apparent radiance of the suitable cloud shadow is selected as the path radiance. In order to let the atmospheric pollution monitor is used efficiently, so the distribution of the path radiance is using the objective analysis to expand it. The results of AOD retrieval from H-8 visible data are well consistent with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) AOD products and ground measurements AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Networks), indicating the practical of proposed approach for the AOD retrieval with H-8 data.

  5. Information Storage and Retrieval. Reports on Analysis, Search, and Iterative Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    As the fourteenth report in a series describing research in automatic information storage and retrieval, this document covers work carried out on the SMART project for approximately one year (summer 1967 to summer 1968). The document is divided into four main parts: (1) SMART systems design, (2) analysis and search experiments, (3) user feedback…

  6. Modeling the Retrieval Process for an Information Retrieval System Using an Ordinal Fuzzy Linguistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera-Viedma, E.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a linguistic model for an Information Retrieval System (IRS) defined using an ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach. The query subsystem accepts Boolean queries with terms weighted by ordinal linguistic values and the evaluation subsystem returns documents arranged in relevance classes labeled with ordinal linguistic values. The system gives…

  7. Does retrieval intentionality really matter? Similarities and differences between involuntary memories and directly and generatively retrieved voluntary memories.

    PubMed

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2016-08-01

    Theories of autobiographical memory distinguish between involuntary and voluntary retrieval as a consequence of conscious intention (i.e., wanting to remember). Another distinction can be made between direct and generative retrieval, which reflects the effort involved (i.e., trying to remember). However, it is unclear how intention and effort interacts. For example, involuntary memories and directly retrieved memories have been used interchangeably in the literature to refer to the same phenomenon of effortless, non-strategic retrieval. More recent theoretical advances suggest that they are separate types of retrieval, one unintentional (involuntary), another intentional and effortless (direct voluntary retrieval), and a third intentional and effortful (generative voluntary retrieval). Whether this also entails differing phenomenological characteristics, such as vividness, rehearsal, or emotional valence, has not been previously investigated. In the current study, participants reported memories in an experimental paradigm designed to elicit voluntary and involuntary memories and rated them on a number of characteristics. If intention affects the retrieval process, then we should expect differences between the characteristics of involuntary and directly retrieved memories. The results imply that retrieval intention seems to differentiate how a memory appears in a person's mind. Furthermore, we argue that these differences in part could result from differences in encoding and consolidation. PMID:26514399

  8. The 183-WSL fast rain rate retrieval algorithm: Part I: Retrieval design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2011-03-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) fast retrieval method retrieves rain rates and classifies precipitation types for applications in nowcasting and weather monitoring. The retrieval scheme consists of two fast algorithms, over land and over ocean, that use the water vapour absorption lines at 183.31 GHz corresponding to the channels 3 (183.31 ± 1 GHz), 4 (183.31 ± 3 GHz) and 5 (183.31 ± 7 GHz) of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The method retrieves rain rates by exploiting the extinction of radiation due to rain drops following four subsequent steps. After ingesting the satellite data stream, the window channels at 89 and 150 GHz are used to compute scattering-based thresholds and the 183-WSLW module for rainfall area discrimination and precipitation type classification as stratiform or convective on the basis of the thresholds calculated for land/mixed and sea surfaces. The thresholds are based on the brightness temperature difference Δwin = TB89 - TB150 and are different over land (L) and over sea (S): cloud droplets and water vapour (Δwin < 3 K L; Δwin < 0 K S), stratiform rain (3 K < Δwin < 10 K L; 0 K < Δwin < 10 K S), and convective rain (Δwin > 10 K L and S). The thresholds, initially empirically derived from observations, are corroborated by the simulations of the RTTOV radiative transfer model applied to 20000 ECMWF atmospheric profiles at midlatitudes and the use of data from the Nimrod radar network. A snow cover mask and a digital elevation model are used to eliminate false rain area attribution, especially over elevated terrain. A probability of detection logistic function is also applied in the transition region from no-rain to rain adjacent to the clouds to ensure continuity of the rainfall field. Finally, the last step is dedicated to the rain rate retrieval with the modules 183-WSLS (stratiform

  9. Efficient Methods to Assimilate Satellite Retrievals Based on Information Content. Part 2; Suboptimal Retrieval Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Dee, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in data assimilation has been and continues to be how best to utilize satellite data while balancing the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost. A number of weather prediction centers have recently achieved remarkable success in improving their forecast skill by changing the method by which satellite data are assimilated into the forecast model from the traditional approach of assimilating retrievals to the direct assimilation of radiances in a variational framework. The operational implementation of such a substantial change in methodology involves a great number of technical details, e.g., pertaining to quality control procedures, systematic error correction techniques, and tuning of the statistical parameters in the analysis algorithm. Although there are clear theoretical advantages to the direct radiance assimilation approach, it is not obvious at all to what extent the improvements that have been obtained so far can be attributed to the change in methodology, or to various technical aspects of the implementation. The issue is of interest because retrieval assimilation retains many practical and logistical advantages which may become even more significant in the near future when increasingly high-volume data sources become available. The central question we address here is: how much improvement can we expect from assimilating radiances rather than retrievals, all other things being equal? We compare the two approaches in a simplified one-dimensional theoretical framework, in which problems related to quality control and systematic error correction are conveniently absent. By assuming a perfect radiative transfer model and perfect knowledge of radiance and background error covariances, we are able to formulate a nonlinear local error analysis for each assimilation method. Direct radiance assimilation is optimal in this idealized context, while the traditional method of assimilating retrievals is suboptimal because it

  10. Quantitative Phase Retrieval in Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Robert Alexander

    Phase retrieval in the transmission electron microscope offers the unique potential to collect quantitative data regarding the electric and magnetic properties of materials at the nanoscale. Substantial progress in the field of quantitative phase imaging was made by improvements to the technique of off-axis electron holography. In this thesis, several breakthroughs have been achieved that improve the quantitative analysis of phase retrieval. An accurate means of measuring the electron wavefront coherence in two-dimensions was developed and pratical applications demonstrated. The detector modulation-transfer function (MTF) was assessed by slanted-edge, noise, and the novel holographic techniques. It was shown the traditional slanted-edge technique underestimates the MTF. In addition, progress was made in dark and gain reference normalization of images, and it was shown that incomplete read-out is a concern for slow-scan CCD detectors. Last, the phase error due to electron shot noise was reduced by the technique of summation of hologram series. The phase error, which limits the finest electric and magnetic phenomena which can be investigated, was reduced by over 900 % with no loss of spatial resolution. Quantitative agreement between the experimental root-mean-square phase error and the analytical prediction of phase error was achieved.

  11. Passive microwave retrieval of land surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owe, Manfred; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Holmes, Thomas R. H.

    2006-05-01

    A methodology for retrieving land surface properties from passive microwave observations is presented. Dual polarization microwave brightness temperature data, together with a simple radiative transfer model are used to derive surface soil moisture and vegetation optical depth simultaneously, in a non linear optimization procedure using a forward modeling approach. Soil temperature is derived off-line with a common heat flow model, driven by high frequency vertical polarization microwave data and remotely sensed observations of net radiation. The methodology does not require any field observations of soil moisture or canopy biophysical properties for calibration purposes and is independent of wavelength. Remote sensing provides an excellent opportunity to monitor and gather environmental data in regions that have little or no instrumentation. Moreover, microwave technology provides a more all-weather capability than is typically afforded with visible and near infrared wavelengths. The model was developed for regional- to global-scale monitoring and related environmental applications such as surface energy balance modelling, numerical weather prediction, flood and drought forecasting, and climate change studies. However, at higher spatial resolutions, which would be possible with aircraft, especially unmanned vehicles, tactical applications may be realized as well. Retrieval results compare well with field observations of soil moisture and satellite-derived vegetation index data from optical sensors.

  12. MARS: Microarray analysis, retrieval, and storage system

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Michael; Molidor, Robert; Sturn, Alexander; Hartler, Juergen; Hackl, Hubert; Stocker, Gernot; Prokesch, Andreas; Scheideler, Marcel; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray analysis has become a widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale. As more and more laboratories are adopting microarray technology, there is a need for powerful and easy to use microarray databases facilitating array fabrication, labeling, hybridization, and data analysis. The wealth of data generated by this high throughput approach renders adequate database and analysis tools crucial for the pursuit of insights into the transcriptomic behavior of cells. Results MARS (Microarray Analysis and Retrieval System) provides a comprehensive MIAME supportive suite for storing, retrieving, and analyzing multi color microarray data. The system comprises a laboratory information management system (LIMS), a quality control management, as well as a sophisticated user management system. MARS is fully integrated into an analytical pipeline of microarray image analysis, normalization, gene expression clustering, and mapping of gene expression data onto biological pathways. The incorporation of ontologies and the use of MAGE-ML enables an export of studies stored in MARS to public repositories and other databases accepting these documents. Conclusion We have developed an integrated system tailored to serve the specific needs of microarray based research projects using a unique fusion of Web based and standalone applications connected to the latest J2EE application server technology. The presented system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions. More information can be found at . PMID:15836795

  13. Multiple-encoding retrieval for optical security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, John Fredy; Henao, Rodrigo; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Néstor

    2007-08-01

    We propose a method for image encryption by multiple-step random phase encoding with an undercover multiplexing operation. The true image is stored in a multiple record we call encodegram; and then we can reconstruct it by the use of the appropriate random phase masks and a retrieval protocol. To increase the security of the true hidden image and confuse unauthorized receivers, we add to the encodegram an encoded fake image with different content. This fake image has only a small effect on the retrieval of the true hidden image, owing to the specific property of this protocol. In the decryption step, we can reveal the true image by applying the inverse protocol to two cyphertexts, one the encodegram containing the true image along with the fake image; and the other helping to get the random phase key to achieve the true image. Computer simulations verify the validity of this method for image encryption. Digital implementation of the method makes it particularly suitable for the remote transmission of information.

  14. Storage and retrieval of nuclear test data

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report is a part of the Test Information Program (TIP) at Sandia National Laboratories. It is an interim report, written primarily as an instruction document to aid in current work on the project. It addresses some found in storing and retrieving data from nuclear field tests conducted over the past five decades, primarily instrumentation data recorded from tests at the Nevada Test Site. First, the TIP data unit for storing and transporting TIP data is described. The data in the TIP data unit is typically recorded in a universal medium such as the portable optical or magnetic disk, or the tape cassette. Each TIP data unit is portable, and is also self-contained in the sense that it includes a set of related test data files, along with complete instructions and software for retrieval of the data by an unknown user, possibly on an unknown platform. Secondly, we describe the use of current software for compressing and waveform data, for authenticating and checking for errors in data processing files to be used on foreign platforms.

  15. New Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.; Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun- synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  16. New Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platnick, Steven; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ackerman, Steven A.; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.; Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. T.; King, Michael D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 micrometers with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). These bands have been carefully selected to enable advanced studies of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes. In this paper I will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of cloud drops and ice crystals. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  17. a Distributed Polygon Retrieval Algorithm Using Mapreduce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Q.; Palanisamy, B.; Karimi, H. A.

    2015-07-01

    The burst of large-scale spatial terrain data due to the proliferation of data acquisition devices like 3D laser scanners poses challenges to spatial data analysis and computation. Among many spatial analyses and computations, polygon retrieval is a fundamental operation which is often performed under real-time constraints. However, existing sequential algorithms fail to meet this demand for larger sizes of terrain data. Motivated by the MapReduce programming model, a well-adopted large-scale parallel data processing technique, we present a MapReduce-based polygon retrieval algorithm designed with the objective of reducing the IO and CPU loads of spatial data processing. By indexing the data based on a quad-tree approach, a significant amount of unneeded data is filtered in the filtering stage and it reduces the IO overhead. The indexed data also facilitates querying the relationship between the terrain data and query area in shorter time. The results of the experiments performed in our Hadoop cluster demonstrate that our algorithm performs significantly better than the existing distributed algorithms.

  18. CART—a chemical annotation retrieval toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Deghou, Samy; Zeller, Georg; Iskar, Murat; Driessen, Marja; Castillo, Mercedes; van Noort, Vera; Bork, Peer

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Data on bioactivities of drug-like chemicals are rapidly accumulating in public repositories, creating new opportunities for research in computational systems pharmacology. However, integrative analysis of these data sets is difficult due to prevailing ambiguity between chemical names and identifiers and a lack of cross-references between databases. Results: To address this challenge, we have developed CART, a Chemical Annotation Retrieval Toolkit. As a key functionality, it matches an input list of chemical names into a comprehensive reference space to assign unambiguous chemical identifiers. In this unified space, bioactivity annotations can be easily retrieved from databases covering a wide variety of chemical effects on biological systems. Subsequently, CART can determine annotations enriched in the input set of chemicals and display these in tabular format and interactive network visualizations, thereby facilitating integrative analysis of chemical bioactivity data. Availability and Implementation: CART is available as a Galaxy web service (cart.embl.de). Source code and an easy-to-install command line tool can also be obtained from the web site. Contact: bork@embl.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27256313

  19. Small Waste Tank Sampling and Retrieval System

    SciTech Connect

    Magleby, Mary Theresa

    2002-08-01

    At the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), four 1500-gal catch tanks were found to contain RCRAhazardous waste. A system was needed to obtain a representative sample of the liquid, as well as the hardpacked heels, and to ultimately homogenize and remove the tank contents for disposal. After surveying the available technologies, the AEA Fluidic Pulse Mixing and Retrieval System was chosen for a technology demonstration. A demonstration, conducted with nonhazardous surrogate material, proved that the system was capable of loosening the hard-packed heel, homogenizing the entire tank contents, and collecting a representative sample. Based on the success of the demonstration, a detailed evaluation was done to determine the applicability of the system to other tanks. The evaluation included the sorting of data on more than 700 tanks to select candidates for further deployment of the system. A detailed study was also done to determine if the purchase of a second system would be cost effective. The results of the evaluation indicated that a total of thirteen tanks at the INEEL are amenable to sampling and/or remediation using the AEA Fluidic Pulse Mixing and Retrieval System. Although the currently-owned system appears sufficient for the needs of one INEEL program, it is insufficient to meet the combined needs at the INEEL. The INEEL will commence operation of the system on the TRA-730 Catch Tank System in June 2002.

  20. Automatic query formulations in information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Salton, G; Buckley, C; Fox, E A

    1983-07-01

    Modern information retrieval systems are designed to supply relevant information in response to requests received from the user population. In most retrieval environments the search requests consist of keywords, or index terms, interrelated by appropriate Boolean operators. Since it is difficult for untrained users to generate effective Boolean search requests, trained search intermediaries are normally used to translate original statements of user need into useful Boolean search formulations. Methods are introduced in this study which reduce the role of the search intermediaries by making it possible to generate Boolean search formulations completely automatically from natural language statements provided by the system patrons. Frequency considerations are used automatically to generate appropriate term combinations as well as Boolean connectives relating the terms. Methods are covered to produce automatic query formulations both in a standard Boolean logic system, as well as in an extended Boolean system in which the strict interpretation of the connectives is relaxed. Experimental results are supplied to evaluate the effectiveness of the automatic query formulation process, and methods are described for applying the automatic query formulation process in practice. PMID:10299297

  1. Embedding and retrieving private metadata in electrocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Kozat, Suleyman S; Vlachos, Michail; Lucchese, Claudio; Van Herle, Helga; Yu, Philip S

    2009-08-01

    Due to the recent explosion of 'identity theft' cases, the safeguarding of private data has been the focus of many scientific efforts. Medical data contain a number of sensitive attributes, whose access the rightful owner would ideally like to disclose only to authorized personnel. One way of providing limited access to sensitive data is through means of encryption. In this work we follow a different path, by proposing the fusion of the sensitive metadata within the medical data. Our work is focused on medical time-series signals and in particular on Electrocardiograms (ECG). We present techniques that allow the embedding and retrieval of sensitive numerical data, such as the patient's social security number or birth date, within the medical signal. The proposed technique not only allows the effective hiding of the sensitive metadata within the signal itself, but it additionally provides a way of authenticating the data ownership or providing assurances about the origin of the data. Our methodology builds upon watermarking notions, and presents the following desirable characteristics: (a) it does not distort important ECG characteristics, which are essential for proper medical diagnosis, (b) it allows not only the embedding but also the efficient retrieval of the embedded data, (c) it provides resilience and fault tolerance by employing multistage watermarks (both robust and fragile). Our experiments on real ECG data indicate the viability of the proposed scheme. PMID:19697691

  2. Geographic Information Retrieval for Just Your Surroundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Norihito; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Geographic information retrieval (GIR) is a new research area that aims at the retrieval of geographic-related documents based not only on keyword relevance but also on geographic relationships between the query and the geographic information in texts. It is natural for people to want information related to just their surroundings. Conventional GIR systems, however, have relatively poor granularity, such as city or province, because they use geographic information in restricted ways -- mostly just for filtering. To address this problem, we propose a geographic scoring method that considers extent implied by each geographic names appeared in texts to emphasize geographic names that focus specific areas, rather than broad geographic names. Furthermore, to improve robustness against errors in pre-processing such as geo-parsing and geo-coding, we also propose a noise elimination method based on clustering. Evaluation is conducted using standard TREC-style evaluation metrics including MAP, R-precision, and so on. The results show that our method outperforms two baseline approaches: full-text search and using the nearest point in the text.

  3. Semantic Annotation for Biological Information Retrieval System

    PubMed Central

    Oshaiba, Mohamed Marouf Z.; El Houby, Enas M. F.; Salah, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Online literatures are increasing in a tremendous rate. Biological domain is one of the fast growing domains. Biological researchers face a problem finding what they are searching for effectively and efficiently. The aim of this research is to find documents that contain any combination of biological process and/or molecular function and/or cellular component. This research proposes a framework that helps researchers to retrieve meaningful documents related to their asserted terms based on gene ontology (GO). The system utilizes GO by semantically decomposing it into three subontologies (cellular component, biological process, and molecular function). Researcher has the flexibility to choose searching terms from any combination of the three subontologies. Document annotation is taking a place in this research to create an index of biological terms in documents to speed the searching process. Query expansion is used to infer semantically related terms to asserted terms. It increases the search meaningful results using the term synonyms and term relationships. The system uses a ranking method to order the retrieved documents based on the ranking weights. The proposed system achieves researchers' needs to find documents that fit the asserted terms semantically. PMID:25737720

  4. Pattern recognition in the satellite temperature retrieval problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, O. E.; Goldberg, M. D.; Dazlich, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Pattern recognition procedures have been developed in order to improve the first-guess fields for satellite temperature retrievals. The first procedure is used to select one or more historical radiosonde temperature profiles as analog estimates of ambient thermal structure. The second procedure is used to organize a priori data into shape-coherent pattern libraries using structural information inherent in the data itself. On the basis of independent tests of about 800 temperature retrievals, it was found that: (1) the pattern recognition techniques reduced first-guess profile errors by nearly 50 percent in comparison with traditional partitioning schemes; and (2) with regression and physical-iterative retrieval algorithms, however, the effect of pattern recognition on temperature retrieval error was insignificant. Analysis of individual retrieval errors showed that poor retrievals may outweigh the potential benefits of both pattern recognition techniques.

  5. Retrieving handwriting by combining word spotting and manifold ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Morin, Emmanuel; Viard-Gaudin, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Online handwritten data, produced with Tablet PCs or digital pens, consists in a sequence of points (x, y). As the amount of data available in this form increases, algorithms for retrieval of online data are needed. Word spotting is a common approach used for the retrieval of handwriting. However, from an information retrieval (IR) perspective, word spotting is a primitive keyword based matching and retrieval strategy. We propose a framework for handwriting retrieval where an arbitrary word spotting method is used, and then a manifold ranking algorithm is applied on the initial retrieval scores. Experimental results on a database of more than 2,000 handwritten newswires show that our method can improve the performances of a state-of-the-art word spotting system by more than 10%.

  6. Thermodynamic and cloud parameter retrieval using infrared spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L., Sr.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Huang, Hung-Lung A.; Li, Jun; McGill, Matthew J.; Mango, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution infrared radiance spectra obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. A fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The retrieval algorithm is presented along with its application to recent field experiment data from the NPOESS Airborne Sounding Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I). The retrieval accuracy dependence on cloud properties is discussed. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud top height can be retrieved with an accuracy of approximately 1.0 km. Preliminary NAST-I retrieval results from the recent Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) are presented and compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL).

  7. Neurophysiology of successful encoding and retrieval of source memory.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Trejo-Morales, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    Event-related potentials were recorded during encoding, to identify whether brain activity predicts subsequent retrieval of spatial source information, and during retrieval, to investigate the neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful spatial context recollection. The amplitude registered during encoding for study items that were later recognized and assigned a correct source judgment was more positive than the amplitude for recognized items given incorrect source judgments; this difference started 480 msec poststimulus, predominantly at central and anterior sites. During retrieval, the waveform was more positive from 250 to 1,600 msec poststimulus when the brain had retrieved episodic information successfully than when it had failed. These findings indicate that brain electrical activity recorded during the first presentation of an item within its context predicts the subsequent retrieval of the specific spatial context. During retrieval, brain activity differed quantitatively at anterior sites and qualitatively at posterior sites according to the accuracy of source memory. PMID:18405049

  8. British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Registry

    SciTech Connect

    Uberoi, Raman Tapping, Charles Ross; Chalmers, Nicholas; Allgar, Victoria

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The British Society of Interventional Radiology (BSIR) Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) Filter Registry was produced to provide an audit of current United Kingdom (UK) practice regarding placement and retrieval of IVC filters to address concerns regarding their safety. Methods: The IVC filter registry is a web-based registry, launched by the BSIR on behalf of its membership in October 2007. This report is based on prospectively collected data from October 2007 to March 2011. This report contains analysis of data on 1,434 IVC filter placements and 400 attempted retrievals performed at 68 UK centers. Data collected included patient demographics, insertion and retrieval data, and patient follow-up. Results: IVC filter use in the majority of patients in the UK follows accepted CIRSE guidelines. Filter placement is usually a low-risk procedure, with a low major complication rate (<0.5 %). Cook Gunther Tulip (560 filters: 39 %) and Celect (359 filters: 25 %) filters constituted the majority of IVC filters inserted, with Bard G2, Recovery filters, Cordis Trapease, and OptEase constituting most of the remainder (445 filters: 31 %). More than 96 % of IVC filters deployed as intended. Operator inexperience (<25 procedure) was significantly associated with complications (p < 0.001). Of the IVC filters initially intended for temporary placement, retrieval was attempted in 78 %. Of these retrieval was technically successful in 83 %. Successful retrieval was significantly reduced for implants left in situ for >9 weeks versus those with a shorter dwell time. New lower limb deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or IVC thrombosis was reported in 88 patients following filter placement, there was no significant difference of incidence between filter types. Conclusions: This registry report provides interventional radiologists and clinicians with an improved understanding of the technical aspects of IVC filter placement to help improve practice, and the potential consequences of IVC filter

  9. Retrieval of constituent mixing ratios from limb thermal emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, William A.; Kunde, Virgil G.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1988-01-01

    An onion-peeling iterative, least-squares relaxation method to retrieve mixing ratio profiles from limb thermal emission spectra is presented. The method has been tested on synthetic data, containing various amounts of added random noise for O3, HNO3, and N2O. The retrieval method is used to obtain O3 and HNO3 mixing ratio profiles from high-resolution thermal emission spectra. Results of the retrievals compare favorably with those obtained previously.

  10. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  11. A Space Station crew rescue and equipment retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adornato, Rudolph J.; Bo, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper studies the possible use of a Space Station crew rescue and equipment retrieval system as a safeguard against the inadvertent separation of crew or equipment from the Space Station. The time to effect rescue and retrieval and the problem of crew separation are discussed. Alternate rescue/retrieval systems are evaluated. It is concluded that telerobotic vehicles provide the lowest cost rescue capability.

  12. Image selection system. [computerized data storage and retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knutson, M. A.; Hurd, D.; Hubble, L.; Kroeck, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    An image selection (ISS) was developed for the NASA-Ames Research Center Earth Resources Aircraft Project. The ISS is an interactive, graphics oriented, computer retrieval system for aerial imagery. An analysis of user coverage requests and retrieval strategies is presented, followed by a complete system description. Data base structure, retrieval processors, command language, interactive display options, file structures, and the system's capability to manage sets of selected imagery are described. A detailed example of an area coverage request is graphically presented.

  13. Troubleshooting OptEase inferior vena cava filter retrieval.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    For treatment of deep vein thrombosis and prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism, a retrievable inferior vena cava filter is commonly utilized as an effective bridge to anticoagulation. However, we have experienced difficulties in retrieving inferior vena cava filters. Endovascular retrieval assisted by disposable biopsy forceps is an appropriate approach because it provides a less-invasive low-cost way to remove a migrated filter. We suggest this troubleshooting technique to deal with filter hook migration into the caval wall. PMID:24828829

  14. Ozone Profile Retrievals from GOME-2 UV/Visible Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Zoogman, P.; Chance, K.; Nowlan, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that adding visible measurements in the Chappuis band to ultraviolet (UV) measurements in the Hartley/Huggins bands can significantly enhance retrieval sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone from backscattered solar radiances due to deeper photon penetration in the visible to the surface than in the ultraviolet. The first NASA Eearth Venture Instrument TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) instrument is being developed to measure backscattered solar radiation in two channels (~290-490 and 540-740 nm) and make atmospheric pollution measurements over North America from the Geostationary orbit; the primary purpose of including the second channel is to improve lower tropospheric ozone retrieval for air quality monitoring. However, this retrieval enhancement has yet to be solidly demonstrated from existing measurements due to the weak ozone absorption in the visible and strong interference from surface reflectance. We present retrievals from GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring and Experiment-2) UV and visible measurements using the SAO optimal estimation based ozone profile retrieval algorithm, to directly explore the retrieval improvement in lower tropospheric ozone from additional visible measurements. To reduce the retrieval interference from surface reflectance, we add characterization of surface spectral reflectance in the visible into the ozone profile algorithm based on existing surface reflectance spectra and MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) climatology. We evaluate the retrieval performance of UV/visible retrieval over the UV retrieval in terms of retrieved lower tropospheric ozone and increase in degree of free for signal (DFS) over the globe in different seasons, and we validate both retrievals against ozonesonde measurements.

  15. Passive microwave relative humidity retrievals using feedforward neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera-Mercader, C.R.; Staelin, D.H.

    1995-11-01

    A technique for retrieving atmospheric humidity profiles using passive microwave spectral observations from satellite and Multilayer Feedforward Neural Networks (MFNN) is introduced in this paper. Relative humidity retrievals on a global scale from simulated radiances at fifteen frequencies between 23.8 and 183.3 GHz yielded rms errors in relative humidity of 6--14% over ocean and 6--15% over land at pressure levels ranging from 131 mbar to 1,013 mbar. Comparison with a combined statistical and physical iterative retrieval scheme shows that superior retrievals can be obtained at a lower computational cost using MFNN.

  16. Difficult OptEase Filter Retrievals After Prolonged Indwelling Times

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ha, Thuong G. Kang, Lisa; Lorenz, Jonathan; Zangan, Steven; Navuluri, Rakesh; Straus, Christopher; Funaki, Brian

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe OptEase vena cave filter (Cordis, Piscataway, NJ) is commercially available as a retrievable or permanent filter with short recommended indwelling time, presumably due to extensive contact of the filter side struts with the inferior vena cava wall and subsequent neointimal hyperplasia leading to incorporation. Our purpose was to evaluate OptEase filter retrievals with a long indwelling time period that required unconventional retrieval techniques.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent OptEase filter retrieval with long undwelling times requiring additional maneuvers for retrieval. Techniques used included rigid endobronchial forceps dissection and wire-through-loop snare. Each patient underwent postretrieval venogram to evaluate for possible complications. In addition, patients had clinical follow-up 2 weeks after the retrieval procedure.ResultsThere were three patients (2 women, 1 man; average age 64 years) who underwent OptEase filter retrieval. The mean indwelling time was 6.4 months. The indwelling filters were successfully retrieved. There were no complications. Postprocedural follow-up showed no clinical pathology.ConclusionUnconventional techniques aided in the retrieval of OptEase filters with long indwelling times.

  17. Semantic-Aware Co-Indexing for Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shiliang; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Lin, Yuanqing; Tian, Qi

    2015-12-01

    In content-based image retrieval, inverted indexes allow fast access to database images and summarize all knowledge about the database. Indexing multiple clues of image contents allows retrieval algorithms search for relevant images from different perspectives, which is appealing to deliver satisfactory user experiences. However, when incorporating diverse image features during online retrieval, it is challenging to ensure retrieval efficiency and scalability. In this paper, for large-scale image retrieval, we propose a semantic-aware co-indexing algorithm to jointly embed two strong cues into the inverted indexes: 1) local invariant features that are robust to delineate low-level image contents, and 2) semantic attributes from large-scale object recognition that may reveal image semantic meanings. Specifically, for an initial set of inverted indexes of local features, we utilize semantic attributes to filter out isolated images and insert semantically similar images to this initial set. Encoding these two distinct and complementary cues together effectively enhances the discriminative capability of inverted indexes. Such co-indexing operations are totally off-line and introduce small computation overhead to online retrieval, because only local features but no semantic attributes are employed for the query. Hence, this co-indexing is different from existing image retrieval methods fusing multiple features or retrieval results. Extensive experiments and comparisons with recent retrieval methods manifest the competitive performance of our method. PMID:26539859

  18. Research on similarity measurement for texture image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhengli; Zhao, Chunxia; Hou, Yingkun

    2012-01-01

    A complete texture image retrieval system includes two techniques: texture feature extraction and similarity measurement. Specifically, similarity measurement is a key problem for texture image retrieval study. In this paper, we present an effective similarity measurement formula. The MIT vision texture database, the Brodatz texture database, and the Outex texture database were used to verify the retrieval performance of the proposed similarity measurement method. Dual-tree complex wavelet transform and nonsubsampled contourlet transform were used to extract texture features. Experimental results show that the proposed similarity measurement method achieves better retrieval performance than some existing similarity measurement methods. PMID:23049785

  19. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion.

    PubMed

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical. PMID:24909951

  20. Inter-comparison between AIRS and IASI through Retrieved Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Steve

    2008-01-01

    A State-of-the-art retrieval algorithm dealing with all-weather conditions has been applied to satellite/aircraft instruments retrieving cloud/surface and atmospheric conditions. High quality retrievals have been achieved from IASI data. Surface, cloud, and atmospheric structure and variation are well captured by IASI measurements and/or retrievals. The same retrieval algorithm is also applied to AIRS for retrieval inter-comparison. Both AIRS and IASI have a similar FOV size but AIRS has a higher horizontal resolution. AIRS data can be interpolated to IASI horizontal resolution for inter-comparison at the same geophysical locations, however a temporal variation between AIRS and IASI observations need to be considered. JAIVEx has employed aircraft to obtain the atmospheric variation filling the temporal gap between two satellites. First results show that both AIRS and IASI have a very similar vertical resolving power, atmospheric conditions are well captured by both instruments, and radiances are well calibrated. AIRS data shown in retrievals (e.g., surface emissivity and moisture) have a relatively higher noise level. Since the this type of retrieval is very sensitive to its radiance quality, retrieval products inter-comparison is an effective way to identify/compare their radiance quality, in terms of a combination of spectral resolution and noise level, and to assess instrument performance. Additional validation analyses are needed to provide more-definitive conclusions.

  1. The potential of clear-sky carbon dioxide satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. R.; O'Dell, C. W.; Taylor, T. E.; Mandrake, L.; Smyth, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) in 2009, retrieval algorithms designed to infer the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) from hyperspectral near-infrared observations of reflected sunlight have been greatly improved. They now generally include the scattering effects of clouds and aerosols, as early work found that absorption-only retrievals, which neglected these effects, often incurred unacceptably large errors, even for scenes with optically thin cloud or aerosol layers. However, these "full-physics" retrievals tend to be computationally expensive and may incur biases from trying to deduce the properties of clouds and aerosols when there are none present. Additionally, algorithms are now available that can quickly and effectively identify and remove most scenes in which cloud or aerosol scattering plays a significant role. In this work, we test the hypothesis that non-scattering, or "clear-sky", retrievals may perform as well as full-physics retrievals for sufficiently clear scenes. Clear-sky retrievals could potentially avoid errors and biases brought about by trying to infer properties of clouds and aerosols when none are present. Clear-sky retrievals are also desirable because they are orders of magnitude faster than full-physics retrievals. Here we use a simplified version of the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS) XCO2 retrieval algorithm that does not include the scattering and absorption effects of clouds or aerosols. It was found that for simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) measurements, the clear-sky retrieval had errors comparable to those of the full-physics retrieval. For real GOSAT data, the clear-sky retrieval had nearly indistinguishable error characteristics over land, but roughly 30-60 % larger errors over ocean, depending on filtration level, compared to the full-physics retrieval. In general, the clear-sky retrieval had XCO2 root-mean-square (RMS) errors of

  2. The potential of clear-sky carbon dioxide satellite retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert R.; O'Dell, Christopher W.; Taylor, Thomas E.; Mandrake, Lukas; Smyth, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Since the launch of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) in 2009, retrieval algorithms designed to infer the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction of carbon dioxide (XCO2) from hyperspectral near-infrared observations of reflected sunlight have been greatly improved. They now generally include the scattering effects of clouds and aerosols, as early work found that absorption-only retrievals, which neglected these effects, often incurred unacceptably large errors, even for scenes with optically thin cloud or aerosol layers. However, these "full-physics" retrievals tend to be computationally expensive and may incur biases from trying to deduce the properties of clouds and aerosols when there are none present. Additionally, algorithms are now available that can quickly and effectively identify and remove most scenes in which cloud or aerosol scattering plays a significant role. In this work, we test the hypothesis that non-scattering, or "clear-sky", retrievals may perform as well as full-physics retrievals for sufficiently clear scenes. Clear-sky retrievals could potentially avoid errors and biases brought about by trying to infer properties of clouds and aerosols when none are present. Clear-sky retrievals are also desirable because they are orders of magnitude faster than full-physics retrievals. Here we use a simplified version of the Atmospheric Carbon Observations from Space (ACOS) XCO2 retrieval algorithm that does not include the scattering and absorption effects of clouds or aerosols. It was found that for simulated Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) measurements, the clear-sky retrieval had errors comparable to those of the full-physics retrieval. For real GOSAT data, the clear-sky retrieval had errors 0-20 % larger than the full-physics retrieval over land and errors roughly 20-35 % larger over ocean, depending on filtration level. In general, the clear-sky retrieval had XCOConcept of Operation for Waste Transport, Emplacement, and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Norman T. Raczka

    2001-07-02

    The preparation of this technical report has two objectives. The first objective is to discuss the base case concepts of waste transport, emplacement, and retrieval operations and evaluate these operations relative to a lower-temperature repository design. Aspects of the operations involved in waste transport, emplacement and retrieval may be affected by the lower-temperature operating schemes. This report evaluates the effects the lower-temperature alternatives may have on the operational concepts involved in emplacing and retrieving waste. The second objective is to provide backup material for the design description, in a traceable and defensible format, for Section 2 of the Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System Description Document.

  3. Retrieval & Transfer of Stored Radioactive Waste Content of Process Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    GIBBONS, P.W.

    2002-05-01

    The overall objective of this book is to provide guidance on the retrieval and transfer of stored, bulk radioactive waste in tanks, silos, or similar containment systems. Information is based on the experiences of particular Member States and is intended to provide the people planning retrieval operations with the information they need to develop the most appropriate strategy and supporting processes for their application. It can also provide those in ongoing programs with information to measure their progress and identify additional resources. To this end, a generic methodology for addressing waste retrieval in specific situations is presented with information on the waste retrieval and transportation processes.

  4. Polarimetric Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Number Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, K.; Cairns, B.; Hair, J. W.; Hu, Y.; Hostetler, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) is one of the most significant microphysical properties of liquid clouds and is essential for the understanding of aerosol-cloud interaction. It impacts radiative forcing, cloud evolution, precipitation, global climate and, through observation, can be used to monitor the cloud albedo effect, or the first indirect effect. The IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report continues to consider aerosol-cloud interactions as one of the largest uncertainties in radiative forcing of climate. The SABOR experiment, which was a NASA-led ship and air campaign off the east coast of the United States during July and August of 2014, provided an opportunity for the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) to develop and cross-validate a new approach of sensing CDNC with the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). The RSP is an airborne prototype of the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) that was on-board the Glory satellite. It is a scanning sensor that provides high-precision measurements of polarized and full-intensity radiances at multiple angles over a wide spectral range. The distinctive feature of the polarimetric technique is that it does not make any assumption of the liquid water profile within the cloud. The approach involves (1) estimating the droplet size distribution from polarized reflectance observations in the rainbow, (2) using polarized reflectance to estimate above cloud water vapor and total reflectance to find how much near infra-red light is being absorbed in clouds, (3) finding cloud physical thickness from the absorption and cloud top pressure retrievals assuming a saturated mixing ratio for water vapor and (4) determining the cloud droplet number concentration from the physical thickness and droplet size distribution retrievals. An overview of the polarimetric technique will be presented along with the results of applying the new approach to SABOR campaign data. An analysis of the algorithm's performance when compared with the HSRL

  5. Engineer/constructor description of work for Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system, project W-211, initial tank retrieval systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rieck, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    This document provides a description of work for the design and construction of a waste retrieval system for Tank 241-SY-102. The description of work includes a working estimate and schedule, as well as a narrative description and sketches of the waste retrieval system. The working estimate and schedule are within the established baselines for the Tank 241-SY-102 retrieval system. The technical baseline is provided in Functional Design Criteria, WHC-SD-W211-FDC-001, Revision 2.

  6. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  7. Safeguards and retrievability from waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Danker, W.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes issues discussed at a session from the PLutonium Stabilization and Immobilization Workshop related to safeguards and retrievability from waste forms. Throughout the discussion, the group probed the goals of disposition efforts, particularly an understanding of the {open_quotes}spent fuel standard{close_quotes}, since the disposition material form derives from these goals. The group felt strongly that not only the disposition goals but safeguards to meet these goals could affect the material form. Accordingly, the Department was encouraged to explore and apply safeguards as early in the implementation process as possible. It was emphasized that this was particularly true for any planned use of existing facilities. It is much easier to build safeguards approaches into the development of new facilities, than to backfit existing facilities. Accordingly, special safeguards challenges are likely to be encountered, given the cost and schedule advantages offered by use of existing facilities.

  8. Automatic multilevel medical image annotation and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Mueen, A; Zainuddin, R; Baba, M Sapiyan

    2008-09-01

    Image retrieval at the semantic level mostly depends on image annotation or image classification. Image annotation performance largely depends on three issues: (1) automatic image feature extraction; (2) a semantic image concept modeling; (3) algorithm for semantic image annotation. To address first issue, multilevel features are extracted to construct the feature vector, which represents the contents of the image. To address second issue, domain-dependent concept hierarchy is constructed for interpretation of image semantic concepts. To address third issue, automatic multilevel code generation is proposed for image classification and multilevel image annotation. We make use of the existing image annotation to address second and third issues. Our experiments on a specific domain of X-ray images have given encouraging results. PMID:17846834

  9. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation

  10. Efficient search and retrieval in biometric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhatre, Amit J.; Palla, Srinivas; Chikkerur, Sharat; Govindaraju, Venu

    2005-03-01

    Biometric identification has emerged as a reliable means of controlling access to both physical and virtual spaces. Fingerprints, face and voice biometrics are being increasingly used as alternatives to passwords, PINs and visual verification. In spite of the rapid proliferation of large-scale databases, the research has thus far been focused only on accuracy within small databases. In larger applications, response time and retrieval efficiency also become important in addition to accuracy. Unlike structured information such as text or numeric data that can be sorted, biometric data does not have any natural sorting order. Therefore indexing and binning of biometric databases represents a challenging problem. We present results using parallel combination of multiple biometrics to bin the database. Using hand geometry and signature features we show that the search space can be reduced to just 5% of the entire database.

  11. Hypermnesia: the role of multiple retrieval cues.

    PubMed

    Otani, H; Widner, R L; Whiteman, H L; St Louis, J P

    1999-09-01

    We demonstrate that encoding multiple cues enhances hypermnesia. College students were presented with 36 (Experiment 1) or 60 (Experiments 2 and 3) sets of words and were asked to encode the sets under single- or multiple-cue conditions. In the single-cue conditions, each set consisted of a cue and a target. In the multiple-cue conditions, each set consisted of three cues and a target. Following the presentation of the word sets, the participants received either three cued recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2) or three free recall tests (Experiment 3). With this manipulation, we observed greater hypermnesia in the multiple-cue conditions than in the single-cue conditions. Furthermore, the greater hypermnesic recall resulted from increased reminiscence rather than reduced intertest forgetting. The present findings support the hypothesis that the availability of multiple retrieval cues plays an important role in hypermnesia. PMID:10540821

  12. Annotation and retrieval in protein interaction databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannataro, Mario; Hiram Guzzi, Pietro; Veltri, Pierangelo

    2014-06-01

    Biological databases have been developed with a special focus on the efficient retrieval of single records or the efficient computation of specialized bioinformatics algorithms against the overall database, such as in sequence alignment. The continuos production of biological knowledge spread on several biological databases and ontologies, such as Gene Ontology, and the availability of efficient techniques to handle such knowledge, such as annotation and semantic similarity measures, enable the development on novel bioinformatics applications that explicitly use and integrate such knowledge. After introducing the annotation process and the main semantic similarity measures, this paper shows how annotations and semantic similarity can be exploited to improve the extraction and analysis of biologically relevant data from protein interaction databases. As case studies, the paper presents two novel software tools, OntoPIN and CytoSeVis, both based on the use of Gene Ontology annotations, for the advanced querying of protein interaction databases and for the enhanced visualization of protein interaction networks.

  13. Phase Retrieval Techniques In Coordinates Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Harizanova, J. I.; Stoykova, E. V.; Sainov, V. C.

    2007-04-23

    A precise pattern projection profilometry for three-dimensional shape measurements with different methods of fringe generation is presented. The application of phase-shifting algorithm along with two-spacing illumination allow for phase retrieval and estimation of relative and absolute coordinates of the tested samples. The following experimental approaches for fringe generation are investigated: interferometric approach based on a classical Michelson interferometer, digital computation with a DMD projection and light modulation by a sinusoidal phase grating. The theoretical background, experimental results as well as comparison of the applied generation methods are analyzed. The obtained outcomes successfully display the applicability of this technique for surface profile measurement. The application of the proposed techniques for remote, non-destructive in-situ inspection of real objects from cultural heritage is discussed.

  14. Smart hands for the EVA retriever

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Clifford W.; Li, Larry C.

    1990-01-01

    Dexterous, robotic hands are required for the extravehicular activity retriever (EVAR) system being developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). These hands, as part of the EVAR system, must be able to grasp objects autonomously and securely which inadvertently separate from the Space Station. Development of the required hands was initiated in 1987. Outlined here are the hand development activities, including design considerations, progress to date, and future plans. Several types of dexterous hands that were evaluated, along with a proximity-sensing capability that was developed to initiate a reflexive, adaptive grasp, are described. The evaluations resulted in the design and fabrication of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand that has two fingers and a thumb arranged in an anthropomorphic configuration. Finger joint force and position sensors are included in the design, as well as infrared proximity sensors which allow initiation of the grasp sequence when an object is detected within the grasp envelope.

  15. Techniques for Intravascular Foreign Body Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Joe B.; Uberoi, Raman

    2013-08-01

    As endovascular therapies increase in frequency, the incidence of lost or embolized foreign bodies is increasing. The presence of an intravascular foreign body (IFB) is well recognized to have the potential to cause serious complications. IFB can embolize and impact critical sites such as the heart, with subsequent significant morbidity or mortality. Intravascular foreign bodies most commonly result from embolized central line fragments, but they can originate from many sources, both iatrogenic and noniatrogenic. The percutaneous approach in removing an IFB is widely perceived as the best way to retrieve endovascular foreign bodies. This minimally invasive approach has a high success rate with a low associated morbidity, and it avoids the complications related to open surgical approaches. We examined the characteristics, causes, and incidence of endovascular embolizations and reviewed the various described techniques that have been used to facilitate subsequent explantation of such materials.

  16. Interactive information retrieval systems with minimalist representation

    SciTech Connect

    Domeshek, E.; Kedar, S.; Gordon, A.

    1996-12-31

    Almost any information you might want is becoming available on-line. The problem is how to find what you need. One strategy to improve access to existing information sources, is intelligent information agents - an approach based on extensive representation and inference. Another alternative is to simply concentrate on better information organization and indexing. Our systems use a form of conceptual indexing sensitive to users` task-specific information needs. We aim for minimalist representation, coding only select aspects of stored items. Rather than supporting reliable automated inference, the primary purpose of our representations is to provide sufficient discrimination and guidance to a user for a given domain and task. This paper argues, using case studies, that minimal representations can make strong contributions to the usefulness and usability of interactive information systems, while minimizing knowledge engineering effort. We demonstrate this approach in several broad spectrum applications including video retrieval and advisory systems.

  17. PAMS photo image retrieval prototype alternatives analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, M.L.

    1996-04-30

    Photography and Audiovisual Services uses a system called the Photography and Audiovisual Management System (PAMS) to perform order entry and billing services. The PAMS system utilizes Revelation Technologies database management software, AREV. Work is currently in progress to link the PAMS AREV system to a Microsoft SQL Server database engine to provide photograph indexing and query capabilities. The link between AREV and SQLServer will use a technique called ``bonding.`` This photograph imaging subsystem will interface to the PAMS system and handle the image capture and retrieval portions of the project. The intent of this alternatives analysis is to examine the software and hardware alternatives available to meet the requirements for this project, and identify a cost-effective solution.

  18. Phase retrieval from one partial derivative.

    PubMed

    Matías Di Martino, J; Flores, Jorge L; Pfeiffer, Franz; Scherer, Kai; Ayubi, Gastón A; Ferrari, José A

    2013-11-15

    Phase objects can be characterized using well-known methods such as shear interferometry and deflectometry, which provide information on the partial derivatives of the phase. It is often believed that for phase retrieval it is strictly necessary to have knowledge of two partial derivatives in orthogonal directions. In the praxis, this implies that the measurements have to be performed along two dimensions, which often requires a rotation of the object or rotation of the shear direction. This is time consuming and errors can be easily generated from the process of rotation, especially for image registration in the axial direction. In the present Letter, we will demonstrate that only one partial derivative often suffices to recover the phase, and we will discuss under which conditions that is possible. Simulations and validation experiments are presented. PMID:24322139

  19. Content-Based Image Retrieval in Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Long, L. Rodney; Antani, Sameer; Deserno, Thomas M.; Thoma, George R.

    2009-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) technology has been proposed to benefit not only the management of increasingly large image collections, but also to aid clinical care, biomedical research, and education. Based on a literature review, we conclude that there is widespread enthusiasm for CBIR in the engineering research community, but the application of this technology to solve practical medical problems is a goal yet to be realized. Furthermore, we highlight “gaps” between desired CBIR system functionality and what has been achieved to date, present for illustration a comparative analysis of four state-of-the-art CBIR implementations using the gap approach, and suggest that high-priority gaps to be overcome lie in CBIR interfaces and functionality that better serve the clinical and biomedical research communities. PMID:20523757