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Sample records for gurmarin-sensitive taste nerve

  1. Shrinkage of ipsilateral taste buds and hyperplasia of contralateral taste buds following chorda tympani nerve transection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-ke; Yang, Juan-mei; Huang, Yi-bo; Ren, Dong-dong; Chi, Fang-lu

    2015-01-01

    The morphological changes that occur in the taste buds after denervation are not well understood in rats, especially in the contralateral tongue epithelium. In this study, we investigated the time course of morphological changes in the taste buds following unilateral nerve transection. The role of the trigeminal component of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the taste buds was also examined. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection and unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection. Rats were allowed up to 42 days of recovery before being euthanized. The taste buds were visualized using a cytokeratin 8 antibody. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers were quantified and compared among groups. No significant difference was detected between the chorda tympani nerve transection and chorda tympani nerve transection + lingual nerve transection groups. Taste bud counts, volumes and taste receptor cell numbers on the ipsilateral side all decreased significantly compared with control. On the contralateral side, the number of taste buds remained unchanged over time, but they were larger, and taste receptor cells were more numerous postoperatively. There was no evidence for a role of the trigeminal branch of the lingual nerve in maintaining the structural integrity of the anterior taste buds. PMID:26199619

  2. Tasting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... buds. The taste buds are linked to the brain by nerve fibers. Food particles are detected by ... taste buds, which send nerve signals to the brain. Certain areas of the tongue are more sensitive ...

  3. Tasting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... buds. The taste buds are linked to the brain by nerve fibers. Food particles are detected by the taste buds, which send nerve signals to the brain. Certain areas of the tongue are more sensitive ...

  4. Hypertonicity augments bullfrog taste nerve responses to inorganic salts.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Namie; Higure, Yoko; Mashiyama, Kazunori; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Kumazawa, Takashi; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2012-06-01

    The tonicity of taste stimulating solutions has been usually ignored, though taste substances themselves yielded the tonicity. We investigated the effect of hypertonicity on bullfrog taste nerve responses to inorganic salts by adding nonelectrolytes such as urea and sucrose that elicited no taste nerve responses. Here, we show that hypertonicity alters bullfrog taste nerve-response magnitude and firing pattern. The addition of urea or sucrose enhances the taste nerve-response magnitude to NaCl and shifts the concentration-response curve to the left. The effect of hypertonicity on responses to CaCl(2) is bimodal; hypertonicity suppresses CaCl(2) responses at concentrations less than ~30 mM and enhances them at concentrations greater than ~30 mM. The hypertonicity also enhances response magnitude to other monovalent salts. The extent of the enhancing effects depends on the difference between the mobility of the cation and anion in the salt. We quantitatively suggest that both the enhancing and suppressing effects result from the magnitude and direction of local circuit currents generated by diffusion potentials across tight junctions surrounding taste receptor cells. PMID:22422087

  5. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT3A promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT3A mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μm 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μm ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μm m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Historically, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been described as a candidate neurotransmitter in the gustatory system and recent studies show that type III taste receptor cells release 5-HT in response to various taste stimuli. In the present study, we demonstrate that a subset of gustatory sensory neurons express functional

  6. The Role of 5-HT3 Receptors in Signaling from Taste Buds to Nerves.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Voigt, Anja; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-12-01

    Activation of taste buds triggers the release of several neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). Type III taste cells release 5-HT directly in response to acidic (sour) stimuli and indirectly in response to bitter and sweet tasting stimuli. Although ATP is necessary for activation of nerve fibers for all taste stimuli, the role of 5-HT is unclear. We investigated whether gustatory afferents express functional 5-HT3 receptors and, if so, whether these receptors play a role in transmission of taste information from taste buds to nerves. In mice expressing GFP under the control of the 5-HT(3A) promoter, a subset of cells in the geniculate ganglion and nerve fibers in taste buds are GFP-positive. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of 5-HT(3A) mRNA in the geniculate ganglion. Functional studies show that only those geniculate ganglion cells expressing 5-HT3A-driven GFP respond to 10 μM 5-HT and this response is blocked by 1 μM ondansetron, a 5-HT3 antagonist, and mimicked by application of 10 μM m-chlorophenylbiguanide, a 5-HT3 agonist. Pharmacological blockade of 5-HT3 receptors in vivo or genetic deletion of the 5-HT3 receptors reduces taste nerve responses to acids and other taste stimuli compared with controls, but only when urethane was used as the anesthetic. We find that anesthetic levels of pentobarbital reduce taste nerve responses apparently by blocking the 5-HT3 receptors. Our results suggest that 5-HT released from type III cells activates gustatory nerve fibers via 5-HT3 receptors, accounting for a significant proportion of the neural taste response. PMID:26631478

  7. Evoked taste thresholds in a normal population and the application of electrogustometry to trigeminal nerve disease.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, R; Ferguson, M M; Strang, R; Turner, J W; Bone, I

    1987-01-01

    No standardised method for taste threshold measurement is available and therefore comparison between clinical studies is difficult. An electrogustometer was evaluated in normal subjects. No sex difference in taste threshold was noted; however, there was a significant elevation in detection threshold with age and smoking. Electrogustometric values both in patients before and after surgery for trigeminal neuralgia and in patients with trigeminal sensory neuropathy were determined. Many patients with trigeminal nerve disorders had abnormal electrogustometric detection thresholds suggesting that there is possibly an accessory taste pathway through the trigeminal nerve, although in some individuals the site of lesion may be in the brain stem. Electrogustometry is a convenient method for clinically assessing taste. Images PMID:3819752

  8. The glossopharyngeal nerve controls epithelial expression of Sprr2a and Krt13 around taste buds in the circumvallate papilla.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hirohito; Kusakabe, Yuko; Hashido, Kento; Hino, Akihiro; Ooki, Makoto; Harada, Shuitsu

    2014-09-19

    Tastants reach the tip of taste bud cells through taste pores which are openings in the epithelium. We found Sprr2a is selectively expressed in the upper layer of the epithelium surrounding taste buds in the circumvallate papilla (CV) where the epithelium is organized into taste pores. Sprr2a is a member of a small proline-rich protein family, which is suggested to be involved in the restitution/migration phase of epithelial wound healing. The expression of Sprr2a was restricted to the upper layer and largely segregated with Ptch1 expression that is restricted to the basal side of the epithelium around the taste buds. Denervation resulted in the gradual loss of Sprr2a-expressing cells over 10 days similarly to that of taste bud cells which is in contrast to the rapid loss of Ptch1 expression. We also found that denervation caused an increase of Keratin (Krt)13 expression around taste buds that corresponded with the disappearance of Sprr2a and Ptch1 expression. Taste buds were surrounded by Krt13-negative cells in the CV in control mice. However, at 6 days post-denervation, taste buds were tightly surrounded by Krt13-positive cells. During taste bud development, taste bud cells emerged together with Krt13-negtive cells, and Sprr2a expression was increased along with the progress of taste bud development. These results demonstrate that regional gene expression surrounding taste buds is associated with taste bud formation and controlled by the innervating taste nerve. PMID:25123441

  9. Time-dependent expression of hypertonic effects on bullfrog taste nerve responses to salts and bitter substances.

    PubMed

    Mashiyama, Kazunori; Nozawa, Yuhei; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka; Kumazawa, Takashi; Yoshii, Kiyonori

    2014-03-27

    We previously showed that the hypertonicity of taste stimulating solutions modified tonic responses, the quasi-steady state component following the transient (phasic) component of each integrated taste nerve response. Here we show that the hypertonicity opens tight junctions surrounding taste receptor cells in a time-dependent manner and modifies whole taste nerve responses in bullfrogs. We increased the tonicity of stimulating solutions with non-taste substances such as urea or ethylene glycol. The hypertonicity enhanced phasic responses to NaCl>0.2M, and suppressed those to NaCl<0.1M, 1mM CaCl2, and 1mM bitter substances (quinine, denatonium and strychnine). The hypertonicity also enhanced the phasic responses to a variety of 0.5M salts such as LiCl and KCl. The enhancing effect was increased by increasing the difference between the ionic mobilities of the cations and anions in the salt. A preincubation time >20s in the presence of 1M non-taste substances was needed to elicit both the enhancing and suppressing effects. Lucifer Yellow CH, a paracellular marker dye, diffused into bullfrog taste receptor organs in 30s in the presence of hypertonicity. These results agreed with our proposed mechanism of hypertonic effects that considered the diffusion potential across open tight junctions. PMID:24513402

  10. Greater Superficial Petrosal Nerve Transection in Rats does not Change Unconditioned Licking Responses to Putatively Sweet Taste Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Enshe; Blonde, Ginger; Garcea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    The greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSP), innervating taste buds in the palate, is known to be exceptionally responsive to sucrose, especially compared with the responsiveness of the chorda tympani nerve (CT). However, whereas transection of the CT (CTX) alone has little or no effect on unconditioned licking responses to many “sweet” stimuli, the impact of GSP transection (GSPX) alone is equivocal. To further examine the role of the GSP on licking responses to putatively sweet-tasting substances, brief-access taste tests were conducted in nondeprived rats before and after sham surgery (SHAM) or CTX or GSPX. A range of concentrations of sucrose, L-alanine, glycine, and L-serine, with and without 1.0 mM inosine monophosphate (IMP) added, were used. All groups showed significant concentration-dependent increases in licking to all stimuli presurgically and postsurgically. CTX decreased licking responses relative to SHAM rats in the first sucrose test. There was also a group × concentration interaction for L-alanine, but post hoc tests did not reveal its basis. Other than this, there were no significant differences among the surgical groups. Interestingly, rats with GSPX tended to initiate fewer trials than SHAM rats. Overall, after GSPX, the remaining gustatory nerves are apparently sufficient to maintain concentration-dependent licking responses to all stimuli tested here. The disparity between our results and others in the literature where GSPX reduced licking responses to sucrose is possibly related to differences in surgical technique or test trial duration. PMID:18635557

  11. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (nAChR) Dependent Chorda Tympani Taste Nerve Responses to Nicotine, Ethanol and Acetylcholine

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zuo Jun; Mummalaneni, Shobha; Qian, Jie; Baumgarten, Clive M.; DeSimone, John A.; Lyall, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine elicits bitter taste by activating TRPM5-dependent and TRPM5-independent but neuronal nAChR-dependent pathways. The nAChRs represent common targets at which acetylcholine, nicotine and ethanol functionally interact in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated if the nAChRs also represent a common pathway through which the bitter taste of nicotine, ethanol and acetylcholine is transduced. To this end, chorda tympani (CT) taste nerve responses were monitored in rats, wild-type mice and TRPM5 knockout (KO) mice following lingual stimulation with nicotine free base, ethanol, and acetylcholine, in the absence and presence of nAChR agonists and antagonists. The nAChR modulators: mecamylamine, dihydro-β-erythroidine, and CP-601932 (a partial agonist of the α3β4* nAChR), inhibited CT responses to nicotine, ethanol, and acetylcholine. CT responses to nicotine and ethanol were also inhibited by topical lingual application of 8-chlorophenylthio (CPT)-cAMP and loading taste cells with [Ca2+]i by topical lingual application of ionomycin + CaCl2. In contrast, CT responses to nicotine were enhanced when TRC [Ca2+]i was reduced by topical lingual application of BAPTA-AM. In patch-clamp experiments, only a subset of isolated rat fungiform taste cells exposed to nicotine responded with an increase in mecamylamine-sensitive inward currents. We conclude that nAChRs expressed in a subset of taste cells serve as common receptors for the detection of the TRPM5-independent bitter taste of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. PMID:26039516

  12. The sweet taste in the calf. I. Chorda tympani proper nerve responses to taste stimulation of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Segerstad, C H; Hellekant, G

    1989-03-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were obtained from the chorda tympani nerve in calves during stimulation with NaCl, quinine hydrochloride, citric acid, acesulfan-K, aspartame, fructose, galactose, glucose, glycine, lactose, maltose, monellin, Na-saccharin, sucrose, thaumatin, and xylitol. In cattle the chorda tympani innervates the posterior third of the tongue as well as the anterior part. It was found that the posterior receptive field generally responded better to sweet substances than the anterior. Glycine and Na-saccharin followed by xylitol were the most effective sweet stimuli. The monosaccharides elicited larger responses than the disaccharides. Aspartame gave a weak nerve response in 5 of 13 calves. Monellin and thaumatin elicited no change in chorda tympani nerve activity and did not crossadapt with any sweetener. No effects on citric acid responses were observed after application of miraculin. PMID:2756056

  13. Chorda Tympani Nerve Transection at Different Developmental Ages Produces Differential Effects on Taste Bud Volume and Papillae Morphology in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sollars, Suzanne I.

    2016-01-01

    Chorda tympani nerve transection (CTX) results in morphological changes to fungiform papillae and associated taste buds. When transection occurs during neonatal development in the rat, the effects on fungiform taste bud and papillae structure are markedly more severe than observed following a comparable surgery in the adult rat. The present study examined the potential “sensitive period” for morphological modifications to tongue epithelium following CTX. Rats received unilateral transection at 65, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, or 5 days of age. With each descending age at the time of transection, the effects on the structural integrity of fungiform papillae were more severe. Significant losses in total number of taste buds and filiform-like papillae were observed when transection occurred 5–30 days of age. Significant reduction in the number of taste pores was indicated at every age of transection. Another group of rats received chorda tympani transection at 10, 25, or 65 days of age to determine if the time course of taste bud degeneration differed depending on the age of the rat at the time of transection. Taste bud volumes differed significantly from intact sides of the tongue at 2, 8, and 50 days posttransection after CTX at 65 days of age. Volume measurements did not differ 2 days posttransection after CTX at 10 or 25 days of age, but were significantly reduced at the other time points. Findings demonstrate a transitional period throughout development wherein fungiform papillae are highly dependent upon the chorda tympani for maintenance of morphological integrity. PMID:15898061

  14. Effects of gymnemic acid on the chorda tympani proper nerve responses to sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste stimuli in the chimpanzee.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; af Segerstad, C H; Roberts, T; van der Wel, H; Brouwer, J N; Glaser, D; Haynes, R; Eichberg, J W

    1985-07-01

    In man gymnemic acid is able to abolish the sweet taste. Also in man, the neural correlate of that effect is a disappearance of the response to sweet stimuli in the taste nerves, as indicated by the observations of Diamant et al. (1965). Although a variety of other mammals also show neural responses to sweet-tasting compounds, the corresponding effect of gymnemic acid has not been demonstrated. This study presents chorda tympani proper nerve recordings from the chimpanzee before and after gymnemic acid. On the chimpanzee tongue, application of 2 ml gymnemic acid (3-10 mg X ml-1 for 3-4 min) completely abolished the taste responses to 0.0035 M acesulfam-K, 0.0018 M aspartame, 0.015 M D-tryptophan, 0.02% monellin, and 0.02% thaumatin, reduced by 75% the response to 0.3 M sucrose, and by 50% that of 0.76 M xylitol. No decrease was recorded in the responses to 0.001 M quinine, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.02 and 0.04 M ascorbic acid, 0.02 and 0.04 M citric acid. The response to the sweeteners recovered with time and the recovery was complete or nearly complete after one and a half hours. It was also found that after application of 2 ml miraculin, 3 mg X ml-1 for 3 min to the tongue the neural response to acids was about 1.5 times as large as before. Gymnemic acid applied before miraculin prevented this enhancement and gymnemic acid after miraculin depressed the enhancement by miraculin of the response to citric and ascorbic acid. PMID:4050473

  15. Restoration of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala and gustatory cortex following reinnervation or cross-reinnervation of the lingual taste nerves in rats

    PubMed Central

    King, Camille Tessitore; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Remarkably, when lingual gustatory nerves are surgically re-routed to inappropriate taste fields in the tongue, some taste functions recover. We previously demonstrated that quinine-stimulated oromotor rejection reflexes and neural activity (assessed by Fos-immunoreactivity) in subregions of hindbrain gustatory nuclei were restored if the posterior tongue, which contains receptor cells that respond strongly to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the chorda tympani nerve. Such functional recovery was not seen if instead, the anterior tongue, where receptor cells are less responsive to bitter compounds, was cross-reinnervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, despite that this nerve typically responds robustly to bitter substances. Thus, recovery depended more on the taste field being reinnervated than on the nerve itself. Here, the distribution of quinine-stimulated Fos-immunoreactive neurons in two taste-associated forebrain areas was examined in these same rats. In the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a rostrocaudal gradient characterized the normal quinine-stimulated Fos response, with the greatest number of labeled cells rostrally situated. Quinine-stimulated neurons were found throughout the gustatory cortex but a ‘hot spot’ was observed in its anterior-posterior center in subregions approximating the dysgranular/agranular layers. Fos neurons here and in the rostral CeA were highly correlated with quinine-elicited gapes. Denervation of the posterior tongue eliminated, and its reinnervation by either nerve restored, numbers of quinine-stimulated labeled cells in the rostral-most CeA and in the subregion approximating dysgranular gustatory cortex. These results underscore the remarkable plasticity of the gustatory system and also help clarify the functional anatomy of neural circuits activated by bitter taste stimulation. PMID:24477770

  16. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  17. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePlus

    ... of what is perceived as "taste" is actually smell. People who have taste problems often have a smell disorder that can make it hard to identify ... flavor. (Flavor is a combination of taste and smell.) Taste problems can be caused by anything that ...

  18. 'Thermal taste' predicts higher responsiveness to chemical taste and flavor.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; George, Pravin

    2004-09-01

    Individual differences in taste perception have been explained in part by variations in peripheral innervation associated with the genetic ability to taste the bitter substances PTC and PROP. In the present study we report evidence of another source of individual differences that is independent of taste stimulus, taste quality, or gustatory nerve. Individuals who perceived taste from thermal stimulation alone (thermal taste) gave significantly higher taste ratings to chemical stimuli--often by a factor of >2:1--than did individuals who perceived no taste from thermal stimulation. This was true for all taste stimuli tested (sucrose, saccharin, sodium chloride, citric acid, quinine sulfate, MSG and PROP), for all three gustatory areas of the mouth (anterior tongue, posterior tongue and soft palate) and for whole-mouth stimulation. Moreover, the same individuals reported stronger sensations from the olfactory stimulus vanillin, particularly when it was sensed retronasally. The generality of the thermal-taster advantage and its extension to an olfactory stimulus suggests that it arises from individual differences in CNS processes that are involved in perception of both taste and flavor. PMID:15337686

  19. Reception of Aversive Taste.

    PubMed

    Lunceford, Blair E; Kubanek, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Many organisms encounter noxious or unpalatable compounds in their diets. Thus, a robust reception-system for aversive taste is necessary for an individual's survival; however, mechanisms for perceiving aversive taste vary among organisms. Possession of a system sensitive to aversive taste allows for recognition of a vast array of noxious molecules via membrane-bound receptors, co-receptors, and ion channels. These receptor-ligand interactions trigger signal transduction pathways resulting in activation of nerves and in neural processing, which in turn dictates behavior, including rejection of the noxious item. The impacts of these molecular processes on behavior differ among species, and these differences have impacts at the ecosystem level by driving feeding-behavior, organization of communities, and ultimately, speciation. For example, when comparing mammalian carnivores and herbivores, it is not surprising that herbivores that encounter a variety of toxic plants in their diets express a larger number of aversive taste receptors than carnivores. Comparing the molecular mechanisms and ecological consequences of aversive-taste reception among organisms in a variety of types of ecosystems and ecological niches will illuminate the role of taste in ecology and evolution. PMID:26025470

  20. Glycoconjugate in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kano, K; Ube, M; Taniguchi, K

    2001-05-01

    The taste buds of the fungiform papillae, circumvallate papilla, foliate papillae, soft palate and epiglottis of the rat oral cavity were examined by lectin histochemistry to elucidate the relationships between expression of glycoconjugates and innervation. Seven out of 21 lectins showed moderate to intense staining in at least more than one taste bud. They were succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (s-WGA). Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA), Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin-I (BSL-I), Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) and Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-L (PHA-L). UEA-I and BSL-I showed moderate to intense staining in all of the taste buds examined. They strongly stained the taste buds of the epiglottis, which are innervated by the cranial nerve X. UEA-I intensely stained the taste buds of the fungiform papillae and soft palate, both of which are innervated by the cranial nerve VII. The taste buds of circumvallate papilla and foliate papillae were innervated by the cranial nerve IX and strongly stained by BSL-I. Thus, UEA-I and BSL-I binding glycoconjugates, probably alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose, respectively, might be specific for taste buds. Although the expression of these glycoconjugates would be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve X, the differential expression of alpha-linked fucose and alpha-D-galactose might be related to the innervation of the cranial nerve VII and IX, respectively. PMID:11411494

  1. TRPs in Taste and Chemesthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    TRP channels are expressed in taste buds, nerve fibers, and keratinocytes in the oronasal cavity. These channels play integral roles in transducing chemical stimuli, giving rise to sensations of taste, irritation, warmth, coolness, and pungency. Specifically, TRPM5 acts downstream of taste receptors in the taste transduction pathway. TRPM5 channels convert taste-evoked intracellular Ca2+ release into membrane depolarization to trigger taste transmitter secretion. PKD2L1 is expressed in acid-sensitive (sour) taste bud cells but is unlikely to be the transducer for sour taste. TRPV1 is a receptor for pungent chemical stimuli such as capsaicin and for several irritants (chemesthesis). It is controversial whether TRPV1 is present in the taste buds and plays a direct role in taste. Instead, TRPV1 is expressed in non-gustatory sensory afferent fibers and in keratinocytes of the oronasal cavity. In many sensory fibers and epithelial cells lining the oronasal cavity, TRPA1 is also co-expressed with TRPV1. As with TRPV1, TRPA1 transduces a wide variety of irritants and, in combination with TRPV1, assures that there is a broad response to noxious chemical stimuli. Other TRP channels, including TRPM8, TRPV3, and TRPV4, play less prominent roles in chemesthesis and no known role in taste, per se. The pungency of foods and beverages is likely highly influenced by the temperature at which they are consumed, their acidity, and, for beverages, their carbonation. All these factors modulate the activity of TRP channels in taste buds and in the oronasal mucosa. PMID:24961971

  2. [Taste disorders in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Canale, M; Canale, F; Pallestrini, E; Castello, E

    1994-01-01

    Taste disorders can a rise from lesions of peripheral receptors, taste control pathways or cortical area involvement. Among peripheral lesions, trauma of the tongue and oropharynx are the most common. Iatrogenic lesions of facial and glossopharingeal nerves are very important in Forensic Medicine, while there are different opinions about taste alterations due to head injuries; hypogeusia associated to smell disorders are found in 0.4-0.5% of patient after head trauma with good prognosis (90% healing) while qualitative disorders are more common (30%). The Authors describe clinical methodologies for taste evaluation and their application in Forensic Medicine. Forensic estimation of taste disorders con be classified by two main groups: study of cause relation between the occurrence and damage and quantitative valuation of the damage in three different juridical ambits: Penal, Civil, Insurance and foresight. In Penal Right taste damages could be classified among personal lesion crimes and can be classified as serious (permanent injury of taste) ore very serious (complete lost of taste function). Italian Legislation equipare the 5 sense organs. In Civil Right evaluation the so-called "biologic damage" and working ability are considered; this means very different evaluations. In the most recent baremes, generic damage is estimated by different Authors from 0 to 10% while with regard to specific working capacity, common evaluation criteria does not exist. In Insurance taste disorders evaluation is based only on working ability and not on biologic damage. In the previdenzial ambit, taste disorders are not even included in the most recent tables of permanent invalidity estimation. The Authors propose new and more efficacious valutation criteria for taste disorders in all ambits, hoping for more interest in the Forensic aspects of taste, a too often forgotten sensory function. PMID:7810326

  3. [Physiology of smell and taste].

    PubMed

    von Baumgarten, R

    1975-01-01

    The functional organization of olfaction and taste are briefly discussed in morphological, physiological, biochemical and behavioural terms. Olfaction in animals serves often for long range navigational purposes whereas taste acts as a close up "last moment food checking system". Special attention is given to the coding problems in both systems. In taste, the spatial coding mode is prevalent. In olfaction a very complex coding system exists, which used temporal as well as spatial means and in which a whole set of olfactory nerve fibers is activated during the transmission of any specific odor information, each fiber of the set discharging at a specific impulse pattern. The role of the olfactory bulb is seen as an integrating center with the capabilities for short and long term information storage. The impact of von Békésy's microstimulation experiments on the physiology of taste is discussed. Research on taste modifiers such as gymnemic acid or of the taste modifying protein "miraculin" enrich our present understanding of the interaction between taste stimulants and the chemoreceptor sites in the taste buds. PMID:233846

  4. Problems with Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... less frequently than problems with smell. How Our Sense of Taste Works Our sense of taste, along ... may start to lose taste buds. Five Taste Sensations We can experience five basic taste sensations: sweet, ...

  5. Elucidating coding of taste qualities with the taste modifier miraculin in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Vicktoria; Hellekant, Göran

    2006-01-30

    To investigate the relationships between the activity in different types of taste fibers and the gustatory behavior in marmosets, we used the taste modifier miraculin, which in humans adds a sweet taste quality to sour stimuli. In behavioral experiments, we measured marmosets' consumption of acids before and after tongue application of miraculin. In electrophysiological experiments responses of single taste fibers in chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves were recorded before and after tongue application of miraculin. We found that after miraculin marmosets consumed acids more readily. Taste nerve recordings showed that after miraculin taste fibers which usually respond only to sweeteners, S fibers, became responsive to acids. These results further support our hypothesis that the activity in S fibers is translated into a hedonically positive behavioral response. PMID:16377437

  6. Taste Bud-Derived BDNF Is Required to Maintain Normal Amounts of Innervation to Adult Taste Buds123

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lingbin; Ohman-Gault, Lisa; Ma, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gustatory neurons transmit chemical information from taste receptor cells, which reside in taste buds in the oral cavity, to the brain. As adult taste receptor cells are renewed at a constant rate, nerve fibers must reconnect with new taste receptor cells as they arise. Therefore, the maintenance of gustatory innervation to the taste bud is an active process. Understanding how this process is regulated is a fundamental concern of gustatory system biology. We speculated that because brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is required for taste bud innervation during development, it might function to maintain innervation during adulthood. If so, taste buds should lose innervation when Bdnf is deleted in adult mice. To test this idea, we first removed Bdnf from all cells in adulthood using transgenic mice with inducible CreERT2 under the control of the Ubiquitin promoter. When Bdnf was removed, approximately one-half of the innervation to taste buds was lost, and taste buds became smaller because of the loss of taste bud cells. Individual taste buds varied in the amount of innervation each lost, and those that lost the most innervation also lost the most taste bud cells. We then tested the idea that that the taste bud was the source of this BDNF by reducing Bdnf levels specifically in the lingual epithelium and taste buds. Taste buds were confirmed as the source of BDNF regulating innervation. We conclude that BDNF expressed in taste receptor cells is required to maintain normal levels of innervation in adulthood. PMID:26730405

  7. Smell and Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Smell & Taste Smell & Taste Patient Health Information News media ... passages, or, at times, brain tumors. HOW DO SMELL AND TASTE WORK? Smell and taste belong to ...

  8. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Human Vallate Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Tizzano, Marco; Grigereit, Laura; Shultz, Nicole; Clary, Matthew S; Finger, Thomas E

    2015-11-01

    The morphology of the vallate papillae from postmortem human samples was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Microscopically, taste buds were present along the inner wall of the papilla, and in some cases in the outer wall as well. The typical taste cell markers PLCβ2, GNAT3 (gustducin) and the T1R3 receptor stain elongated cells in human taste buds consistent with the Type II cells in rodents. In the human tissue, taste bud cells that stain with Type II cell markers, PLCβ2 and GNAT3, also stain with villin antibody. Two typical immunochemical markers for Type III taste cells in rodents, PGP9.5 and SNAP25, fail to stain any taste bud cells in the human postmortem tissue, although these antibodies do stain numerous nerve fibers throughout the specimen. Car4, another Type III cell marker, reacted with only a few taste cells in our samples. Finally, human vallate papillae have a general network of innervation similar to rodents and antibodies directed against SNAP25, PGP9.5, acetylated tubulin and P2X3 all stain free perigemmal nerve endings as well as intragemmal taste fibers. We conclude that with the exception of certain molecular features of Type III cells, human vallate papillae share the structural, morphological, and molecular features observed in rodents. PMID:26400924

  9. Drosophila Bitter Taste(s)

    PubMed Central

    French, Alice; Ali Agha, Moutaz; Mitra, Aniruddha; Yanagawa, Aya; Sellier, Marie-Jeanne; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Most animals possess taste receptors neurons detecting potentially noxious compounds. In humans, the ligands which activate these neurons define a sensory space called “bitter”. By extension, this term has been used in animals and insects to define molecules which induce aversive responses. In this review, based on our observations carried out in Drosophila, we examine how bitter compounds are detected and if bitter-sensitive neurons respond only to molecules bitter to humans. Like most animals, flies detect bitter chemicals through a specific population of taste neurons, distinct from those responding to sugars or to other modalities. Activating bitter-sensitive taste neurons induces aversive reactions and inhibits feeding. Bitter molecules also contribute to the suppression of sugar-neuron responses and can lead to a complete inhibition of the responses to sugar at the periphery. Since some bitter molecules activate bitter-sensitive neurons and some inhibit sugar detection, bitter molecules are represented by two sensory spaces which are only partially congruent. In addition to molecules which impact feeding, we recently discovered that the activation of bitter-sensitive neurons also induces grooming. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the wings and of the legs can sense chemicals from the gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, thus adding another biological function to these receptors. Bitter-sensitive neurons of the proboscis also respond to the inhibitory pheromone, 7-tricosene. Activating these neurons by bitter molecules in the context of sexual encounter inhibits courting and sexual reproduction, while activating these neurons with 7-tricosene in a feeding context will inhibit feeding. The picture that emerges from these observations is that the taste system is composed of detectors which monitor different “categories” of ligands, which facilitate or inhibit behaviors depending on the context (feeding, sexual reproduction, hygienic behavior), thus

  10. Neurological causes of taste disorders.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, J G; Lang, C J G

    2006-01-01

    In caring for patients with taste disorders, the clinical assessment should include complete examination of the cranial nerves and, in particular, gustatory testing. Neurophysiological methods such as blink reflex and masseter reflex allow the testing of trigeminofacial and trigeminotrigeminal pathways. Modern imaging methods (MRI and computed tomography) enable the delineation of the neuroanatomical structures which are involved in taste and their relation to the bony skull base. From a neurological point of view, gustatory disorders can result from damage at any location of the neural gustatory pathway from the taste buds via the peripheral (facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve) and central nervous system (brainstem, thalamus) to its representation within the cerebral cortex. Etiopathogenetically, a large number of causes has to be considered, e.g. drugs and physical agents, cerebrovascular disorders including dissection of the carotid artery and pontine/thalamic lesions, space-occupying processes - in particular tumors compressing the cerebellopontine angle and the jugular foramen of the skull base - head trauma and skull base fractures, isolated cranial mononeuropathy (e.g. Bell's palsy) or polyneuropathy, epilepsy, dementia, multiple sclerosis and major depression. In addition to this, aging can also lead to diminished taste perception. Due to the broad differential diagnostic considerations, it is essential to look for additional, even mild, neurological signs and symptoms. Treatment must relate to the underlying cause. Zinc may be tried in idiopathic dysgeusia. PMID:16733343

  11. Taste and Smell Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Our senses of taste and smell give us great pleasure. Taste helps us enjoy food and beverages. Smell lets us enjoy the scents and fragrances like roses or coffee. Taste and smell also protect us, letting us know when food ...

  12. Intensity of regionally applied tastes in relation to administration method: an investigation based on the "taste strips" test.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Brian; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    To compare various methods to apply regional taste stimuli to the tongue. "Taste strips" are a clinical tool to determine gustatory function. How a patient perceives the chemical environment in the mouth is a result of many factors such as taste bud distribution and interactions between the cranial nerves. To date, there have been few studies describing the different approaches to administer taste strips to maximize taste identification accuracy and intensity. This is a normative value acquisition pilot and single-center study. The investigation involved 30 participants reporting a normal sense of smell and taste (18 women, 12 men, mean age 33 years). The taste test was based on spoon-shaped filter paper strips impregnated with four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) at concentrations shown to be easily detectable by young healthy subjects. The strips were administered in three methods (held stationary on the tip of the tongue, applied across the tongue, held in the mouth), resulting in a total of 12 trials per participant. Subjects identified the taste from a list of four descriptors, (sweet, sour, salty, bitter) and ranked the intensity on a scale from 0 to 10. Statistical analyses were performed on the accuracy of taste identification and rated intensities. The participants perceived in order of most to least intense: salt, sour, bitter, sweet. Of the four tastes, sour consistently was least accurately identified. Presenting the taste strip inside the closed mouth of the participants produced the least accurate taste identification, whereas moving the taste strip across the tongue led to a significant increase in intensity for the sweet taste. In this study of 30 subjects at the second concentration, optimized accuracy and intensity of taste identification was observed through administration of taste strips laterally across the anterior third of the extended tongue. Further studies are required on more subjects and the additional concentrations

  13. Sensing of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    A taste sensor with global selectivity, i. e., electronic tongue, is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information of taste substances into electric signal. The sensor output shows different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness and sourness. Taste interactions such as suppression effect, which occurs between bitterness and sweetness, can be detected and quantified using the taste sensor. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes from sensor outputs. The taste of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water and milk can be discussed quantitatively. The taste sensor provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. We are now standing at the beginning of a new age of communication using digitized taste.

  14. Genetics of taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R; Nelson, Theodore M

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical "tastes" as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  15. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  16. Smell and Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... rarely, loss of smell or taste becomes permanent. Did You Know? Occasionally, smell and taste disorders are ... aspirin , quinine , or aloes). Resources In This Article Did You Know 1 Did You Know? Figure 1 ...

  17. Behavioral genetics and taste

    PubMed Central

    Boughter, John D; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on behavioral genetic studies of sweet, umami, bitter and salt taste responses in mammals. Studies involving mouse inbred strain comparisons and genetic analyses, and their impact on elucidation of taste receptors and transduction mechanisms are discussed. Finally, the effect of genetic variation in taste responsiveness on complex traits such as drug intake is considered. Recent advances in development of genomic resources make behavioral genetics a powerful approach for understanding mechanisms of taste. PMID:17903279

  18. Angiotensin II modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Noriatsu; Iwata, Shusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Horio, Nao; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-04-10

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying gustatory detection of dietary sodium is important for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Here, we show that Angiotensin II (AngII), a major mediator of body fluid and sodium homeostasis, modulates salty and sweet taste sensitivities, and that this modulation critically influences ingestive behaviors in mice. Gustatory nerve recording demonstrated that AngII suppressed amiloride-sensitive taste responses to NaCl. Surprisingly, AngII also enhanced nerve responses to sweeteners, but had no effect on responses to KCl, sour, bitter, or umami tastants. These effects of AngII on nerve responses were blocked by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonist CV11974. In behavioral tests, CV11974 treatment reduced the stimulated high licking rate to NaCl and sweeteners in water-restricted mice with elevated plasma AngII levels. In taste cells AT1 proteins were coexpressed with αENaC (epithelial sodium channel α-subunit, an amiloride-sensitive salt taste receptor) or T1r3 (a sweet taste receptor component). These results suggest that the taste organ is a peripheral target of AngII. The specific reduction of amiloride-sensitive salt taste sensitivity by AngII may contribute to increased sodium intake. Furthermore, AngII may contribute to increased energy intake by enhancing sweet responses. The linkage between salty and sweet preferences via AngII signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intakes. PMID:23575826

  19. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  20. Are there efferent synapses in fish taste buds?

    PubMed

    Reutter, Klaus; Witt, Martin

    2004-12-01

    In fish, nerve fibers of taste buds are organized within the bud's nerve fiber plexus. It is located between the sensory epithelium consisting of light and dark elongated cells and the basal cells. It comprises the basal parts and processes of light and dark cells that intermingle with nerve fibers, which are the dendritic endings of the taste sensory neurons belonging to the cranial nerves VII, IX or X. Most of the synapses at the plexus are afferent; they have synaptic vesicles on the light (or dark) cells side, which is presynaptic. In contrast, the presumed efferent synapses may be rich in synaptic vesicles on the nerve fibers (presynaptic) side, whereas the cells (postsynaptic) side may contain a subsynaptic cistern; a flat compartment of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This structure is regarded as a prerequisite of a typical efferent synapse, as occurring in cochlear and vestibular hair cells. In fish taste buds, efferent synapses are rare and were found only in a few species that belong to different taxa. The significance of efferent synapses in fish taste buds is not well understood, because efferent connections between the gustatory nuclei of the medulla with taste buds are not yet proved. PMID:16217620

  1. Mammalian sweet taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G; Hoon, M A; Chandrashekar, J; Zhang, Y; Ryba, N J; Zuker, C S

    2001-08-10

    The sense of taste provides animals with valuable information about the quality and nutritional value of food. Previously, we identified a large family of mammalian taste receptors involved in bitter taste perception (the T2Rs). We now report the characterization of mammalian sweet taste receptors. First, transgenic rescue experiments prove that the Sac locus encodes T1R3, a member of the T1R family of candidate taste receptors. Second, using a heterologous expression system, we demonstrate that T1R2 and T1R3 combine to function as a sweet receptor, recognizing sweet-tasting molecules as diverse as sucrose, saccharin, dulcin, and acesulfame-K. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the patterns of expression of T1Rs and T2Rs, thus providing a view of the representation of sweet and bitter taste at the periphery. PMID:11509186

  2. Taste responses in mice lacking taste receptor subunit T1R1

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhara, Yoko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Voigt, Anja; Hübner, Sandra; Maeda, Katsumasa; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    The T1R1 receptor subunit acts as an umami taste receptor in combination with its partner, T1R3. In addition, metabotropic glutamate receptors (brain and taste variants of mGluR1 and mGluR4) are thought to function as umami taste receptors. To elucidate the function of T1R1 and the contribution of mGluRs to umami taste detection in vivo, we used newly developed knock-out (T1R1−/−) mice, which lack the entire coding region of the Tas1r1 gene and express mCherry in T1R1-expressing cells. Gustatory nerve recordings demonstrated that T1R1−/− mice exhibited a serious deficit in inosine monophosphate-elicited synergy but substantial residual responses to glutamate alone in both chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. Interestingly, chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners were smaller in T1R1−/− mice. Taste cell recordings demonstrated that many mCherry-expressing taste cells in T1R1+/− mice responded to sweet and umami compounds, whereas those in T1R1−/− mice responded to sweet stimuli. The proportion of sweet-responsive cells was smaller in T1R1−/− than in T1R1+/− mice. Single-cell RT-PCR demonstrated that some single mCherry-expressing cells expressed all three T1R subunits. Chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve responses to glutamate were significantly inhibited by addition of mGluR antagonists in both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice. Conditioned taste aversion tests demonstrated that both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice were equally capable of discriminating glutamate from other basic taste stimuli. Avoidance conditioned to glutamate was significantly reduced by addition of mGluR antagonists. These results suggest that T1R1-expressing cells mainly contribute to umami taste synergism and partly to sweet sensitivity and that mGluRs are involved in the detection of umami compounds. PMID:23339178

  3. Endocrine Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kokrashvili, Zaza; Yee, Karen K.; Ilegems, Erwin; Iwatsuki, Ken; Li, Yan; Mosinger, Bedrich; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    In taste cells, taste receptors, their coupled G proteins, and downstream signaling elements mediate detection and transduction of sweet, bitter and umami compounds. In some intestinal endocrine cells, taste receptors and gustducin contribute to the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other gut hormones in response to glucose and non-caloric sweeteners. Conversely, taste cells have been found to express multiple hormones typically found in intestinal endocrine cells, e.g. GLP-1, glucagon, somatostatin and ghrelin. By immunohistochemistry multiple subsets of taste cells were found to express GLP-1. The release of GLP-1 from “endocrine taste cells” into the bloodstream was examined. In wild-type mice, even after esophagealectomy and vagotomy, application of glucose to the tongue induced an elevation of GLP-1 in the bloodstream within 10 minutes of stimulation of the taste buds with glucose. Glucose stimulation of taste cell explants from wild-type mice led to release of GLP-1 into the medium. Knocking out the T1R3 gene did not eliminate glucose-stimulated GLP-1 release from taste cells in vivo. Our results indicate that a portion of the cephalic phase rise in circulating GLP-1 is mediated by direct release of GLP-1 from taste cells into the bloodstream. PMID:24382120

  4. Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and T2R receptors interact with taste stimuli and with identifying their patterns of expression in taste cells sheds light on coding of taste information by the nervous system. Candidate mechanisms for detection of salts, acids, fat, complex carbohydrates, and water have also been proposed, but further studies are needed to prove their identity. PMID:17444812

  5. A question of taste.

    PubMed

    Mitchison, T J

    2013-11-01

    A career in science is shaped by many factors, one of the most important being our tastes in research. These typically form early and are shaped by subsequent successes and failures. My tastes run to microscopes, chemistry, and spatial organization of cytoplasm. I will try to identify where they came from, how they shaped my career, and how they continue to evolve. My hope is to inspire young scientists to identify and celebrate their own unique tastes. PMID:24174461

  6. CAPACITANCE MEASUREMENTS OF REGULATED EXOCYTOSIS IN MOUSE TASTE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Zorec, Robert; Kinnamon, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    Exocytosis, consisting of the merger of vesicle and plasma membrane, is a common mechanism used by different types of nucleated cells to release their vesicular contents. Taste cells possess vesicles containing various neurotransmitters to communicate with adjacent taste cells and afferent nerve fibers. However, whether these vesicles engage in exocytosis upon a stimulus is not known. Since vesicle membrane merger with the plasma membrane is reflected in plasma membrane area fluctuations, we measured membrane capacitance (Cm), a parameter linearly related to membrane surface area. To investigate whether taste cells undergo regulated exocytosis, we used the compensated tight-seal whole-cell recording technique to monitor depolarization-induced changes in Cm in the different types of taste cells. To identify taste cell types, mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the TRPM5 promoter or from the GAD67 promoter were used to discriminate Type II and Type III taste cells, respectively. Moreover, the cell types were also identified by monitoring their voltage-current properties. The results demonstrate that only Type III taste cells show significant depolarization-induced increases in Cm, which were correlated to the voltage-activated calcium currents. The results suggest that Type III, but neither Type II nor Type I cells exhibit depolarization-induced regulated exocytosis to release transmitter and activate gustatory afferent nerve fibers. PMID:21048127

  7. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is specifically involved in sweet taste transmission.

    PubMed

    Takai, Shingo; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Inoue, Mayuko; Iwata, Shusuke; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Drucker, Daniel J; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-06-01

    Five fundamental taste qualities (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami) are sensed by dedicated taste cells (TCs) that relay quality information to gustatory nerve fibers. In peripheral taste signaling pathways, ATP has been identified as a functional neurotransmitter, but it remains to be determined how specificity of different taste qualities is maintained across synapses. Recent studies demonstrated that some gut peptides are released from taste buds by prolonged application of particular taste stimuli, suggesting their potential involvement in taste information coding. In this study, we focused on the function of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in initial responses to taste stimulation. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) null mice had reduced neural and behavioral responses specifically to sweet compounds compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Some sweet responsive TCs expressed GLP-1 and its receptors were expressed in gustatory neurons. GLP-1 was released immediately from taste bud cells in response to sweet compounds but not to other taste stimuli. Intravenous administration of GLP-1 elicited transient responses in a subset of sweet-sensitive gustatory nerve fibers but did not affect other types of fibers, and this response was suppressed by pre-administration of the GLP-1R antagonist Exendin-4(3-39). Thus GLP-1 may be involved in normal sweet taste signal transmission in mice. PMID:25678625

  8. Taste of Fat: A Sixth Taste Modality?

    PubMed

    Besnard, Philippe; Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Khan, Naim A

    2016-01-01

    An attraction for palatable foods rich in lipids is shared by rodents and humans. Over the last decade, the mechanisms responsible for this specific eating behavior have been actively studied, and compelling evidence implicates a taste component in the orosensory detection of dietary lipids [i.e., long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)], in addition to textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. The interactions between LCFA and specific receptors in taste bud cells (TBC) elicit physiological changes that affect both food intake and digestive functions. After a short overview of the gustatory pathway, this review brings together the key findings consistent with the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. The main steps leading to this new paradigm (i.e., chemoreception of LCFA in TBC, cell signaling cascade, transfer of lipid signals throughout the gustatory nervous pathway, and their physiological consequences) will be critically analyzed. The limitations to this concept will also be discussed in the light of our current knowledge of the sense of taste. Finally, we will analyze the recent literature on obesity-related dysfunctions in the orosensory detection of lipids ("fatty" taste?), in relation to the overconsumption of fat-rich foods and the associated health risks. PMID:26631596

  9. The taste of music.

    PubMed

    Mesz, Bruno; Trevisan, Marcos A; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Zarlino, one of the most important music theorists of the XVI century, described the minor consonances as 'sweet' (dolci) and 'soft' (soavi) (Zarlino 1558/1983, in On the Modes New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983). Hector Berlioz, in his Treatise on Modern Instrumentation and Orchestration (London: Novello, 1855), speaks about the 'small acid-sweet voice' of the oboe. In line with this tradition of describing musical concepts in terms of taste words, recent empirical studies have found reliable associations between taste perception and low-level sound and musical parameters, like pitch and phonetic features. Here we investigated whether taste words elicited consistent musical representations by asking trained musicians to improvise on the basis of the four canonical taste words: sweet, sour, bitter, and salty. Our results showed that, even in free improvisation, taste words elicited very reliable and consistent musical patterns:'bitter' improvisations are low-pitched and legato (without interruption between notes), 'salty' improvisations are staccato (notes sharply detached from each other), 'sour' improvisations are high-pitched and dissonant, and 'sweet' improvisations are consonant, slow, and soft. Interestingly, projections of the improvisations of taste words to musical space (a vector space defined by relevant musical parameters) revealed that, in musical space, improvisations based on different taste words were nearly orthogonal or opposite. Decoding methods could classify binary choices of improvisations (i.e., identify the improvisation word from the melody) at performance of around 80%--well above chance. In a second experiment we investigated the mapping from perception of music to taste words. Fifty-seven non-musical experts listened to a fraction of the improvisations. We found that listeners classified with high performance the taste word which had elicited the improvisation. Our results, furthermore, show that associations of taste and music

  10. Effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W.A.; Rabin, B.M.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the acquisition of a radiation-induced taste aversion was examined to assess the importance of the vagus nerve in transmitting information on the peripheral toxicity of radiation to the brain. Vagotomy had no effect on taste aversion learning, consistent with reports using other toxins. The data support the involvement of a blood-borne factor in the acquisition of taste aversion induced by ionizing radiation.

  11. L-theanine elicits an umami taste with inosine 5'-monophosphate.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Morita, Kanako; Hayashi, Yukako

    2008-11-01

    We investigated the taste synergy between L-theanine and the flavour enhancer, inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), by using a human sensory evaluation. When L-theanine was added to IMP, only the umami taste was enhanced. We then investigated this synergistic effect of L-theanine in mice by gustatory nerve recording. We confirmed the synergism between L-theanine and IMP for the umami taste. PMID:18997398

  12. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  13. Clindamycin and taste disorders

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Mark C H; van Puijenbroek, Eugène P

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. The antibiotic clindamycin has a bitter taste when it is used orally. What this study adds A case series on oral as well as i.v. use of clindamycin associated with taste disorders is presented. After corrections in a case-by-case analysis for several possible confounders such as indication, clindamycin is disproportionally associated with taste disorders. Serum and hence saliva and sputum clindamycin levels seem to be responsible for this reversible adverse drug reaction. Aims Topical use of clindamycin has been associated with taste disorders in the literature, but little is known about the nature of this adverse drug reaction. The aim of this article was to describe reports of clindamycin-induced taste disorders and to analyse the factors involved. Methods The adverse drug reaction database of the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre was searched for reports concerning taste disorders with antibiotics. Clinical review of the cases and statistical analysis with logistic regression were performed. Characteristics of patients who reported taste disorders were compared for age, gender and formulation in clindamycin vs. other antibiotic users. Results Taste disorders were reported in seven (18%) of the clindamycin cases. In five reports an oral formulation was involved, in one report intravenous (i.v.) administration and in one report both formulations were used. Latency was <1 day after start and in one case taste disorders were present repeatedly at 10 min after every i.v. application. The adjusted reporting odds ratio was 7.0 (95% confidence interval 2.8, 17.3) and supports a possible causal relationship. Conclusions The association of clindamycin and taste disorders is supported by disproportionality analysis and seems to be independent of possible confounders such as age, gender and infections. The case reports suggest a role for clindamycin concentrations excreted in body fluids like saliva. PMID:17635503

  14. Cracking Taste Codes by Tapping into Sensory Neuron Impulse Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marion E.; Lundy, Robert F.; Contreras, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Insights into the biological basis for mammalian taste quality coding began with electrophysiological recordings from “taste” nerves and this technique continues to produce essential information today. Chorda tympani (geniculate ganglion) neurons, which are particularly involved in taste quality discrimination, are specialists or generalists. Specialists respond to stimuli characterized by a single taste quality as defined by behavioral cross-generalization in conditioned taste tests. Generalists respond to electrolytes that elicit multiple aversive qualities. Na+-salt (N) specialists in rodents and sweet-stimulus (S) specialists in multiple orders of mammals are well-characterized. Specialists are associated with species’ nutritional needs and their activation is known to be malleable by internal physiological conditions and contaminated external caloric sources. S specialists, associated with the heterodimeric G-protein coupled receptor: T1R, and N specialists, associated with the epithelial sodium channel: ENaC, are consistent with labeled line coding from taste bud to afferent neuron. Yet, S-specialist neurons and behavior are less specific thanT1R2-3 in encompassing glutamate and E generalist neurons are much less specific than a candidate, PDK TRP channel, sour receptor in encompassing salts and bitter stimuli. Specialist labeled lines for nutrients and generalist patterns for aversive electrolytes may be transmitting taste information to the brain side by side. However, specific roles of generalists in taste quality coding may be resolved by selecting stimuli and stimulus levels found in natural situations. T2Rs, participating in reflexes via the glossopharynygeal nerve, became highly diversified in mammalian phylogenesis as they evolved to deal with dangerous substances within specific environmental niches. Establishing the information afferent neurons traffic to the brain about natural taste stimuli imbedded in dynamic complex mixtures will

  15. Nerve and behavioral responses of mice to various umami substances.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Morita, Kanako; Uemura, Masahide; Kitada, Ryo; Oh, Seong-Hee; Hayashi, Yukako

    2011-01-01

    Food contains various taste substances. Among them, umami substances play an important role with regard to the perception of the taste of food, but, few studies have examined the taste characteristics of representative umami substances other than monosodium L-glutamate (MSG). By conducting mouse behavioral studies (the 48-h 2-bottle preference test and the conditioned taste aversion test) and assessing gustatory nerve responses, we investigated the taste characteristics of unique umami substances, including sodium succinate, L-theanine, betaine, and the enantiomer of MSG, D-MSG. Furthermore, we examined the synergy of umami with inosine 5'-monophoshate (IMP). In the case of the mice, sodium succinate had an umami taste and showed strong synergy with IMP. L-theanine showed synergy with IMP but did not have an umami taste without IMP. In contrast, betaine did not have an umami taste or synergy with IMP. D-MSG might have weak synergy with IMP. PMID:22056436

  16. What Are Taste Buds?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Tongue Activity: Taste Tracker Your Tongue Senses Experiment: ...

  17. Smelling and Tasting Underwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atema, Jelle

    1980-01-01

    Discusses differences between smell and taste, comparing these senses in organisms in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Describes the chemical environment underwater and in air, differences in chemoreceptors to receive stimuli, and the organs, brain, and behavior involved in chemoreception. (CS)

  18. Smell and taste disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Thomas; Landis, Basile N.; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Smell and taste disorders can markedly affect the quality of life. In recent years we have become much better in the assessment of the ability to smell and taste. In addition, information is now available to say something about the prognosis of individual patients. With regard to therapy there also seems to be low but steady progress. Of special importance for the treatment is the ability of the olfactory epithelium to regenerate. PMID:22558054

  19. Taste and the taste of foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, James C.

    1980-01-01

    At least 12 distinct taste sensations can be elicited from different parts of the oral cavity by distinct chemical compounds. The chemicals eliciting each sensation are often common constituents of foods, thus the umami sensations arise with stimulation by monosodium glutamate and nucleotides. These sensations can often be related to different physical/chemical stimulus parameters (e.g., bitterness and hydrophobicity) and neural activity in distinct chemosensory channels.

  20. Gustatory insular cortex, aversive taste memory and taste neophobia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Prior research indicates a role for the gustatory insular cortex (GC) in taste neophobia. Rats with lesions of the GC show much weaker avoidance to a novel and potentially dangerous taste than do neurologically intact animals. The current study used the retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) as a tool to determine whether the GC modulates neophobia by processing taste novelty or taste danger. The results show that GC lesions attenuate CTA retention (Experiment 1) and impair taste neophobia (Experiment 2). Given that normal CTA retention does not involve the processing of taste novelty, the pattern of results suggests that the GC is involved in taste neophobia via its function in processing the danger conveyed by a taste stimulus. PMID:25617666

  1. A crossmodal role for audition in taste perception.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kimberly S; Dando, Robin

    2015-06-01

    Our sense of taste can be influenced by our other senses, with several groups having explored the effects of olfactory, visual, or tactile stimulation on what we perceive as taste. Research into multisensory, or crossmodal perception has rarely linked our sense of taste with that of audition. In our study, 48 participants in a crossover experiment sampled multiple concentrations of solutions of 5 prototypic tastants, during conditions with or without broad spectrum auditory stimulation, simulating that of airline cabin noise. Airline cabins are an unusual environment, in which food is consumed routinely under extreme noise conditions, often over 85 dB, and in which the perceived quality of food is often criticized. Participants rated the intensity of solutions representing varying concentrations of the 5 basic tastes on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. No difference in intensity ratings was evident between the control and sound condition for salty, sour, or bitter tastes. Likewise, panelists did not perform differently during sound conditions when rating tactile, visual, or auditory stimulation, or in reaction time tests. Interestingly, sweet taste intensity was rated progressively lower, whereas the perception of umami taste was augmented during the experimental sound condition, to a progressively greater degree with increasing concentration. We postulate that this effect arises from mechanostimulation of the chorda tympani nerve, which transits directly across the tympanic membrane of the middle ear. PMID:25775175

  2. Taste hyposensitivity in Japanese schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is some research on taste disorder/hyposensitivity in special groups such as the elderly or patients presenting with specific taste problems, however few studies have been conducted among young populations. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and to investigate the relationship between taste hyposensitivity and oral health status in Japanese schoolchildren. Methods Subjects were 237 primary and 112 junior high school students in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. In total, 349 (boys: 181, girls: 168) students aged 6–15 years participated in the study. Oral examinations and whole-mouth taste tests using four tastes (sweet, salt, sour and bitter) solutions were conducted on the subjects. A subject who could not recognize the taste of the solution was defined as demonstrating hyposensitivity. Results Hyposensitivity was observed in 6.3% of all subjects for sweet-taste, 14.3% for salt-taste, 20.9% for sour-taste and 6.0% for bitter-taste. The prevalence of sweet, sour and bitter-taste hyposensitivity decreased as the subjects’ grade advanced. In contrast, the prevalence of salt-taste hyposensitivity increased in 7th-9th grade subjects. Furthermore, the prevalence of bitter-taste hyposensitivity was significantly higher in males than females among 1st-3rd graders. Taste hyposensitivity had little association with oral health status, such as decayed teeth, filled teeth, dental plaque, gingival status and tongue coating. Conclusions In this study, taste hyposensitivity was observed in 6.0%-20.9% of the students. There was little association between taste hyposensitivity and oral health status. The current study implies that the factors affecting the taste hyposensitivity in children may different from those in the elderly. Therefore it is necessary to further investigate the causes of taste hyposensitivity among younger generation. PMID:24725841

  3. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  4. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 taste receptor gene selectively affects taste responses to sweeteners: evidence from 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masashi; Glendinning, John I; Theodorides, Maria L; Harkness, Sarah; Li, Xia; Bosak, Natalia; Beauchamp, Gary K; Bachmanov, Alexander A

    2007-12-19

    The Tas1r3 gene encodes the T1R3 receptor protein, which is involved in sweet taste transduction. To characterize ligand specificity of the T1R3 receptor and the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness, we analyzed taste responses of 129.B6-Tas1r3 congenic mice to a variety of chemically diverse sweeteners and glucose polymers with three different measures: consumption in 48-h two-bottle preference tests, initial licking responses, and responses of the chorda tympani nerve. The results were generally consistent across the three measures. Allelic variation of the Tas1r3 gene influenced taste responsiveness to nonnutritive sweeteners (saccharin, acesulfame-K, sucralose, SC-45647), sugars (sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose), sugar alcohols (erythritol, sorbitol), and some amino acids (D-tryptophan, D-phenylalanine, L-proline). Tas1r3 genotype did not affect taste responses to several sweet-tasting amino acids (L-glutamine, L-threonine, L-alanine, glycine), glucose polymers (Polycose, maltooligosaccharide), and nonsweet NaCl, HCl, quinine, monosodium glutamate, and inosine 5'-monophosphate. Thus Tas1r3 polymorphisms affect taste responses to many nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners (all of which must interact with a taste receptor involving T1R3), but not to all carbohydrates and amino acids. In addition, we found that the genetic architecture of sweet taste responsiveness changes depending on the measure of taste response and the intensity of the sweet taste stimulus. Variation in the T1R3 receptor influenced peripheral taste responsiveness over a wide range of sweetener concentrations, but behavioral responses to higher concentrations of some sweeteners increasingly depended on mechanisms that could override input from the peripheral taste system. PMID:17911381

  5. A National Test of Taste and Smell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance At Last: A National Test of Taste and ... smell. Read More "Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance" Articles At Last: A National Test of Taste ...

  6. The Taste of Typeface

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Hyndman, Sarah; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that typefaces can convey meaning over-and-above the actual semantic content of whatever happens to be written. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that people match basic taste words (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) to typefaces varying in their roundness versus angularity. In Experiment 1, the participants matched rounder typefaces with the word “sweet,” while matching more angular typefaces with the taste words “bitter,” “salty,” and “sour.” Experiment 2 demonstrates that rounder typefaces are liked more and are judged easier to read than their more angular counterparts. We conclude that there is a strong relationship between roundness/angularity, ease of processing, and typeface liking, which in turn influences the correspondence between typeface and taste. These results are discussed in terms of the notion of affective crossmodal correspondences. PMID:27433316

  7. The Taste of Typeface.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T; Hyndman, Sarah; Spence, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that typefaces can convey meaning over-and-above the actual semantic content of whatever happens to be written. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that people match basic taste words (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) to typefaces varying in their roundness versus angularity. In Experiment 1, the participants matched rounder typefaces with the word "sweet," while matching more angular typefaces with the taste words "bitter," "salty," and "sour." Experiment 2 demonstrates that rounder typefaces are liked more and are judged easier to read than their more angular counterparts. We conclude that there is a strong relationship between roundness/angularity, ease of processing, and typeface liking, which in turn influences the correspondence between typeface and taste. These results are discussed in terms of the notion of affective crossmodal correspondences. PMID:27433316

  8. Modulation of sweet taste sensitivities by endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in mice

    PubMed Central

    Niki, Mayu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Shigemura, Noriatsu; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Piomelli, Daniele; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    Leptin is an anorexigenic mediator that reduces food intake by acting on hypothalamic receptor Ob-Rb. In contrast, endocannabinoids are orexigenic mediators that act via cannabinoid CB1 receptors in hypothalamus, limbic forebrain, and brainstem. In the peripheral taste system, leptin administration selectively inhibits behavioural, taste nerve and taste cell responses to sweet compounds. Opposing the action of leptin, endocannabinoids enhance sweet taste responses. However, potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste remain unclear. Here, we used pharmacological antagonists (Ob-Rb: L39A/D40A/F41A (LA), CB1: AM251) and examined the effects of their blocking activation of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoid signalling on taste responses in lean control, leptin receptor deficient db/db, and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Lean mice exhibited significant increases in chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to sweet compounds after LA administration, while they showed no significant changes in CT responses after AM251. In contrast, db/db mice showed clear suppression of CT responses to sweet compounds after AM251, increased endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG)) levels in the taste organ, and enhanced expression of a biosynthesizing enzyme (diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα)) of 2-AG in taste cells. In DIO mice, the LA effect was gradually decreased and the AM251 effect was increased during the course of obesity. Taken together, our results suggest that circulating leptin, but not local endocannabinoids, may be a dominant modulator for sweet taste in lean mice; however, endocannabinoids may become more effective modulators of sweet taste under conditions of deficient leptin signalling, possibly due to increased production of endocannabinoids in taste tissue. Key points Potential roles of endogenous leptin and endocannabinoids in sweet taste were examined by using pharmacological antagonists and mouse models including leptin receptor

  9. Potable water taste enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

  10. NaCl Taste Thresholds in 13 Inbred Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwatari, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of salty taste in mammals are not completely understood. We use genetic approaches to study these mechanisms. Previously, we developed a high-throughput procedure to measure NaCl taste thresholds, which involves conditioning mice to avoid LiCl and then examining avoidance of NaCl solutions presented in 48-h 2-bottle preference tests. Using this procedure, we measured NaCl taste thresholds of mice from 13 genealogically divergent inbred stains: 129P3/J, A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6ByJ, C57BL/6J, CBA/J, CE/J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, NZB/BlNJ, PWK/PhJ, and SJL/J. We found substantial strain variation in NaCl taste thresholds: mice from the A/J and 129P3/J strains had high thresholds (were less sensitive), whereas mice from the BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C57BL/6ByJ, CE/J, DBA/2J, NZB/BINJ, and SJL/J had low thresholds (were more sensitive). NaCl taste thresholds measured in this study did not significantly correlate with NaCl preferences or amiloride sensitivity of chorda tympani nerve responses to NaCl determined in the same strains in other studies. To examine whether strain differences in NaCl taste thresholds could have been affected by variation in learning ability or sensitivity to toxic effects of LiCl, we used the same method to measure citric acid taste thresholds in 4 inbred strains with large differences in NaCl taste thresholds but similar acid sensitivity in preference tests (129P3/J, A/J, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J). Citric acid taste thresholds were similar in these 4 strains. This suggests that our technique measures taste quality–specific thresholds that are likely to represent differences in peripheral taste responsiveness. The strain differences in NaCl taste sensitivity found in this study provide a basis for genetic analysis of this phenotype. PMID:22293936

  11. REVIEW ARTICLE: A taste sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toko, Kiyoshi

    1998-12-01

    A multichannel taste sensor, namely an electronic tongue, with global selectivity is composed of several kinds of lipid/polymer membranes for transforming information about substances producing taste into electrical signals, which are input to a computer. The sensor output exhibits different patterns for chemical substances which have different taste qualities such as saltiness, sourness and bitterness, whereas it exhibits similar patterns for chemical substances with similar tastes. The sensor responds to the taste itself, as can be understood from the fact that taste interactions such as the suppression effect, which appears for mixtures of sweet and bitter substances, can be reproduced well. The suppression of the bitterness of quinine and a drug substance by sucrose can be quantified. Amino acids can be classified into several groups according to their own tastes on the basis of sensor outputs. The tastes of foodstuffs such as beer, coffee, mineral water, milk, sake, rice, soybean paste and vegetables can be discussed quantitatively using the taste sensor, which provides the objective scale for the human sensory expression. The flavour of a wine is also discriminated using the taste-odour sensory fusion conducted by combining the taste sensor and an odour-sensor array using conducting polymer elements. The taste sensor can also be applied to measurements of water pollution. Miniaturization of the taste sensor using FET produces the same characteristics as those of the above taste sensor by measuring the gate-source voltage. Use of the taste sensor will lead to a new era of food and environmental sciences.

  12. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  13. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A

    2015-07-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  14. Pinched Nerve

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Pinched Nerve Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Pinched Nerve? The term "pinched nerve" is a colloquial term ...

  15. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy may be done to help diagnose: Axon degeneration (destruction of the axon portion of the nerve cell) Damage to the ... Demyelination Inflammation of the nerve Leprosy Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis

  16. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  17. Imaging of the facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Veillona, F; Ramos-Taboada, L; Abu-Eid, M; Charpiot, A; Riehm, S

    2010-05-01

    The facial nerve is responsible for the motor innervation of the face. It has a visceral motor function (lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual glands and secretion of the nose); it conveys a great part of the taste fibers, participates to the general sensory of the auricle (skin of the concha) and the wall of the external auditory meatus. The facial mimic, production of tears, nasal flow and salivation all depend on the facial nerve. In order to image the facial nerve it is mandatory to be knowledgeable about its normal anatomy including the course of its efferent and afferent fibers and about relevant technical considerations regarding CT and MR to be able to achieve high-resolution images of the nerve. PMID:20456888

  18. THE TASTE OF SUGARS

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Sugars evoke a distinctive perceptual quality (“sweetness” in humans) and are generally highly preferred. The neural basis for these phenomena is reviewed for rodents, in which detailed electrophysiological measurements have been made. A receptor has been identified that binds sweeteners and activates G-protein-mediated signaling in taste receptor cells, which leads to changes in neural firing rates in the brain, where perceptions of taste quality, intensity, and palatability are generated. Most cells in gustatory nuclei are broadly-tuned, so quality perception presumably arises from patterns of activity across neural populations. However, some manipulations affect only the most sugar-oriented cells, making it useful to consider them as a distinct neural subtype. Quality perception may also arise partly due to temporal patterns of activity to sugars, especially within sugar-oriented cells that give large but delayed responses. Non-specific gustatory neurons that are excited by both sugars and unpalatable stimuli project to ventral forebrain areas, where neural responses provide a closer match with behavioral preferences. This transition likely involves opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences by different subgroups of gustatory cells. Sweeteners are generally preferred over water, but the strength of this preference can vary across time or between individuals, and higher preferences for sugars are often associated with larger taste-evoked responses. PMID:18499254

  19. Bile salts are effective taste stimuli in channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Rolen, S H; Caprio, J

    2008-09-01

    Bile salts are known olfactory stimuli for teleosts, but only a single report has indicated that the taste system of a fish was sensitive to this class of stimuli. Here, gustatory responses of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, to four bile salts that included taurine-, glycine- and non-conjugated compounds along with three stimulatory amino acids as a comparison were investigated using extracellular electrophysiological techniques. Integrated multiunit responses were obtained from the branch of the facial nerve innervating taste buds on the maxillary barbel. Bile salts were shown to be highly effective facial taste stimuli, with estimated electrophysiological thresholds for three of the four tested bile salts of approximately 10(-11) mol l(-1) to 10(-10) mol l(-1), slightly lower by 1-2 log units than those to amino acids in the same species. Although the sensitivity of the facial taste system of the channel catfish to bile salts is high, the relative magnitude of the response to suprathreshold concentrations of bile salts was significantly less than that to amino acids. Multiunit cross-adaptation experiments indicate that bile salts and amino acids bind to relatively independent receptor sites; however, nerve-twig data and single-fiber recordings suggest that both independent and shared neural pathways exist for the transmission of bile salt and amino acid information to the primary gustatory nucleus of the medulla. PMID:18723536

  20. Effect of taste sensation on cough reflex sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S; Dalton, Pamela

    2014-02-01

    Cough is among the most common symptoms with which people present for medical attention, but evidence-based treatments remain limited. One issue compromising interpretation of clinical trials of cough preparations is that control formulations often are nearly as effective as those that contain active ingredients. This observation has caused some researchers to propose that one or more nominally inactive ingredients may have some physiological effects. For example, most liquid cough preparations are highly sweetened, and it has been suggested that sweet taste might modulate cough sensitivity. The fact that honey has been used for thousands of years as a cough remedy is consistent with this idea. However, empirical evidence for modulation of cough sensitivity by taste was lacking. Evidence is still sparse, but relevant experiments have now been published: rinsing the mouth with a sweet sucrose solution increased cough thresholds in a single-inhalation capsaicin challenge. Furthermore, rinsing the mouth with a bitter solution did not affect thresholds, an important demonstration of specificity. The underlying mechanisms of cough suppression by sweet taste are still unclear. However, extant data suggest that modulation of cough sensitivity by taste is a promising area for further investigation. Such work may lead to greater understanding of apparent placebo effects in clinical trials and provide empirical support for therapies based on stimulation of taste nerves. PMID:24173385

  1. Conditioned taste aversion induced by motion is prevented by selective vagotomy in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The role of the vagus nerve in motion-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was studied in hooded rats. Animals with complete, selective gastric vagotomy failed to form conditioned taste aversion after multiple conditioning sessions in which the conditioned stimulus (a cider vinegar solution) was drunk immediately before a 30-min exposure to vertical axis rotation at 150 deg/s. Results are discussed with reference to the use of CTA as a measure of motion-induced 'sickness' or gastrointestinal disturbance, and because motion-induced CTA requires that both the vagus nerve and the vestibular apparatus be intact, in light of the possible convergence of vegal and vestibular functions.

  2. Quick Statistics about Taste and Smell

    MedlinePlus

    ... Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Taste and Smell Taste Source: Compiled by NIDCD based on scientific ... span. Taste cells usually last about 10 days. Smell Source: Compiled by NIDCD based on scientific publications. ...

  3. Tasting Wine: A Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Tanya J.; Donaldson, Jilleen A.; Harry, Emma

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a field trip by senior undergraduate anthropology students to a local winery, where they participated in a wine-tasting class with winery staff. In response to explicit hints from a wine-tasting facilitator, and more subtle cues from the cultural capital embedded in their surroundings and the winery staff, the students…

  4. Acid-sensing ion channels and transient-receptor potential ion channels in zebrafish taste buds.

    PubMed

    Levanti, M; Randazzo, B; Viña, E; Montalbano, G; Garcia-Suarez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A; Abbate, F

    2016-09-01

    Sensory information from the environment is required for life and survival, and it is detected by specialized cells which together make up the sensory system. The fish sensory system includes specialized organs that are able to detect mechanical and chemical stimuli. In particular, taste buds are small organs located on the tongue in terrestrial vertebrates that function in the perception of taste. In fish, taste buds occur on the lips, the flanks, and the caudal (tail) fins of some species and on the barbels of others. In fish taste receptor cells, different classes of ion channels have been detected which, like in mammals, presumably participate in the detection and/or transduction of chemical gustatory signals. However, since some of these ion channels are involved in the detection of additional sensory modalities, it can be hypothesized that taste cells sense stimuli other than those specific for taste. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge on the presence of transient-receptor potential (TRP) and acid-sensing (ASIC) ion channels in the taste buds of teleosts, especially adult zebrafish. Up to now ASIC4, TRPC2, TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV4 ion channels have been found in the sensory cells, while ASIC2 was detected in the nerves supplying the taste buds. PMID:27513962

  5. Development of an Umami Taste Sensitivity Test and Its Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Kawai, Misako; Iikubo, Masahiro; Sekine-Hayakawa, Yuki; Shoji, Noriaki; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Sasano, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    There is a close relationship between perception of umami, which has become recognized as the fifth taste, and the human physical condition. We have developed a clinical test for umami taste sensitivity using a filter paper disc with a range of six monosodium glutamate (MSG) concentrations. We recruited 28 patients with taste disorders (45–78 years) and 184 controls with no taste disorders (102 young [18–25 years] and 82 older [65–89 years] participants). Filter paper discs (5 mm dia.) were soaked in aqueous MSG solutions (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mM), then placed on three oral sites innervated by different taste nerves. The lowest concentration participants correctly identified was defined as the recognition threshold (RT) for MSG. This test showed good reproducibility for inter- and intra-observer variability. We concluded that: (1) The RT of healthy controls differed at measurement sites innervated by different taste nerves; that is, the RT of the anterior tongue was higher than that of either the posterior tongue or the soft palate in both young and older individuals. (2) No significant difference in RT was found between young adults and older individuals at any measurement site. (3) The RT of patients with taste disorders was higher before treatment than that of the healthy controls at any measurement site. (4) The RT after treatment in these patients improved to the same level as that of the healthy controls. (5) The cutoff values of RT, showing the highest diagnostic accuracy (true positives + true negatives), were 200 mM MSG for AT and 50 mM MSG for PT and SP. The diagnostic accuracy at these cutoff values was 0.92, 0.87 and 0.86 for AT, PT and SP, respectively. Consequently, this umami taste sensitivity test is useful for discriminating between normal and abnormal umami taste sensations. PMID:24748056

  6. Nerve biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss of axon tissue Metabolic neuropathies Necrotizing vasculitis Sarcoidosis Risks Allergic reaction to the local anesthetic Discomfort ... Neurosarcoidosis Peripheral neuropathy Primary amyloidosis Radial nerve dysfunction Sarcoidosis Tibial nerve dysfunction Update Date 6/1/2015 ...

  7. Nerve conduction

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the spinal cord to muscles and sensory receptors. A peripheral nerve is composed of nerve bundles (fascicles) ... two neurons, it must first be converted to a chemical signal, which then crosses a space of ...

  8. Salty taste deficits in CALHM1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Ellis, Hillary T; Aleman, Tiffany R; Downing, Arnelle; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J Kevin; Dana, Rachel M; McCaughey, Stuart A

    2014-07-01

    Genetic ablation of calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate from Type 2 taste cells, severely compromises the behavioral and electrophysiological responses to tastes detected by G protein-coupled receptors, such as sweet and bitter. However, the contribution of CALHM1 to salty taste perception is less clear. Here, we evaluated several salty taste-related phenotypes of CALHM1 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) controls: 1) In a conditioned aversion test, CALHM1 WT and KO mice had similar NaCl avoidance thresholds. 2) In two-bottle choice tests, CALHM1 WT mice showed the classic inverted U-shaped NaCl concentration-preference function but CALHM1 KO mice had a blunted peak response. 3) In brief-access tests, CALHM1 KO mice showed less avoidance than did WT mice of high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, NH(4)Cl, and sodium lactate (NaLac). Amiloride further ameliorated the NaCl avoidance of CALHM1 KO mice, so that lick rates to a mixture of 1000 mM NaCl + 10 µM amiloride were statistically indistinguishable from those to water. 4) Relative to WT mice, CALHM1 KO mice had reduced chorda tympani nerve activity elicited by oral application of NaCl, NaLac, and sucrose but normal responses to HCl and NH(4)Cl. Chorda tympani responses to NaCl and NaLac were amiloride sensitive in WT but not KO mice. These results reinforce others demonstrating that multiple transduction pathways make complex, concentration-dependent contributions to salty taste perception. One of these pathways depends on CALHM1 to detect hypertonic NaCl in the mouth and signal the aversive taste of concentrated salt. PMID:24846212

  9. What Does Diabetes "Taste" Like?

    PubMed

    Neiers, Fabrice; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie-Chantal; Briand, Loïc

    2016-06-01

    The T1R2 (taste type 1 receptor, member 2)/T1R3 (taste type 1 receptor, member 3) sweet taste receptor is expressed in taste buds on the tongue, where it allows the detection of energy-rich carbohydrates of food. This single receptor responds to all compounds perceived as sweet by humans, including natural sugars and natural and artificial sweeteners. Importantly, the T1R2/T1R3 sweet taste receptor is also expressed in extra-oral tissues, including the stomach, pancreas, gut, liver, and brain. Although its physiological role remains to be established in numerous organs, T1R2/T1R3 is suspected to be involved in the regulation of metabolic processes, such as sugar sensing, glucose homeostasis, and satiety hormone release. In this review, the physiological role of the sweet taste receptor in taste perception and metabolic regulation is discussed by focusing on dysfunctions leading to diabetes. Current knowledge of T1R2/T1R3 inhibitors making this receptor a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is also summarized and discussed. PMID:27085864

  10. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Rist, Anna; Thum, Andreas S.

    2015-01-01

    The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances. PMID:26528147

  11. Validation of Edible Taste Strips for Assessing PROP Taste Perception

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described that incorporates taste stimuli into edible strips for determining n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status. Edible strips that contained 400 or 600nanomoles of PROP were prepared for psychophysical studies. Using these strips, we measured taste intensity, taste hedonics, and taste quality responses in a sample of healthy volunteers (n = 118). Participants were also asked to assess a single NaCl strip, a quinine strip, 3 NaCl solutions, and 3 PROP solutions. All psychophysical data were subsequently analyzed as a function of TAS2R38 genotype. The use of PROP strips for distinguishing between individuals with at least 1 PAV allele and individuals with other genotypes was assessed and compared with the use of PROP solutions for making this same distinction. For the 2 PROP strips and PROP solutions, individuals who expressed at least 1 PAV allele could perceive the bitter taste of PROP. Individuals who expressed 2 AVI alleles responded similarly to 400nanomole PROP strips and blank strips. Furthermore, individuals with 2 AVI alleles responded to 0.032 and 0.32mM PROP solutions at intensities that were similar to water, though intensity ratings to 3.2mM PROP solution exceeded water. In general, those with at least 1 PAV allele rated the bitter taste of PROP as unpleasant in both delivery methods (strips or solutions). Psychophysical data from PROP strips and solutions were consistent with TAS2R38 genotype. These results support the validity of edible taste strips as a method for assessing PROP taste perception in humans. PMID:23761681

  12. Knocking out P2X receptors reduces transmitter secretion in taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yijen A.; Stone, Leslie M.; Pereira, Elizabeth; Yang, Ruibiao; Kinnamon, John C.; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Finger, Thomas E.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Roper, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In response to gustatory stimulation, taste bud cells release a transmitter, ATP, that activates P2X2 and P2X3 receptors on gustatory afferent fibers. Taste behavior and gustatory neural responses are largely abolished in mice lacking P2X2 and P2X3 receptors (P2X2 and P2X3 double knockout, or “DKO” mice). The assumption has been that eliminating P2X2 and P2X3 receptors only removes postsynaptic targets but that transmitter secretion in mice is normal. Using functional imaging, ATP biosensor cells, and a cell-free assay for ATP, we tested this assumption. Surprisingly, although gustatory stimulation mobilizes Ca2+ in taste Receptor (Type II) cells from DKO mice, as from wild type (WT) mice, taste cells from DKO mice fail to release ATP when stimulated with tastants. ATP release could be elicited by depolarizing DKO Receptor cells with KCl, suggesting that ATP-release machinery remains functional in DKO taste buds. To explore the difference in ATP release across genotypes, we employed reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunostaining, and histochemistry for key proteins underlying ATP secretion and degradation: Pannexin1, TRPM5, and NTPDase2 (ecto-ATPase) are indistinguishable between WT and DKO mice. The ultrastructure of contacts between taste cells and nerve fibers is also normal in the DKO mice. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR show that P2X4 and P2X7, potential modulators of ATP secretion, are similarly expressed in taste buds in WT and DKO taste buds. Importantly, we find that P2X2 is expressed in WT taste buds and appears to function as an autocrine, positive feedback signal to amplify taste-evoked ATP secretion. PMID:21940456

  13. Postnatal reduction of BDNF regulates the developmental remodeling of taste bud innervation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Ma, Liqun; Krimm, Robin F

    2015-09-15

    The refinement of innervation is a common developmental mechanism that serves to increase the specificity of connections following initial innervation. In the peripheral gustatory system, the extent to which innervation is refined and how refinement might be regulated is unclear. The initial innervation of taste buds is controlled by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Following initial innervation, taste receptor cells are added and become newly innervated. The connections between the taste receptor cells and nerve fibers are likely to be specific in order to retain peripheral coding mechanisms. Here, we explored the possibility that the down-regulation of BDNF regulates the refinement of taste bud innervation during postnatal development. An analysis of BDNF expression in Bdnf(lacZ/+) mice and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that BDNF was down-regulated between postnatal day (P) 5 and P10. This reduction in BDNF expression was due to a loss of precursor/progenitor cells that express BDNF, while the expression of BDNF in the subpopulations of taste receptor cells did not change. Gustatory innervation, which was identified by P2X3 immunohistochemistry, was lost around the perimeter where most progenitor/precursor cells are located. In addition, the density of innervation in the taste bud was reduced between P5 and P10, because taste buds increase in size without increasing innervation. This reduction of innervation density was blocked by the overexpression of BDNF in the precursor/progenitor population of taste bud cells. Together these findings indicate that the process of BDNF restriction to a subpopulation of taste receptor cells between P5 and P10, results in a refinement of gustatory innervation. We speculate that this refinement results in an increased specificity of connections between neurons and taste receptor cells during development. PMID:26164656

  14. Acquiring a Taste for Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuano, Carolyn

    1977-01-01

    Describes taste experiences that are used to spark interest in studying high school biology. Emphasizes learning about survival, poisonous plants, endangered species, economic and nutritional importance of various organisms, and cultural education. (CS)

  15. Disorders of Smell and Taste

    MedlinePlus

    ... Excessive Tearing) Disclosure Statement Printer Friendly Disorders of Smell & Taste Jeremiah A. Alt, MD, PhD Arthur Wu, ... M. Patel MD INTRODUCTION Olfaction (the sense of smell) is an important function of the nasal cavity ...

  16. Taste Responsiveness to Sweeteners Is Resistant to Elevations in Plasma Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Elson, Amanda E.T.; Kalik, Salina; Sosa, Yvett; Patterson, Christa M.; Myers, Martin G.; Munger, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the relationship between plasma leptin and sweet taste in mice. Whereas 2 studies have reported that elevations in plasma leptin diminish responsiveness to sweeteners, another found that they enhanced responsiveness to sucrose. We evaluated the impact of plasma leptin on sweet taste in C57BL/6J (B6) and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Although mice expressed the long-form leptin receptor (LepRb) selectively in Type 2 taste cells, leptin failed to activate a critical leptin-signaling protein, STAT3, in taste cells. Similarly, we did not observe any impact of intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin treatment on chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners in B6 or ob/ob mice. Finally, there was no effect of leptin treatment on initial licking responses to several sucrose concentrations in B6 mice. We confirmed that basal plasma leptin levels did not exceed 10ng/mL, regardless of time of day, physiological state, or body weight, suggesting that taste cell LepRb were not desensitized to leptin in our studies. Furthermore, i.p. leptin injections produced plasma leptin levels that exceeded those previously reported to exert taste effects. We conclude that any effect of plasma leptin on taste responsiveness to sweeteners is subtle and manifests itself only under specific experimental conditions. PMID:25740302

  17. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the taste buds of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Viña, E; Parisi, V; Cabo, R; Laurà, R; López-Velasco, S; López-Muñiz, A; García-Suárez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A

    2013-03-01

    In detecting chemical properties of food, different molecules and ion channels are involved including members of the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) family. Consistently ASICs are present in sensory cells of taste buds of mammals. In the present study the presence of ASICs (ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4) was investigated in the taste buds of adult zebrafish (zASICs) using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. zASIC1 and zASIC3 were regularly absent from taste buds, whereas faint zASIC2 and robust zASIC4 immunoreactivities were detected in sensory cells. Moreover, zASIC2 also immunolabelled nerves supplying taste buds. The present results demonstrate for the first time the presence of zASICs in taste buds of teleosts, with different patterns to that occurring in mammals, probably due to the function of taste buds in aquatic environment and feeding. Nevertheless, the role of zASICs in taste remains to be demonstrated. PMID:23328442

  18. Transsynaptic transport of wheat germ agglutinin expressed in a subset of type II taste cells of transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Damak, Sami; Mosinger, Bedrich; Margolskee, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Background Anatomical tracing of neural circuits originating from specific subsets of taste receptor cells may shed light on interactions between taste cells within the taste bud and taste cell-to nerve interactions. It is unclear for example, if activation of type II cells leads to direct activation of the gustatory nerves, or whether the information is relayed through type III cells. To determine how WGA produced in T1r3-expressing taste cells is transported into gustatory neurons, transgenic mice expressing WGA-IRES-GFP driven by the T1r3 promoter were generated. Results Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of WGA, GFP and endogenous T1r3 in the taste bud cells of transgenic mice: the only taste cells immunoreactive for WGA were the T1r3-expressing cells. The WGA antibody also stained intragemmal nerves. WGA, but not GFP immunoreactivity was found in the geniculate and petrosal ganglia of transgenic mice, indicating that WGA was transported across synapses. WGA immunoreactivity was also found in the trigeminal ganglion, suggesting that T1r3-expressing cells make synapses with trigeminal neurons. In the medulla, WGA was detected in the nucleus of the solitary tract but also in the nucleus ambiguus, the vestibular nucleus, the trigeminal nucleus and in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus. WGA was not detected in the parabrachial nucleus, or the gustatory cortex. Conclusion These results show the usefulness of genetically encoded WGA as a tracer for the first and second order neurons that innervate a subset of taste cells, but not for higher order neurons, and demonstrate that the main route of output from type II taste cells is the gustatory neuron, not the type III cells. PMID:18831764

  19. The sweet taste quality is linked to a cluster of taste fibers in primates: lactisole diminishes preference and responses to sweet in S fibers (sweet best) chorda tympani fibers of M. fascicularis monkey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Danilova, Vicktoria; Cragin, Tiffany; Roberts, Thomas W; Koposov, Alexey; Hellekant, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychophysically, sweet and bitter have long been considered separate taste qualities, evident already to the newborn human. The identification of different receptors for sweet and bitter located on separate cells of the taste buds substantiated this separation. However, this finding leads to the next question: is bitter and sweet also kept separated in the next link from the taste buds, the fibers of the taste nerves? Previous studies in non-human primates, P. troglodytes, C. aethiops, M. mulatta, M. fascicularis and C. jacchus, suggest that the sweet and bitter taste qualities are linked to specific groups of fibers called S and Q fibers. In this study we apply a new sweet taste modifier, lactisole, commercially available as a suppressor of the sweetness of sugars on the human tongue, to test our hypothesis that sweet taste is conveyed in S fibers. Results We first ascertained that lactisole exerted similar suppression of sweetness in M. fascicularis, as reported in humans, by recording their preference of sweeteners and non- sweeteners with and without lactisole in two-bottle tests. The addition of lactisole significantly diminished the preference for all sweeteners but had no effect on the intake of non-sweet compounds or the intake of water. We then recorded the response to the same taste stimuli in 40 single chorda tympani nerve fibers. Comparison between single fiber nerve responses to stimuli with and without lactisole showed that lactisole only suppressed the responses to sweeteners in S fibers. It had no effect on the responses to any other stimuli in all other taste fibers. Conclusion In M. fascicularis, lactisole diminishes the attractiveness of compounds, which taste sweet to humans. This behavior is linked to activity of fibers in the S-cluster. Assuming that lactisole blocks the T1R3 monomer of the sweet taste receptor T1R2/R3, these results present further support for the hypothesis that S fibers convey taste from T1R2/R3 receptors, while

  20. Unilateral innervation of guinea pig vallate taste buds as determined by glossopharyngeal neurectomy and HRP neural tracing.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y J; Lu, K S

    1996-01-01

    The innervation pattern by primary afferent nerve fibres and the neurotrophic effect on taste cells were investigated in the guinea pig vallate taste bud by means of glossopharyngeal neurectomy and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) tracing. In the glossopharyngeal neurectomy study, taste buds in the vallate papillae of adult guinea pigs were denervated by unilateral resection of the right glossopharyngeal nerve. Denervated animals were killed on days 1, 3 and 5 and weeks 1-9, 12 and 24 postneurectomy. The results showed that, on the denervated side, the taste buds decreased significantly in number during the 1st 2 wk, and disappeared completely by wk 3; no mature taste buds were present even 24 wk after neurectomy. This suggests that the vallate taste buds disappear in the absence of the glossopharyngeal nerve. In the neural tracing study, HRP or WGA-HRP was injected into the proximal end of the right glossopharyngeal nerve, near the jugular foramen. After a survival time of 24 h, the vallate papillae were sectioned and examined by light and electron microscopy. Light microscopy revealed that the HRP or WGA-HRP-labelled fibres innervated the vallate taste buds of the injected side. Most of the taste cells in the buds were labelled with HRP or WGA-HRP reaction products from the basal to the apical region. At the ultrastructural level, the reaction products were confined to the cytoplasm of the labelled cells, which were identified as type I, II and III cells, but not basal cells. Labelled intragemmal nerve profiles were seen among the taste cells. No synapse formation was seen with nerve profiles abutting on type I and II cells, whereas on certain type III cells, typical synapses were formed. We conclude that both the right and left vallate papilla in the guinea pig are unilaterally innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve without cross-innervation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID

  1. Regeneration of the Nerves in the Aerial Cavity with an Artificial Nerve Conduit -Reconstruction of Chorda Tympani Nerve Gaps-

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Murai, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Takehiko; Inada, Yuji; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Due to its anatomical features, the chorda tympani nerve (CTN) is sometimes sacrificed during middle ear surgery, resulting in taste dysfunction. We examined the effect of placing an artificial nerve conduit, a polyglycolic acid (PGA)-collagen tube, across the gap in the section of the resected chorda tympani nerve (CTN) running through the tympanic cavity. Methods The CTN was reconstructed with a PGA-collagen tube in three patients with taste disturbance who underwent CTN resection. To evaluate the effect of the reconstruction procedure on the patients' gustatory function, we measured the patients' electrogustometry (EGM) thresholds. The patients were followed-up for at least two years. Results Gustatory function was completely restored in all of the patients after the reconstruction. The patients' EGM thresholds exhibited early improvements within one to two weeks and had returned to their normal ranges within three months. They subsequently remained stable throughout the two-year follow-up period. In a patient who underwent a second surgical procedure, it was found that the PGA-collagen tube used in the first surgical procedure had been absorbed and replaced by new CTN fibers with blood vessels on their surfaces. Conclusion These results suggest that reconstruction of the CTN with an artificial nerve conduit, a PGA-collagen tube, allows functional and morphological regeneration of the nerve and facilitates the recovery of taste function. PGA-collagen tubes might be useful for repairing CTNs that are resected during middle ear surgery. Further research is required to confirm these preliminary results although this is the first report to describe the successful regeneration of a nerve running through an aerial space. PMID:24691095

  2. Ingestion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibits peripheral taste responses to sucrose in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaobin; He, Lianying; McCluskey, Lynnette Phillips

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental role of the taste system is to discriminate between nutritive and toxic foods. However, it is unknown whether bacterial pathogens that might contaminate food and water modulate the transmission of taste input to the brain. We hypothesized that exogenous, bacterially-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), modulates neural responses to taste stimuli. Neurophysiological responses from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates taste cells on the anterior tongue, were unchanged by acute exposure to LPS. Instead, neural responses to sucrose were selectively inhibited in mice that drank LPS during a single overnight period. Decreased sucrose sensitivity appeared 7 days after LPS ingestion, in parallel with decreased lingual expression of Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 transcripts, which are translated to T1R2+T1R3 subunits forming the sweet taste receptor. Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 mRNA expression levels and neural responses to sucrose were restored by 14 days after LPS consumption. Ingestion of LPS, rather than contact with taste receptor cells, appears to be necessary to suppress sucrose responses. Furthermore, mice lacking the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 for LPS were resistant to neurophysiological changes following LPS consumption. These findings demonstrate that ingestion of LPS during a single period specifically and transiently inhibits neural responses to sucrose. We suggest that LPS drinking initiates TLR4-dependent hormonal signals that downregulate sweet taste receptor genes in taste buds. Delayed inhibition of sweet taste signaling may influence food selection and the complex interplay between gastrointestinal bacteria and obesity. PMID:24215981

  3. [Orally administered polaprezinc significantly improves taste disorders in ovarian cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Shota; Yanase, Toru; Hata, Yuki; Tamura, Ryo; Tsuneki, Ikunosuke; Tamura, Masaki; Kurabayashi, Takumi

    2011-04-01

    The subject was a 75-year-old female who was receiving paclitaxel and carboplatin(TC)chemotherapy every other week after surgery for ovarian cancer. She greatly complained of taste disorders after four cycles(of every other week administration) of TC chemotherapy. To understand how the taste disorder was caused by chemotherapy objectively, taste examinations were conducted for the patient in our department. These examinations were conducted after receiving the informed consent from the patient. The authors conducted taste examinations for the patient using serum zinc measurement, tongue cell culture, electrogustometry, and filter paper disc tests(before and after starting chemotherapy), and found that her serum zinc level fell significantly after four cycles of chemotherapy. Orally disintegrating tablets of polaprezinc were then administered to the patient, after which the subjective symptom of taste disorder improved. Her serum zinc level increased, and the electrogustometric threshold rapidly fell(an improvement). The filter paper disc test showed some improvement, particularly in the glossopharyngeal nerve and the greater petrosal nerve field. PMID:21499007

  4. Taste dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Tourbier, Isabelle A; Pham, Dzung L; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Udupa, Jayaram K; Karacali, Bilge; Beals, Evan; Fabius, Laura; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Moonis, Gul; Kim, Taehoon; Mihama, Toru; Geckle, Rena J; Yousem, David M

    2016-04-01

    Empirical studies of taste function in multiple sclerosis (MS) are rare. Moreover, a detailed assessment of whether quantitative measures of taste function correlate with the punctate and patchy myelin-related lesions found throughout the CNS of MS patients has not been made. We administered a 96-trial test of sweet (sucrose), sour (citric acid), bitter (caffeine) and salty (NaCl) taste perception to the left and right anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions of 73 MS patients and 73 matched controls. The number and volume of lesions were assessed using quantitative MRI in 52 brain regions of 63 of the MS patients. Taste identification scores were significantly lower in the MS patients for sucrose (p = 0.0002), citric acid (p = 0.0001), caffeine (p = 0.0372) and NaCl (p = 0.0004) and were present in both anterior and posterior tongue regions. The percent of MS patients with identification scores falling below the 5th percentile of controls was 15.07 % for caffeine, 21.9 % for citric acid, 24.66 % for sucrose, and 31.50 % for NaCl. Such scores were inversely correlated with lesion volumes in the temporal, medial frontal, and superior frontal lobes, and with the number of lesions in the left and right superior frontal lobes, right anterior cingulate gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Regardless of the subject group, women outperformed men on the taste measures. These findings indicate that a sizable number of MS patients exhibit taste deficits that are associated with MS-related lesions throughout the brain. PMID:26810729

  5. Expression of taste receptors in Solitary Chemosensory Cells of rodent airways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal taste buds or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs). The SCC population lies in the nasal respiratory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and larynx, as well as deeper in the airway. The objective of this study is to map the distribution of SCCs within the airways and to determine the elements of the chemosensory transduction cascade expressed in these SCCs. Methods We utilized a combination of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (rtPCR and in situ hybridization) on rats and transgenic mice where the Tas1R3 or TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Results Epithelial SCCs specialized for chemoreception are distributed throughout much of the respiratory tree of rodents. These cells express elements of the taste transduction cascade, including Tas1R and Tas2R receptor molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2 and TrpM5. The Tas2R bitter taste receptors are present throughout the entire respiratory tract. In contrast, the Tas1R sweet/umami taste receptors are expressed by numerous SCCs in the nasal cavity, but decrease in prevalence in the trachea, and are absent in the lower airways. Conclusions Elements of the taste transduction cascade including taste receptors are expressed by SCCs distributed throughout the airways. In the nasal cavity, SCCs, expressing Tas1R and Tas2R taste receptors, mediate detection of irritants and foreign substances which trigger trigeminally-mediated protective airway reflexes. Lower in the respiratory tract, similar chemosensory cells are not related to the trigeminal nerve but may still trigger local epithelial responses to irritants. In total, SCCs should be considered chemoreceptor cells that help in preventing damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled irritants and pathogens. PMID:21232137

  6. Preexposure to Salty and Sour Taste Enhances Conditioned Taste Aversion to Novel Sucrose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Veronica L.; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty--the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS)…

  7. Broad tuning of rat taste cells for four basic taste stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Beidler, L M

    1997-06-01

    The breadth of responsiveness of rat taste cells to the four basic taste stimuli was studied using the entropy measure (H) proposed by Smith and Travers. H values range from 0.0 for narrow tuning to 1.0 for broad tuning. Based on the responses of depolarizing receptor potentials of 26 rat taste cells to the four basic taste stimuli, taste cells were classified into nine NaCl-best, four Q-HCl (quinine-HCl)-best, 10 HCl-best and three sucrose-best cells. NaCl-best cells were narrowly tuned to the four basic taste stimuli, but the other three stimuli-best cells were broadly tuned to the stimuli. In all, 85% of the taste cells responded to more than one of four basic taste stimuli. The mean H values for NaCl-best, Q-HCl-best, HCl-best and sucrose-best cells were 0.285, 0.832, 0.781 and 0.796 respectively. The mean H value for all 26 taste cells was 0.621. This was larger than H in rat gustatory fibers. Transformation of large H values in taste cells into small H values in taste fibers may be due to a non-random interaction between taste cells and taste fibers during the synaptic formation. Broad tuning properties of rat taste cells suggest that the across-taste cell response pattern may play an important role in taste quality coding mechanisms. PMID:9218141

  8. [Oral medicine 4. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders].

    PubMed

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-03-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes ofchemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the neighbourhood of the sense ofsmell, damage to the smell epithelium, and oncologic diseases or their treatment. A chemosensory disorder has implications for food delight and psychological well-being, may lead to weight loss or increase and to deficient intake of vitamins and minerals. A chemosensory disorder can be treated by medication, surgical intervention, improvement of oral health, smell rehabilitation, and dietary advice. PMID:23600181

  9. Cultivating Reading Interest with Book Tasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Buffy J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2009, the author has been using an activity that she calls "book tasting" to help teens select books for independent reading assignments. While she is sure she is not the first to do this kind of activity, the term "book tasting" seems to appeal to the teens. Book tasting has been extremely successful in pairing up students with texts that…

  10. Developing and regenerating a sense of taste

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Linda A.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Taste is one of the fundamental senses, and it is essential for our ability to ingest nutritious substances and to detect and avoid potentially toxic ones. Taste buds, which are clusters of neuroepithelial receptor cells, are housed in highly organized structures called taste papillae in the oral cavity. Whereas the overall structure of the taste periphery is conserved in almost all vertebrates examined to date, the anatomical, histological, and cell biological, as well as potentially the molecular details of taste buds in the oral cavity are diverse across species and even among individuals. In mammals, several types of gustatory papillae reside on the tongue in highly ordered arrangements, and the patterning and distribution of the mature papillae depends on coordinated molecular events in embryogenesis. In this review, we highlight new findings in the field of taste development, including how taste buds are patterned and how taste cell fate is regulated. We discuss whether a specialized taste bud stem cell population exists and how extrinsic signals can define which cell lineages are generated. We also address the question of whether molecular regulation of taste cell renewal is analogous to that of taste bud development. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions, including the potential influence of the maternal diet and maternal health on the sense of taste in utero. PMID:25662267

  11. Glossopharyngeal taste responses of the channel catfish to binary mixtures of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Caprio, J

    2000-10-01

    This study examines the neural processing of binary mixtures in the glossopharyngeal (IX) taste system of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and finds that the nature of the components of a mixture determines the intensity of the neural response to it. Taste buds in fish innervated by IX are located along the gill rakers of the first gill arch and rostral floor of the oral cavity, and function primarily in the consummatory phase of feeding behavior; however, few studies of IX taste responses have been reported in any species of teleost. Here, we report IX taste responses to eight different binary mixtures of amino acids whose components were adjusted to be approximately equipotent in electrophysiological recordings. Four binary (group I) mixtures whose components were indicated from prior electrophysiological cross-adaptation experiments to bind to independent receptor sites resulted in significantly larger (22% average increase) integrated IX taste activity than four other (group II) binary mixtures whose components were indicated to bind to the same or highly cross-reactive receptor sites. These results are similar to those observed previously from facial nerve recordings in channel catfish, and to olfactory and taste responses in other vertebrate and invertebrate species. The group I results help to explain behavioral observations that chemical mixtures of chemosensory stimuli are often more stimulatory than their individual components. PMID:11015321

  12. Accumulating Evidence Supports a Taste Component for Free Fatty Acids in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    The requisite criteria for what constitutes a taste primary have not been established. Recent advances in understanding of the mechanisms and functions of taste have prompted suggestions for an expanded list of unique taste sensations, including fat, or more specifically, free fatty acids (FFA). A set of criteria are proposed here and the data related to FFA are reviewed on each point. It is concluded that the data are moderate to strong that there are: A) adaptive advantages to FFA detection in the oral cavity; B) adequate concentrations of FFA to serve as taste stimuli; C) multiple complimentary putative FFA receptors on taste cells; D) signals generated by FFA that are conveyed by gustatory nerves; E) sensations generated by FFA that can be detected and scaled by psychophysical methods in humans when non-gustatory cues are masked; and F) physiological responses to oral fat/FFA exposure. On no point is there strong evidence challenging these observations. The reviewed findings are suggestive, albeit not definitive, that there is a taste component for FFA. PMID:21557960

  13. Taste information derived from T1R-expressing taste cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    The taste system of animals is used to detect valuable nutrients and harmful compounds in foods. In humans and mice, sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami tastes are considered the five basic taste qualities. Sweet and umami tastes are mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors, belonging to the T1R (taste receptor type 1) family. This family consists of three members (T1R1, T1R2 and T1R3). They function as sweet or umami taste receptors by forming heterodimeric complexes, T1R1+T1R3 (umami) or T1R2+T1R3 (sweet). Receptors for each of the basic tastes are thought to be expressed exclusively in taste bud cells. Sweet (T1R2+T1R3-expressing) taste cells were thought to be segregated from umami (T1R1+T1R3-expressing) taste cells in taste buds. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant portion of taste cells in mice expressed all T1R subunits and responded to both sweet and umami compounds. This suggests that sweet and umami taste cells may not be segregated. Mice are able to discriminate between sweet and umami tastes, and both tastes contribute to behavioural preferences for sweet or umami compounds. There is growing evidence that T1R3 is also involved in behavioural avoidance of calcium tastes in mice, which implies that there may be a further population of T1R-expressing taste cells that mediate aversion to calcium taste. Therefore the simple view of detection and segregation of sweet and umami tastes by T1R-expressing taste cells, in mice, is now open to re-examination. PMID:26912569

  14. Oleogustus: The Unique Taste of Fat.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A; Craig, Bruce A; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-09-01

    Considerable mechanistic data indicate there may be a sixth basic taste: fat. However, evidence demonstrating that the sensation of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, the proposed stimuli for "fat taste") differs qualitatively from other tastes is lacking. Using perceptual mapping, we demonstrate that medium and long-chain NEFA have a taste sensation that is distinct from other basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter). Although some overlap was observed between these NEFA and umami taste, this overlap is likely due to unfamiliarity with umami sensations rather than true similarity. Shorter chain fatty acids stimulate a sensation similar to sour, but as chain length increases this sensation changes. Fat taste oral signaling, and the different signals caused by different alkyl chain lengths, may hold implications for food product development, clinical practice, and public health policy. PMID:26142421

  15. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  16. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  17. Pharmacogenetics of taste: turning bitter pills sweet?

    PubMed

    Nagtegaal, Mariëlle J; Swen, Jesse J; Hanff, Lidwien M; Schimmel, Kirsten Jm; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Poor palatability of oral drug formulations used for young children negatively influences medication intake, resulting in suboptimal treatment. Some children are more sensitive to bitter tastes than others. Bitter tasting status is currently assessed by phenotyping with 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) as a bitter probe. Recent studies showed that interindividual differences in PROP sensitivity can be largely explained by three SNPs in TAS2R38, encoding a bitter taste receptor. Gustin, involved in the development of taste buds, and the sweet receptor genotype potentially explain remaining parts of PROP sensitivity variability. Other TAS2 receptor bitter receptor genes may also play a role in bitter aversions. Dependent on their genotype, children may have different medication formulation preferences. Taste genetics could improve drug acceptance by enabling better-informed choices on adapting oral formulations to children's taste preferences. This paper presents an overview of recent findings concerning bitter taste genetics and discusses these in the context of pediatric drug formulation. PMID:24329195

  18. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide-like immunoreactivity in the taste organs of teleost fish and frog.

    PubMed

    Witt, M

    1995-02-01

    Using immunohistochemistry, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was visualized in taste bud cells of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the European catfish, Silurus glanis, by means of light and electron microscopy. Intracellular membrane systems, presumably smooth endoplasmic reticulum, of light (sensory) cells, but not of dark (supporting) cells and basal cells, were densely labelled with antibody. In the frog (four species: Rana temporaria, R. ridibunda, R. arvalis, R. pipiens), taste bud cells did not label. However, the dense basal nerve fibre plexus, some subepithelial ganglionic cells, but no ascending intragemmal fibres, were immunoreactive. In fish, the results support evidence that VIP is involved in the modulation of taste transduction at the level of receptor cells. In the frog, an indirect, possibly vasodilatatory effect on taste perception may be considered. PMID:7775201

  19. Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

  20. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds.

    PubMed

    Bloomquist, Ryan F; Parnell, Nicholas F; Phillips, Kristine A; Fowler, Teresa E; Yu, Tian Y; Sharpe, Paul T; Streelman, J Todd

    2015-11-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  1. Coevolutionary patterning of teeth and taste buds

    PubMed Central

    Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Parnell, Nicholas F.; Phillips, Kristine A.; Fowler, Teresa E.; Yu, Tian Y.; Sharpe, Paul T.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Teeth and taste buds are iteratively patterned structures that line the oro-pharynx of vertebrates. Biologists do not fully understand how teeth and taste buds develop from undifferentiated epithelium or how variation in organ density is regulated. These organs are typically studied independently because of their separate anatomical location in mammals: teeth on the jaw margin and taste buds on the tongue. However, in many aquatic animals like bony fishes, teeth and taste buds are colocalized one next to the other. Using genetic mapping in cichlid fishes, we identified shared loci controlling a positive correlation between tooth and taste bud densities. Genome intervals contained candidate genes expressed in tooth and taste bud fields. sfrp5 and bmper, notable for roles in Wingless (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, were differentially expressed across cichlid species with divergent tooth and taste bud density, and were expressed in the development of both organs in mice. Synexpression analysis and chemical manipulation of Wnt, BMP, and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways suggest that a common cichlid oral lamina is competent to form teeth or taste buds. Wnt signaling couples tooth and taste bud density and BMP and Hh mediate distinct organ identity. Synthesizing data from fish and mouse, we suggest that the Wnt-BMP-Hh regulatory hierarchy that configures teeth and taste buds on mammalian jaws and tongues may be an evolutionary remnant inherited from ancestors wherein these organs were copatterned from common epithelium. PMID:26483492

  2. Optic nerve atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    Optic nerve atrophy is damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve carries images of what the eye sees to ... problem most often affects older adults. The optic nerve can also be damaged by shock, toxins, radiation, ...

  3. Nerve biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of nerve for examination. Through a small incision, a sample ... is removed and examined under a microscope. Nerve biopsy may be performed to identify nerve degeneration, identify ...

  4. Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord. Like static on a telephone line, peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain ... body. There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. ...

  5. New taste sensor system combined with chaotic recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jie; Wang, Ping; Li, Rong

    2001-09-01

    Taste sensor as a new kind of chemical sensor has been studied by many researchers. We have developed several types of taste sensor system and some new recognition methods for taste substance. Kiyoshi Toko et al proposed a new kind of chaos taste sensor that is based on sensor chaos dynamics. In this paper, we improve the taste sensor based on chaos dynamics and proposed a new method for the pattern recognition of tastes. We use three kinds of tastes, i.e., sweetness, salty taste, and sourness. They cause the membrane oscillate in different form, and the complexity is not the same. We can detect taste based on the new method.

  6. Evaluation of taste solutions by sensor fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Sato, Eriko; Atobe, Masahiko; Nakashima, Miki; Kato, Yukihisa; Nonoue, Koichi; Yamano, Yoshimasa

    2009-05-23

    In our previous studies, properties of taste solutions were discriminated based on sound velocity and amplitude of ultrasonic waves propagating through the solutions. However, to make this method applicable to beverages which contain many taste substances, further studies are required. In this study, the waveform of an ultrasonic wave with frequency of approximately 5 MHz propagating through a solution was measured and subjected to frequency analysis. Further, taste sensors require various techniques of sensor fusion to effectively obtain chemical and physical parameter of taste solutions. A sensor fusion method of ultrasonic wave sensor and various sensors, such as the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, to estimate tastes were proposed and examined in this report. As a result, differences among pure water and two basic taste solutions were clearly observed as differences in their properties. Furthermore, a self-organizing neural network was applied to obtained data which were used to clarify the differences among solutions.

  7. Genetics of Amino Acid Taste and Appetite.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Glendinning, John I; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Manita, Satoshi; McCaughey, Stuart A; Murata, Yuko; Reed, Danielle R; Tordoff, Michael G; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of amino acids by animals is controlled by both oral and postoral mechanisms. We used a genetic approach to investigate these mechanisms. Our studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in voluntary amino acid consumption, and these differences depend on sensory and nutritive properties of amino acids. Like humans, mice perceive some amino acids as having a sweet (sucrose-like) taste and others as having an umami (glutamate-like) taste. Mouse strain differences in the consumption of some sweet-tasting amino acids (d-phenylalanine, d-tryptophan, and l-proline) are associated with polymorphisms of a taste receptor, type 1, member 3 gene (Tas1r3), and involve differential peripheral taste responsiveness. Strain differences in the consumption of some other sweet-tasting amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, l-glutamine, and l-threonine) do not depend on Tas1r3 polymorphisms and so must be due to allelic variation in other, as yet unknown, genes involved in sweet taste. Strain differences in the consumption of l-glutamate may depend on postingestive rather than taste mechanisms. Thus, genes and physiologic mechanisms responsible for strain differences in the consumption of each amino acid depend on the nature of its taste and postingestive properties. Overall, mouse strain differences in amino acid taste and appetite have a complex genetic architecture. In addition to the Tas1r3 gene, these differences depend on other genes likely involved in determining the taste and postingestive effects of amino acids. The identification of these genes may lead to the discovery of novel mechanisms that regulate amino acid taste and appetite. PMID:27422518

  8. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  9. The receptors and cells for mammalian taste.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekar, Jayaram; Hoon, Mark A; Ryba, Nicholas J P; Zuker, Charles S

    2006-11-16

    The emerging picture of taste coding at the periphery is one of elegant simplicity. Contrary to what was generally believed, it is now clear that distinct cell types expressing unique receptors are tuned to detect each of the five basic tastes: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Importantly, receptor cells for each taste quality function as dedicated sensors wired to elicit stereotypic responses. PMID:17108952

  10. Responses of Single Chorda Tympani Taste Fibers of the Calf (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-01-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species’. PMID:20212013

  11. Responses of single chorda tympani taste fibers of the calf (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Hellekant, Göran; Roberts, Thomas; Elmer, Donald; Cragin, Tiffany; Danilova, Vicktoria

    2010-06-01

    In spite of a wealth of information on feed and nutrition in cattle, there little is published of what they actually can taste. Here, we attempt to remedy some of this deficiency by presenting recordings of the chorda tympani proper nerve of young Holstein calves during stimulation of approximately 30 compounds. Hierarchical cluster analysis of 46 single taste fibers separated 4 fiber clusters: N (salt best), H (sour best), and 2 clusters, which could not be related to any human taste quality. The N fibers responded best to LiCl, NaCl, urea, monosodium glutamate, and KCl, whereas the H fibers responded strongly to citric and ascorbic acid. Interestingly, propionic and butyric acid stimulated best the 3rd cluster, whereas the 4th cluster responded best to denatonium benzoate and only to a small extent to quinine hydrochloride. Sweeteners stimulated moderately all clusters. Beginning with the largest response to sweet, the order between the responses was: acesulfame-K, saccharin, D-phenylalanine, glycine, sucrose, fructose, erythritol, cyclamate, and lactose. Alitame, aspartame, and super-aspartame evoked no or little responses. Three and 5 M ethanol stimulated all clusters. Comparison with taste fibers in other species suggests that the taste world of cattle is quite different from other species'. PMID:20212013

  12. Impairments in the Perception of Odor-Induced Tastes and Their Relationship to Impairments in Taste Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Miller, Laurie A.; Thayer, Zoe C.

    2008-01-01

    Certain odors have tastelike qualities when sniffed. To the extent that these qualities are akin to real taste experiences, impairment in perception of odor-induced tastes should be accompanied by taste impairment, and vice versa. Twelve patients were selected with possible odor-induced taste impairments or general taste impairments via a…

  13. Duplex Bioelectronic Tongue for Sensing Umami and Sweet Tastes Based on Human Taste Receptor Nanovesicles.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sae Ryun; An, Ji Hyun; Song, Hyun Seok; Park, Jin Wook; Lee, Sang Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jang, Jyongsik; Park, Tai Hyun

    2016-08-23

    For several decades, significant efforts have been made in developing artificial taste sensors to recognize the five basic tastes. So far, the well-established taste sensor is an E-tongue, which is constructed with polymer and lipid membranes. However, the previous artificial taste sensors have limitations in various food, beverage, and cosmetic industries because of their failure to mimic human taste reception. There are many interactions between tastants. Therefore, detecting the interactions in a multiplexing system is required. Herein, we developed a duplex bioelectronic tongue (DBT) based on graphene field-effect transistors that were functionalized with heterodimeric human umami taste and sweet taste receptor nanovesicles. Two types of nanovesicles, which have human T1R1/T1R3 for the umami taste and human T1R2/T1R3 for the sweet taste on their membranes, immobilized on micropatterned graphene surfaces were used for the simultaneous detection of the umami and sweet tastants. The DBT platform led to highly sensitive and selective recognition of target tastants at low concentrations (ca. 100 nM). Moreover, our DBT was able to detect the enhancing effect of taste enhancers as in a human taste sensory system. This technique can be a useful tool for the detection of tastes instead of sensory evaluation and development of new artificial tastants in the food and beverage industry. PMID:27327579

  14. Failure of Serial Taste-Taste Compound Presentations to Produce Overshadowing of Extinction of Conditioned Taste Aversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineno, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study overshadowing of extinction in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. In both experiments, aversive conditioning with sucrose was followed by extinction treatment with either sucrose alone or in compound with another taste, citric acid. Experiment 1 employed a simultaneous compound extinction treatment…

  15. Acid Stimulation (Sour Taste) Elicits GABA and Serotonin Release from Mouse Taste Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yijen A.; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT), ATP, and norepinephrine (NE) have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably co-expressing GABAB receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour) taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca2+-dependent; removing Ca2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III) cells and not from Receptor (Type II) cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion [1], the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses. PMID:22028776

  16. Preexposure to salty and sour taste enhances conditioned taste aversion to novel sucrose.

    PubMed

    Flores, Veronica L; Moran, Anan; Bernstein, Max; Katz, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is an intensively studied single-trial learning paradigm whereby animals are trained to avoid a taste that has been paired with malaise. Many factors influence the strength of aversion learning; prominently studied among these is taste novelty-the fact that preexposure to the taste conditioned stimulus (CS) reduces its associability. The effect of exposure to tastes other than the CS has, in contrast, received little investigation. Here, we exposed rats to sodium chloride (N) and citric acid (C), either before or within a conditioning session involving novel sucrose (S). Presentation of this taste array within the conditioning session weakened the resultant S aversion, as expected. The opposite effect, however, was observed when exposure to the taste array was provided in sessions that preceded conditioning: such experience enhanced the eventual S aversion-a result that was robust to differences in CS delivery method and number of tastes presented in conditioning sessions. This "non-CS preexposure effect" scaled with the number of tastes in the exposure array (experience with more stimuli was more effective than experience with fewer) and with the amount of exposure sessions (three preexposure sessions were more effective than two). Together, our results provide evidence that exposure and experience with the realm of tastes changes an animal's future handling of even novel tastes. PMID:27084929

  17. Water Treatment Technology - Taste, Odor & Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on taste, odor, and color provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: taste and odor determination, control of…

  18. TASTE PREFERENCES: BIOBEHAVIORAL AND NUTRIENT CORRELATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about determinants of taste preferences. We examined correlates of taste ratings for 112 foods (32 fruits/vegetables, F/V; 65 mixed dishes/snacks, M/S; and 15 desserts, D) in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, educated, middle-income adults aged 18-49 y (BMI 26.5 +/- 4.3 kg/m2). Hedonic ratin...

  19. Sensing Basic Tastes by Electronic Tongue Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Zoltán; Szöllősi, Dániel; Fekete, András; Isz, Sandrine

    2011-09-01

    There is an increasing demand to develop method for simulating the human taste perception by objective instruments1. The task was to develop method for the assessment of definite taste attributes. Therefore, our objective was to develop complete method for sensing different taste attributes. The subject of this work was to test the Specific Sensor Array for taste screening developed by Alpha M.O.S. Different brands of carrot juices were analyzed by an Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue (ET) and a trained sensory panel. The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the different carrot juice samples were significantly different from each other in some taste attributes. The electronic tongue was able to distinguish the tested samples according to the measurement results evaluated by multivariate statistics. Furthermore, the relevant taste attributes of carrot juice samples such as sour taste could be predicted by definite sensors of the electronic tongue. Based on our results we concluded that the selected sensors of the Specific Sensor Array could be an appropriate tool for estimating important taste attributes of the tested carrot juice samples.

  20. Genetic tracing of the gustatory neural pathway originating from Pkd1l3-expressing type III taste cells in circumvallate and foliate papillae

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kurumi; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Asakura, Tomiko; Abe, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease 1-like 3 (Pkd1l3) is expressed specifically in sour-sensing type III taste cells that have synaptic contacts with afferent nerve fibers in circumvallate and foliate papillae located in the posterior region of the tongue, though not in fungiform papillae or the palate. To visualize the gustatory neural pathways that originate from type III taste cells in circumvallate and foliate papillae, we established transgenic mouse lines that express the transneuronal tracer wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) under the control of the mouse Pkd1l3 gene promoter/enhancer. The WGA transgene was accurately expressed in Pkd1l3-expressing type III taste cells in circumvallate and foliate papillae. Punctate WGA protein signals appeared to be detected specifically in type III taste cells but not in other types of taste cells. WGA protein was transferred primarily to a subset of neurons located in close proximity to the glossopharyngeal nerve bundles in the nodose/petrosal ganglion. WGA signals were also observed in a small population of neurons in the geniculate ganglion. This result demonstrates the anatomical connection between taste receptor cells in the foliate papillae and the chorda tympani nerves. WGA protein was further conveyed to neurons in a rostro-central subdivision of the nucleus of the solitary tract. These findings demonstrate that the approximately 10 kb 5’-flanking region of the mouse Pkd1l3 gene functions as a type III taste cell-specific promoter/enhancer. In addition, experiments using the pkd1l3-WGA transgenic mice reveal a sour gustatory pathway that originates from taste receptor cells in the posterior region of the tongue. PMID:21883212

  1. Taste coding after selective inhibition by chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao-Fen; Marks, Lawrence E; Frank, Marion E

    2009-10-01

    Coding of the complex tastes of ionic stimuli in humans was studied by combining taste confusion matrix (TCM) methodology and treatment with chlorhexidine gluconate. The TCM evaluates discrimination of multiple stimuli simultaneously. Chlorhexidine, a bis-biguanide antiseptic, reversibly inhibits salty taste and tastes of a subset of bitter stimuli, including quinine hydrochloride. Identifications of salty (NaCl, "salt"), bitter (quinine.HCl, "quinine"), sweet (sucrose, "sugar"), and sour (citric acid, "acid") prototypes, alone and as components of binary mixtures, were measured under 4 conditions. One was a water-rinse control and the others had the salt and quinine tastes progressively reduced by treatment with 1 mM chlorhexidine, 3 mM chlorhexidine, and ultimately to zero by elimination of NaCl and quinine.HCl. Treatment with chlorhexidine perturbed identification of salt more than quinine; both were thereafter more often confused with "water" and unidentified when mixed with sucrose or citric acid. All pairwise discriminations that depended on the tastes of NaCl and quinine.HCl deteriorated, and although H(2)O was mistakenly identified as quinine after chlorhexidine, this may have been a decisional bias. Other confusions reflected "unprompted mixture analysis" and an obscuring of salt taste by a less-inhibited stronger quinine or sugar or acid tastes in mixtures. Partial inhibition of the tastes of NaCl and quinine.HCl by chlorhexidine was considered in the context of multiple receptors for the 2 compounds. Discrimination among prototypic stimuli with varying strengths was consistent with a gustatory system that evaluates a small number of independent tastes. PMID:19703921

  2. The Effect of Temperature on Umami Taste.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Alvarado, Cynthia; Andrew, Kendra; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2016-07-01

    The effect of temperature on umami taste has not been previously studied in humans. Reported here are 3 experiments in which umami taste was measured for monopotassium glutamate (MPG) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) at solution temperatures between 10 and 37 °C. Experiment 1 showed that for subjects sensitive to MPG on the tongue tip, 1) cooling reduced umami intensity whether sampled with the tongue tip or in the whole mouth, but 2) had no effect on the rate of umami adaptation on the tongue tip. Experiment 2 showed that temperature had similar effects on the umami taste of MSG and MPG on the tongue tip but not in the whole mouth, and that contrary to umami taste, cooling to 10 °C increased rather than decreased the salty taste of both stimuli. Experiment 3 was designed to investigate the contribution of the hT1R1-hT1R3 glutamate receptor to the cooling effect on umami taste by using the T1R3 inhibitor lactisole. However, lactisole failed to block the umami taste of MPG at any temperature, which supports prior evidence that lactisole does not block umami taste for all ligands of the hT1R1-hT1R3 receptor. We conclude that temperature can affect sensitivity to the umami and salty tastes of glutamates, but in opposite directions, and that the magnitude of these effects can vary across stimuli and modes of tasting (i.e., whole mouth vs. tongue tip exposures). PMID:27102813

  3. Artificial sweeteners and salts producing a metallic taste sensation activate TRPV1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; le Coutre, Johannes

    2007-08-01

    Throughout the world many people use artificial sweeteners (AS) for the purpose of reducing caloric intake. The most prominently used of these molecules include saccharin, aspartame (Nutrasweet), acesulfame-K, and cyclamate. Despite the caloric advantage they provide, one key concern in their use is their aversive aftertaste that has been characterized on a sensory level as bitter and/or metallic. Recently, it has been shown that the activation of particular T2R bitter taste receptors is partially involved with the bitter aftertaste sensation of saccharin and acesulfame-K. To more fully understand the biology behind these phenomena we have addressed the question of whether AS could stimulate transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors, as these receptors are activated by a large range of structurally different chemicals. Moreover, TRPV1 receptors and/or their variants are found in taste receptor cells and in nerve terminals throughout the oral cavity. Hence, TRPV1 activation could be involved in the AS aftertaste or even contribute to the poorly understood metallic taste sensation. Using Ca(2+) imaging on TRPV1 receptors heterologously expressed in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and on dissociated primary sensory neurons, we find that in both systems, AS activate TRPV1 receptors, and, moreover, they sensitize these channels to acid and heat. We also found that TRPV1 receptors are activated by CuSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeSO(4), three salts known to produce a metallic taste sensation. In summary, our results identify a novel group of compounds that activate TRPV1 and, consequently, provide a molecular mechanism that may account for off tastes of sweeteners and metallic tasting salts. PMID:17567713

  4. Taste in chimpanzees. III: Labeled-line coding in sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; Ninomiya, Y; Danilova, V

    1998-11-15

    In peripheral taste the coding mechanism remains an enigma. Among coding theories the "across-fiber pattern" argues that activity across fibers codes for taste, whereas the "labeled line" claims that activity in a particular set of fibers underlies a taste quality. We showed previously that chimpanzee chorda tympani taste fibers grouped according to human taste qualities into an S-cluster, responding predominantly to sweet stimuli, a Q-cluster, sensitive to bitter tastants, and an N-cluster, stimulated by salts. The analysis showed that information in the S-line suffices to distinguish stimuli of one taste quality from the others. However, one condition for the labeled line remained: that blockage of activity in a particular line must cause blockage of one taste quality, but of no other, or its onset give rise to the sensation of a taste quality. Here we studied this requirement with gymnemic acids and miraculin. In humans and chimpanzees, gymnemic acids suppress the sweet taste of all sweeteners whereas miraculin adds a sweet taste quality to sour stimuli. Gymnemic acids also abolish miraculin-induced sweet taste. We found that gymnemic acids practically abolished the response to every sweetener in the chimpanzee S-cluster. Equally important, they had no effect on the responses of the Q- and N-clusters. After miraculin, the S-cluster fibers responded to acids as well as to sweeteners, although they had not responded to acids before miraculin. Gymnemic acids abolished this miraculin-induced response to acids and responses to sweeteners in the S-fibers. These results link the sweet taste quality to activity in fibers of the S-cluster. Thus the S-cluster fibers satisfy the definition of the labeled-line theory: "that activity in a particular fiber type represents a specific taste quality." PMID:9855466

  5. Exploring Ethnic Differences in Taste Perception.

    PubMed

    Williams, Johnny A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Fillingim, Roger B; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that nutritional intake can vary substantially as a function of demographic variables such as ethnicity and/or sex. Although a variety of factors are known to underlie the relationship between these demographic variables and nutritional intake, it is interesting to speculate that variation in food intake associated with ethnicity or sex may result, in part, from differences in the perceived taste of foods in these different populations. Thus, we initiated a study to evaluate taste responsiveness in different ethnic groups. Moreover, because of the known differences in taste responsiveness between males and females, analyses were stratified by sex. The ethnic groups tested differed significantly from one another in reported perceived taste intensity. Our results showed that Hispanics and African Americans rated taste sensations higher than non-Hispanic Whites and that these differences were more pronounced in males. Understanding the nature of these differences in taste perception is important, because taste perception may contribute to dietary health risk. When attempting to modify diet, individuals of different ethnicities may require personalized interventions that take into account the different sensory experience that these individuals may have when consuming foods. PMID:26994473

  6. Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste ("sweet," "sour," "salty," and "bitter") and odor ("other") intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste-odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of "cherry" and "vanilla" flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. PMID:21798851

  7. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how fast electrical signals move through a nerve. ... normal body temperature. Being too cold slows nerve conduction. Tell your doctor if you have a cardiac ...

  8. Femoral nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The femoral nerve is located in the leg and supplies the muscles that assist help straighten the leg. It supplies sensation ... leg. One risk of damage to the femoral nerve is pelvic fracture. Symptoms of femoral nerve damage ...

  9. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The ulnar nerve originates from the brachial plexus and travels down arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near the surface of the body where ...

  10. Diabetes and nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot or cold When the nerves that control digestion are affected, you may have trouble digesting food. ... harder to control. Damage to nerves that control digestion almost always occurs in people with severe nerve ...

  11. Taste responses to sweet stimuli in alpha-gustducin knockout and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Danilova, Vicktoria; Damak, Sami; Margolskee, Robert F; Hellekant, Göran

    2006-07-01

    The importance of alpha-gustducin in sweet taste transduction is based on data obtained with sucrose and the artificial sweetener SC45647. Here we studied the role of alpha-gustducin in sweet taste. We compared the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of alpha-gustducin knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to 11 different sweeteners, representing carbohydrates, artificial sweeteners, and sweet amino acids. In behavioral experiments, over 48-h preference ratios were measured in two-bottle preference tests. In electrophysiological experiments, integrated responses of chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (NG) nerves were recorded. We found that preference ratios of the KO mice were significantly lower than those of WT for acesulfame-K, dulcin, fructose, NC00174, D-phenylalanine, L-proline, D-tryptophan, saccharin, SC45647, sucrose, but not neotame. The nerve responses to all sweeteners, except neotame, were smaller in the KO mice than in the WT mice. The differences between the responses in WT and KO mice were more pronounced in the CT than in the NG. These data indicate that alpha-gustducin participates in the transduction of the sweet taste in general. PMID:16740645

  12. Taste Identification in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavassoli, T.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sensory issues are widely reported in Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Since taste perception is one of the least studied senses in ASC we explored taste identification in adults with ASC (12 males, 11 females) compared to control participants (14 males, 12 females). "Taste strips" were used to measure taste identification overall, as well as…

  13. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food. PMID:26893070

  14. Functional dissociation in sweet taste receptor neurons between and within taste organs of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Vladimiros; Knapek, Stephan; Arai, Shogo; Hartl, Marion; Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Abe, Ayako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Finding food sources is essential for survival. Insects detect nutrients with external taste receptor neurons. Drosophila possesses multiple taste organs that are distributed throughout its body. However, the role of different taste organs in feeding remains poorly understood. By blocking subsets of sweet taste receptor neurons, we show that receptor neurons in the legs are required for immediate sugar choice. Furthermore, we identify two anatomically distinct classes of sweet taste receptor neurons in the leg. The axonal projections of one class terminate in the thoracic ganglia, whereas the other projects directly to the brain. These two classes are functionally distinct: the brain-projecting neurons are involved in feeding initiation, whereas the thoracic ganglia-projecting neurons play a role in sugar-dependent suppression of locomotion. Distinct receptor neurons for the same taste quality may coordinate early appetitive responses, taking advantage of the legs as the first appendages to contact food. PMID:26893070

  15. Intact Hedonic Responses to Sweet Tastes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Aloi, Joseph; Burrus, Caley; Garbutt, James C.; Kampov-Polevoy, Alexei B.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    The Sweet Taste Test (STT) is a standardized measure designed to index the ability to detect differences in sweet tastes (sweet taste sensitivity) and hedonic responses to sweet tastes (sweet taste liking). Profiles of response on the STT suggest enhanced hedonic responses to sweet tastes in psychiatric disorders characterized by dysfunctional reward processing systems, including binge-eating disorders and substance use disorders, and a putative mechanism governing STT responses is the brain opioid system. The present study examined STT responses in 20 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 38 healthy control adults. There were no differences in sweet taste sensitivity or hedonic response to sweet tastes between the ASD and control groups. Within the ASD sample, ASD symptom severity was associated with sweet taste sensitivity, but not hedonic response to sweet taste. Results may ultimately shed light on brain opioid system functioning in ASD. PMID:24563662

  16. Heat Effect on the Taste of Milk Studied Using a Taste Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toko, Kiyoshi; Iyota, Teru; Mizota, Yasumichi; Matsuno, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Toshihiro; Doi, Toyohiko; Iiyama, Satoru; Kato, Tomihisa; Yamafuji, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ryozo

    1995-11-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the taste of milk was investigated using a taste sensor. The transducer is composed of seven electrodes with different kinds of lipid membranes. Sensory evaluations by humans were made in terms of three taste characteristics of “richness (koku),” “cooked flavor” and “deliciousness” together with a measurement of whey protein denaturation. This study provided a quantitative description of the taste change caused by heat treatment of milk, because the output showed high correlations with richness and the degree of protein denaturation.

  17. Gustatory processing and taste memory in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2016-06-01

    Taste allows animals to discriminate the value and potential toxicity of food prior to ingestion. Many tastants elicit an innate attractive or avoidance response that is modifiable with nutritional state and prior experience. A powerful genetic tool kit, well-characterized gustatory system, and standardized behavioral assays make the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an excellent system for investigating taste processing and memory. Recent studies have used this system to identify the neural basis for acquired taste preference. These studies have revealed a role for dopamine-mediated plasticity of the mushroom bodies that modulate the threshold of response to appetitive tastants. The identification of neural circuitry regulating taste memory provides a system to study the genetic and physiological processes that govern plasticity within a defined memory circuit. PMID:27328844

  18. Smell and Taste: Spice of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Smell and Taste Sally looked forward to Thanksgiving dinner at her daughter’s house every year. She ... But, this year it didn’t smell like Thanksgiving and, when Sally ate the holiday food, she ...

  19. Inflammatory stimuli acutely modulate peripheral taste function.

    PubMed

    Kumarhia, Devaki; He, Lianying; McCluskey, Lynnette Phillips

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation-mediated changes in taste perception can affect health outcomes in patients, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In the present work, we hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines directly modulate Na(+) transport in taste buds. To test this, we measured acute changes in Na(+) flux in polarized fungiform taste buds loaded with a Na(+) indicator dye. IL-1β elicited an amiloride-sensitive increase in Na(+) transport in taste buds. In contrast, TNF-α dramatically and reversibly decreased Na(+) flux in polarized taste buds via amiloride-sensitive and amiloride-insensitive Na(+) transport systems. The speed and partial amiloride sensitivity of these changes in Na(+) flux indicate that IL-1β and TNF-α modulate epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) function. A portion of the TNF-mediated decrease in Na(+) flux is also blocked by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, although TNF-α further reduced Na(+) transport independently of both amiloride and capsazepine. We also assessed taste function in vivo in a model of infection and inflammation that elevates these and additional cytokines. In rats administered systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT responses to Na(+) were significantly elevated between 1 and 2 h after LPS treatment. Low, normally preferred concentrations of NaCl and sodium acetate elicited high response magnitudes. Consistent with this outcome, codelivery of IL-1β and TNF-α enhanced Na(+) flux in polarized taste buds. These results demonstrate that inflammation elicits swift changes in Na(+) taste function, which may limit salt consumption during illness. PMID:27009163

  20. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A.; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S.

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  1. Caffeine Taste Signaling in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Köhn, Saskia; Stehle, Bernhard; Lutz, Michael; Wüst, Alexander; Mazija, Lorena; Rist, Anna; Galizia, C Giovanni; Lüdke, Alja; Thum, Andreas S

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment. In contrast, caffeine-driven reduction in feeding in non-choice situations does not require D1. Hence, this work provides data on taste coding via different receptor neurons, depending on the behavioral context. Furthermore, we show that the larval pharyngeal system is involved in bitter tasting. Using ectopic expressions, we show that the caffeine receptor in neuron D1 requires the function of at least four receptor genes: the putative co-receptors Gr33a, Gr66a, the putative caffeine-specific receptor Gr93a, and yet unknown additional molecular component(s). This suggests that larval taste perception is more complex than previously assumed already at the sensory level. Taste information from different sensory organs located outside at the head or inside along the pharynx of the larva is assembled to trigger taste guided behaviors. PMID:27555807

  2. Metallic taste from electrical and chemical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Harry T; Stevens, David A; Chapman, Kathryn W; Kurtz, Anne

    2005-03-01

    A series of three experiments investigated the nature of metallic taste reports after stimulation with solutions of metal salts and after stimulation with metals and electric currents. To stimulate with electricity, a device was fabricated consisting of a small battery affixed to a plastic handle with the anode side exposed for placement on the tongue or oral tissues. Intensity of taste from metals and batteries was dependent upon the voltage and was more robust in areas dense in fungiform papillae. Metallic taste was reported from stimulation with ferrous sulfate solutions, from metals and from electric stimuli. However, reports of metallic taste were more frequent when the word 'metallic' was presented embedded in a list of choices, as opposed to simple free-choice labeling. Intensity decreased for ferrous sulfate when the nose was occluded, consistent with a decrease in retronasal smell, as previously reported. Intensity of taste evoked by copper metal, bimetallic stimuli (zinc/copper) or small batteries (1.5-3 V) was not affected by nasal occlusion. This difference suggests two distinct mechanisms for evocation of metallic taste reports, one dependent upon retronasal smell and a second mediated by oral chemoreceptors. PMID:15741603

  3. Cholesterol modulates bitter taste receptor function.

    PubMed

    Pydi, Sai Prasad; Jafurulla, Md; Wai, Lisa; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-09-01

    Bitter taste perception in humans is believed to act as a defense mechanism against ingestion of potential toxic substances. Bitter taste is perceived by 25 distinct bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) which belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In the overall context of the role of membrane lipids in GPCR function, we show here that T2R4, a representative member of the bitter taste receptor family, displays cholesterol sensitivity in its signaling function. In order to gain further insight into cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4, we mutated two residues Tyr114(3.59) and Lys117(3.62) present in the cholesterol recognition amino acid consensus (CRAC) motif in T2R4 with alanines. We carried out functional characterization of the mutants by calcium mobilization, followed by cholesterol depletion and replenishment. CRAC motifs in GPCRs have previously been implicated in preferential cholesterol association. Our analysis shows that the CRAC motif represents an intrinsic feature of bitter taste receptors and is conserved in 22 out of 25 human T2Rs. We further demonstrate that Lys117, an important CRAC residue, is crucial in the reported cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4. Interestingly, cholesterol sensitivity of T2R4 was observed at quinine concentrations in the lower mM range. To the best of our knowledge, our results represent the first report addressing the molecular basis of cholesterol sensitivity in the function of taste receptors. PMID:27288892

  4. Glutamate: Tastant and Neuromodulator in Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2016-07-01

    In taste buds, glutamate plays a double role as a gustatory stimulus and neuromodulator. The detection of glutamate as a tastant involves several G protein-coupled receptors, including the heterodimer taste receptor type 1, member 1 and 3 as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR4). Both receptor types participate in the detection of glutamate as shown with knockout animals and selective antagonists. At the basal part of taste buds, ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA] are expressed and participate in the modulation of the taste signal before its transmission to the brain. Evidence suggests that glutamate has an efferent function on taste cells and modulates the release of other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and ATP. This short article reviews the recent developments in the field with regard to glutamate receptors involved in both functions as well as the influence of glutamate on the taste signal. PMID:27422519

  5. Enhancement of Retronasal Odors by Taste

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste (“sweet,” “sour,” “salty,” and “bitter”) and odor (“other”) intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste–odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of “cherry” and “vanilla” flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. PMID:21798851

  6. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains

    PubMed Central

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states. PMID:27160511

  7. The Addition of Saccharin to Taste Cues Affects Taste Preference Conditioning in Thirsty Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forestell, Catherine A.; LoLordo, Vincent M.

    2004-01-01

    Previous failures to condition preferences for the unacceptable taste cues sucrose octaacetate (SOA) and citric acid (CA) using a reverse-order, differential conditioning procedure (Forestell & LoLordo, 2000) may have been the result of low consumption of the taste cues in training or of their relatively low acceptability to rats that are thirsty…

  8. Facilitation of Taste Memory Acquisition by Experiencing Previous Novel Taste Is Protein-Synthesis Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merhav, Maayan; Rosenblum, Kobi

    2008-01-01

    Very little is known about the biological and molecular mechanisms that determine the effect of previous experience on implicit learning tasks. In the present study, we first defined weak and strong taste inputs according to measurements in the behavioral paradigm known as latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion. We then demonstrated that…

  9. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery and Renewal of Flavor Preferences Based on Taste-Taste Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Estrella; De la Casa, L. G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal in a conditioned preferences paradigm based on taste-taste associations. More specifically, in three experiments rats exposed to a simultaneous compound of citric acid-saccharin solution showed a preference for the citric solution when the preference was measured with a…

  10. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states. PMID:27160511

  11. Double P2X2/P2X3 Purinergic Receptor Knockout Mice Do Not Taste NaCl or the Artificial Sweetener SC45647

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Eschle, Benjamin K.; Barrows, Jennell; Hallock, Robert M.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The P2X ionotropic purinergic receptors, P2X2 and P2X3, are essential for transmission of taste information from taste buds to the gustatory nerves. Mice lacking both P2X2 and P2X3 purinergic receptors (P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/−) exhibit no taste-evoked activity in the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves when stimulated with taste stimuli from any of the 5 classical taste quality groups (salt, sweet, sour, bitter, and umami) nor do the mice show taste preferences for sweet or umami, or avoidance of bitter substances (Finger et al. 2005. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 310[5753]:1495–1499). Here, we compare the ability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice and P2X2/P2X3Dbl+/+ wild-type (WT) mice to detect NaCl in brief-access tests and conditioned aversion paradigms. Brief-access testing with NaCl revealed that whereas WT mice decrease licking at 300 mM and above, the P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice do not show any change in lick rates. In conditioned aversion tests, P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice did not develop a learned aversion to NaCl or the artificial sweetener SC45647, both of which are easily avoided by conditioned WT mice. The inability of P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice to show avoidance of these taste stimuli was not due to an inability to learn the task because both WT and P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice learned to avoid a combination of SC45647 and amyl acetate (an odor cue). These data suggest that P2X2/P2X3Dbl−/− mice are unable to respond to NaCl or SC45647 as taste stimuli, mirroring the lack of gustatory nerve responses to these substances. PMID:19833661

  12. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate’s taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop’s own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food’s identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations. PMID:26388813

  13. Using sound-taste correspondences to enhance the subjective value of tasting experiences.

    PubMed

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Van Ee, Raymond; Rychtarikova, Monika; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris; Persoone, Dominique; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The soundscapes of those places where we eat and drink can influence our perception of taste. Here, we investigated whether contextual sound would enhance the subjective value of a tasting experience. The customers in a chocolate shop were invited to take part in an experiment in which they had to evaluate a chocolate's taste while listening to an auditory stimulus. Four different conditions were presented in a between-participants design. Envisioning a more ecological approach, a pre-recorded piece of popular music and the shop's own soundscape were used as the sonic stimuli. The results revealed that not only did the customers report having a significantly better tasting experience when the sounds were presented as part of the food's identity, but they were also willing to pay significantly more for the experience. The method outlined here paves a new approach to dealing with the design of multisensory tasting experiences, and gastronomic situations. PMID:26388813

  14. A Taste-intensity Visual Analog Scale: An Improved Zinc Taste-test Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zdilla, Matthew J.; Starkey, Leah D.; Saling, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Context Studies employing methods for measurement of zinc sulfate taste acuity have had diverse results, and although the studies have had limitations in design and implementation, they have suggested salient findings beyond the assessment of taste acuity. These findings have included, but were not limited to, relationships between zinc sulfate taste acuity and weight, levels of serum zinc, diastolic hypertension, levels of salivary carbonic anhydrase 6, and frequency of illness. However, current protocols for zinc sulfate taste assessment are problematic and warrant improvement. Objective The current study intended to compare the ranking scale for the original Bryce-Smith and Simpson zinc taste test (BS-ZTT) with a novel, taste-intensity visual analog scale (TI-VAS) to explore the potential for improved zinc sulfate taste-acuity measurement. Design Participants were administered a 0.1% solution of zinc sulfate and assessed using the 2 scales. Setting The study took place at West Liberty University, in West Liberty, WV, USA. Participants Participants were 500 West Liberty University students who volunteered to participate in the study. Results A strong, statistically significant, positive correlation existed between the BS-ZTT and the TI-VAS scores (rs = 0.79; P < .0001; n = 491). Conclusions The study found that the BS-ZTT offered a limited number of ordinal variable ranks and depended on an examiner’s evaluation. Conversely, the TI-VAS had an expanded range of variables and was independent of the examiner. The TI-VAS can be used as a taste-acuity test for zinc sulfate and as a benchmark for future analyses of zinc sulfate taste acuity and zinc taste tests. PMID:26770137

  15. Disentangling taste and toxicity in aposematic prey.

    PubMed

    Holen, Øistein Haugsten

    2013-02-22

    Many predators quickly learn to avoid attacking aposematic prey. If the prey vary in toxicity, the predators may alternatively learn to capture and taste-sample prey carefully before ingesting or rejecting them (go-slow behaviour). An increase in prey toxicity is generally thought to decrease predation on prey populations. However, while prey with a higher toxin load are more harmful to ingest, they may also be easier to recognize and reject owing to greater distastefulness, which can facilitate a taste-sampling foraging strategy. Here, the classic diet model is used to study the separate effects of taste and toxicity on predator preferences. The taste-sampling process is modelled using signal detection theory. The model is applicable to automimicry and batesian mimicry. It shows that when the defensive toxin is sufficiently distasteful, a mimicry complex may be less profitable to the predator and better protected against predation if the models are moderately toxic than if they are highly toxic. Moreover, taste mimicry can reduce the profitability of the mimicry complex and increase protection against predation. The results are discussed in relation to the selection pressures acting on prey defences and the evolution of mimicry. PMID:23256198

  16. How taste works: cells, receptors and gustatory perception.

    PubMed

    Kikut-Ligaj, Dariusz; Trzcielińska-Lorych, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The sensitivity of taste in mammals varies due to quantitative and qualitative differences in the structure of the taste perception organs. Gustatory perception is made possible by the peripheral chemosensory organs, i.e., the taste buds, which are distributed in the epithelium of the taste papillae of the palate, tongue, epiglottis, throat and larynx. Each taste bud consists of a community of ~100 cells that process and integrate taste information with metabolic needs. Mammalian taste buds are contained in circumvallate, fungiform and foliate papillae and react to sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami stimuli. The sensitivity of the taste buds for individual taste stimuli varies extensively and depends on the type of papillae and the part of the oral cavity in which they are located. There are at least three different cell types found in mammalian taste buds: type I cells, receptor (type II) cells and presynaptic (type III) cells. This review focuses on the biophysiological mechanisms of action of the various taste stimuli in humans. Currently, the best-characterized proteins are the receptors (GPCR). In addition, the activation of bitter, sweet and umami tastes are relatively well known, but the activation of salty and sour tastes has yet to be clearly explained. PMID:26447485

  17. Is fat taste ready for primetime?

    PubMed Central

    DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that gustation is important for the orosensory detection of dietary fats, and might contribute to preferences that humans, rodents, and possibly other mammals exhibit for fat-rich foods. In contrast to sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami, fat is not widely recognized as a primary taste quality. Recent investigations, however, provide a wealth of information that is helping to elucidate the specific molecular, cellular, and neural mechanisms required for fat detection in mammals. The latest evidence supporting a fat taste will be explored in this review, with a particular focus on recent studies that suggest a surprising role for gut-brain endocannabinoid signaling in controlling intake and preference for fats based on their proposed taste properties. PMID:24631296

  18. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue, Jesusa; Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Brand, Joseph G.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Reed, Danielle R.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian sweet taste is primarily mediated by the type 1 taste receptor Tas1r2/Tas1r3, whereas Tas1r1/Tas1r3 act as the principal umami taste receptor. Bitter taste is mediated by a different group of G protein-coupled receptors, the Tas2rs, numbering 3 to ∼66, depending on the species. We showed previously that the behavioral indifference of cats toward sweet-tasting compounds can be explained by the pseudogenization of the Tas1r2 gene, which encodes the Tas1r2 receptor. To examine the generality of this finding, we sequenced the entire coding region of Tas1r2 from 12 species in the order Carnivora. Seven of these nonfeline species, all of which are exclusive meat eaters, also have independently pseudogenized Tas1r2 caused by ORF-disrupting mutations. Fittingly, the purifying selection pressure is markedly relaxed in these species with a pseudogenized Tas1r2. In behavioral tests, the Asian otter (defective Tas1r2) showed no preference for sweet compounds, but the spectacled bear (intact Tas1r2) did. In addition to the inactivation of Tas1r2, we found that sea lion Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 are also pseudogenized, consistent with their unique feeding behavior, which entails swallowing food whole without chewing. The extensive loss of Tas1r receptor function is not restricted to the sea lion: the bottlenose dolphin, which evolved independently from the sea lion but displays similar feeding behavior, also has all three Tas1rs inactivated, and may also lack functional bitter receptors. These data provide strong support for the view that loss of taste receptor function in mammals is widespread and directly related to feeding specializations. PMID:22411809

  19. Major taste loss in carnivorous mammals.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peihua; Josue, Jesusa; Li, Xia; Glaser, Dieter; Li, Weihua; Brand, Joseph G; Margolskee, Robert F; Reed, Danielle R; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2012-03-27

    Mammalian sweet taste is primarily mediated by the type 1 taste receptor Tas1r2/Tas1r3, whereas Tas1r1/Tas1r3 act as the principal umami taste receptor. Bitter taste is mediated by a different group of G protein-coupled receptors, the Tas2rs, numbering 3 to ∼66, depending on the species. We showed previously that the behavioral indifference of cats toward sweet-tasting compounds can be explained by the pseudogenization of the Tas1r2 gene, which encodes the Tas1r2 receptor. To examine the generality of this finding, we sequenced the entire coding region of Tas1r2 from 12 species in the order Carnivora. Seven of these nonfeline species, all of which are exclusive meat eaters, also have independently pseudogenized Tas1r2 caused by ORF-disrupting mutations. Fittingly, the purifying selection pressure is markedly relaxed in these species with a pseudogenized Tas1r2. In behavioral tests, the Asian otter (defective Tas1r2) showed no preference for sweet compounds, but the spectacled bear (intact Tas1r2) did. In addition to the inactivation of Tas1r2, we found that sea lion Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 are also pseudogenized, consistent with their unique feeding behavior, which entails swallowing food whole without chewing. The extensive loss of Tas1r receptor function is not restricted to the sea lion: the bottlenose dolphin, which evolved independently from the sea lion but displays similar feeding behavior, also has all three Tas1rs inactivated, and may also lack functional bitter receptors. These data provide strong support for the view that loss of taste receptor function in mammals is widespread and directly related to feeding specializations. PMID:22411809

  20. The effects of area postrema lesions and selective vagotomy on motion-induced conditioned taste aversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Sutton, R. L.; Mckenna, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is one of several behaviors which was suggested as a putative measure of motion sickness in rats. A review is made of studies which used surgical disruption of area postrema or the vagus nerve to investigate whether CTA and vomiting induced by motion may depend on common neural pathways or structures. When the chemoreceptive function of the area postrema (AP) is destroyed by complete ablation, rats develop CTA and cats and monkeys develop CTA and vomit. Thus the AP is not crucially involved in either CTA or vomiting induced by motion. However, after complete denervation of the stomach or after labyrinthectomy rats do not develop CTA when motion is used as the unconditioned stimulus. Studies of brainstem projections of the vagus nerve, the area postrema, the periaqueductal grey, and the vestibular system are used as the basis for speculation about regions which could mediate both motion-induced vomiting and behavioral food aversion.

  1. Is the taste of fat regulated?

    PubMed

    Passilly-Degrace, Patricia; Chevrot, Michael; Bernard, Arnaud; Ancel, Déborah; Martin, Céline; Besnard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, converging data have been accumulated both in rodents and humans, supporting the existence of a sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of dietary lipids. It is well known that the sense of taste is determinant for the food choice and that the overconsumption of highly palatable energy-dense foods contributes to the current obesity epidemic. Thus, an important issue in terms of Public Health is to understand the mechanisms by which the oro-sensory perception of fat is regulated. An overview of our current knowledge in this field of investigations is proposed in this mini-review. PMID:23933093

  2. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    PubMed Central

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  3. A preference test for sweet taste that uses edible strips.

    PubMed

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y; Stull, Judith C; Abarintos, Ray A; Khan, Neiladri K; Park, Kevin C

    2014-02-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined by comparing sweet taste preferences obtained with five different sucralose-containing edible strips to a set of five intensity-matched sucrose solutions. When compared to the solution test, edible strips required approximately the same number of steps to identify the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. Both approaches yielded similar distribution patterns for the preferred amount of sweet taste stimulus. In addition, taste intensity values for the preferred amount of sucralose in strips were similar to that of sucrose in solution. The hedonic values for the preferred amount of sucralose were lower than for sucrose, but the taste quality of the preferred sucralose strip was described as sweet. When taste intensity values between sucralose strips and sucralose solutions containing identical amounts of taste stimulus were compared, sucralose strips produced a greater taste intensity and more positive hedonic response. A preference test that uses edible strips for stimulus delivery should be useful for identifying preferences for sweet taste in young children, and in clinical populations. This test should also be useful for identifying sweet taste preferences outside of the lab or clinic. Finally, edible strips should be useful for developing preference tests for other primary taste stimuli and for taste mixtures. PMID:24225255

  4. Ulnar nerve damage (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm. The nerve is commonly injured at the elbow because of elbow fracture or dislocation. The ulnar nerve is near ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow, so prolonged pressure on the elbow or entrapment ...

  5. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  6. Radial nerve dysfunction (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. ... the wrist and hand. The usual causes of nerve dysfunction are direct trauma, prolonged pressure on the ...

  7. Tibial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... a loss of movement or sensation in the foot from damage to the tibial nerve. ... Tibial nerve dysfunction is an unusual form of peripheral ... the calf and foot muscles. A problem in function with a single ...

  8. Nerve conduction velocity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see how ...

  9. Assessing nerves in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Garbino, José Antonio; Heise, Carlos Otto; Marques, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy neuropathy is dependent on the patient's immune response and expresses itself as a focal or multifocal neuropathy with asymmetric involvement. Leprosy neuropathy evolves chronically but recurrently develops periods of exacerbation during type 1 or type 2 reactions, leading to acute neuropathy. Nerve enlargement leading to entrapment syndromes is also a common manifestation. Pain may be either of inflammatory or neuropathic origin. A thorough and detailed evaluation is mandatory for adequate patient follow-up, including nerve palpation, pain assessment, graded sensory mapping, muscle power testing, and autonomic evaluation. Nerve conduction studies are a sensitive tool for nerve dysfunction, including new lesions during reaction periods or development of entrapment syndromes. Nerve ultrasonography is also a very promising method for nerve evaluation in leprosy. The authors propose a composite nerve clinical score for nerve function assessment that can be useful for longitudinal evaluation. PMID:26773623

  10. Electromechanical Nerve Stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Nerve stimulator applies and/or measures precisely controlled force and/or displacement to nerve so response of nerve measured. Consists of three major components connected in tandem: miniature probe with spherical tip; transducer; and actuator. Probe applies force to nerve, transducer measures force and sends feedback signal to control circuitry, and actuator positions force transducer and probe. Separate box houses control circuits and panel. Operator uses panel to select operating mode and parameters. Stimulator used in research to characterize behavior of nerve under various conditions of temperature, anesthesia, ventilation, and prior damage to nerve. Also used clinically to assess damage to nerve from disease or accident and to monitor response of nerve during surgery.

  11. Radial nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve leads to problems with movement in the arm and wrist and with sensation in the back of the arm or hand. ... to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and controls movement of the triceps muscle at ...

  12. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many ... viruses. Sometimes the cause is not known. Degenerative nerve diseases include Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Friedreich's ...

  13. A comparative analysis of neural taste processing in animals

    PubMed Central

    de Brito Sanchez, Gabriela; Giurfa, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding taste processing in the nervous system is a fundamental challenge of modern neuroscience. Recent research on the neural bases of taste coding in invertebrates and vertebrates allows discussion of whether labelled-line or across-fibre pattern encoding applies to taste perception. While the former posits that each gustatory receptor responds to one stimulus or a very limited range of stimuli and sends a direct ‘line’ to the central nervous system to communicate taste information, the latter postulates that each gustatory receptor responds to a wider range of stimuli so that the entire population of taste-responsive neurons participates in the taste code. Tastes are represented in the brain of the fruitfly and of the rat by spatial patterns of neural activity containing both distinct and overlapping regions, which are in accord with both labelled-line and across-fibre pattern processing of taste, respectively. In both animal models, taste representations seem to relate to the hedonic value of the tastant (e.g. palatable versus non-palatable). Thus, although the labelled-line hypothesis can account for peripheral taste processing, central processing remains either unknown or differs from a pure labelled-line coding. The essential task for a neuroscience of taste is, therefore, to determine the connectivity of taste-processing circuits in central nervous systems. Such connectivity may determine coding strategies that differ significantly from both the labelled-line and the across-fibre pattern models. PMID:21690133

  14. Laryngeal nerve damage

    MedlinePlus

    Laryngeal nerve damage is injury to one or both of the nerves that are attached to the voice box. ... Injury to the laryngeal nerves is uncommon. When it does occur, it can be from: A complication of neck or chest surgery (especially thyroid, lung, ...

  15. The Bad Taste of Medicines: Overview of Basic Research on Bitter Taste

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.; Spector, Alan C.; Reed, Danielle R.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many active pharmaceutical ingredients taste bitter and thus are aversive to children, as well as many adults. Encapsulation of the medicine in pill or tablet form, an effective method for adults to avoid the unpleasant taste, is problematic for children. Many children cannot or will not swallow solid dosage forms. Objective This review highlights basic principles of gustatory function, with a special focus on the science of bitter taste, derived from studies of animal models and human psychophysics. We focus on the set of genes that encode the proteins that function as bitter receptors, as well as the cascade of events that lead to multidimensional aspects of taste function, highlighting the role that animal models played in these discoveries. We also summarize psychophysical approaches to studying bitter taste in adult and pediatric populations, highlighting evidence of the similarities and differences in bitter taste perception and acceptance between adults and children and drawing on useful strategies from animal models. Results Medicine often tastes bitter, and because children are more bitter sensitive than are adults, this creates problems with compliance. Bitter arises from stimulating receptors in taste receptor cells, with signals processed in the taste bud and relayed to the brain. However, there are many gaps in our understanding of how best to measure bitterness and how to ameliorate it, including whether it is more efficiently addressed at the level of receptor and sensory signaling, at the level of central processing, or by masking techniques. All methods of measuring responsiveness to bitter ligands—in animal models, through human psychophysics, or with “electronic tongues”—have limitations. Conclusions Better-tasting medications may enhance pediatric adherence to drug therapy. Sugars, acids, salt, and other substances reduce perceived bitterness of several pharmaceuticals, and although pleasant flavorings may help children

  16. A Taste of Sunrise: A Director's Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovasse, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Describes a director's experience working with "A Taste of Sunrise," a play depicting the deaf culture. Stresses how important it is to educate the cast and provide them an opportunity to learn sign language. Notes that American Sign Language is complex and beautiful and deserves to be carefully studied and respectfully acknowledged by the hearing…

  17. Exploring natural products for new taste sensations.

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Cayeux, Isabelle; Birkbeck, Anthony A

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery of uncommon taste or trigeminal active compounds and their associated sensory analysis using human tasting panels with the aim of enhancing the overall taste experience whilst reducing where possible the sugar and salt content of foods. The first example outlines the discovery of the sensory quality attributes of (R)-2-(carboxymethylamino)propanoic acid, named (R)-strombine, as assessed by a panel of 47 subjects to confirm its contribution to the typical taste of scallop muscle. The second example discusses the pungency and trigeminal effect of polygodial, which is compared with piperine and capsaicin, as well as the elucidation of a new structure eliciting a trigeminal effect, (+/-)-trans-2,3,3a,7a-tetrahydro-1 H-indene-4-carbaldehyde, discovered in Amomum tsao-ko. Finally, the time intensity trigeminal effect of (-)-menthol is compared with (1R,2RS,4RS)-1-isopropyl-4-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-2-ol, named dihydroumbellulol, a new cooling compound obtained by hemi-synthesis from umbellulone extracted from Umbellularia californica Nutt. PMID:21797169

  18. Utilitarian Aggregation of Beliefs and Tastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilboa, Itzhak; Samet, Dov; Schmeidler, David

    2004-01-01

    Harsanyi's utilitarianism is extended here to Savage's framework. We formulate a Pareto condition that implies that both society's utility function and its probability measure are linear combinations of those of the individuals. An indiscriminate Pareto condition has been shown to contradict linear aggregation of beliefs and tastes. We argue that…

  19. Optogenetic induction of aversive taste memory.

    PubMed

    Keene, Alex C; Masek, Pavel

    2012-10-11

    The Drosophila melanogaster gustatory system consists of several neuronal pathways representing diverse taste modalities. The two predominant modalities are a sweet-sensing pathway that mediates attraction, and a bitter-sensing pathway that mediates avoidance. A central question is how flies integrate stimuli from these pathways and generate the appropriate behavioral response. We have developed a novel assay for induction of taste memories. We demonstrate that the gustatory response to fructose is suppressed when followed by the presence of bitter quinine. We employ optogenetic neural activation using infrared laser in combination with heat-sensitive channel - TRPA1 to precisely activate gustatory neurons. This optogenetic system allows for spatially and temporally controlled activation of distinct neural classes in the gustatory circuit. We directly activated bitter-sensing neurons together with presentation of fructose for remote induction of aversive taste memories. Here we report that activation of bitter-sensing neurons in the proboscis suffices as a conditioning stimulus. Spatially restricted stimulation indicates that the conditioning stimulus is indeed a signal from the bitter neurons in the proboscis and it is independent of postingestive feedback. The coincidence of temporally specific activation of bitter-sensing neurons with fructose presentation is crucial for memory formation, establishing aversive taste learning in Drosophila as associative learning. Taken together, this optogenetic system provides a powerful new tool for interrogation of the central brain circuits that mediate memory formation. PMID:22820051

  20. On Education and the Taste for Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freire, Paulo

    1991-01-01

    Argues that it is impossible to teach democracy without living democracy. Shows the need to create the taste for democracy, and the appetite for learning, taking risks, and for appreciating differences. Asserts that teachers are not actually champions of civil rights, freedom and democracy but will be called on to fight for these ideals. (PRA)

  1. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  2. The Musical Taste of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgot, V. G.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of the musical tastes of young people distinguish five basic vectors of its development: an orientation toward the Western paradigm; young people's unlimited amount of time spent in the consumption of music; the indiscriminate nature of their music interests; the influence that a person's membership in a…

  3. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) Tasting and Reported Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittemore, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    The phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste test was investigated for its potential as a genetically based biological marker for depression. Results indicated PTC tasters reported significantly higher levels of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) than nontasters and they scored higher on 5 of the 21 items. (Author/BL)

  4. Taste in dementing diseases and parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Lang, C J G; Leuschner, T; Ulrich, K; Stössel, C; Heckmann, J G; Hummel, T

    2006-10-25

    Like with many sensory abilities a reduction of taste and smell occurs during aging. Since there are hints to an additional reduction in dementing diseases, we assessed 52 patients, 26 women and 26 men, who were presented to a memory clinic, using the Sniffin' Sticks, Whole Mouth and Taste Strip Tests. While smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of drugs and sex exerted only minor impact, age and the severity of cognitive impairment were of major importance. There was a moderate but significant correlation between the severity of dementia, taste and smell, even if the age effect was partialled out. Notably, patients with Parkinson syndrome showed worse taste and smell abilities than those without. Here the differences were indeed marked enough to play a possible role in making the diagnosis. This exploratory study confirms a mild reduction of gustatory function in dementing diseases over and beyond that of normal aging which--in addition to a reduction of smell--seems to be especially marked in Parkinson syndromes. PMID:16769086

  5. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Juul; ter Bogt, Tom; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-01-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music…

  6. Demonstration Experiments in Learned Taste Aversions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the introductory psychology demonstration showing conditioned taste aversion in rats based on those animals' inability to distinguish between safe NaCl and toxic LiCl solutions. Test results showed the established phenomena of classical conditioning. Included is a discussion of the experiments relevance to behaviorist…

  7. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals

    PubMed Central

    Tizzano, Marco; Gulbransen, Brian D.; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Clapp, Tod R.; Herman, Jake P.; Sibhatu, Hiruy M.; Churchill, Mair E. A.; Silver, Wayne L.; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The upper respiratory tract is continually assaulted with harmful dusts and xenobiotics carried on the incoming airstream. Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa. Although free intra-epithelial nerve endings can detect certain lipophilic irritants (e.g., mints, ammonia), the epithelium also houses a population of trigeminally innervated solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that express T2R bitter taste receptors along with their downstream signaling components. These SCCs have been postulated to enhance the chemoresponsive capabilities of the trigeminal irritant-detection system. Here we show that transduction by the intranasal solitary chemosensory cells is necessary to evoke trigeminally mediated reflex reactions to some irritants including acyl–homoserine lactone bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, which activate the downstream signaling effectors associated with bitter taste transduction. Isolated nasal chemosensory cells respond to the classic bitter ligand denatonium as well as to the bacterial signals by increasing intracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, these same substances evoke changes in respiration indicative of trigeminal activation. Genetic ablation of either Gα-gustducin or TrpM5, essential elements of the T2R transduction cascade, eliminates the trigeminal response. Because acyl–homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing molecules for Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, detection of these substances by airway chemoreceptors offers a means by which the airway epithelium may trigger an epithelial inflammatory response before the bacteria reach population densities capable of forming destructive biofilms. PMID:20133764

  8. Partial rescue of taste responses of alpha-gustducin null mice by transgenic expression of alpha-transducin.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Danilova, Vicktoria; Zou, Shiying; Hellekant, Göran; Max, Marianna; Margolskee, Robert F; Damak, Sami

    2002-10-01

    The transduction of responses to bitter and sweet compounds utilizes guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) and their coupled receptors. Alpha-gustducin, a transducin-like G protein alpha-subunit, and rod alpha-transducin are expressed in taste receptor cells. Alpha-gustducin knockout mice have profoundly diminished behavioral and electrophysiological responses to many bitter and sweet compounds, although these mice retain residual responses to these compounds. Alpha-gustducin and rod alpha-transducin are biochemically indistinguishable in their in vitro interactions with retinal phosphodiesterase, rhodopsin and G protein betagamma-subunits. To determine if alpha-transducin can function in taste receptor cells and to compare the function of alpha-gustducin versus alpha-transducin in taste transduction in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express alpha-transducin under the control of the alpha-gustducin promoter in the alpha-gustducin null background. Immunohistochemistry showed that the alpha-transducin transgene was expressed in about two-thirds of the alpha-gustducin lineage of taste receptor cells. Two-bottle preference tests showed that transgenic expression of rod alpha-transducin partly rescued responses to denatonium benzoate, sucrose and the artificial sweetener SC45647, but not to quinine sulfate. Gustatory nerve recordings showed a partial rescue by the transgene of the response to sucrose, SC45647 and quinine, but not to denatonium. These results demonstrate that alpha-transducin can function in taste receptor cells and transduce some taste cell responses. Our results also suggest that alpha-transducin and alpha-gustducin may differ, at least in part, in their function in these cells, although this conclusion must be qualified because of the limited fidelity of the transgene expression. PMID:12379596

  9. Oxytocin decreases sweet taste sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Michael S.; Perea-Martinez, Isabel; Abouyared, Marianne; St. John, Steven J.; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) suppresses food intake and lack of OXT leads to overconsumption of sucrose. Taste bud cells were recently discovered to express OXT-receptor. In the present study we tested whether administering OXT to wild-type mice affects their licking behavior for tastants in a paradigm designed to be sensitive to taste perception. We injected C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 10 mg/kg OXT and assayed their brief-access lick responses, motivated by water deprivation, to NaCl (300 mM), citric acid (20 mM), quinine (0.3 mM), saccharin (10 mM), and a mix of MSG and IMP (100 mM and 0.5 mM respectively). OXT had no effect on licking for NaCl, citric acid, or quinine. A possible effect of OXT on saccharin and MSG+IMP was difficult to interpret due to unexpectedly low lick rates to water (the vehicle for all taste solutions), likely caused by the use of a high OXT dose that suppressed licking and other behaviors. A subsequent experiment focused on another preferred tastant, sucrose, and employed a much lower OXT dose (0.1 mg/kg). This modification, based on our measurements of plasma OXT following i.p. injection, permitted us to elevate plasma [OXT] sufficiently to preferentially activate taste bud cells. OXT at this low dose significantly reduced licking responses to 0.3 M sucrose, and overall shifted the sucrose concentration – behavioral response curves rightward (mean EC50saline = 0.362 M vs. EC50OXT = 0.466 M). Males did not differ from females under any condition in this study. We propose that circulating oxytocin is another factor that modulates taste-based behavior. PMID:25554481

  10. Understanding variety: tasting different foods delays satiation.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Foster, Rebecca; Newman, Tammy; Anderson, Annie S; Norton, Geraldine

    2006-02-28

    Variety stimulates intake by as much as 40% following both simultaneous and sequential presentations. Varying sensory and other characteristics of foods could sustain interest in eating and delay the development of satiation. Two experiments set out to explore this by investigating the effect of introducing different foods to taste and rate during intake of a snack. In Experiment 1, 33 participants (23 female) attended the lab on four occasions, to eat sweet or salted popcorn (depending on preference). In a counterbalanced order participants ate ad libitum (control), or were interrupted during eating to taste and rate either the food they were eating (same condition: SC), another food with shared taste characteristics (congruent condition: CC) or a food with a different taste (incongruent condition: IC). Overall participants consumed significantly more in CC and IC than in SC [F(3,90) = 2.74, p<0.05], and pleasantness ratings of the eaten food during CC and IC remained high relative to SC, demonstrating a delay in the normal decline in pleasantness associated with satiation. In Experiment 2, 47 participants (31 female) were allocated to either a food focus (FF) or food distraction (FD) condition, in which intake of chocolate was interrupted during eating to taste and rate chocolate only (FF) or this food and a cheese cracker (FD). FD (94 +/- 9.3 g) participants ate significantly more than FF (68 +/- 9.5 g) and in support of findings from Experiment 1 pleasantness ratings during eating declined more rapidly during FF than FD. Variety may stimulate food intake, in part, by delaying the development of satiation which extends eating and therefore amount consumed. Encouraging consumers to focus on eating should facilitate the normal decline in pleasantness of the food and serve to limit intake. PMID:16405929

  11. High Median Nerve Injuries.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Jonathan; Ugwu-Oju, Obinna

    2016-08-01

    The median nerve serves a crucial role in extrinsic and intrinsic motor and sensory function to the radial half of the hand. High median nerve injuries, defined as injuries proximal to the anterior interosseous nerve origin, therefore typically result in significant functional loss prompting aggressive surgical management. Even with appropriate recognition and contemporary nerve reconstruction, however, motor and sensory recovery may be inadequate. With isolated persistent high median nerve palsies, a variety of available tendon transfers can improve key motor functions and salvage acceptable use of the hand. PMID:27387077

  12. Molecular basis of taste sense: involvement of GPCR receptors.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Adam I; Maslowska, Alicja; Krajewska, Wanda M

    2014-01-01

    Taste perception is one of the senses crucial for many organisms. There are five basic tastes, i.e., sweet, bitter, salty, sour, and umami, and it is suggested that the taste of fat should be included in this list. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge about the involvement of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in taste sensing and intracellular signaling. GPCR receptors are focal point of interest for pharmaceutical industry. However, their ability to interact with a variety of taste substances makes these receptors interesting target for food and nutrient companies. PMID:24345047

  13. Time Course of Morphological Alterations of Fungiform Papillae and Taste Buds Following Chorda Tympani Transection in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sollars, Suzanne I.; Smith, Peter C.; Hill, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The time course of structural changes in fungiform papillae was analyzed in rats that received unilateral chorda tympani nerve transection at 10 days of age. Morphological differences between intact and denervated sides of the tongue were first observed at 8 days postsection, with an increase in the number of fungiform papillae that did not have a pore. In addition, the first papilla with a filiform-like appearance was noted on the denervated side at 8 days postsectioning. By 11 days after surgery, the total number of papillae and the number of papillae with a pore were significantly lower on the transected side of the tongue as compared to the intact side. At 50 days postsection, there was an average of 70.5 fungiform papillae on the intact side and a mean of only 20.8 fungiform papillae the denervated side. Of those few remaining papillae on the cut side, an average of 13.5 papillae were categorized as filiform-like, while no filiform-like papillae occurred on the intact side. Significant reduction in taste bud volume was noted at 4 days posttransection and further decrements in taste bud volume were noted at 8 and 30 days postsection. Electron microscopy of the lingual branch of the trigeminal nerve from adult rats that received neonatal chorda tympani transection showed normal numbers of both myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. Thus, in addition to the well-characterized dependence of taste bud maintenance on the chorda tympani nerve, the present study shows an additional role of the chorda tympani nerve in papilla maintenance during early postnatal development. PMID:11984844

  14. [Ganglia of peripheral nerves].

    PubMed

    Tatagiba, M; Penkert, G; Samii, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors present two different types of ganglion affecting the peripheral nerves: extraneural and intraneural ganglion. Compression of peripheral nerves by articular ganglions is well known. The surgical management involves the complete removal of the lesion with preservation of most nerve fascicles. Intraneural ganglion is an uncommon lesion which affects the nerve diffusely. The nerve fascicles are usually intimately involved between the cysts, making complete removal of all cysts impossible. There is no agreement about the best surgical management to be applied in these cases. Two possibilities are available: opening of the epineural sheath lengthwise and pressing out the lesion; or resection of the affected part of the nerve and performing a nerve reconstruction. While in case of extraneural ganglion the postoperative clinical evolution is very favourable, only long follow up studies will reveal in case of intraneural ganglion the best surgical approach. PMID:8128785

  15. Assessment of nerve morphology in nerve activation during electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2013-10-01

    The distance between nerve and stimulation electrode is fundamental for nerve activation in Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation (TES). However, it is not clear the need to have an approximate representation of the morphology of peripheral nerves in simulation models and its influence in the nerve activation. In this work, depth and curvature of a nerve are investigated around the middle thigh. As preliminary result, the curvature of the nerve helps to reduce the simulation amplitude necessary for nerve activation from far field stimulation.

  16. Leptin Suppresses Mouse Taste Cell Responses to Sweet Compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryusuke; Noguchi, Kenshi; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Takahashi, Ichiro; Margolskee, Robert F; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2015-11-01

    Leptin is known to selectively suppress neural and behavioral responses to sweet-tasting compounds. However, the molecular basis for the effect of leptin on sweet taste is not known. Here, we report that leptin suppresses sweet taste via leptin receptors (Ob-Rb) and KATP channels expressed selectively in sweet-sensitive taste cells. Ob-Rb was more often expressed in taste cells that expressed T1R3 (a sweet receptor component) than in those that expressed glutamate-aspartate transporter (a marker for Type I taste cells) or GAD67 (a marker for Type III taste cells). Systemically administered leptin suppressed taste cell responses to sweet but not to bitter or sour compounds. This effect was blocked by a leptin antagonist and was absent in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice and mice with diet-induced obesity. Blocking the KATP channel subunit sulfonylurea receptor 1, which was frequently coexpressed with Ob-Rb in T1R3-expressing taste cells, eliminated the effect of leptin on sweet taste. In contrast, activating the KATP channel with diazoxide mimicked the sweet-suppressing effect of leptin. These results indicate that leptin acts via Ob-Rb and KATP channels that are present in T1R3-expressing taste cells to selectively suppress their responses to sweet compounds. PMID:26116698

  17. E-tongue: a tool for taste evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Himanshu; Sharma, Aarti; Kumar, Suresh; Roy, Saroj K

    2010-01-01

    Taste has an important role in the development of oral pharmaceuticals. With respect to patient acceptability and compliance, taste is one of the prime factors determining the market penetration and commercial success of oral formulations, especially in pediatric medicine. Taste assessment is one important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. Hence, pharmaceutical industries invest time, money and resources into developing palatable and pleasant-tasting products. The primary method for the taste measurement of a drug substance or a formulation is by human sensory evaluation, in which tasting a sample is relayed to inspectors. However, this method is impractical for early stage drug development because the test in humans is expensive and the taste of a drug candidate may not be important to the final product. Therefore, taste-sensing analytical devices, which can detect tastes, have been replacing the taste panelists. In the present review we are presenting different aspect of electronic tongue. The review article also discussed some useful patents and instrument with respect to E-tongue. PMID:19807680

  18. Taste cell-expressed α-glucosidase enzymes contribute to gustatory responses to disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sunil K; Yee, Karen K; Iwata, Shusuke; Kotha, Ramana; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Nichols, Buford L; Mohan, Sankar; Pinto, B Mario; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Margolskee, Robert F

    2016-05-24

    The primary sweet sensor in mammalian taste cells for sugars and noncaloric sweeteners is the heteromeric combination of type 1 taste receptors 2 and 3 (T1R2+T1R3, encoded by Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 genes). However, in the absence of T1R2+T1R3 (e.g., in Tas1r3 KO mice), animals still respond to sugars, arguing for the presence of T1R-independent detection mechanism(s). Our previous findings that several glucose transporters (GLUTs), sodium glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and the ATP-gated K(+) (KATP) metabolic sensor are preferentially expressed in the same taste cells with T1R3 provides a potential explanation for the T1R-independent detection of sugars: sweet-responsive taste cells that respond to sugars and sweeteners may contain a T1R-dependent (T1R2+T1R3) sweet-sensing pathway for detecting sugars and noncaloric sweeteners, as well as a T1R-independent (GLUTs, SGLT1, KATP) pathway for detecting monosaccharides. However, the T1R-independent pathway would not explain responses to disaccharide and oligomeric sugars, such as sucrose, maltose, and maltotriose, which are not substrates for GLUTs or SGLT1. Using RT-PCR, quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry, we found that taste cells express multiple α-glycosidases (e.g., amylase and neutral α glucosidase C) and so-called intestinal "brush border" disaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes (e.g., maltase-glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase). Treating the tongue with inhibitors of disaccharidases specifically decreased gustatory nerve responses to disaccharides, but not to monosaccharides or noncaloric sweeteners, indicating that lingual disaccharidases are functional. These taste cell-expressed enzymes may locally break down dietary disaccharides and starch hydrolysis products into monosaccharides that could serve as substrates for the T1R-independent sugar sensing pathways. PMID:27162343

  19. Evaluation of the taste of crude drug and Kampo formula by a taste-sensing system (4): taste of Processed Aconite Root.

    PubMed

    Anjiki, Naoko; Hosoe, Junko; Fuchino, Hiroyuki; Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Sekita, Setsuko; Ikezaki, Hidekazu; Mikage, Masayuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Goda, Yukihiro

    2011-04-01

    It is difficult to describe the taste of Processed Aconite Root (PAR) because it contains toxic compounds, and tasting poses some risk to the examiner. Therefore, there is no description of the taste of PAR in the latest Japanese Pharmacopoeia, although the taste of crude drugs has been regulated as a criterion for judgment. In this study, we revealed the objective taste of PAR by using a taste-sensing system. The PAR samples examined were classified into four types by how the samples were processed: PAR1 processed by autoclaving; PAR2-a processed by autoclaving after rinsing in salt (sodium chloride) solution; PAR2-h processed by heating after rinsing in calcium chloride solution; PAR3 processed by treating with hydrated lime after rinsing in salt solution. The most characteristic taste factor of PAR is an aftertaste of cationic bitterness, which was detected in all PAR sample solutions, even at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, anionic bitterness and saltiness were detected in all sample solutions at 1 mg/ml. Furthermore, umami was detected in the PAR1, PAR2-a, and PAR3 sample solutions at 1 mg/ml. Detailing the analyses of the four taste factors on the four sample types, we found each type has its own characteristic taste pattern. On the basis of these results, we proposed a method for discriminating one PAR type from another by using the system. PMID:21153604

  20. The Examination of Fatty Acid Taste with Edible Strips

    PubMed Central

    Ebba, Sahbina; Abarintos, Ray A.; Kim, Dae G.; Tiyouh, Melissa; Stull, Judith C.; Movalia, Ankur; Smutzer, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether humans could detect long-chain fatty acids when these lipid molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by edible taste strips. For suprathreshold studies, up to 1.7 umoles of stearic acid or linoleic acid were incorporated into 0.03 mm thick, one-inch square taste strips. Normalized taste intensity values for stearic acid were in the barely detectable range, with values equal to, or slightly above control strips. One-third of test subjects described the taste quality as oily/fatty/waxy. Approximately 75% of test subjects could detect the presence of linoleic acid when this fatty acid was incorporated into dissolvable strips. Normalized taste intensity values for linoleic acid were in the weak to moderate range. The most commonly reported taste quality responses for linoleic acid were fatty/oily/waxy, or bitter. When nasal airflow was obstructed, the perceived taste intensity of linoleic acid decreased by approximately 40 percent. Taste intensity values and taste quality responses for linoleic acid were then compared among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). Individuals who could detect the bitter taste of PROP reported higher taste intensity values for linoleic acid compared with PROP non-tasters. However, taste quality responses for linoleic acid were similar among both PROP tasters and PROP non-tasters. These results indicate that humans can detect long-chain fatty acids by both olfactory and non-olfactory pathways when these hydrophobic molecules are delivered to the oral cavity by means of edible taste strips. These studies further show that genetic variation in taste sensitivity to PROP affects chemosensory responses to the cis-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid in the oral cavity. PMID:22521910

  1. Clinical Significance of Umami Taste and Umami-Related Gene Expression Analysis for the Objective Assessment of Umami Taste Loss.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Noriaki; Satoh-Ku Riwada, Shizuko; Sasano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of umami taste sensation affects quality of life and causes weight loss and health problems, particularly in the elderly. We recently expanded the use of the filter paper disc method to include assessment of umami taste sensitivity, using monosodium glutamate as the test solution. This test showed high diagnostic performance for discriminating between normal taste function and disorders in sensation of the umami taste, according to established cut-off values. The test also revealed: (1) some elderly patients suffered from specific loss of umami taste sensation with preservation of the other four taste sensations (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter); (2) umami taste disorder caused a loss of appetite and decline in weight, resulting in poor health; (3) appetite, weight and overall health improved after appropriate treatment for umami taste disorder. Because of the subjective nature of the test, however, it may not be useful for patients who cannot express which taste sensation is induced by a tastant, such as those with dementia. Most recently, using tissue samples collected from the tongue by scraping the foliate papillae, we showed that evaluation of umami taste receptor gene expression may be clinically useful for the objective genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders. PMID:26881442

  2. Morphology of nerve endings in vocal fold of human newborn.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves da Silva Leite, Janaina; Costa Cavalcante, Maria Luzete; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; de Lima Pompeu, Margarida Maria; Leite, José Alberto Dias; Nascimento Coelho, Dulce Maria; Rabelo de Freitas, Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Sensory receptors are distributed throughout the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Laryngeal sensitivity is crucial for maintaining safe swallowing, thus avoiding silent aspiration. Morphologic description of different receptor types present in larynx vary because of the study of many different species, from mouse to humans. The most commonly sensory structures described in laryngeal mucosa are free nerve endings, taste buds, muscle spindles, glomerular and corpuscular receptors. This study aimed at describing the morphology and the distribution of nerve endings in premature newborn glottic region. Transversal serial frozen sections of the whole vocal folds of three newborns were analyzed using an immuno-histochemical process with a pan-neuronal marker anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). Imaging was done using a confocal laser microscope. Nerve fiber density in vocal cord was calculated using panoramic images in software Morphometric Analysis System v1.0. Some sensory structures, i.e. glomerular endings and intraepithelial free nerve endings were found in the vocal cord mucosa. Muscle spindles, complex nerve endings (Meissner-like, spherical, rectangular and growing) spiral-wharves nerve structures were identified in larynx intrinsic muscles. Nervous total mean density in vocal cord was similar in the three newborns, although they had different gestational age. The mean nerve fiber density was higher in the posterior region than anterior region of vocal cord. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of different morphotypes of sensory corpuscles and nerve endings premature newborn glottic region and provide information on their sensory systems. PMID:27619029

  3. The Furcal Nerve Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dabke, Harshad V.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical sciatica and discrepancy between clinical presentation and imaging findings is a dilemma for treating surgeon in management of lumbar disc herniation. It also constitutes ground for failed back surgery and potential litigations thereof. Furcal nerve (Furcal = forked) is an independent nerve with its own ventral and dorsal branches (rootlets) and forms a link nerve that connects lumbar and sacral plexus. Its fibers branch out to be part of femoral and obturator nerves in-addition to the lumbosacral trunk. It is most commonly found at L4 level and is the most common cause of atypical presentation of radiculopathy/sciatica. Very little is published about the furcal nerve and many are unaware of its existence. This article summarizes all the existing evidence about furcal nerve in English literature in an attempt to create awareness and offer insight about this unique entity to fellow colleagues/professionals involved in spine care. PMID:25317309

  4. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    PubMed

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  5. Perception of odor-induced tastes following insular cortex lesion.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Richard J; Miller, Laurie A; McGrillen, Ky

    2015-02-01

    Lesions of the insula can affect olfaction and gustation. Here, we examined the effect of insula lesions on taste and taste-like experiences generated via smelling (i.e., odor-induced tastes) in patients with focal insula lesions and intact olfaction. From a set of 16 patients with lesions to the insula, we found 7 (6 with right-sided lesions) who performed normally on various olfactory measures. These were compared to 42 normal control subjects on tests of gustatory and odor-induced taste perception as well as control measures. The patients were impaired relative to controls on most gustatory measures. They were also impaired on tests of odor-induced taste perception, primarily for stimuli presented on the left side. Examining cases individually revealed evidence of a dissociation: two patients exhibited no impairment in odor-induced taste perception in spite of gustatory deficits. Together, these findings suggest that the insula mediates taste recognition, hedonics, and intensity judgments as well as odor-induced taste perception. However, the areas responsible for aspects of taste perception and those responsible for odor-induced taste do not fully overlap each other and they are also independent of olfactory areas. PMID:24308589

  6. Signal transduction and information processing in mammalian taste buds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The molecular machinery for chemosensory transduction in taste buds has received considerable attention within the last decade. Consequently, we now know a great deal about sweet, bitter, and umami taste mechanisms and are gaining ground rapidly on salty and sour transduction. Sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are transduced by G-protein-coupled receptors. Salty taste may be transduced by epithelial Na channels similar to those found in renal tissues. Sour transduction appears to be initiated by intracellular acidification acting on acid-sensitive membrane proteins. Once a taste signal is generated in a taste cell, the subsequent steps involve secretion of neurotransmitters, including ATP and serotonin. It is now recognized that the cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami taste stimuli do not possess synapses and instead secrete the neurotransmitter ATP via a novel mechanism not involving conventional vesicular exocytosis. ATP is believed to excite primary sensory afferent fibers that convey gustatory signals to the brain. In contrast, taste cells that do have synapses release serotonin in response to gustatory stimulation. The postsynaptic targets of serotonin have not yet been identified. Finally, ATP secreted from receptor cells also acts on neighboring taste cells to stimulate their release of serotonin. This suggests that there is important information processing and signal coding taking place in the mammalian taste bud after gustatory stimulation. PMID:17468883

  7. Study of Odours and taste for Space Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Space Agriculture Task Force; Nakata, Seiichi; Teranishi, Masaaki; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2012-07-01

    The sense of taste and smell come under some kind of influences in the space environment. In the space, the astronaut was changed their food habits from light taste and smell food to like strong taste and smells food. When an astronaut live in the space comes to have weak bone like osteoporosis. It may become the physiologic condition like the old man on the earth. Therefore this study performed fact-finding of the smell and the taste in the old man on the earth as test bed of astronaut in space. Based on this finding, it was intended to predict the taste and the olfactory change of the astronaut in the space. The study included 179 males and 251 females aged 30-90 years in Yakumo Town, Hokkaido, Japan. Odours were tested using a ``standard odours by odour stick identification''method of organoleptic testing. Taste were tested using a ``standard taste by taste disc identification'' method of chemical testing. Correct answers for identification odours consisted of average 6.0±3.0 in male subjects and average 6.9±2.8 in female subjects. Correct answers for identification of sweet taste consisted of 81% males and 87% females, salty taste consisted of 86% males and 91%, sour taste consisted of 75% males and 78% females, bitter taste consisted of 76% males and 88% females. It became clear that overall approximately 20% were in some kind of abnormality in sense of smell and taste. I want to perform the investigation that continued more in future.

  8. Bitter taste receptors: Extraoral roles in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Feroz Ahmed; Singh, Nisha; Arakawa, Makoto; Duan, Kangmin; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functional role of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) and bitter taste perception. This review will cover the recent advances made in identifying the role of T2Rs in pathophysiological states. T2Rs are widely expressed in various parts of human anatomy and have been shown to be involved in physiology of respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system. Empirical evidence has shown T2Rs to be an integral component of antimicrobial immune responses in upper respiratory tract infections. The studies on human airway smooth muscle cells have shown that a potent bitter tastant induced bronchodilatory effects mediated by bitter taste receptors. Clinical data suggests a role for T2R38 polymorphism in predisposition of individuals to chronic rhinosinusitis. The role of genetic variation in T2Rs and its impact on disease susceptibility have been investigated in various other disease risk factors such as alcohol dependence, head and neck cancers. Preliminary reports have demonstrated differential expression of functional T2Rs in breast cancer cell lines. Studies on the role of T2Rs in pathophysiology of diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and cancer have been promising. However, research in this field is in its nascent stages, and more confirmatory studies on animal models and in clinical settings are required. PMID:27032752

  9. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-01-01

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry. PMID:26213946

  10. Music Taste Groups and Problem Behavior.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Bogt, Tom Ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2007-04-01

    Internalizing and externalizing problems differ by musical tastes. A high school-based sample of 4159 adolescents, representative of Dutch youth aged 12 to 16, reported on their personal and social characteristics, music preferences and social-psychological functioning, measured with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Cluster analysis on their music preferences revealed six taste groups: Middle-of-the-road (MOR) listeners, Urban fans, Exclusive Rock fans, Rock-Pop fans, Elitists, and Omnivores. A seventh group of musically Low-Involved youth was added. Multivariate analyses revealed that when gender, age, parenting, school, and peer variables were controlled, Omnivores and fans within the Exclusive Rock groups showed relatively high scores on internalizing YSR measures, and social, thought and attention problems. Omnivores, Exclusive Rock, Rock-Pop and Urban fans reported more externalizing problem behavior. Belonging to the MOR group that highly appreciates the most popular, chart-based pop music appears to buffer problem behavior. Music taste group membership uniquely explains variance in both internalizing and externalizing problem behavior. PMID:27519030

  11. Bitter Taste Receptor Polymorphisms and Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Carrai, Maura; Crocco, Paolina; Montesanto, Alberto; Canzian, Federico; Rose, Giuseppina; Rizzato, Cosmeri

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that genetic factors account for 25% of the variation in human life span. On the basis of published molecular, genetic and epidemiological data, we hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms of taste receptors, which modulate food preferences but are also expressed in a number of organs and regulate food absorption processing and metabolism, could modulate the aging process. Using a tagging approach, we investigated the possible associations between longevity and the common genetic variation at the three bitter taste receptor gene clusters on chromosomes 5, 7 and 12 in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from the South of Italy. We found that one polymorphism, rs978739, situated 212 bp upstream of the TAS2R16 gene, shows a statistically significant association (p = 0.001) with longevity. In particular, the frequency of A/A homozygotes increases gradually from 35% in subjects aged 20 to 70 up to 55% in centenarians. These data provide suggestive evidence on the possible correlation between human longevity and taste genetics. PMID:23133589

  12. Endoscopic Facial Nerve Surgery.

    PubMed

    Marchioni, Daniele; Soloperto, Davide; Rubini, Alessia; Nogueira, João Flávio; Badr-El-Dine, Mohamed; Presutti, Livio

    2016-10-01

    Tympanic facial nerve segment surgery has been traditionally performed using microscopic approaches, but currently, exclusive endoscopic approaches have been performed for traumatic, neoplastic, or inflammatory diseases, specially located at the geniculate ganglion, greater petrosal nerve, and second tract of the facial nerve, until the second genu. The tympanic segment of the facial nerve can be reached and visualized using an exclusive transcanal endoscopic approach, even in poorly accessible regions such as the second genu and geniculate ganglion, avoiding mastoidectomy, bony demolition, and meningeal or cerebral lobe tractions, with low complication rates using a minimally invasive surgical route. PMID:27468633

  13. Anatomical and physiological studies of bigheaded carps demonstrate that the epibranchial organ functions as a pharyngeal taste organ

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne; Ghosal, Ratna; Caprio, John; Claus, Aaron W.; Sorensen, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    The epibranchial organ (EO) is an enigmatic tubular organ found in the pharyngeal cavity of many filter-feeding fishes. We investigated whether it might function as a taste organ that mediates aggregation and ingestion of planktonic food within the buccal cavity. The EO and associated structures of bighead and silver carps, two successful and invasive planktivorous fishes, were examined using histological and electrophysiological techniques. Both species possess finely structured gill rakers that extend directly via a series of protrusions into each of the four blind canals which are organized as the muscular EO, suggesting that the gill rakers and EO probably function in an integrated manner. Both the interior and exterior surfaces of the EOs of both species are covered with high densities of taste buds and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) as well as mucous cells. Conversely, taste buds are scarce in both the buccal cavities and external portions of the head and mouth of both species. Electrophysiological recordings from a caudal branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) found to innervate the EO showed it to be sensitive to chemicals found in a planktonic diet. l-Amino acids accounted for some, but not all of the neural activity. We conclude that taste buds and SCCs located on the EO and gill rakers probably serve to chemically detect food particles, which the EO then aggregates by mucus secretion before eventually expelling them onto the floor of the pharynx for ingestion. This specialized, pharyngeal chemosensory structure may explain the feeding success of these, and perhaps other planktivorous, filter-feeding fishes. PMID:25214490

  14. A Taste Sensor Based on a Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Keisuke; Hirata, Takamichi; Akiya, Masahiro

    A taste sensor consisting of a back-gate type field effect transistor(FET) chip based on carbon nanotube compound materials[poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-grafted single-walled carbon nanotubes(PEG-SWNTs)] was developed. The results of impedance measurements for five tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and umami), are shown much difference for specific tastes which are difficult to identify by using Langmuir-Blodgett(LB)film. Moreover, the sensor is able to distinguish most of the experimental taste materials with a short response time. Characteristics of the sensor involve in taste material concentration , initial impedance and frequency characteristics. A clear difference is observed over five basic taste materials.

  15. Altered Taste and Stroke: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Tara M.; Josiah, Anne F.; Cronin, Carolyn A.; Wittenberg, George F.; Cole, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with altered taste perception following stroke are at risk for malnutrition and associated complications that may impede recovery and adversely affect quality of life. Such deficits often induce and exacerbate depressive symptomatology, which can further hamper recovery. It is important for clinicians and rehabilitation specialists to monitor stroke patients for altered taste perception so that this issue can be addressed. The authors present the case of a patient who experienced an isolated ischemic infarct affecting a primary cortical taste area. This case is unusual in that the isolated injury allowed the patient to remain relatively intact cognitively and functionally, and thus able to accurately describe her taste-related deficits. The case is further used to describe the relevant neurological taste pathways and review potential taste-related therapies. PMID:23340074

  16. "Turn Up the Taste": Assessing the Role of Taste Intensity and Emotion in Mediating Crossmodal Correspondences between Basic Tastes and Pitch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian Janice; Wang, Sheila; Spence, Charles

    2016-05-01

    People intuitively match basic tastes to sounds of different pitches, and the matches that they make tend to be consistent across individuals. It is, though, not altogether clear what governs such crossmodal mappings between taste and auditory pitch. Here, we assess whether variations in taste intensity influence the matching of taste to pitch as well as the role of emotion in mediating such crossmodal correspondences. Participants were presented with 5 basic tastants at 3 concentrations. In Experiment 1, the participants rated the tastants in terms of their emotional arousal and valence/pleasantness, and selected a musical note (from 19 possible pitches ranging from C2 to C8) and loudness that best matched each tastant. In Experiment 2, the participants made emotion ratings and note matches in separate blocks of trials, then made emotion ratings for all 19 notes. Overall, the results of the 2 experiments revealed that both taste quality and concentration exerted a significant effect on participants' loudness selection, taste intensity rating, and valence and arousal ratings. Taste quality, not concentration levels, had a significant effect on participants' choice of pitch, but a significant positive correlation was observed between individual perceived taste intensity and pitch choice. A significant and strong correlation was also demonstrated between participants' valence assessments of tastants and their valence assessments of the best-matching musical notes. These results therefore provide evidence that: 1) pitch-taste correspondences are primarily influenced by taste quality, and to a lesser extent, by perceived intensity; and 2) such correspondences may be mediated by valence/pleasantness. PMID:26873934

  17. Diverse tastes: Genetics of sweet and bitter perception.

    PubMed

    Reed, Danielle R; Tanaka, Toshiko; McDaniel, Amanda H

    2006-06-30

    Humans will eat almost anything, from caribou livers to rutabagas, but there are some types of foods, and their associated taste qualities, that are preferred by large groups of people regardless of culture or experience. When many choices are available, humans chose foods that taste good, that is, create pleasing sensations in the mouth. The concept of good taste for most people encompasses both flavor and texture of food, and these sensations merge with taste proper to form the concept of goodness. Although we acknowledge the universality of the goodness (sweet) or badness (bitter) of basic taste qualities, we also find that people differ, sometimes extremely so, in their ability to perceive and enjoy these qualities and, by extension, food and drink. The reasons for these differences among people are not clear but are probably due to a combination of experience beginning at an early age, perhaps in utero; learning, for example, as with conditioned taste aversions; sex and maturity; and perceptual differences that arise from genetic variation. In this review, we focus on individual variations that arise from genetic differences and review two domains of science: recent developments in the molecular biology of taste transduction, with a focus on the genes involved and second, studies that examine biological relatives to determine the heritability of taste perception. Because the receptors for sweet, savory (umami), and bitter have recently been discovered, we summarize what is known about their function by reviewing the effect of naturally occurring and man-made alleles of these receptors, their shape and function based on receptor modeling techniques, and how they differ across animal species that vary in their ability to taste certain qualities. We discuss this literature in the context of how taste genes may differ among people and give rise to individuated taste experience, and what is currently known about the genetic effects on taste perception in humans

  18. Characteristics of conditioned taste aversion produced by nicotine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Pratt, J. A.; Stolerman, I. P.

    1983-01-01

    1 Nicotine produced conditioned taste aversions in rats which were directly related to the dose of nicotine and to the number of conditioning trials. 2 The tobacco alkaloid (-)-nicotine was four to five times as potent as its stereoisomer, (+)-nicotine. 3 Mecamylamine but not hexamethonium blocked the development of taste aversions produced by nicotine. 4 Mecamylamine did not block the development of taste aversions produced by apomorphine. 5 Prolonged treatment with mecamylamine prior to conditioning did not produce supersensitivity to nicotine. PMID:6135477

  19. Diverse tastes: Genetics of sweet and bitter perception

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R.; Tanaka, Toshiko; McDaniel, Amanda H.

    2006-01-01

    Humans will eat almost anything, from caribou livers to rutabagas, but there are some types of foods, and their associated taste qualities, that are preferred by large groups of people regardless of culture or experience. When many choices are available, humans chose foods that taste good, that is, create pleasing sensations in the mouth. The concept of good taste for most people encompasses both flavor and texture of food, and these sensations merge with taste proper to form the concept of goodness. Although we acknowledge the universality of the goodness (sweet) or badness (bitter) of basic taste qualities, we also find that people differ, sometimes extremely so, in their ability to perceive and enjoy these qualities and, by extension, food and drink. The reasons for these differences among people are not clear but are probably due to a combination of experience beginning at an early age, perhaps in utero; learning, for example, as with conditioned taste aversions; sex and maturity; and perceptual differences that arise from genetic variation. In this review, we focus on individual variations that arise from genetic differences and review two domains of science: recent developments in the molecular biology of taste transduction, with a focus on the genes involved and second, studies that examine biological relatives to determine the heritability of taste perception. Because the receptors for sweet, savory (umami), and bitter have recently been discovered, we summarize what is known about their function by reviewing the effect of naturally occurring and man-made alleles of these receptors, their shape and function based on receptor modeling techniques, and how they differ across animal species that vary in their ability to taste certain qualities. We discuss this literature in the context of how taste genes may differ among people and give rise to individuated taste experience, and what is currently known about the genetic effects on taste perception in humans

  20. Intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, J P; Jellish, W S; Warf, P; Hudson, E

    1996-08-01

    A variety of benign and malignant neoplasms occur in the superior cervical neck, parapharyngeal space or the infratemporal fossa. The surgical resection of these lesions may result in postoperative iatrogenic injury to the vagus nerve with associated dysfunctional swallowing and airway protection. Anatomic and functional preservation of this critical cranial nerve will contribute to a favorable surgical outcome. Fourteen patients with tumors of the cervical neck or adjacent skull base underwent intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring in an attempt to preserve neural integrity following tumor removal. Of the 11 patients with anatomically preserved vagal nerves in this group, seven patients had normal vocal cord mobility following surgery and all 11 patients demonstrated normal vocal cord movement by six months. In an earlier series of 23 patients with tumors in the same region who underwent tumor resection without vagal nerve monitoring, 18 patients had anatomically preserved vagal nerves. Within this group, five patients had normal vocal cord movement at one month and 13 patients demonstrated normal vocal cord movement at six months. This paper will outline a technique for intraoperative vagal nerve monitoring utilizing transcricothyroid membrane placement of bipolar hook-wire electrodes in the vocalis muscle. Our results with the surgical treatment of cervical neck and lateral skull base tumors for patients with unmonitored and monitored vagal nerves will be outlined. PMID:8828272

  1. Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning.

    PubMed

    Louis, P J

    2001-09-01

    Nerve repositioning is a viable alternative for patients with an atrophic edentulous posterior mandible. Patients, however, should be informed of the potential risks of neurosensory disturbance. Documentation of the patient's baseline neurosensory function should be performed with a two-point discrimination test or directional brush stroke test preoperatively and postoperatively. Recovery of nerve function should be expected in 3 to 6 months. The potential for mandibular fracture when combining nerve repositioning with implant placement also should be discussed with the patient. This can be avoided by minimizing the amount of buccal cortical plate removal during localization of the nerve and maintaining the integrity of the inferior cortex of the mandible. Additionally, avoid overseating the implant, thus avoiding stress along the inferior border of the mandible. The procedure does allow for the placement of longer implants, which should improve implant longevity. Patients undergoing this procedure have expressed overall satisfaction with the results. Nerve repositioning also can be used to preserve the inferior alveolar nerve during resection of benign tumors or cysts of the mandible. This procedure allows the surgeon to maintain nerve function in situations in which the nerve would otherwise have to be resected. PMID:11665379

  2. Distal median nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Neuropathy - distal median nerve Images Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system References Jarvik JG, Comstock BA, Kliot M, et al. Surgery versus non-surgical therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized ... D. Disorders of peripheral nerves. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, ...

  3. Optic Nerve Decompression

    MedlinePlus

    ... canals). The optic nerve is the “nerve of vision” and extends from the brain, through your skull, and into your eye. A ... limited to, the following: loss of vision, double vision, inadequate ... leakage of brain fluid (CSF), meningitis, nasal bleeding, infection of the ...

  4. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T; Marks, Lawrence E; Cheok, Adrian David; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics) and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word "sweet," and the other including angular shapes and the taste words "salty," "sour," and "bitter." The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular) would influence the speed of participants' responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence) between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions. PMID:26966646

  5. Development of oral acetaminophen chewable tablets with inhibited bitter taste.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hiraku; Takahashi, Yuri; Iwata, Masanori; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2003-01-30

    Various formulations with some matrix bases and corrigents were examined for development of oral chewable tablets which suppressed the bitter taste of acetaminophen, often used as an antipyretic for infants. Corn starch/lactose, cacao butter and hard fat (Witepsol H-15) were used for matrix bases, and sucrose, cocoa powder and commercial bitter-masking powder mixture made from lecithin (Benecoat BMI-40) were used for corrigents against bitter taste. The bitter taste intensity was evaluated using volunteers by comparison of test samples with standard solutions containing quinine at various concentrations. For the tablets made of matrix base and drug, Witepsol H-15 best inhibited the bitter taste of the drug, and the bitter strength tended to be suppressed with increase in the Witepsol H-15 amount. When the inhibitory effect on the bitter taste of acetaminophen solution was compared among the corrigents, each tended to suppress the bitter taste; especially, Benecoat BMI-40 exhibited a more inhibitory effect. Further, chewable tablets were made of one matrix base and one corrigent, and of one matrix base and two kinds of corrigents, their bitter taste intensities after chewing were compared. As a result, the tablets made of Witepsol H-15/Benecoat BMI-40/sucrose, of Witepsol H-15/cocoa powder/sucrose and of Witepsol H-15/sucrose best masked the bitter taste so that they were tolerable enough to chew and swallow. The dosage forms best masking bitter taste showed good release of the drug, indicating little change in bioavailability by masking. PMID:12527182

  6. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    PubMed Central

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  7. Smell and Taste Disorders Resulting from Cancer and Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jennifer; Wakefield, Claire E; Laing, David G

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in both adult and pediatric patients undergoing treatment for cancer. Patients commonly attribute difficulties maintaining food intake to an altered taste developed during treatment. This review summarizes what is known about taste and smell dysfunction in patients with undergoing chemotherapy as their main treatment modality. Self-reported taste and smell alterations are prevalent in upwards of 86% of cancer patients. There is some evidence for decreased taste sensitivity in cancer patients when assessed using common gustatory tests. In some patients, taste and smell alterations may continue well after their cancer treatment has been completed. Such disorders can increase distress, reduce appetite and contribute towards poor nutritional status in cancer patients. There remain no effective interventions for improving the appetite or nutritional intake of patients with cancer experiencing taste and smell changes. There is a lack of consistency in assessment methodologies for measuring taste and smell changes in cancer patients and we therefore recommend that future work use well-established methods. Research should also take into account the role of food hedonics, food flavor and texture in assessing the association between taste dysfunction, poor oral intake and malnutrition in cancer patients. Both adult and child cancer patients should be counselled on the potential impact taste and smell dysfunction can have on their appetite and oral intake. PMID:26881441

  8. The semantic basis of taste-shape associations

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Cheok, Adrian David; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Previous research shows that people systematically match tastes with shapes. Here, we assess the extent to which matched taste and shape stimuli share a common semantic space and whether semantically congruent versus incongruent taste/shape associations can influence the speed with which people respond to both shapes and taste words. In Experiment 1, semantic differentiation was used to assess the semantic space of both taste words and shapes. The results suggest a common semantic space containing two principal components (seemingly, intensity and hedonics) and two principal clusters, one including round shapes and the taste word “sweet,” and the other including angular shapes and the taste words “salty,” “sour,” and “bitter.” The former cluster appears more positively-valenced whilst less potent than the latter. In Experiment 2, two speeded classification tasks assessed whether congruent versus incongruent mappings of stimuli and responses (e.g., sweet with round versus sweet with angular) would influence the speed of participants’ responding, to both shapes and taste words. The results revealed an overall effect of congruence with congruent trials yielding faster responses than their incongruent counterparts. These results are consistent with previous evidence suggesting a close relation (or crossmodal correspondence) between tastes and shape curvature that may derive from common semantic coding, perhaps along the intensity and hedonic dimensions. PMID:26966646

  9. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties. PMID:24499438

  10. Nutrigenomics of taste - impact on food preferences and food production.

    PubMed

    El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Stewart, Lindsay; Khataan, Nora; Fontaine-Bisson, Bénédicte; Kwong, Pauline; Ozsungur, Stephen; Cornelis, Marilyn C

    2007-01-01

    Food preferences are influenced by a number of factors such as personal experiences, cultural adaptations and perceived health benefits. Taste, however, is the most important determinant of how much a food is liked or disliked. Based on the response to bitter-tasting compounds such as phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) or 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), individuals can be classified as supertasters, tasters or nontasters. Sensitivity to bitter-tasting compounds is a genetic trait that has been recognized for more than 70 years. Genetic differences in bitter taste perception may account for individual differences in food preferences. Other factors such as age, sex and ethnicity may also modify the response to bitter-tasting compounds. There are several members of the TAS2R receptor gene family that encode taste receptors on the tongue, and genetic polymorphisms of TAS2R38 have been associated with marked differences in the perception of PTC and PROP. However, the association between TAS2R38 genotypes and aversion to bitter-tasting foods is not clear. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in other taste receptor genes have recently been identified, but their role in bitter taste perception is not known. Establishing a genetic basis for food likes/dislikes may explain, in part, some of the inconsistencies among epidemiologic studies relating diet to risk of chronic diseases. Identifying populations with preferences for particular flavors or foods may lead to the development of novel food products targeted to specific genotypes or ethnic populations. PMID:17684414

  11. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer.

    PubMed

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  12. Sensibility and taste alterations after impacted lower third molar extractions. A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Study Design: Prospective cohort study with intra-subject measures of 16 patients undergoing lower third molar extractions. Sensibility and gustatory functions were evaluated in each subject preoperatively, one week and one month after the extraction, using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 5 different concentrations of NaCl, respectively. Additionally, all patients filled a questionnaire to assess subjective perceptions. Results: Although patients did not perceive any sensibility impairments, a statistically significant decrease was detected when Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. This alteration was present at one week after the surgical procedure and fully recovered one month after the extraction. There were no variations regarding the gustatory function. Conclusions: Lower third molar removal under local anesthesia may cause light lingual sensibility impairment. Most of these alterations remain undetected to patients. These lingual nerve injuries are present one week after the extraction and recover one month after surgery. The taste seems to remain unaffected after these procedures. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar, nerve injury, paresthesia, surgical extraction PMID:22322520

  13. Disorders of the lower cranial nerves

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, Josef; Grisold, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the lower cranial nerves (LCN) are due to numerous causes, which need to be differentiated to optimize management and outcome. This review aims at summarizing and discussing diseases affecting LCN. Review of publications dealing with disorders of the LCN in humans. Affection of multiple LCN is much more frequent than the affection of a single LCN. LCN may be affected solely or together with more proximal cranial nerves, with central nervous system disease, or with nonneurological disorders. LCN lesions have to be suspected if there are typical symptoms or signs attributable to a LCN. Causes of LCN lesions can be classified as genetic, vascular, traumatic, iatrogenic, infectious, immunologic, metabolic, nutritional, degenerative, or neoplastic. Treatment of LCN lesions depends on the underlying cause. An effective treatment is available in the majority of the cases, but a prerequisite for complete recovery is the prompt and correct diagnosis. LCN lesions need to be considered in case of disturbed speech, swallowing, coughing, deglutition, sensory functions, taste, or autonomic functions, neuralgic pain, dysphagia, head, pharyngeal, or neck pain, cardiac or gastrointestinal compromise, or weakness of the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, or the tongue muscles. To correctly assess manifestations of LCN lesions, precise knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the area is required. PMID:26167022

  14. Preoperative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for localizing superficial nerve paths.

    PubMed

    Natori, Yuhei; Yoshizawa, Hidekazu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ayato

    2015-12-01

    During surgery, peripheral nerves are often seen to follow unpredictable paths because of previous surgeries and/or compression caused by a tumor. Iatrogenic nerve injury is a serious complication that must be avoided, and preoperative evaluation of nerve paths is important for preventing it. In this study, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) was used for an in-depth analysis of peripheral nerve paths. This study included 27 patients who underwent the TENS procedure to evaluate the peripheral nerve path (17 males and 10 females; mean age: 59.9 years, range: 18-83 years) of each patient preoperatively. An electrode pen coupled to an electrical nerve stimulator was used for superficial nerve mapping. The TENS procedure was performed on patients' major peripheral nerves that passed close to the surgical field of tumor resection or trauma surgery, and intraoperative damage to those nerves was apprehensive. The paths of the target nerve were detected in most patients preoperatively. The nerve paths of 26 patients were precisely under the markings drawn preoperatively. The nerve path of one patient substantially differed from the preoperative markings with numbness at the surgical region. During surgery, the nerve paths could be accurately mapped preoperatively using the TENS procedure as confirmed by direct visualization of the nerve. This stimulation device is easy to use and offers highly accurate mapping of nerves for surgical planning without major complications. The authors conclude that TENS is a useful tool for noninvasive nerve localization and makes tumor resection a safe and smooth procedure. PMID:26420473

  15. Expressions of multiple umami taste receptors in oral and gastrointestinal tissues, and umami taste synergism in chickens.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuta; Kawabata, Yuko; Kawabata, Fuminori; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2015-10-23

    Umami taste is one of the five basic taste qualities, along with sweet, bitter, sour, and salty, and is elicited by some l-amino acids and their salts, including monopotassium l-glutamate (MPG). The unique characteristic of umami taste is that it is synergistically enhanced by 5'-ribonucleotides such as inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP). Unlike the other four basic taste qualities, the presence of umami taste sense in avian species is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of multiple umami taste receptor candidates in oral and gastrointestinal tract tissues in chickens using RT-PCR analysis. We first showed the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) expressed in these tissues. Furthermore, we examined the preference for umami taste in chickens, focusing on the synergistic effect of umami taste as determined by the two-feed choice test. We concluded that chickens preferred feed containing both added MPG and added IMP over feeds containing either added MPG or added IMP alone and over the control feed. These results suggest that the umami taste sense and synergism are conserved in chickens. PMID:26361143

  16. "What's Your Taste in Music?" A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian Janice; Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2015-12-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences. PMID:27551365

  17. Taste aversion learning: a contemporary perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, I L

    1999-03-01

    Food aversion learning has attracted widespread interest because it is a highly adaptive, powerful type of learning with both practical and theoretical ramifications. It has features that make it unusual and robust when compared with other learning paradigms. It has relevance to human problems in that it is likely to contribute to food choice and appetite problems in certain clinical situations. And the robustness of this learning makes it a promising model for neurobiologists interested in understanding neural mechanisms of plasticity. This review provides a broad overview of these aspects of taste aversion learning and points to areas where questions remain and additional research is needed. PMID:10198919

  18. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste

    PubMed Central

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed. PMID:26347702

  19. Exploring the musical taste of expert listeners: musicology students reveal tendency toward omnivorous taste.

    PubMed

    Elvers, Paul; Omigie, Diana; Fuhrmann, Wolfgang; Fischinger, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Musicology students are engaged with music on an academic level and usually have an extensive musical background. They have a considerable knowledge of music history and theory and listening to music may be regarded as one of their primary occupations. Taken together, these factors qualify them as ≫expert listeners≪, who may be expected to exhibit a specific profile of musical taste: interest in a broad range of musical styles combined with a greater appreciation of ≫sophisticated≪ styles. The current study examined the musical taste of musicology students as compared to a control student group. Participants (n = 1003) completed an online survey regarding the frequency with which they listened to 22 musical styles. A factor analysis revealed six underlying dimensions of musical taste. A hierarchical cluster analysis then grouped all participants, regardless of their status, according to their similarity on these dimensions. The employed exploratory approach was expected to reveal potential differences between musicology students and controls. A three-cluster solution was obtained. Comparisons of the clusters in terms of musical taste revealed differences in the listening frequency and variety of appreciated music styles: the first cluster (51% musicology students/27% controls) showed the greatest musical engagement across all dimensions although with a tendency toward ≫sophisticated≪ musical styles. The second cluster (36% musicology students/46% controls) exhibited an interest in ≫conventional≪ music, while the third cluster (13% musicology students/27% controls) showed a strong liking of rock music. The results provide some support for the notion of specific tendencies in the musical taste of musicology students and the contribution of familiarity and knowledge toward musical omnivorousness. Further differences between the clusters in terms of social, personality, and sociodemographic factors are discussed. PMID:26347702

  20. Radial Nerve Tendon Transfers.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Andre Eu-Jin; Etcheson, Jennifer; Yao, Jeffrey

    2016-08-01

    Radial nerve palsy typically occurs as a result of trauma or iatrogenic injury and leads to the loss of wrist extension, finger extension, thumb extension, and a reduction in grip strength. In the absence of nerve recovery, reconstruction of motor function involves tendon transfer surgery. The most common donor tendons include the pronator teres, wrist flexors, and finger flexors. The type of tendon transfer is classified based on the donor for the extensor digitorum communis. Good outcomes have been reported for most methods of radial nerve tendon transfers as is typical for positional tendon transfers not requiring significant power. PMID:27387076

  1. Amiloride-Insensitive Salt Taste Is Mediated by Two Populations of Type III Taste Cells with Distinct Transduction Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Sunil K.; Margolskee, Robert F.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Responses in the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway, one of the two pathways mediating salty taste in mammals, are modulated by the size of the anion of a salt. This “anion effect” has been hypothesized to result from inhibitory transepithelial potentials (TPs) generated across the lingual epithelium as cations permeate through tight junctions and leave their larger and less permeable anions behind (Ye et al., 1991). We tested directly the necessity of TPs for the anion effect by measuring responses to NaCl and Na-gluconate (small and large anion sodium salts, respectively) in isolated taste cells from mouse circumvallate papillae. Using calcium imaging, we identified AI salt-responsive type III taste cells and demonstrated that they compose a subpopulation of acid-responsive taste cells. Even in the absence of TPs, many (66%) AI salt-responsive type III taste cells still exhibited the anion effect, demonstrating that some component of the transduction machinery for salty taste in type III cells is sensitive to anion size. We hypothesized that osmotic responses could explain why a minority of type III cells (34%) had AI salt responses but lacked anion sensitivity. All AI type III cells had osmotic responses to cellobiose, which were significantly modulated by extracellular sodium concentration, suggesting the presence of a sodium-conducting osmotically sensitive ion channel. However, these responses were significantly larger in AI type III cells that did not exhibit the anion effect. These findings indicate that multiple mechanisms could underlie AI salt responses in type III taste cells, one of which may contribute to the anion effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Understanding the mechanisms underlying salty taste will help inform strategies to combat the health problems associated with NaCl overconsumption by humans. Of the two pathways underlying salty taste in mammals, the amiloride-insensitive (AI) pathway is the least understood. Using calcium imaging of

  2. The complex network of musical tastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldú, Javier M.; Cano, P.; Koppenberger, M.; Almendral, Juan A.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-06-01

    We present an empirical study of the evolution of a social network constructed under the influence of musical tastes. The network is obtained thanks to the selfless effort of a broad community of users who share playlists of their favourite songs with other users. When two songs co-occur in a playlist a link is created between them, leading to a complex network where songs are the fundamental nodes. In this representation, songs in the same playlist could belong to different musical genres, but they are prone to be linked by a certain musical taste (e.g. if songs A and B co-occur in several playlists, an user who likes A will probably like also B). Indeed, playlist collections such as the one under study are the basic material that feeds some commercial music recommendation engines. Since playlists have an input date, we are able to evaluate the topology of this particular complex network from scratch, observing how its characteristic parameters evolve in time. We compare our results with those obtained from an artificial network defined by means of a null model. This comparison yields some insight on the evolution and structure of such a network, which could be used as ground data for the development of proper models. Finally, we gather information that can be useful for the development of music recommendation engines and give some hints about how top-hits appear.

  3. Epidemiological studies of taste function: Discussion and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Derek J.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to quantify the public health impact of chemosensation present significant challenges, including a strong need for testing methods suitable for field assessment. This discussion highlights several promising approaches to the population-based study of taste function; it also identifies key principles that should be considered when adapting laboratory-based taste tests for field use. PMID:19686195

  4. Representation of sweet and salty taste intensity in the brain.

    PubMed

    Spetter, M S; Smeets, P A M; de Graaf, C; Viergever, M A

    2010-11-01

    The intensity of the taste of a food is affected mostly by the amount of sugars (mono- and disaccharides) or salt it contains. To season savory-tasting foods mainly table salt (NaCl) is used and to sweeten foods, sugars like sucrose are used. Foods with highly intense tastes are consumed in smaller amounts. The optimal taste intensity of a food is the intensity at which it is perceived as most pleasant. When taste intensity decreases or increases from optimal, the pleasantness of a food decreases. Here, we investigated the brain representation of sweet and salty taste intensity using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen subjects visited twice and tasted a range of 4 watery solutions (0-1 M) of either sucrose or NaCl in water. Middle insula activation increased with increasing concentration for both NaCl and sucrose. Despite similar subjective intensity ratings, anterior insula activation by NaCl increased more with concentration than that by sucrose. Amygdala activation increased with increasing NaCl concentration but not sucrose concentration. In conclusion, sweet and salty taste intensity are represented in the middle insula. Amygdala activation is only modulated by saltiness. Further research will need to extrapolate these results from simple solutions to real foods. PMID:20876393

  5. Does Conspecific Fighting Yield Conditioned Taste Aversion in Rats?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Sadahiko; Kumazawa, Gaku; Ieki, Hayato; Hashimoto, Aya

    2012-01-01

    Running in an activity wheel yields conditioned aversion to a taste solution consumed before the running, but its underlying physiological mechanism is unknown. According to the claim that energy expenditure or general stress caused by physical exercise is a critical factor for this taste-aversion learning, not only running but also other…

  6. The chemistry and physiology of sour taste – A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sour taste is the key element in the flavor profile of food acidulants. Understanding the chemistry and physiology of sour taste is critical for efficient control of flavor in the formulation of acid and acidified foods. After a brief introduction to the main applications of food acidulants, several...

  7. Taste and Hypertension in Humans: Targeting Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Roura, Eugeni; Foster, Simon; Winklebach, Anja; Navarro, Marta; Thomas, Walter; Campbell, Katrina; Stowasser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The association between salty taste and NaCl intake with hypertension is well-established, although it is far from completely understood. Other taste types such as sweet, umami or bitter have also been related to alterations in blood pressure. Here, we review the mutual relationship between taste and hypertension to identify potential avenues to better control blood pressure. This review focuses on published data involving humans, with the exception of a section on molecular mechanisms. There is compelling evidence to suggest that changes in salty taste sensitivity can be used to predict the onset of hypertension. This goes hand in hand with the medical concept of sodium sensitivity, which also increases with age, particularly in hypertensive patients. The association of hypertension with the loss of taste acuity less definitive with some data/conclusions masked by the use of anti-hypertensive drugs. In fact, this group of therapeutic agents can reduce food taste perception resulting in mild to severe hypogeusia and dysgeusia. In the elderly, antihypertensive drugs may lead to a loss of appetite, thus, selecting treatments with low or no impact on taste perception should be advised. Pharmacological approaches to mitigate cardiovascular disease (CVD) could well take a different spin in the future following the discovery of taste receptors (TAS1R and TAS2R) in the cardiovascular system. Finally, long-term dietary strategies to minimize the risk of development of hypertension and CVD are discussed identifying several nutrients and public health policies with relevant potential. PMID:26881437

  8. Taste detection ability of elderly nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T; Uota, M; Ikebe, K; Notomi, Y; Iwamoto, Y; Shirobayashi, I; Kibi, M; Masayasu, S; Sasaki, S; Maeda, Y

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rapid rise of aged populations throughout the world, it is essential to elucidate the cause of taste dysfunction, because it may reduce appetite, leading to inadequate dietary intake. We aimed to compare taste detection ability between dependently and independently living geriatric individuals of nearly the same age with oral status. Forty-three elderly individuals considered to be cognitively eligible and residing in nursing homes in Japan were enrolled (n = 43, 82·3 ± 8·5 years) and were compared with an independently living elderly group (n = 949, 79·9 ± 0·8 years), aiming to compare taste detection ability between dependently and independently living elders of nearly the same age. Information regarding comorbidity and medication was obtained as general health status, and oral status including number of present teeth, denture usage and maximal occlusal force was also noted. In the dependently living group, 69·4%, 14·3%, 16·3% and 8·2% of participants could detect sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastes, respectively, which was significantly lower than the independently living group for each taste (97·9%, 70·8%, 89·6% and 43·8% for sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastes, respectively). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that residing in nursing homes was associated with reduced sensitivity for four different tastes. The diseases and the situation of dependent elders were more likely the cause of the decreased taste sensitivity. PMID:27027615

  9. Why do we like sweet taste: A bitter tale?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-10-01

    Sweet is widely considered to be one of a small number of basic or primary taste qualities. Liking for sweet tasting substances is innate, although postnatal experiences can shape responses. The power of sweet taste to induce consumption and to motivate behavior is profound, suggesting the importance of this sense for many species. Most investigators presume that the ability to identify sweet molecules through the sense of taste evolved to allow organisms to detect sources of readily available glucose from plants. Perhaps the best evidence supporting this presumption are recent discoveries in comparative biology demonstrating that species in the order Carnivora that do not consume plants also do not perceive sweet taste due to the pseudogenization of a component of the primary sweet taste receptor. However, arguing against this idea is the observation that the sweetness of a plant, or the amount of easily metabolizable sugars contained in the plant, provides little quantitative indication of the plant's energy or broadly conceived food value. Here it is suggested that the perceptual ratio of sweet taste to bitter taste (a signal for toxicity) may be a better gauge of a plant's broadly conceived food value than sweetness alone and that it is this ratio that helps guide selection or rejection of a potential plant food. PMID:27174610

  10. Science in a Box. Body Works II: Test Your Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents classroom learning activities to help elementary teachers and students learn about and experiment with the sense of taste. One involves tasting an apple while smelling an onion; another involves locating areas of the tongue that respond to salt, sweet, bitter, and sour. (SM)

  11. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation

    PubMed Central

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Rigotti, Tanya; Forster, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006). Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others’ taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art—and especially abstract art—crystallizes private taste. PMID:27148012

  12. Private and Shared Taste in Art and Face Appreciation.

    PubMed

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Rigotti, Tanya; Forster, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether beauty is in the eye of the beholder or shared among individuals is a longstanding question in empirical aesthetics. By decomposing the variance structure of data for facial attractiveness, it has been previously shown that beauty evaluations comprise a similar amount of private and shared taste (Hönekopp, 2006). Employing the same methods, we found that, for abstract artworks, components that vary between individuals and relate to personal taste are particularly strong. Moreover, we instructed half of our participants to disregard their own taste and judge stimuli according to the taste of others instead. Ninety-five women rated 100 abstract artworks for liking and 100 faces for attractiveness. We found that the private taste proportion was much higher in abstract artworks, accounting for 75% of taste compared to 40% in the face condition. Abstract artworks were also less affected than faces by the instruction to rate according to others' taste and therefore less susceptible to incorporation of external beauty standards. Together, our findings support the notion that art-and especially abstract art-crystallizes private taste. PMID:27148012

  13. The effect of emotional state on taste perception.

    PubMed

    Noel, Corinna; Dando, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception can be modulated by a variety of extraneously applied influences, such as the manipulation of emotion or the application of acute stress. To evaluate the effect of more commonplace day-to-day emotional variation on taste function, taste intensity ratings and hedonic evaluations were collected from approximately 550 attendees following men's hockey games spanning the 2013-2014 season, a period encompassing 4 wins, 3 losses, and 1 tie. Since different outcomes at competitive sporting events are shown to induce varying affective response, this field study presented a unique environment to evaluate the effect of real-life emotional manipulations on our perception of taste, where previous research focused more on extraneous manipulation within a laboratory environment. Analysis revealed that positive emotions correlated with enhanced sweet and diminished sour intensities while negative emotions associated with heightened sour and decreased sweet tastes. Theoretically, both an increase in sweet and a decrease in sour taste intensity would drive acceptance of a great number of foods. Indeed, hedonic ratings for samples that were less liked (and parenthetically mostly sweet and sour in nature), selectively increased as positive affect grew, possibly due to the perceived decrease in sourness and increase in sweetness. The results of this field study indicate that emotional manipulations in the form of pleasantly or unpleasantly perceived real-life events can influence the intensity perception of taste, driving hedonics for less acceptable foods. These results suggest that such modulation of taste perception could play a role in emotional eating. PMID:26122754

  14. β-Catenin signaling regulates temporally discrete phases of anterior taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Thirumangalathu, Shoba; Barlow, Linda A

    2015-12-15

    The sense of taste is mediated by multicellular taste buds located within taste papillae on the tongue. In mice, individual taste buds reside in fungiform papillae, which develop at mid-gestation as epithelial placodes in the anterior tongue. Taste placodes comprise taste bud precursor cells, which express the secreted factor sonic hedgehog (Shh) and give rise to taste bud cells that differentiate around birth. We showed previously that epithelial activation of β-catenin is the primary inductive signal for taste placode formation, followed by taste papilla morphogenesis and taste bud differentiation, but the degree to which these later elements were direct or indirect consequences of β-catenin signaling was not explored. Here, we define discrete spatiotemporal functions of β-catenin in fungiform taste bud development. Specifically, we show that early epithelial activation of β-catenin, before taste placodes form, diverts lingual epithelial cells from a taste bud fate. By contrast, β-catenin activation a day later within Shh(+) placodes, expands taste bud precursors directly, but enlarges papillae indirectly. Further, placodal activation of β-catenin drives precocious differentiation of Type I glial-like taste cells, but not other taste cell types. Later activation of β-catenin within Shh(+) precursors during papilla morphogenesis also expands taste bud precursors and accelerates Type I cell differentiation, but papilla size is no longer enhanced. Finally, although Shh regulates taste placode patterning, we find that it is dispensable for the accelerated Type I cell differentiation induced by β-catenin. PMID:26525674

  15. High Ulnar Nerve Injuries: Nerve Transfers to Restore Function.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jennifer Megan M

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are challenging problems. Nerve transfers are one of many options available to surgeons caring for these patients, although they do not replace tendon transfers, nerve graft, or primary repair in all patients. Distal nerve transfers for the treatment of high ulnar nerve injuries allow for a shorter reinnervation period and improved ulnar intrinsic recovery, which are critical to function of the hand. PMID:27094893

  16. Neurotoxic exposure and impairment of the chemical senses of taste and smell.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    The chemical senses of taste and smell determine the flavor of foods and beverages, guide appropriate food intake, and warn of such environmental hazards as spoiled or poisonous food, leaking natural gas, smoke, and airborne pollutants. This chapter addresses the influences of neurotoxic exposures on human chemoreception and provides basic information on the adverse influences of such exposures on rodent epithelia. The focus of the chapter is in olfaction, given dearth of empiric research on the effects of neurotoxic chemical exposures on the sense of taste, i.e., sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and savory sensations. As will be apparent from the chapter, numerous neurotoxins--many of which are encountered in industrial workplaces--alter the ability to smell, including solvents, metals, and particulate matter. The olfactory system is particularly vulnerable to such agents since its receptors are more or less directly exposed to the outside environment. Importantly, some such agents can enter the brain via the olfactory nerve or surrounding perineural spaces, bypassing the blood-brain barrier and damaging central nervous system structures and inducing pathologic processes that appear to be similar to those seen in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. PMID:26563795

  17. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Loper, Hillary B; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick; Steinle, Nanette

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as "flavor." It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  18. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  19. Conditioned taste aversion, drugs of abuse and palatability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian-You; Arthurs, Joe; Reilly, Steve

    2014-01-01

    LIN, J.-Y., J. Arthurs and S. Reilly. Conditioned taste aversion: Palatability and drugs of abuse. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(x) XXX-XXX, 2014. – We consider conditioned taste aversion to involve a learned reduction in the palatability of a taste (and hence in amount consumed) based on the association that develops when a taste experience is followed by gastrointestinal malaise. The present article evaluates the well-established finding that drugs of abuse, at doses that are otherwise considered rewarding and self-administered, cause intake suppression. Our recent work using lick pattern analysis shows that drugs of abuse also cause a palatability downshift and, therefore, support conditioned taste aversion learning. PMID:24813806

  20. Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya O.; Mastorakis, Nikos E.; Pereverzev, Vladimir A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

  1. A PKD Channel-based Biosensor for Taste Transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping

    2011-09-01

    This study describes a micro electrode array (MEA)-based biosensor for taste transduction using heterologous expressed taste polycystic kidney disease-like (PKD) channels as molecular sensors. Taste PKD1L3/2L1 channels were expressed on the plasma membrane of human embryo kidney (HEK)-293 cells [1]. Then the cells were cultured on the surface of MEA chip [2] to record the responses of PKD channels to sour stimulations by monitoring membrane potential. The results indicate this MEA-based biosensor can record the special off-responses of PKD channels to sour stimulation in a non-invasive manner for a long term. It may provide an alternative tool for the research of taste transduction, especially for the characterization of taste ion channels.

  2. Sucrose activates human taste pathways differently from artificial sweetener.

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W; Oberndorfer, Tyson A; Simmons, Alan N; Paulus, Martin P; Fudge, Julie L; Yang, Tony T; Kaye, Walter H

    2008-02-15

    Animal models suggest that sucrose activates taste afferents differently than non-caloric sweeteners. Little information exists how artificial sweeteners engage central taste pathways in the human brain. We assessed sucrose and sucralose taste pleasantness across a concentration gradient in 12 healthy control women and applied 10% sucrose and matched sucralose during functional magnet resonance imaging. The results indicate that (1) both sucrose and sucralose activate functionally connected primary taste pathways; (2) taste pleasantness predicts left insula response; (3) sucrose elicits a stronger brain response in the anterior insula, frontal operculum, striatum and anterior cingulate, compared to sucralose; (4) only sucrose, but not sucralose, stimulation engages dopaminergic midbrain areas in relation to the behavioral pleasantness response. Thus, brain response distinguishes the caloric from the non-caloric sweetener, although the conscious mind could not. This could have important implications on how effective artificial sweeteners are in their ability to substitute sugar intake. PMID:18096409

  3. Multichannel taste sensors with lipid, lipid like polymer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szpakowska, M.; Szwacki, J.; Marjańska, E.

    2008-08-01

    The elaboration of a sensitive taste sensor for discrimination of different soft drinks is very important in food industry. The short review of taste sensors described in the literature is presented. Two types of potentiometric taste sensors, one with lipophilic compound-polymer membranes (ISE) and the other with lipid polymer membrane and a conducting polymer film (All solid state electrode, ASSE) were tested in appropriate taste solutions. Five channel ISE sensor was examined in acid, sour and sweet solutions. This sensor was sensitive to bitter and sour substances and not too sensitive to sucrose concentration. It was successfully used for discrimination of different kind of soft drinks. Four channel ASSE sensor was examined in sour solutions. It was found that stability and sensitivity of ASSE are lower than ISE. Therefore, it seems that the previous one cannot be applied in taste sensor.

  4. Taste preferences of the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus).

    PubMed

    Thompson, R D; Elias, D J; Shumake, S A; Gaddis, S E

    1982-04-01

    Taste preference tests, with simultaneous presentation of treated and untreated food, were administered to 24 common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus). The bats received brief exposures to four different stimuli representing sweet, salty, sour, and bitter tastes, each at four different concentrations. Despite a strong location bias, the bats significantly (P < 0.01) avoided the highest concentrations of the salty, sour, and bitter tastes. Consumption of the sweet stimulus at all concentrations was similar to that of the untreated standard. Vampires evidently can discriminate based on taste, although their ability is apparently poorly developed when compared with some euryphagous species such as the rat. Hence, taste is probably not a factor in host selection by the vampire. PMID:24415119

  5. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure on the elbow An elbow fracture or dislocation Temporary pain and tingling of this nerve can ... Saunders; 2011:chap 428. Read More Broken bone Dislocation Mononeuritis multiplex Mononeuropathy Myelin Peripheral neuropathy Systemic Update ...

  6. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get ... you change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. ...

  7. Ulnar nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... surface of the body where it crosses the elbow. The damage destroys the nerve covering ( myelin sheath) ... be caused by: Long-term pressure on the elbow An elbow fracture or dislocation Temporary pain and ...

  8. Degenerative Nerve Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Degenerative nerve diseases affect many of your body's activities, such as balance, movement, talking, breathing, and heart function. Many of these diseases are genetic. Sometimes the cause is a medical ...

  9. Common peroneal nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... people: Who are very thin (for example, from anorexia nervosa ) Who have certain autoimmune conditions, such as ... Elsevier; 2013:chap 22. Read More Alertness - decreased Anorexia Broken bone Diabetes and nerve damage Mononeuritis multiplex ...

  10. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... An abnormal knee reflex Smaller than normal quadriceps muscles on the front of the thigh Tests that may be done include: Electromyography ( EMG ) Nerve conduction tests ( NCV ), usually done at ...

  11. Femoral nerve dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - femoral nerve; Femoral neuropathy ... Craig EJ, Clinchot DM. Femoral neuropathy. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ...

  12. Diabetic Nerve Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong times. This damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Over half of people with diabetes get it. ... change positions quickly Your doctor will diagnose diabetic neuropathy with a physical exam and nerve tests. Controlling ...

  13. Tachykinins stimulate a subset of mouse taste cells.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The tachykinins substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are present in nociceptive sensory fibers expressing transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1). These fibers are found extensively in and around the taste buds of several species. Tachykinins are released from nociceptive fibers by irritants such as capsaicin, the active compound found in chili peppers commonly associated with the sensation of spiciness. Using real-time Ca(2+)-imaging on isolated taste cells, it was observed that SP induces Ca(2+) -responses in a subset of taste cells at concentrations in the low nanomolar range. These responses were reversibly inhibited by blocking the SP receptor NK-1R. NKA also induced Ca(2+)-responses in a subset of taste cells, but only at concentrations in the high nanomolar range. These responses were only partially inhibited by blocking the NKA receptor NK-2R, and were also inhibited by blocking NK-1R indicating that NKA is only active in taste cells at concentrations that activate both receptors. In addition, it was determined that tachykinin signaling in taste cells requires Ca(2+)-release from endoplasmic reticulum stores. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed that mouse taste buds express NK-1R and NK-2R. Using Ca(2+)-imaging and single cell RT-PCR, it was determined that the majority of tachykinin-responsive taste cells were Type I (Glial-like) and umami-responsive Type II (Receptor) cells. Importantly, stimulating NK-1R had an additive effect on Ca(2+) responses evoked by umami stimuli in Type II (Receptor) cells. This data indicates that tachykinin release from nociceptive sensory fibers in and around taste buds may enhance umami and other taste modalities, providing a possible mechanism for the increased palatability of spicy foods. PMID:22363709

  14. Schwannoma of Extraocular Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Wasim; Boggan, James E.

    1994-01-01

    An unusual case of schwannoma arising from the third cranial nerve in a thirteen year old male is reported. The patient presented with paresis of the right oculomotor nerve and ipsilateral hemiparesis. The clinical features of this case are discussed and the pertinent medical literature reviewed. ImagesFigure 1p220-bFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171175

  15. Taste coding of complex naturalistic taste stimuli and traditional taste stimuli in the parabrachial pons of the awake, freely licking rat.

    PubMed

    Sammons, Joshua D; Weiss, Michael S; Victor, Jonathan D; Di Lorenzo, Patricia M

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have shown that taste-responsive cells in the brainstem taste nuclei of rodents respond to sensory qualities other than gustation. Such data suggest that cells in the classical gustatory brainstem may be better tuned to respond to stimuli that engage multiple sensory modalities than to stimuli that are purely gustatory. Here, we test this idea by recording the electrophysiological responses to complex, naturalistic stimuli in single neurons in the parabrachial pons (PbN, the second neural relay in the central gustatory pathway) in awake, freely licking rats. Following electrode implantation and recovery, we presented both prototypical and naturalistic taste stimuli and recorded the responses in the PbN. Prototypical taste stimuli (NaCl, sucrose, citric acid, and caffeine) and naturalistic stimuli (clam juice, grape juice, lemon juice, and coffee) were matched for taste quality and intensity (concentration). Umami (monosodium glutamate + inosine monophosphate) and fat (diluted heavy cream) were also tested. PbN neurons responded to naturalistic stimuli as much or more than to prototypical taste stimuli. Furthermore, they convey more information about naturalistic stimuli than about prototypical ones. Moreover, multidimensional scaling analyses showed that across unit responses to naturalistic stimuli were more widely separated than responses to prototypical taste stimuli. Interestingly, cream evoked a robust and widespread response in PbN cells. Collectively, these data suggest that natural foods are more potent stimulators of PbN cells than purely gustatory stimuli. Probing PbN cells with pure taste stimuli may underestimate the response repertoire of these cells. PMID:27121585

  16. Sural nerve defects after nerve biopsy or nerve transfer as a sensory regeneration model for peripheral nerve conduit implantation.

    PubMed

    Radtke, C; Kocsis, J D; Reimers, K; Allmeling, C; Vogt, P M

    2013-09-01

    Nerve repair after injury can be effectively accomplished by direct suture approximation of the proximal and distal segments. This is more successful if coadaptation can be achieved without tension. Currently, the gold standard repair of larger deficits is the transplantation of an autologous sensory sural nerve graft. However, a significant disadvantage of this technique is the inevitable donor morbidity (sensory loss, neuroma and scar formation) after harvesting of the sural nerve. Moreover, limitation of autologous donor nerve length and fixed diameter of the available sural nerve are major drawbacks of current autograft treatment. Another approach that was introduced for nerve repair is the implantation of alloplastic nerve tubes made of, for example, poly-L-lactide. In these, nerve stumps of the transected nerves are surgically bridged using the biosynthetic conduit. A number of experimental studies, primarily in rodents, indicate axonal regeneration and remyelination after implantation of various conduits. However, only limited clinical studies with conduit implantation have been performed in acute peripheral nerve injuries particularly on digital nerves. Clinical transfer of animal studies, which can be carefully calibrated for site and extent of injury, to humans is difficult to interpret due to the intrinsic variability in human nerve injuries. This prevents effective quantification of improvement and induces bias in the study. Therefore, standardization of lesion/repair in human studies is warranted. Here we propose to use sural nerve defects, induced due to nerve graft harvesting or from diagnostic nerve biopsies as a model site to enable standardization of nerve conduit implantation. This would help better with the characterization of the implants and its effectiveness in axonal regeneration and remyelination. Nerve regeneration can be assessed, for example, by recovery of sensation, measured non-invasively by threshold to von Frey filaments and cold

  17. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Bradley T.; Tang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F.

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14) promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox). While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox), this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2) and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4) positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling. PMID:26901525

  18. Insulin-Like Growth Factors Are Expressed in the Taste System, but Do Not Maintain Adult Taste Buds.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Bradley T; Tang, Tao; Krimm, Robin F

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors regulate cell growth and differentiation in many tissues. In the taste system, as yet unknown growth factors are produced by neurons to maintain taste buds. A number of growth factor receptors are expressed at greater levels in taste buds than in the surrounding epithelium and may be receptors for candidate factors involved in taste bud maintenance. We determined that the ligands of eight of these receptors were expressed in the E14.5 geniculate ganglion and that four of these ligands were expressed in the adult geniculate ganglion. Of these, the insulin-like growth factors (IGF1, IGF2) were expressed in the ganglion and their receptor, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R), were expressed at the highest levels in taste buds. To determine whether IGF1R regulates taste bud number or structure, we conditionally eliminated IGF1R from the lingual epithelium of mice using the keratin 14 (K14) promoter (K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox). While K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice had significantly fewer taste buds at P30 compared with control mice (Igf1rlox/lox), this difference was not observed by P80. IGF1R removal did not affect taste bud size or cell number, and the number of phospholipase C β2- (PLCβ2) and carbonic anhydrase 4- (Car4) positive taste receptor cells did not differ between genotypes. Taste buds at the back of the tongue fungiform taste field were larger and contained more cells than those at the tongue tip, and these differences were diminished in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. The epithelium was thicker at the back versus the tip of the tongue, and this difference was also attenuated in K14-Cre::Igf1rlox/lox mice. We conclude that, although IGFs are expressed at high levels in the taste system, they likely play little or no role in maintaining adult taste bud structure. IGFs have a potential role in establishing the initial number of taste buds, and there may be limits on epithelial thickness in the absence of IGF1R signaling. PMID:26901525

  19. Comparison of Taste Threshold in Smokers and Non-Smokers Using Electrogustometry and Fungiform Papillae Count: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Veena Sathya; Puttabuddi, Jaishankar Homberhalli; Chengappa, Rachita; Ambaldhage, Vijaya Kumara; Naik, Purnachandrarao; Raheel, Syed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking in long term is not only responsible for cancerous changes but is also one of the reasons of altered taste sensation in smokers. These taste changes are hypothesized to be due to reduction in density of fungiform papillae on the dorsum of the tongue. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fungiform papillae count, blood Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW) and electrogustometric thresholds in smokers and non-smokers. Materials and Methods Fungiform papillae count was assessed using digital photography and imaging software while electrogustometric thresholds were assessed using modified Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS) machine in 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. The subjects also underwent RDW evaluation. The data collected was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Fungiform papillae counts in smokers were less than those of non-smokers and an inverse relationship was detected between smoking and fungiform papillae count. Electrogustometric thresholds were more in smokers than non-smokers and showed direct relationship with smoking. RDW was significantly more in smokers compared to non-smokers. An inverse relationship was observed between fungiform papillae count and RDW. Conclusion Our results suggest that smokers have a high taste threshold because of decrease in the number of fungiform papillae on the tongue and RDW values do show an inverse relationship with fungiform papillae density which depicts subclinical nutritional deficiency bringing atrophic changes in tongue. PMID:27437340

  20. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yoshikazu; Habara, Masaaki; Ikezazki, Hidekazu; Chen, Ronggang; Naito, Yoshinobu; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets. PMID:22319306

  1. Ultrasound in Dual Nerve Impairment after Proximal Radial Nerve Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lämmer, Alexandra B; Schwab, Stefan; Schramm, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sonography in classical nerve entrapment syndromes is an established and validated method. In contrast, few publications highlight lesions of the radial nerve, particularly of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN). Method Five patients with a radial nerve lesion were investigated by electromyography, nerve conduction velocity and ultrasound. Further normative values of 26 healthy subjects were evaluated. Results Four patients presented a clinical and electrophysiological proximal axonal radial nerve lesion and one patient showed a typical posterior interosseous nerve syndrome (PINS). The patient with PINS presented an enlargement of the PIN anterior to the supinator muscle. However four patients with proximal lesions showed an unexpected significant enlargement of the PIN within the supinator muscle. Conclusion High-resolution sonography is a feasible method to demonstrate the radial nerve including its distal branches. At least in axonal radial nerve lesions, sonography might reveal abnormalities far distant from a primary proximal lesion site clearly distinct from the appearance in classical PINS. PMID:25992766

  2. Sweet Taste Receptor Gene Variation and Aspartame Taste in Primates and Other Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Maehashi, Kenji; Li, Weihua; Lim, Raymond; Brand, Joseph G.; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Reed, Danielle R.; Thai, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Aspartame is a sweetener added to foods and beverages as a low-calorie sugar replacement. Unlike sugars, which are apparently perceived as sweet and desirable by a range of mammals, the ability to taste aspartame varies, with humans, apes, and Old World monkeys perceiving aspartame as sweet but not other primate species. To investigate whether the ability to perceive the sweetness of aspartame correlates with variations in the DNA sequence of the genes encoding sweet taste receptor proteins, T1R2 and T1R3, we sequenced these genes in 9 aspartame taster and nontaster primate species. We then compared these sequences with sequences of their orthologs in 4 other nontasters species. We identified 9 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R2 and 32 variant sites in the gene encoding T1R3 that distinguish aspartame tasters and nontasters. Molecular docking of aspartame to computer-generated models of the T1R2 + T1R3 receptor dimer suggests that species variation at a secondary, allosteric binding site in the T1R2 protein is the most likely origin of differences in perception of the sweetness of aspartame. These results identified a previously unknown site of aspartame interaction with the sweet receptor and suggest that the ability to taste aspartame might have developed during evolution to exploit a specialized food niche. PMID:21414996

  3. Structural requirements of bitter taste receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Brockhoff, Anne; Behrens, Maik; Niv, Masha Y.; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    An important question in taste research is how 25 receptors of the human TAS2R family detect thousands of structurally diverse compounds. An answer to this question may arise from the observation that TAS2Rs in general are broadly tuned to interact with numerous substances. Ultimately, interaction with chemically diverse agonists requires architectures of binding pockets tailored to combine flexibility with selectivity. The present study determines the structure of hTAS2R binding pockets. We focused on a subfamily of closely related hTAS2Rs exhibiting pronounced amino acid sequence identities but unique agonist activation spectra. The generation of chimeric and mutant receptors followed by calcium imaging analyses identified receptor regions and amino acid residues critical for activation of hTAS2R46, -R43, and -R31. We found that the carboxyl-terminal regions of the investigated receptors are crucial for agonist selectivity. Intriguingly, exchanging two residues located in transmembrane domain seven between hTAS2R46, activated by strychnine, and hTAS2R31, activated by aristolochic acid, was sufficient to invert agonist selectivity. Further mutagenesis revealed additional positions involved in agonist interaction. The transfer of functionally relevant amino acids identified in hTAS2R46 to the corresponding positions of hTAS2R43 and -R31 resulted in pharmacological properties indistinguishable from the parental hTAS2R46. In silico modeling of hTAS2R46 allowed us to visualize the putative mode of interaction between agonists and hTAS2Rs. Detailed structure-function analyses of hTAS2Rs may ultimately pave the way for the development of specific antagonists urgently needed for more sophisticated analyses of human bitter taste perception. PMID:20534469

  4. [Biophysics of nerve excitation].

    PubMed

    Kol'e, O R; Maksimov, G V

    2010-01-01

    The studies testifying to the presence of the interrelation between the physiological functions of the organism and physical and chemical processes in nerves are discussed. Changes in some physical and chemical parameters observed both upon elicited rhythmic exaltation of nerves and during the spontaneous rhythmic activity of neurons are analyzed. Upon rhythmic exaltation, a complex of physical and chemical processes is triggered, and reversible structural and metabolic rearrangements at the subcellular and molecular levels occur that do not take place during the generation of a single action potential. Thus, only in conditions of rhythmic exaltation of a nerve, it is possible to reveal those processes that provide exaltation of nerves in the organism. The future possibilities of the investigations combining the biophysical and physiological approaches are substantiated. Characteristic changes in physicochemical parameters are observed in nerves during the generation of a series of action potentials of different frequency and duration ("frequency dependence") under normal physiological conditions, as well as in extreme situations and in nerve pathology. The structural and metabolic rearrangements are directly related to the mode of rhythmic exaltation and proceed both in the course of rhythmic exaltation and after its termination. Participation and the basic components of the nervous fulcrum (an axon, Shwan cell, myelin, subcellular organelles) in the realization of rhythmic exaltation is shown. In the coordination of all processes involved in rhythmic exaltation, the main role is played by the systems of redistribution and transport of intercellular and endocellular calcium. The idea is put forward that myelin of nerve fibers is not only an isolator, but also an "intercellular depot" of calcium and participates in the redistribution of different ions. Thus, the rhythmic excitation is of great importance in the realization of some physiological functions, the

  5. Cross-modal tactile-taste interactions in food evaluations.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, B G; Carmichael, D A; Simner, J

    2016-07-29

    Detecting the taste components within a flavoured substance relies on exposing chemoreceptors within the mouth to the chemical components of ingested food. In our paper, we show that the evaluation of taste components can also be influenced by the tactile quality of the food. We first discuss how multisensory factors might influence taste, flavour and smell for both typical and atypical (synaesthetic) populations and we then present two empirical studies showing tactile-taste interactions in the general population. We asked a group of non-synaesthetic adults to evaluate the taste components of flavoured food substances, whilst we presented simultaneous cross-sensory visuo-tactile cues within the eating environment. Specifically, we presented foodstuffs between subjects that were otherwise identical but had a rough versus smooth surface, or were served on a rough versus smooth serving-plate. We found no effect of the serving-plate, but we found the rough/smoothness of the foodstuff itself significantly influenced perception: food was rated as significantly more sour if it had a rough (versus smooth) surface. In modifying taste perception via ostensibly unrelated dimensions, we demonstrate that the detection of tastes within flavours may be influenced by higher level cross-sensory cues. Finally, we suggest that the direction of our cross-sensory associations may speak to the types of hedonic mapping found both in normal multisensory integration, and in the unusual condition of synaesthesia. PMID:26169315

  6. A Neural Mechanism of Taste Perception Modulated by Odor Information.

    PubMed

    Shimemura, Takahiro; Fujita, Kazuhisa; Kashimori, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Taste perception is significantly affected by other sensory modalities such as vision, smell, and somatosensation. Such taste sensation elicited by integrating gustatory and other sensory information is referred to as flavor. Although experimental studies have demonstrated the characteristics of flavor perception influenced by other sensory modalities and the involved brain areas, it remains unknown how flavor emerges from the brain circuits. Of the involved brain areas, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as gustatory cortex (GC), plays a dominant role in flavor perception. We develop here a neural model of gustatory system which consists of GC and OFC networks and examine the neural mechanism of odor-induced taste perception. Using the model, we show that flavor perception is shaped by experience-dependent learning of foods with congruent taste-odor pairs, providing a unique representation of flavor through the interaction between OFC and GC neurons. Our model also shows that feedback signals from OFC to GC modulate the dynamic stability of taste attractors in GC, leading to the enhancement or suppression of taste responses by smells. Furthermore, modeling shows that spatial variability in GC activity evoked by tastants determines to what extent odor enhances congruent taste responses. The results suggest that flavor perception is deeply associated with dynamic stability of GC attractors through the interaction between GC and OFC. PMID:27178285

  7. Temporal Signatures of Taste Quality Driven by Active Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Animals actively acquire sensory information from the outside world, with rodents sniffing to smell and whisking to feel. Licking, a rapid motor sequence used for gustation, serves as the primary means of controlling stimulus access to taste receptors in the mouth. Using a novel taste-quality discrimination task in head-restrained mice, we measured and compared reaction times to four basic taste qualities (salt, sour, sweet, and bitter) and found that certain taste qualities are perceived inherently faster than others, driven by the precise biomechanics of licking and functional organization of the peripheral gustatory system. The minimum time required for accurate perception was strongly dependent on taste quality, ranging from the sensory-motor limits of a single lick (salt, ∼100 ms) to several sampling cycles (bitter, >500 ms). Further, disruption of sensory input from the anterior tongue significantly impaired the speed of perception of some taste qualities, with little effect on others. Overall, our results show that active sensing may play an important role in shaping the timing of taste-quality representations and perception in the gustatory system. PMID:24872546

  8. Leptin's effect on taste bud calcium responses and transmitter secretion.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Tricia L; Corcoran, Alan; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Leptin, a peptide hormone released by adipose tissue, acts on the hypothalamus to control cravings and appetite. Leptin also acts to decrease taste responses to sweet substances, though there is little detailed information regarding where leptin acts in the taste transduction cascade. The present study examined the effects of leptin on sweet-evoked responses and neuro transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Our results indicate that leptin moderately decreased sweet-evoked calcium mobilization in isolated mouse taste buds. We also employed Chinese hamster ovary biosensor cells to examine taste transmitter release from isolated taste buds. Leptin reduced ATP and increased serotonin release in response to sweet stimulation. However, leptin has no effect on bitter-evoked transmitter release, further showing that the action of leptin is sweet specific. Our results support those of previous studies, which state that leptin acts on taste tissue via the leptin receptor, most likely on Type II (Receptor) cells, but also possibly on Type III (Presynaptic) cells. PMID:25537017

  9. Cocaine decreases saccharin preference without altering sweet taste sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Roebber, Jennifer K.; Izenwasser, Sari; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, saccharin consumption is suppressed when the sweet taste stimulus is paired with moderate doses of cocaine. Several hypotheses have been used to explain the seemingly contradictory effect of decreased consumption of a normally preferred substance following a highly rewarding drug. A common theme across these hypotheses is that saccharin is interpreted as less rewarding after cocaine pairing. We considered the alternative possibility that suppression is caused not by a change in reward circuitry, but rather by a change in taste detection, for instance by altering the afferent taste response and decreasing sensitivity to sweet taste stimuli. To evaluate this possibility, we measured saccharin taste sensitivity of mice before and after a standard cocaine-pairing paradigm. We measured taste sensitivity using a brief-access lickometer equipped with multiple concentrations of saccharin solution and established concentration-response curves before and after saccharin-cocaine pairing. Our results indicate that the EC50 for saccharin was unaltered following pairing. Instead, the avidity of licking saccharin, an indicator of motivation, was depressed. Latency to first-lick, a negative indicator of motivation, was also dramatically increased. Thus, our findings are consistent with the interpretation that saccharin-cocaine pairing results in devaluing of the sweet taste reward. PMID:25812471

  10. Direct measurement of translingual epithelial NaCl and KCl currents during the chorda tympani taste response.

    PubMed Central

    Heck, G L; Persaud, K C; DeSimone, J A

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the NaCl or KCl currents under voltage clamp across the dorsal lingual epithelium of the rat and simultaneously the response of the taste nerves. Under short-circuit conditions a NaCl stimulus evoked an inward current (first current) that coincided with excitation of the chorda tympani. This was followed by a slower inward current (second current) that matched the kinetics of taste nerve adaptation. The peak first current and the coincident neural response satisfied the same saturating NaCl concentration dependence. Both first and second currents were partially blocked by amiloride as were the phasic and tonic components of the neural response. The NaCl-evoked second current was completely blocked by ouabain. Investigation of the NaCl-evoked current and the neural response over a range of clamped voltages showed that inward negative potentials enhanced the inward current and the neural response to 0.3 M NaCl. Sufficiently high inward positive potentials reversed the current, and made the neural response independent of further changes in voltage. Therefore, one of the NaCl taste transduction mechanisms is voltage dependent while the other is voltage independent. A KCl stimulus also evoked an inward short-circuit current, but this and the neural response were not amiloride-sensitive. The data indicate that neural adaptation to a NaCl stimulus, but not a KCl stimulus, is mediated by cell Na/K pumps. A model is proposed in which the connection between the NaCl-evoked second current and cell repolarization is demonstrated. PMID:2541822

  11. Antecedent Predictors of Children's Initiation of Sipping/Tasting Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John E; Molina, Brooke S G

    2014-01-01

    Background Sipping or tasting alcohol is one of the earliest alcohol-use behaviors in which young children engage, yet there is relatively little research on this behavior. Previous cross-sectional analyses determined that child sipping or tasting is associated with the child's attitude toward sipping and with a family environment supportive of alcohol use, but not with variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior as formulated in Problem Behavior Theory (Jessor and Jessor, Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1977, Academic Press, New York). This study extended these analyses longitudinally to identify antecedent predictors of the childhood initiation of sipping or tasting alcohol in a multiwave study. Methods A sample of 452 children (238 girls) aged 8 or 10 and their families was drawn from Allegheny County, PA, using targeted-age directory sampling and random digit dialing procedures. Children were interviewed using computer-assisted interviews. Antecedent variables collected at baseline (Wave 1) were examined as predictors of the initiation of sipping/tasting alcohol in childhood (before age 12) among Wave 1 abstainers (n = 286). Results Ninety-four children initiated sipping/tasting alcohol in a nonreligious context between baseline and turning age 12. Initiation of sipping/tasting did not generally relate to baseline variables reflecting psychosocial proneness for problem behavior. Instead, as found in the previous cross-sectional analyses, the variables most predictive of initiating sipping/tasting were perceived parents' approval for child sipping, parents' reported approval for child sipping, parents' current drinking status, and children's attitudes toward sipping/tasting alcohol. Conclusions These longitudinal analyses replicate the earlier cross-sectional results. Young children's sipping/tasting of alcohol reflects parental modeling of drinking and parental approval of child sipping and

  12. Injection nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Arindhom; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Devi, Bhagavathula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical profile and outcome of surgery for injection nerve palsies. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with INP who were treated at our institute during May 2000 to May 2009. Clinical, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and operative findings were noted. Intraoperative nerve action potential monitoring was not used in any case. Outcome of patients who were followed was reviewed. Results: INP comprised 92 (11%) of 837 nerve injury patients. Seventy one patients were children less than 16 years. The nerves involved were sciatic in 80 patients, radial in 8, and others in four. Fifty seven patients had power, grade 0/5. ENMG studies revealed absent compound muscle action potential in 64 and absent sensory nerve action potential in 67 patients. Thirty nine (42.3%) of 92 patients underwent surgery. The mean duration since injury in these patients was 5.2 months (3 months to 11 months). All underwent neurolysis. Only 18 patients who underwent surgery had a follow up of more than 3 months. Ten (55.5%) patients had good or fair outcome after surgery. Except for grade of motor deficit prior to surgery, none of the variables were found to significantly affect the outcome. Conclusion: The outcome of INP is generally good and many patients recover spontaneously. The outcome of surgery is dependent on preoperative motor power. PMID:23546341

  13. Barriers of the peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    Peltonen, Sirkku; Alanne, Maria; Peltonen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    This review introduces the traditionally defined anatomic compartments of the peripheral nerves based on light and electron microscopic topography and then explores the cellular and the most recent molecular basis of the different barrier functions operative in peripheral nerves. We also elucidate where, and how, the homeostasis of the normal human peripheral nerve is controlled in situ and how claudin-containing tight junctions contribute to the barriers of peripheral nerve. Also, the human timeline of the development of the barriers of the peripheral nerve is depicted. Finally, potential future therapeutic modalities interfering with the barriers of the peripheral nerve are discussed. PMID:24665400

  14. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rong; Frederick-Dyer, Katherine; Ferguson, N Lynn; Lewis, James; Fu, Yitong

    2012-09-01

    Fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) is a rare, benign lesion of the peripheral nerves most frequently involving the median nerve and its digital branches (80 %). Pathognomonic MR features of FLH such as coaxial-cable-like appearance on axial planes and a spaghetti-like appearance on coronal planes have been described by Marom and Helms, obviating the need for diagnostic biopsy. We present a case of fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the inferior calcaneal nerve (Baxter nerve) with associated subcutaneous fat proliferation. PMID:22526881

  15. Landeskunde durch Weinkunde: A Taste of German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Dennis E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a cultural unit centered on German wines. After a series of preparatory lessons showing how the topic touches on geography, history, and social customs, the unit culminated in a wine tasting. (EJS)

  16. Bitter taste receptors confer diverse functions to neurons

    PubMed Central

    Delventhal, Rebecca; Carlson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Bitter compounds elicit an aversive response. In Drosophila, bitter-sensitive taste neurons coexpress many members of the Gr family of taste receptors. However, the molecular logic of bitter signaling is unknown. We used an in vivo expression approach to analyze the logic of bitter taste signaling. Ectopic or overexpression of bitter Grs increased endogenous responses or conferred novel responses. Surprisingly, expression of Grs also suppressed many endogenous bitter responses. Conversely, deletion of an endogenous Gr led to novel responses. Expression of individual Grs conferred strikingly different effects in different neurons. The results support a model in which bitter Grs interact, exhibiting competition, inhibition, or activation. The results have broad implications for the problem of how taste systems evolve to detect new environmental dangers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11181.001 PMID:26880560

  17. Taste thresholds in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ovesen, L; Hannibal, J; Sørensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Recognition thresholds for the four basic tastes (salt, sour, sweet and bitter) were tested by the forced-choice technique in 27 patients with small-cell lung cancer, and 22 weight-matched control patients with non-malignant diseases. No significant differences in threshold concentrations could be demonstrated. When patients who were losing weight were compared with weight-stable patients, significantly lower taste thresholds for bitter substances were found in weight losing groups in both cancer and control patients. Small-cell lung cancer patients who responded to therapy had obtained an increased threshold for bitter taste at the time of reevaluation than at the time of diagnosis, an effect that may be explained by the chemotherapeutic regimen. The results suggest that in patients with small-cell lung cancer it is not the cancer disease per se but the weight loss that often accompanies it that causes an increased taste sensitivity for bitter substances. PMID:1847701

  18. What Are Nerve Blocks for Headache?

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve blocks for headache? Print Email What are nerve blocks for headache? ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... entering your e-mail address below. What are nerve blocks for headache? A nerve block is the ...

  19. Chemesthesis and taste: evidence of independent processing of sensation intensity.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; George, Pravin; Akirav, Carol

    2005-11-15

    The ability to perceive taste from temperature alone ("thermal taste") was recently shown to predict higher perceptual responsiveness to gustatory and olfactory stimuli. This relationship was hypothesized to be due in part to individual differences in CNS processes involved in flavor perception. Here we report three experiments that tested whether subjects who differ in responsiveness to thermal taste and/or chemical taste also differ in responsiveness to oral chemesthesis. In experiment 1, subjects identified as 'thermal tasters' (TTs) or 'thermal non-tasters' (TnTs) used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate the intensity of sensations produced on the tongue tip by capsaicin, menthol, sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and QSO4. TTs rated all four taste stimuli higher than did TnTs, whereas sensations of burning/stinging/pricking and temperature from capsaicin and menthol did not differ significantly between groups. In experiment 2, testing with capsaicin on both the front and back of the tongue confirmed there was no difference in ratings of burning/stinging/pricking when subjects were grouped according to the ability to perceive thermal taste. In experiment 3, subjects were classified as high- or low-tasters according to their ratings of sucrose sweetness rather than thermal taste. No group difference was found for perception of capsaicin even when presented in mixture with sucrose or NaCl. The results are discussed in the context of previous evidence of an association between chemesthesis and sensitivity to the bitter tastant PROP, and in terms of the various peripheral and central neural processes that may underlie intensity perception in taste and chemesthesis. PMID:16199067

  20. Optic nerve hypoplasia in children.

    PubMed Central

    Zeki, S. M.; Dutton, G. N.

    1990-01-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is characterised by a diminished number of optic nerve fibres in the optic nerve(s) and until recently was thought to be rare. It may be associated with a wide range of other congenital abnormalities. Its pathology, clinical features, and the conditions associated with it are reviewed. Neuroendocrine disorders should be actively sought in any infant or child with bilateral ONH. Early recognition of the disorder may in some cases be life saving. Images PMID:2191713

  1. [Application of taste sensor to medicines in research, development and market].

    PubMed

    Harada, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Maho; Hondo, Satoko; Yasui, Masanobu; Owaki, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Using a taste sensor in the field of medical products has the following four main purposes: (1) Ensuring that investigational product and placebo are indistinguishable; (2) Formulation design; (3) Quality control; (4) Benchmark test. Unlike evaluating a taste of food, roughly predicting a taste of drug without human sensory test and quantitative evaluation using small quantity of drug sample are more important than evaluation of the nuances of homogeneous taste and preference. Here are some examples of using taste sensor for these purposes. (1) We predicted a taste of suspension of phosphatic drug substance in an early phase of development using a taste sensor. As a result, the suspension seemed to have sour and bitter taste. Then we made placebo solution of citric acid similar taste as much like active suspension to ensure indistinguishable taste from each other. (2) A taste of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) in the mouth is important to drug adherence. The taste of an ODT was then evaluated in chronological order by combining the taste sensor with the new disintegration testing apparatus to design easy-to-take formulation. (3) We evaluated taste variation of a commercial product in batch-to-batch and identified the cause of the variation. (4) We did benchmark test for easy-to-take of commercial ODTs in vitro. There is great variability among these products in the disintegrating profile and the taste. PMID:24584009

  2. Taste-active compounds in a traditional Italian food: 'lampascioni'.

    PubMed

    Borgonovo, Gigliola; Caimi, Sara; Morini, Gabriella; Scaglioni, Leonardo; Bassoli, Angela

    2008-06-01

    Nature is a rich source of taste-active compounds, in particular of plant origin, many of which have unusual tastes. Many of these are found in traditional food, where spontaneous plants are used as ingredients. Some taste-active compounds were identified in the bulbs of Muscari comosum, a spontaneous plant belonging to the family of the Liliaceae, very common in the Mediterranean area, and used in traditional gastronomy (called 'lampascioni' in South Italy). The bulbs were extracted with a series of solvents of different polarity. The different fractions were submitted to a preliminary sensory evaluation, and the most interesting ones, characterized by a strong bitter taste and some chemestetic properties, were submitted to further purification and structural analysis. From the ethereal extract, several 3-benzyl-4-chromanones and one stilbene derivative were isolated. Pure compounds were examined for their taste activity by means of sensory evaluation, and proved to be responsible for the characteristic taste of this food. Some of these compounds have been synthesized de novo to confirm their structure. PMID:18618404

  3. Alteration in salivary properties and taste perception in OSMF

    PubMed Central

    Dyasanoor, Sujatha; Abdul Khader, Nishat Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the salivary flow rate (SFR), pH and taste perception among oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and apparently healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects (45 OSMF + 45 controls) were enrolled in the study for estimating and analogizing the SFR, pH, and taste perception executing modified Schirmer, pH, and taste strips. The SFR, pH, and taste perception were evaluated and compared between 14 Stage I and 31 Stage II OSMF subjects. The entered data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software. Results: A statistically significant decrease in SFR among OSMF group (23.4 mm at 3rd min) and hypogeusia to salty (62.2%), and dysgeusia to sour taste (40%) when compared to apparently healthy subjects (30.7 mm at 3rd min) was noted. Statistical significance (P < 0.05%) inferring hyposalivation in Stage II OSMF (24.1 mm at 3rd min) juxtaposing with Stage I OSMF (31.4 mm at 3rd min). Statistically significant hypogeusia to salty (n = 23) and sweet (n = 16) and dysgeusia (n = 14) to sour among Stage II OSMF when differentiated with Stage I OSMF. The mean pH among the OSMF and control groups demonstrated no statistical significance. Conclusion: The findings from the study demonstrated marked decrease of SFR and taste perception to salty and sour among Stage II OSMF when compared to Stage I OSMF subjects. PMID:27307658

  4. A composition algorithm based on crossmodal taste-music correspondences

    PubMed Central

    Mesz, Bruno; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2012-01-01

    While there is broad consensus about the structural similarities between language and music, comparably less attention has been devoted to semantic correspondences between these two ubiquitous manifestations of human culture. We have investigated the relations between music and a narrow and bounded domain of semantics: the words and concepts referring to taste sensations. In a recent work, we found that taste words were consistently mapped to musical parameters. Bitter is associated with low-pitched and continuous music (legato), salty is characterized by silences between notes (staccato), sour is high pitched, dissonant and fast and sweet is consonant, slow and soft (Mesz et al., 2011). Here we extended these ideas, in a synergistic dialog between music and science, investigating whether music can be algorithmically generated from taste-words. We developed and implemented an algorithm that exploits a large corpus of classic and popular songs. New musical pieces were produced by choosing fragments from the corpus and modifying them to minimize their distance to the region in musical space that characterizes each taste. In order to test the capability of the produced music to elicit significant associations with the different tastes, musical pieces were produced and judged by a group of non-musicians. Results showed that participants could decode well above chance the taste-word of the composition. We also discuss how our findings can be expressed in a performance bridging music and cognitive science. PMID:22557952

  5. Bitter taste receptors for saccharin and acesulfame K.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Christina; Bufe, Bernd; Winnig, Marcel; Hofmann, Thomas; Frank, Oliver; Behrens, Maik; Lewtschenko, Tatjana; Slack, Jay P; Ward, Cynthia D; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2004-11-10

    Weight-conscious subjects and diabetics use the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame K to reduce their calorie and sugar intake. However, the intrinsic bitter aftertaste, which is caused by unknown mechanisms, limits the use of these sweeteners. Here, we show by functional expression experiments in human embryonic kidney cells that saccharin and acesulfame K activate two members of the human TAS2R family (hTAS2R43 and hTAS2R44) at concentrations known to stimulate bitter taste. These receptors are expressed in tongue taste papillae. Moreover, the sweet inhibitor lactisole did not block the responses of cells transfected with TAS2R43 and TAS2R44, whereas it did block the response of cells expressing the sweet taste receptor heteromer hTAS1R2-hTAS1R3. The two receptors were also activated by nanomolar concentrations of aristolochic acid, a purely bitter-tasting compound. Thus, hTAS2R43 and hTAS2R44 function as cognate bitter taste receptors and do not contribute to the sweet taste of saccharin and acesulfame K. Consistent with the in vitro data, cross-adaptation studies in human subjects also support the existence of common receptors for both sulfonyl amide sweeteners. PMID:15537898

  6. Mechanisms and effects of "fat taste" in humans.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Robin M; Mattes, Richard D; Running, Cordelia A

    2014-01-01

    Evidence supporting a "taste" cue from fat in the oral cavity continues to accrue. The proposed stimuli for fat taste, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), are released from food through hydrolytic rancidity and lipase activity derived from foods or saliva. NEFA must then be released from the food matrix, negotiate the aqueous environment to reach taste cell surfaces, and interact with receptors such as CD36 and GPR120 or diffuse across cell membranes to initiate a taste signal. Knowledge of these processes in non-gustatory tissues should inform understanding of taste responses to NEFA. Additionally, downstream effects of oral triglyceride exposure have been observed in numerous studies. Data specific to effects of NEFA versus triglyceride are scarce, but modified sham feeding trials with triglyceride document cephalic phase responses including elevations in serum lipids and insulin as well as potential, but debated, effects on gut peptides, appetite, and thermogenesis. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms by which NEFA migrate to and interact with taste cells, and then we examine physiological responses to oral fat exposure. PMID:24591077

  7. Molecular and Cellular Designs of Insect Taste Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Isono, Kunio; Morita, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    The insect gustatory receptors (GRs) are members of a large G-protein coupled receptor family distantly related to the insect olfactory receptors. They are phylogenetically different from taste receptors of most other animals. GRs are often coexpressed with other GRs in single receptor neurons. Taste receptors other than GRs are also expressed in some neurons. Recent molecular studies in the fruitfly Drosophila revealed that the insect taste receptor system not only covers a wide ligand spectrum of sugars, bitter substances or salts that are common to mammals but also includes reception of pheromone and somatosensory stimulants. However, the central mechanism to perceive and discriminate taste information is not yet elucidated. Analysis of the primary projection of taste neurons to the brain shows that the projection profiles depend basically on the peripheral locations of the neurons as well as the GRs that they express. These results suggest that both peripheral and central design principles of insect taste perception are different from those of olfactory perception. PMID:20617187

  8. Does Taste Perception Effect Body Mass Index in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Markam, Vandana; Singh, Garima; Chakravarthy, Kalyan; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eating trends established early in life leads to chronic life style disorders such as obesity, which is hard to overcome as child comes of age. Energy expenditure is less but caloric intake is high leading to disparity of energy balance in turn leading to obesity. Obesity is the outcome of a disparity between energy expenditure and caloric intake. Genes play a role in establishing eating habits, which is termed as genetic sensitivity to taste. Aim To determine taste perception effect on body mass index (BMI) in preschool central Indian urban children. Materials and Methods A total of 500 children of 3-6 years were selected and genetic taste perception was assessed using PROP sensitivity test. Anthropometric measurements were recorded to obtain BMI value. Categorical variables were analysed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results Non tasters were mostly in overweight category i.e. 73.30% where as more number of tasters i.e. 59.70% were in underweight category. A significant correlation is seen between BMI and taste perception. No statistically significant correlation was seen between oral hygiene and taste perception. Females were predominant in both the tasters and non tasters categories. Conclusion Taste perception showed significant relationship with BMI of children between 3-6-year-old children. PMID:26816983

  9. A composition algorithm based on crossmodal taste-music correspondences.

    PubMed

    Mesz, Bruno; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A

    2012-01-01

    While there is broad consensus about the structural similarities between language and music, comparably less attention has been devoted to semantic correspondences between these two ubiquitous manifestations of human culture. We have investigated the relations between music and a narrow and bounded domain of semantics: the words and concepts referring to taste sensations. In a recent work, we found that taste words were consistently mapped to musical parameters. Bitter is associated with low-pitched and continuous music (legato), salty is characterized by silences between notes (staccato), sour is high pitched, dissonant and fast and sweet is consonant, slow and soft (Mesz et al., 2011). Here we extended these ideas, in a synergistic dialog between music and science, investigating whether music can be algorithmically generated from taste-words. We developed and implemented an algorithm that exploits a large corpus of classic and popular songs. New musical pieces were produced by choosing fragments from the corpus and modifying them to minimize their distance to the region in musical space that characterizes each taste. In order to test the capability of the produced music to elicit significant associations with the different tastes, musical pieces were produced and judged by a group of non-musicians. Results showed that participants could decode well above chance the taste-word of the composition. We also discuss how our findings can be expressed in a performance bridging music and cognitive science. PMID:22557952

  10. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  11. Optic Nerve Drusen

    MedlinePlus

    ... the drusen enlarge and the overlying tissue (nerve fiber layer) thins with age, the disc drusen become more apparent. How are optic disc drusen treated? There is no treatment for drusen. In the rare cases (with choroidal neovascularization) laser treatment may be indicated. Revised March 2016 Eye ...

  12. Optic Nerve Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the occipital lobe (the part of the brain that interprets vision) like a cable wire. What is optic nerve ... nystagmus. In older patients, peripheral vision and color vision assessment ... around the brain and spinal cord (hydrocephalus) may prevent further optic ...

  13. L-Theanine elicits umami taste via the T1R1 + T1R3 umami taste receptor.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Masataka; Toda, Yasuka; Nakagita, Tomoya; Hayashi, Yukako; Misaka, Takumi

    2014-06-01

    L-Theanine is a unique amino acid present in green tea. It elicits umami taste and has a considerable effect on tea taste and quality. We investigated L-theanine activity on the T1R1 + T1R3 umami taste receptor. L-Theanine activated T1R1 + T1R3-expressing cells and showed a synergistic response with inosine 5'-monophosphate. The site-directed mutagenesis analysis revealed that L-theanine binds to L-amino acid binding site in the Venus flytrap domain of T1R1. This study shows that L-theanine elicits an umami taste via T1R1 + T1R3. PMID:24633359

  14. Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, L; Chabert, M; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1997-03-01

    The sweet taste of nonnutritive sweeteners has been reported to increase hunger and food intake through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR). We investigated the effect of oral sensation of sweetness on CPIR and other indexes associated with glucose metabolism using nutritive and nonnutritive sweetened tablets as stimuli. At lunchtime, 12 normal-weight men sucked for 5 min a sucrose, an aspartame-polydextrose, or an unsweetened polydextrose tablet (3 g) with no added flavor. The three stimuli were administered in a counterbalanced order, each on a separate day at 1-wk intervals. Blood was drawn continuously for 45 min before and 25 min after the beginning of sucking and samples were collected at 1-min intervals. Spontaneous oscillations in glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations were assessed as were increments (slopes) of fatty acid concentrations during the baseline period. The nature of the baseline (oscillations: glucose, insulin, and glucagon; and slopes: fatty acids) was taken into account in the analyses of postexposure events. No CPIR and no significant effect on plasma glucagon or fatty acid concentrations were observed after the three stimuli. However, there was a significant decrease in plasma glucose and insulin after all three stimuli. Only the consumption of the sucrose tablet was followed by a postabsorptive increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations starting 17 and 19 min, respectively, after the beginning of sucking. In conclusion, this study suggested that oral stimulation provided by sweet nonflavored tablets is not sufficient for inducing CPIR. PMID:9062523

  15. Hydrocolloid sour taste control in pasteurized rice.

    PubMed

    Azanza, Maria Patricia V

    2014-12-01

    The effects of kappa (κ)-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in controlling the sourness intensity perception of added acetic, citric, and tartaric acids in solutions for steeping and cooking of rice intended for pasteurization were determined. The rank order of added acids (0.10 and 0.20 % w/v, pH 4.00) in the initial development of acidified hydrocolloid solutions was: acetic > citric > tartaric. The final rice acidification protocols included steeping and cooking of Japonica rice cultivar Kanto in tartaric-acidified hydrocolloid solutions of κ-carrageenan and CMC (0.30 % w/v, 50 ± 2 °C for 1 h) at pH 2.75 and 2.90, respectively. The acidified cooked rice in pouches were pasteurized in boiling water (100 °C) to reach 95 °C for 5 min. The pasteurized products were categorized under acidified foods with final Aw < 0.85 and pH < 4.00. No perceivable sour tastes from 1 to 12 week storage at 28 ± 2 °C were noted in the pasteurized rice products. The shelf-stable pasteurized products were described as white, translucent, with distinct natural rice aroma and flavor, firm, and slightly elastic mouth and hand feel. PMID:25477672

  16. Modulation of Sweet Taste by Umami Compounds via Sweet Taste Receptor Subunit hT1R2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities—sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami—can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5’-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors. PMID:25853419

  17. Modulation of sweet taste by umami compounds via sweet taste receptor subunit hT1R2.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jaewon; Son, Hee Jin; Kim, Yiseul; Kim, Ki Hwa; Kim, Jung Tae; Moon, Hana; Kim, Min Jung; Misaka, Takumi; Rhyu, Mee-Ra

    2015-01-01

    Although the five basic taste qualities-sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami-can be recognized by the respective gustatory system, interactions between these taste qualities are often experienced when food is consumed. Specifically, the umami taste has been investigated in terms of whether it enhances or reduces the other taste modalities. These studies, however, are based on individual perception and not on a molecular level. In this study we investigated umami-sweet taste interactions using umami compounds including monosodium glutamate (MSG), 5'-mononucleotides and glutamyl-dipeptides, glutamate-glutamate (Glu-Glu) and glutamate-aspartic acid (Glu-Asp), in human sweet taste receptor hT1R2/hT1R3-expressing cells. The sensitivity of sucrose to hT1R2/hT1R3 was significantly attenuated by MSG and umami active peptides but not by umami active nucleotides. Inhibition of sweet receptor activation by MSG and glutamyl peptides is obvious when sweet receptors are activated by sweeteners that target the extracellular domain (ECD) of T1R2, such as sucrose and acesulfame K, but not by cyclamate, which interact with the T1R3 transmembrane domain (TMD). Application of umami compounds with lactisole, inhibitory drugs that target T1R3, exerted a more severe inhibitory effect. The inhibition was also observed with F778A sweet receptor mutant, which have the defect in function of T1R3 TMD. These results suggest that umami peptides affect sweet taste receptors and this interaction prevents sweet receptor agonists from binding to the T1R2 ECD in an allosteric manner, not to the T1R3. This is the first report to define the interaction between umami and sweet taste receptors. PMID:25853419

  18. Application of 2D-HPLC/taste dilution analysis on taste compounds in aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.).

    PubMed

    Pickrahn, Stephen; Sebald, Karin; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-09-24

    This is the first application of fully automated, preparative, two-dimensional HPLC combined with sensory analysis for taste compound discovery using a sweet and licorice-like bitter-tasting aniseed extract as an example. Compared to the traditional iterative fractionation of food extracts by sensory-guided sequential application of separation techniques, the fully automated 2D-HPLC allowed the comprehensive separation of the aniseed extract into 256 subfractions and reduced the fractionation time from about 1 week to <1day. Using a smart sensory strategy to locate high-impact fractions, e.g., by evaluating first-dimension fractions by reconstituting them from second-dimension subfractions, followed by straightforward application of the taste dilution analysis on the individual second-dimension subfractions revealed the sweet-tasting trans-anethole and the bitter-tasting trans-pseudoisoeugenol 2-methylbutyrate, showing recognition thresholds of 70 and 68 μmol/L, respectively, as the primary orosensory active compounds in aniseed. 2D-HPLC combined with smart sensory analysis seems to be a promising strategy to speed the discovery of the key players imparting the attractive taste of foods. PMID:25186288

  19. Neural processing of basic tastes in healthy young and older adults - an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hoogeveen, Heleen R; Dalenberg, Jelle R; Renken, Remco J; ter Horst, Gert J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2015-10-01

    Ageing affects taste perception as shown in psychophysical studies, however, underlying structural and functional mechanisms of these changes are still largely unknown. To investigate the neurobiology of age-related differences associated with processing of basic tastes, we measured brain activation (i.e. fMRI-BOLD activity) during tasting of four increasing concentrations of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter tastes in young (average 23 years of age) and older (average 65 years of age) adults. The current study highlighted age-related differences in taste perception at the different higher order brain areas of the taste pathway. We found that the taste information delivered to the brain in young and older adults was not different, as illustrated by the absence of age effects in NTS and VPM activity. Our results indicate that multisensory integration changes with age; older adults showed less brain activation to integrate both taste and somatosensory information. Furthermore, older adults directed less attention to the taste stimulus; therefore attention had to be reallocated by the older individuals in order to perceive the tastes. In addition, we considered that the observed age-related differences in brain activation between taste concentrations in the amygdala reflect its involvement in processing both concentration and pleasantness of taste. Finally, we state the importance of homeostatic mechanisms in understanding the taste quality specificity in age related differences in taste perception. PMID:26072251

  20. Do sunbirds use taste to decide how much to drink?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ida E; Nicolson, Susan W

    2016-03-01

    Nectarivorous birds typically consume smaller meals of more concentrated than of less concentrated sugar solutions. It is not clear, however, whether they use taste to decide how much to consume or whether they base this decision on post-ingestive feedback. Taste, a cue to nectar concentration, is available to nectarivores during ingestion whereas post-ingestive information about resource quality becomes available only after a meal. When conditions are variable, we would expect nectarivorous birds to base their decisions on how much to consume on taste, as post-ingestive feedback from previous meals would not be a reliable cue to current resource quality. Here, we tested whether white-bellied sunbirds (Cinnyris talatala), foraging from an array of artificial flowers, use taste to decide how much to consume per meal when nectar concentration is highly variable: they did not. Instead, how much they chose to consume per meal appeared to depend on the energy intake at the previous meal, that is how hungry they were. Our birds did, however, appear to use taste to decide how much to consume per flower visited within a meal. Unexpectedly, some individuals preferred to consume more from flowers with lower concentration rewards and some preferred to do the opposite. We draw attention to the fact that many studies perhaps misleadingly claim that birds use sweet taste to inform their foraging decisions, as they analyse mean data for multiple meals over which post-ingestive feedback will have become available rather than data for individual meals when only sensory information is available. We discuss how conflicting foraging rules could explain why sunbirds do not use sweet taste to inform their meal size decisions. PMID:26618299

  1. Chemostimulatory protein: a new type of taste stimulus.

    PubMed

    Cagan, R H

    1973-07-01

    Three taste-active proteins have recently been discovered. It is proposed that two of these (monellin and thaumatin) should be classified as chemostimulatory proteins because of their sensory effect; these two proteins taste intensely sweet. The third protein (miraculin), a taste-modifier protein, changes the normal sour taste of acids to sweet. The taste-modifier protein, miraculin, occurs in the fruit of the tropical plant Synsepalum dulcificum. Though itself not sweet, it is able to change the taste of acids from sour to sweet after the tongue has been treated with the protein. Miraculin is a basic glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 44,000. Monellin, a chemostimulatory protein, is found in the fruit of a different tropical plant, Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii. It has been characterized as a basic protein with a molecular weight of 10,700 that contains no carbohydrate. Thaumatin, another chemostimulatory protein, occurs in the fruit of a third tropical plant, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Like monellin, it is a basic protein that contains no carbohydrate. Its molecular weight is around 21,000. Certain gross similarities among the three proteins have been noted. Their basic ionic character and some features of the amino acid compositions are similar. Little is known of the structural features of the chemostimulatory proteins that are required for eliciting their intense sweetness; they are of the order of 10(5) times more effective than sucrose. The precise role of the tertiary structure in their biological activity is not known but appears to be an important area for further study. The relatively large size (11,000 to 21,000 molecular weight) of the chemostimulatory proteins provides indirect evidence that the initial interaction of these stimuli with taste receptor cells occurs at the plasma membrane. PMID:4714290

  2. Determinants of Taste Preference and Acceptability: Quality vs. Hedonics

    PubMed Central

    Loney, Gregory C.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Eckel, Lisa A.; Spector, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects whereas processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Utilizing an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine irrespective of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different with the sucralose-preferring rats finding the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose, relative to sucralose-avoiding rats. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggested otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner roughly similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  3. Gender influence on emotional responses to primary tastes.

    PubMed

    Robin, O; Rousmans, S; Dittmar, A; Vernet-Maury, E

    2003-03-01

    Several studies have examined the gender differences in the area of emotion, but few data are available in the field of gustation. Yet, such differences are observed in clinical manifestations of nutritional disorders, such as a greater incidence of carbohydrate cravings in women. The aim of this study was consequently to examine the influence of gender on emotional responses to taste, by comparing autonomic responses and basic emotions associated with primary tastes between men and women. Thirty-four subjects (17 males, 17 females, mean age=28) participated in the experiment. Taste stimuli were solutions of 0.3 M sucrose (sweet), 0.15 M NaCl (salty), 0.02 M citric acid (sour) and 0.00015 M quinine sulfate (bitter). Evian mineral water served as the diluent and control (neutral taste). Five autonomic parameters [skin potential (SP) and resistance (SR), skin blood flow (SBF) and temperature (ST), instantaneous heart rate (IHR)] were simultaneously and continuously recorded when subjects tasted the five solutions. The patterns of autonomic responses, obtained for each primary taste and each subject, were transcribed into one of the six basic emotions defined by Ekman (happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger and disgust), according to a previously described method for odorants. Results evidenced that the mean variations of each autonomic parameter did not significantly differ between men and women, even if skin resistance and cardiac responses were stronger in men than in women. Concerning the basic emotions associated with each primary taste, a similar distribution for men and women was obtained for sweet, bitter and control solutions, whereas more differences were observed for salt (P=.02) and sour solutions. PMID:12676273

  4. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    PubMed

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste. PMID:24512062

  5. Determinants of taste preference and acceptability: quality versus hedonics.

    PubMed

    Loney, Gregory C; Blonde, Ginger D; Eckel, Lisa A; Spector, Alan C

    2012-07-18

    Several methods exist for reliably determining the motivational valence of a taste stimulus in animals, but few to determine its perceptual quality independent of its apparent affective properties. Individual differences in taste preference and acceptability could result from variance in the perceptual qualities of the stimulus leading to different hedonic evaluations. Alternatively, taste perception might be identical across subjects, but the processing of the sensory signals in reward circuits could differ. Using an operant-based taste cue discrimination/generalization task involving a gustometer, we trained male Long-Evans rats to report the degree to which a test stimulus resembled the taste quality of either sucrose or quinine regardless of its intensity. The rats, grouped by a characteristic bimodal phenotypic difference in their preference for sucralose, treated this artificial sweetener as qualitatively different-compared to sucralose-avoiding rats, the sucralose-preferring rats found the stimulus much more perceptually similar to sucrose. Although the possibility that stimulus palatability may have served as a discriminative cue cannot entirely be ruled out, the profile of results suggests otherwise. Subsequent brief-access licking tests revealed that affective licking responses of the same sucralose-avoiding and -preferring rats differed across concentration in a manner approximately similar to that found in the stimulus generalization task. Thus, the perceived taste quality of sucralose alone may be sufficient to drive the observed behavioral avoidance of the compound. By virtue of its potential ability to dissociate the sensory and motivational consequences of a given experimental manipulation on taste-related behavior, this approach could be interpretively valuable. PMID:22815522

  6. Ultrasound of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jung Im; Walker, Francis O.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, neuromuscular ultrasound has emerged as a useful tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. This article reviews sonographic findings of normal nerves including key quantitative ultrasound measurements that are helpful in the evaluation of focal and possibly generalized peripheral neuropathies. It also discusses several recent papers outlining the evidence base for the use of this technology, as well as new findings in compressive, traumatic, and generalized neuropathies. Ultrasound is well suited for use in electrodiagnostic laboratories where physicians, experienced in both the clinical evaluation of patients and the application of hands-on technology, can integrate findings from the patient’s history, physical examination, electrophysiological studies, and imaging for diagnosis and management. PMID:23314937

  7. Cranial Nerve II: Vision.

    PubMed

    Gillig, Paulette Marie; Sanders, Richard D

    2009-09-01

    This article contains a brief review of the anatomy of the visual system, a survey of diseases of the retina, optic nerve and lesions of the optic chiasm, and other visual field defects of special interest to the psychiatrist. It also includes a presentation of the corticothalamic mechanisms, differential diagnosis, and various manifestations of visual illusions, and simple and complex visual hallucinations, as well as the differential diagnoses of these various visual phenomena. PMID:19855858

  8. Optic nerve hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Savleen; Jain, Sparshi; Sodhi, Harsimrat B S; Rastogi, Anju; Kamlesh

    2013-05-01

    Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65%) than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED). PMID:24082663

  9. An Evolutionary Perspective on Food Review and Human Taste

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, Paul A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is stimulated when nutrients or other chemical compounds activate specialized receptor cells within the oral cavity. Taste helps us decide what to eat and influences how efficiently we digest these foods. Human taste abilities have been shaped, in large part, by the ecological niches our evolutionary ancestors occupied and by the nutrients they sought. Early hominoids sought nutrition within a closed tropical forest environment, probably eating mostly fruit and leaves, and early hominids left this environment for the savannah and greatly expanded their dietary repertoire. They would have used their sense of taste to identify nutritious food items. The risks of making poor food selections when foraging not only entail wasted energy and metabolic harm from eating foods of low nutrient and energy content, but also the harmful and potentially lethal ingestion of toxins. The learned consequences of ingested foods may subsequently guide our future food choices. The evolved taste abilities of humans are still useful for the one billion humans living with very low food security by helping them identify nutrients. But for those who have easy access to tasty, energy-dense foods our sensitivities for sugary, salty and fatty foods have also helped cause over nutrition-related diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. PMID:23660364

  10. Mice perceive synergistic umami mixtures as tasting sweet.

    PubMed

    Saites, Louis N; Goldsmith, Zachary; Densky, Jaron; Guedes, Vivian A; Boughter, John D

    2015-06-01

    Previous electrophysiological investigation shows that combinations of compounds classified by humans as umami-tasting, such as glutamate salts and 5'-ribonucleotides, elicit synergistic responses in neurons throughout the rodent taste system and produce a pattern that resembles responses to sweet compounds. The current study tested the hypothesis that a synergistic mixture of monopotassium glutamate (MPG) and inositol monophosphate (IMP) possesses perceptual similarity to sucrose in mice. We estimated behavioral similarity among these tastants and the individual umami compounds using a series of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tests, a procedure that measures whether a CTA formed to one stimulus generalizes to another. Our primary finding was that a CTA to a synergistic mixture of MPG + IMP generalizes to sucrose, and vice-versa. This indicates umami synergistic mixtures are perceived as having a sweet, or at least sucrose-like, taste to mice. Considering other recent studies, our data argue strongly in favor of multiple receptor mechanisms for umami detection, and complexity in taste perception models for rodents. PMID:25820205

  11. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  12. Lean production of taste improved lipidic sodium benzoate formulations.

    PubMed

    Eckert, C; Pein, M; Breitkreutz, J

    2014-10-01

    Sodium benzoate is a highly soluble orphan drug with unpleasant taste and high daily dose. The aim of this study was to develop a child appropriate, individually dosable, and taste masked dosage form utilizing lipids in melt granulation process and tableting. A saliva resistant coated lipid granule produced by extrusion served as reference product. Low melting hard fat was found to be appropriate as lipid binder in high-shear granulation. The resulting granules were compressed to minitablets without addition of other excipients. Compression to 2mm minitablets decreased the dissolved API amount within the first 2 min of dissolution from 33% to 23%. The Euclidean distances, calculated from electronic tongue measurements, were reduced, indicating an improved taste. The reference product showed a lag time in dissolution, which is desirable for taste masking. Although a lag time was not achieved for the lipidic minitablets, drug release in various food materials was reduced to 2%, assuming a suitable taste masking for oral sodium benzoate administration. PMID:24859305

  13. Changes in taste preference and steps taken after sleep curtailment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shannon L; Ludy, Mary-Jon; Tucker, Robin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial proportion of the population does not achieve the recommended amount of sleep. Previous work demonstrates that sleep alterations perturb energy balance by disrupting appetite hormones, increasing energy intake, and decreasing physical activity. This study explored the influence of sleep duration on taste perception as well as effects on dietary intake and physical activity. Participants (n=24 habitual short sleepers and n=27 habitual long sleepers, 82.4% female, 88.2% white, 25.2±7.7years) completed two randomized taste visits; one following short sleep duration (≤7h) and one following long sleep duration (>7h). Taste perception measures included sweet and salt detection thresholds (ascending 3-alternative, forced-choice method), as well as sweet preference (Monell 2-series, forced-choice, paired-comparison, tracking method). Steps and sleep were tracked via FitBit, an activity monitoring device. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls and analyzed using Nutritionist Pro. Habitual long-sleepers had a higher sweet taste preference (p=0.042) and took fewer steps (p=0.036) following sleep curtailment compared to the night where they slept >7h but did not experience changes in dietary intake or detection thresholds. Habitual short-sleepers did not experience changes in taste perception, activity, or dietary intake following sleep alteration. Habitual long-sleepers may be at greater risk of gaining weight when typical sleep patterns are disrupted. PMID:27184237

  14. Corticosterone and propranolol's role on taste recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Ruetti, E; Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M

    2014-12-01

    Taste recognition is a robust procedure to study learning and memory processes, as well as the different stages involved in them, i.e. encoding, storage and recall. Considerable evidence indicates that adrenal hormones and the noradrenergic system play an important role in aversive and appetitive memory formation in rats and humans. The present experiments were designed to characterize the effects of immediate post training corticosterone (Experiment 1) and propranolol administration (Experiment 2 and 3) on taste recognition memory. Administration of a high dose of corticosterone (5mg/kg, sc) impairs consolidation of taste memory, but the low and moderate doses (1 and 3mg/kg, sc) didn't affect it. On the other hand, immediate post-training administration of propranolol (1 and 2mg/kg, ip) impaired taste recognition memory. These effects were time-dependent since no effects were seen when drug administration was delayed 3h after training. These findings support the importance of stress hormones and noradrenergic system on the modulation of taste memory consolidation. PMID:25268313

  15. The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D; Chakraborty, Raja; Shaik, Feroz A; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction. PMID:27223611

  16. The Role of Sweet Taste in Satiation and Satiety

    PubMed Central

    Low, Yu Qing; Lacy, Kathleen; Keast, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Increased energy consumption, especially increased consumption of sweet energy-dense food, is thought to be one of the main contributors to the escalating rates in overweight individuals and obesity globally. The individual’s ability to detect or sense sweetness in the oral cavity is thought to be one of many factors influencing food acceptance, and therefore, taste may play an essential role in modulating food acceptance and/or energy intake. Emerging evidence now suggests that the sweet taste signaling mechanisms identified in the oral cavity also operate in the gastrointestinal system and may influence the development of satiety. Understanding the individual differences in detecting sweetness in both the oral and gastrointestinal system towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and the functional role of the sweet taste system may be important in understanding the reasons for excess energy intake. This review will summarize evidence of possible associations between the sweet taste mechanisms within the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the brain systems towards both caloric sugar and high intensity sweetener and sweet taste function, which may influence satiation, satiety and, perhaps, predisposition to being overweight and obesity. PMID:25184369

  17. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, L; Kupers, R; Ptito, M

    2015-04-01

    Sight is undoubtedly important for the perception and the assessment of the palatability of tastants. Although many studies have addressed the consequences of visual impairment on food selection, feeding behavior, eating habits and taste perception, nothing is known about the neural correlates of gustation in blindness. In the current study we examined brain responses during gustation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We scanned nine congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched blindfolded sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index (BMI), while they made judgments of either the intensity or the (un)pleasantness of different tastes (sweet, bitter) or artificial saliva that were delivered intra-orally. The fMRI data indicated that during gustation, congenitally blind individuals activate less strongly the primary taste cortex (right posterior insula and overlying Rolandic operculum) and the hypothalamus. In sharp contrast with results of multiple other sensory processing studies in congenitally blind subjects, including touch, audition and smell, the occipital cortex was not recruited during taste processing, suggesting the absence of taste-related compensatory crossmodal responses in the occipital cortex. These results underscore our earlier behavioral demonstration that congenitally blind subjects have a lower gustatory sensitivity compared to normal sighted individuals. We hypothesize that due to an underexposure to a variety of tastants, training-induced crossmodal sensory plasticity to gustatory stimulation does not occur in blind subjects. PMID:25708174

  18. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  19. Effect of protease inhibitors on the sense of taste.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Zervakis, J; Heffron, S; Heald, A E

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the taste properties of protease inhibitors which are essential components of drug regimes used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study, the taste properties of four protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, and nelfinavir) were investigated in unmedicated HIV-infected patients and healthy controls. Three of the four protease inhibitors (indinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir) were found to be predominantly bitter (with additional qualities of medicinal, metallic, astringent, sour, and burning). Nelfinavir was found to be relatively tasteless. HIV-infected and uninfected control subjects detected protease inhibitors at similar concentrations, but HIV-infected subjects perceived suprathreshold concentrations as more bitter than controls. Detection thresholds ranged from 0.0061 mM for saquinavir in HIV-infected patients to 0.0702 mM for ritonavir in uninfected control subjects. Suprathreshold studies indicated that protease inhibitors modified the taste perception of a variety of other taste compounds. These results are consistent with clinical findings that protease inhibitors produce taste complaints that can impact patient compliance. PMID:10501290

  20. Development of a taste-masked orodispersible film containing dimenhydrinate.

    PubMed

    Preis, Maren; Pein, Miriam; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF) as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Formulations were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and polarized light microscopy. Additionally, two commercially available electronic taste sensing systems were used to investigate the applied taste-masking strategies. Results obtained from X-ray-diffraction and polarized light microscopy showed no recrystallization of dimenhydrinate in the formulation when cyclodextrin or maltodextrin were used as solubilizing and complexing agent. All ODFs showed fast disintegration depending on the characterization method. In order to get taste information, the dimenhydrinate formulations were analytically compared to pure drug and drug-free formulations by electronic tongues. Results obtained from both systems are comparable and were used together for the first time. It was possible to develop an ODF of dimenhydrinate that is fast disintegrating even in small volumes of liquid. Furthermore, in vitro taste assessment by two electronic tongues revealed taste-masking effects by the excipients. PMID:24300370

  1. The Pharmacochaperone Activity of Quinine on Bitter Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jasbir D.; Chakraborty, Raja; Shaik, Feroz A.; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Bhullar, Rajinder P.; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-01-01

    Bitter taste is one of the five basic taste sensations which is mediated by 25 bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) in humans. The mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction is not yet elucidated. The cellular processes underlying T2R desensitization including receptor internalization, trafficking and degradation are yet to be studied. Here, using a combination of molecular and pharmacological techniques we show that T2R4 is not internalized upon agonist treatment. Pretreatment with bitter agonist quinine led to a reduction in subsequent quinine-mediated calcium responses to 35 ± 5% compared to the control untreated cells. Interestingly, treatment with different bitter agonists did not cause internalization of T2R4. Instead, quinine treatment led to a 2-fold increase in T2R4 cell surface expression which was sensitive to Brefeldin A, suggesting a novel pharmacochaperone activity of quinine. This phenomenon of chaperone activity of quinine was also observed for T2R7, T2R10, T2R39 and T2R46. Our results suggest that the observed action of quinine for these T2Rs is independent of its agonist activity. This study provides novel insights into the pharmacochaperone activity of quinine and possible mechanism of T2R desensitization, which is of fundamental importance in understanding the mechanism of bitter taste signal transduction. PMID:27223611

  2. A matter of taste: evaluating the quality of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-06-01

    Driven by an impetus to standardize, numerous checklists have been devised to address quality in qualitative research, but these standards and the mindset driving them offer no language with which to speak about taste, or the aesthetic sensibilities that play such a key role in evaluating the goodness of any object. In this article, quality appraisal in qualitative research is considered in the context of taste, that is, in the discernment involved in judging the value of research and in the recognition of the key role reviewer preferences, sensibilities and membership in one or more taste communities play in these judgements. The evaluation of a study is accomplished by evaluating one or more reports from that study, and such reports may be conceived as art forms amenable to the same criteria for appraisal as poems or paintings. Taste implies judgements about the quality of objects and a person's ability to sift through and select from a store of knowledge that knowledge appropriate to judge its value. What binds a community of practitioners (here reviewers of qualitative studies) together is taste-making, or the constant refinements of judgements concerning what constitutes good and bad practice. PMID:25213076

  3. CALHM1 ion channel mediates purinergic neurotransmission of sweet, bitter and umami tastes

    PubMed Central

    Taruno, Akiyuki; Vingtdeux, Valérie; Ohmoto, Makoto; Ma, Zhongming; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Li, Ang; Adrien, Leslie; Zhao, Haitian; Leung, Sze; Abernethy, Maria; Koppel, Jeremy; Davies, Peter; Civan, Mortimer M.; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Hellekant, Göran; Tordoff, Michael G.; Marambaud, Philippe; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of sweet, bitter and umami tastes requires the non-vesicular release from taste bud cells of adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), which acts as a neurotransmitter to activate afferent neural gustatory pathways1. However, how ATP is released to fulfill this function is not fully understood. Here we show that calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1), a voltage-gated ion channel2,3, is indispensable for taste stimuli-evoked ATP release from sweet-, bitter- and umami-sensing taste bud cells. Calhm1 knockout mice have severely impaired perceptions of sweet, bitter and umami compounds, whereas sour and salty taste recognition remains mostly normal. Calhm1 deficiency affects taste perception without interfering with taste cell development or integrity. CALHM1 is expressed specifically in sweet/bitter/umami-sensing type II taste bud cells. Its heterologous expression induces a novel ATP permeability that releases ATP from cells in response to manipulations that activate the CALHM1 ion channel. Knockout of Calhm1 strongly reduces voltage-gated currents in type II cells and taste-evoked ATP release from taste buds without affecting the excitability of taste cells to taste stimuli. Thus, CALHM1 is a voltage-gated ATP release channel required for sweet, bitter and umami taste perception. PMID:23467090

  4. Sweet taste and diet in type II diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Hartfiel, L M; Schneider, S H

    1996-07-01

    The relationship between sweet taste function and dietary intake was studied in 21 patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 16 age-, weight-, and sex-matched controls. Subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of a series of beverage samples sweetened with sucrose: 1.5-24%, fructose: 1-18%, or aspartame: 0.25-4%. They also kept 7-day food records. No group differences were found in sweet taste perception, pleasantness ratings, daily energy intakes, or macronutrient composition of the diets. However, subjects with diabetes consumed less sucrose but 3.5 times more alternative sweeteners than did controls. Peak pleasantness ratings for the beverage samples were positively correlated with dietary sweetness content in the subjects with diabetes but not the controls. These findings suggest that in diabetes, hedonic ratings for a sweetened beverage were related to dietary sweetness intake rather than changes in sweet taste perception. PMID:8804636

  5. Role of hypothermia in ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C L; Hawks, D M; Niehus, D R

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effect of ambient temperature during ethanol exposure on development of conditioned taste aversion to saccharin. In both studies, male albino rats receiving saccharin-ethanol (1.5 g/kg, IP) pairings followed by 6-h exposure to a 32 degrees C environment developed a weaker saccharin aversion than did rats experiencing ethanol at room temperature. Exposure to the warm environment reduced ethanol-induced hypothermia, but enhanced ethanol's motor-impairing effect. The influence of ambient temperature on ethanol-induced taste aversion may be due to changes in body temperature, neural sensitivity, or elimination rate. Although alternative accounts cannot be entirely dismissed, this outcome suggests that ethanol-induced hypothermia plays a role in determining strength of conditioned taste aversion and thus may be involved in the regulation of oral ethanol intake in rats. PMID:3137617

  6. Taste masked thin films printed by jet dispensing.

    PubMed

    Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Snowden, Martin; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-10-30

    Taste masking of bitter active substances is an emerging area in the pharmaceutical industry especially for paediatric/geriatric medications. In this study we introduce the use of jet dispensing as a taste masking technology by printing mucosal thin films of three model bitter substances, Cetirizine HCl, Diphenylhydramine HCl and Ibuprofen. The process was used to dispense aqueous drugs/polymer solutions at very high speed where eventually the drugs were embedded in the polymer matrix. The in vivo evaluation of jet-dispensed mucosal films showed excellent taste masking for drug loadings from 20 to 40%. Jet dispensing was proved to make uniform, accurate and reproducible thin films with excellent content uniformity. PMID:25957704

  7. Ryanodine receptors selectively contribute to the formation of taste-evoked calcium signals in mouse taste cells

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Michelle R.; Medler, Kathryn F.

    2010-01-01

    The peripheral taste system uses multiple signaling pathways to transduce a stimulus into an output signal that activates afferent neurons. All of these signaling pathways depend on transient increases in intracellular calcium but the current understanding of these calcium signals is not well-developed. Using molecular and physiological techniques, this study establishes that ryanodine receptors (RyRs), specifically isoform 1, are expressed in taste cells and that their physiological function differs among cell types employing different signaling pathways. RyR1 contributes to some taste-evoked signals that rely on calcium release from internal stores but can also supplement the calcium signal that is initiated by opening VGCCs. In taste cells expressing both signaling pathways, RyR1 contributes to the depolarization-induced calcium signal but not to the calcium signal that depends on calcium release from stores. These data suggest that RyR1 is an important regulator of calcium signaling and that its physiological role in taste cells is dictated by the nature of the calcium signaling mechanisms expressed. PMID:20955474

  8. Neuromuscular Ultrasound of Cranial Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Eman A.; Cartwright, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound of cranial nerves is a novel subdomain of neuromuscular ultrasound (NMUS) which may provide additional value in the assessment of cranial nerves in different neuromuscular disorders. Whilst NMUS of peripheral nerves has been studied, NMUS of cranial nerves is considered in its initial stage of research, thus, there is a need to summarize the research results achieved to date. Detailed scanning protocols, which assist in mastery of the techniques, are briefly mentioned in the few reference textbooks available in the field. This review article focuses on ultrasound scanning techniques of the 4 accessible cranial nerves: optic, facial, vagus and spinal accessory nerves. The relevant literatures and potential future applications are discussed. PMID:25851889

  9. Ultrasound guidance of uncommon nerve blocks

    PubMed Central

    Thallaj, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    In the past nerve stimulation was considered the standard tool for anesthesiologists to locate the peripheral nerve for nerve blocks. However, with the recent introduction of ultrasound (US) technology for regional anesthesia, the use of nerve stimulation has become a rarity nowadays. There is a growing interest by most anesthesiologists in using US for nerve blocks because of its simplicity and accuracy. US is now available in most hospitals practicing regional anesthesia and is a popular tool for performance of nerve blocks. Although nerve stimulation became a rarity, however the use of it is now limited to identify small nerve structures, such as greater auricular nerve and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve of the forearm. However, in this review article we discuss the role of ultrasonography for greater auricular and antebrachial cutaneous nerve blocks, which could replace nerve stimulation technique. We look at the available literature on the role of US for the performance of uncommon nerve blocks and its benefits. PMID:22144927

  10. Leptin suppresses sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine STC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Jyotaki, Masafumi; Sanematsu, Keisuke; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-09-22

    Leptin is an important hormone that regulates food intake and energy homeostasis by acting on central and peripheral targets. In the gustatory system, leptin is known to selectively suppress sweet responses by inhibiting the activation of sweet sensitive taste cells. Sweet taste receptor (T1R2+T1R3) is also expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells and contributes to nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption. Because of the similarities in expression patterns between enteroendocrine and taste receptor cells, we hypothesized that they may also share similar mechanisms used to modify/regulate the sweet responsiveness of these cells by leptin. Here, we used mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 and examined potential effect of leptin on Ca(2+) responses of STC-1 cells to various taste compounds. Ca(2+) responses to sweet compounds in STC-1 cells were suppressed by a rodent T1R3 inhibitor gurmarin, suggesting the involvement of T1R3-dependent receptors in detection of sweet compounds. Responses to sweet substances were suppressed by ⩾1ng/ml leptin without affecting responses to bitter, umami and salty compounds. This effect was inhibited by a leptin antagonist (mutant L39A/D40A/F41A) and by ATP gated K(+) (KATP) channel closer glibenclamide, suggesting that leptin affects sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells via activation of leptin receptor and KATP channel expressed in these cells. Moreover, leptin selectively inhibited sweet-induced but not bitter-induced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from STC-1 cells. These results suggest that leptin modulates sweet taste responses of enteroendocrine cells to regulate nutrient sensing, hormone release and glucose absorption in the gut. PMID:27353597

  11. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day. Sweeteners range from 180 to 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. In summer 2014, 20 people from Kaiser Permanente California facilities cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks: 95% of participants found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants stopped craving sugar after 6 days. PMID:26176574

  12. A study of children's taste and visual preferences in dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Spear, C S; Savisky, L A

    1991-01-01

    Variables and gimmicks can make choosing a dentifrice for a child complicated. Various flavors, colors, shapes, consistency, labelling, and type of dispensers provide a constellation of choices for the consumer. This study sought to determine whether children actually prefer the dentifrices designed for them. Visually the child-oriented products were preferred; modern containers were preferred over the traditional. In terms of taste, however, "child-flavored" dentifrices were not preferred over the regular flavor of the same brand, when one is tasted after the other. PMID:1939794

  13. Effect of environmental pollutants on taste and smell

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffman, S.S.; Nagle, H.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Various man-made and naturally occurring chemicals and substances can modify the chemosensory systems of animals and man. This article provides an overview of research studies that investigate the impact of pollution on taste and smell perception. Acute and chronic alterations in taste and olfaction are discussed for solvents, herbicides, fungicides, pesticides, disinfectants, germicides, soil fumigants, dyes, pharmaceuticals, textile wastes, smog, tobacco smoke, perfumes, flavors, plastics, synthetic rubber, and other industrial substances. The mechanisms by which pollutants may cause physiologic and biologic changes are highlighted. Natural detoxification systems are discussed, as well as treatments for chemosensory deficits.89 references.

  14. Study for Electrode Metals on Taste Sensor with LB film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoya, Takahiro; Hirata, Takamichi; Akiya, Masahiro

    In this paper, sensor responses with only metal electrode as Au, Cr, Ti and more with LB film were described. LB film material was the Dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide combined by PVSK as an underlayer. To detect five basic taste substances, sensor parameters were defined as maximum voltage change and response time. Response time for sourness and umami with Ti and Cr evaporated metal electrode was larger than that of usual Au electrode. LB film effect was finally found to increase response time for five basic taste materials.

  15. Your Ability to 'Smell' the Taste of Foods Can Lessen with Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158835.html Your Ability to 'Smell' the Taste of Foods Can Lessen With Age ... May 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Your ability to "smell" the foods you taste weakens as you age, ...

  16. Efficacy of monitoring the sensory taste characteristics in pomegranate juice with electronic tongue, and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to flavor attributes, pomegranate juices have sweet, sour, bitter tastes, astringent, and toothetch feeling factors. Many factors influence tastes and feeling factors. Measuring these attributes without a sensory panel makes economic sense. This investigation compares descriptive sensory...

  17. Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Linda A

    2015-11-01

    The sense of taste, or gustation, is mediated by taste buds, which are housed in specialized taste papillae found in a stereotyped pattern on the surface of the tongue. Each bud, regardless of its location, is a collection of ∼100 cells that belong to at least five different functional classes, which transduce sweet, bitter, salt, sour and umami (the taste of glutamate) signals. Taste receptor cells harbor functional similarities to neurons but, like epithelial cells, are rapidly and continuously renewed throughout adult life. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of how the pattern of taste buds is established in embryos and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing taste cell turnover. I also highlight how these findings aid our understanding of how and why many cancer therapies result in taste dysfunction. PMID:26534983

  18. Acid-sensing ion channel-2 is not necessary for sour taste in mice.

    PubMed

    Richter, Trevor A; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady A; Roper, Stephen D; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2004-04-21

    The acid-sensitive cation channel acid-sensing ion channel-2 (ASIC2) is widely believed to be a receptor for acid (sour) taste in mammals on the basis of its physiological properties and expression in rat taste bud cells. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we detected expression of ASIC1 and ASIC3, but not ASIC4, in mouse and rat taste buds and nonsensory lingual epithelium. Surprisingly, we did not detect mRNA for ASIC2 in mouse taste buds, although we readily observed its expression in rat taste buds. Furthermore, in Ca2+ imaging experiments, ASIC2 knock-out mice exhibited normal physiological responses (increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations) to acid taste stimuli. Our results indicate that ASIC2 is not required for acid taste in mice, and that if a universal mammalian acid taste transduction mechanism exists, it likely uses other acid-sensitive receptors or ion channels. PMID:15102924

  19. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient. PMID:25240668

  20. Nerve conduction and electromyography studies.

    PubMed

    Kane, N M; Oware, A

    2012-07-01

    Nerve conduction studies (NCS) and electromyography (EMG), often shortened to 'EMGs', are a useful adjunct to clinical examination of the peripheral nervous system and striated skeletal muscle. NCS provide an efficient and rapid method of quantifying nerve conduction velocity (CV) and the amplitude of both sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) and compound motor action potentials (cMAPs). The CV reflects speed of propagation of action potentials, by saltatory conduction, along large myelinated axons in a peripheral nerve. The amplitude of SNAPs is in part determined by the number of axons in a sensory nerve, whilst amplitude of cMAPs reflects integrated function of the motor axons, neuromuscular junction and striated muscle. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) can identify defects of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) transmission, pre- or post-synaptic. Needle EMG examination can detect myopathic changes in muscle and signs of denervation. Combinations of these procedures can establish if motor and/or sensory nerve cell bodies or peripheral nerves are damaged (e.g. motor neuronopathy, sensory ganglionopathy or neuropathy), and also indicate if the primary target is the axon or the myelin sheath (i.e. axonal or demyelinating neuropathies). The distribution of nerve damage can be determined as either generalised, multifocal (mononeuropathy multiplex) or focal. The latter often due to compression at the common entrapment sites (such as the carpal tunnel, Guyon's canal, cubital tunnel, radial groove, fibular head and tarsal tunnel, to name but a few of the reported hundred or so 'entrapment neuropathies'). PMID:22614870

  1. Diet-Induced Obesity Reduces the Responsiveness of the Peripheral Taste Receptor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maliphol, Amanda B.; Garth, Deborah J.; Medler, Kathryn F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing epidemic that causes many serious health related complications. While the causes of obesity are complex, there is conclusive evidence that overconsumption coupled with a sedentary lifestyle is the primary cause of this medical condition. Dietary consumption is controlled by appetite which is in turn regulated by multiple neuronal systems, including the taste system. However, the relationship between taste and obesity has not been well defined. Growing evidence suggests that taste perception in the brain is altered in obese animals and humans, however no studies have determined if there are altered taste responses in the peripheral taste receptor cells, which is the initiation site for the detection and perception of taste stimuli. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we used C57Bl/6 mice which readily become obese when placed on a high fat diet. After ten weeks on the high fat diet, we used calcium imaging to measure how taste-evoked calcium signals were affected in the obese mice. We found that significantly fewer taste receptor cells were responsive to some appetitive taste stimuli while the numbers of taste cells that were sensitive to aversive taste stimuli did not change. Properties of the taste-evoked calcium signals were also significantly altered in the obese mice. Behavioral analyses found that mice on the high fat diet had reduced ability to detect some taste stimuli compared to their littermate controls. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that diet-induced obesity significantly influences peripheral taste receptor cell signals which likely leads to changes in the central taste system and may cause altered taste perception. PMID:24236129

  2. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  3. NMDA and Muscarinic Receptors of the Nucleus Accumbens Have Differential Effects on Taste Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico; Ramirez-Lugo, Leticia; Zavala-Vega, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Animals recognize a taste cue as aversive when it has been associated with post-ingestive malaise; this associative learning is known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). When an animal consumes a new taste and no negative consequences follow, it becomes recognized as a safe signal, leading to an increase in its consumption in subsequent…

  4. The Effects of Odor Quality and Temporal Asynchrony on Modulation of Taste Intensity by Retronasal Odor.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Tomoyuki; Wise, Paul M

    2016-09-01

    The experiments had 2 main goals: 1) to add to the sparse literature on how retronasal aromas interact with bitter tastes, and 2) to determine whether modulation of taste intensity by aroma depends on temporal contiguity, as one might expect if flavor interactions depend on cross-modal binding (similar to object perception in other modalities). An olfactometer-gustometer allowed independent oral presentation of odorized air and liquid samples. First, using simultaneous presentation of odors and tastes (Experiments 1a-d) we found that a "sweet-smelling" aroma enhanced the rated sweetness of sucrose and decreased the rated bitterness of sucrose octaacetate (SOA), and that a "bitter-smelling" aroma enhanced the bitterness of SOA and decreased the sweetness of sucrose. Thus, with respect to effects on taste intensity, sweet and bitter aromas mimicked mixture-interactions between sweet and bitter tastes under current conditions. Next (Experiment 2), both odors were again paired with both tastes, with a parametric manipulation of odor onset. Odor presentation ranged from before taste delivery to after taste delivery. Enhancement of taste intensity was greatest with simultaneous onset, and greatly attenuated with offsets of 1s. These results are consistent with the idea that enhancement of taste by retronasal aroma depends on a temporal binding window like many other cross-modal interactions. The effects of temporal offsets on suppression of taste were inconclusive. These findings are discussed within the context of past work on odor-taste interactions. PMID:27143280

  5. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (<40; >60) and genetic taste status…

  6. Sequence analysis of a bitter taste receptor gene repertoires in different ruminant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bitter taste has been extensively studied in mammalian species and is associated with sensitivity to toxins and with food choices that avoid dangerous substances in the diet. At the molecular level, bitter compounds are sensed by bitter taste receptor proteins (T2R) present at the surface of taste r...

  7. Preferences of 14 rat strains for 17 taste compounds.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Alarcon, Laura K; Lawler, Maureen P

    2008-10-20

    Two-bottle choice tests were used to assess the taste preferences of 8 male and 8 female rats from 3 outbred strains (SD, LE, WI) and 11 inbred strains (BN, BUF, COP, DA, Dahl-S, F344, FHH, LEW, Noble, PVG, SHR). Each rat received a series of 109 48-h tests with a choice between water and a "taste solution". Four to eight concentrations of the following compounds were tested: NaCl, CaCl2, NH4Cl, KCl, MgCl2, saccharin, sucrose, ethanol, HCl, citric acid, quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), caffeine, denatonium, monosodium glutamate (MSG), Polycose, corn oil, and capsaicin. Strain differences (p<0.001) were observed in preferences for at least one concentration of all compounds tested except denatonium (p=0.0015). There were also strain differences in the following ancillary measures: fungiform papillae number, water intake, food intake, and body weight. There were sex differences in food intake and body weight but no concerted sex differences in any of the other measures, including preferences for any taste solution. This comprehensive source of information can be used to guide the choice of appropriate rat strains and taste solution concentrations for future genetic studies. PMID:18639567

  8. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. PMID:25449847

  9. Intergenerational Continuity of Taste: Parental and Adolescent Music Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; van Zalk, Maarten; Christenson, Peter G.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the continuity in music taste from parents to their children is discussed via a multi-actor design. In our models music preferences of 325 adolescents and both their parents were linked, with parental and adolescent educational level as covariates. Parents' preferences for different types of music that had been popular when they…

  10. Extending methods: using Bourdieu's field analysis to further investigate taste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindel Dimick, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article Signs of taste for science, I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution of taste within science education classrooms. Nevertheless, because the authors' socially situated methodology draws upon Bourdieu's theories, it seems equally important to extend these methods to consider how and why students make particular distinctions within a relational context—a key aspect of Bourdieu's theory of cultural production. By situating the constitution of taste within Bourdieu's field analysis, researchers can explore the ways in which students' tastes and social positionings are established and transformed through time, space, place, and their ability to navigate the field. I describe the process of field analysis in relation to the authors' paper and suggest that combining the authors' methods with a field analysis can provide a strong methodological and analytical framework in which theory and methods combine to create a detailed understanding of students' interest in relation to their context.

  11. Decline of taste sensitivity in protein deficient adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ohara, I; Tabuchi, R; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1995-05-01

    The influence of dietary protein levels on taste sensitivity was studied in adult rats. Low protein diets of 0.0, 2.5, or 5.0% purified egg protein (PEP) were fed to animals for 28 days. Two bottle choice preference tests between aqueous solutions of either 2, 9, 17, or 86 mM sodium chloride and deionized water were conducted in an ascending order on days 14, 16, 18, and 20. Urine samples were collected for zinc and creatinine analysis. Blood samples were also collected for measuring serum zinc and creatinine concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe rats' tongue epithelia. Protein free diet group showed significantly lower taste sensitivity and renal reabsorption rate than other protein containing diet groups, while serum zinc and creatinine concentrations, and creatinine clearance were not affected by dietary protein level. Degeneration of filiform papillae and imperforation of taste pore of fungiform papillae were observed in protein free diet group. This experiment implies at least 2.5% dietary protein is required to manifest normal taste function in the adult. PMID:7610145

  12. Differential Facial Responses to Four Basic Tastes in Newborns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentstein, Diana; Oster, Harriet

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the distinctiveness and recognizability of taste-elicited facial expressions in 12 newborns two hours of age. Findings demonstrated that newborns differentiate sour and bitter from each other and from salty, and discriminate between sweet and nonsweet. Judges accurately identified newborns' responses to sucrose, but systematically…

  13. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Scheid, Jennifer L; Gebre, Eden; O'Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A; Temple, Jennifer L

    2015-08-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8- to 12-year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are no strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:25891040

  14. Development of taste sensing system using inorganic membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Yohichiro; Hasegawa, Yuki

    2011-09-01

    We developed a novel taste sensor for liquid and verified its effectiveness using coffee. We fabricated an inorganic metal oxide membrane liquid sensor using the laser ablation method. The sensor shows a sufficient sensitivity for electrolyte solutions, while it shows a relatively low response for non-electrolyte solutions. We differentiated and identified five brands of commercially available coffee using the sensor.

  15. Does odor and taste identification change during hyperemesis gravidarum?

    PubMed

    Yasar, Mehmet; Sagit, Mustafa; Zeki Uludag, Semih; Ozcan, Ibrahim

    2016-02-01

    Aim To investigate a difference in odor and taste identification among pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum, those with healthy pregnancy and non-pregnant women. Methods This prospective, controlled study included 33 pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum, 33 healthy pregnant and 26 non-pregnant women. For all participants, rhinological examinations were performed. Odor and taste identification were performed by holding Sniffin Sticks test battery (Burghart, Wedel, Germany) in all participants. Results There was a statistically significant difference in results of odor identification tests among the groups (p=0.031). Rose odor was selected as the most pleasant odor by the hyperemesis gravidarum group, 32 (96.9%). Orange odor was selected as the most pleasant odor by the healthy pregnant women, 33 (100%) whereas the banana odor was selected as the most pleasant odor by the healthy non-pregnant women, 10 (38.4%). In taste identification tests, there was a significant difference in total taste scores among the groups (p=0.003). Conclusion It is obvious that there is a need to evaluate odor thresholds and other parameters by detailed studies on odor perception in the context of hyperemesis gravidarum. PMID:26827707

  16. Abnormal taste preference for saccharin in hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Gordon, B H; Wong, G Y; Liu, J; Rivlin, R S

    1992-08-01

    Taste preferences for saccharin in concentrations ranging from 0.16 mM to 50 mM were determined in rats made hypothyroid with radioactive iodine and in their littermate controls. Hypothyroid rats demonstrated taste preferences for saccharin which were similar to those of controls only at very low (0.016 mM) or very high (49.0 mM) saccharin concentrations. At these concentrations of tastant, the preferences for tastant and water were similar to one another. At a concentration of 5.1 mM, preferences were also very similar in both groups but were very high. At intermediate saccharin concentrations of 1.1 and 3.0 mM, hypothyroid animals showed significantly lower percent preferences for the sweet tastant than did controls, mean +/- SEM (62.48 +/- 5.97 vs. 82.92 +/- 4.60, p = 0.0002) for the 1.1 mM concentration and (74.98 +/- 5.12 vs. 89.40 +/- 2.54, p = 0.0029) for the 3.0 mM concentration. These changes in taste preference for saccharin in hypothyroid rats were similar in direction and magnitude to those previously published by this laboratory using sucrose as the tastant. Thus, hypothyroid rats demonstrate abnormalities in taste preference for both the nonnutritive sweetener, sodium saccharin, as well as for the nutritive sweetener, sucrose. PMID:1523267

  17. Sweet taste: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in men.

    PubMed

    Teff, K L; Devine, J; Engelman, K

    1995-06-01

    To determine whether sweet-tasting solutions are effective elicitors of cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) in humans, two studies were conducted using nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners as stimuli. Normal weight men sipped and spit four different solutions: water, aspartame, saccharin, and sucrose. A fifth condition involved a modified sham-feed with apple pie. The five stimuli were administered in counterbalanced order, each on a separate day. In study 1, subjects tasted the stimuli for 1 min (n = 15) and in study 2 (n = 16), they tasted the stimuli for 3 min. Arterialized venous blood was drawn to establish a baseline and then at 1 min poststimulus, followed by every 2 min for 15 min and then every 5 min for 15 min. In both study 1 and study 2, no significant increases in plasma insulin were observed after subjects tasted the sweetened solutions. In contrast, significant increases in plasma insulin occurred after the modified sham-feed with both the 1 min and 3 min exposure. These results suggest that nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners in solution are not adequate stimuli for the elicitation of CPIR. PMID:7652029

  18. First-Grade Gardeners More Likely To Taste Vegetables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jennifer L.; Neustadter, Ann; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2001-01-01

    A study assessed the effectiveness of garden-enhanced nutrition education programs in improving nutrition knowledge and dietary patterns of 97 first-grade students at 2 California schools. Students who grew vegetables in their school gardens were more willing to taste certain vegetables, an essential step in improving a child's food preferences.…

  19. A Classroom Demonstration of Taste-Aversion Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Michael R.; Batsell, Jr., W. Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that recreates the central features of taste aversion (learning to avoid distinctively flavored food or drink paired with gastrointestinal illness) research. Rats are allowed to drink a saccharine flavored solution and then are given an injection of sodium chloride. They associate the unpleasant effects with the solution.…

  20. Orchestral Programming 1982-1987: An Indication of Musical Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes orchestral repertoire data as indications of musical taste. Collects data from 34 U.S. and Canadian symphony orchestras from 1982 through 1987. Summarizes and compares programing of 600 composers and 10,500 works. Reveals that Mozart was most frequently performed, and Beethoven was given most time. Shows relationship between student and…

  1. Taste and food reinforcement in non-overweight youth

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Scheid, Jennifer L.; Gebre, Eden; O’Brien, Alexis; Paluch, Rocco A.; Temple, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Food reinforcement is related to increased energy intake, cross-sectionally related to obesity and prospectively related to weight gain in children, adolescents and adults. There is very limited research on how different characteristics of food are related to food reinforcement, and none on how foods from different taste categories (sweet, savory, salty) are related to food reinforcement. We tested differences in food reinforcement for favorite foods in these categories and used a reinforcing value questionnaire to assess how food reinforcement was related to energy intake in 198 non-overweight 8–12 year-old children. Results showed stronger food reinforcement for sweet foods in comparison to savory or salty foods. In multiple regression models, controlling for child sex, minority status and age, average reinforcing value was related to total energy and fat intake, and reinforcing value of savory foods was related to total energy and fat intake. Factor analysis showed one factor, the motivation to eat, rather than separate factors based on different taste categories. Liking ratings were unrelated to total energy intake. These results suggest that while there are differences in the reinforcing value of food by taste groups, there are not strong differences in the relationship between reinforcing value of food by taste groups and energy or macronutrient intake. PMID:25891040

  2. Ice cream preference: gender differences in taste and quality.

    PubMed

    Kunz, J

    1993-12-01

    69 college women showed a preference for expensive ice cream while 53 college men preferred the less expensive ice cream. Analysis indicates the taste for more expensive ice cream is linked to gender, but it is not clear whether this is learned or not. PMID:8170753

  3. The Elements of Taste: How Many Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    What is the number of tastes or flavors we have? Is it five, as most Chinese believe? None, as the ancient Taoists asserted? Four, as Western science traditionally claims? Recently, "umami" has been added to the traditional four: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter (the Chinese added another: spicy or pungent). Aristotle and Raghavan Iyer (of India)…

  4. ABA, AAB and ABC Renewal in Taste Aversion Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Juarez, Yectivani; Gonzalez-Martin, Gabriela; Carranza, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Carrasco, Livia; Nieto, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Context renewal is identified when the conditioned response (CR) elicited by an extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS) reappears as a result of changing the contextual cues during the test. Two experiments were designed for testing contextual renewal in a conditioned taste aversion preparation. Experiment 1 assessed ABA and AAB context renewal,…

  5. Matters of Taste: Bridging Molecular Physiology and the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple…

  6. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Jun J.; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste).

  7. Loss or major reduction of umami taste sensation in pinnipeds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw

    2012-08-01

    Umami is one of basic tastes that humans and other vertebrates can perceive. This taste is elicited by L-amino acids and thus has a special role of detecting nutritious, protein-rich food. The T1R1 + T1R3 heterodimer acts as the principal umami receptor. The T1R1 protein is encoded by the Tas1r1 gene. We report multiple inactivating (pseudogenizing) mutations in exon 3 of this gene from four phocid and two otariid species (Pinnipedia). Jiang et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:4956-4961, 2012) reported two inactivating mutations in exons 2 and 6 of this gene from another otariid species. These findings suggest lost or greatly reduced umami sensory capabilities in these species. The widespread occurrence of a nonfunctional Tas1r1 pseudogene in this clade of strictly carnivorous mammals is surprising. We hypothesize that factors underlying the pseudogenization of Tas1r1 in pinnipeds may be driven by the marine environment to which these carnivorans (Carnivora) have adapted and may include: the evolutionary change in diet from tetrapod prey to fish and cephalopods (because cephalopods and living fish contain little or no synergistic inosine 5'-monophosphate that greatly enhances umami taste), the feeding behavior of swallowing food whole without mastication (because the T1R1 + T1R3 receptor is distributed on the tongue and palate), and the saltiness of sea water (because a high concentration of sodium chloride masks umami taste). PMID:22777285

  8. Patterns of Sweet Taste Liking: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Asao, Keiko; Miller, Jason; Arcori, Leann; Lumeng, Julie C.; Han-Markey, Theresa; Herman, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Two distinct patterns of sweet taste liking have been described: one showing a peak liking response in the mid-range of sucrose concentrations and the other showing a monotonic liking response at progressively higher sucrose concentrations. Classification of these patterns has been somewhat arbitrary. In this report, we analyzed patterns of sweet taste liking in a pilot study with 26 adults including 14 women and 12 men, 32.6 ± 14.5 years of age with body mass index 26.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2 (mean ± SD). Sweet taste liking was measured for 10 levels of sucrose solutions (0.035 M to 1.346 M). Participants rated their liking of each solution using a visual analog scale with 0 indicating strongly disliking and 100 strongly liking. The cluster analysis demonstrated two distinct groups: 13 liked relatively low sucrose concentrations and liked high sucrose concentrations less, and 13 liked high sucrose concentrations greatly. If we use the 0.598 M sucrose solution alone and a cutoff liking score of 50, we can distinguish the two clusters with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%). If validated in additional studies, this simple tool may help us to better understand eating behaviors and the impact of sweet taste liking on nutrition-related disorders. PMID:26404363

  9. Extending Methods: Using Bourdieu's Field Analysis to Further Investigate Taste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimick, Alexandra Schindel

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary on Per Anderhag, Per-Olof Wickman and Karim Hamza's article "Signs of taste for science," I consider how their study is situated within the concern for the role of science education in the social and cultural production of inequality. Their article provides a finely detailed methodology for analyzing the constitution…

  10. Taste, olfactory, and food reward value processing in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T

    2015-04-01

    Complementary neuronal recordings in primates, and functional neuroimaging in humans, show that the primary taste cortex in the anterior insula provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in a second tier of processing, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are for some neurons combined by associative learning with olfactory and visual inputs, and these neurons encode food reward value on a continuous scale in that they only respond to food when hungry, and in that activations correlate linearly with subjective pleasantness. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions, and selective attention to affective value, modulate the representation of the reward value of taste and olfactory stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex and a region to which it projects, the anterior cingulate cortex, a tertiary taste cortical area. The food reward representations formed in this way play an important role in the control of appetite, and food intake. Individual differences in these reward representations may contribute to obesity, and there are age-related differences in these value representations that shape the foods that people in different age groups find palatable. In a third tier of processing in medial prefrontal cortex area 10, decisions between stimuli of different reward value are taken, by attractor decision-making networks. PMID:25812933

  11. Activation of human bitter taste receptors by polymethoxylated flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Yuki; Ikeda, Riko; Yamazaki, Toyomi; Ito, Keisuke; Uda, Kazunari; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2016-10-01

    Tangeretin and nobiletin are polymethoxylated flavonoids in citrus peel. Both tangeretin and nobiletin are bitter; however, their bitterness has not been evaluated using human bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs). We screened 25 kinds of hTAS2Rs and found that hTAS2R14 and hTAS2R46 received both compounds. PMID:27379685

  12. The French Academy: Arbitrator of Taste, Order, Genius--Immortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    The French Academy is the oldest of the scholarly societies of France. Its ideals and preferences of order, genius, and immortality have influenced the schools, conservatories, universities, and archives and the intellectual and artistic tastes of the time. Its foundation was laid by nine lettered, well-educated laymen and ecclesiastics around…

  13. Taste threshold of Panax ginseng (C.A. Meyer)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginseng has been used for centuries in Asian folk medicine. While made up of hundreds of compounds, it has long been regarded that ginseng saponins (gensenosides) are responsible for ginseng’s pharmacological properties. Most Americans find the taste of ginseng to be unappealing; therefore, the conc...

  14. Taste perception analysis using a semantic verbal fluency task

    PubMed Central

    Ghemulet, Maria; Baskini, Maria; Messinis, Lambros; Mouza, Eirini; Proios, Hariklia

    2014-01-01

    A verbal fluency (VF) task is a test used to examine cognitive perception. The main aim of this study was to explore a possible relationship between taste perception in the basic taste categories (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter) and subjects’ taste preferences, using a VF task in healthy and dysphagic subjects. In addition, we correlated the results of the VF task with body mass index (BMI). The hypothesis is that categorical preferences would be consistent with the number of verbal responses. We also hypothesized that higher BMI (>30 kg/m2) would correlate with more responses in either some or all four categories. VF tasks were randomly administered. Analysis criteria included number of verbally produced responses, number of clusters, number of switches, number and type of errors, and VF consistency with taste preferences. Sixty Greek-speaking individuals participated in this study. Forty-three healthy subjects were selected with a wide range of ages, sex, and education levels. Seventeen dysphagic patients were then matched with 17 healthy subjects according to age, sex, and BMI. Quantitative one-way analysis of variance (between groups as well as repeated measures), post hoc, and chi-square, and qualitative analyses were performed. In the healthy subjects’ group, the differences among the mean number of responses for the four taste categories were statistically significant. When comparing the two matched groups of healthy and dysphagic subjects, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean number of responses in the four basic taste categories. However, for both groups, most responses were generated in the following descending order: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The bitter category presented the majority of errors for both groups. Obese subjects produced a greater mean number of responses for the “sweet,” “sour,” and “bitter” categories; conversely, underweight subjects produced a larger mean number of responses for the

  15. Taste responses of cortical neurons in freely ingesting rats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Matsuo, R; Kiyomitsu, Y; Kitamura, R

    1989-06-01

    1. Activities of 35 taste-responsive neurons in the cortical gustatory area were recorded with chronically implanted fine wires in freely ingesting Wistar rats. Quantitative analyses were performed on responses to distilled water, food solution, and four taste stimuli: sucrose, NaCl, HCl, and quinine hydrochloride. 2. Taste-responsive neurons were classified into type-1 and type-2 groups according to the response patterns to licking of the six taste stimuli. Type-1 neurons (n = 29) responded in excitatory or inhibitory directions to one or more of the taste stimuli. Type-2 neurons (n = 6) showed responses in different directions depending upon palatability of the liquids to rats: neurons showing excitatory (or inhibitory) responses to palatable stimuli exhibited inhibitory (or excitatory) responses to unpalatable stimuli. 3. Correlation coefficients of responses to pairs of stimuli across neurons suggested that palatable stimuli (water, food solution, sucrose, and NaCl) and unpalatable stimuli (HCl and quinine) elicited reciprocal (excitatory vs. inhibitory) responses in type-2 neurons, whereas type-1 neurons showed positively correlated responses to specific combinations of stimuli such as food solution and NaCl, sucrose and HCl, NaCl and quinine, and HCl and quinine. 4. A tendency toward equalization of effectiveness in eliciting responses among the four basic taste stimuli was detected on the cortex. The ratios of mean evoked responses in 29 type-1 neurons in comparison with spontaneous rate (4.4 spikes/s) were 1.7, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.9 for sucrose, NaCl, HCl, and quinine, respectively. 5. The breadth of responsiveness to the four basic taste stimuli was quantified by means of the entropy measure introduced by Smith and Travers (33). The mean entropy value was 0.540 for 29 type-1 neurons, which was similar to 0.588 previously reported for rat chorda tympani fibers, suggesting that breadth of tuning is not more narrowly tuned in a higher level of the gustatory

  16. Effects of gastric distension and infusion of umami and bitter taste stimuli on vagal afferent activity.

    PubMed

    Horn, Charles C; Murat, Chloé; Rosazza, Matthew; Still, Liz

    2011-10-24

    Until recently, sensory nerve pathways from the stomach to the brain were thought to detect distension and play little role in nutritional signaling. Newer data have challenged this view, including reports on the presence of taste receptors in the gastrointestinal lumen and the stimulation of multi-unit vagal afferent activity by glutamate infusions into the stomach. However, assessing these chemosensory effects is difficult because gastric infusions typically evoke a distension-related vagal afferent response. In the current study, we recorded gastric vagal afferent activity in the rat to investigate the possibility that umami (glutamate, 150 mM) and bitter (denatonium, 10 mM) responses could be dissociated from distension responses by adjusting the infusion rate and opening or closing the drainage port in the stomach. Slow infusions of saline (5 ml over 2 min, open port) produced no significant effects on vagal activity. Using the same infusion rate, glutamate or denatonium solutions produced little or no effects on vagal afferent activity. In an attempt to reproduce a prior report that showed distention and glutamate responses, we produced a distension response by closing the exit port. Under this condition, response to the infusion of glutamate or denatonium was similar to saline. In summary, we found little or no effect of gastric infusion of glutamate or denatonium on gastric vagal afferent activity that could be distinguished from distension responses. The current results suggest that sensitivity to umami or bitter stimuli is not a common property of gastric vagal afferent fibers. PMID:21925651

  17. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  18. Ultrasound-Guided Peripheral Nerve Procedures.

    PubMed

    Strakowski, Jeffrey A

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound guidance allows real-time visualization of the needle in peripheral nerve procedures, improving accuracy and safety. Sonographic visualization of the peripheral nerve and surrounding anatomy can provide valuable information for diagnostic purposes and procedure enhancement. Common procedures discussed are the suprascapular nerve at the suprascapular notch, deep branch of the radial nerve at the supinator, median nerve at the pronator teres and carpal tunnel, lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, superficial fibular nerve at the leg, tibial nerve at the ankle, and interdigital neuroma. For each procedure, the indications, relevant anatomy, preprocedural scanning technique, and injection procedure itself are detailed. PMID:27468673

  19. The formation of endoderm-derived taste sensory organs requires a Pax9-dependent expansion of embryonic taste bud progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Kist, Ralf; Watson, Michelle; Crosier, Moira; Robinson, Max; Fuchs, Jennifer; Reichelt, Julia; Peters, Heiko

    2014-10-01

    In mammals, taste buds develop in different regions of the oral cavity. Small epithelial protrusions form fungiform papillae on the ectoderm-derived dorsum of the tongue and contain one or few taste buds, while taste buds in the soft palate develop without distinct papilla structures. In contrast, the endoderm-derived circumvallate and foliate papillae located at the back of the tongue contain a large number of taste buds. These taste buds cluster in deep epithelial trenches, which are generated by intercalating a period of epithelial growth between initial placode formation and conversion of epithelial cells into sensory cells. How epithelial trench formation is genetically regulated during development is largely unknown. Here we show that Pax9 acts upstream of Pax1 and Sox9 in the expanding taste progenitor field of the mouse circumvallate papilla. While a reduced number of taste buds develop in a growth-retarded circumvallate papilla of Pax1 mutant mice, its development arrests completely in Pax9-deficient mice. In addition, the Pax9 mutant circumvallate papilla trenches lack expression of K8 and Prox1 in the taste bud progenitor cells, and gradually differentiate into an epidermal-like epithelium. We also demonstrate that taste placodes of the soft palate develop through a Pax9-dependent induction. Unexpectedly, Pax9 is dispensable for patterning, morphogenesis and maintenance of taste buds that develop in ectoderm-derived fungiform papillae. Collectively, our data reveal an endoderm-specific developmental program for the formation of taste buds and their associated papilla structures. In this pathway, Pax9 is essential to generate a pool of taste bud progenitors and to maintain their competence towards prosensory cell fate induction. PMID:25299669

  20. The tarsal taste of honey bees: behavioral and electrophysiological analyses

    PubMed Central

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Lorenzo, Esther; Su, Songkun; Liu, Fanglin; Zhan, Yi; Giurfa, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Taste plays a crucial role in the life of honey bees as their survival depends on the collection and intake of nectar and pollen, and other natural products. Here we studied the tarsal taste of honey bees through a series of behavioral and electrophysiological analyses. We characterized responsiveness to various sweet, salty and bitter tastants delivered to gustatory sensilla of the fore tarsi. Behavioral experiments showed that stimulation of opposite fore tarsi with sucrose and bitter substances or water yielded different outcomes depending on the stimulation sequence. When sucrose was applied first, thereby eliciting proboscis extension, no bitter substance could induce proboscis retraction, thus suggesting that the primacy of sucrose stimulation induced a central excitatory state. When bitter substances or water were applied first, sucrose stimulation could still elicit proboscis extension but to a lower level, thus suggesting central inhibition based on contradictory gustatory input on opposite tarsi. Electrophysiological experiments showed that receptor cells in the gustatory sensilla of the tarsomeres are highly sensitive to saline solutions at low concentrations. No evidence for receptors responding specifically to sucrose or to bitter substances was found in these sensilla. Receptor cells in the gustatory sensilla of the claws are highly sensitive to sucrose. Although bees do not possess dedicated bitter-taste receptors in the tarsi, indirect bitter detection is possible because bitter tastes inhibit sucrose receptor cells of the claws when mixed with sucrose solution. By combining behavioral and electrophysiological approaches, these results provide the first integrative study on tarsal taste detection in the honey bee. PMID:24550801

  1. Does Consuming Sugar and Artificial Sweeteners Change Taste Preferences?

    PubMed Central

    Bartolotto, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Americans consume a lot of sugar, primarily from sweeteners that are added to processed foods and beverages. Data from the US Department of Agriculture reveals that in 2013, Americans consumed 22.3 teaspoons of added caloric sweeteners a day, which is significantly more than the American Heart Association’s recommendation. Artificial and alternative sweeteners have also been added to a plethora of foods. These sweeteners range from about 180 times sweeter to as much as 13,000 times sweeter than sugar. Consumption of both sugar and artificial sweeteners may be changing our palates or taste preferences over time, increasing our desire for sweet foods. Unfortunately, the data on this are lacking. In the summer of 2014, a group of 20 people from Kaiser Permanente facilities throughout California agreed to cut out all added sugars and artificial sweeteners for 2 weeks and then complete a survey to determine whether their taste preferences had changed. After the 2-week challenge, 95% of participants (18 out of 19 respondents) found that sweet foods and drinks tasted sweeter or too sweet, 75% (15 out of 20 respondents) found that other foods tasted sweeter, and 95% (19 out of 20 respondents) said moving forward they would use less or even no sugar. Additionally, 86.6% of participants (13 out of 15 respondents) stopped craving sugar after 6 days. Although this was a small survey, the results suggest that using a 2-week sugar challenge can help to reset taste preferences and make consuming less or no sugar easier. Physicians should consider recommending a sugar and artificial sweetener challenge to all their patients, especially those with obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:26176574

  2. Reliability of the AccuSens Taste Kit(c) in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Birmingham, C Laird; Wong-Crowe, A; Hlynsky, J; Gao, M

    2005-06-01

    Zinc deficiency is a putative risk factor for anorexia nervosa (AN). Detecting zinc deficiency may therefore be important in treatment. However, serum zinc is not a good measure of total body zinc. An alternative test for zinc deficiency is taste testing because zinc deficiency is known to impair taste (dysgeusia). To determine whether taste testing could be used in this way, we measured the reliability of the only commercially available taste test in 16 patients with eating disorders. The results were analyzed graphically and with the kappa statistic (K). The taste test was found to be unreliable and should not be used to determine zinc status. PMID:16682856

  3. “What’s Your Taste in Music?” A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Soundscapes in Evoking Specific Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Spence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of two online experiments designed to compare different soundtracks that had been composed (by various researchers and sound designers) in order to evoke/match different basic tastes. In Experiment 1, 100 participants listened to samples from 24 soundtracks and chose the taste (sweet, sour, salty, or bitter) that best matched each sample. Overall, the sweet soundtracks most effectively evoked the taste intended by the composer (participants chose sweet 56.9% of the time for the sweet soundtracks), whereas the bitter soundtracks were the least effective (participants chose bitter 31.4% of the time for the bitter soundtracks), compared with chance (choosing any specific taste 25% of the time). In Experiment 2, 50 participants rated their emotional responses (in terms of pleasantness and arousal) to the same 24 soundtrack samples and also to imaginary sweet/sour/salty/bitter-tasting foods. Associations between soundtracks and tastes were partly mediated by pleasantness for the sweet and bitter tastes and partly by arousal for the sour tastes. These results demonstrate how emotion mediation may be an additional mechanism behind sound-taste correspondences. PMID:27551365

  4. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F; Vasselli, Joseph R; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-09-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar. PMID:26157055

  5. Sugar-induced cephalic-phase insulin release is mediated by a T1r2+T1r3-independent taste transduction pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Stano, Sarah; Holter, Marlena; Azenkot, Tali; Goldman, Olivia; Margolskee, Robert F.; Vasselli, Joseph R.; Sclafani, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation from foods elicits cephalic phase responses, which facilitate digestion and nutrient assimilation. One such response, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR), enhances glucose tolerance. Little is known about the chemosensory mechanisms that activate CPIR. We studied the contribution of the sweet taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) to sugar-induced CPIR in C57BL/6 (B6) and T1r3 knockout (KO) mice. First, we measured insulin release and glucose tolerance following oral (i.e., normal ingestion) or intragastric (IG) administration of 2.8 M glucose. Both groups of mice exhibited a CPIR following oral but not IG administration, and this CPIR improved glucose tolerance. Second, we examined the specificity of CPIR. Both mouse groups exhibited a CPIR following oral administration of 1 M glucose and 1 M sucrose but not 1 M fructose or water alone. Third, we studied behavioral attraction to the same three sugar solutions in short-term acceptability tests. B6 mice licked more avidly for the sugar solutions than for water, whereas T1r3 KO mice licked no more for the sugar solutions than for water. Finally, we examined chorda tympani (CT) nerve responses to each of the sugars. Both mouse groups exhibited CT nerve responses to the sugars, although those of B6 mice were stronger. We propose that mice possess two taste transduction pathways for sugars. One mediates behavioral attraction to sugars and requires an intact T1r2+T1r3. The other mediates CPIR but does not require an intact T1r2+T1r3. If the latter taste transduction pathway exists in humans, it should provide opportunities for the development of new treatments for controlling blood sugar. PMID:26157055

  6. Occipital nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Mammis, Antonios; Agarwal, Nitin; Mogilner, Alon Y

    2015-01-01

    Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) is a form of neuromodulation therapy aimed at treating intractable headache and craniofacial pain. The therapy utilizes neurostimulating electrodes placed subcutaneously in the occipital region and connected to a permanently implanted programmable pulse generator identical to those used for dorsal column/spinal cord stimulation. The presumed mechanisms of action involve modulation of the trigeminocervical complex, as well as closure of the physiologic pain gate. ONS is a reversible, nondestructive therapy, which can be tailored to a patient's individual needs. Typically, candidates for successful ONS include those patients with migraines, Chiari malformation, or occipital neuralgia. However, recent MRSA infections, unrealistic expectations, and psychiatric comorbidities are generally contraindications. As with any invasive procedure, complications may occur including lead migration, infection, wound erosion, device failure, muscle spasms, and pain. The success of this therapy is dependent on careful patient selection, a preimplantation trial, meticulous implantation technique, programming strategies, and complication avoidance. PMID:25411143

  7. Sweet-taste-suppressing compounds: current knowledge and perspectives of application.

    PubMed

    Sigoillot, Maud; Brockhoff, Anne; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Briand, Loïc

    2012-11-01

    Sweet-tasting compounds are recognized by a heterodimeric receptor composed of the taste receptor, type 1, members 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3) located in the mouth. This receptor is also expressed in the gut where it is involved in intestinal absorption, metabolic regulation, and glucose homeostasis. These metabolic functions make the sweet taste receptor a potential novel therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic dysfunctions such as diabetes. Existing sweet taste inhibitors or blockers that are still in development would constitute promising therapeutic agents. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge of sweet taste inhibitors, including a sweet-taste-suppressing protein named gurmarin, which is only active on rodent sweet taste receptors but not on that of humans. In addition, their potential applications as therapeutic tools are discussed. PMID:22983596

  8. A review on the taste masking of bitter APIs: hot-melt extrusion (HME) evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) found in oral dosage forms have a bitter taste. Masking the unpleasant taste of bitter, APIs is a major challenge in the development of such oral dosage forms. Taste assessment is an important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations of any new molecular entity. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) techniques, have very recently, been accepted from an industrial compliance viewpoint in relation to both manufacturing operations and development of pharmaceuticals. HME achieves taste masking of bitter APIs via various mechanisms such as the formation of solid dispersions and inter-molecular interactions and this has led to its wide-spread use in pharmaceutical formulation research. In this article, the uses of various taste evaluation methods and HME as continuous processing techniques for taste masking of bitter APIs used for the oral delivery of drugs are reviewed. PMID:23763436

  9. A role for airway taste receptor modulation in the treatment of upper respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Jennifer E; Saunders, Cecil J; Reed, Danielle R; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-02-01

    Taste receptors, initially identified in the oral epithelium, have since been shown to be widely distributed, being found in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, gastrointestinal epithelium, thyroid, and brain. The presence of taste receptors in the nasal epithelium has led to the discovery of their role in innate immunity, defending the paranasal sinuses against pathogens. This article addresses the current paradigm for understanding the role of extraoral taste receptors, specifically the T2R38 bitter taste receptor and the T1R2+3 sweet taste receptor, in respiratory innate defenses and presents evidence for the use of these and other taste receptors as therapeutic targets in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis. Future studies should focus on understanding the polymorphisms of taste receptors beyond T2R38 to fully elucidate their potential therapeutic use and lay the groundwork for their modulation in a clinical setting to decrease the health impact and economic burden of upper respiratory disease. PMID:26731661

  10. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Shurell, Elizabeth; Singh, Arun; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C

    2016-10-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the sixth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Most MPNSTs arise in association with a peripheral nerve or preexisting neurofibroma. Neurofibromatosis type is the most important risk factor for MPNST. Tumor size and fludeoxyglucose F 18 avidity are among the most helpful parameters to distinguish MPNST from a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The histopathologic diagnosis is predominantly a diagnosis of light microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains are most helpful to distinguish high-grade MPNST from its histologic mimics. Current surgical management of high-grade MPNST is similar to that of other high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27591499

  11. Nerve Transfers for the Restoration of Wrist, Finger, and Thumb Extension After High Radial Nerve Injury.

    PubMed

    Pet, Mitchell A; Lipira, Angelo B; Ko, Jason H

    2016-05-01

    High radial nerve injury is a common pattern of peripheral nerve injury most often associated with orthopedic trauma. Nerve transfers to the wrist and finger extensors, often from the median nerve, offer several advantages when compared to nerve repair or grafting and tendon transfer. In this article, we discuss the forearm anatomy pertinent to performing these nerve transfers and review the literature surrounding nerve transfers for wrist, finger, and thumb extension. A suggested algorithm for management of acute traumatic high radial nerve palsy is offered, and our preferred surgical technique for treatment of high radial nerve palsy is provided. PMID:27094891

  12. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.; Hollander, G.R.; Spector, A.C. . Dept. of Psychology)

    1981-11-01

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed.

  13. Colloidal stability of tannins: astringency, wine tasting and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchi, D.; Poulain, C.; Konarev, P.; Tribet, C.; Svergun, D. I.

    2008-12-01

    Tannin-tannin and tannin-protein interactions in water-ethanol solvent mixtures are studied in the context of red wine tasting. While tannin self-aggregation is relevant for the visual aspect of wine tasting (limpidity and related colloidal phenomena), tannin affinities for salivary proline-rich proteins is fundamental for a wide spectrum of organoleptic properties related to astringency. Tannin-tannin interactions are analyzed in water-ethanol wine-like solvents and the precipitation map is constructed for a typical grape tannin. The interaction between tannins and human salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) are investigated in the framework of the shell model for micellization, known for describing tannin-induced aggregation of β-casein. Tannin-assisted micellization and compaction of proteins observed by SAXS are described quantitatively and discussed in the case of astringency.

  14. Mechanism of fat taste perception: Association with diet and obesity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongli; Archer, Nicholas; Duesing, Konsta; Hannan, Garry; Keast, Russell

    2016-07-01

    Energy homeostasis plays a significant role in food consumption and body weight regulation with fat intake being an area of particular interest due to its palatability and high energy density. Increasing evidence from humans and animal studies indicate the existence of a taste modality responsive to fat via its breakdown product fatty acids. These studies implicate multiple candidate receptors and ion channels for fatty acid taste detection, indicating a complex peripheral physiology that is currently not well understood. Additionally, a limited number of studies suggest a reduced ability to detect fatty acids is associated with obesity and a diet high in fat reduces an individual's ability to detect fatty acids. To support this, genetic variants within candidate fatty acid receptors are also associated with obesity reduced ability to detect fatty acids. Understanding oral peripheral fatty acid transduction mechanisms and the association with fat consumption may provide the basis of novel approaches to control development of obesity. PMID:27155595

  15. Awareness Programs and Change in Taste-Based Caste Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    2015-01-01

    Becker's theory of taste-based discrimination predicts that relative employment of the discriminated social group will improve if there is a decrease in the level of prejudice for the marginally discriminating employer. In this paper we experimentally test this prediction offered by Garry Becker in his seminal work on taste based discrimination, in the context of caste in India, with management students (potential employers in the near future) as subjects. First, we measure caste prejudice and show that awareness through a TV social program reduces implicit prejudice against the lower caste and the reduction is sustained over time. Second, we find that the treatment reduces the prejudice levels of those in the left tail of the prejudice distribution - the group which can potentially affect real outcomes as predicted by the theory. And finally, a larger share of the treatment group subjects exhibit favorable opinion about reservation in jobs for the lower caste. PMID:25902290

  16. Umami taste components and their sources in Asian foods.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2015-01-01

    Umami, the fifth basic taste, is the inimitable taste of Asian foods. Several traditional and locally prepared foods and condiments of Asia are rich in umami. In this part of world, umami is found in fermented animal-based products such as fermented and dried seafood, and plant-based products from beans and grains, dry and fresh mushrooms, and tea. In Southeast Asia, the most preferred seasonings containing umami are fish and seafood sauces, and also soybean sauces. In the East Asian region, soybean sauces are the main source of umami substance in the routine cooking. In Japan, the material used to obtain umami in dashi, the stock added to almost every Japanese soups and boiled dishes, is konbu or dried bonito. This review introduces foods and seasonings containing naturally high amount of umami substances of both animal and plant sources from different countries in Asia. PMID:24915349

  17. Nerve Disease and Bladder Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... KB) Alternate Language URL Nerve Disease and Bladder Control Page Content On this page: What bladder control ...

  18. Ion Channels in Nerve Membranes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenstein, Gerald

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research that indicates that nerve membranes, which play a key role in the conduction of impulses, are traversed by protein channels with ion pathways opened and closed by the membrane electric field. (Author/MLH)

  19. Interactions between radiation and amphetamine in taste-aversion learning and the role of the area postrema in amphetamine-induced conditioned taste aversions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three experiments were run to assess the role of the area postrema in taste-aversion learning resulting from combined treatment with subthreshold unconditioned stimuli and in the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion. In the first experiment, it was shown that combined treatment with subthreshold radiation (15 rad) and subthreshold amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, IP) resulted in the acquisition of a taste aversion. The second experiment showed that lesions of the area postrema blocked taste aversion learning produced by two subthreshold doses of amphetamine. In the third experiment, which looked at the dose-response curve for amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning to intact rats and rats with area postrema lesions, it was shown that both groups of rats acquired taste aversions following injection of amphetamine, although the rats with lesions showed a less-severe aversion than the intact rats. The results are interpreted as indicating that amphetamine-induced taste-aversion learning may involve area post-remamediated mechanisms, particularly at the lower doses, but an intact area postrema is not a necessary condition of the acquisition of an amphetamine-induced taste aversion.

  20. Influence of the Perceived Taste Intensity of Chemesthetic Stimuli on Swallowing Parameters Given Age and Genetic Taste Differences in Healthy Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Cathy A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the perceived taste intensity of liquids with chemesthetic properties influenced lingua-palatal pressures and submental surface electromyography (sEMG) in swallowing, compared with water. Method: Swallowing was studied in 80 healthy women, stratified by age group and genetic taste status. General Labeled…

  1. Impaired conditioned taste aversion learning in spinophilin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom-Davis, C A; Ouimet, C C; Feng, J; Allen, P B; Greengard, P; Houpt, T A

    2001-01-01

    Plasticity in dendritic spines may underlie learning and memory. Spinophilin, a protein enriched in dendritic spines, has the properties of a scaffolding protein and is believed to regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics affecting dendritic spine morphology. It also binds protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1), an enzyme that regulates dendritic spine physiology. In this study, we tested the role of spinophilin in conditioned taste aversion learning (CTA) using transgenic spinophilin knockout mice. CTA is a form of associative learning in which an animal rejects a food that has been paired previously with a toxic effect (e.g., a sucrose solution paired with a malaise-inducing injection of lithium chloride). Acquisition and extinction of CTA was tested in spinophilin knockout and wild-type mice using taste solutions (sucrose or sodium chloride) or flavors (Kool-Aid) paired with moderate or high doses of LiCl (0.15 M, 20 or 40 mL/kg). When sucrose or NaCl solutions were paired with a moderate dose of LiCl, spinophilin knockout mice were unable to learn a CTA. At the higher dose, knockout mice acquired a CTA but extinguished more rapidly than wild-type mice. A more salient flavor stimulus (taste plus odor) revealed similar CTA learning at both doses of LiCl in both knockouts and wild types. Sensory processing in the knockouts appeared normal because knockout mice and wild-type mice expressed identical unconditioned taste preferences in two-bottle tests, and identical lying-on-belly responses to acute LiCl. We conclude that spinophilin is a candidate molecule required for normal CTA learning. PMID:11584074

  2. Odor-taste interactions: effects of attentional strategies during exposure.

    PubMed

    Prescott, John; Johnstone, Victoria; Francis, Joanne

    2004-05-01

    Through repeated pairings with a tastant such as sucrose, odors are able to take on the tastant's qualities, e.g. by becoming more sweet smelling. When such odors are subsequently experienced with a sweet tastant in solution, the mixture is often given a higher sweetness rating than the tastant alone. Odor-induced taste enhancement appears to be sensitive to whether an odor-taste combination is viewed analytically as a set of discrete qualities, or synthetically as a flavor. The present research attempted to determine if adoption of these different perceptual approaches during co-exposure with sucrose would influence the extent to which an odor would become sweet smelling and subsequently enhance sweetness intensity. In Experiment 1, subjects received multiple exposures to mixtures of sucrose with low sweetness, low familiarity odors or, as a control, the odors and sucrose solutions separately. Two groups that received mixtures made intensity ratings that promoted either synthesis or analysis of the individual elements in the mixtures. The odors became sweeter smelling irrespective of group. Only adopting a synthetic strategy produced odors that enhanced sweetness in solution. However, these effects were also shown with a 'non-exposed' control odor. This could be accounted for if the single co-exposure with sucrose that all odors received in the pre-test was able to produce sweeter odors. A second experiment confirmed this prediction. Thus, while even a single co-exposure with sucrose is sufficient to produce a sweeter odor, the adoption of a synthetic perceptual strategy during the co-exposure is necessary to produce an odor that will enhance sweetness. These data are consistent with associative leaning accounts of how odors take on taste qualities and also support the interpretation that these effects reflect the central integration of odors and tastes into flavors. PMID:15150146

  3. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    PubMed

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. PMID:25788729

  4. TAS2R bitter taste receptors regulate thyroid function

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Adam A.; Dotson, Cedrick D.; Elson, Amanda E. T.; Voigt, Anja; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Steinle, Nanette I.; Munger, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine and thyroxine (T3/T4) can impact metabolism, body composition, and development. Thus, it is critical to identify novel mechanisms that impact T3/T4 production. We found that type 2 taste receptors (TAS2Rs), which are activated by bitter-tasting compounds such as those found in many foods and pharmaceuticals, negatively regulate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-dependent Ca2+ increases and TSH-dependent iodide efflux in thyrocytes. Immunohistochemical Tas2r-dependent reporter expression and real-time PCR analyses reveal that human and mouse thyrocytes and the Nthy-Ori 3-1 human thyrocyte line express several TAS2Rs. Five different agonists for thyrocyte-expressed TAS2Rs reduced TSH-dependent Ca2+ release in Nthy-Ori 3-1 cells, but not basal Ca2+ levels, in a dose-dependent manner. Ca2+ responses were unaffected by 6-n-propylthiouracil, consistent with the expression of an unresponsive variant of its cognate receptor, TAS2R38, in these cells. TAS2R agonists also inhibited basal and TSH-dependent iodide efflux. Furthermore, a common TAS2R42 polymorphism is associated with increased serum T4 levels in a human cohort. Our findings indicate that TAS2Rs couple the detection of bitter-tasting compounds to changes in thyrocyte function and T3/T4 production. Thus, TAS2Rs may mediate a protective response to overingestion of toxic materials and could serve as new druggable targets for therapeutic treatment of hypo- or hyperthyroidism.—Clark, A. A., Dotson, C. D., Elson, A. E. T., Voigt, A., Boehm, U., Meyerhof, W., Steinle, N. I., Munger, S. D. TAS2R bitter taste receptors regulate thyroid function. PMID:25342133

  5. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hee; Choi, Goeun; Oh, Yeon-Ji; Park, Je Won; Choy, Young Bin; Park, Mung Chul; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Chang, Hee Chul; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT), for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN). To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA). Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%), suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2) and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration– time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 78.8 ± 2.32 μg · hour/mL and 12.4 ± 0.673 μg/mL, respectively, both of which were larger than those obtained with Viagra® (AUC0-∞ = 69.2 ± 3.19 μg · hour/mL; Cmax = 10.5 ± 0.641 μg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the MMT-based nanohybrid is a promising delivery system for taste masking of SDN with possibly improved drug exposure. PMID:22619517

  6. Taste development: differential growth rates of tongue regions in humans.

    PubMed

    Temple, Elizabeth C; Hutchinson, Ian; Laing, David G; Jinks, Anthony L

    2002-04-30

    There is a paucity of information about the anatomical and functional development of the human gustatory system. Although the anatomical development of the taste-sensitive fungiform, circumvallate and foliate papillae in the respective anterior, posterior and latero-posterior regions of the dorsal surface of the tongue has been well documented in the fetus, there is limited information about how these regions grow and when they exhibit adult function. The present study is concerned with determining when the growth of one of these taste-sensitive regions becomes adult in size, namely, the anterior region, and how this growth compares with that of the remaining posterior region. Two-hundred and thirty-two living subjects aged between 4 and 32 years participated. Following the identification and marking of a series of landmarks on the dorsal surface of the tongue with blue food dye, five measurements of the width and length of various parts of the tongue allowed calculation of the growth of the anterior and posterior regions. The results indicate that the fungiform papillae-rich anterior region attains adult-size by 8-10 years of age whilst the posterior region continues to grow until 15-16 years. Interestingly, this early development is not matched by achievement of adult function [Dev. Brain Res. 82 (1994) 286] or adult size papillae or taste pores [Dev. Brain Res., submitted]. Finally, the findings of the present study will allow studies of the development of taste function in humans to be conducted using equivalent tongue areas in subjects of different ages. PMID:11978394

  7. Characterization of stem/progenitor cell cycle using murine circumvallate papilla taste bud organoid

    PubMed Central

    Aihara, Eitaro; Mahe, Maxime M.; Schumacher, Michael A.; Matthis, Andrea L.; Feng, Rui; Ren, Wenwen; Noah, Taeko K.; Matsu-ura, Toru; Moore, Sean R.; Hong, Christian I.; Zavros, Yana; Herness, Scott; Shroyer, Noah F.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Jiang, Peihua; Helmrath, Michael A.; Montrose, Marshall H.

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing (Lgr5+) cells have been identified as stem/progenitor cells in the circumvallate papillae, and single cultured Lgr5+ cells give rise to taste cells. Here we use circumvallate papilla tissue to establish a three-dimensional culture system (taste bud organoids) that develops phenotypic characteristics similar to native tissue, including a multilayered epithelium containing stem/progenitor in the outer layers and taste cells in the inner layers. Furthermore, characterization of the cell cycle of the taste bud progenitor niche reveals striking dynamics of taste bud development and regeneration. Using this taste bud organoid culture system and FUCCI2 transgenic mice, we identify the stem/progenitor cells have at least 5 distinct cell cycle populations by tracking within 24-hour synchronized oscillations of proliferation. Additionally, we demonstrate that stem/progenitor cells have motility to form taste bud organoids. Taste bud organoids provides a system for elucidating mechanisms of taste signaling, disease modeling, and taste tissue regeneration. PMID:26597788

  8. Enhancement of Combined Umami and Salty Taste by Glutathione in the Human Tongue and Brain.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tazuko K; Yeung, Andy Wai Kan; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ito, Yuki; Jung, Han-Sung; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2016-09-01

    Glutathione, a natural substance, acts on calcium receptors on the tongue and is known to enhance basic taste sensations. However, the effects of glutathione on brain activity associated with taste sensation on the tongue have not been determined under standardized taste delivery conditions. In this study, we investigated the sensory effect of glutathione on taste with no effect of the smell when glutathione added to a combined umami and salty taste stimulus. Twenty-six volunteers (12 women and 14 men; age 19-27 years) performed a sensory evaluation of taste of a solution of monosodium L-glutamate and sodium chloride, with and without glutathione. The addition of glutathione changed taste qualities and significantly increased taste intensity ratings under standardized taste delivery conditions (P < 0.001). Functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that glutathione itself elicited significant activation in the left ventral insula. These results are the first to demonstrate the enhancing effect of glutathione as reflected by brain data while tasting an umami and salty mixture. PMID:27353260

  9. Evaluation of taste-masking effects of pharmaceutical sweeteners with an electronic tongue system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Du Hyung; Kim, Nam Ah; Nam, Tack Soo; Lee, Sangkil; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2014-03-01

    Electronic tongue systems have been developed for taste measurement of bitter drug substances in accurate taste comparison to development palatable oral formulations. This study was to evaluate the taste masking effect of conventional pharmaceutical sweeteners such as neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sucrose, sucralose and aspartame. The model drugs were acetaminophen, ibuprofen, tramadol hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate (all at 20 mM). The degree of bitterness was measured by a multichannel taste sensor system (an electronic tongue). The data was collected by seven sensors and analyzed by a statistical method of principal components analysis (PCA). The effect of taste masking excipient was dependent on the type of model drug. Changing the concentration of taste masking excipients affected the sensitivity of taste masking effect according to the type of drug. As the excipient concentration increased, the effect of taste masking increased. Moreover, most of the sensors showed a concentration-dependent pattern of the taste-masking agents as higher concentration provided higher selectivity. This might indicate that the sensors can detect small concentration changes of a chemical in solution. These results suggest that the taste masking could be evaluated based on the data of the electronic tongue system and that the formulation development process could be performed in a more efficient way. PMID:23786206

  10. Diversity in cell motility reveals the dynamic nature of the formation of zebrafish taste sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Soulika, Marina; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Mathieu, Benjamin; Lourenço, Raquel; Komisarczuk, Anna Z; Romano, Sebastian Alejo; Jouary, Adrien; Lardennois, Alicia; Tissot, Nicolas; Okada, Shinji; Abe, Keiko; Becker, Thomas S; Kapsimali, Marika

    2016-06-01

    Taste buds are sensory organs in jawed vertebrates, composed of distinct cell types that detect and transduce specific taste qualities. Taste bud cells differentiate from oropharyngeal epithelial progenitors, which are localized mainly in proximity to the forming organs. Despite recent progress in elucidating the molecular interactions required for taste bud cell development and function, the cell behavior underlying the organ assembly is poorly defined. Here, we used time-lapse imaging to observe the formation of taste buds in live zebrafish larvae. We found that tg(fgf8a.dr17)-expressing cells form taste buds and get rearranged within the forming organs. In addition, differentiating cells move from the epithelium to the forming organs and can be displaced between developing organs. During organ formation, tg(fgf8a.dr17) and type II taste bud cells are displaced in random, directed or confined mode relative to the taste bud they join or by which they are maintained. Finally, ascl1a activity in the 5-HT/type III cell is required to direct and maintain tg(fgf8a.dr17)-expressing cells into the taste bud. We propose that diversity in displacement modes of differentiating cells acts as a key mechanism for the highly dynamic process of taste bud assembly. PMID:27122167

  11. Electrochemical impedance spectrum frequency optimization of bitter taste cell-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Hui, Guo-Hua; Ji, Peng; Mi, Shan-Shan; Deng, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-15

    Electrochemical impedance spectrum frequency optimization to bitter taste receptor cell-based sensors is discussed in this paper. The bitter taste receptor cells (the enteroendocrine STC-1 cells and the ICR mouse isolated taste bud cells) are cultured on carbon screen printed electrodes and used as sensing elements. The HEK-293 cells and dead isolated ICR mouse taste bud cells, without bitter taste receptor expression, are used in negative control experiments. The electrochemical impedance spectrum data is recorded and processed by bistable stochastic resonance for signal-to-noise ratio analysis. The bitter taste receptor cell-based sensor selectively responds to bitter tastants. The tastants species and concentrations can be decided by signal-to-noise ratio parameters. The signal-to-noise ratio eigen peak changes with the shift of electrochemical impedance spectrum frequencies. ICR mouse isolated taste bud cell-based sensor presents bitter tastants perception abilities. 9kHz is the optimal frequency for STC-1 cell-based sensor measurement. For isolated ICR mouse taste bud cells, 1.2kHz is the optimal frequency. Negative control experiments results indicate that cells with no taste receptor expression have no discriminating ability for tastant even if they are modulated by different frequencies. The taste cell-based sensor is of great practical value. PMID:23578970

  12. Genomic and genetic evidence for the loss of umami taste in bats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huabin; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Shuyi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Umami taste is responsible for sensing monosodium glutamate, nucleotide enhancers, and other amino acids that are appetitive to vertebrates and is one of the five basic tastes that also include sour, salty, sweet, and bitter. To study how ecological factors, especially diets, impact the evolution of the umami taste, we examined the umami taste receptor gene Tas1r1 in a phylogenetically diverse group of bats including fruit eaters, insect eaters, and blood feeders. We found that Tas1r1 is absent, unamplifiable, or pseudogenized in each of the 31 species examined, including the genome sequences of two species, suggesting the loss of the umami taste in most, if not all, bats regardless of their food preferences. Most strikingly, vampire bats have also lost the sweet taste receptor gene Tas1r2 and the gene required for both umami and sweet tastes (Tas1r3), being the first known mammalian group to lack two of the five tastes. The puzzling absence of the umami taste in bats calls for a better understanding of the roles that this taste plays in the daily life of vertebrates. PMID:22117084

  13. Effect of polaprezinc on taste disorders in zinc-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Hiroki; Yoshinaga, Koji; Eta, Runa; Emori, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Daisuke; Iino, Yuka; Sawada, Miwa; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Takei, Mineo

    2006-01-01

    The effect of polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc ion and L-carnosine, on abnormalities of taste sensation induced by feeding a zinc-deficient diet to rats was examined by using the two-bottle preference test (quinine hydrochloride as a bitter taste and sodium chloride as a salty taste). Rats were fed either a zinc-deficient or a zinc-sufficient diet. The zinc-deficient diet increased the preference for both taste solutions, while polaprezinc (at doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg) restored the altered taste preferences. We also evaluated the proliferation of taste bud cells using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). The BrdU incorporation into taste bud cells was significantly reduced in rats fed a zinc-deficient diet compared with rats fed a zinc-sufficient diet (from 50.8% to 45.0%, p<0.05) and this reduction was reversed by polaprezinc at doses of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, increasing to 50.2%, 53.5%, and 52.5%, respectively. These findings indicate that zinc deficiency induces the delayed of proliferation of taste bud cells, while polaprezinc improves cell proliferation. In conclusion, polaprezinc had a therapeutic effect in a rat model of abnormal taste sensation. Its mechanism of action was suggested to involve improvement of the decrease in taste bud cell proliferation caused by zinc deficiency. PMID:17473379

  14. A Comparison of Two Electric Taste Stimulation Devices

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Scott T.; Lawless, Harry T.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the tongue, commonly used in clinical evaluations of taste dysfunction, can produce a variety of sensations including reports of metallic taste. Two studies compared responses to a fabricated electrical stimulator (a 1.6 V battery, anode side exposed) and a clinical electrogustometer (Rion TR-06). Batteries placed on the anterior dorsal tongue surface produced sensations similar in intensity and quality to those produced by the clinical electrogustometer, with equal intensity on the tongue tip for the 1.6 V battery in the range of 33 – 56 µA from the electrogustometer. A second study examined responses on three areas of the tongue on each side. Responses declined for areas lower in fungiform papillae for both devices, but at different rates. Higher current levels were required to match the battery in lower density areas, indicating spatial summation for the larger battery surface area. A consistent pattern of lateral differences was seen in only one subject. Quality descriptions were similar in frequency whether or not a word list was provided, with metallic, sour, pain and bitter being the most frequently mentioned words for both electric stimuli. Similarities in response to the battery device and electrogustometer were evident in intensity, qualities evoked, lack of a laterality effect and decreasing response in areas with lower fungiform papillae density. The battery device may provide an inexpensive portable alternative to an electrogustometer for use in clinical testing of taste. PMID:17573078

  15. Saccharin Taste Conditions Flavor Preference in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Ueji, Kayoko; Minematsu, Yuji; Takeshita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Innate and learned taste/flavor preferences to chemical stimuli in weanling rats are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when low, but not high, concentrations of sucrose solutions were used as associative rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined whether 3-week-old rats could acquire flavor learning when the rewarding stimulus was saccharin, a non-nutritive artificial sweetener. In the acquisition session, they consumed water with a flavor (cherry or grape) and 0.1% sodium saccharin with another flavor (grape or cherry) for 15 min daily on alternative days over 6 consecutive days. The subsequent test session revealed significant preferences for the flavor previously associated with saccharin. However, they failed to retain the preference when retested in adulthood at the age of 20 weeks. These behavioral results were similar to those previously demonstrated when 2% sucrose was used as an associative sweetener. Although these 2 solutions were equally preferred, the taste quality may not be the same because the weanling rats showed neophobia to 0.1% saccharin and a larger chorda tympani response than 2% sucrose. The present study showed that a conditioned flavor preference was established to saccharin in weanling rats on the basis of flavor-taste association. PMID:26514409

  16. Genetics of Taste and Smell: Poisons and Pleasures

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle Renee; Knaapila, Antti

    2012-01-01

    Eating is dangerous. While food contains nutrients and calories that animals need to produce heat and energy, it may also contain harmful parasites, bacteria, or chemicals. To guide food selection, the senses of taste and smell have evolved to alert us to the bitter taste of poisons and the sour taste and off-putting smell of spoiled foods. These sensory systems help people and animals to eat defensively, and they provide the brake that helps them avoid ingesting foods that are harmful. But choices about which foods to eat are motivated by more than avoiding the bad; they are also motivated by seeking the good, such as fat and sugar. However, just as not everyone is equally capable of sensing toxins in food, not everyone is equally enthusiastic about consuming high-fat, high-sugar foods. Genetic studies in humans and experimental animals strongly suggest that the liking of sugar and fat is influenced by genotype; likewise, the abilities to detect bitterness and the malodors of rotting food are highly variable among individuals. Understanding the exact genes and genetic differences that affect food intake may provide important clues in obesity treatment by allowing caregivers to tailor dietary recommendations to the chemosensory landscape of each person. PMID:21036327

  17. Modeling taste and odor phytoplankton in Normandy Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.M.; Brown, R.T.

    1984-03-01

    The feasibility of modeling particular algae associated with taste and odors was investigated as part of an effort to develop a two-dimensional water quality model applicable to Normandy and Columbia Reservoirs (Duck River, Tennessee). There does not appear to be any dominant factor controlling the occurrence and abundance of taste and odor causing algae. A summary of dominant algal patterns observed in Normandy Reservoir is provided. A simplified algal model using a fully mixed surface volume (bag) was developed to explore the possibility of modeling several algae types simultaneously. The results of a field algal assay involving nutrient additions to bags of indigenous algae suspended in the Duck River at Columbia, Tennessee, were summarized and simulated using the algae model. Some of the observed algal responses were reproduced with the model, while others remain unexplained. The specification of growth characteristics for individual algal types is the limiting factor in this approach because these have not been well documented. Growth characteristics for dominant algal species must be determined for more accurate modeling of taste and odor potential in Normandy and Columbia Reservoirs. 21 references, 25 figures, 1 table.

  18. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out. PMID:19416813

  19. Effects of Visual Priming on Taste-Odor Interaction

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, Marije; Bult, Harold; Renken, Remco; Stieger, Markus; Thumfart, Stefan; Cornelissen, Frans; Kooijman, Valesca

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of visual characteristics other than colour on flavor perception, and the complex interactions between more than two sensory modalities. This study focused on the effects of recognizability of visual (texture) information on flavor perception of odorized sweet beverages. Participants rated the perceived sweetness of odorized sucrose solutions in the presence or absence of either a congruent or incongruent visual context. Odors were qualitatively reminiscent of sweet foods (strawberry and caramel) or not (savoury). Visual context was either an image of the same sweet foods (figurative context) or a visual texture derived from this product (non-figurative context). Textures were created using a texture synthesis method that preserved perceived food qualities while removing object information. Odor-taste combinations were rated sweeter within a figurative than a non-figurative context. This behaviour was exhibited for all odor-taste combinations, even in trials without images, indicating sustained priming by figurative visual context. A non-figurative context showed a transient sweetening effect. Sweetness was generally enhanced most by the strawberry odor. We conclude that the degree of recognizability of visual information (figurative versus non-figurative), influences flavor perception differently. Our results suggest that this visual context priming is mediated by separate sustained and transient processes that are differently evoked by figurative and non-figurative visual contexts. These components operate independent of the congruency of the image-odor-taste combinations. PMID:21969852

  20. The umami taste: from discovery to clinical use.

    PubMed

    Stańska, Katarzyna; Krzeski, Antonii

    2016-06-30

    In the diversity of the flavor world only five basic tastes have been described. The newest one, umami, has been identified about one hundred years ago by Kikunae Ikeda but widely accepted just in the second half of the twentieth century by international scientific world. There are three umami substances: monosodium glutamate (MSG), inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP), guanylo-5'-monophosphate (GMP). A real breakthrough in umami history concerned the finding about independent receptors for umami: T1R1 and T1R3 (taste receptors type 1 member 1 and member 3). The palatable, delicious taste of umami and its mechanism determined a lot of research studies on this highlight. Umami substances elicit salivary secretion, enhance appetite and increase food palatability. They are desirable to improve the quality of diet. Moreover, the association between umami substances and the suppression of obesity has been found. Studies suggest that umami is engaged in metabolism but also increases satiety and reduces the post-ingestive recovery of hunger. PMID:27387211

  1. Taste perception in normal and overweight Mexican adults.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cordero, Erika; Malacara-Hernandez, Juan Manuel; Martinez-Cordero, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of obesity in Mexico is the highest in the world, with almost 70% of adults being classified as overweight or obese. The increased prevalence of obesity in Mexico, and globally, may be related to the changing food environment, providing increased access to highly palatable, but obesogenic, food products. One potential mechanism for this association is changing food perceptions, an area poorly studied in transitional countries. Thus, we conducted a study to determine the degree to which perception thresholds for four basic tastes are associated with anthropometric variables, hormone levels, and energy intake. Bitter and sweet taste had the lowest and highest thresholds, respectively, and women reported a greater sensitivity to these flavors compared to men. Overall, the perception thresholds to each flavor were not associated with energy intake or body mass index (BMI), while the perception threshold of aspartame was negatively associated with energy intake. Based on the results of our study, in a sample of Mexican adults, sensory taste response to basic flavors is not associated with energy intake or BMI. PMID:25681653

  2. Hemangioma of the Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Balkany, Thomas; Fradis, Milo; Jafek, Bruce W.; Rucker, Nolan C.

    1991-01-01

    Hemangioma of the facial nerve may occur more frequently than previously recognized. This benign vascular tumor most often arises in the area of the geniculate ganglion, although the reason for this site of predilection is not known. Using silicon injection and cross-sectional vessel counts, we recently demonstrated the presence of a geniculate capillary plexus (GCP) in the cat. The present study was designed to identify a similar GCP in man, if present, and to relate if to the site of predilection of hemangioma of the facial nerve. Twenty-five human facial nerves were studied in horizontally sectioned temporal bones. A clinical case of hemangioma arising at the geniculate ganglion is presented. The human geniculate ganglion has a very rich capillary plexus in contrast to the poor intrinsic vasculature of the adjacent labyrinthine segment and nioderate vasculature of the tympanic segment of the facial nerve. We hypothesize that the GCP is the origin of most hemangiomas of facial nerve. The anatomic distinctness of the geniculate gangion and GCP from the facial nerve may allow removal of these tumors with preservation of motor function in certain cases. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17170823

  3. [Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Sports].

    PubMed

    Tettenborn, B; Mehnert, S; Reuter, I

    2016-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries due to sports are relatively rare but the exact incidence is not known due to a lack of epidemiological studies. Particular sports activities tend to cause certain peripheral nerve injuries including direct acute compression or stretching, repetitive compression and stretching over time, or another mechanism such as ischemia or laceration. These nerve lesions may be severe and delay or preclude the athlete's return to sports, especially in cases with delayed diagnosis. Repetitive and vigorous use or overuse makes the athlete vulnerable to disorders of the peripheral nerves, and sports equipment may cause compression of the nerves. Depending on etiology, the treatment is primarily conservative and includes physiotherapy, modification of movements and sports equipment, shoe inserts, splinting, antiphlogistic drugs, sometimes local administration of glucocorticoids or, lately, the use of extracorporeal shock waves. Most often, cessation of the offending physical activity is necessary. Surgery is only indicated in the rare cases of direct traumatic nerve injury or when symptoms are refractory to conservative therapy. Prognosis mainly depends on the etiology and the available options of modifying measures.This article is based on the publications "Reuter I, Mehnert S. Engpasssyndrome peripherer Nerven bei Sportlern". Akt Neurol 2012;39:292-308 and Sportverl Sportschad 2013;27:130-146. PMID:27607069

  4. Comparison of salty taste acuity and salty taste preference with sodium intake and blood pressure based on zinc nutritional status in two rural populations in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2012-12-01

    This study examined salty taste acuity and salty taste preference and sodium intake in relation to zinc nutritional status in 2 rural populations in Korea. And we also examined the main food contributors of their sodium intakes. We enrolled 218 adults (66 men and 152 women) from the Kangneung and Samcheok regions in Korea's Kangwon province in our study conducted from December 2011 to February 2012. Participants from each region were divided into 3 groups based on their serum zinc level (T1: lowest, T2: intermediate, T3: highest). We compared the salty taste acuity and preference, Na index (Dish Frequency Questionnaire for estimation of habitual sodium intake), blood pressure, and intakes of nutrients including sodium by 3 groups of serum zinc level. The results were as follows: a higher serum zinc level indicated a lower sodium intake and Na index (P < 0.05). The salty taste acuity was considerably higher for participants from the Kangneung region than those from the Samcheok region (P < 0.05). And the serum zinc level was significantly higher in participants from the Kangneung region than those from the Samcheok region (P < 0.05). We further divided the participants into 2 groups: those who consumed more zinc than the recommended intake (RI) and the others. We compared salty taste acuity and salty taste preference in the 2 groups. The salty taste threshold and palatable salty taste concentrations were lower for the group with a zinc intake above RI than for the group with zinc intake below the RI. However, the difference was not significant. This study confirms that taste function differs depending on zinc nutritional status. In future, it is required to a large-scale, long-term, prospective study on the correlation between zinc intake, serum zinc levels, and taste perception function and blood pressure. PMID:23346304

  5. “Turn Up the Taste”: Assessing the Role of Taste Intensity and Emotion in Mediating Crossmodal Correspondences between Basic Tastes and Pitch

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheila; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People intuitively match basic tastes to sounds of different pitches, and the matches that they make tend to be consistent across individuals. It is, though, not altogether clear what governs such crossmodal mappings between taste and auditory pitch. Here, we assess whether variations in taste intensity influence the matching of taste to pitch as well as the role of emotion in mediating such crossmodal correspondences. Participants were presented with 5 basic tastants at 3 concentrations. In Experiment 1, the participants rated the tastants in terms of their emotional arousal and valence/pleasantness, and selected a musical note (from 19 possible pitches ranging from C2 to C8) and loudness that best matched each tastant. In Experiment 2, the participants made emotion ratings and note matches in separate blocks of trials, then made emotion ratings for all 19 notes. Overall, the results of the 2 experiments revealed that both taste quality and concentration exerted a significant effect on participants’ loudness selection, taste intensity rating, and valence and arousal ratings. Taste quality, not concentration levels, had a significant effect on participants’ choice of pitch, but a significant positive correlation was observed between individual perceived taste intensity and pitch choice. A significant and strong correlation was also demonstrated between participants’ valence assessments of tastants and their valence assessments of the best-matching musical notes. These results therefore provide evidence that: 1) pitch–taste correspondences are primarily influenced by taste quality, and to a lesser extent, by perceived intensity; and 2) such correspondences may be mediated by valence/pleasantness. PMID:26873934

  6. Each Sensory Nerve Arising From the Geniculate Ganglion Expresses a Unique Fingerprint of Neurotrophin and Neurotrophin Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Farbman, Albert I.; Guagliardo, Nick; Sollars, Suzanne I.; Hill, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons in the geniculate ganglion, like those in other sensory ganglia, are dependent on neurotrophins for survival. Most geniculate ganglion neurons innervate taste buds in two regions of the tongue and two regions of the palate; the rest are cutaneous nerves to the skin of the ear. We investigated the expression of four neurotrophins, nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), and NT-4, and five neurotrophin receptors, trkA, trkB, trkC, p75, and truncated trkB (Trn-B) in single sensory neurons of the adult rat geniculate ganglion associated with the five innervation fields. For fungiform papillae, a glass pipette containing biotinylated dextran was placed over the target papilla and the tracer was iontophoresed into the target papilla. For the other target fields, Fluoro-Gold was microinjected. After 3 days, geniculate ganglia were harvested, sectioned, and treated histochemically (for biotinylated dextran) or immunohistochemically (for Fluoro-Gold) to reveal the neurons containing the tracer. Single labeled neurons were harvested from the slides and subjected to RNA amplification and RT-PCR to reveal the neurotrophin or neurotrophin receptor genes that were expressed. Neurons projecting from the geniculate ganglion to each of the five target fields had a unique expression profile of neurotrophin and neurotrophic receptor genes. Several individual neurons expressed more than one neurotrophin receptor or more than one neurotrophin gene. Although BDNF is significantly expressed in taste buds, its primary high affinity receptor, trkB, was not prominently expressed in the neurons. The results are consistent with the interpretation that at least some, perhaps most, of the trophic influence on the sensory neurons is derived from the neuronal somata, and the trophic effect is paracrine or autocrine, rather than target derived. The BDNF in the taste bud may also act in a paracrine or autocrine manner on the trkB expressed

  7. Electrophysiological evaluation of nerve function in inferior alveolar nerve injury: relationship between nerve action potentials and histomorphometric observations.

    PubMed

    Murayama, M; Sasaki, K; Shibahara, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury by determining degrees of nerve disturbance using the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Crush and partial and complete nerve amputation injuries were applied to the IAN of rabbits, then SNAPs and histomorphometric observations were recorded at 1, 5, and 10 weeks. For crush injury, most nerves were smaller in diameter at 5 weeks than at 1 week, however after 10 weeks, extensive nerve regeneration was observed. The SNAP showed a decrease in SCV at weeks 1 and 5, followed by an increase at week 10. For partial nerve amputation, small to medium-sized nerve fibres were observed at weeks 1 and 5, then larger nerves were seen at week 10. Minimal changes in SCV were observed at weeks 1 and 5, however SCV increased at week 10. For complete nerve amputation, nerve fibres were sparse at week 1, but gradual nerve regeneration was observed at weeks 5 and 10. SNAPs were detectable from week 10, however the SCV was extremely low. This study showed SCV to be an effective factor in the evaluation of nerve injury and regeneration. PMID:26433750

  8. From nerve net to nerve ring, nerve cord and brain--evolution of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev; Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Marlow, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The puzzle of how complex nervous systems emerged remains unsolved. Comparative studies of neurodevelopment in cnidarians and bilaterians suggest that this process began with distinct integration centres that evolved on opposite ends of an initial nerve net. The 'apical nervous system' controlled general body physiology, and the 'blastoporal nervous system' coordinated feeding movements and locomotion. We propose that expansion, integration and fusion of these centres gave rise to the bilaterian nerve cord and brain. PMID:26675821

  9. Mediated overshadowing and potentiation of long-delay taste aversion learning: Two versus six cue-taste pairings.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Dorothy W S; Sun, Qian; Boakes, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Mediated overshadowing occurs when an evoked representation of one stimulus interferes with the formation of an association between two other stimuli. This study tested whether such an effect can be found in long-delay taste aversion learning. The general methodology was to pair a cue with a sour taste (hydrochloric acid [HCl]) and then introduce the cue during the delay between the target taste, sucrose, and injection with lithium chloride (LiCl). Either 2 or 6 cue-HCl pairings were given. In Experiment 1, introduction of the cue, an almond flavor, produced overshadowing of the sucrose aversion in the group given 2 cue-HCl pairings (Paired-2), relative to an unpaired control, but potentiation of the sucrose aversion in the group given 6 cue-HCl pairings (Paired-6). This confirms that few pairings can be better than many in determining whether representation-mediated effects occur (Holland, 1990). A possible explanation for the Paired-6 results is that almond evoked an aversive response rather than memory of the sour HCl and that this added to the aversion produced by the sucrose-lithium pairing. Experiment 2 obtained similar results when a context was used as the cue intended to evoke an HCl representation. PMID:26752235

  10. Comparative lectin histochemical studies on taste buds in five orders of mammals.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kazumi; Koida, Ayumu; Mutoh, Ken-Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    Although it has been reported that specific proteins are present to take charge in the gustation in the taste buds, there have been only a few reports on the distribution of glycoconjugates binding to glycoproteins on the cellular membranes of the taste cells. In the present study, therefore, binding patters of 24 biotinylated lectins were examined in the three types of lingual papillae in five species of mammals belonging to different orders: cow (artiodactyl), horse (perissodactyl), monkey (primate), dog (carnivore) and mouse (rodent). As the results, lectin binding patterns were different among circumvallate, foliate and fungiform papillae, among the cells of the taste buds, and among animal species. These findings suggest that the different binding patterns of the lectins in the taste papillae and taste bud cells may be involved in different sensitivities of taste among mammalian species. PMID:18250574

  11. Strategies to improve the Willingness to Taste: The moderating role of children's Reward Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Vervoort, Leentje; Braet, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of different strategies to improve Willingness to Taste disliked vegetables and the moderating role of Reward Sensitivity. Preschool children (N = 204; age: M = 4.48, SD = 1.01) were randomly allocated to one of four different Willingness to Taste strategies. The findings indicate that first, Willingness to Taste is higher in the modelling and reward strategies compared to neutral instructions. Second, there is a differential effect of Willingness to Taste strategies dependent upon individual differences: children high in Reward Sensitivity were more likely to taste immediately when rewarded, while children low in Reward Sensitivity were more willing to taste when verbally encouraged, but with hesitation. This article thus highlights the roles of both individual differences and behavioral techniques for promoting a healthy diet in children. PMID:27103060

  12. Breadth of tuning in taste afferent neurons varies with stimulus strength.

    PubMed

    Wu, An; Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Pereira, Elizabeth; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory stimuli are detected by taste buds and transmitted to the hindbrain via sensory afferent neurons. Whether each taste quality (sweet, bitter and so on) is encoded by separate neurons ('labelled lines') remains controversial. We used mice expressing GCaMP3 in geniculate ganglion sensory neurons to investigate taste-evoked activity. Using confocal calcium imaging, we recorded responses to oral stimulation with prototypic taste stimuli. Up to 69% of neurons respond to multiple tastants. Moreover, neurons tuned to a single taste quality at low concentration become more broadly tuned when stimuli are presented at higher concentration. Responses to sucrose and monosodium glutamate are most related. Although mice prefer dilute NaCl solutions and avoid concentrated NaCl, we found no evidence for two separate populations of sensory neurons that encode this distinction. Altogether, our data suggest that taste is encoded by activity in patterns of peripheral sensory neurons and challenge the notion of strict labelled line coding. PMID:26373451

  13. Central relay of bitter taste to the protocerebrum by peptidergic interneurons in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Peters, Marc; Pankratz, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Bitter is a taste modality associated with toxic substances evoking aversive behaviour in most animals, and the valence of different taste modalities is conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Despite knowledge gathered in the past on the peripheral perception of taste, little is known about the identity of taste interneurons in the brain. Here we show that hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons in the Drosophila larval brain are necessary for avoidance behaviour to caffeine, and when activated, result in cessation of feeding and mediates a bitter taste signal within the brain. Hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons project to the neurosecretory region of the protocerebrum and functional imaging demonstrates that these neurons are activated by bitter stimuli and by activation of bitter sensory receptor neurons. We propose that hugin neurons projecting to the protocerebrum act as gustatory interneurons relaying bitter taste information to higher brain centres in Drosophila larvae. PMID:27619503

  14. Basic Taste Stimuli Elicit Unique Responses in Facial Skin Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression changes characteristically with the emotions induced by basic tastes in humans. We tested the hypothesis that the five basic tastes also elicit unique responses in facial skin blood flow. Facial skin blood flow was measured using laser speckle flowgraphy in 16 healthy subjects before and during the application of basic taste stimuli in the oral cavity for 20 s. The skin blood flow in the eyelid increased in response to sweet and umami taste stimuli, while that in the nose decreased in response to a bitter stimulus. There was a significant correlation between the subjective hedonic scores accompanying these taste stimuli and the above changes in skin blood flow. These results demonstrate that sweet, umami, and bitter tastes induce unique changes in facial skin blood flow that reflect subjective hedonic scores. PMID:22145032

  15. Pragmatically on the sense of taste - a short treatise based on culinary art.

    PubMed

    Waluga, Marek; Jonderko, Krzysztof; Buschhaus, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The sense of taste is essential for proper functioning of the organism. The authors describe, in an accessible way, the complex mechanisms of taste perception. The structure of particular taste receptors, variants of their activation, as well as physical and chemical factors modifying the sensation of taste, are presented. Exquisite culinary examples are given in order to facilitate the reader with the understanding of why, at the level of the cerebral cortex, a virtually infinite number of combinations of taste sensations can be perceived. The discourse is spiced up by reflections of the eminent philosopher of taste, J.A. Brillat-Savarin, who convinces us that food intake should be not only a physiological act, but also a refined pleasure. PMID:24868281

  16. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    PubMed

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic. PMID:11409989

  17. Evolutionary conserved brainstem circuits encode category, concentration and mixtures of taste

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell-Llopis, Nuria; Yaksi, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary conserved brainstem circuits are the first relay for gustatory information in the vertebrate brain. While the brainstem circuits act as our life support system and they mediate vital taste related behaviors, the principles of gustatory computations in these circuits are poorly understood. By a combination of two-photon calcium imaging and quantitative animal behavior in juvenile zebrafish, we showed that taste categories are represented by dissimilar brainstem responses and generate different behaviors. We also showed that the concentration of sour and bitter tastes are encoded by different principles and with different levels of sensitivity. Moreover, we observed that the taste mixtures lead to synergistic and suppressive interactions. Our results suggest that these interactions in early brainstem circuits can result in non-linear computations, such as dynamic gain modulation and discrete representation of taste mixtures, which can be utilized for detecting food items at broad range of concentrations of tastes and rejecting inedible substances. PMID:26639368

  18. The role of taste in food acceptance at the beginning of complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Lange, Christine; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2011-09-26

    Introduction of solid foods is a major step in the establishment of eating behavior and is likely to affect children's health. However, the role of taste in acceptance of new foods, in particular in the first months of complementary feeding, is not fully understood and was the aim of the present study. Infants had to be in good health to participate (N=74). First, the infants' reactions to new foods were recorded by their parents between the ages of 5 and 7 months using a 4-point-scale ranging from very negative to very positive. Taste intensities of infant foods were scored by a trained panel and foods were clustered into groups showing similar taste profiles. Infants' reactions were used to calculate new food acceptance (NFA) defined as the average reaction towards a group of foods showing a similar taste profile. Second, preferences for the five basic tastes over water were measured using a 4-bottle test at 6 months old comparing intake of tastant solutions to water. Taste acceptance was evaluated through ingestion ratio (IR=intake of tastant solutions/intake of tastant solutions and water). NFAs were compared across food groups. Kendall correlations were calculated between NFA and IR. Most reactions (88%) to new foods were positive. However, NFA varied according to the taste profile of the foods: vegetables in which salt or a salty ingredient was added were more accepted than plain vegetables (P<0.01). On average no rejection of basic tastes was observed. For sweet, sour and umami tastes, significant positive correlations were observed between NFA and IR. Healthy foods like vegetables could be easily introduced in the diet of most, but not all infants. The role of taste preferences in new food acceptance was highlighted: a higher acceptance for a taste was associated to an enhanced acceptance of foods bearing this taste. PMID:21554893

  19. Massive losses of taste receptor genes in toothed and baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-06-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  20. Tactile interaction with taste localization: influence of gustatory quality and intensity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Juyun; Green, Barry G

    2008-02-01

    Taste is always accompanied by tactile stimulation, but little is known about how touch interacts with taste. One exception is evidence that taste can be "referred" to nearby tactile stimulation. It was recently found (Lim J, and Green BG. 2007. The psychophysical relationship between bitter taste and burning sensation: evidence of qualitative similarity. Chem Senses. 32:31-39) that spatial discrimination of taste was poorer for bitterness than for other tastes when the perceived intensities were matched. We hypothesized that this difference may have been caused by greater referral of bitterness by touch. The present study tested this hypothesis by comparing localization of quinine sulfate and sucrose under conditions that minimized and maximized the opportunity for referral. In both conditions, stimulation was produced by 5 cotton swabs spaced 1 cm apart and arranged in an arc to enable simultaneous contact with the front edge of the tongue. Only one swab contained the taste stimulus, whereas the rest were saturated with deionized water. In both conditions, the swabs were stroked up-and-down against the tongue 5 times. Subjects were asked to identify which swab contained the taste stimulus 1) 5 s after the fifth stroke (touch-removed condition) and 2) immediately at the end of the fifth stroke, with the swabs still in contact with the tongue (touch-maintained condition). Ratings of taste intensity were obtained to assess the possible effect of perceived intensity on spatial localization. Taste localization was surprisingly accurate, especially for sucrose, with errors of localization in the range of 1 cm or less. For both stimuli, localization tended to be poorer when the tactile stimulus was present while subjects made their judgments, but the difference between conditions was significant only for the lower concentration of quinine. The results are discussed in terms of both the surprisingly good spatial acuity of taste and the possibility of having a close

  1. Massive Losses of Taste Receptor Genes in Toothed and Baleen Whales

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ping; Zheng, Jinsong; Rossiter, Stephen J.; Wang, Ding; Zhao, Huabin

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptor genes are functionally important in animals, with a surprising exception in the bottlenose dolphin, which shows extensive losses of sweet, umami, and bitter taste receptor genes. To examine the generality of taste gene loss, we examined seven toothed whales and five baleen whales and sequenced the complete repertoire of three sweet/umami (T1Rs) and ten bitter (T2Rs) taste receptor genes. We found all amplified T1Rs and T2Rs to be pseudogenes in all 12 whales, with a shared premature stop codon in 10 of the 13 genes, which demonstrated massive losses of taste receptor genes in the common ancestor of whales. Furthermore, we analyzed three genome sequences from two toothed whales and one baleen whale and found that the sour taste marker gene Pkd2l1 is a pseudogene, whereas the candidate salty taste receptor genes are intact and putatively functional. Additionally, we examined three genes that are responsible for taste signal transduction and found the relaxation of functional constraints on taste signaling pathways along the ancestral branch leading to whales. Together, our results strongly suggest extensive losses of sweet, umami, bitter, and sour tastes in whales, and the relaxation of taste function most likely arose in the common ancestor of whales between 36 and 53 Ma. Therefore, whales represent the first animal group to lack four of five primary tastes, probably driven by the marine environment with high concentration of sodium, the feeding behavior of swallowing prey whole, and the dietary switch from plants to meat in the whale ancestor. PMID:24803572

  2. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huawei; Wen, Weisheng; Hu, Min; Bi, Wenting; Chen, Lijie; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

    2013-01-01

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups than in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups. physiological analysis revealed that the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were significantly higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. Moreover, histological observation illustrated that the di-ameter, number, alignment and myelin sheath thickness of myelinated nerves derived from rabbits were higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. These findings indicate that chitosan nerve conduits bined with microspheres for sustained release of nerve growth factor can significantly improve facial nerve defect repair in rabbits. PMID:25206635

  3. Chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor microspheres repair facial nerve defects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huawei; Wen, Weisheng; Hu, Min; Bi, Wenting; Chen, Lijie; Liu, Sanxia; Chen, Peng; Tan, Xinying

    2013-11-25

    Microspheres containing nerve growth factor for sustained release were prepared by a compound method, and implanted into chitosan conduits to repair 10-mm defects on the right buccal branches of the facial nerve in rabbits. In addition, chitosan conduits combined with nerve growth factor or normal saline, as well as autologous nerve, were used as controls. At 90 days post-surgery, the muscular atrophy on the right upper lip was more evident in the nerve growth factor and normal sa-line groups than in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups. physiological analysis revealed that the nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were significantly higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. Moreover, histological observation illustrated that the di-ameter, number, alignment and myelin sheath thickness of myelinated nerves derived from rabbits were higher in the nerve growth factor-microspheres and autologous nerve groups than in the nerve growth factor and normal saline groups. These findings indicate that chitosan nerve conduits bined with microspheres for sustained release of nerve growth factor can significantly improve facial nerve defect repair in rabbits. PMID:25206635

  4. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry. PMID:20532157

  5. What Protects Certain Nerves from Stretch Injury?

    PubMed

    Schraut, Nicholas B; Walton, Sharon; Bou Monsef, Jad; Shott, Susan; Serici, Anthony; Soulii, Lioubov; Amirouche, Farid; Gonzalez, Mark H; Kerns, James M

    2016-01-01

    The human tibial nerves is less prone to injury following joint arthroplasty compared with the peroneal nerves. Besides the anatomical distribution, other features may confer protection from stretch injury. We therefore examined the size, shape and connective tissue distribution for the two nerves. The tibial and peroneal nerves from each side of nine fresh human cadavers we reharvested mid-thigh. Proximal segments manually stretched 20%-25% were fixed in aldehyde, while the adjacent distal segments were fixed in their natural length. Paraffin sections stained by Masson's trichrome method for connective tissue were examined by light microscopy. Tibial nerves had 2X more fascicles compared with the peroneal, but the axonal content appeared similar. Analysis showed that neither nerve had a significant reduction in cross sectional area of the fascicles following stretch. However, fascicles from stretched tibial nerves become significantly more oval compared with those from unstretched controls and peroneal nerves. Tibial nerves had a greater proportion that was extrafascicular tissue (50-55%) compared with peroneal nerves (38%-42%). This epineurium was typically adipose tissue. Perineurial thickness in both nerves was directly related to fascicular size. Tibial nerves have several unique histological features associated with size, shape and tissue composition compared with the peroneal nerve. We suggest that more fascicles with their tightly bound perineurium and more robust epineurium afford protection against stretch injury. Mechanical studies should clarify how size and shape contribute to nerve protection and/or neurapraxia. PMID:26529568

  6. Cerebral activation focusing on strong tasting food: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Senichiro; Kubota, Fumio; Nisijima, Koichi; Washiya, Sumio; Kato, Satoshi

    2005-02-28

    Very little research has been conducted on taste imagery because of the difficulty of doing so. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe cerebral activation patterns produced in volunteers concentrating on pickled plums (umeboshi), a traditional Japanese food with a strong and sour taste. Activation was observed in the right insula, the bilateral opercula, the bilateral orbitofrontal cortices and the left Broca's area. Activation in the insula (primary gustatory area) was very weak and limited to one side. The activation pattern was similar to that of taste perception. Our results showed that it is possible for humans to imagine tastes. PMID:15706236

  7. Taste Bud Labeling in Whole Tongue Epithelial Sheet in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Nandakumar; Boggs, Kristin; Liu, Hong-Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Molecular labeling in whole-mount tissues provides an efficient way to obtain general information about the formation, maintenance, degeneration, and regeneration of many organs and tissues. However, labeling of lingual taste buds in whole tongue tissues in adult mice has been problematic because of the strong permeability barrier of the tongue epithelium. In this study, we present a simple method for labeling taste buds in the intact tongue epithelial sheet of an adult mouse. Following intralingual protease injection and incubation, immediate fixation of the tongue on mandible in 4% paraformaldehyde enabled the in situ shape of the tongue epithelium to be well maintained after peeling. The peeled epithelium was accessible to taste bud labeling with a pan-taste cell marker, keratin 8, and a type II taste cell marker, α-gustducin, in all three types of taste papillae, that is, fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate. Overnight incubation of tongue epithelial sheets with primary and secondary antibodies was sufficient for intense labeling of taste buds with both fluorescent and DAB visualizations. Labeled individual taste buds were easy to identify and quantify. This protocol provides an efficient way for phenotypic analyses of taste buds, especially regarding distribution pattern and number. PMID:26701416

  8. School children's salt intake is correlated with salty taste preference assessed by their mothers.

    PubMed

    Matsuzuki, Hiroe; Muto, Takashi; Haruyama, Yasuo

    2008-05-01

    Salt intake in childhood is a risk factor for developing hypertension later in life. As health education for children to decrease salt intake, it is important for them to know the relationship between salty taste preference and salt intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between children's salty taste preference and their salt intake. We employed a cross-sectional study design, and the subjects were 199 elementary school children (5th or 6th grade) and their mothers. The amount of salt intake was estimated by the amount of urinary sodium excretion. Children's salty taste preference was assessed 1) by asking children about their own salty taste preference as well as measuring their threshold level of salty taste, and 2) by their mothers' observation of their salt intake behavior using a questionnaire. The salt intake and salt taste threshold of children who liked a salty taste were similar to those in children who disliked it. No association was found between the threshold level of salty taste and sodium intake. Regarding the relationship between children's salt intake and their salt intake behavior score, assessed by their mothers using a questionnaire, the high score group had a higher estimated salt intake than the low score group. In conclusion, children's salt intake may be accurately assessed by their mother's observation rather than children's own salty taste preference. This study suggests the importance of a mother's role in salt restriction education for children. PMID:18509237

  9. Might Helicobacter pylori infection be associated with distortion on taste perception?

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Maria Paola; Pellegrini, Camilla; Bassetto, Maria Antonietta; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marcolini, Lisa; Pegoraro, Manuela; Fontana, Roberta; De Franceschi, Lucia

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in dental plaque, saliva and lingual sites. To date, taste or olfaction disorders related to H. pylori infections have never been reported. In a review of the literature we found two papers just referring to a sour taste sensation during H. pylori infection. Studies in animal models suggest that changes in taste perception may relate to infections which damage taste buds. We observed an interesting clinical case of a 24-year-old Ghanaian woman with documented H. pylori gastric infection, complaining of cacosmia and cacogeusia. Taste evaluation indicated hypogeusia and highlighted a specific difficulty in discriminating between bitter and acid tastes. Saliva fluid was found positive for the ureA gene (H. pylori ureasi A). On the basis of this report, we hypothesize that taste perception might be correlated with a documented H. pylori infection. So, in a dyspeptic clinical picture in both pre and post diagnostic phase when H. pylori infection is suspected, taste evaluation might be important. Further studies are certainly needed in a large patient population to clarify the possible connection between H. pylori infection and smell-taste distortion. PMID:23845559

  10. The taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect: An event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X; Dupuis-Roy, N; Yang, X L; Qiu, J F; Zhang, Q L

    2014-03-28

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore, for the first time, the electrophysiological correlates of the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Eighteen healthy participants were presented with a taste stimulus and a food image, and asked to categorize the image as "sweet" or "sour" by pressing the relevant button as quickly as possible. Accurate categorization of the image was faster when it was presented with a congruent taste stimulus (e.g., sour taste/image of lemon) than with an incongruent one (e.g., sour taste/image of ice cream). ERP analyses revealed a negative difference component (ND430-620) between 430 and 620ms in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop interference. Dipole source analysis of the difference wave (incongruent minus congruent) indicated that two generators localized in the prefrontal cortex and the parahippocampal gyrus contributed to this taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. This result suggests that the prefrontal cortex is associated with the process of conflict control in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. Also, we speculate that the parahippocampal gyrus is associated with the process of discordant information in the taste-visual cross-modal Stroop effect. PMID:24418613

  11. Development of a Taste Sensor Based on a Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takagi, Keisuke; Akiya, Masahiro

    2007-04-01

    A taste sensor consisting of a back-gate type field effect transistor (FET) chip based on carbon nanotube compound materials [poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWNTs)] was developed. The results of impedance measurements for five tastes (sourness, saltiness, bitterness, sweetness, and umami), are shown much difference for specific tastes which are difficult to identify by using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film. Moreover, the sensor is able to distinguish most of the experimental taste materials with a short response time (˜60 s).

  12. Normal taste acuity and preference in female adolescents with impaired 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Ayako; Kubota, Masaru; Sakai, Midori; Higashiyama, Yukie

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity and taste characteristics in female students at Nara Women's University. Participants (n=135) were screened for 6-npropylthiouracil sensitivity using a taste test with 0.56 mM 6-n-propylthiouracil solution, and the sensitivity was confirmed by an assay for the bitter-taste receptor gene, TAS2R38. Based on the screening results, 33 6-npropylthiouracil tasters and 21 non-tasters were enrolled. The basic characteristics that are thought to influence taste acuity, including body mass index, saliva volume and serum micronutrient concentrations (iron, zinc and copper), were similar between the two groups. In an analysis using a filter-paper disc method, there were no differences in the acuity for four basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour and bitter) between 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters and non-tasters. In addition, the taste preference for the four basic tastes as measured by a visual analogue scale was also comparable between the two groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that 6-n-propylthiouracil nontasters have taste sensitivity for the four basic tastes similar to that in 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters, at least in female adolescents, as measured by the gustatory test using a filter-paper disc method. PMID:25164453

  13. Inhalational exposure to nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Niven, Alexander S; Roop, Stuart A

    2004-03-01

    The respiratory system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nerve agent toxicity. It is the major route of entry and absorption of nerve agent vapor, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of death follow-ing exposure. Respiratory symptoms are mediated by chemical irritation,muscarinic and nicotinic receptor overstimulation, and central nervous system effects. Recent attacks have demonstrated that most patients with an isolated vapor exposure developed respiratory symptoms almost immediately. Most patients had only mild and transient respiratory effects, and those that did develop significant respiratory compromise did so rapidly. These observations have significant ramifications on triage of patients in a mass-casualty situation, because patients with mild-to-moderate exposure to nerve agent vapor alone do not require decontamination and are less likely to develop progressive symptoms following initial antidote therapy. Limited data do not demonstrate significant long-term respiratory effects following nerve agent exposure and treatment. Provisions for effective respiratory protection against nerve agents is a vital consideration in any emergency preparedness or health care response plan against a chemical attack. PMID:15062227

  14. Rehabilitation of the trigeminal nerve

    PubMed Central

    Iro, Heinrich; Bumm, Klaus; Waldfahrer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    When it comes to restoring impaired neural function by means of surgical reconstruction, sensory nerves have always been in the role of the neglected child when compared with motor nerves. Especially in the head and neck area, with its either sensory, motor or mixed cranial nerves, an impaired sensory function can cause severe medical conditions. When performing surgery in the head and neck area, sustaining neural function must not only be highest priority for motor but also for sensory nerves. In cases with obvious neural damage to sensory nerves, an immediate neural repair, if necessary with neural interposition grafts, is desirable. Also in cases with traumatic trigeminal damage, an immediate neural repair ought to be considered, especially since reconstructive measures at a later time mostly require for interposition grafts. In terms of the trigeminal neuralgia, commonly thought to arise from neurovascular brainstem compression, a pharmaceutical treatment is considered as the state of the art in terms of conservative therapy. A neurovascular decompression of the trigeminal root can be an alternative in some cases when surgical treatment is sought after. Besides the above mentioned therapeutic options, alternative treatments are available. PMID:22073060

  15. Facial-hypoglossal nerve anastomosis using laser nerve welding.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Sun Goo; Kim, Dae Joong

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare laser nerve welding to microsurgical suturing of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis (HFA), and a result of immediate to delayed repair, and to evaluate the effect of laser nerve welding on HFA for reanimation of facial palsy. The first group of five rats underwent immediate HFA by microsurgical suturing and the second group of five rats by CO2 laser welding. The third group of five rats underwent delayed HFA by microsurgical suturing, and the fourth group of five rats by laser nerve welding. The fifth group of five rats served as controls, with intact hypoglossal and facial nerve. In all rats of the four different treatment groups, cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) was injected in the epineurium distal to the anastomosis site on the postoperative 6th week and in the normal hypoglossal nerve in the five rats of the control group. Neurons labeled CTb of hypoglossal nuclei were positive immunohistochemically, and the numbers were counted. In the immediate HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 751 +/- 247 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 888 +/- 60 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). There was no significant difference (P = 0.117). In the delayed HFA groups, CTb-positive neurons were 749 +/- 54 in the laser welding group (n = 5) and 590 +/- 169 in the microsurgical suturing group (n = 5). The difference was not significant (P = 0.116). There was no significant difference between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the laser welding group (P = 0.600), but there was significance between immediate and delayed anastomosis in the microsurgical suturing group (P = 0.009). Injected CTb in intact hypoglossal neurons (n = 5) were labeled 1,003 +/- 52. No dehiscence in the laser welding site of nerve anastomosis was seen at the time of re-exploration for injection of CTb in all 10 rats. This study shows that the regeneration of anastomosed hypoglossal-facial nerve was affected similarly by laser welding and microsurgical suturing

  16. A precision mechanical nerve stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An electromechanical device, used to apply and monitor stimulating pulses to a mammalian motor nerve, has been successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Two existing force transducers, a flight skin friction balance and a miniature skin friction balance which were designed for making aerodynamic drag measurements, were modified and incorporated to form this precision instrument. The nerve stimulator is a type one servomechanism capable of applying and monitoring stimulating pulses of 0 to 10 grams with a precision of better than +/- 0.05 grams. Additionally, the device can be independently used to apply stimulating pulses by displacing the nerve from 0 to 0.25 mm with a precision of better than +/- 0.001 mm while measuring the level of the load applied.

  17. [Paraganglioma of the vagus nerve].

    PubMed

    Torres-Carranza, E; Infante-Cossío, P; García-Perla, A; Belmonte, R; Menéndez, J; Gutiérrez-Pérez, J L

    2006-06-01

    Paragangliomas of the vagus nerve are uncommon vascular benign neoplasms of neuroectodermic origin. Initial clinical manifestation is usually as an asymptomatic cervical mass, although sometimes may cause lower cranial nerve palsies. These paragangliomas seldom associate to high levels of circulating catecholamines. Diagnosis is based on the clinics aided by imaging, where CT and MRI play an important role. Angiography is not only diagnostic, but it also allows preoperative embolization of the mass. Most accepted treatment is surgical removal, even though some paragangliomas are suitable for radiation therapy in very specific patients. In this paper we describe a new case of paraganglioma of the vagus nerve in a cervical location, with hypertensive episodes and high catecholamine-levels. The authors review the literature describing the clinical presentation, the diagnosis and the treatment of this rare lesion. PMID:16855784

  18. Facial nerve paralysis in children

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  19. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    PubMed

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology. PMID:26677445

  20. Chemical warfare. Nerve agent poisoning.

    PubMed

    Holstege, C P; Kirk, M; Sidell, F R

    1997-10-01

    The threat of civilian and military casualties from nerve agent exposure has become a greater concern over the past decade. After rapidly assessing that a nerve agent attack has occurred, emphasis must be placed on decontamination and protection of both rescuers and medical personnel from exposure. The medical system can become rapidly overwhelmed and strong emotional reactions can confuse the clinical picture. Initially, care should first be focused on supportive care, with emphasis toward aggressive airway maintenance and decontamination. Atropine should be titrated, with the goal of therapy being drying of secretions and the resolution of bronchoconstriction and bradycardia. Early administration of pralidoxime chloride maximizes antidotal efficacy. Benzodiazepines, in addition to atropine, should be administered if seizures develop. Early, aggressive medical therapy is the key to prevention of the morbidity and mortality associated with nerve agent poisoning. PMID:9330846