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Sample records for gvt monosodium luminol

  1. Discrete Event Execution with One-Sided and Two-Sided GVT Algorithms on 216,000 Processor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J; Tipparaju, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Global virtual time (GVT) computation is a key determinant of the efficiency and runtime dynamics of parallel discrete event simulations (PDES), especially on large-scale parallel platforms. Here, three execution modes of a generalized GVT computation algorithm are studied on high-performance parallel computing systems: (1) a synchronous GVT algorithm that affords ease of implementation, (2) an asynchronous GVT algorithm that is more complex to implement but can relieve blocking latencies, and (3) a variant of the asynchronous GVT algorithm to exploit one-sided communication in extant supercomputing platforms. Performance results are presented of implementations of these algorithms on up to 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 system, exercised on a range of parameters: optimistic and conservative synchronization, fine- to medium-grained event computation, synthetic and non-synthetic applications, and different lookahead values. Performance of up to 54 billion events executed per second is registered. Detailed PDES-specific runtime metrics are presented to further the understanding of tightly-coupled discrete event dynamics on massively parallel platforms.

  2. Genotoxicity of monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Ataseven, Nazmiye; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Keskin, Ayten Çelebi; Ünal, Fatma

    2016-05-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the most widely used flavor enhancers throughout the world. The aim of this study is to investigate the genotoxic potential of MSG by using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN), and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polimerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) in cultured human lymphocytes and alkaline comet assays in isolated human lymphocytes, which were incubated with six concentrations (250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 and 8000 μg/mL) of MSG. The result of this study indicated that MSG significantly and dose dependently increased the frequencies of CAs, SCE and MN in all treatments and times, compared with control. However, the replication (RI) and nuclear division indices (NDI) were not affected. In this paper, in vitro genotoxic effects of the MSG was also investigated on human peripheral lymphocytes by analysing the RAPD-PCR with arbitrary 10-mer primers. The changes occurring in RAPD profiles after MSG treatment include increase or decrease in band intensity and gain or loss of bands. In the comet assay, this additive caused DNA damage at all concentrations in isolated human lymphocytes after 1-h in vitro exposure. Our results demonstrate that MSG is genotoxic to the human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. PMID:26929995

  3. Study on the proteins-luminol binding by use of luminol as a fluorescence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xili; Song, Zhenghua

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a new mathematical equation of lg(F0 - F)/F = 1/nlg[P] + 1/nlgKa, which was used to obtain interaction parameters (the binding constant Ka and the number of binding sites n) between the protein and the small molecule ligand by using the ligand as a fluorescence (FL) probe, was constructed for the first time. The interaction parameters between myoglobin, catalase, lysozyme, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and luminol were obtained by this equation with luminol used as a FL probe, showing that the binding constants Ka were 8.78 × 105, 4.47 × 105, 4.21 × 104 and 3.95 × 104 respectively, and the number of binding sites n approximately equaled to 1.0 for myoglobin, catalase, and 2.0 for lysozyme, BSA. The interactions of ferritin, ovalbumin, aldolase, chymotrypsinogen and ribonuclease with luminol were also studied by this method. The binding constants Ka were at 104-105 level, and the number of binding sites n mostly approximately equaled to 2.0. The binding ability of luminol to the studied proteins followed the pattern: myoglobin > aldolase > ferritin > ovalbumin > catalase > ribonuclease > lysozyme > BSA > chymotrypsinoge.

  4. Two techniques for eliminating luminol interference material and flow system configurations for luminol and firefly luciferase systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for eliminating luminol interference materials are described. One method eliminates interference from organic material by pre-reacting a sample with dilute hydrogen peroxide. The reaction rate resolution method for eliminating inorganic forms of interference is also described. The combination of the two methods makes the luminol system more specific for bacteria. Flow system designs for both the firefly luciferase and luminol bacteria detection systems are described. The firefly luciferase flow system incorporating nitric acid extraction and optimal dilutions has a functional sensitivity of 3 x 100,000 E. coli/ml. The luminol flow system incorporates the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and the reaction rate resolution techniques for eliminating interference. The functional sensitivity of the luminol flow system is 1 x 10,000 E. coli/ml.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Luminol Persulphate Chemiluminescence in Aqueous Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, V. M.; More, P. S.; Khollam, Y. B.; Sonone, R. S.; Kondawar, S. B.; Koinkar, Pankaj

    The chemiluminescence (CL) emission spectra of luminol were recorded using Fuss spectrograph in different aqueous aliphatic amines using sodium persulphate alone and mixture with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant. The CL emission spectra after resolution showed two emission bands at 425 and 455 nm. The CL mechanism was explained on the basis of two exited state species formed during oxidation of luminol. The CL of luminol is found to be very weak as persulphate slowly produced oxygen. The glow become intense with time as more and more oxygen is made available for oxidation of luminol. The mixture of hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulphate is found to be more effective in producing intense and long lived CL glow for luminol. The CL emission band of luminol by using sodium persulphate and mixture with hydrogen peroxide is explained on the basis of formation of exited singlet and triplet state of 3-aminophthalate ion (3-APA). The shorter wavelength emission band of 425 nm is found to be very weak in intensity as compared to longer wavelength emission band of 455 nm. Thus phosphoresce is favored in case of persulphate CL of luminol.

  6. Method and apparatus for eliminating luminol interference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffers, E. L.; Thomas, R. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing porphyrins from a fluid sample which are unrelated to the number of bacteria present in the sample and prior to combining the sample with luminol reagent to produce a light reaction is disclosed. The method involves a pre-incubation of the sample with a dilute concentration of hydrogen peroxide which inactivates the interfering soluble porphyrins. Further, by delaying taking a light measurement for a predetermined time period after combining the hydrogen peroxide-treated water sample with a luminol reagent, the luminescence produced by the reaction of the luminol reagent with ions present in the solution, being short lived, will have died out so that only porphyrins within the bacteria which have been released by rupturing the cells with the sodium hydroxide in the luminol reagent, will be measured. The measurement thus obtained can then be related to the concentration of live and dead bacteria in the fluid sample.

  7. The Crystallization of Monosodium Urate

    PubMed Central

    Martillo, Miguel A.; Nazzal, Lama; Crittenden, Daria B.

    2014-01-01

    Gout is a common crystal-induced arthritis, in which monosodium urate (MSU) crystals precipitate within joints and soft tissues and elicit an inflammatory response. The causes of elevated serum urate and the inflammatory pathways activated by MSU crystals have been well studied, but less is known about the processes leading to crystal formation and growth. Uric acid, the final product of purine metabolism, is a weak acid that circulates as the deprotonated urate anion under physiologic conditions, and combines with sodium ions to form MSU. MSU crystals are known to have a triclinic structure, in which stacked sheets of purine rings form the needle-shaped crystals that are observed microscopically. Exposed, charged crystal surfaces are thought to allow for interaction with phospholipid membranes and serum factors, playing a role in the crystal-mediated inflammatory response. While hyperuricemia is a clear risk factor for gout, local factors have been hypothesized to play a role in crystal formation, such as temperature, pH, mechanical stress, cartilage components, and other synovial and serum factors. Interestingly, several studies suggest that MSU crystals may drive the generation of crystal-specific antibodies that facilitate future MSU crystallization. Here, we review MSU crystal biology, including a discussion of crystal structure, effector function, and factors thought to play a role in crystal formation. We also briefly compare MSU biology to that of uric acid stones causing nephrolithasis, and consider the potential treatment implications of MSU crystal biology. PMID:24357445

  8. Current clinical findings on monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, V H

    1981-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a common and widely used food additive which has been passed as GRAS (generally recognized as safe) by the American Food and Drug Administration. However, it may have a significant adverse effect on certain individuals; the physician must be able to recognize the symptoms of MSG sensitivity, otherwise known as "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome". This article reviews current findings on MSG. PMID:21289773

  9. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #071311

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-10-04

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot No.071311 qualification and 12 verification samples met all the requirements in the specification indicating the material is acceptable for use in the process.

  10. Analysis of Harrell Monosodium Titanate Lot #46000824120

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.

    2013-01-23

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot #46000824120 qualification and the 16 verification samples failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids.

  11. Analysis of Harrell Monosodium Titanate Lot #46000908120

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.

    2013-01-23

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot #46000908120 qualification and the 16 verification samples failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids.

  12. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #46000619120

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-09-06

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot #46000619120 qualification and the 13 verification samples met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  13. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #052511

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-08-22

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot No.052511 qualification and 14 verification samples met all the requirements in the specification indicating the material is acceptable for use in the process.

  14. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #46000524120

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-08-29

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot No.46000524120 qualification and the 14 verification samples met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  15. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Register of September 20, 2013 (78 FR 57881). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on October 23... COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in...

  16. Does monosodium glutamate cause flushing (or merely "glutamania")?

    PubMed

    Wilkin, J K

    1986-08-01

    Monosodium glutamate is widely regarded as the provocative agent in the "Chinese restaurant syndrome," of which flushing is regarded as part of the reaction. Six subjects were monitored by laser Doppler velocimetry for changes in facial cutaneous blood flow during challenge with monosodium glutamate and its cyclization product, pyroglutamate. Additionally, records of patients challenged with monosodium glutamate in the laboratory were reviewed. No flushing was provoked among the twenty-four people tested, eighteen of whom gave a positive history of Chinese restaurant syndrome flushing. These results indicate that monosodium glutamate-provoked flushing, if it exists at all, must be rare. Monosodium glutamate and its cyclization product, pyroglutamate, may provoke edema and associated symptoms. PMID:3745527

  17. Monosodium glutamate 'allergy': menace or myth?

    PubMed

    Williams, A N; Woessner, K M

    2009-05-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a salt form of a non-essential amino acid commonly used as a food additive for its unique flavour enhancing qualities. Since the first description of the 'Monosodium glutamate symptom complex', originally described in 1968 as the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome', a number of anecdotal reports and small clinical studies of variable quality have attributed a variety of symptoms to the dietary ingestion of MSG. Descriptions of MSG-induced asthma, urticaria, angio-oedema, and rhinitis have prompted some to suggest that MSG should be an aetiologic consideration in patients presenting with these conditions. This review prevents a critical review of the available literature related to the possible role of MSG in the so-called 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' and in eliciting asthmatic bronchospasm, urticaria, angio-oedema, and rhinitis. Despite concerns raised by early reports, decades of research have failed to demonstrate a clear and consistent relationship between MSG ingestion and the development of these conditions. PMID:19389112

  18. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT 46000824120

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-04-09

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The original Harrell Industries Lot #46000824120 qualification and 16 verification samples received in September 2012 failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids. The lot was returned to the vendor, and in February 2014 a new qualification sample and set of 14 verification samples were received from this lot. The new lot met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  19. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT 46000908120

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-04-09

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The original Harrell Industries Lot #46000908120 qualification and 16 verification samples received in October 2012 failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids. The lot was returned to the vendor, and in February 2014 a new qualification sample and set of 16 verification samples were received from this lot. The new lot met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  20. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #120111

    SciTech Connect

    Shehee, T.

    2012-02-21

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot No.120111 qualification and the first 12 verification samples met all the requirements in the specification indicating the material is acceptable for use in the process. Analyses of Pail 125 verification sample fails the criteria for solids content and has measurably lower pH, density, and total bottle weight. The verification sample for Pail 125 was retested for weight percent solids after checking that all of the solids had been suspended. The sample again failed to meet acceptance criteria. SRNL recommends accepting Pails 1 through 120. Pails 121 through 125 should be rejected and returned to the vendor.

  1. The safety evaluation of monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Walker, R; Lupien, J R

    2000-04-01

    L-Glutamic acid and its ammonium, calcium, monosodium and potassium salts were evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 1988. The Committee noted that intestinal and hepatic metabolism results in elevation of levels in systemic circulation only after extremely high doses given by gavage (>30mg/kg body weight). Ingestion of monosodium glutamate (MSG) was not associated with elevated levels in maternal milk, and glutamate did not readily pass the placental barrier. Human infants metabolized glutamate similarly to adults. Conventional toxicity studies using dietary administration of MSG in several species did not reveal any specific toxic or carcinogenic effects nor were there any adverse outcomes in reproduction and teratology studies. Attention was paid to central nervous system lesions produced in several species after parenteral administration of MSG or as a consequence of very high doses by gavage. Comparative studies indicated that the neonatal mouse was most sensitive to neuronal injury; older animals and other species (including primates) were less so. Blood levels of glutamate associated with lesions of the hypothalamus in the neonatal mouse were not approached in humans even after bolus doses of 10 g MSG in drinking water. Because human studies failed to confirm an involvement of MSG in "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome" or other idiosyncratic intolerance, the JECFA allocated an "acceptable daily intake (ADI) not specified" to glutamic acid and its salts. No additional risk to infants was indicated. The Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) of the European Commission reached a similar evaluation in 1991. The conclusions of a subsequent review by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) and the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) did not discount the existence of a sensitive subpopulation but otherwise concurred with the safety evaluation of JECFA and the SCF. PMID:10736380

  2. Research and development of a luminol-carbon monoxide flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Adaption of the luminol-carbon monoxide injection system to a flowing type system is reported. Analysis of actual wastewater samples was carried out and revealed that bacteria can be associated with particles greater than 10 microns in size in samples such as mixed liquor. Research into the luminol reactive oxidation state indicates that oxidized iron porphyrins, cytochrome-c in particular, produce more luminol chemiluminescence than the reduced form. Correlation exists between the extent of porphyrin oxidation and relative chemiluminescence. In addition, the porphyrin nucleus is apparently destroyed under the current chemiluminescent reaction conditions.

  3. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #081811

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fink, S.

    2011-10-28

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot No.081811 qualification and 12 verification samples met all the requirements in the specification, with the possible exception of the geometric standard deviation for particle size. Two subsamples from the qualification sample were analyzed, giving results of 3.82 and 3.28, respectively, for the geometric standard deviation. The specification is {le}3.5. The results for both samples met the remaining particle size specifications, i.e. <10 vol% below 0.8 {mu}m and <1 vol% above 37 {mu}m. Filtration behavior of the current batch is expected to be near that of recent batches. SRNL recommends acceptance of this material. SRNL also recommends performing a statistical review of particle size data for the MST lots from this vendor to assess whether an improved material specification is appropriate.

  4. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17{degrees}--74{degrees}C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  5. Fissile solubility and monosodium titanate loading tests

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.; Fleischman, S.D.

    1993-02-12

    The solubilities of plutonium and uranium have been determined for alkaline salt solutions having compositions which bound those which will be processed in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process. Loadings of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) have been determined at temperatures bounding those expected to occur during ITP and using a salt solution which was determined to have the maximum solubility for uranium and plutonium. Fissile loadings increase with decreasing amounts of MST in contact with the salt solutions saturated in plutonium and uranium. At MST concentrations bounding those which are planned for the ITP process, expressions for the maximum loadings (wt %) are determined to be 0.29 - 0.20x[MST] for plutonium and 1.8 - 0.29x[MST] for uranium, where [MST] is the concentration of MST in grams/liter. These expressions are valid over the range of MST concentrations from 0.05 to 0.51 g/L and temperatures of 17[degrees]--74[degrees]C. These loadings are below the individual infinitely safe limits for plutonium and uranium. Additional confirmatory experiments are planned to verify the effects of temperature and multiple contacts of the MST with fresh salt solution on the fissile loadings.

  6. Monosodium L-glutamate-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Allen, D H; Delohery, J; Baker, G

    1987-10-01

    Ingested chemicals, including aspirin and sulfites, are becoming increasingly recognized as provokers of acute severe asthma. In order to investigate the asthma-provoking potential of the widely used flavor enhancer, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), we challenged 32 subjects with asthma, a number of whom gave histories of severe asthma after Chinese restaurant meals or similarly spiced meals. The subjects received an additive-free diet for 5 days before challenge and were challenged in hospital, after an overnight fast, with 500 mg capsules of MSG. They were challenged in a single-blind, placebo-controlled fashion with increasing doses of MSG from 0.5 gm to 5.0 gm. Thirteen subjects reacted. Seven subjects (group 1) developed asthma and symptoms of the Chinese restaurant syndrome 1 to 2 hours after ingestion of MSG. Six subjects (group 2) did not develop symptoms of Chinese restaurant syndrome, and their asthma developed 6 to 12 hours after ingestion of MSG. These challenge studies confirm that MSG can provoke asthma. The reaction to MSG is dose dependent and may be delayed up to 12 hours, making recognition difficult for both patient and physician. PMID:3312372

  7. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #03031

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-05-16

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot 030311 qualification and 9 verification samples met all the requirements in the specification indicating the material is acceptable for use in the process. Harrell Industries is under contract with Savannah River Remediation to provide MST for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP). A 500-mL qualification sample for Lot 030311 was sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to confirm the material meets the requirements specified in the purchase specification. The vendor is also obligated to send verification samples from {approx}10% or more of the pails of MST product for each lot (distributed roughly evenly through the entire lot of pails). For the verification of this lot, Harrell Industries sent 9 samples, one each from pails 1, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 45, and 55 of 59 total pails.

  8. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #050411

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2011-06-28

    Harrell Industries is under contract with Savannah River Remediation to provide Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP). A 500-mL qualification sample for Lot 050411 was sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to confirm the material meets the requirements specified in the purchase specification. The vendor is also obligated to send verification samples from {approx}10% or more of the pails of MST product for each lot (distributed roughly evenly through the entire lot of pails). For the verification of this lot, Harrell Industries sent 12 samples, one each from pails No.1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, and 120 of 120 total pails. MST for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot 050411 qualification and 12 verification samples met all the requirements in the specification indicating the material is acceptable for use in the process.

  9. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  14. Luminol-silver nitrate chemiluminescence enhancement induced by cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wenbing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yuming

    2011-01-01

    CoFe(2)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) could stimulate the weak chemiluminescence (CL) system of luminol and AgNO(3), resulting in a strong CL emission. The UV-visible spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra and TEM images of the investigated system revealed that AgNO(3) was reduced by luminol to Ag in the presence of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs and the formed Ag covered the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, resulting in CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles. Investigation of the CL reaction kinetics demonstrated that the reaction among luminol, AgNO(3) and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs was fast at the beginning and slowed down later. The CL spectra of the luminol - AgNO(3) - CoFe(2)O(4) NPs system indicated that the luminophor was still an electronically excited 3-aminophthalate anion. A CL mechanism has been postulated. When the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were injected into the mixture of luminol and AgNO(3), they catalyzed the reduction of AgNO(3) by luminol to produce luminol radicals and Ag, which immediately covered the CoFe(2)O(4) NPs to form CoFe(2)O(4)-Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the luminol radicals reacted with the dissolved oxygen, leading to a strong CL emission. With the continuous deposition of Ag on the surface of CoFe(2)O(4) NPs, the catalytic activity of the core-shell nanoparticles was inhibited and a decrease in CL intensity was observed and also a slow growth of shell on the nanoparticles. PMID:21400653

  15. Flow-injection determination of isoniazid using sodium dichloroisocyanurate- and trichloroisocyanuric acid-luminol chemiluminescence systems.

    PubMed

    Safavi, A; Karimi, M A; Hormozi Nezhad, M R

    2004-06-01

    A chemiluminescent (CL) method for the determination of isoniazid is described. The method is based on the CL generated during the oxidation of luminol by sodium dichloroisocyanurate (SDCC) and trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) in alkaline medium. It was found that isoniazid greatly enhances this CL intensity when present in the luminol solution. Based on this observation, a new flow-injection CL method for the determination of isoniazid has been proposed in this paper. The detection limits were 2 and 3 ng ml(-1) isoniazid for the SDCC-luminol and TCCA-luminol CL systems, respectively. The relative CL intensity was linear with the isoniazid concentration in the range of 4-100 and 100-200 ng ml(-1) for the SDCC-luminol CL system, and 6-200 and 200-1000 ng ml(-1) for the TCCA-luminol CL system. The results obtained for the assay of pharmaceutical preparations compared well with those obtained by the official methods and demonstrated good accuracy and precision. PMID:15178311

  16. Ultrasensitive immunoassay based on a pseudobienzyme amplifying system of choline oxidase and luminol-reduced Pt@Au hybrid nanoflowers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zhuo, Ying; Liao, Ni; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-12-01

    A multi-functional luminol-reduced Pt@Au hybrid flower-like nanocomposite (luminol-Pt@AuNF) which not only acts as an efficient signal probe but also constitutes a pseudobienzyme amplifying system with choline oxidase (ChOx) was firstly synthesized and applied to the construction of a solid-state luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) detection. PMID:25313990

  17. Kinetics simulation of luminol chemiluminescence based on quantitative analysis of photons generated in electrochemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Yozo; Nosaka, Yoshio

    2013-08-22

    The kinetics of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol at a gold electrode in alkaline solution was investigated by measuring the absolute number of photons emitted in an integrating sphere. The ECL efficiency as the ratio of photon to electric charge was 0.0004 in cyclic voltammography and 0.0005 in chronoamperometry. By numerically solving the rate equations based on a diffusion layer model, the observed time profile of the luminescence intensity could be successfully simulated from the oxidation current of luminol in the chronoamperometry. In the simulation, the rate constant for the oxidation of luminol by superoxide radicals in alkaline solution was determined to be 6 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The present methodology and the achievement could be widely applicable to various analytical techniques using chemiluminescence. PMID:23879304

  18. Three dimethoxy-substituted luminol derivatives: A comparative study using theoretical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Bingchun; Liu, Cuilan; Liu, Yanhong; Liu, Erbao

    2015-02-01

    In this research, geometrical optimisation, Mulliken charge, molecular electrostatic potential, and the frontier molecular orbitals of three dimethoxy-substituted luminol derivatives were investigated by ab initio, density functional, and Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with a 6-311G (d, p) basis set in gas phase, water, and dimethylsulphoxide solution. The UV-vis spectra were calculated by time dependent density functional theory method. The properties of derivatives were compared with luminol at a molecular level to investigate the change induced by the methoxy group. The three derivatives were also compared with the aim of predicting the order of chemiluminescent efficiency. The results showed that methoxy substitution significantly changed the electronic and spectral properties of luminol. Among three derivatives, structure 2 was suggested to have the highest chemiluminescent efficiency. The results may shed some light on the design and selection of chemiluminescent reagents.

  19. Monosodium glutamate is not likely to be genotoxic.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    The International Glutamate Technical Committee (IGTC) wishes to comment on a recent publication in the Journal entitled "Genotoxicity of monosodium glutamate" (authored by Ataseven N, Yüzbaşıoğlu D, Keskin AÇ and Ünal F) (Ataseven et al. 2016). In particular, we wish to highlight that, in our considered view, the results of this study were inappropriately discussed and that references were selectively used. PMID:27372553

  20. [Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of whole blood in children often falling ill].

    PubMed

    Farkhutdinova, L V; Farkhutdinov, R R

    2000-02-01

    The functional activity of blood phagocytes, producing active oxygen forms (AOF), was studied by recording the spontaneous and prodigiosan-stimulated luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) of whole blood in 120 children aged 3-8 years, frequently falling ill, during remission. Three types of ratios of spontaneous and stimulated CL were distinguished, associated with different clinical patterns of acute respiratory disease: 1) increased spontaneous and stimulated CL, 2) decreased spontaneous and stimulated CL, and 3) increased spontaneous and low stimulated CL. Studies of luminol-dependent CL of whole blood helped evaluate the functional activity of blood phagocytes producing AOF and develop the treatment strategy. PMID:10878910

  1. Luminol-Based Chemiluminescent Signals: Clinical and Non-clinical Application and Future Uses

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Parvez; Idrees, Danish; Moxley, Michael A.; Corbett, John A.; Ahmad, Faizan; von Figura, Guido; Sly, William S.; Waheed, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) is an important method for quantification and analysis of various macromolecules. A wide range of CL agents such as luminol, hydrogen peroxide, fluorescein, dioxetanes and derivatives of oxalate, and acridinium dyes are used according to their biological specificity and utility. This review describes the application of luminol chemiluminescence (LCL) in forensic, biomedical, and clinical sciences. LCL is a very useful detection method due to its selectivity, simplicity, low cost, and high sensitivity. LCL has a dynamic range of applications, including quantification and detection of macro and micromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and RNA. Luminol-based methods are used in environmental monitoring as biosensors, in the pharmaceutical industry for cellular localization and as biological tracers, and in reporter gene-based assays and several other immunoassays. Here, we also provide information about different compounds that may enhance or inhibit the LCL along with the effect of pH and concentration on LCL. This review covers most of the significant information related to the applications of luminol in different fields. PMID:24752935

  2. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1521 Monosodium...

  4. Synthesis and Reaction Chemistry of Nanosize Monosodium Titanate.

    PubMed

    Elvington, Mark C; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M L; Tosten, Michael H; Hobbs, David T

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis and peroxide-modification of nanosize monosodium titanate (nMST), along with an ion-exchange reaction to load the material with Au(III) ions. The synthesis method was derived from a sol-gel process used to produce micron-sized monosodium titanate (MST), with several key modifications, including altering reagent concentrations, omitting a particle seed step, and introducing a non-ionic surfactant to facilitate control of particle formation and growth. The resultant nMST material exhibits spherical-shaped particle morphology with a monodisperse distribution of particle diameters in the range from 100 to 150 nm. The nMST material was found to have a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 285 m(2)g(-1), which is more than an order of magnitude higher than the micron-sized MST. The isoelectric point of the nMST measured 3.34 pH units, which is a pH unit lower than that measured for the micron-size MST. The nMST material was found to serve as an effective ion exchanger under weakly acidic conditions for the preparation of an Au(III)-exchange nanotitanate. In addition, the formation of the corresponding peroxotitanate was demonstrated by reaction of the nMST with hydrogen peroxide. PMID:26967828

  5. Actinometric measurement of j(O3-O(1D)) using a luminol detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The photolysis frequency of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms has been measured by means of a chemical actinometer using a luminol based detector. The instrument measures j(O3-O(1D)) with a precision of 10 percent. The data collected in winter and spring of 1991 is in agreement with model predictions and previously measured values. Data from a global solar radiometer can be used to estimate the effects of local cloudiness on j(O3-O(1D)).

  6. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods. PMID:25427591

  7. Ceria Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoflowers Enhanced Luminol-Based Electrochemiluminescence Immunosensor for Amyloid-β Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Xi; Zhuo, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Hai-Jun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2016-05-25

    In this work, ceria doped ZnO nanomaterials with flower-structure (Ce:ZONFs) were prepared to construct a luminol-based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for amyloid-β protein (Aβ) detection. Herein, carboxyl groups (-COOH) covered Ce:ZONFs were synthesized by a green method with lysine as reductant. After that, Ce:ZONFs-based ECL nanocomposite was prepared by combining the luminophore of luminol and Ce:ZONFs via amidation and physical absorption. Luminol modified on Ce:ZONFs surface could generate a strong ECL signal under the assistance of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) (such as OH(•) and O2(•-)), which were produced by a catalytic reaction between Ce:ZONFs and H2O2. It was worth noticing that a quick Ce(4+) ↔ Ce(3+) reaction in this doped material could increase the rate of electron transfer to realize the signal amplification. Subsequently, the luminol functionalized Ce:ZONFs (Ce:ZONFs-Lum) were covered by secondary antibody (Ab2) and glucose oxidase (GOD), respectively, to construct a novel Ab2 bioconjugate (Ab2-GOD@Ce:ZONFs-Lum). The wire-structured silver-cysteine complex (AgCys NWs) with a large number of -COOH, which was synthesized by AgNO3 and l-cysteine, was used as substrate of the immunosensor to capture the primary antibody (Ab1). Under the optimal conditions, this proposed ECL immunosensor had exhibited high sensitivity for Aβ detection with a wide linear range from 80 fg/mL to 100 ng/mL and an ultralow detection limit of 52 fg/mL. Meanwhile, this biosensor had good specificity for Aβ, indicating that the provided strategy had a promising potential in the detection of Aβ. PMID:27145690

  8. A novel chemiluminescence assay of organophosphorous pesticide quinalphos residue in vegetable with luminol detection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Organophosphorous pesticides are the most popular pesticides used in agriculture. As acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, organophosphorous pesticides are toxic organic chemicals. The control and detection of organophosphorous pesticide residue in food, water, and environment therefore plays a very important role in maintaining physical health. A sensitive, rapid, simple chemiluminescence(CL) method has been developed for the determination of quinalphos based on the reaction of quinalphos with luminol-H2O2 in an alkaline medium. The method has been applied to detection of quinalphos in vegetable samples with satisfactory results. Results The CL method for the determination of organophosphorous pesticide quinalphos is based on the phenomenon that quinalphos can apparently enhance the CL intensity of the luminol-H2O2 system. The optimal conditions were: luminol concentration 5.0 × 10-4 mol/L, H2O2 concentration 0.05 mol/L.pH value 13. In order to restrain the interference from metal ions, 1.0 × 10-3 mol/L of EDTA was added to the luminol solution. The possible mechanism was proposed. Conclusion Under the optimum reaction conditions, CL was linear with the concentration of quinalphos in the range of 0.02 μg/mL -1.0 μg/mL and the detection limit was 0.0055 μg/mL (3σ). This method has been successfully applied to the detection of quinalphos in vegetable samples. According to the experimental data, the average recoveries for quinalphos in cherry tomato and green pepper 97.20% and 90.13%. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism was proposed. PMID:20576096

  9. Carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe for sensitive chemiluminescence detection of protein.

    PubMed

    Baj, Stefan; Krawczyk, Tomasz; Pradel, Natalia; Azam, Md Golam; Shibata, Takayuki; Dragusha, Shpend; Skutil, Krzysztof; Pawlyta, Miroslawa; Kai, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber-based luminol-biotin probe was synthesized for the sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) detection of a target protein by grafting luminol and biotin onto an oxidized carbon nanofiber. This carbon nanofiber was prepared by chemical vapor-deposition with methane in the presence of the Ni-Cu-MgO catalyst, which was followed by oxidization with HNO3-H2SO4 to produce a carboxyl group on the surface of the nanofiber. The material was grafted with luminol and biotin by means of a standard carbodiimide activation of COOH groups to produce corresponding amides. The substance was water-soluble and thus could be utilized as a sensitive CL probe for a protein assay. The probe showed highly specific affinity towards the biotin-labeled antibody via a streptavidin-biotin interaction. The detection limit for this model assay was approximately 0.2 pmol of the biotinized IgG spotted on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Nonspecific binding to other proteins was not observed. Therefore, the synthesized carbon nanofiber-based CL probe may be useful for a sensitive and specific analysis of the target protein. PMID:25382040

  10. Luminol electrochemiluminescence for the analysis of active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangzhong; Zhou, Junyu; Tian, Chunxiu; Jiang, Dechen; Fang, Danjun; Chen, Hongyuan

    2013-04-16

    A luminol electrochemiluminescence assay was reported to analyze active cholesterol at the plasma membrane in single mammalian cells. The cellular membrane cholesterol was activated by the exposure of the cells to low ionic strength buffer or the inhibition of intracellular acyl-coA/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). The active membrane cholesterol was reacted with cholesterol oxidase in the solution to generate a peak concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the electrode surface, which induced a measurable luminol electrochemiluminescence. Further treatment of the active cells with mevastatin decreased the active membrane cholesterol resulting in a drop in luminance. No change in the intracellular calcium was observed in the presence of luminol and voltage, which indicated that our analysis process might not interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Single cell analysis was performed by placing a pinhole below the electrode so that only one cell was exposed to the photomultiplier tube (PMT). Twelve single cells were analyzed individually, and a large deviation on luminance ratio observed exhibited the cell heterogeneity on the active membrane cholesterol. The smaller deviation on ACAT/HMGCoA inhibited cells than ACAT inhibited cells suggested different inhibition efficiency for sandoz 58035 and mevastatin. The new information obtained from single cell analysis might provide a new insight on the study of intracellular cholesterol trafficking. PMID:23527944

  11. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol on titania nanotubes functionalised indium tin oxide glass for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Xiao, Changbin; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    The titania nanotubes (TiNTs) had been immobilised onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass to intensify the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The morphology, structure and properties such as specific surface area and transmittance of synthesised TiNTs were characterised. The results indicated that the TiNTs was several hundred nanometres in length with the diameter of 20 nm. In flow injection analysis (FIA) mode, the TiNTs dramatically enhanced the ECL emission of luminol for about 25 multiple, meanwhile decreased the requirement of buffer pH and exciting potential. The ECL emission of luminol on functionalised ITO electrode has sensitive response toward hydrogen peroxide, and extraordinarily responsive toward the antioxidant. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL emission exhibited a linear response within the concentration range from 0.1 mg L(-1) to 30 mg L(-1) and an absolute detection limit of 1.65×10(-10) g of resveratrol. The gross antioxidant activity of blueberry and kiwi were determined with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:26078133

  12. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol for oxidase-based fibre-optic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Marquette, C A; Leca, B D; Blum, L J

    2001-01-01

    The luminol electrochemiluminescence has been exploited for the development of several fibre-optic biosensors allowing the detection of hydrogen peroxide and of substrates of H(2)O(2)-producing oxidases. Electro-optical flow injection analysis of glucose, lactate, cholesterol and choline are thus described. To perform the experiments, a glassy carbon electrode was polarized at a fixed potential. Luminol was then electrochemically oxidized and could react in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to produce light. Several parameters had to be optimized to obtain reliable optical biosensors. An optimum applied potential of +425 mV between the glassy carbon electrode and the platinum pseudo-reference electrode was determined, allowing the best signal: noise ratio to be obtained. It was also necessary to optimize the experimental conditions for the immobilization of the different oxidases involved (preactivated membranes, chemically activated collagen membranes, photopolymerized matrix). For each biosensor developed, the optimum reaction conditions have been studied: buffer composition, pH, temperature, flow rate and luminol concentration. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits (S/N = 3) were 30 pmol, 60 pmol, 0.6 nmol and 10 pmol for lactate, glucose, cholesterol and choline, respectively. The miniaturization of electrochemiluminescence-based biosensors has been realized using screen-printed electrodes instead of a glassy carbon macroelectrode, with choline oxidase as a model H(2)O(2)-generating oxidase. PMID:11312542

  13. LEACHING OF TITANIUM FROM MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND MODIFIED MST

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    Analysis of a fouled coalescer and pre-filters from Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) operations showed evidence of Ti containing solids. Based on these results a series of tests were planned to examine the extent of Ti leaching from monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) in various solutions. The solutions tested included a series of salt solutions with varying free hydroxide concentrations, two sodium hydroxide concentrations, 9 wt % and 15 wt %, nitric and oxalic acid solutions. Overall, the amount of Ti leached from the MST and mMST was much greater in the acid solutions compared to the sodium hydroxide or salt solutions, which is consistent with the expected trend. The leaching data also showed that increasing hydroxide concentration, whether pure NaOH solution used for filter cleaning in ARP or the waste salt solution, increased the amount of Ti leached from both the MST and mMST. For the respective nominal contact times with the MST solids - for filter cleaning or the normal filter operation, the dissolved Ti concentrations are comparable suggesting either cause may contribute to the increased Ti fouling on the MCU coalescers. Tests showed that Ti containing solids could be precipitated from solution after the addition of scrub acid and a decrease in temperature similar to expected in MCU operations. FTIR analysis of these solids showed some similarity to the solids observed on the fouled coalescer and pre-filters. Although only a cursory study, this information suggests that the practice of increasing free hydroxide in feed solutions to MCU as a mitigation to aluminosilicate formation may be offset by the impact of formation of Ti solids in the overall process. Additional consideration of this finding from MCU and SWPF operation is warranted.

  14. Microemulsion-enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 for sensitive flow injection analysis of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiuhua, Wei; Chao, Liu; Yifeng, Tu

    2012-05-30

    A microemulsion enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol-H(2)O(2) was studied with the flow-injection (FI) technique. The results revealed that the microemulsion composed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), n-butanol, n-heptane and water greatly enhanced the ECL especially in acidic medium. The ECL emission increased for 20 to 2 times in this microemulsion medium over the pH range of 5.0-8.0 compared to that in aqueous solution. The mechanism of enhancement of surfactant and microemulsion for luminol-H(2)O(2) ECL was discussed. It is mainly based on the electrostatic interaction between luminol anion and the head group of surfactant, which causes the adsorption and promotes the dissociation of luminol on the surfaces of the microemulsion droplets, favors the oxidation of luminol by the yielded reactive oxygen species (ROSs) during electrolysis. This research is very significant for ECL applications because of the extended practicable pH range which was suitable for environmental and biological systems. As an example, this FI-ECL technique can be applied for determination of oligo proanthocyanidin (OPC) because of its antioxidant property and to evaluate the total antioxidant activity of the grape skin using OPC as an index. PMID:22608450

  15. The effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response as assessed by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence in dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The differences between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on whole blood oxidative response using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL) are currently unknown in cattle. Luminol-dependent CL measures the amount of reactive oxygen species released from leukocytes a...

  16. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in freshwaters using flow-injection with luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Mohammad; Folgado Biot, Beatriz; Nabi, Abdul; Worsfold, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow-injection (FI) method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural waters, based on luminol chemiluminescence (CL) detection, is reported. Nitrate was reduced online to nitrite via a copperized cadmium (Cu-Cd) column and then reacted with acidic hydrogen peroxide to form peroxynitrous acid. CL emission was observed from the oxidation of luminol in an alkaline medium in the presence of the peroxynitrite anion. The limits of detection (S:N = 3) were 0.02 and 0.01 µg N/L, with sample throughputs of 40 and 90 /h for nitrate and nitrite, respectively. Calibration graphs were linear over the range 0.02-50 and 0.01-50 µg N/L [R2  = 0.9984 (n = 8) and R2  = 0.9965 (n = 7)] for nitrate and nitrite, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.8-4.6%. The key chemical and physical variables (reagent concentrations, buffer pH, flow rates, sample volume, Cu-Cd reductor column length) were optimized and potential interferences investigated. The effect of cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Co(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II)] was masked online with EDTA. Common anions (PO4(3-) , SO4(2-) and HCO3-) did not interfere at their maximum admissible concentrations in freshwaters. The effect of salinity on the luminol CL reaction with and without nitrate and nitrite (2 and 0.5 µg N/L, respectively) was also investigated. The method was successfully applied to freshwaters and the results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by an automated segmented flow analyser reference method. PMID:23044772

  17. Enhanced electrochemiluminescence from luminol at multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated with palladium nanoparticles: a novel route for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor and a glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Behzad; Bozorgzadeh, Somayyeh

    2011-07-01

    Incorporation of palladium nanoparticles on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and modification of glassy carbon electrode with the prepared nano-hybrid material led to the fabrication of a novel electrode. The modified electrode showed attractive electrocatalytic activity and sensitizing effect on luminol-O(2) and luminol-H(2)O(2) electrochemiluminescence (ECL) reactions at neutral media. The sensitized luminol-O(2) and luminol-H(2)O(2) reactions were successfully applied for the ECL determination of dissolved O(2) and glucose, respectively. Under the optimal conditions for luminol-O(2) system, the ECL signal intensity of luminol was linear with the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the range between 0.08 and 0.94 mM (r=0.9996) and for luminol-H(2)O(2) system, the ECL signal intensity of luminol was linear with the concentration of glucose in the range between 0.1 and 1000 μM (r=0.9998). The limits of detection (S/N=3) for dissolved oxygen and glucose were 0.02 mM and 54 nM, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for repetitive measurements of 0.50 mM oxygen (n=10) and 10 μM glucose (n=30) were 3.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Also, under the optimal conditions for luminol-H(2)O(2) system, the ECL signal intensity of luminol was linear with the concentration of H(2)O(2) in the range between 1 nM and 0.45 mM (r=0.9997). The limit of detection (S/N=3) for H(2)O(2) detection was 0.5 nM and the relative standard deviation for repetitive measurements of 10 μM H(2)O(2) (n=10) was 0.8%. PMID:21641423

  18. Monosodium Glutamate Intake, Dietary Patterns and Asthma in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zumin; Yuan, Baojun; Wittert, Gary A.; Pan, Xiaoqun; Dai, Yue; Adams, Robert; Taylor, Anne W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. Methods Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN) were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. Results Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between ‘traditional’ (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable) food pattern and asthma. No association between ’macho’ (rich in meat and alcohol), ‘sweet tooth’ (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt) ‘vegetable rich’ (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable) food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. Conclusion While a ‘Traditional’ food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma. PMID:23240044

  19. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina; Norliana, Sarian; Yibadatihan, Simayi; Abdul-Kadir, Razak

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0–1.2%) and MSG (0–1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG. PMID:27356909

  20. Adsorption of biometals to monosodium titanate in biological environments

    SciTech Connect

    HOBBS, D.T.; MESSER, R. L. W.; LEWIS, J. B.; CLICK, D. R. LOCKWOOD, P. E.; WATAHA, J. C.

    2005-06-06

    Monosodium titanate (MST) is an inorganic sorbent/ion exchanger developed for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear wastes. We investigated the ability of MST to bind Cd(II), Hg(II), or Au(III) to establish the utility of MST for applications in environmental decontamination or medical therapy (drug delivery). Adsorption isotherms for MST were determined at pH 7-7.5 in water or phosphate-buffered saline. The extent of metal binding was determined spectroscopically by measuring the concentrations of the metals in solution before and after contact with the MST. Cytotoxic responses to MST were assessed using THP1 monocytes and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Monocytic activation by MST was assessed by TNF{alpha} secretion (ELISA) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation. MST sorbed Cd(II), Hg(II), and Au(III) under conditions similar to that in physiological systems. MST exhibited the highest affinity for Cd(II) followed by Hg(II) and Au (III). MST (up to 100 mg/L) exhibited only minor (< 25% suppression of succinate dehydrogenase) cytotoxicity and did not trigger TNF{alpha} secretion nor modulate LPS-induced TNF{alpha} secretion from monocytes. MST exhibits high affinity for biometals with no significant biological liabilities in these introductory studies. MST deserves further scrutiny as a substance with the capacity to decontaminate biological environments or deliver metals in a controlled fashion.

  1. Adsorption of biometals to monosodium titanate in biological environments.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, D T; Messer, R L W; Lewis, J B; Click, D R; Lockwood, P E; Wataha, J C

    2006-08-01

    Monosodium titanate (MST) is an inorganic sorbent/ion exchanger developed for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear wastes. We investigated the ability of MST to bind Cd(II), Hg(II), Au(III), or the Au-organic compound auranofin to establish the utility of MST for applications in environmental decontamination or medical therapy (drug delivery). Adsorption isotherms for MST were determined at pH 7-7.5 in water or phosphate-buffered saline. The extent of metal binding was determined spectroscopically by measuring the concentrations of the metals in solution before and after contact with the MST. Cytotoxic responses to MST were assessed using THP1 monocytes and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Monocytic activation by MST was assessed by TNFalpha secretion (ELISA) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation. MST adsorbed Cd(II), Hg(II), and Au(III) under conditions similar to those in physiological systems. MST exhibited the highest affinity for Cd(II) followed by Hg(II) and Au (III). MST (up to 100 mg/L) exhibited only minor (<25% suppression of succinate dehydrogenase) cytotoxicity and did not trigger TNFalpha secretion nor modulate LPS-induced TNFalpha secretion from monocytes. MST exhibits high affinity for biometals with no significant biological liabilities in these introductory studies. MST deserves further scrutiny as a substance with the capacity to decontaminate biological environments or deliver metals or metal compounds for therapeutic applications. PMID:16362965

  2. Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Chondrocyte Death via Autophagic Process

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyun Sook; Yang, Chung Mi; Park, Su Jin; Kim, Hyun Ah

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, which are highly precipitated in the joint cartilage, increase the production of cartilage-degrading enzymes and pro-inflammatory mediators in cartilage, thereby leading to gouty inflammation and joint damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of MSU crystals on the viability of human articular chondrocytes and the mechanism of MSU crystal-induced chondrocyte death. MSU crystals significantly decreased the viability of primary chondrocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was observed in a culture medium of MSU crystal-treated chondrocytes, but not in cell lysates. MSU crystals did not activate caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, compared with actinomycin D and TNF-α-treated cells. MSU crystals did not directly affect the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers at the mRNA and protein levels. However, MSU crystals significantly increased the LC3-II level in a time-dependent manner, indicating autophagy activation. Moreover, MSU crystal-induced autophagy and subsequent chondrocyte death were significantly inhibited by 3-methyladenine, a blocker of autophagosomes formation. MSU crystals activated autophagy via inhibition of phosporylation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that MSU crystals may cause the death of chondrocytes through the activation of the autophagic process rather than apoptosis or ER stress. PMID:26670233

  3. Synthesis and characterization of monosodium urate (MSU) nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Nirali S.; Rathod, K. R.; Parekh, B. B.; Parikh, K. D.; Joshi, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    In Gout the deposition of crystals of Monosodium Urate (MSU) in various connective tissues and joints occurs, which is very painful with immflamation. The deposition likely to begin with nano particles form and expected to grow in to micro-paricles and hence it is important to synthesize and characrterize MSU nano-particles. The MSU nano particles were synthesized by wet chemical method using NaOH and uric acid (C5H4N4O3) and then characterized by powder XRD, TEM, FT-IR and thermal analysis. From the powder XRD the triclinic structure was found and 40 nm average particle size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. From TEM the particle size was found to be in the range of 20 to 60 nm. The FT-IR spectrum for the MSU nano particles confirmed the presence of O-H stretching, N-H stretching, N-H rocking, C = O, C = C Enol or Keto and C = N vibrations. The thermal analysis was carried out from room temperature to 900°C. With comparison to the bulk MSU the thermal stability of MSU nano particles was slightly higher and 1.5 water molecules were found to be associated with MSU nano particles. Present results are compared with the bulk MSU.

  4. Self-assembly of organogels via new luminol imide derivatives: diverse nanostructures and substituent chain effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Tifeng; Huang, Qinqin; Zhang, Qingrui; Xiao, Debao; Zhou, Jingxin; Gao, Faming

    2013-06-01

    Luminol is considered as an efficient sycpstem in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurements for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, new luminol imide derivatives with different alkyl substituent chains were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 26 solvents were tested as novel low molecular mass organic gelators. It was shown that the length and number of alkyl substituent chains linked to a benzene ring in gelators played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of all compounds in various organic solvents. Longer alkyl chains in molecular skeletons in present gelators are favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different micro/nanoscale aggregates from a dot, flower, belt, rod, and lamella to wrinkle with change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations and hydrophobic forces, depending on the alkyl substituent chains in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight to the design and characteristic of new versatile soft materials and potential ECL biosensors with special molecular structures.

  5. Self-assembly of organogels via new luminol imide derivatives: diverse nanostructures and substituent chain effect

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Luminol is considered as an efficient sycpstem in electrochemiluminescence (ECL) measurements for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. In this paper, new luminol imide derivatives with different alkyl substituent chains were designed and synthesized. Their gelation behaviors in 26 solvents were tested as novel low molecular mass organic gelators. It was shown that the length and number of alkyl substituent chains linked to a benzene ring in gelators played a crucial role in the gelation behavior of all compounds in various organic solvents. Longer alkyl chains in molecular skeletons in present gelators are favorable for the gelation of organic solvents. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope observations revealed that the gelator molecules self-assemble into different micro/nanoscale aggregates from a dot, flower, belt, rod, and lamella to wrinkle with change of solvents. Spectral studies indicated that there existed different H-bond formations and hydrophobic forces, depending on the alkyl substituent chains in molecular skeletons. The present work may give some insight to the design and characteristic of new versatile soft materials and potential ECL biosensors with special molecular structures. PMID:23758979

  6. Determination of thyroxine in pharmaceuticals using flow injection with luminol chemiluminescence inhibition detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A simple flow injection method is reported for the determination of thyroxine, based on its inhibition effect on luminol-iron(II) chemiluminescence in alkaline medium in the presence of molecular oxygen. The detection limits (2s) for d- and l-thyroxine are 0.08 and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, with a sample throughput of 100/h. The calibration data for d- and l-thyroxine over the range 0.2-1.0 mg/L gives correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.9915 and 0.984 with relative standard deviations (RSD; n = 4) in the range 1.2-2.8%. The effects of some organic compounds was studied on luminol-iron(II) CL system for thyroxine determination. The method was applied to pharmaceutical thyroxine tablets and the results obtained (in the range 50.5 +/- 2.0-51.6 +/- 1.2 microg l-thyroxine/tablet) were in reasonable agreement with the value quoted. PMID:16645953

  7. Study on a luminol-based electrochemiluminescent sensor for label-free DNA sensing.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hai-Hong; Yan, Ji-Lin; Tu, Yi-Feng

    2010-01-01

    Automatic, inexpensive, simple and sensitive methods for DNA sensing and quantification are highly desirable for biomedical research. The rapid development of both the fundamentals and applications of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) over the past years has demonstrated its potential for analytical and bio-analytical chemistry. This paper reports the quenching effect of DNA on the ECL of luminol and the further development of a DNA sensing device. With the pre-functionalization by a composite of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), the sensor provides a novel and valuable label-free approach for DNA sensing. Here the ECL intensity was remarkably decreased when more than 1.0 × 10(-12) molar of DNA were adsorbed on the sensor. Linearity of the DNA amount with the reciprocal of ECL intensity was observed. A saturated sensor caused a 92.8% quenching effect. The research also proposes the mechanism for the quenching effect which could be attributed to the interaction between luminol and DNA and the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) by DNA. PMID:22163421

  8. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  9. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  10. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  11. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  12. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats...

  13. The role of ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate in thymocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, V; Sarac, M

    2010-01-01

    The studies on experimental animals have confirmed toxic effect of monosodium glutamate in different organs, mainly manifested by increased oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, strongly correlated with numerous diseases. Continuous intake of this flavor enhancer in modern nutrition also resulted with toxic effects on human health, known as Chinese restaurant syndrome. The reference data about influence of monosodium glutamate on the cells of the immune system or primary immune organs and possible protective effects of specific antioxidants are still largely unknown. This review summarizes recently known facts about the role of monosodium glutamate in the cells of the immune system, especially in thymocytes. Also, in this review many new data on positive effects of ascorbic acid on immune system and the mechanisms of its protective influence on thymocytes are discussed (Tab. 1, Ref. 52). PMID:20635684

  14. CdTe quantum dots@luminol as signal amplification system for chrysoidine with chemiluminescence-chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinting sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Huimin; Li, Leilei; Wang, Xiaojiao; Wang, Yanhui; Li, Jianbo; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) sensor based on chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) in CdTe quantum dots@luminol (CdTe QDs@luminol) nanomaterials combined with chitosan/graphene oxide-magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-MIP) for sensing chrysoidine was developed. CdTe QDs@luminol was designed to not only amplify the signal of CL but also reduce luminol consumption in the detection of chrysoidine. On the basis of the abundant hydroxy and amino, Cs and graphene oxide were introduced into the GM-MIP to improve the adsorption ability. The adsorption capacities of chrysoidine by both Cs/GM-MIP and non-imprinted polymer (Cs/GM-NIP) were investigated, and the CdTe QDs@luminol and Cs/GM-MIP were characterized by UV-vis, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The proposed sensor can detect chrysoidine within a linear range of 1.0 × 10- 7 - 1.0 × 10- 5 mol/L with a detection limit of 3.2 × 10- 8 mol/L (3δ) due to considerable chemiluminescence signal enhancement of the CdTe quantum dots@luminol detector and the high selectivity of the Cs/GM-MIP system. Under the optimal conditions of CL, the CdTe QDs@luminol-Cs/GM-MIP-CL sensor was used for chrysoidine determination in samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 90-107%.

  15. Intensification of electrochemiluminescence of luminol on TiO2 supported Au atomic cluster nano-hybrid modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhimin; Wei, Xiuhua; Yan, Jilin; Tu, Yifeng

    2012-04-21

    With TiO(2) nanoparticles as carrier, a supported nano-material of Au atomic cluster/TiO(2) nano-hybrid was synthesized. It was then modified onto the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) by Nafion to act as a working electrode for exciting the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The properties of the nano-hybrid and the modified electrode were characterized by XRD, XPS, electronic microscopy, electrochemistry and spectroscopy. The experimental results demonstrated that the modification of this nano-hybrid onto the ITO electrode efficiently intensified the ECL of luminol. It was also revealed that the ECL intensity of luminol on this modified electrode showed very sensitive responses to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The detection limits for dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were 2 μg L(-1) and 5.5 × 10(-12) M, respectively. Besides the discussion of the intensifying mechanism of this nano-hybrid for ECL of luminol, the developed method was also applied for monitoring dissolved oxygen and evaluating the scavenging efficiency of reactive oxygen species of the Ganoderma lucidum spore. PMID:22382937

  16. Electrochemiluminescence of luminol on a platinum-nanoparticle-modified indium tin oxide electrode in neutral aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomei; Lin, Zhijie; Cai, Zhiming; Chen, Xi; Oyama, Munetaka; Wang, Xiaoru

    2009-04-01

    Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of luminol on an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode modified with platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) was investigated in a neutral aqueous solution using the conventional cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. Experimental results indicated that the ECL behaviors of luminol on the PtNPs modified electrode showed significant difference from those on the bare ITO or bulk platinum electrodes. Five ECL peaks were found at 0.60, 0.92, 0.70, -0.44 and -1.16 V versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE), respectively. The ECL peaks were found to depend on the reaction medium conditions including the type of electrolyte, pH value, the presence or absence of O2 and the different kinds of nanoparticles, as well as the scan direction and range of the applied potential. Furthermore, ECL peaks at -0.44 and -1.16 V could only be obtained on the PtNPs/ITO electrode. The surface state of the electrode was characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A mechanism for luminol ECL on the PtNPs/ITO electrode was proposed. The excellent ECL properties of luminol on the PtNPs/ITO electrode in the neutral medium revealed a great potential for analytical applications to biological samples. PMID:19437984

  17. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemiluminescence of luminol-reduced gold nanoparticles and their application in a hydrogen peroxide sensor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hua; Wang, Wei; Duan, Chun-Feng; Dong, Yong-Ping; Guo, Ji-Zhao

    2007-01-01

    It was found that chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) could be directly reduced by the luminescent reagent luminol in aqueous solution to form gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the size of which depended on the amount of luminol. The morphology and surface state of as-prepared AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. All results indicated that residual luminol and its oxidation product 3-aminophthalate coexisted on the surface of AuNPs through the weak covalent interaction between gold and nitrogen atoms in their amino groups. Subsequently, a luminol-capped AuNP-modified electrode was fabricated by the immobilization of AuNPs on a gold electrode by virtue of cysteine molecules and then immersion in a luminol solution. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The as-prepared modified electrode exhibited an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) response in alkaline aqueous solution under a double-step potential. H2O2 was found to enhance the ECL. On this basis, an ECL sensor for the detection of H2O2 was developed. The method is simple, fast, and reagent free. It is applicable to the determination of H2O2 in the range of 3x10(-7)-1x10(-3) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1x10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). PMID:17539034

  18. Study on Enhancement Principle and Stabilization for the Luminol-H2O2-HRP Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lihua; Jin, Maojun; Du, Pengfei; Chen, Ge; Zhang, Chan; Wang, Jian; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; She, Yongxin; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    A luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system with high relative luminescent intensity (RLU) and long stabilization time was investigated. First, the comparative study on the enhancement effect of ten compounds as enhancers to the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system was carried out, and the results showed that 4-(imidazol-1-yl)phenol (4-IMP), 4-iodophenol (4-IOP), 4-bromophenol (4-BOP) and 4-hydroxy-4'-iodobiphenyl (HIOP) had the best performance. Based on the experiment, the four enhancers were dissolved in acetone, acetonitrile, methanol, and dimethylformamide (DMF) with various concentrations, the results indicated that 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP and HIOP dissolved in DMF with the concentrations of 0.2%, 3.2%, 1.6% and 3.2% could get the highest RLU values. Subsequently, the influences of pH, ionic strength, HRP, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol on the stabilization of the luminol-H2O2-HRP chemiluminescence system were studied, and we found that pH value, ionic strength, 4-IMP, 4-IOP, 4-BOP, HIOP, H2O2 and luminol have little influence on luminescent stabilization, while HRP has a great influence. In different ranges of HRP concentration, different enhancers should be selected. When the concentration is within the range of 0~6 ng/mL, 4-IMP should be selected. When the concentration of HRP ranges from 6 to 25 ng/mL, 4-IOP was the best choice. And when the concentration is within the range of 25~80 ng/mL, HIOP should be selected as the enhancer. Finally, the three well-performing chemiluminescent enhanced solutions (CESs) have been further optimized according to the three enhancers (4-IMP, 4-IOP and HIOP) in their utilized HRP concentration ranges. PMID:26154162

  19. Sensitive determination of carbidopa through the electrochemiluminescence of luminol at graphene-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Morteza; Mirzanasiri, Nooshin; Rezapour, Morteza; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan; Faridbod, Farnoush; Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2015-06-01

    Using the concept of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL), a sensitive analytical method for the determination of carbidopa is described. Electro-oxidation of carbidopa on the surface of a graphene oxide (GO)-modified gold electrode (GE) leads to enhancement of the weak emission of oxidized luminol. Under optimum experimental conditions, the ECL signal increases linearly with increasing carbidopa concentrations over a range of 1.0 × 10(-9) -1.7 × 10(-7)  M, with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10(-10)  M. The proposed ECL method was successfully used for the determination of carbidopa in urine samples. PMID:25131492

  20. Determination of photoirradiated high polar benzoylureas in tomato by HPLC with luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Galera, M Martínez; García, M D Gil; Valverde, R Santiago

    2008-08-15

    This study reports the first analytical application of luminol chemiluminescence reaction for the sensitive detection of two benzoylurea insecticides (diflubenzuron and triflumuron). Off-line experiments demonstrated that previously irradiated traces of these benzoylurea insecticides largely enhanced the chemiluminescence emission yielded from the oxidation of luminol in methanol:water mixtures, by potassium permanganate in alkaline medium, the enhancement being proportional to the concentration of both pesticides. The two benzoylureas were determined in tomato samples by coupling liquid chromatography with post-column photoderivatization and detection based on this chemiluminescence reaction. Tomato samples were extracted using the QuEChERS method based on extraction with acetonitrile and dispersive solid-phase clean-up using primary and secondary amine (PSA). Interferences due to matrix effect were overcome by using matrix-matched standards. The optimised method was validated with respect to linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy. Under the optimised conditions, calibrations graphs were linear between 0.05 and 0.50 microg mL(-1) for diflubenzuron and between 0.10 and 1.00 microg mL(-1) for triflumuron. Method detection limits were 0.0025 and 0.0131 microg mL(-1) (equivalent to 0.0005 and 0.0026 mg kg(-1)) and quantification limits were 0.05 and 0.10 microg mL(-1) (equivalent to 0.01 and 0.02 mg kg(-1)) for diflubenzuron and triflumuron, respectively. In both cases, quantification limits were lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European legislation. The relative standard deviation of intra-day precision was below 10% and recoveries were between 79.7% and 94.2% for both pesticides. PMID:18656664

  1. 75 FR 40824 - Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA); Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... Federal Register notice (75 FR 17733; FRL-8819-2)announcing the Agency's receipt of the requests for... April 7, 2010 (75 FR 17733) (FRL-8819-2). The comment period closed on May 7, 2010. VI. Provisions for... AGENCY Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA); Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations...

  2. The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Addison

    2004-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is both the basis of a trillion dollar worldwide industry and a presence in the diet of a majority of the inhabitants of the world. Some parts of the "story" of MSG that might be of most interest to chemists, chemistry teachers and their students are presented.

  3. Effect of L (+) ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate concentration on the morphology of calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraya, Mohamed El-shahte Ismaiel

    2015-11-01

    In this study, monosodium glutamate and ascorbic acid were used as crystal and growth modifiers to control the crystallization of CaCO3. Calcium carbonate prepared by reacting a mixed solution of Na2CO3 with CaCl2 at ambient temperature, (25 °C), constant Ca++/ CO3- - molar ratio and pH with stirring. The polymorph and morphology of the crystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that rhombohedral calcite was only formed in water without organic additives, and both calcite and spherical vaterite with various morphologies were produced in the presence of monosodium glutamate. The content of vaterite increased as the monosodium glutamate increased. In addition, spherical vaterite was obtained in the presence of different concentrations of ascorbic acid. The spherical vaterite posses an aggregate shape composed of nano-particles, ranging from 30 to 50 nm as demonstrated by the SEM and TEM analyses. Therefore, the ascorbic stabilizes vaterite and result in nano-particles compared to monosodium glutamate.

  4. EFFECTS OF PERINATAL MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ADMINISTRATIONON VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS OF JUVENILE AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Administration of high doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to rats during the first postnatal week results in severe losses of retinal ganglion cells and interneurons in the retina. his study was conducted to determine what effect this severe retinal damage would have upon the on...

  5. Monosodium L-glutamate: its pharmacology and role in the Chinese restaurant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, H H; Byck, R; Gerstl, R; Mashman, J H

    1969-02-21

    Monosodium L-glutamate is the cause of the Chinese restaurant syndrome and can precipitate headaches. In appropriate doses it causes burning sensations, facial pressure, and chest pain. These are pharmacological effects obeying a dose-effect relationship. There is considerable variation in oral threshold does among individuals. PMID:5764480

  6. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1521 Section 184.1521 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  8. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  9. Growth and adhesion properties of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Clare M.

    The presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid has long been associated with the joint disease gout. To elucidate the molecular level growth mechanism and adhesive properties of MSU crystals, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques were employed in the characterization of the (010) and (1-10) faces of MSU, as well as physiologically relevant solutions supersaturated with urate. Topographical AFM imaging of both MSU (010) and (1-10) revealed the presence of crystalline layers of urate arranged into v-shaped features of varying height. Growth rates were measured for both monolayers (elementary steps) and multiple layers (macrosteps) on both crystal faces under a wide range of urate supersaturation in physiologically relevant solutions. Step velocities for monolayers and multiple layers displayed a second order polynomial dependence on urate supersaturation on MSU (010) and (1-10), with step velocities on (1-10) generally half of those measured on MSU (010) in corresponding growth conditions. Perpendicular step velocities on MSU (010) were obtained and also showed a second order polynomial dependence of step velocity with respect to urate supersaturation, which implies a 2D-island nucleation growth mechanism for MSU (010). Extensive topographical imaging of MSU (010) showed island adsorption from urate growth solutions under all urate solution concentrations investigated, lending further support for the determined growth mechanism. Island sizes derived from DLS experiments on growth solutions were in agreement with those measured on MSU (010) topographical images. Chemical force microscopy (CFM) was utilized to characterize the adhesive properties of MSU (010) and (1-10). AFM probes functionalized with amino acid derivatives and bio-macromolecules found in the synovial fluid were brought into contact with both crystal faces and adhesion forces were tabulated into

  10. Forensic Luminol Blood Test for Preventing Cross-contamination in Dentistry: An Evaluation of a Dental School Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Cadore, Peterson; Gallon, Andrea; Imanishi, Soraia Almeida Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Background: More than 200 different diseases may be transmitted from exposure to blood in the dental setting. The aim of this study is to identify possible faults in the crosscontamination chain control in a dental school clinic searching for traces of blood in the clinical contact surfaces (CCS) through forensic luminol blood test. Methods: Traces of invisible blood where randomly searched in CCS of one dental school clinic. Results: Forty eight surfaces areas in the CCS were tested and the presence of invisible and remnant blood was identified in 28 (58.3%) items. Conclusions: We suggest that the luminol method is suitable for identifying contamination with invisible blood traces and this method may be a useful tool to prevent cross-contamination in the dental care setting. PMID:25400895

  11. Combining complement fixation and luminol chemiluminescence for ultrasensitive detection of avian influenza A rH7N9.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Shi, ZhuanZhuan; Li, ChangMing; Yu, Ling

    2016-03-21

    The complement fixation test (CFT) is a serological test that can be used to detect the presence of either a specific antibody or antigen to diagnose infections. In a conventional CFT, the assay result is determined by observing the clarity of the reaction solution or the sediment of red cells by the naked eye. Although the assay conditions are thereafter simplified, the sensitivity of the assay would be sacrificed due to the limitation of bulk observation. Inspired by the forensic scientists to examine blood at the scene of the crime, we rationally argued that the luminol chemiluminescence (CL) reaction could be applied in the CFT to sense physiological complement-mediated haemolytic phenomena for sensitive protein detection. The combination of the CFT and the luminol CL system was demonstrated in detection of rH7N9, a recombinant avian influenza virus protein. The testing can be accomplished within 2.5 h and the linear detection range covers 0.25 fg mL(-1) to 25 ng mL(-1). The feasibility of the CL based CFT in assaying a real biopsy was successfully demonstrated by specifically detecting rH7N9 and the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. This new type of protein detection approach inherits the beauty of complement-mediated assay, such as being fast, and no protein immobilization, blocking and washing. In addition, the participation of luminol CL enables us to quantitatively analyse the intensity of a haemeolysis process, ameliorating the limitation of bulk observation in traditional CFT. It is anticipated that the luminol CL-CFT assay would be particularly suitable for investigation of small molecules, toxins, and short peptides. PMID:26863640

  12. Technical note: The effects of Bluestar(®) and luminol when used in conjunction with tetramethylbenzidine or phenolphthalein.

    PubMed

    Luedeke, Makayla; Miller, Emily; Sprague, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    There are numerous presumptive tests available in the forensic science field to help identify the presence of blood. While many articles are available on the effects of Bluestar(®) and luminol and potential interactions with subsequent DNA identification, the research field falls short in identifying the effects these two presumptive tests may have on subsequent presumptive tests used to help identify blood. To rectify this ongoing issue in the forensic science field, the chemiluminescence methods of Bluestar(®) and luminol for the detection of blood at a crime scene were tested for their effects when used in conjunction with tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) or phenolphthalein (PT) at the forensic science laboratory. Six different substrates (untreated wood, pressure treated wood, ceramic tile, shag carpet, cement block, and cotton clothing) were stained with varying dilutions (range 1:1 to 1:100,000) of blood. Neither luminol nor Bluestar(®) affect the results of PT or TMB tests at blood dilutions equal to or less than 1:100. However, interactions did occur between agents and substrates with blood dilutions 1:1000 or greater. Bluestar(®) was the only presumptive test that can detect blood dilutions of 1:100,000 on some substrates and luminol was inclusive on pressure treated wood. These findings suggests that forensic science laboratory personal need to know and understand the details of how the blood was detected by the crime scene investigator and the substrate on which the blood was obtained from for their preparation of presumptive blood testing with PT or TMB. PMID:26990564

  13. Positive potential operation of a cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence immunosensor based on luminol and graphene for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoujiang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Taihong; Li, Jinghong

    2011-05-15

    In this work, we report a cathodic electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol at a positive potential (ca. 0.05 V vs Ag/AgCl) with a strong light emission on the graphene-modified glass carbon electrode. The resulted graphene-modified electrode offers an excellent platform for high-performance biosensing applications. On the basis of the cathodic ECL signal of luminol on the graphene-modified electrode, an ECL sandwich immunosensor for sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers at low potential was developed with a multiple signal amplification strategy from functionalized graphene and gold nanorods multilabeled with glucose oxidase (GOx) and secondary antibody (Ab(2)). The functionalized graphene improved the electron transfer on the electrode interface and was employed to attach the primary antibody (Ab(1)) due to it large surface area. The gold nanorods were not only used as carriers of secondary antibody (Ab(2)) and GOx but also catalyzed the ECL reaction of luminol, which further amplified the ECL signal of luminol in the presence of glucose and oxygen. The as-proposed low-potential ECL immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity and specificity on the detection of prostate protein antigen (PSA), a biomarker of prostate cancer that was used as a model. A linear relationship between ECL signals and the concentrations of PSA was obtained in the range from 10 pg mL(-1) to 8 ng mL(-1). The detection limit of PSA was 8 pg mL(-1) (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). Moreover, the as-proposed low-potential ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent stability and reproducibility. The graphene-based ECL immunosensor accurately detected PSA concentration in 10 human serum samples from patients demonstrated by excellent correlations with standard chemiluminescence immunoassay. The results suggest that the as-proposed graphene ECL immunosensor will be promising in the point-of-care diagnostics application of clinical screening of cancer biomarkers. PMID:21513282

  14. Luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, highly sensitive and selective detection of minocycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Peng, Rufang

    2014-11-01

    In this work, luminol functionalized gold nanoparticles (LuAuNPs) were used as colorimetric and chemiluminescent probes for visual, label free, sensitive and selective detection of minocycline (MC). The LuAuNPs were prepared by simple one-pot reduction of HAuCl4 with luminol, which exhibited a good chemiluminescence (CL) activity owing to the presence of luminol molecules on their surface and surface plasmon resonance absorption. In the absence of MC, the color of LuAuNPs was wine red and their size was relatively small (˜25 nm), which could react with silver nitrate, producing a strong CL emission. Upon the addition of MC at acidic buffer solutions, the electrostatic interaction between positively charged MC and negatively charged LuAuNPs caused the aggregation of LuAuNPs, generating a purple or blue color. Simultaneously, the aggregated LuAuNPs did not effectively react with silver nitrate, producing a weak CL emission. The signal change was linearly dependent on the logarithm of MC concentration in the range from 30 ng to 1.0 μg for colorimetric detection and from 10 ng to 1.0 μg for CL detection. With colorimetry, a detection limit of 22 ng was achieved, while the detection limit for CL detection modality was 9.7 ng.

  15. Menadione-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence assay for the rapid detection of viable bacteria in foods under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, S; Yamashoji, S; Asakawa, A; Isshiki, K; Kawamoto, S

    2004-12-01

    A menadione-catalyzed luminol chemiluminescence assay was developed for the rapid detection and estimation of viable bacteria in foods. The principle of this assay is based on the extracellular menadione-catalyzed active oxygen spieces (O2- and H2O2) generated by the activity of NAD(P)H:menadione oxidoreductase in viable cells. This luminol chemiluminescence assay requires 10 min for the incubation of cells with menadione and then 2 s for the measurement of chemiluminescence intensity after an injection of luminol solution without the treatment of cell lysis. This method was evaluated using liquid food samples of milk, vegetable juice, green tea, and coffee spiked with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The study result revealed that E. coli contamination at 1 to 10 CFU/ml in these foods could be detected after incubation at 37 degrees C for 7 h in an enrichment medium; however, the green tea and coffee samples requires filtration. This method could be a useful tool for the rapid evaluation of microbial food contamination. PMID:15633684

  16. Sensitive assay of hexythiazox residue in citrus fruits using gold nanoparticles-catalysed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Khajvand, Tahereh; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2015-04-15

    A new sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) procedure for the detection of hexythiazox (HXTZ) is presented, based on the quenching effect of the HXTZ in the luminol-H2O2 system using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a catalyst. The Box-Behnken design matrix and response surface methodology (RSM) have been applied in designing the experiments for studying the interactive effects of the three most important variables pH, luminol, and H2O2 concentrations on the CL intensity of luminol catalysed by GNPs. Under the optimal conditions, the CL intensity was linear with HXTZ concentration in the range of 0.017-0.42 μg mL(-1), and the limit of detection (LoD) was 0.011 μg mL(-1). The procedure has been successfully applied to the detection of HXTZ residues in citrus fruits and water samples at trace levels. Mean recoveries obtained were between 84.0% and 95.3%, with a repeatability precision of <6%. Meanwhile, the possible mechanism of the inhibited CL intensity was discussed. PMID:25466053

  17. Long-lasting chemiluminescence of luminol on electrochemically pre-oxidized platinum electrodes in NaOH solution.

    PubMed

    Lin, X Q; Sun, Y G; Cui, H

    2000-01-01

    A long-lasting bright chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol was generated at polycrystalline platinum electrodes with open circuit. The CL can last for several hours with the presence of O(2) in the solution when the electrode was preoxidized at potentials more positive than 1.10 V vs. SCE. The effects of the varieties of solution conditions and surface states of the electrode on the CL intensity and the interfacial potential of the electrode were investigated. It was proposed that PtO was generated at the pre-oxidized potentials and played a role of catalyst of luminol oxidation for generating the CL. The redox couple of PtO/Pt(active) at the electrode surface was maintained in the presence of O(2) and luminol, and generated the interfacial potential more positive than 140 mV. Mathematical treatment of the reaction mechanism was conducted, which led to an approximated expression of a steady CL intensity (I(CL)) as a function of the pre-polarization potential (E( h)) and time (tau( h)) of the electrode. An empirical equation, (I(CL))(4/3) = 3480(-1 + 0.82E( h) + 0.037 ln tau( h)), was estimated from the experimental data. PMID:11038487

  18. Aircraft measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrates using luminol chemiluminescence with fast capillary gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffney, J.S.; Marley, N.A.; Steele, H.D.; Drayton, P.J.; Hubbe, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection has been used to make airborne measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). The analysis system allows for the simultaneous measurement of NO{sub 2} and peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs) with time resolution of less than 1 min, and improvement of a factor of 4--5 over previously reported methods using electron capture detection. Data presented were taken near Pasco, Washington, in August 1997, during a test flight onboard the US Department of Energy G-1 aircraft. The authors report measurements of NO{sub 2} in the boundary layer in a paper mill plume and a plume from a grass fire, in addition to analyses for free tropospheric NO{sub 2} and PAN. Ratios of PAN/NO{sub 2} were observed to increase with altitude (decreasing temperature) and to reach values of 2--4 above the boundary layer, consistent with the thermal equilibrium of the peroxyacetyl radical and NO{sub 2} and PAN. Estimates for the peroxyacetyl radical in the continental free troposphere, calculated from this equilibrium, were found to be in the range of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} molecules per cubic centimeter. These results demonstrate the application of this approach for airborne measurements of NO{sub 2} and PAN in a wide range of field study scenarios.

  19. Trace analysis of phosphorus in water by sorption preconcentration and luminol chemiluminescence

    PubMed

    Zui; Birks

    2000-04-01

    A new, highly sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sub-ppb quantities of phosphorus in water is described. The method is based on sorption preconcentration of phosphorus as a yellow vanadomolybdophosphoric heteropoly acid (HPA) in the presence or absence of a cationic surfactant on a paper filter, followed by direct chemiluminescence detection of the phosphorus concentrate via reaction with an alkaline luminol solution. The molar ratio of cationic surfactant to HPA in the ion associate sorbed on the filter is 4:1. The detection limits for phosphorus are 0.02 microgram of P L-1 in the presence of surfactant and 0.1 microgram of P L-1 in the absence of surfactant for a sample volume of 150 mL. The calibration plot is linear from 0.06 to 1.7 micrograms of P L-1 in the presence of a surfactant, and the time required for analysis is 25 min. In the absence of surfactant, the selectivities against Si4+ and As5+ are 5 and 40 times greater than those for the standard colorimetric method based on the formation of the blue molybdophosphoric HPA. Applications of the method to the analyses of river water, seawater, and the turbine vapor condensate from a coal-fired power plant are described. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity advantage of the chemiluminescence technique can be combined with the magnesium-induced coprecipitation (MAGIC) method for a more selective measurement of soluble reactive phosphorus. PMID:10763271

  20. Monosodium glutamate-induced oxidative kidney damage and possible mechanisms: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amod

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies suggest that chronic monosodium glutamate (MSG) intake induces kidney damage by oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, despite the growing evidence and consensus that α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, glutamate receptors and cystine-glutamate antiporter play an important role in up-regulation of oxidative stress in MSG-induced renal toxicity. This review summaries evidence from studies into MSG-induced renal oxidative damage, possible mechanisms and their importance from a toxicological viewpoint. PMID:26493866

  1. Prenatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment given through the mother's diet causes behavioral deficits in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Frieder, B; Grimm, V E

    1984-04-01

    The present study reports various developmental and behavioral changes in the offspring of rat dams that received monosodium glutamate (MSG) in the drinking water all through the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Three main effects were observed in the MSG exposed offspring: (1) juvenile obesity; (2) reduced general activity levels; (3) a specific type of learning disability in discrimination learning involving choice between simultaneously present positive and negative stimuli. PMID:6541212

  2. [The effect of probiotic therapy on development of experimental obesity in rats caused by monosodium glutamate].

    PubMed

    Savcheniuk, O A; Virchenko, O V; Falalieieva, T M; Beregova, T V; Babenko, L P; Lazarenko, L M; Spivak, M Ia

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a mixture of probiotic strains (2:1:1 Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB) on the development of experimental obesity in rats induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate has been studied. It was shown that in rats of 4 months age, the injection of monosodium glutamate (4 mg/g) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 days after birth elicited abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. An intermittent administration of a probiotic mixture to rats treated with monosodium prevented the development of obesity. In the group of rats treated with probiotics, anthropometric parameters (weight and body length, Lee index, body mass index) did not differ from the level of intact rats. Visceral fat mass was decreased by probiotics by 38.5% (P < 0.05) compared to rats treated with water. Probiotics improved lipid metabolism: reduced the level of VLDL by 32.2% (P < 0,05), the level of LDL by 30.6% (P < 0.05), increased HDL by 25.7% (P <0,05) compared to obese control rats. Probiotic strains restored the secretion of adipocytes hormones (leptin and adiponectin) to the normal level of intact animals. The results show the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention of obesity. PMID:25007523

  3. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxidase mimic-mediated chemiluminescence of aqueous luminol for sulfite in white wines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodan; He, Shaohui; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuming

    2013-01-30

    Recently, the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a growing area of interest. However, the analytical applications of the NP-based enzyme mimetic are mainly concentrated on their peroxidase-like activity; no attempts have been made to investigate the analytical applications based on the oxidase mimic activities of NPs. For the first time, we report that CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were found to possess intrinsic oxidase-like activity and could catalyze luminol oxidation by dissolved oxygen to produce intensified chemiluminescence (CL). The effect of sulfite on CoFe(2)O(4) NP oxidase mimic-mediated CL of aqueous luminol was investigated. It is very interesting that when adding sulfite to the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) system, the role of sulfite in the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite system depends on its concentration. At a relatively low concentration level, sulfite presents an inhibition effect on the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP system. However, it does have an enhancement effect at a higher concentration level. Investigations on the effect of the solution pH and luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NP concentrations on the kinetic characteristics of the studied CL system in the presence of trace sulfite suggested that the enhancement and inhibition of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system also depended on the solution pH. It seems that the concentrations of luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs did not influence the CL pathway. The possible mechanism of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system was also discussed. On this basis, a flow injection chemiluminescence method was established for the determination of trace sulfite in this study. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed system could respond down to 2.0 × 10(-8) M sulfite. The method has been applied to the determination of trace sulfite in white wine samples with satisfactory results. The results given by the proposed method are in good agreement with those given by the standard titration method. PMID

  4. Enzymatic activation and trapping of luminol-substituted peptides and proteins. A possible means of amplifying the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C W; Aach, R D; Philpott, G W

    1975-01-01

    Glutathione and glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) conjugates containing covalently bound luminol were prepared as prototypes for peptides and proteins with latent, enzyme-activatable chemical reactivity. In the presence of small quantities of activated horseradish peroxidase, conjugated luminol molecules were oxidized to unstable free radicals which reacted rapidly with soluble proteins and cells. These observations are of interest in regard to possible sequential localization reactions in which a few molecules of cell-bound antibody-horseradish peroxidase would be used to catalytically alter and trap many molecules of a second (luminol-substituted) enzyme, toxin, or hapten in the same area, as might be desirable in promoting selective cell destruction. PMID:47175

  5. Scanning laser vibrometry and luminol photomicrography to map cavitational activity around ultrasonic scalers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felver, Bernhard; King, David C.; Lea, Simon C.; Price, Gareth J.; Walmsley, A. Damien

    2008-06-01

    Ultrasonic dental scalers are clinically used to remove deposits from tooth surfaces. A metal probe, oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies, is used to chip away deposits from the teeth. To reduce frictional heating, water flows over the operated probe in which a bi-product, cavitation, may be generated. The aim of this study is characterise probe oscillations using scanning laser vibrometry and to relate the recorded data to the occurrence of cavitation that is mapped in the course of this research. Scanning laser vibrometry (Polytec models 300-F/S and 400-3D) was used to measure the movement of various designs of operating probes and to locate vibration nodes / anti-nodes at different generator power settings and contact loads (100g and 200g). Cavitation mapping was performed by photographing the emission from a luminol solution with a digital camera (Artemis ICX285). The scaler design influences the number and location of vibration node / anti-node points. For all ultrasonic probes, the highest displacement amplitude values were recorded at the tip. The highest amounts of cavitation around the probes were recorded at the second anti-node measured from the tip. Broad, beaver-tale shaped probes produced more cavitation than slim shaped ones. The design also influences the amount of inertial cavitation around the operated instrument. The clinical relevance is that broad, beaver-tale shaped probes are unlikely to reach subgingival areas of the tooth. Further research is required to design probes that will be clinically superior to cleaning this area of the tooth.

  6. Electrochemiluminescence of luminol enhanced by the synergetic catalysis of hemin and silver nanoparticles for sensitive protein detection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xinya; Chai, Yaqin; Wang, Haijun; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-04-15

    A novel and ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor, which was based on the amplifying ECL of luminol by hemin-reduced graphene oxide (hemin-rGO) and Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated reduced graphene oxide (Ag-rGO), was constructed for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). For this proposed sandwich-type ECL immunosensor, Au nanoparticles electrodeposited (DpAu) onto hemin-rGO (DpAu/hemin-rGO) constructed the base of the immunosensor. DpAu had outstanding electrical conductivity to promote the electron transfer at the electrode interface and had good biocompatibility to load large amounts of primary antibody (Ab1), which provided an excellent platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, AgNPs and glucose oxidase (GOD) functionalized graphene labeled secondary antibody (Ag-rGO-Ab2-GOD) was designed as the signal probe for the sandwiched immunosensor. Not only did the hemin-rGO improve the electron transfer of the electrode surface, but hemin also further amplified the ECL signal of luminol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). With the aid of Ag-rGO-Ab2-GOD, enhanced signal was obtained by in situ generation of H2O2 and catalysis of AgNPs to ECL reaction of the luminol-H2O2 system. The as-prepared ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent analytical property for the detection of CEA in the range from 0.1 pg mL(-1) to 160 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 pg mL(-1) (SN(-1)=3). PMID:24240164

  7. Luminol/H2O2 chemiluminescence detector for the analysis of nitric oxide in exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J K; Bollinger, M J; Birks, J W

    1999-11-15

    A new instrument for the detection of nitric oxide has been developed and applied to the analysis of exhaled breath. The instrument is based on conversion of NO to NO2, using the oxidant chromium trioxide, followed by detection of chemiluminescence in the reaction of NO2 with an alkaline luminol/H2O2 solution. The presence of H2O2 is found to enhance the sensitivity of NO2 detection by a factor of approximately 20. A bundle of porous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes is used to bring the gaseous sample into contact with the luminol solution. Chemiluminescence occurring within the translucent hollow fibers is detected using a miniature photomultiplier tube. The limit of detection for NO is 0.3 ppbv for S/N = 3, and the 1/e response time is 2 s. A large interference resulting from the 4-6% CO2 concentration in exhaled breath is removed by use of an ascarite scrubber in the air stream. Breath measurements of NO were made using a sampling technique developed by Sensor Medics (Yorba Linda, CA) with simultaneous detection using the luminol/H2O2 and NO + O3 chemiluminescence techniques. The two instruments were found to be in excellent agreement. Nitric oxide levels were in the range 6.0-22.0 ppbv for healthy individuals and 40.0-80.0 ppbv for individuals with asthma or a respiratory infection. This new detector offers the advantages of compact size, low cost, and a simple configuration compared to NO detectors based on NO + O3 chemiluminescence. PMID:10575964

  8. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2.

    PubMed

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M; Wu, Jerry J

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes. PMID:27131144

  9. Enhanced chemiluminescence of the luminol-hydrogen peroxide system by colloidal cupric oxide nanoparticles as peroxidase mimic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Hong, Lei; Liu, Ai-Lin; Liu, Jian-Qing; Lin, Xin-Hua; Xia, Xing-Hua

    2012-09-15

    As a peroxidase mimic, cupric oxide nanoparticles were found to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of luminol-H(2)O(2) system up to 400 folds. The CL spectra and radical scavengers were conducted to investigate the possible CL enhancement mechanism. It was suggested that the enhanced CL could be attributed to the peroxidase-like activity of CuO nanoparticles, which effectively catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into hydroxyl radicals. The effects of the reactant concentrations and some organic compounds were also investigated. The proposed method could be used as a sensitive detection tool for hydrogen peroxide and glucose. PMID:22967606

  10. Chemiluminescence studies between aqueous phase synthesized mercaptosuccinic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots and luminol-H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviyarasan, Kulandaivelu; Anandan, Sambandam; Mangalaraja, Ramalinga Viswanathan; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Wu, Jerry J.

    2016-08-01

    Mercaptosuccinic acid capped Cadmium telluride quantum dots have been successfully synthesized via aqueous phase method. The products were well characterized by a number of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, XRD, HRTEM, and a corrected particle size analysis by the statistical treatment of several AFM measurements. Chemiluminescence experiments were performed to explore the resonance energy transfer between chemiluminescence donor (luminol-H2O2 system) and acceptor CdTe QDs. The combination of such donor and acceptor dramatically reduce the fluorescence while compared to pristine CdTe QDs without any exciting light source, which is due to the occurrence of chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) processes.

  11. Determination of 2-methoxyestradiol by chemiluminescence based on luminol-KMnO4-CdTe quantum dots system.

    PubMed

    Du, Bin; Wang, Tiantian; Han, Shuping; Cao, Xiaohui; Qu, Tiantian; Zhao, Feifei; Guo, Xinhong; Yao, Hanchun

    2015-02-01

    In this study, water-soluble CdTe quantum-dots (QDs) capped with glutathione (GSH) was synthesized. It was found that CdTe QDs could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline medium, and 4 nm CdTe QDs was used as catalysts to enhance the reaction sensitivity. The CL intensity of CdTe QDs-luminol-KMnO4 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) and the relative CL intensity was in linear correlation with the concentration of 2-ME. Based on this inhibition, a novel CL method with a lower detection limit and wider linear range was developed for the determination of 2-ME. The detection limit of plasma samples was 3.07×10(-10) g mL(-1) with a relative standard deviation of 0.24% for 8.0×10(-9) g mL(-1) 2-ME. The method was successfully applied for determination of 2-ME in plasma samples. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly. PMID:25439823

  12. Short-Time-Response measurements of nitrogen dioxide and peroxyacetyl nitrate by fast capillary gas chromatography with luminol detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, N. A.; Gaffney, J. S.; Drayton, P. J.

    2000-12-07

    The interaction of hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides in sunlight to produce photochemical smog has been well studied over the years. In the past, the workhorse for the measurement of NO{sub 2}and NO was the chemiluminescent reaction with ozone. This method has detection limits of approximately 0.5 ppb in most commercial instruments, but it cannot detect NO{sub 2} directly; the instrument detects NO and uses hot catalytic surfaces to decompose all other nitrogen oxides (including NO{sub 2}) to NO for detection (l). The main problem with the method is the inherent difficulty in detecting excited NO{sub 2}, which emits over a broad region beginning at approximately 660 nm and has a maximum at 1270 nm, thus requiring a red-shifted photomultiplier for detection. The use of luminol for direct chemiluminescent detection of NO{sub 2} was demonstrated to have greater inherent sensitivity (detection limits of 5 ppt) than the indirect ozone chemiluminescence detection (2). In the luminol system, a gas-liquid reaction leads to light emission with a maximum at approximately 425 nm, at the maximum sensitivity for most photomultiplier tubes. This emission is responsible for the increased detection sensitivities. The biggest problem with this method for direct measurement of NO{sub 2} has been interference due to other soluble oxidants, particularly peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs).

  13. Highly sensitive luminol electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on ZnO nanoparticles and glucose oxidase decorated graphene for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yinfeng; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Niu, Huan; Cao, Yaling; Liu, Huijing; Bai, Lijuan; Yuan, Yali

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we reported a sandwiched luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor using ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and glucose oxidase (GOD) decorated graphene as labels and in situ generated hydrogen peroxide as coreactant. In order to construct the base of the immunosensor, a hybrid architecture of Au nanoparticles and graphene by reduction of HAuCl(4) and graphene oxide (GO) with ascorbic acid was prepared. The resulted hybrid architecture modified electrode provided an excellent platform for immobilization of antibody with good bioactivity and stability. Then, ZnONPs and GOD functionalized graphene labeled secondary antibody was designed for fabricating a novel sandwiched ECL immunosensor. Enhanced sensitivity was obtained by in situ generating hydrogen peroxide with glucose oxidase and the catalysis of ZnONPs to the ECL reaction of luminol-H(2)O(2) system. The as-prepared ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent analytical property for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the range from 10 pg mL(-1) to 80 ng mL(-1) and with a detection limit of 3.3 pg mL(-1) (SN(-1)=3). The amplification strategy performed good promise for clinical application of screening of cancer biomarkers. PMID:22938618

  14. Application of silver nanoparticles to the chemiluminescence determination of cefditoren pivoxil using the luminol-ferricyanide system.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; Aly, Fatma A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2015-02-01

    A new simple, accurate and sensitive sequential injection analysis chemiluminescence (CL) detection method for the determination of cefditoren pivoxil (CTP) has been developed. The developed method was based on the enhancement effect of silver nanoparticles on the CL signal arising from a luminol-potassium ferricyanide reaction in the presence of CTP. The optimum conditions relevant to the effect of luminol, potassium ferricyanide and silver nanoparticle concentrations were investigated. The proposed method showed linear relationships between relative CL intensity and the investigated drug concentration at the range 0.001-5000 ng/mL, (r = 0.9998, n = 12) with a detection limit of 0.5 pg/mL and quantification limit of 0.001 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation was 1.6%. The proposed method was employed for the determination of CTP in bulk drug, in its pharmaceutical dosage forms and biological fluids such as human serum and urine. The interference of some common additive compounds such as glucose, lactose, starch, talc and magnesium stearate was investigated. In addition, the interference of some related cephalosporins was tested. No interference was recorded. The obtained sequential injection analysis-CL results were statistically compared with those from a reported method and did not show any significant differences. PMID:24850667

  15. Determination of 2-methoxyestradiol by chemiluminescence based on luminol-KMnO4-CdTe quantum dots system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bin; Wang, Tiantian; Han, Shuping; Cao, Xiaohui; Qu, Tiantian; Zhao, Feifei; Guo, Xinhong; Yao, Hanchun

    2015-02-01

    In this study, water-soluble CdTe quantum-dots (QDs) capped with glutathione (GSH) was synthesized. It was found that CdTe QDs could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the luminol-KMnO4 system in alkaline medium, and 4 nm CdTe QDs was used as catalysts to enhance the reaction sensitivity. The CL intensity of CdTe QDs-luminol-KMnO4 was strongly inhibited in the presence of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) and the relative CL intensity was in linear correlation with the concentration of 2-ME. Based on this inhibition, a novel CL method with a lower detection limit and wider linear range was developed for the determination of 2-ME. The detection limit of plasma samples was 3.07 × 10-10 g mL-1 with a relative standard deviation of 0.24% for 8.0 × 10-9 g mL-1 2-ME. The method was successfully applied for determination of 2-ME in plasma samples. The possible CL reaction mechanism was also discussed briefly.

  16. Flow Injection Photosensitized Chemiluminescence of Luminol with Cu(II)-Rose Bengal: Mechanistic Approach and Vitamin A and C Determination

    PubMed Central

    Asgher, Muhammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul; Siddiqi, Abdul Rauf

    2014-01-01

    Rose Bengal photosensitized flow injection chemiluminescence method is reported using luminol-Cu(II) for the determination of vitamins A and C in pharmaceutical formulations. The reaction is based on the enhancement effect of analyte in the production of anion radicals of Rose Bengal (RB•−) which rapidly interact with dissolved oxygen and generate superoxide anions radicals (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were produced via dismutation of H2O2 by catalyst (Cu2+). The generated superoxide anions radicals and hydroxyl radicals thus oxidize luminol in alkaline medium to generate strong chemiluminescence. The limit of detection (3s of the blank, n = 6) of vitamins A and C and RB was found to be 0.008, 0.005, and 0.05 μg mL−1, respectively. The sample throughput of 70 h−1 for vitamins A and C and 30 h−1 for RB was found. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05–15, 0.01–20, and 0.1–50 μg mL−1 for vitamins A and C and RB, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.6–3.6%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations and the results obtained were in good agreement with the labeled values. PMID:25614739

  17. Learned taste aversions induced by high doses of monosodium L-glutamate.

    PubMed

    Vogel, J R; Nathan, B A

    1975-01-01

    Learned taste aversions, as measured by increased time to complete 100 licks of a sweetened condensed milk solution, were demonstrated by laboratory rats 4 days after consumption of the milk solution paired with high oral doses of monosodium 1-glutamate (MSG). The hesitancy of the rats to consume milk on the test session cannot be simply attributed to direct action of the drug on motivation (e.g., hunger) or to drug debilitation. MSG has been reported to occasionally cause aversive effects in humans (Chinese restaurant syndrome), and the present experiments demonstrate that the effects of MSG are aversive to laboratory rats as well. PMID:1208638

  18. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT #s 46000606120, 46000722120, AND 46000808120

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-10-08

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The Harrell Industries Lot #s 46000706120, 46000722120, and 460008081120 qualification and verification samples met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested with the exception of a few pails being marginally below the lower weight percent solids limit. These deviations from the specifications are viewed as negligible since the corresponding density of the slurries indicates no appreciable shortage of MST solids. Therefore, SRNL recommends acceptance and use of these pails.

  19. SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND AMORPHOUS PEROXOTITANATE MATERIALS UNDER WEAKLY ACIDIC CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Click, D.

    2009-11-11

    Inorganic, titanate-based sorbents are tested with respect to adsorption of a variety of sorbates under weakly acidic conditions (pH 3). Specifically, monosodium titanate (MST) and amorphous peroxotitanate (APT) sorption characteristics are initially probed through a screening process consisting of a pair of mixed metal solutions containing a total of 29 sorbates including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, metalloids and nonmetals. MST and APT sorption characteristics are further analyzed individually with chromium(III) and cadmium(II) using a batch method at ambient laboratory temperature, varying concentrations of the sorbents and sorbates and contact times. Maximum sorbate loadings are obtained from the respective adsorption isotherms.

  20. [Oxidative stress development in the tissues of salivary glands of rats in conditions of monosodium glutamate-induced obesity].

    PubMed

    Hordiienko, L P; Berehova, T V; Neporada, K S; Falalieieva, T M

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of damage of salivary glands under obesity are an insufficiently studied problem of modem medicine. On experimental model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate, free-radical processes and antioxidant defense system were studied in the tissues of salivary glands of rats. Under experimental obesity induced by monosodium glutamate there is a significant increase of the content of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances and a significant decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Thus, it indicates to the misbalance of prooxidant and antioxidant systems and the development of oxidative stress. PMID:25335241

  1. Co-immobilization of polymeric luminol, iron(II) tris(5-aminophenanthroline) and glucose oxidase at an electrode surface, and its application as a glucose optrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching Hao; Chen, Shen Ming; Wang, Chong Mou

    2002-11-01

    The anodic polymerization of 3-aminophthalhydrazide (luminol) and iron(II) tris 5-aminophenanthroline (Fe(phen-NH2)3(2+)) has been reported in this paper. A bilayer electrode was developed based on these polymers and the ITO conductive glass (denoted ITO[Fe(phen-NH2)3(2+)]luminol electrode). This electrode emitted light (lambdaem: 430 nm) as it was brought into contact with H2O2. At pH 10, the resulting electrochemiluminescence (ECL) showed a linear relationship with the concentration of H2O2 in the range of 10 microM(-1) mM. This bilayer electrode also showed an application potential for the detection of glucose after being further modified with glucose oxidase (denoted ITO[Fe(phen-NH2)3(2+)]luminol]GOx electrode). Although the resulting ECL decayed more rapidly in concentrated glucose solutions (e.g., I M) because of the consumption of luminol during use, the decay became less severe in diluted glucose solutions (e.g., 10 mM). According to the flow injection analysis, a linear relationship existed between the ECL and the concentration of glucose from 10(-5)-10(-3) M at pH 9. The detection limit could reach a level of 5 x 10(-5) M at this pH. PMID:12475043

  2. Ultrasensitive luminol electrochemiluminescence for protein detection based on in situ generated hydrogen peroxide as coreactant with glucose oxidase anchored AuNPs@MWCNTs labeling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yaling; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Mao, Li; Niu, Huan; Liu, Huijing; Zhuo, Ying

    2012-01-15

    In this study, an ultrasensitive luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor was constructed using carboxyl group functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as platform and glucose oxidase (GOD) supported on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) decorated MWCNTs (AuNPs@MWCNTs-GOD) as labels. Firstly, using poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) as linkage reagents, AuNPs@MWCNTs were prepared and introduced for binding of the secondary antibody (Ab(2)) and glucose oxidase (GOD) with high loading amount and good biological activity due to the improved surface area of AuNPs@MWCNTs and excellent biocompatibility of AuNPs. Then the GOD and Ab(2) labeled AuNPs@MWCNTs were linked to the electrode surface via sandwich immunoreactions. These localized GOD and AuNPs amplified luminol ECL signals dramatically, which was achieved by efficient catalysis of the GOD and AuNPs towards the oxidation of glucose to in situ generate improved amount of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as coreactant and the enhancement of AuNPs to the ECL reaction of luminol-H(2)O(2). The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed immunosensor exhibited sensitive and stable response for the detection of α-1-fetoprotein (AFP), ranging from 0.0001 to 80 ng mL(-1) with a limit of detection down to 0.03 pg mL(-1) (S/N=3). With excellent stability, sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity, the proposed luminol ECL immunosensor showed great potential in clinical applications. PMID:22088259

  3. Fast and sensitive chemiluminescence assay of aminophylline in human serum using luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) system catalyzed by coated iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, B.; Ensafi, Ali A.; Zarei, L.

    2012-05-01

    The CL intensity of luminol-diperiodatoargentate(III) (DPA) system is strongly enhanced by addition of iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) covered with C12E4. On injection of aminophylline into luminol-DPA-FeNPs system, the CL intensity is significantly increased. On this basis, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. FeNPs could catalyze the oxidation rate of luminol in the present of oxygen. Also, the CL intensity of luminol-DPA-FeNPs system is significantly increased in the presence of aminophylline (AmP). Based on this ruling, a sensitive CL assay was developed for determination of AmP in human serum. The influences of analytical variables on the CL signal were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions in the present of FeNPs, the CL intensity is linearly increased with AmP concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8-2.0 × 10-6 mol L-1. The detection limit was 9.8 × 10-9 mol L-1 AmP and the relative standard deviation for ten parallel measurements of 8.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 AmP was also 4.8%. The proposed system was successfully applied to determine AmP in human serum samples.

  4. Alterations in luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence from nondiluted whole blood in the course of low-level laser therapy of angina pectoris patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikov, Vladimir L.; Novikov, Cyril N.; Siuch, Natalia I.

    1997-05-01

    Addition of Luminol to nondiluted blood of healthy donors results in a short and weak increase of chemiluminescence (CL) from it. Contrary to that in 25 cases of stable angina pectoris the intensity of CL from blood of patients sharply increased upon addition of luminol exceeding that form healthy donors' blood 10-100-fold. 24 hours after the 3D intravenous low-level treatment CL burst in patients' blood in the presence of Luminol was in general significantly lower than before the beginning of the treatment. After the 7th treatment the pattern of CL kinetics was in most cases similar to that of healthy donors' blood. However, after the 10th treatment intensity of Luminol-enhanced CL usually increased and for blood of some patients even exceeded its values obtained before the treatment. Some correlation CL from nondiluted blood with neutrophil activity studied by NTB-test and plasma viscosity of same blood was noted. Using highly sensitive single photon counters it is possible to reveal abnormal levels of CL from no more than 0.1-0.2 ml of blood within 3-5 min.

  5. Determination of cysteine and glutathione based on the inhibition of the dinuclear Cu(II)-catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Ehsani, Mahjoobeh; Khajvand, Tahereh; Golchoubian, Hamid; Rezaee, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    The catalyzed luminol chemiluminescent reaction has received a great amount of attention because of its high sensitivity and low background signal which make the reaction an attractive analytical chemistry tool. The present study, introduces the beneficial catalytic effects of dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2, where TAE = tetraacetylethane; L = N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine and X = ClO4 on the luminol chemiluminescent reaction as a novel probe for the determination of glutathione (GSH) and L-cysteine (CySH) in human serum and urine. The [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2 has exhibited highly efficient catalytic activity of luminol CL as an artificial peroxidase model at pH as low as 7.5 in water in the presence of H2O2ṡGSH and CySH can induce a sharp decrease in CL intensity from the [Cu2L2(TAE)]X2-catalyzed luminol system. Under the selected experimental conditions, a linear relationship was obtained between the CL intensity and the concentrations of GSH and CySH in the range of 1.0 × 10-7-1.0 × 10-4 M, with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.7 × 10-8 and 6.8 × 10-8 M and RSD < 4.2% (n = 7) for GSH and CySH, respectively.

  6. Electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on multifunctional luminol-capped AuNPs@Fe3O4 nanocomposite for the detection of mucin-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Xi; Zhuo, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Ya-Qin

    2015-09-15

    In this work, a novel and multifunctional nanocomposite of luminol capped gold modified Fe3O4 (Lu-AuNPs@Fe3O4) was utilized as the carrier of secondary antibody (Ab2) to fabricate a sandwiched electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of mucin-1 (MUC1). Herein, the luminol capped gold nanoparticles (Lu-AuNPs) were synthesized with HAuCl4 and luminol by the help of NaBH4 at room temperature, and then Lu-AuNPs were adsorbed on the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to form the nanocomposite of Lu-AuNPs@Fe3O4 via electrostatic interaction. Fe3O4 MNPs in Lu-AuNPs@Fe3O4 exhibited excellent conductivity and admirable catalytic activity in H2O2 decomposition, which could enhance the ECL efficiency of luminol-H2O2 system. In addition, the substrates of gold coated ZnO nanoparticles (AuNPs@ZnO), providing large specific surface areas for primary antibody (Ab1) capturing, were modified on the electrode. As a result, a wide linear range of 7 orders of magnitude from 10 fg/mL to 10 ng/mL was obtained with an ultralow detection limit of 4.5 fg/mL for MUC1. PMID:25950936

  7. A novel sandwich electrochemiluminescence immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Amin; Xiang, Hongkun; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Weiwei; Yuan, Enhui; Huang, Chusen; Jia, Nengqin

    2016-01-15

    A novel sandwich-type electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on immobilizing luminol on Ag@BSA core/shell microspheres (Ag@BSA-luminol) for ultrasensitive detection of tumor marker carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) has been developed. Herein, magnetic carbon nanotubes (MAGCNTs) decorated with polyethylenimine (PEI) was used to construct the base of the immunosensor. MAGCNTs with prominent electrical conductivity and high surface area could be beneficial for promoting the electron transfer and loading plenty of primary antibodies (Ab1) via glutaraldehyde (GA). Meanwhile, the magnetic property of MAGCNTs makes it easy to be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE) through magnetism interaction, which provides an outstanding platform for this immunosensor. Moreover, Ag@BSA microspheres with large surface area, good stability, and excellent biocompatibility were desirable candidates for effective cross-link of CA19-9 detection antibodies (Ab2). A more interesting thing was that ELISA color reaction was used as an ultrasensitive strategy for identifying Ab2 was successfully coated on Ag@BSA with the naked eye. Additionally, we immobilized the luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA to prepare the target immunosensor. Immobilization of luminol on the surface of Ag@BSA could decrease the distance between luminophores and the electrode surface, leading to great enhancement of the ECL intensity of luminol in the present of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Under the optimal conditions, the intensity of the ECL immunosensor increased linearly with the logarithm of CA19-9 concentration in a wide linear range from 0.0005 to 150UmL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.0002UmL(-1) (S/N=3). All the results suggested the prepared CA19-9 immunosensor displayed high sensitivity, excellent stability and good specificity. The developed method opened a new avenue to clinical bioassay. PMID:26319163

  8. Rapid flow injection method for the determination of sulfite in wine using the permanganate-luminol luminescence system.

    PubMed

    Navarrro, Mercedes Villar; Payán, María Ramos; López, Miguel Angel Bello; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Mochón, Manuel Callejón

    2010-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sulfite has been developed by combining flow-injection analysis and its sensitizing effect on the known chemiluminescence emission produced by the oxidation of luminol in alkaline medium; in this work permanganate has been proposed as oxidizing reactive. The optimum conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were established. The chemiluminescence was proportional to the sulfite concentration over the range 1.6 × 10(-5) and 4.0 × 10(-4)mol L(-1). The detection limit was 4.7 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) of sulfite. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of free and bound sulfite in wines. PMID:20875609

  9. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl₄ by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed. PMID:25022493

  10. A luminol electrochemiluminescence aptasensor based on glucose oxidase modified gold nanoparticles for measurement of platelet-derived growth factor BB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun-Tao; Shi, Gui-Fang; Huang, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yan-Ming; Ren, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A sandwich-type luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) is fabricated. For this proposed ECL aptasensor, a multilayered AuNPs-electrochemically reduced graphene (AuNPs-EG) nanocomposite film was formed on the GCE surface as the base of the aptasensor through a co-electrodeposition method. The AuNPs-EG composites possess high conductivity to promote the electron transfer at the electrode interface and good biocompatibility and large surface area to capture large amounts of primary aptamer (Apt1), thus amplifying the detection response. Moreover, glucose oxidase (GOD) functionalized AuNPs labeled secondary aptamer (GOD-Apt2-AuNPs) was designed as the signal probe for the sandwiched aptasensor. Enhanced sensitivity was obtained by in situ generation of H2O2 from reaction between GOD and glucose and the excellent catalytic behavior of AuNPs to the ECL of the luminol-H2O2 system. Under the optimal conditions, the as-prepared ECL aptasensor exhibited excellent analytical property for the detection of PDGF-BB in the range from 1.0×10(-13) to 5.0×10(-10) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.7×10(-14) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The application of the present protocol was demonstrated by analyzing PDGF-BB in human serum and human urine samples with the recoveries from 85.0% to 110%. PMID:25476280

  11. Enhancement of electrogenerated chemiluminescence of luminol by ascorbic acid at gold nanoparticle/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yongping; Gao, Tingting; Zhou, Ying; Chu, Xiangfeng; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle/graphene (GNP/GR) nanocomposite was one-pot synthesized from water soluble graphene and HAuCl4 by hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, XRD, XPS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol was investigated at the GNP/GR modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GR/GCE) and the GNP modified glassy carbon electrode (GNP/GCE) in aqueous solution respectively. The results revealed that one strong anodic ECL peak could be observed at ∼0.8 V at two modified electrodes compared with that at the bare electrode. The intensity of the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE is weaker than that at the GNP/GCE, which should be due to the synergic effect of the enhancing effect of gold nanoparticles and the inhibiting effect of graphene on anodic luminol ECL. One strong cathodic ECL peak located at ∼-0.8 V could be observed at the GNP/GR/GCE but not at the GNP/GCE, which should be result from the adsorbed oxygen at the graphene film. In the presence of ascorbic acid, the anodic ECL at the GNP/GR/GCE was enhanced more than 8-times, which is more apparent than that at the GNP/GCE. Whereas, the cathodic ECL peak was seriously inhibited at the GNP/GR/GCE. The enhanced ECL intensity at the GNP/GR/GCE varied linearly with the logarithm of ascorbic acid concentration in the range of 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10-9 mol L-1. The possible ECL mechanism was also discussed.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-04-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L‑1, 35.9 μg L‑1 and 39.6 μg L‑1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L‑1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples.

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Size and Quantification of Gold Nanoparticles by Direct Coupling Thin layer Chromatography with Catalyzed Luminol Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Neng; Zhu, Zhenli; He, Dong; Jin, Lanlan; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of metal-based nanoparticle products has raised concerns in particular for the aquatic environment and thus the quantification of such nanomaterials released from products should be determined to assess their environmental risks. In this study, a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of size and mass concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous suspension was established by direct coupling of thin layer chromatography (TLC) with catalyzed luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this purpose, a moving stage was constructed to scan the chemiluminescence signal from TLC separated AuNPs. The proposed TLC-CL method allows the quantification of differently sized AuNPs (13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm) contained in a mixture. Various experimental parameters affecting the characterization of AuNPs, such as the concentration of H2O2, the concentration and pH of the luminol solution, and the size of the spectrometer aperture were investigated. Under optimal conditions, the detection limits for AuNP size fractions of 13 nm, 41 nm and 100 nm were 38.4 μg L−1, 35.9 μg L−1 and 39.6 μg L−1, with repeatabilities (RSD, n = 7) of 7.3%, 6.9% and 8.1% respectively for 10 mg L−1 samples. The proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization of AuNP size and concentration in aqueous test samples. PMID:27080702

  14. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  15. Arsenic levels in blood, urine, and hair of workers applying monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelghani, A.A.; Anderson, A.C.; Jaghabir, M.; Mather, F.

    1986-05-01

    Uptake and excretion of total arsenic from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) in workers who applied the herbicide was followed during the spraying season. Urine, blood, and hair samples were collected and air samples were taken from the workers' breathing zone. Arsenic concentrations in air samples ranged from 0.001-1.086 micrograms/m3. Blood and urine arsenic values ranged from 0.0-0.2 mg/L and 0.002-1.725 mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean arsenic concentration in urine increased during the week but returned to base levels on weekends. Hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.02-358.0 mg/kg, increased during the spraying season, and returned to pre-season levels once herbicide application ceased. Three workers had higher than normal pre-exposure hair values. However, only one of the three workers had consistently above normal values throughout the study period.

  16. Chronic effects of arsenic on American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, exposed to monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) herbicide

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, S.M. ); Flagge, C.T. )

    1990-07-01

    Bioaccumulative and biomagnifying effects of arsenic on crayfish have been reported. However, no work has been done on the chronic effects of this heavy metal on crayfish populations. There is a great concern for MSMA (Monosodium Methanearsonate) herbicide in the vicinity of natural waters due to its high water solubility and bioaccumulative potential. American red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) account for 98% of the annual crayfish harvest in North America. Those pesticides which have greater water solubility (i.e. MSMA) than other less soluble compounds may cause higher mortalities of aquatic organisms, or cause adverse chronic effects if the non-target animals are sublethally exposed. This work was conducted in the laboratory to assess the possible chronic effects of arsenic on crayfish.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE - AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Missimer, D.

    2010-12-21

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. An inorganic sorbent, monosodium titanate (MST), is currently used to remove {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides, while a caustic-side solvent extraction process is used for removing {sup 134,137}Cs. A new peroxotitanate material, modified MST, or mMST, has recently been developed and has shown increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST. This paper describes recent results focused on further characterization of this material.

  18. Renal sympathetic nerve activity is increased in monosodium glutamate induced hyperadipose rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva Mattos, Alexandro Márcio; Xavier, Carlos Henrique; Karlen-Amarante, Marlusa; da Cunha, Natália Veronez; Fontes, Marco Antonio Peliky; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2012-08-01

    The literature suggests that both obesity and hypertension are associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity. In the present study we evaluated the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in hyperadipose rats induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Neonatal Wistar male rats were injected with MSG (4 mg/g body weight ID) or equimolar saline (control) for 5 days. At 90th day, all rats were anesthetized (urethane 1.4 g/kg) and prepared for MAP, HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity recordings. The anesthetized MSG rats presented baseline hypertension and increased baseline RSNA compared with control. Our results suggest the involvement of the renal sympathetic nervous system in the physiopathology of the MSG obesity. PMID:22705582

  19. Production of a newly isolated Paenibacillus polymyxa biocontrol agent using monosodium glutamate wastewater and potato wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gu, Likun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Wenying; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongxun

    2010-01-01

    A phyllosphere bacterial strain EBL-06 was isolated from wheat leaves. The morphology, cultural characteristics, phospholipid fatty acids, physiological and antagonistic fungus activities of this strain were investigated. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing with the published 16S rDNA sequences of the relevant bacteria. The results showed that the isolate EBL-06 was a strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa; this strain performed a high level of antagonistic fungus activity toward a broad spectrum of phytopathogens, such as Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Fusarium spp. The isolate EBL-06 can grow well using monosodium glutamate wastewater (MGW) and potato wastewater (PW) as culture medium. The maximum yield of 6.5 x 10(9) CFU/mL of the isolate EBL-06 anti-fungus biocontrol agent was reached in 15 hr cultivation at 28 degrees C, pH 6.0-7.5 using the mixture of MGW and PW (1:9). PMID:21174972

  20. Long-term chemiluminescence signal is produced in the course of luminol oxidation catalyzed by enhancer-independent peroxidase purified from Jatropha curcas leaves.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peipei; Cai, Feng; Luo, Yongting; Chen, Yangxi; Zou, Shujuan

    2015-09-01

    Isoenzyme c of horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C) is widely used in enzyme immunoassay combined with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. For this application, HRP-C activity measurement is usually based on luminol oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, this catalysis reaction was enhancer dependent. In this study, we demonstrated that Jatropha curcas peroxidase (JcGP1) showed high efficiency in catalyzing luminol oxidation in the presence of H2O2. Compared with HRP-C, the JcGP1-induced reaction was enhancer independent, which made the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) simpler. In addition, the JcGP1 catalyzed reaction showed a long-term stable CL signal. We optimized the conditions for JcGP1 catalysis and determined the favorable conditions as follows: 50 mM Tris buffer (pH 8.2) containing 10 mM H2 O2, 14 mM luminol and 0.75 M NaCl. The optimum catalysis temperature was 30°C. The detection limit of JcGP1 under optimum condition was 0.2 pM. Long-term stable CL signal combined with enhancer-independent property indicated that JcGP1 might be a valuable candidate peroxidase for clinical diagnosis and enzyme immunoassay with CL detection. PMID:25511847

  1. Influence of polyclonal immunoglobulins on the polymorphonuclear leukocyte response to lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella enteritidis as measured with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, D R; Heinrich, D

    1994-01-01

    In gram-negative sepsis, the activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the resulting production of superoxide and other oxygen radicals may be an important cause of tissue damage. A suppression of the PMN response to LPS stimulation would be therapeutically beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine whether different polyclonal immunoglobulins (Igs; 5S-Ig, 7S-Ig, and 19S-Ig) influence the PMN response to LPS of Salmonella enteritidis in vitro. The respiratory burst activity of PMN was measured with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. After addition of a 5S-Ig solution containing F(ab')2 fragments of IgG and a 19S-Ig solution containing 12% polyclonal IgM, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was reduced by 27% (P < 0.05) and 46% (P < 0.005), respectively. However, after addition of a 7S-Ig solution containing polyclonal IgG, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence was increased fourfold (P < 0.05). The results suggest that the influence of polyclonal Igs on PMN response to LPS stimulation is dependent on the Ig class, F(ab')2 fragments of IgG and IgM leading to LPS neutralization and IgG leading to the production of potentially toxic oxygen radicals. PMID:7927690

  2. A new screening method to detect water-soluble antioxidants: acetaminophen (Tylenol) and other phenols react as antioxidants and destroy peroxynitrite-based luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, K; Sacks, M; Qazi, N

    1998-01-01

    This study is based on a simple chemical interaction of peroxynitrite (O = N-O-O-) and luminol, which produces blue light upon oxidation. Since peroxynitrite has a half-life of about 1 s, a drug known as linsidomine (SIN-1) is used as a peroxynitrite generator. Peroxynitrite can oxidize lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Upon the stimulation of inflammation and/or infection, macrophages and neutrophils can be induced to produce large amounts of peroxynitrite, which can oxidize phenols and sulphhydryl-containing compounds. Therefore, phenols and sulphhydryls eliminate peroxynitrite. This is an example of the Yin-Yang hypothesis e.g. oxidation-reduction. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) can inhibit fever and some types of pain without being a particularly effective anti-inflammatory. Since it is a phenol, it could act as a nitration target for peroxynitrite. Then peroxynitrite, the possible cause of pain and elevated temperature, might be destroyed in the reaction. Acetaminophen is a phenolic compound which produces a clear inhibitory dose-response curve with peroxynitrite in its range of clinical effectiveness. Whether acetaminophen actually works as we suggest is to be proven. Three different types of reaction could decrease the amount of peroxynitrite: (a) interference with base-catalysed opening of the SIN-1 molecule; (b) destruction of one or both substances needed to form it--superoxide and/or nitric oxide; when the SIN-1 degrades to superoxide and nitric oxide, the former may be destroyed by superoxide dismutase (SOD); (c) peroxynitrite may react directly with phenols (mono-, di-, tri- and tetraphenols), possibly by nitration. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid and 2-hydroxyestradiol (catechol estrogen) are potent inhibitors of luminol light emission. Epineprine, isoproterenol, pyrogallol, catechol and ascorbic acid (a classic antioxidant) are all inhibitors of luminol chemiluminescence. Isoproterenol, norepinephrine/and epinephrine first inhibit light but overall stimulate

  3. The efficacy of probiotics for monosodium glutamate-induced obesity: dietology concerns and opportunities for prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity becomes endemic today. Monosodium glutamate was proved as obesogenic food additive. Probiotics are discussed to impact on obesity development. Aims and objectives The aim was to study the effects of probiotics on the development of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity in rats. Material and methods We included 45 Wistar male rats and divided into three groups (n = 15). Newborn rats of group 1 (control) received subcutaneously 8 μl/g saline. Group 2 received 3 to 4 mg/g MSG subcutaneously on the second, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of life. Within 4 months after birth, rats were on a standard diet. Group 3 received an aqueous solution of probiotics mixture (2:1:1 Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, B. animalis VKB) at the dose of 5 × 109 CFU/kg (50 mg/kg) intragastrically. Administration of probiotics was started at the age of 4 weeks just after weaning and continued for 3 months during 2-week courses. Group 2 received intragastrically 2.5 ml/kg water. Organometric and biochemical parameters in all groups of rats were analyzed over 4 months. The concentration of adiponectin was determined in serum, and leptin - in adipose tissue. Results Administration of MSG led to the development of obesity in rats; body weight had increased by 7.9% vs controls (p < 0.05); body length had increased by 5.4% (p < 0.05). Body mass index and Lee index and visceral fat mass had increased (p < 0.001). Under the neonatal injection of MSG, the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol significantly increased (p < 0.001), in comparison with controls. Adipose-derived hormones changed in MSG obesity rats: adiponectin decreased by 58.8% (p < 0.01), and leptin concentration in adipose tissue had increased by 74.7% (p < 0.01). The probiotic therapy of rats from group 3 prevented obesity development. Parameters of rats treated with probiotic mixture did not differ from that in

  4. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1 ng mL-1, with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6 × 10-6 ng mL-1. Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50 ng mL-1) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples.

  5. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6×10(-6)ngmL(-1). Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50ngmL(-1)) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples. PMID:25703367

  6. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE ADSORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-10-01

    A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the influence of mixing and mixing intensity, solution ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature, and monosodium titanate (MST) concentration on the rates of sorbate removal by MST in high-level nuclear waste solutions. Of these parameters, initial sorbate concentrations, ionic strength, and MST concentration have the greater impact on sorbate removal rates. The lack of a significant influence of mixing and mixing intensity on sorbate removal rates indicates that bulk solution transport is not the rate controlling step in the removal of strontium and actinides over the range of conditions and laboratory-scales investigated. However, bulk solution transport may be a significant parameter upon use of MST in a 1.3 million-gallon waste tank such as that planned for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program. Thus, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends completing the experiments in progress to determine if mixing intensity influences sorption rates under conditions appropriate for this program. Adsorption models have been developed from these experimental studies that allow prediction of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np) and uranium (U) concentrations as a function of contact time with MST. Fairly good agreement has been observed between the predicted and measured sorbate concentrations in the laboratory-scale experiments.

  7. Monosodium glutamate in its anhydrous and monohydrate form: Differentiation by Raman spectroscopies and density functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peica, N.; Lehene, C.; Leopold, N.; Schlücker, S.; Kiefer, W.

    2007-03-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a common flavor enhancer, is detected in aqueous solutions by Raman and surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectroscopies at the micromolar level. The presence of different species, such as protonated and unprotonated MSG, is demonstrated by concentration and pH dependent Raman and SERS experiments. In particular, the symmetric bending modes of the amino group and the stretching modes of the carboxy moiety are employed as marker bands. The protonation of the NH 2 group at acidic pH values, for example, is detected in the Raman spectra. From the measured SERS spectra, a strong chemical interaction of MSG with the colloidal particles is deduced and a geometry of MSG adsorbed on the silver surface is proposed. In order to assign the observed Raman bands, calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) were performed. The calculated geometries, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers and Raman scattering activities for both MSG forms are in good agreement with experimental data. The set of theoretical data enables a complete vibrational assignment of the experimentally detected Raman spectra and the differentiation between the anhydrous and monohydrate forms of MSG.

  8. Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate induces morphological alterations in suprachiasmatic nucleus of adult rat.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita; Rojas, Patricia; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Rojas, Carolina; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate (MSG) induces circadian disorders in several physiological and behavioural processes regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of neonatal exposure to MSG on locomotor activity, and on morphology, cellular density and expression of proteins, as evaluated by optical density (OD), of vasopressin (VP)-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive cells in the SCN. Male Wistar rats were used: the MSG group was subcutaneously treated from 3 to 10 days of age with 3.5 mg/g/day. Locomotor activity was evaluated at 90 days of age using 'open-field' test, and the brains were processed for immunohistochemical studies. MSG exposure induced a significant decrease in locomotor activity. VP- and VIP-immunoreactive neuronal densities showed a significant decrease, while the somatic OD showed an increase. Major axes and somatic area were significantly increased in VIP neurons. The cellular and optical densities of GFAP-immunoreactive sections of SCN were significantly increased. These results demonstrated that newborn exposure to MSG induced morphological alterations in SCN cells, an alteration that could be the basis for behavioural disorders observed in the animals. PMID:26799547

  9. Monosodium glutamate derived tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for cell-imaging application.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Nannan; Ding, Sha; Zhou, Xingping

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN) is a new type of carbon-based materials. Because of its wide raw material sources, excellent optical properties and good biocompatibility, FCN is getting more and more attentions. However, its synthesis from resources at low cost under mild conditions is still a challenge. Here we report a novel and simple method derived from monosodium glutamate carbonization to make tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with an average size below 10nm, a high yield up to 35.2% based on the carbon content in the resource, a long life-time of 3.71ns, and a high fluorescence quantum yield up to 51.5% by using quinine sulfate as the standard substance. We discovered that the fluorescent stability of the FCNs was very excellent under UV irradiation for hours in aqueous solutions of pH ranged from 2.0 to 9.0. The cell viability tested under a pretty high concentration of FCNs indicated their safety for biological applications. Based on their high fluorescence quantum efficiency and the advantages mentioned above, these FCNs were then used for cell imaging and exhibited a perfect performance under 3 kinds of excitation bands (UV, blue, and green lights). Thus, they can be practically applied to immune labeling and imaging in vivo in the near future. PMID:26945164

  10. Subcutaneous administration of monosodium glutamate to pregnant mice reduces weight gain in pups during lactation.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Hun; Choi, Tae-Saeng

    2016-04-01

    Administering monosodium glutamate (MSG) to neonatal rodents induces obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition, several studies have shown that MSG administered to pregnant animals can cross the placenta and reach the foetus. The present study was performed to investigate the effects of administering MSG to pregnant ICR mice on dam and neonatal growth. Pregnant mice were treated with 60 or 120 mg MSG once daily from day 5 of pregnancy to one day before parturition by subcutaneous injection. In addition, the body weights of the neonates were determined until nine weeks of age. The birth weights of neonates were not different between the control and MSG-treated groups. However, MSG treatment resulted in a lower body weight gain of neonates during lactation. In addition, this underweight of the MSG-treated group at weaning returned to normal compared with the control group at five weeks of age. Cross-fostering experiments indicated that the lower body weight gain of neonates in the MSG-treated group during lactation was due to its effects on the dam. Serum prolactin levels and mammary gland development of the mice were examined next to determine the reasons for this lactation problem. Although there were no differences in prolactin levels, morphological analyses of the mammary glands revealed apparent differences, including low numbers and altered phenotype of alveoli, between the control and MSG-treated groups. Taken together, our results show that treating pregnant mice with excess MSG induced lower neonate body weight gain during lactation. PMID:26043886

  11. Does monosodium glutamate really cause headache? : a systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Yoko; Nagamura, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Although monosodium glutamate (MSG) is classified as a causative substance of headache in the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-III beta), there is no literature in which causal relationship between MSG and headache was comprehensively reviewed. We performed systematic review of human studies which include the incidence of headache after an oral administration of MSG. An analysis was made by separating the human studies with MSG administration with or without food, because of the significant difference of kinetics of glutamate between those conditions (Am J Clin Nutr 37:194-200, 1983; J Nutr 130:1002S-1004S, 2000) and there are some papers which report the difference of the manifestation of symptoms after MSG ingestion with or without food (Food Chem Toxicol 31:1019-1035, 1993; J Nutr 125:2891S-2906S, 1995). Of five papers including six studies with food, none showed a significant difference in the incidence of headache except for the female group in one study. Of five papers including seven studies without food, four studies showed a significant difference. Many of the studies involved administration of MSG in solution at high concentrations (>2 %). Since the distinctive MSG is readily identified at such concentrations, these studies were thought not to be properly blinded. Because of the absence of proper blinding, and the inconsistency of the findings, we conclude that further studies are required to evaluate whether or not a causal relationship exists between MSG ingestion and headache. PMID:27189588

  12. Monosodium L-glutamate: a double-blind study and review.

    PubMed

    Tarasoff, L; Kelly, M F

    1993-12-01

    71 healthy subjects were treated with placebos and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) doses of 1.5, 3.0 and 3.15 g/person, which represented a body mass-adjusted dose range of 0.015-0.07 g/kg body weight before a standardized breakfast over 5 days. The study used a rigorous randomized double-blind crossover design that controlled for subjects who had MSG after-tastes. Capsules and specially formulated drinks were used as vehicles for placebo and MSG treatments. Subjects mostly had no responses to placebo (86%) and MSG (85%) treatments. Sensations, previously attributed to MSG, did not occur at a significantly higher rate than did those elicited by placebo treatment. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation between MSG dose and after-effects was found. The profound effect of food in negating the effects of large MSG doses was demonstrated. The common practice of extrapolating food-free experimental results to 'in use' situations was called into question. An exhaustive review of previous methodologies identified the strong taste of MSG as the factor invalidating most 'blind' and 'double-blind' claims by previous researchers. The present study led to the conclusion that 'Chinese Restaurant Syndrome' is an anecdote applied to a variety of postprandial illnesses; rigorous and realistic scientific evidence linking the syndrome to MSG could not be found. PMID:8282275

  13. Protective effects of N-acetylcysteine against monosodium glutamate-induced astrocytic cell death.

    PubMed

    Park, Euteum; Yu, Kyoung Hwan; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Chun Sung; Chun, Hong Sung

    2014-05-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavor enhancer, largely used in the food industry and it was reported to have excitotoxic effects. Higher amounts of MSG consumption have been related with increased risk of many diseases, including Chinese restaurant syndrome and metabolic syndromes in human. This study investigated the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on MSG-induced cytotoxicity in C6 astrocytic cells. MSG (20 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptotic cell death were significantly attenuated by NAC (500 μM) pretreatment. NAC effectively inhibited the MSG-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, NAC significantly attenuated MSG-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, such as XBP1 splicing and CHOP, PERK, and GRP78 up-regulation. Furthermore, NAC prevented the changes of MSG-induced Bcl-2 expression level. These results suggest that NAC can protect C6 astrocytic cells against MSG-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress. PMID:24556569

  14. [Characterization of an experimental model of monosodium- glutamate-induced convulsions in the amphibian Bufo spp].

    PubMed

    Alfaro, F; Blas, O; Gutiérrez-Padilla, R; Feria-Velasco, A

    1990-01-01

    In previous reports, Feria-Velasco et al. characterized an experimental model of convulsions in rats induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) with evaluation of the motor behavior and neurochemical parameters. In the present work, MSG injected in toads (Bufo spp) reproduced the model of convulsions with some peculiarities. The electrocorticographic recordings in toads after MSG injection were similar to those obtained in rats after administration of convulsant agents. Most of the toads injected with MSG (81.8%) showed convulsions preceded by an episode of stereotyped movements and signs of hyperexcitability. Latency for convulsions and frequency of convulsive episodes were similar to what has been reported in rats injected with MSG. However, the duration of convulsive period was larger than that seen in rats, and no deaths were recorded in toads. The peculiar feature of amphibia regarding their cerebral structures and their blood-brain barrier (BBB) make the amphibian model, an interesting and valuable one in studying experimentally induced convulsions, as well as the role of BBB in these phenomena. PMID:1669233

  15. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  16. The effects of intra-articular resiniferatoxin on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngkyung; Kim, Eun-hye; Lee, Kyu Sang; Lee, Koeun; Park, Sung Ho; Na, Sook Hyun; Ko, Cheolwoong; Yooon, Young Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether an intra-articular injection of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor agonist, resiniferatoxin (RTX) would alleviate behavioral signs of arthritic pain in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). We also sought to determine the effect of RTX treatment on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in the spinal cord. Knee joint inflammation was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 8 mg/50 µl) and weight bearing percentage on right and left hindpaws during walking, paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation, and paw withdrawal latency to heat were measured to evaluate pain behavior. Intra-articular administration of RTX (0.03, 0.003 and 0.0003%) at 2 weeks after the induction of knee joint inflammation significantly improved reduction of weight bearing on the ipsilateral hindlimb and increased paw withdrawal sensitivity to mechanical and heat stimuli. The reduction of pain behavior persisted for 3~10 days according to each behavioral test. The MIA-induced increase in CGRP immunoreactivity in the spinal cord was decreased by RTX treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrated that a single intra-articular administration of RTX reduced pain behaviors for a relatively long time in an experimental model of OA and could normalize OA-associated changes in peptide expression in the spinal cord. PMID:26807032

  17. The effects of intra-articular resiniferatoxin on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngkyung; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lee, Kyu Sang; Lee, Koeun; Park, Sung Ho; Na, Sook Hyun; Ko, Cheolwoong; Kim, Junesun; Yooon, Young Wook

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether an intra-articular injection of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor agonist, resiniferatoxin (RTX) would alleviate behavioral signs of arthritic pain in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). We also sought to determine the effect of RTX treatment on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in the spinal cord. Knee joint inflammation was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 8 mg/50 µl) and weight bearing percentage on right and left hindpaws during walking, paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation, and paw withdrawal latency to heat were measured to evaluate pain behavior. Intra-articular administration of RTX (0.03, 0.003 and 0.0003%) at 2 weeks after the induction of knee joint inflammation significantly improved reduction of weight bearing on the ipsilateral hindlimb and increased paw withdrawal sensitivity to mechanical and heat stimuli. The reduction of pain behavior persisted for 3~10 days according to each behavioral test. The MIA-induced increase in CGRP immunoreactivity in the spinal cord was decreased by RTX treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The present study demonstrated that a single intra-articular administration of RTX reduced pain behaviors for a relatively long time in an experimental model of OA and could normalize OA-associated changes in peptide expression in the spinal cord. PMID:26807032

  18. Metabolomic profiling of urinary changes in mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Pelantová, Helena; Bártová, Simona; Anýž, Jiří; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, Daniel; Lacinová, Zdena; Šulc, Miroslav; Haluzík, Martin; Kuzma, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity with related complications represents a widespread health problem. The etiopathogenesis of obesity is often studied using numerous rodent models. The mouse model of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity was exploited as a model of obesity combined with insulin resistance. The aim of this work was to characterize the metabolic status of MSG mice by NMR-based metabolomics in combination with relevant biochemical and hormonal parameters. NMR analysis of urine at 2, 6, and 9 months revealed altered metabolism of nicotinamide and polyamines, attenuated excretion of major urinary proteins, increased levels of phenylacetylglycine and allantoin, and decreased concentrations of methylamine in urine of MSG-treated mice. Altered levels of creatine, citrate, succinate, and acetate were observed at 2 months of age and approached the values of control mice with aging. The development of obesity and insulin resistance in 6-month-old MSG mice was also accompanied by decreased mRNA expressions of adiponectin, lipogenetic and lipolytic enzymes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in fat while mRNA expressions of lipogenetic enzymes in the liver were enhanced. At the age of 9 months, biochemical parameters of MSG mice were normalized to the values of the controls. This fact pointed to a limited predictive value of biochemical data up to age of 6 months as NMR metabolomics confirmed altered urine metabolic composition even at 9 months. PMID:26577083

  19. Effect of monosodium methanarsonate application on cuticle wax content of cocklebur and cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Keese, Renee J; Camper, N Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Leaf cuticle waxes were extracted from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants at 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after treatment (DAT) following 1x and 2x MSMA applications. Wax constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and compared to alkane and alcohol standards of carbon lengths varying from C21 to C30. Differences in waxes were calculated and reported as change per ng mm2-1. Tricosane (C23) was found to increase following MSMA applications. All other alkanes decreased by 7 DAT, with some showing a linear effect over time in the R-cocklebur. Alcohol constituents were also observed to decrease by 7 DAT. Total arsenic in the extracted wax fraction was determined, with greatest quantities detected in the R-cocklebur. Wax changes are not believed to play a role in cotton tolerance, since changes in cuticle concentrations were minimal. Cocklebur resistance to MSMA is not due to cuticle constituents; the wax changes are a secondary effect in response to herbicide application. PMID:16893783

  20. Condensation of supersaturated water vapor on charged/neutral nanoparticles of glucose and monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Cheng; Tao, Chun-Ju; Cheng, Hsiu-Chin

    2002-11-01

    The effects of size, charge, dissolution, and dissociation on the condensation of supersaturated water vapor on monodisperse nanoparticles of glucose and monosodium glutamate (MSG) were investigated in a flow cloud chamber (FCC). The dependence of the critical supersaturation, S(cr), on particle size in the range of 30 to 90 nm and on temperature in the range of 10 to 50 degrees C were determined experimentally. The results show that the experimental S(cr) decreases with increasing particle size at a rate in reasonable agreement with the predictions of the Kohler and Volmer theories of nucleation for soluble particles, but decreases with increasing temperature at a rate higher than the prediction of the Volmer theory. The dissociation of MSG into ions lowers the experimental S(cr) to a value smaller than that for the more soluble glucose, agreeing with predictions. The experimental S(cr) is smaller than the predictions of both theories, and the discrepancy cannot be fully explained by the reductions in surface tension due to the dissolution of particles and curvature dependence. The condensation of supersaturated vapor on singly positively charged particles with diameters of 30, 60, and 90 nm was also examined, and no obvious charge effect on S(cr) was observed. PMID:12702381

  1. Switch-on fluorescence scheme for antibiotics based on a magnetic composite probe with aptamer and hemin/G-quadruplex coimmobilized nano-Pt-luminol as signal tracer.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yang-Bao; Gan, Ning; Ren, Hong-Xia; Li, Tianhua; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Chen, Yinji

    2016-01-15

    A selective and facile fluorescence "switch-on" scheme is developed to detect antibiotics residues in food, using chloramphenicol (CAP) as model, based on a novel magnetic aptamer probe (aptamer-Pt-luminol nanocomposite labeled with hemin/G-quadruplex). Firstly, the composite probe is prepared through the immuno-reactions between the capture beads (anti-dsDNA antibody labeled on magnetic Dynabeads) and the nanotracer (nano-Pt-luminol labeled with double-strand aptamer, as ds-Apt, and hemin/G-quadruplex). When the composite probe is mixed with CAP, the aptamer preferentially reacted with CAP to decompose the double-strand aptamer to ssDNA, which cannot be recognized by the anti-dsDNA antibody on the capture probes. Thus, after magnetic separation, the nanotracer can be released into the supernatant. Because the hemin/G-quadruplex and PtNPs in nanotracer can catalyze luminol-H2O2 system to emit fluorescence. Thus a dual-amplified "switch-on" signal appeared, of which intensity is proportional to the concentration of CAP between 0.001 and 100ng mL(-1) with detection limit of 0.0005ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). Besides, our method has good selectivity and was employed for CAP detection in real milk samples. The results agree well with those from conventional gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The switch-on signal is produced by one-step substitution reaction between aptamer in nanotracer and target. When the analyte is changed, the probe can be refabricated only by changing the corresponding aptamer. Thus, all features above prove our strategy to be a facile, feasible and selective method in antibiotics screening for food safety. PMID:26592610

  2. RADIUM AND THORIUM SORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) AND MODIFIED MST (mMST)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-15

    A series of tests were planned to examine the removal of Ra and Th by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Simulated waste solutions were prepared containing Ra and Th, along with Sr, Np, Pu, and U. Following simulant preparation the simulants were filtered through 0.45-m filters. Analysis of the simulants indicated no Th in the filtered solution. This is due to the very low solubility of Th in alkaline solutions. Based on the reported detection limits for {sup 228}Th by gamma analyses, the solubility of Th in the simulant solutions is < 3.0E-10 g/L or < 1.3E-12 M. Therefore, data could not be obtained regarding the removal of Th by MST and mMST; however, testing proceeded to examine the removal of Ra. Sorption testing indicated that Ra, like Sr, is very rapidly removed from solution by both MST and mMST. The Ra concentration in solution fell below the method detection limit (MDL) within 30 minutes of contact with MST, and within 2 hours of contact with mMST, when tested at 25 C using a 5.6 M Na simulant. Additional testing examined the effects of ionic strength and temperature on the MST and mMST performance. Results from these tests showed that the majority of samples still reached a Ra concentration below the MDL, indicating excellent removal. For the highest ionic strength solution (6.6 M Na), there did appear to be a slight decrease in the Ra removal by mMST, as indicated by a larger number of samples just above the MDL. The effect of temperature on {sup 226}Ra removal is indeterminate for either MST or mMST in the temperature range (25-60 C) and concentrations studied since the final soluble concentration of Ra remained at or below the detection limits for all tests. Desorption testing was also performed using decontaminated salt solution (DSS) diluted to sodium concentrations of 2 M and 0.5 M, to represent the intermediate and final stages of washing. Results from these tests indicated no desorption of any sorbents, with the

  3. Adjusting irradiance to enhance growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Nie, Changliang; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming

    2016-09-01

    Light is one of the most important factors affecting microalgae growth and biochemical composition. The influence of illumination on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) was investigated. Six progressive illumination intensities (0, 30, 90, 150, 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1)), were used for C. vulgaris cultivation at 25°C. Under 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1), the corresponding specific light intensity of 750×10(-6)μmol·m(-2)s(-1) per cell, algae obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.46g·L(-1)) on the 7th day, which was 3.5 times of that under 0μmol·m(-2)s(-1), and the greatest average specific growth rate (0.79 d(-1)) in the first 7days. The results showed the importance role of light in mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris. High light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1) would inhibit microalgae growth to a certain degree. The algal lipid content was the greatest (30.5%) at 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1) light intensity, which was 2.42 times as high as that cultured in dark. The protein content of C. vulgaris decreased at high light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1). The effect of irradiance on carbohydrate content was inversely correlated with that on protein. The available light at an appropriate intensity, not higher than 200μmol·m(-2)s(-1), was feasible for economical cultivation of C. vulgaris in MSGW. PMID:27484967

  4. Intragastric monosodium L-glutamate stimulates motility of upper gut via vagus nerve in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Mochiki, Erito; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Ogata, Kyoichi; Tabe, Yuichi; Ando, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Tetsuro; Aihara, Ryuusuke; Zai, Hiroaki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-01

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) is a substance known to produce the umami taste. Recent studies indicate that MSG also stimulates a variety of activities in the gastrointestinal tract through its receptor in the gut, but no study has reported the activity in conscious large experimental animals. The aim of our study was to investigate whether direct intragastric MSG stimulates gut motility and to identify the mechanism in conscious dogs. Contractile response to intraluminal injection of MSG was studied in the fed and fasted states by means of chronically implanted force transducers. MSG (5, 15, 45, and 90 mM/kg) dissolved in water was injected into the stomach and duodenum in normal and vagotomized dogs. MSG solution was administered into the stomach before feeding, and gastric emptying was evaluated. Several inhibitors of gastrointestinal motility (atropine, hexamethonium, and granisetron) were injected intravenously before MSG administration to the stomach. The effect of MSG was investigated in Pavlov (vagally innervated corpus pouch), Heidenhain (vagally denervated corpus pouch), and antral pouch (vagally innervated) dogs. Upper gut motility was significantly increased by intragastric MSG but not significantly stimulated by intraduodenal MSG. Intragastric MSG (45 mM/kg) stimulated postprandial motility and accelerated gastric emptying. MSG-induced contractions were inhibited by truncal vagotomy, atropine, hexamethonium, and granisetron. Gut motility was increased by intrapouch injection of MSG in the Pavlov pouch, but it was not affected in the Heidenhain or antral pouch dogs. We conclude that intragastric MSG stimulates upper gut motility and accelerates gastric emptying. The sensory structure of MSG is present in the gastric corpus, and the signal is mediated by the vagus nerve. PMID:20071606

  5. Arsenic Retention in Foliage and Soil after Monosodium Methyl Arsenate (MSMA) Application to Turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Audrey R; Gannon, Travis W; Jeffries, Matthew D; Haines, Stephanie; Lewis, Dustin F; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) is a commonly used herbicide for weed control in turfgrass systems. There is concern that arsenic from applied MSMA could leach to groundwater or run off into surface water, thereby threatening human and ecosystem health. The USEPA has proposed a phase-out of the herbicide but is seeking additional research about the toxicity and environmental impacts of MSMA before establishing a final ruling. Little research has systematically investigated MSMA in field-based settings; instead, risks have been inferred from isolated field measurements or model-system studies. Accordingly, the overall goal of this study was to quantify the fate of arsenic after MSMA application to a managed turfgrass system. After MSMA application to turfgrass-covered and bareground lysimeters, the majority of arsenic was retained in turfgrass foliage and soils throughout year-long experiments, with 50 to 101% of the applied arsenic recovered in turfgrass systems and 55 to 66% recovered in bareground systems. Dissolved arsenic concentrations from 76.2-cm-depth pore water in the MSMA-treated soils were consistently <2 μg L, indistinguishable from background concentrations. As measured by adsorption isotherm experiments, MSMA retention by the sandy soil from our field site was markedly less than retention by a washed sand and a clay loam. Collectively, these results suggest that under aerobic conditions, minimal arsenic leaching to groundwater would occur after a typical application of MSMA to turfgrass. However, repeated MSMA application may pose environmental risks. Additional work is needed to examine arsenic cycling near the soil surface and to define arsenic speciation changes under different soil conditions. PMID:25602572

  6. Effects of bezafibrate in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis model mice with monosodium glutamate-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Iizuka, Seiichi; Suzuki, Wataru; Makihara, Hiroko; Teraoka, Ryutaro; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Hokao, Ryoji; Aburada, Masaki

    2011-07-15

    Recently, we reported that monosodium glutamate-treated mice (MSG mice) developed severe hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus and several complications of obesity. MSG mice acquired fatty livers and subsequently underwent changes that are characteristic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the present study, the effects of bezafibrate on obesity, diabetes mellitus, and NAFLD/NASH were examined in MSG mice. A single dose of MSG (4 mg/g) was administered subcutaneously to neonatal male mice within 24h of birth. Bezafibrate was mixed into the normal feed for 8 weeks. The weight and body mass index of MSG mice increased significantly despite the unchanged intake of food. Triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in blood, visceral adipose tissue, and interscapular adipose tissue rose significantly. In the livers of MSG mice, moderate centrilobular microvesicular steatosis, ballooning degeneration with Mallory bodies, and scattered infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes were observed. Centrilobular hepatocytes were 4-hydroxynonenal-positive in MSG mice. Bezafibrate ameliorated the severity of diabetes mellitus, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Adiponectin and leptin concentrations in blood improved, and the accumulation of visceral fat was inhibited. The expression of acyl-CoA oxidase, a beta-oxidation gene, and carnitine palmitoyl transferase, which regulates lipid metabolism, increased markedly on administration of bezafibrate. The liver pathology in MSG mice also improved with bezafibrate; specifically, macro- and microvesicles in hepatocytes nearly disappeared, and NAFLD activity score improved. It is concluded that bezafibrate inhibits the accumulation of visceral fat, following amelioration of hyperlipidemia, in MSG-induced obese mice, due to improvements in diabetes mellitus, fatty liver, and NAFLD. PMID:21549692

  7. Management considerations to minimize environmental impacts of arsenic following monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) applications to turfgrass.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Jeffries, Matthew D; Matteson, Audrey R; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2015-03-01

    Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) is an organic arsenical herbicide currently utilized in turfgrass and cotton systems. In recent years, concerns over adverse impacts of arsenic (As) from MSMA applications have emerged; however, little research has been conducted in controlled field experiments using typical management practices. To address this knowledge gap, a field lysimeter experiment was conducted during 2012-2013 to determine the fate of As following MSMA applications to a bareground and an established turfgrass system. Arsenic concentrations in soil, porewater, and aboveground vegetation, were measured through one yr after treatment. Aboveground vegetation As concentration was increased compared to nontreated through 120 d after initial treatment (DAIT). In both systems, increased soil As concentrations were observed at 0-4 cm at 30 and 120 DAIT and 0-8 cm at 60 and 365 DAIT, suggesting that As was bound in shallow soil depths. Porewater As concentrations in MSMA-treated lysimeters from a 30-cm depth (22.0-83.8 μg L(-1)) were greater than those at 76-cm depth (0.4-5.1 μg L(-1)). These results were combined with previous research to devise management considerations in systems where MSMA is utilized. MSMA should not be applied if rainfall is forecasted within 7 DAIT and/or in areas with shallow water tables. Further, disposing of MSMA-treated turfgrass aboveground vegetation in a confined area - a common management practice for turfgrass clippings - may be of concern due to As release to surface water or groundwater as the vegetation decomposes. Finally, long-term MSMA use may cause soil As accumulation and thus downward migration of As over time; therefore, MSMA should be used in rotation with other herbicides. PMID:25556868

  8. Drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in monosodium L-glutamate obese mice.

    PubMed

    Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Levorová, Lucie; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing across the world. Physiologic alterations associated with obesity are known to alter enzyme expression and/or activities. As drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes serve as defense system against potentially toxic compounds, their modulation might have serious consequences. In this work, we studied selected antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) in monosodium glutamate-mouse model of obesity. Specific activities, protein, and mRNA expressions of these enzymes in liver as well as in small intestine were compared in obese male mice and in their lean counterparts. Furthermore, expression of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its relation to obesity were tested. Obtained results showed that obesity affects expression and/or activities of some DME and antioxidant enzymes. In obese mice, upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A (UGT1A), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), nuclear transcription factor Nrf2, and downregulation of some isoforms of glutathione S-transferases (GST) were observed. Most of these changes were tissue and/or isoform specific. NQO1 seems to be regulated transcriptionally via Nrf2, but other enzymes might be regulated post-transcriptionally and/or post-translationally. Enhanced expression of Nrf2 in livers of obese mice is expected to play a role in protective adaptation. In contrast, elevated activities of NQO1 and UGT1A may cause alterations in drug pharmacokinetics in obese individuals. Moreover, decreased capacity of GST in obese animals indicates potentially reduced antioxidant defense and weaker chemoprotection. PMID:25473020

  9. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Boonnate, Piyanard; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Hipkaeo, Wiphawi; Pethlert, Supattra; Sharma, Amod; Selmi, Carlo; Prasongwattana, Vitoon; Cha’on, Ubon

    2015-01-01

    Background The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG) is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology. Methods Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group). All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets. Results MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated. Conclusion Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account. PMID:26121281

  10. Effects of CB1 receptor blockade on monosodium glutamate induced hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhenhua; Xue, Nina; Zheng, Zhibing; Li, Song; Wang, Lili

    2013-08-01

    Effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) blockade were observed by comparing 9-day and 6-week SR141716 treatments in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity (HO) in rats for the first time and molecular mechanisms were investigated. Compared with normal rats, the MSG rats display typical symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., excessive abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, but with lower food intake. Although both the 9-day and 6-week treatments with the specific CB1R antagonist SR141716 effectively lowered body weight, intraperitoneal adipose tissue mass, serum triglyceride (TG), and insulin level, the effect of chronic treatment is more impressive. Moreover, serum cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA), fasted and postprandial blood glucose, and insulin insensitivity were more effectively improved by 6-week exposure to SR141716, whereas hypophagia was only effective within the initial 2 weeks. In addition, hepatic steatosis as well as hepatic and adipocyte morphology was improved. Western blot analysis revealed that the markedly increased CB1R expression and decreased insulin receptor (INR) expression in liver and adipose tissues were effectively corrected by SR141716. Consistent with this, deregulated gene expression of lipogenesis and lipolysis as well as glucose metabolic key enzymes were also restored by SR141716. In conclusion, based on present data we found that: (1) alteration of the hypothalamus in MSG rats leads to a lower expression of INR in crucially insulin-targeted tissues and hyperinsulinemia that was reversed by SR141716, (2) the abnormally increased expression of CB1R in liver and adipose tissues plays a vital role in the pathophysiological process of MSG rats, and (3) chronic CB1R blockade leads to a sustained improvement of the metabolic dysfunctions of MSG rats. PMID:23620336

  11. [Pathological changes in hepatocytes of mice with obesity-induced type 2 diabetes by monosodium glutamate].

    PubMed

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Kamata, Sumito; Yoshida, Testuro; Hikita, Masaaki; Wakamatsu, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes caused by chronic obesity is a major lifestyle-related disease. The present study aimed to determine the pathological changes in hepatocytes in chronic obesity. To develop our type 2 diabetes mouse model, we induced chronic obesity to mice by monosodium glutamate. By overeating, the mice significantly increased their body weight compared with age-matched healthy animals. To analyze the pathological changes in hepatocytes of chronic obesity before preclinical stage of type 2 diabetes, the mice were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin staining of tissue sections at 15 w of age. In these mice, we observed eosin-negative accumulations of hepatocytes around central veins in the hepatic lobule. By Oil-Red O staining, the eosin-negative granules were identified in the lipid droplets. We then ascertained whether these lipid droplets of hepatocytes in the obese mice could be modified by diet. After 24 h of diet restriction, the lipid droplets of hepatocytes in the obese mice were swollen. Furthermore, after 48 h of the diet restriction, the lipid droplets continued swelling and the autophagy-like structures that were found in the healthy mice under the same condition in the obese mice were not observed. These results suggest that the obese mice might have delayed energy metabolism, which might have influenced the mechanisms of hepatocytes. These findings provide new insight into the functional changes in chronic obesity-induced type 2 diabetes and it is possible that the pathological feature make a contribution to promise the target of pharmacological therapy. PMID:24989474

  12. Altered baroreflex and autonomic modulation in monosodium glutamate-induced hyperadipose rats.

    PubMed

    Karlen-Amarante, Marlusa; da Cunha, Natália Veronez; de Andrade, Ozahyr; de Souza, Hugo Celso Dutra; Martins-Pinge, Marli Cardoso

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to examine the cardiovascular function by tonic and baroreflex alterations in obese rats induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG). Neonatal male Wistar rats were injected with MSG (4 mg/g body weight) or equimolar saline (control, C). At 90 days, all rats were anesthetized for catheterization of the femoral artery for mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) recordings in the conscious state. After baseline, we performed IV treatment with hexamethonium (25 mg/kg), or atropine (1 mg/kg) or propranolol (3 mg/kg). We also performed the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity. Baseline comparison showed that obese rats are hypertensive compared with control (C=110±2 mmHg; MSG=: 123±3 mmHg, P<0.05). After ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium the differences in MAP between control and obese rats disappeared. Beta adrenergic blockade with propranolol induced a greater decrease in heart rate compared with control. The analysis of HRV showed that obese rats have increased modulation by both components of the autonomic nervous system compared with control rats. The baroreflex gain showed increased sensitivity for the parasympathetic component in the obese rats (C=-2.41±0.25; MSG=-3.34±0.23 bpm/mmHg) compared with control. Our data suggest that both components of autonomic cardiac tonus and the parasympathetic component of the baroreflex sensitivity are increased in the MSG obese rat. It is possible that the parasympathetic alterations observed in these MSG obese rats may have originated from central areas of cardiovascular control. PMID:22554831

  13. GLUT4 protein is differently modulated during development of obesity in monosodium glutamate-treated mice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Papa, Paula; Vargas, Alessandra Martins; da Silva, José Luciano Tavares; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Machado, Ubiratan F

    2002-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the GLUT4 protein expression during the development of obesity in monosodium glutamate- (MSG) treated mice. Control (C) and neonatally MSG-treated 2-month-old (2-mo), 4-month-old (4-mo) and 7-month-old (7-mo) mice were analyzed. Anthropometric data, basal glycemia and insulinemia were measured; and the GLUT4 protein was assessed by Western blotting in white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle gastrocnemius (SM) and heart (H). Compared to age-matched C mice, the 2-mo and 4-mo MSG mice were already obese, but metabolically they showed increased or preserved whole-body insulin sensitivity, respectively. At these ages they showed unchanged total GLUT4 content in SM and H. However, in plasma membrane fraction from WAT, the MSG showed increased GLUT4 content at both 2- (by 60%) and 4-month (by 45%) of age. When the GLUT4 protein was expressed by unit of adipocyte surface area the protein amount was increased by 36 and 220% in 2-mo and 4-mo MSG mice, respectively. At 7 months of age, obesity was fully established in MSG mice, showing a strongly insulin resistant condition. Additionally, in the 7-mo MSG-mice the GLUT4 protein was reduced in SM (by 40%), H (by 28%), PM and M fractions of WAT (by approximately 70%), and PM expressed by unit of adipocyte surface area (by 92%). The data demonstrate that early, during the accelerated development of obesity in MSG-treated mice, the GLUT4 content was increased in WAT, and that may play a key role in the development of obesity. Later on, when obesity is fully established, the GLUT4 protein was reduced in SM, heart and WAT, and that may be involved in the insulin resistance present in this condition. PMID:12175706

  14. Sensitive determination of norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine by coupling HPLC with [Ag(HIO6 )2 ](5-) -luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Xie, He; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Qunlin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the enhancing effects of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (EP), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction between [Ag(HIO6 )2 ](5-) and luminol in alkaline solution, a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with CL detection was explored for the sensitive determination of monoamine neurotransmitters for the first time. The UV-visible absorption spectra were recorded to study the enhancement mechanism of monoamine neurotransmitters on the CL of [Ag(HIO6 )2 ](5-) and luminol reaction. The HPLC separation of NE, EP, DA and 5-HT was achieved with isocratic elution using a mixture of aqueous 0.2% phosphoric acid and methanol (5:95, v/v) within 11.0 min. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of NE, EP, DA, and 5-HT were 4.8, 0.9, 1.9 and 2.3 ng/mL, respectively, corresponding to 17.6-96.0 pg for 20 μL sample injection. The recoveries of monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain were >95.6% with the precisions expressed by RSD <5.0%. The validated HPLC-CL method was successfully applied for the quantification of NE, EP, DA and 5-HT in rat brain. This method has promising potential for some biological and clinical investigations focusing on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26876580

  15. Electro-deposited poly-luminol molecularly imprinted polymer coating on carboxyl graphene for stir bar sorptive extraction of estrogens in milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haibo; Qiao, Li; Gan, Ning; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Hu, Futao; Wang, Jiayu; Chen, Yinji

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemical polymerization of luminol molecularly imprinted polymer on carboxyl graphene (MIP/CG) was developed as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coating for selective pre-concentration and specific recognition of bisphenol A (BPA), hexoestrol and diethylstilbestrol in milk samples. Luminol was employed as monomer and BPA as the template to prepare MIP under 0-0.6V electro-polymerization. Carboxyl graphene was modified on pencil lead as the substrate to increase extraction capacity. The preparation and extraction conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a good linearity of three estrogens was obtained in the range of 4-1000ngmL(-1). The average recoveries at the three spiked levels of the three estrogens ranged from 83.4% to 96.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSD)≤7.1%. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.36-1.09ngmL(-1). The developed method with low cost, high selectivity and good reproducibility can be potentially applied for determining trace estrogens in complex food samples. PMID:27249165

  16. IN VITRO PERCUTANEOUS ABSORPTION OF MONOSODIUM METHANERARSONATE (MSMA) AND DISODIUM METHANE-ARSONATE (DSMA) IN FEMALE B6C3F1 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Percutaneous absorption of (14C] monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) and disodium methanearsonate (DSMA) was investigated in female B6C3F1 mice from a variety of exposure conditions, including aqueous solution, solid compound, and soil. hese chemicals are the sodium salts of methan...

  17. The significance of excursions above the ADI. Case study: monosodium glutamate.

    PubMed

    Walker, R

    1999-10-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been allocated an "ADI not specified" by the JECFA, which indicates that no toxicological concerns arise associated with its use as a food additive in accordance with good manufacturing practice (GMP) and for that reason it is not necessary to allocate a numerical ADI. The question in this case, then, is not whether excursions above a numerical ADI might occur but whether high peak intakes might arise which could invalidate the assumption of absence of hazard. Two major issues have arisen in relation to high intakes of MSG: (1) What is the significance of neural damage (focal necrosis in the hypothalamus) seen following high parenteral or intragastric doses of MSG to neonatal animals and is this a particular risk for children? (2) What is the role of MSG in "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome" (flushing, tightness of the chest, difficulty in breathing, etc.) following consumption of Chinese foods? In relation to the first issue, human studies have been crucial in resolving the question. The threshold blood levels associated with neuronal damage in the mouse (most sensitive species) are 100-130 mumol/dl in neonates rising to > 630 mumol/dl in adult animals. In humans, plasma levels of this magnitude have not been recorded even after bolus doses of 150 mg/kg body wt (ca. 10 g for an adult). Additionally, studies in infants have confirmed that the human baby can metabolize glutamate as effectively as adults. It is concluded that blood levels of glutamate + aspartate do not rise significantly even after abuse doses and babies are no more at risk than adults. Intake levels associated with the use of MSG as a food additive and natural levels of glutamic acid in foods therefore do not raise toxicological concerns even at high peak levels of intake. It is not envisaged that use of MSG according to GMP requires the allocation of a numerical ADI. With regard to the second issue, controlled double-blind crossover studies have failed to establish a

  18. Chronobiological variations in the convulsive effect of monosodium L-glutamate when administered to adult rats.

    PubMed

    Feria-Velasco, A; Feria-Cuevas, Y; Gutiérrez-Padilla, R

    1995-01-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) when administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rodents induces convulsions and has been used as a model to study various aspects of status epilepticus of multifocal origin. There are circadian variations of susceptibility to convulsions induced by various factors in some animal species. The aim of this work was to learn whether the convulsive effect of MSG in rats would vary when the drug is given at different times of the day. Three subgroups of Wistar rats were given i.p. 5 mg/g MSG at 07:00, 15:00 and 23:00 h, whereas two groups of rats divided into three subgroups of five animals each were used as controls, also being injected at 07:00, 15:00 and 23:00 h. One group was injected with NaCI solution, equimolar to that of MSG (eqNaCI); the other was injected with physiological saline solution (PSS) in proportional volumes to those of the experimental group. Motor behavior was recorded for 4 h following injections in the three groups of animals. Neither signs of brain hyperexcitability, nor convulsions appeared in animals injected with PSS or eqNaCl. With MSG, no variations were seen in the latency period when data from the three subgroups studied were compared among them. Duration of convulsive period when rats were injected at 07:00 h was shorter than that seen at 15:00 and 23:00 h. No significant variations were seen in total number of convulsive episodes in the three subgroups, while the number of seizures per hour and their intensity were significantly greater when animals were injected at 07:00 h than those seen when rats were studied at 15:00 and 23:00 h. Nearly 70% of animals injected at 07:00 h died in status epilepticus, whereas no deaths were recorded in animals injected at 15:00 and 23:00 h. Results could be explained in terms of variations of physiological processes at both the brain and extracerebral tissues involved in MSG metabolism and cerebral excitability, related to circadian rhythms. PMID:8845636

  19. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  20. Neural correlates of hyperalgesia in the monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritis pain

    PubMed Central

    Abaei, Maryam; Sagar, Devi R; Stockley, Elizabeth G; Spicer, Clare H; Prior, Malcolm; Auer, Dorothee P

    2016-01-01

    Background The mechanisms driving osteoarthritic pain remain poorly understood, but there is increasing evidence for a role of the central nervous system in the chronification of pain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the influence of a model of unilateral knee osteoarthritis on nociceptive processing. Results Four to five weeks post intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 1 mg) into the left knee, Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized for functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to characterize the neural response to a noxious stimulus (intra-articular capsaicin injection). In a two-arm cross-over design, 5 µM/50 µl capsaicin was injected into either the left knee (n = 8, CAPS-MIA) or right control knee (n = 8, CAPS-CON), preceded by contralateral vehicle (SAL) injection. To assess neural correlates of mechanical hyperalgesia, hindpaws were stimulated with von Frey hairs (8 g: MIA; 15 g: control knee, based on behavioral withdrawal responses). The CAPS-MIA group exhibited significant activation of the periaqueductal gray, unilateral thalamus and bilateral mensencephalon, superior-colliculus, and hippocampus, with no significant activation in the other groups/conditions. Capsaicin injection increased functional connectivity in the mid-brain network and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, hippocampus, and globus pallidus, which was significantly stronger in CAPS-MIA compared to CAPS-CON groups. Mechanical stimulation of the hyperalgesic (ipsilateral to MIA knee) and normalgesic (contralateral) hindpaws evoked qualitatively different brain activation with more widespread brainstem and anterior cingulate (ACC) activation when stimulating the hyperalgesic paw, and clearer frontal sensory activation from the normalgesic paw. Conclusions We provide evidence for modulation of nociceptive processing in a chronic knee osteoarthritis pain model with stronger brain activation and alteration of brain networks

  1. Lipoproteins containing apoprotein B are a major regulator of neutrophil responses to monosodium urate crystals.

    PubMed Central

    Terkeltaub, R; Curtiss, L K; Tenner, A J; Ginsberg, M H

    1984-01-01

    The inflammatory response to intraarticular urate crystals is known to be variable in gouty arthritis. One source of variability may be the modulation of cellular responses by crystal-bound proteins. We have identified three apolipoproteins among the polypeptides bound to urate crystals exposed to plasma. Identification was first based on their coelectrophoresis with polypeptides from isolated lipoproteins and diminution in the protein coat of crystals exposed to lipoprotein-depleted plasma. The apoproteins were immunochemically identified by the Western blotting technique as apoprotein A-I, apoprotein B (apo B), and apoprotein E. Because neutrophils play a central role in acute gout, we investigated the potential effects of lipoproteins on neutrophil-urate crystal interactions. Plasma profoundly inhibited urate crystal-induced neutrophil luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Lipoprotein depletion by KBr density gradient centrifugation completely abrogated the inhibitory effect of plasma on urate-induced CL. The inhibitory activity of lipoprotein-depleted plasma was restored by adding back the d less than or equal to 1.25 g/cm3 lipoprotein fraction. Plasma also inhibited urate crystal-induced neutrophil superoxide generation and cytolysis (lactic dehydrogenase loss). This inhibition was significantly diminished by lipoprotein depletion, indicating that the lipoprotein effect was not limited to CL. Lipoprotein-depleted plasma reconstituted with very low, intermediate, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) inhibited crystal-induced CL. High density lipoprotein reconstitution was without effect. Immunodepletion from plasma of all apo B lipoproteins by agarose-bound apo B-specific antibody also removed all inhibitory activity for urate-induced CL. Thus, apo B lipoproteins were shown to be the inhibitory species in plasma. Binding of apo B lipoproteins to urate crystals and inhibition of CL was also seen in the absence of other plasma proteins. In addition, the binding

  2. Modulation of luminol chemiluminescence of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils by affecting dephosphorylation and the metabolism of phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Arnhold, J; Benard, S; Kilian, U; Reichl, S; Schiller, J; Arnold, K

    1999-01-01

    This paper is addressed to study how PKC-mediated effects and phosphatidic acid interact together in activation of NADPH-oxidase in formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) stimulated neutrophils as detected by luminol chemiluminescence. The early luminescence response in fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated cells (up to 5 min after stimulation) depends mainly on reactive oxygen species generated extracellularly, whereas all later events are caused by oxidation of luminol inside the cells. The two protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid and calyculin A, dramatically increased the late luminescence of cells. This enhancement was totally inhibited by the phospholipase D modulator butanol, while the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I was insensitive. The early luminescence response of the cells was slightly inhibited by both protein phosphatase inhibitors and depended on protein kinase C as well as on phospholipase D activities. Propranolol, an inhibitor of phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, enhanced all parts of luminescence response of fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated neutrophils at concentrations up to 2.5 x 10(-5) mol/L. While the late luminescence response of propranolol-treated cells was not inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I, the first response depended on protein kinase C. The inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase R59949 enhanced the luminescence signal only during the first 4 min in fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated cells. Only diacylglycerols derived from phospholipase C, such as 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, were able to initiate an oxidative burst in cells. Saturated diacylglycerols (e.g. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol or 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycerol) did not yield any luminol chemiluminescence, although they were incorporated into the plasma membrane, as evidenced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrate that phosphatidic acid produced by phospholipase D is

  3. Monosodium Urate Crystals Promote Innate Anti-Mycobacterial Immunity and Improve BCG Efficacy as a Vaccine against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Taus, Francesco; Santucci, Marilina B.; Greco, Emanuela; Morandi, Matteo; Palucci, Ivana; Mariotti, Sabrina; Poerio, Noemi; Nisini, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanni; Fraziano, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    A safer and more effective anti-Tuberculosis vaccine is still an urgent need. We probed the effects of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) on innate immunity to improve the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. Results showed that in vitro MSU cause an enduring macrophage stimulation of the anti-mycobacterial response, measured as intracellular killing, ROS production and phagolysosome maturation. The contribution of MSU to anti-mycobacterial activity was also shown in vivo. Mice vaccinated in the presence of MSU showed a lower number of BCG in lymph nodes draining the vaccine inoculation site, in comparison to mice vaccinated without MSU. Lastly, we showed that MSU improved the efficacy of BCG vaccination in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), measured in terms of lung and spleen MTB burden. These results demonstrate that the use of MSU as adjuvant may represent a novel strategy to enhance the efficacy of BCG vaccination. PMID:26023779

  4. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. PMID:25621725

  5. Monosodium glutamate-induced asthma: study of the potential risk of 30 asthmatics and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    1987-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate is a physiological nutrient, and food additive used as a taste enhancer. Several cases of intolerance to MSG in patients with asthma and with a Chinese Restaurant Syndrome have been published. A high dose of 2.5 g was tested in 6 healthy controls and 30 asthmatics (7: allergic asthma; 15: intrinsic asthma with intolerance to aspirin; 8: intrinsic asthma with aspirin intolerance, intolerance to alcohol or to food additives). Two patients presented with a mild bronchospasm, occurring 6 to 10 hours after the ingestion. Different mechanisms are discussed. A cholinergic mechanism might be incriminated, either due to stimulation of the synthesis of acetylcholine, or due to a vagal reflex elicited by a reflux esophagitis. However, a high vagal hyperreactivity seems to be needed for the occurrence of asthma. It is concluded that a very small subset of patients with intrinsic asthma might present with an intolerance to MSG if high doses are consumed. PMID:3331265

  6. Monosodium Urate Crystals Promote Innate Anti-Mycobacterial Immunity and Improve BCG Efficacy as a Vaccine against Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Taus, Francesco; Santucci, Marilina B; Greco, Emanuela; Morandi, Matteo; Palucci, Ivana; Mariotti, Sabrina; Poerio, Noemi; Nisini, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanni; Fraziano, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    A safer and more effective anti-Tuberculosis vaccine is still an urgent need. We probed the effects of monosodium urate crystals (MSU) on innate immunity to improve the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. Results showed that in vitro MSU cause an enduring macrophage stimulation of the anti-mycobacterial response, measured as intracellular killing, ROS production and phagolysosome maturation. The contribution of MSU to anti-mycobacterial activity was also shown in vivo. Mice vaccinated in the presence of MSU showed a lower number of BCG in lymph nodes draining the vaccine inoculation site, in comparison to mice vaccinated without MSU. Lastly, we showed that MSU improved the efficacy of BCG vaccination in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), measured in terms of lung and spleen MTB burden. These results demonstrate that the use of MSU as adjuvant may represent a novel strategy to enhance the efficacy of BCG vaccination. PMID:26023779

  7. No effects of monosodium glutamate consumption on the body weight or composition of adult rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Aleman, Tiffany R; Murphy, Michelle C

    2012-10-10

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is pervasively consumed as a flavor enhancer so there are important implications to understanding its physiological actions, particularly its effects on body weight. Previous studies suggest that MSG increases, decreases, or has no effect on the body weight of rodents. However, most of these studies involved administration of MSG to immature rodents and consequently may not be relevant for understanding human obesity. We report here five experiments in which we measured the body weights of a total of 32 groups of 10-12 adult rats or mice given various diets to eat and MSG to eat or drink. We found no evidence that MSG influenced body weight, energy intake, or body composition. To the extent that experiments in rodents illuminate mechanisms involved in human obesity and body weight control, our results suggest that MSG is unlikely to be a useful anti-obesity supplement but neither is it responsible for exacerbating obesity. PMID:22868067

  8. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-06-29

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  9. Effect of Human and Bovine Serum Albumin on kinetic Chemiluminescence of Mn (III)-Tetrakis (4-Sulfonatophenyl) Porphyrin-Luminol-Hydrogen Peroxide System

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya; Abedirad, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with an attempt to study the effect of human and bovine serum albumin on kinetic parameters of chemiluminescence of luminol-hydrogen peroxide system catalyzed by manganese tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (MnTSPP). The investigated parameters involved pseudo-first-order rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, maximum level intensity, time to reach maximum intensity, total light yield, and values of the intensity at maximum CL which were evaluated by nonlinear least square program KINFIT. Because of interaction of metalloporphyrin with proteins, the CL parameters are drastically affected. The systems resulted in Stern-Volmer plots with kQ values of 3.17 × 105 and 3.7 × 105 M−1 in the quencher concentration range of 1.5 × 10−6 to 1.5 × 10−5 M for human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively. PMID:22645466

  10. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction. PMID:24008059

  11. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to

  12. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Hirakawa, Tomoya; Tanaka-Nakadate, Sawako

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption. PMID:27437400

  13. Effects of RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15) on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Y.-Y.; Li, Y.-F.; Xu, M.; Li, W.-Y.; Yang, M.; Li, R.-L.

    2015-01-01

    RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15) is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses antigout, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperuricemic properties based on the traditional conceptions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PRP15 in rat gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. In the present study, we found that treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg) in rats with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals significantly attenuated the knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and the elevated expressions of nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) in synovial tissues were significantly inhibited, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) result showed that MSU-induced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in synovial fluid were reduced by treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg). We conclude that RPP15 may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and its activity of antigout may be partially related to inhibiting TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and NF-κB p65 expression in the synovial tissues. PMID:26221174

  14. Protective Effect of Calendula officinalis L. Flowers Against Monosodium Glutamate Induced Oxidative Stress and Excitotoxic Brain Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, P; Thippeswamy, B S; Veerapur, V P

    2013-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a popular flavour enhancer used in food industries; however, excess MSG is neurotoxic. Oxidative stress is well documented in MSG induced neurotoxicity. The compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties reportedly possess beneficial effects against various neurotoxic insults. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult Wistar rats were administered systemically for 7 days with MSG and after one h of MSG injection, rats were treated with COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) orally. At the end the treatment period, animals were assessed for locomotor activity and were sacrificed; brains were isolated for estimation of LPO, GSH, CAT, TT, GST, Nitrite and histopathological studies. MSG caused a significant alteration in animal behavior, oxidative defense (raised levels of LPO, nitrite concentration, depletion of antioxidant levels) and hippocampal neuronal histology. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, and hippocampal damage in MSG-treated animals. Hence, this study demonstrates that COE protects against MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of COE may be responsible for its observed neuroprotective action. PMID:24426226

  15. Quercetin ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism and improves antioxidant status in postnatally monosodium glutamate-induced metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Seiva, Fábio R F; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Braga, Camila Pereira; Amorim, João Paulo A; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2012-10-01

    We reported the effects of quercetin on metabolic and hormonal profile as well as serum antioxidant activities in a model of MSG (monosodium glutamate)-induced obesity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: MSG group, submitted to neonatal treatment with high doses of MSG, administrated subcutaneously during 10 days, from 2 day-old; control groups, which received the same volume of saline. After completing 30 day-old, these groups were subdivided into 4 groups: control and MSG groups treated and non-treated with quercetin at doses of 75 mg/kg body weight (i.p.) over 42 days. BW gain and food consumption were higher in MSG treated rats and quercetin significantly reduced BW by 25%. While MSG increased triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and fractions, and reduced HDL concentrations, administration of quercetin normalized HDL-cholesterol and reduced others lipids. Insulin, leptin, glucose and creatinine levels were raised in MSG-treated rats and reduced after quercetin treatment. Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were lower after MSG-quercetin combination compared to rats given only MSG. MSG-quercetin combination augmented total protein and urea levels as well as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in contrast to MSG-treated animals. Quercetin normalized serum lipid and glucose profile and minimized the MSG-related toxic effects, which was associated to its antioxidant properties. PMID:22809473

  16. Recombinant murine fibroblast growth factor 21 ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in monosodium glutamate-induced obesity rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Fei; Li, Si-Ming; Ren, Gui-Ping; Zheng, Wei; Lu, Yu-Jia; Yu, Yin-Hang; Xu, Wen-Juan; Li, Tian-He; Zhou, Li-Hong; Liu, Yan; Li, De-Shan

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of FGF21 in obesity-related inflammation in livers of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity rats. The MSG rats were injected with recombinant murine fibroblast growth factor 21(FGF21) or equal volumes of vehicle. Metabolic parameters including body weight, Lee's index, food intake, visceral fat and liver weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance, glucose, and lipid levels were dynamically measured at specific time points. Liver function and routine blood test were also analyzed. Further, systemic inflammatory cytokines such as glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. FGF21 independently decreased body weight and whole-body fat mass without reducing food intake in the MSG rats. FGF21 reduced blood glucose level, Lee's index, visceral fat, and liver weight, and improved glucose tolerance, lipid metabolic spectrum, and hepatic steatosis in the MSG-obesity rats. Liver function parameters including AST, ALT, ALP, TP, T.Bili, and D.Bili levels significantly reduced in the FGF21-treated obesity rats compared to the controls. Further, FGF21 ameliorated the total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, and TNF-α levels in adipose tissues of the obesity rats, suggesting inflammation amelioration in the in the obesity rats by FGF21. FGF21 improves multiple metabolic disorders and ameliorates obesity-related inflammation in the MSG-induced obesity rats. PMID:25306889

  17. Serological and Histological Examination of a Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Mouse Model Created via the Administration of Monosodium Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Atsuko; Kajiyama, Yusuke; Sugiura, Anna; Negishi, Masatsugu; Miyakawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to mice induces hepatic steatosis and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the metabolic features of MSG-treated mice and the histological changes that occur in their livers and adipose tissue. MSG mice were prepared by subcutaneously injecting MSG into newborn C57BL/6J male mice. The control mice were subcutaneously injected with saline. Another group of mice was fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCD). Compared with the control mice, the MSG mice had higher serum levels of insulin and cholesterol than the control mice, whereas the opposite was true for the MCD mice. Microvesicular steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were detected in both the MSG and MCD mouse livers. Enlarged adipocytes and crown-like structures were observed in the epididymal fat of the MSG mice, whereas neither of these features was seen in the MCD mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed increased frequencies of monocytes and M1 macrophages in the livers and epididymal fat tissue of the MSG mice, respectively. The MSG mice exhibited the characteristic liver histopathology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as metabolic syndrome-like features, which suggested that MSG mice are a better model of human NASH than MCD mice.

  18. Monosodium Urate in the Presence of RANKL Promotes Osteoclast Formation through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL-) RANK-induced osteoclast formation. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were incubated with MSU crystals or RANKL and differentiated into osteoclast-like cells as confirmed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and actin ring, pit formation assay, and TRAP activity assay. MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6), JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. IL-1b produced in response to treatment with both MSU and RANKL is involved in osteoclast differentiation in part through the induction of TRAF-6 downstream of the IL-1b pathway. This study revealed that MSU crystals contribute to enhanced osteoclast formation through activation of RANKL-mediated pathways and recruitment of IL-1b. These findings suggest that MSU crystals might be a pathologic causative agent of bone destruction in gout. PMID:26347587

  19. High dosage of monosodium glutamate causes deficits of the motor coordination and the number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Prastiwi, D; Djunaidi, A; Partadiredja, G

    2015-11-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used throughout the world as a flavoring agent of food. However, MSG at certain dosages is also thought to cause damage to many organs, including cerebellum. This study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of MSG on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male rats aged 4 to 5 weeks were divided into four groups, namely, control (C), T2.5, T3, and T3.5 groups, which received intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 2.5 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG, 3.0 mg/g bw of MSG, and 3.5 mg/g bw of MSG, respectively, for 10 consecutive days. The motor coordination of the rats was examined prior and subsequent to the treatment. The number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using physical fractionator method. It has been found that the administration of MSG at a dosage of 3.5 mg/g bw, but not at lower dosages, caused a significant decrease of motor coordination and the estimated total number of Purkinje cells of rats. There was also a significant correlation between motor coordination and the total number of Purkinje cells. PMID:25697849

  20. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Hirakawa, Tomoya; Tanaka-Nakadate, Sawako

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption. PMID:27437400

  1. Review of alleged reaction to monosodium glutamate and outcome of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Geha, R S; Beiser, A; Ren, C; Patterson, R; Greenberger, P A; Grammer, L C; Ditto, A M; Harris, K E; Shaughnessy, M A; Yarnold, P R; Corren, J; Saxon, A

    2000-04-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has a long history of use in foods as a flavor enhancer. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has classified MSG as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Nevertheless, there is an ongoing debate exists concerning whether MSG causes any of the alleged reactions. A complex of symptoms after ingestion of a Chinese meal was first described in 1968. MSG was suggested to trigger these symptoms, which were referred to collectively as Chinese Restaurant Syndrome. Numerous reports, most of them anecdotal, were published after the original observation. Since then, clinical studies have been performed by many groups, with varying degrees of rigor in experimental design ranging from uncontrolled open challenges to double-blind, placebo controlled (DBPC) studies. Challenges in subjects who reported adverse reactions to MSG have included relatively few subjects and have failed to show significant reactions to MSG. Results of surveys and of clinical challenges with MSG in the general population reveal no evidence of untoward effects. We recently conducted a multicenter DBPC challenge study in 130 subjects (the largest to date) to analyze the response of subjects who report symptoms from ingesting MSG. The results suggest that large doses of MSG given without food may elicit more symptoms than a placebo in individuals who believe that they react adversely to MSG. However, the frequency of the responses was low and the responses reported were inconsistent and were not reproducible. The responses were not observed when MSG was given with food. PMID:10736382

  2. Immunohistochemical evaluation of hippocampal CA1 region astrocytes in 10-day-old rats after monosodium glutamate treatment.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, A; Jaworska-Adamu, J; Rycerz, K

    2015-01-01

    High concentration of glutamate (Glu) is excitotoxic for nervous system structures. This may lead to glial reactivity ie. increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100β protein, and also to hypertrophy and proliferation of cells which are determined by the presence of Ki-67 antigen. The aim of the study was to analyse the immunoreactivity of the GFAP, S100β and Ki-67 proteins in astrocytes of hippocampal CA1 region in young rats after administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at two doses: 2 g/kg b.w. (I group) and 4 g/kg b.w. (II group). In rats from I and II group morphologically altered astrocytes with the GFAP expression were observed in the SLM of the hippocampal CA1 region. The cells had eccentrically located nuclei and on the opposite site of the nuclei there were single or double, long and weakly branched processes. Moreover, in the SLM the increase of the number of GFAP and S100β immunopositive astrocytes and nuclei with Ki-67 expression, in contrary to control individuals, was observed. These results suggest the increased expression of the proteins in early reactions or hyperplasia which, together with cell hypertrophy, indicate late reactivity of astroglia in response to glutamate noxious effect. PMID:26812818

  3. THE HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE, CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND SLUDGE IN THE MODULAR SALT PROCESS: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Pennebaker, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-11-11

    The use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is proposed for an at-tank process to treat High Level Waste at the Savannah River Site. The proposed configuration includes deployment of ion exchange columns suspended in the risers of existing tanks to process salt waste without building a new facility. The CST is available in an engineered form, designated as IE-911-CW, from UOP. Prior data indicates CST has a proclivity to agglomerate from deposits of silica rich compounds present in the alkaline waste solutions. This report documents the prior literature and provides guidance for the design and operations that include CST to mitigate that risk. The proposed operation will also add monosodium titanate (MST) to the supernate of the tank prior to the ion exchange operation to remove strontium and select alpha-emitting actinides. The cesium loaded CST is ground and then passed forward to the sludge washing tank as feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Similarly, the MST will be transferred to the sludge washing tank. Sludge processing includes the potential to leach aluminum from the solids at elevated temperature (e.g., 65 C) using concentrated (3M) sodium hydroxide solutions. Prior literature indicates that both CST and MST will agglomerate and form higher yield stress slurries with exposure to elevated temperatures. This report assessed that data and provides guidance on minimizing the impact of CST and MST on sludge transfer and aluminum leaching sludge.

  4. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland of group II revealed increase in follicular epithelial height. Groups III & IV showed decrease in the follicular diameter and irregularity in the shape of some follicles with discontinuity of basement membrane. Follicular hyperplasia was detected in some follicles with appearance of multiple pyknotic nuclei in follicular and interfollicular cells and multiple exfoliated cells in the colloid. In addition, areas of loss of follicular pattern were appeared in group IV. Immunohistochemical examination of BCL2 immunoexpression of the thyroid glands of groups III & IV reveals weak positive reaction in the follicular cells cytoplasm. Ultrathin sections examination of groups III & IV revealed follicular cells with irregular hyperchromatic nuclei, marked dilatation of rER and increased lysosomes with areas of short or lost apical microvilli. In addition, vacuolation of mitochondria was detected in group IV. The results displayed that MSG even at low doses is capable of producing alterations in the body weights and thyroid tissue function and histology. PMID:26884820

  5. Monosodium L-glutamate and dietary fat exert opposite effects on the proximal and distal intestinal health in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zemeng; Li, Tiejun; Wu, Chunli; Tao, Lihua; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavour enhancer in China. Previous studies have reported that high-fat diet modifies intestinal metabolism and physiology. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestine, and no study focus on the interaction of dietary fat and MSG for intestinal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and dietary fat on intestinal health in growing pigs, and to try to identify possible interactions between these 2 nutrients for such effects. A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (basal diet, high-fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG). Parameters related to reactive oxygen species metabolism, epithelial morphology, pro-inflammation factors and tight junction protein expression and several species of intestinal microbe were measured. Overall, dietary fat and MSG had detrimental effects on several of the physiological and inflammatory parameters measured in the proximal intestine, while exerting beneficial effects on the distal intestine in growing pigs, with generally antagonistic effects. These results may be of particular relevance for nutritional concerns in patients with intestinal diseases. PMID:25781200

  6. Stability of monosodium glutamate in green table olives and pickled cucumbers as a function of packing conditions and storage time.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; Casado, Francisco Javier; Montaño, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different packing conditions and storage times on the stability of monosodium glutamate (MSG) added to two different fermented vegetables (Spanish-type green table olives and pickled cucumbers) were studied. Factors such as packaging material (glass bottle versus plastic pouch), heat treatment (pasteurisation versus non-pasteurisation), and the presence or not of a preservative compound (potassium sorbate) were considered. The MSG content of pickled cucumbers was stable for up to 1 year of storage in all packing conditions studied. The MSG content also remained stable in pasteurised green table olives. On the contrary, MSG was extensively degraded (>75% degradation) after 54 weeks of storage in unpasteurised green olives with a higher degradation rate in glass bottles compared with plastic pouches. In the presence of potassium sorbate, MSG was also considerably degraded in olives packed in plastic pouches (>50% degradation), but hardly degraded in glass bottles. The results indicate that MSG degradation in olives is due to the action of both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, with the formation of γ-aminobutyric acid as the major end-product. PMID:24720705

  7. Heterogeneous Nucleation of n-Butanol Vapor on Submicrometer Charged and Neutral Particles of Lactose and Monosodium Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Chen; Tao; Shu

    2000-04-01

    Condensation of a supersaturated vapor of n-butanol on monodisperse submicrometer particles of lactose and monosodium glutamate is investigated in a flow cloud chamber (FCC). The dependence of critical supersaturation S(cr) on the particle size in the range 30 to 90 nm is experimentally examined. The results show that the size dependence of S(cr) qualitatively agrees with that predicted by the Fletcher version of the Volmer theory of heterogeneous nucleation, but to a lesser degree. The experimental S(cr) is smaller than the theoretical prediction even with the line tension and surface diffusion taken into account, and they induce heterogeneous nucleation better than perfectly wetted particles. The discrepancy can not be fully accounted for by the effects of line tension and surface diffusion and the existing theory concerning the curvature-dependent surface tension. The condensation on single positive-charged particles of diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm is also examined. A lowering of S(cr) at an efficiency much larger than the prediction by Volmer's theory for ion-induced nucleation is observed, and the charge effect fades away as particle size increases. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10708489

  8. Comparative study on thiol drugs' effect on tert-butyl hydroperoxide induced luminol chemiluminescence in human erythrocyte lysate and hemoglobin oxidation.

    PubMed

    Sajewicz, Waldemar; Zalewska, Marta; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2015-02-01

    The current studies have investigated the effect of heterocyclic drugs with the single thiol group (thiamazole, mercaptopurine) and dithiol aliphatic drugs (dimercaptosuccinic acid, dithiothreitol) under oxidative stress conditions, using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), in human erythrocyte lysate with the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence technique. Knowing that oxidative processes induced by t-BuOOH are triggered by (oxy)hemoglobin (Hb), the effect of different thiol drugs (RSH) on isolated human Hb oxidation to methemoglobin (MHb) and hemichromes (HChr) was further considered. Three types of chemiluminescence curves, fitting to logistic-exponential model, have been revealed under influence of RSH. Structure of the data (MHb and HChr production, and free radical activity of RSH) in Principal Component Analysis visualization and kinetic profiles of chemiluminescence integrate information in terms of the diversity of RSH reaction mechanisms depending on the specific molecular context of the given thiol: aliphatic or aromatic nature as well as the number and position of the -SH groups in the molecule. The study conducted in presented in vitro systems indicates the potential role of thiol drugs mediated toxicity in an oxidative stress dependent mechanism. PMID:25308193

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cloxacillin in water samples and pharmaceutical preparation by using CuO nanosheets-enhanced luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Iranifam, Mortaza; Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Nikravesh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (flow-CL) system was developed for the determination of cloxacillin sodium in environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on the enhancement effect of cloxacillin sodium on the CL reaction of luminal-H2O2-CuO nanosheets (NSs) in alkaline medium. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized using a green sonochemical method. The physical properties of the synthesized CuO nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The influences of various experimental factors such as H2O2, NaOH, luminol and CuO nanosheets concentrations were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of cloxacillin sodium in the range of the 0.05-30.00 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The corresponding detection limit (3σ) was calculated to be 0.026 mg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the developed method was 2.21% with 11 repeated measurements of 4.00 mg L-1 cloxacillin sodium. Also, a total analysis time per sample was 30 s which confirmed the rapidity of the proposed method. The analytical applicability of the proposed CL system was assessed by determining cloxacillin sodium in spiked environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reaction was discussed.

  10. Flow injection determination of adenine at trace level based on luminol-K2Cr2O7 chemiluminescence in a micellar medium.

    PubMed

    Erbao, Liu; Bingchun, Xue

    2006-05-01

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) analysis method for the determination of adenine in the presence of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) surfactant micelles is described. This method is based on the luminescent properties of the luminol-K2Cr2O7-adenine in alkaline medium sensitized by SDBS. The optimized experimental conditions were evaluated and the possible mechanism was discussed by examining CL emission spectrum and the effect of various free radical scavengers on CL emission intensity. The CL increase is linearly related to the concentration of adenine in the range of 2.92x10(-6) to 4.38x10(-10) mol l-1 with a detection limit of 2.46x10(-10) mol l-1 (S/N=3). The relative standard deviation for 2.92x10(-7) mol l-1 samples was 1.67% (n=12). The proposed method has been applied to the determination of adenine in human serum. PMID:16413727

  11. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  12. Effect of alcoholic extract of Entada pursaetha DC on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Rashmi R.; More, Amar S.; Gupta, Gaurav; Lingaraju, Madhu C.; Balaganur, Venkanna; Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Anil K.; Mishra, Santosh K.; Tandan, Surendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by joint pain and progressive loss of articular cartilage. Entada pursaetha has been traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory disease, liver ailment, etc. In this study we investigated suppressive effect of ethanolic extract of E. pursaetha (EPE) on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis pain and disease progression by histopathological changes in joints in a rat model. Methods: OA was induced in right knee of rat by intra-articular injection of 3 mg of MIA and characterized by pathological progression of disease and pain of affected joint. Spontaneous movements, mechanical, thermal and cold sensitivity were monitored at days 0 (before drug and MIA injection), 7, 14 and 21 of MIA administration. EPE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg), vehicle or etoricoxib (10 mg/kg; reference drug) were administered daily for 21 days by oral route. Results: EPE at various doses significantly reduced mechanical, heat, cold hyperalgesia and increased the horizontal and vertical movements in intra-articular MIA injected rats. EPE prevented the damage to cartilage structure and reduced the cellular abnormalities. Articular cartilage of rats treated with EPE at 300 mg/kg group was almost normal with well-developed smooth surface and chondrocytes were distributed individually or arranged in column. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed that the EPE was not only able to mitigate pain and hyperalgesia but also inhibited MIA-induced cartilage degeneration in vivo. EPE may have the potential to become therapeutic modality in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, further studies need to be done to confirm these findings in other models and clinical trials. PMID:26112847

  13. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-01

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases. PMID:18930730

  14. Effects of ad libitum ingestion of monosodium glutamate on weight gain in C57BL6/J mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xueying; Ferreira, Jozélia G; Yeckel, Catherine W; Kondoh, Takashi; de Araujo, Ivan E

    2011-01-01

    Although the umami compound monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used flavor enhancer, controversy still persists regarding the effects of MSG intake on body weight. It has been claimed, in particular, that chronic MSG intake may result in excessive body weight gain and obesity. In this study we assessed the effects of chronic (16 weeks) ad libitum MSG on body weight and metabolism of C57BL6/J mice. Adult male mice were divided in four experimental groups and fed with either a low-fat (LF) or high-fat (HF) diet and with either two bottles of plain water or one bottle containing 1% MSG and another one containing water according to a factorial design. Mice were monitored weekly for body weight and food/fluid intake for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiments, the circulating levels of leptin, insulin, total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen, and non-esterified fatty acids were also analyzed. Our results show that MSG intake did not influence body weight in either LF or HF groups. Interestingly, although animals overall displayed strong preferences for MSG against water, preferences were relatively higher in LF compared to HF group. Consistent with the body weight data, while significant differences in leptin, insulin, total cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids were found between HF and LF groups, such an effect was not influenced by MSG intake. Finally, indirect calorimetry measurements revealed similar energy expenditure levels between animals being presented water only and MSG only. In summary, our data does not support the notion that ad libitum MSG intake should trigger the development of obesity or other metabolic abnormalities. PMID:21389726

  15. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  16. Gastric emptying and duodenal motility upon intake of a liquid meal with monosodium glutamate in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiyasu; Yogo, Hideto; Nishimiya, Yuuta; Hori, Shinji; Kosugi, Takashi; Nakayama, Shinsuke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glutamate is thought to serve as a special signal for gut functions. We investigated the effects of monosodium l‐glutamate (MSG) on gastric emptying and duodenal motility. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. Coronal images were successively acquired after ingestion of liquid meal (200 kcal in 200 mL: 9 g protein, 28.4 g carbohydrate, 5.6 g fat, 370 mg Na+) with and without 0.5% MSG. During the acquisition of MRI, participants breathed freely. In all participants, the gastric residual volume gradually decreased to 80.1 ± 14.2% without MSG and to 75.9 ± 14.3% with MSG after 60 min (P = 0.45 between the groups, n = 10). In two of 10 participants, gastric emptying slowed down significantly, whereas in the remaining eight participants, gastric residual volume decreased to 84.0 ± 13.1% without MSG, and to 73.0 ± 14.6% with MSG after 60 min (P = 0.015, n = 8). There was no difference in the shape of the stomach between groups. In four of the eight participants responding positively to MSG, the duodenum wall was sufficiently identified to quantify the motions. The inclusion of MSG enhanced duodenal motility, judging from changes in (1) the magnitude of the duodenal area, (2) the center of gravity, and (3) the mean velocity of the wall motions. The third parameter most significantly indicated the excitatory effect of l‐glutamate on duodenum motility (~ three‐ to sevenfold increase during 60 min, P < 0.05, n = 4). These results suggest that MSG accelerates gastric emptying by facilitating duodenal motility, at least in subjects with positive responses to MSG. PMID:24744869

  17. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  18. Enteral administration of monosodium phosphate, monopotassium phosphate and monocalcium phosphate for the treatment of hypophosphataemia in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Idink, M J; Grünberg, W

    2015-05-01

    Hypohosphataemia is a frequent finding in early lactating and anorectic dairy cows. Sodium phosphate is commonly used for oral phosphorus (P) supplementation, although other phosphate salts may present useful treatment alternatives. Objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) and monocalcium phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2) to monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4) in P-depleted cows. Furthermore, the effect of concentrated NaH2PO4 on the reticular groove reflex was studied. Six healthy but P-depleted dairy cows underwent four treatments in randomised order. Treatments consisted of intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4, KH2PO4 and Ca(H2PO4)2 providing the equivalent of 60 g P. A fourth treatment consisting of concentrated NaH2PO4 combined with acetaminophen as a marker substance was administered orally to determine whether the reticular groove reflex could be induced. Intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 and KH2PO4 resulted in similar increases in plasma Pi concentrations ([Pi]) while intraruminal Ca(H2PO4)2 resulted in lower increases in plasma [Pi]. Oral and intraruminal administration of NaH2PO4 resulted in similar times to peak plasma [Pi] and acetaminophen concentration, indicating that concentrated NaH2PO4 administered orally did not trigger the reticular groove reflex. These results suggest that oral administration of KH2PO4 is equally effective as NaH2PO4. Oral administration of Ca(H2PO4)2 in contrast has a less pronounced effect on the plasma [Pi]. PMID:25721509

  19. MyD88-dependent IL-1 receptor signaling is essential for gouty inflammation stimulated by monosodium urate crystals

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Jen; Shi, Yan; Hearn, Arron; Fitzgerald, Kate; Golenbock, Douglas; Reed, George; Akira, Shizuo; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    While it is known that monosodium urate (MSU) crystals cause the disease gout, the mechanism by which these crystals stimulate this inflammatory condition has not been clear. Here we find that the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) signal transduction adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is required for acute gouty inflammation. In contrast, other TIR adaptor molecules, TIRAP/Mal, TRIF, and TRAM, are not required for this process. The MyD88-dependent TLR1, -2, -4, -6, -7, -9, and -11 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) are not essential for MSU-induced inflammation. Moreover, MSU does not stimulate HEK cells expressing TLR1–11 to activate NF-κB. In contrast, mice deficient in the MyD88-dependent IL-1R showed reduced inflammatory responses, similar to those observed in MyD88-deficient mice. Similarly, mice treated with IL-1 neutralizing antibodies also showed reduced MSU-induced inflammation, demonstrating that IL-1 production and IL-1R activation play essential roles in MSU-triggered inflammation. IL-1R deficiency in bone marrow–derived cells did not affect the inflammatory response; however, it was required in non–bone marrow–derived cells. These results indicate that IL-1 is essential for the MSU-induced inflammatory response and that the requirement of MyD88 in this process is primarily through its function as an adaptor molecule in the IL-1R signaling pathway. PMID:16886064

  20. Antinociceptive action of diphenyl diselenide in the nociception induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate in rats.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Suzan G; Quines, Caroline B; da Rocha, Juliana T; Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Duarte, Thiago; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2015-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a neuroexcitatory amino acid commonly used as flavoring of foods. MSG neonatal administration to animals leads to behavioral and physiological disorders in adulthood, including increased pain sensitivity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound with pharmacological properties already documented, on nociception induced by MSG. Newborn Wistar rats received 10 subcutaneous injections of MSG at a dose of 4.0g/kg or saline (once daily). At the 60th day of life, the rats were daily treated with (PhSe)2 (1mg/kg) or vehicle (canola oil) by the intragastric route for 7 days. The behavioral tests (locomotor activity, hot plate, tail-immersion and mechanical allodynia) were carried out. Ex vivo assays were performed in samples of hippocampus to determine Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, cytokine levels and [(3)H]glutamate uptake. The results demonstrated that MSG increased nociception in the hot plate test and in the mechanical allodynia stimulated by Von-Frey hair but did not alter the tail immersion test. (PhSe)2 reversed all nociceptive behaviors altered by MSG. MSG caused an increase in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities and in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and a decrease in the anti-inflammatory cytokine and in the [(3)H]glutamate uptake. (PhSe)2 was effective in reversing all alterations caused by MSG. The results indicate that (PhSe)2 had a potential antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action in the MSG model. PMID:25841878

  1. [A preliminary study on the mechanism of impaired beta cell function in monosodium glutamate obese rat with insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Quan; Shen, Zhu-Fang

    2008-11-01

    This study is to evaluate beta cell function and investigate the mechanism of impaired pancreatic islet beta cell function in monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rat with insulin resistance, an animal model of metabolic syndrome. Insulin tolerance test was used to screen MSG obese rats with insulin resistance. Blood concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol and insulin were determined. Beta cell function was assessed with hyperglycemic clamp technique. The morphological alterations in pancreas and changes of islet beta cell mass were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gomori aldehyde fuchsin staining. Lipid, oxidative stress relevant factors, nitric oxide (NO) level and activity of ATPase in pancreas and pancreatic mitochondrial were tested. The MSG obese rats with insulin resistance could be validated as a typical metabolic syndrome animal model possessing increased fasting plasma triglycerides and insulin (P < 0. 001), markedly decreased weight indices of pancreas and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Gomori aldehyde fuchsin staining showed increased adipocytes and fibroplasia deposition in pancreas and reduced beta cell mass. The increased contents of triglyceride and NO level, the decreased SOD levels and activities of total ATPase (P < 0.001), Na+-K+-ATPase (P < 0.001) and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase (P < 0.01) were observed in pancreas and its mitochondria versus normal rat. The study demonstrates that accumulation of lipids in pancreas could lead to increased systemic indicators of inflammation, such as NO, which may influence the activities of several kinds of ATPase in cell membranes and interfere the ion transport, substance metabolism and energy production in pancreas. Finally the MSG obese rats characterized with metabolic syndrome displayed an impairment of beta cell function. PMID:19239028

  2. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

  3. Enrichment of anammox bacteria from three sludge sources for the startup of monosodium glutamate industrial wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Li-dong, Shen; An-hui, Hu; Ren-cun, Jin; Dong-qing, Cheng; Ping, Zheng; Xiang-yang, Xu; Bao-lan, Hu

    2012-01-15

    Three activated sludges from a landfill leachate treatment plant (S1), a municipal sewage treatment plant (S2) and a monosodium glutamate (MSG) wastewater treatment plant (S3) were used as inocula to enrich anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria for the startup of MSG industrial wastewater treatment system. After 360 days of cultivation using MSG wastewater, obvious anammox activity was observed in all three cultures. The maximum specific anammox activities of cultures S1, S2 and S3 were 0.11 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1), 0.09 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1) and 0.16 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1), respectively. Brownish-red anammox granules having diameters in the range of 0.2-1.0mm were visible in cultures S1 and S2, and large red granules having diameters in the range of 0.5-2.5mm were formed in culture S3 after 420 days of cultivation. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that Kuenenia organisms were the dominant anammox species in all three cultures. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anammox bacteria in cultures S1, S2 and S3 were 6.8 × 10(7) copies mL(-1), 9.4 × 10(7) copies mL(-1) and 7.5 × 10(8) copies mL(-1), respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that anammox cultivation from conventional activated sludges was highly possible using MSG wastewater. Thus the anammox process has possibility of applying to the nitrogen removal from MSG wastewater. PMID:22104770

  4. Changes in hippocampal synaptic functions and protein expression in monosodium glutamate-treated obese mice during development of glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Hojo, Yuki; Koyama, Hajime; Otsuka, Hayuma; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2015-05-01

    Glucose is the sole neural fuel for the brain and is essential for cognitive function. Abnormalities in glucose tolerance may be associated with impairments in cognitive function. Experimental obese model mice can be generated by an intraperitoneal injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 2 mg/g) once a day for 5 days from 1 day after birth. MSG-treated mice have been shown to develop glucose intolerance and exhibit chronic neuroendocrine dysfunction associated with marked cognitive malfunctions at 28-29  weeks old. Although hippocampal synaptic plasticity is impaired in MSG-treated mice, changes in synaptic transmission remain unknown. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance influenced cognitive function, synaptic properties and protein expression in the hippocampus. We demonstrated that MSG-treated mice developed glucose intolerance due to an impairment in the effectiveness of insulin actions, and showed cognitive impairments in the Y-maze test. Moreover, long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal synapses in hippocampal slices was impaired, and the relationship between the slope of extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potential and stimulus intensity of synaptic transmission was weaker in MSG-treated mice. The protein levels of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and GluA1 glutamate receptor subunits decreased in the CA1 region of MSG-treated mice. These results suggest that deficits in glutamatergic presynapses as well as postsynapses lead to impaired synaptic plasticity in MSG-treated mice during the development of glucose intolerance, though it remains unknown whether impaired LTP is due to altered inhibitory transmission. It may be important to examine changes in glucose tolerance in order to prevent cognitive malfunctions associated with diabetes. PMID:25851080

  5. Anorexigenic lipopeptides ameliorate central insulin signaling and attenuate tau phosphorylation in hippocampi of mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Nagelová, Veronika; Pirnik, Zdenko; Zemenová, Jana; Haluzík, Martin; Železná, Blanka; Galas, Marie-Christine; Maletínská, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that patients who suffer from metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obesity, have higher risks of cognitive dysfunction and of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Impaired insulin signaling in the brain could contribute to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which contain an abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein. This study aimed to determine whether potential tau hyperphosphorylation could be detected in an obesity-induced pre-diabetes state and whether anorexigenic agents could affect this state. We demonstrated that 6-month-old mice with monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity, which represent a model of obesity-induced pre-diabetes, had increased tau phosphorylation at Ser396 and Thr231 in the hippocampus compared with the controls, as determined by western blots. Two weeks of subcutaneous treatment with a lipidized analog of prolactin-releasing peptide (palm-PrRP31) or with the T2DM drug liraglutide, which both had a central anorexigenic effect, resulted in increased phosphorylation of the insulin cascade kinases PDK1 (Ser241), Akt (Thr308), and GSK-3β (Ser9). Furthermore, these drugs attenuated phosphorylation at Ser396, Thr231, and Thr212 of tau and of the primary tau kinases in the hippocampi of 6-month-old MSG-obese mice. We identified tau hyperphosphorylation in the obesity-induced pre-diabetes state in MSG-obese mice and demonstrated the beneficial effects of palm-PrRP31 and liraglutide, both of known central anorexigenic effects, on hippocampal insulin signaling and on tau phosphorylation. PMID:25624414

  6. Biochemical alterations during the obese-aging process in female and male monosodium glutamate (MSG)-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bautista, René J; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; Del C Escobar-Villanueva, María; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Fainstein, Mina Konigsberg; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual's health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  7. Monosodium Urate Activates Src/Pyk2/PI3 Kinase and Cathepsin Dependent Unconventional Protein Secretion From Human Primary Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Välimäki, Elina; Miettinen, Juho J.; Lietzén, Niina; Matikainen, Sampsa; Nyman, Tuula A.

    2013-01-01

    Monosodium urate (MSU) is an endogenous danger signal that is crystallized from uric acid released from injured cells. MSU is known to activate inflammatory response in macrophages but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained uncharacterized. Activated macrophages start to secrete proteins to activate immune response and to recruit other immune cells to the site of infection and/or tissue damage. Secretome characterization after activation of innate immune system is essential to unravel the details of early phases of defense responses. Here, we have analyzed the secretome of human primary macrophages stimulated with MSU using quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomics as well as high-throughput qualitative GeLC-MS/MS approach combining protein separation by SDS-PAGE and protein identification by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. Both methods showed that MSU stimulation induced robust protein secretion from lipopolysaccharide-primed human macrophages. Bioinformatic analysis of the secretome data showed that MSU stimulation strongly activates unconventional, vesicle mediated protein secretion. The unconventionally secreted proteins included pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and IL-18, interferon-induced proteins, and danger signal proteins. Also active forms of lysosomal proteases cathepsins were secreted on MSU stimulation, and cathepsin activity was essential for MSU-induced unconventional protein secretion. Additionally, proteins associated to phosphorylation events including Src family tyrosine kinases were increased in the secretome of MSU-stimulated cells. Our functional studies demonstrated that Src, Pyk2, and PI3 kinases act upstream of cathepsins to activate the overall protein secretion from macrophages. In conclusion, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of protein secretion pathways activated by MSU in human macrophages, and reveal a novel role for cathepsins and Src, Pyk2, PI3 kinases in the activation of

  8. Determination of Fissile Loadings onto Monosodium Titanate (MST) under Conditions Relevant to the Actinide Removal Process Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T

    2005-11-15

    This report describes the results of an experimental study to measure the sorption of fissile actinides on monosodium titanate (MST) at conditions relevant to operation of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP). The study examined the effect of a single contact of a large volume of radionuclide-spiked simulant solution with a small mass of MST. The volume of simulant to MST (8.5 L to 0.2 g of MST solids) was designed to mimic the maximum phase ratio that occurs between the multiple contacts of MST and waste solution and washing of the accumulated solids cycle of ARP. This work provides the following results. (1) After a contact time of {approx}2 weeks, we measured the following actinide loadings on the MST (average of solution and solids data), Pu: 2.79 {+-} 0.197 wt %, U: 14.0 {+-} 1.04 wt %, and Np: 0.839 {+-} 0.0178 wt %. (2) The plutonium and uranium loadings reported above are considerably higher than previously reported values. The higher loading result from the very high phase ratio and the high initial mass concentrations of uranium and plutonium. A separate upcoming document details the predicted values for this system versus the results. (3) The strontium DF values measured in these tests proved much lower than those reported previously with simulants having the same bulk chemical composition. The low strontium DF values reflect the very low initial mass concentration of strontium in this simulant (<100 {micro}g/L) compared to that in previous testing (> 600 {micro}g/L).

  9. Effect of NaCl/Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) Mixture on the Sensorial Properties and Quality Characteristics of Model Meat Products.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Byong-Soo; Lee, Jung-Gyu; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium chloride is an important ingredient added to most of foods which contributes to flavor enhancement and food preservation but excess intake of sodium chloride may also cause various diseases such as heart diseases, osteoporosis and so on. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a salty flavor enhancer on the quality and sensorial properties of the NaCl/MSG complex and actual food system. For characterizing the spray-dried NaCl/MSG complex, surface dimension, morphology, rheology, and saltiness intensity were estimated by increasing MSG (0-2.0%) levels at a fixed NaCl concentration (2.0%). MSG levels had no effect of the characteristics of the NaCl/MSG complex, although the addition of MSG increased the surface dimension of the NaCl/MSG complex significantly (p<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of MSG on enhancing the salty flavor was not observed in the solution of the NaCl/MSG complex. In the case of an actual food system, model meat products (pork patties) were prepared by replacing NaCl with MSG. MSG enhanced the salty flavor, thereby increasing overall acceptability of pork patties. Replacement of NaCl with MSG (<1.0%) did not result in negative sensorial properties of pork patties, although quality deterioration such as high cooking loss was found. Nevertheless, MSG had a potential application in meat product formulation as a salty flavor enhancer or a partial NaCl replacer when meat products were supplemented with binding agents. PMID:26761490

  10. Diclofenac-Choline Antioxidant Activity Investigated by means of Luminol Amplified Chemiluminescence of Human Neutrophil Bursts and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Braga, P C; Lattuada, N; Greco, V; Sibilia, V; Falchi, M; Bianchi, T; Dal Sasso, M

    2015-05-01

    A new diclofenac salt called diclofenac-choline (DC) has recently been proposed for the symptomatic treatment of oropharyngeal inflammatory processes and pain because its greater water solubility allows the use of high concentrations, which are useful when the contact time between the drug and the oropharyngeal mucosa is brief, as in the case of mouthwashes or spray formulations. The antioxidant activity of DC has not yet been investigated, and so the aim was to use luminol-amplified-chemiluminescence (LACL) to verify whether various concentrations of DC (1.48, 0.74 and 0.37 mg/mL for incubation times of 2, 4 and 8 min) interfere with oxygen and nitrogen radicals during the course of human neutrophils respiratory bursts; electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to investigate its direct antiradical (scavenger) activity. The EPR findings showed that DC has concentration-dependent scavenging activity against the ABTS, the DPPH, and the hydroxyl radicals, but no activity on superoxide anion, as has been previously reported in the case of other NSAIDs. LACL revealed an inhibitory effect that was statistically significant after only 2 min of incubation, and similar after 4 and 8 min. The effects on the peroxynitrite radical paralleled those observed in the previous test. High concentrations and short incubation times showed that there is no interference on PMN viability, and so the inhibitory findings must be attributed to the effect of the drug. The anti-inflammatory effects of DC cannot be attributed solely to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, but its effects on free radicals and neutrophil bursts suggest that they may contribute to its final therapeutic effect. PMID:24918344

  11. Towards chemiluminescence detection in micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve format: a proof of concept based on the reaction between Fe(II) and luminol in seawater.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo M; Grand, Maxime M; Ruzicka, Jaromir; Measures, Christopher I

    2015-02-01

    Micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve (µSI-LOV) is a well-established analytical platform for absorbance and fluorescence based assays but its applicability to chemiluminescence detection remains largely unexplored. In this work, we describe a novel fluidic protocol and two distinct strategies for photon collection that enable chemiluminescence detection using µSI-LOV for the first time. To illustrate this proof of concept, we selected the reaction between Fe(II) and luminol and developed a preliminary protocol for Fe(II) determinations in acidified seawater. The optimized fluidic strategy consists of holding 100 µL of the luminol reagent in a confined zone of the LOV and then displacing it with 50 µL of sample while monitoring the chemiluminescent product. Detection is achieved using two strategies: one based on a bifurcated optical fiber and the other based on a customized detection window created by mounting a photomultiplier tube atop of the LOV device. We show that detection is possible using both strategies but that the window strategy yields significantly enhanced sensitivity (355×) due to the larger detection area. In our final experimental conditions and using window detection, it was possible to achieve a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 nmol L(-1) and to quantify Fe(II) in acidified seawater samples up to 20.00 nmol L(-1) with high precision (RSD<6%). These analytical features combined with the long-term stability of luminol solution and the full automation and low reagent consumption make this approach a promising analytical tool for shipboard analysis of Fe(II). The intrinsic capacity of the LOV to operate at a low microliter level and to handle solid phases also opens up a new avenue for chemiluminescence applications. Moreover, this contribution shows that LOV can be a universal platform for optical detection, capable of absorbance, fluorescence and luminescence measurements in a single instrument setup. PMID:25435235

  12. Surgical removal of visceral fat decreases plasma free fatty acid and increases insulin sensitivity on liver and peripheral tissue in monosodium glutamate (MSG)-obese rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y W; Kim, J Y; Lee, S K

    1999-10-01

    In order to evaluate the role of visceral and subcutaneous fat tissue in insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, we measured the fasting levels of plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and insulin, glucose disappearance rate (Rd), and hepatic glucose production rate (HGP) after surgical removal of visceral (VF) or subcutaneous (SF) fat tissue in monosodium glutamate-obese (MSG-Ob) rats. Monosodium glutamate obesity was induced in rats by neonatal injection of MSG. Surgery to remove fat was done at 15 weeks of age. The experiments were done four weeks after the surgery. MSG-Ob rats showed increased levels of FFA, insulin, and HGP and decreased Rd compared to normal rats. In the VF group, the FFA level and HGP were decreased to normal values, Rd was partially normalized, but the level of insulin did not change significantly compared to MSG-Ob. In the SF group, FFA and Rd were partially normalized, but HGP was not suppressed significantly compared to MSG-Ob. These results suggest that visceral fat affects the insulin sensitivity of liver and FFA concentration more than subcutaneous fat; however, no significant difference was shown on whole body insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin concentration. PMID:10576150

  13. Diff Quik staining method for detection and identification of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluids

    PubMed Central

    Selvi, E; Manganelli, S; Catenaccio, M; De Stefano, R; Frati, E; Cucini, S; Marcolongo, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate whether the Diff Quik (DQ) staining method might prove useful in identifying monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals on permanent mounted stained slides.
METHODS—27 synovial fluid (SF) samples obtained from the knees of 21 patients with acute CPPD disease and 6 with acute gout were studied. Wet analysis for crystal detection and identification was performed within one hour of joint aspiration. In addition, 16 inflammatory synovial effusions obtained from patients with knee arthritis induced by non-crystalline inflammatory diseases were studied. For each SF, a DQ stained slide was analysed by two of the authors trained in SF analysis. The observers were blinded to the type of crystals present in the SF. Each slide was analysed by compensated polarised as well as transmitted light microscopy. An SF was considered positive if intracellular and/or extracellular crystals were clearly identified. In addition, the observer was asked to identify the type of the crystals using compensated polarised light microscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the DQ staining method were determined.
RESULTS—51 true positive and 28 true negative cases were correctly classified (39 CPPD samples, 12 MSU samples, 28 samples of crystal unrelated arthropathies). Overall, four false positive and three false negative cases were reported. In all the false positive cases, extracellular CPPD crystals were erroneously identified, whereas CPPD crystals present in the SF were not identified in the three false negative cases. All MSU specimens were correctly diagnosed. The overall specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy using DQ stained slides for crystal confirmation were respectively 87.5%, 94.4%, and 91.9%. The PPV was 92.7% and the NPV 90.3%. In particular, the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for CPPD detection were 90.9%, 92.9%, and 91

  14. Chitosan-induced Au/Ag nanoalloy dispersed in IL and application in fabricating an ultrasensitive glucose biosensor based on luminol-H₂O₂-Cu²⁺/IL chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Chaichi, M J; Alijanpour, S O

    2014-11-01

    A novel glucose biosensor based on the chemiluminescence (CL) detection of enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was constructed by one covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) in glutaraldehyde-functionalized glass cell. In following, chitosan-induced Au/Ag nanoparticles dispersed in ion liquid (IL) were synthesised and immobilized on it. Herein, chitosan molecules acted as both the reducing and stabilizing agent for the preparation of NPs and also, as a coupling agent GOD and Au/Ag alloy NPs. In addition to catalyze luminol CL reaction, these NPs offered excellent catalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide generation in enzymatic reaction between GOD and glucose. The used IL in fabrication of biosensor increased its stability. Also, IL alongside Cu(2+) accelerated enzymatic and CL reaction kinetic, and decreased luminol CL reaction optimum pH to 7.5 which would enable sensitive and precision determination of glucose. Under optimum condition, linear response range of glucose was found to be 1.0 × 10(-6)-7.5 × 10(-3)M, and detection limit was 4.0 × 10(-7)M. The CL biosensor exhibited good storage stability, i.e., 90% of its initial response was retained after 2 months storage at pH 7.0. The present CL biosensor has been applied satisfactory to analysis of glucose in real serum and urine samples. PMID:25086323

  15. Employment of 4-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenol as a signal enhancer of the chemiluminescent luminol-H2O2-horseradish peroxidase reaction for detection of hepatitis C virus in real samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Zhang, Lili; Fu, Chuanyun; Wang, Yunshan; Sun, Shanhui

    2015-12-01

    Highly sensitive detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in serum is a key method for diagnosing and classifying the extent of HCV infection. In this study, a p-phenol derivative, 4-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)phenol (4-TRP), was employed as an efficient enhancer of the luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) chemiluminescence (CL) system for detection of HCV. Compared with a traditional enhancer, 4-TRP strongly enhanced CL intensity with the effect of prolonging and stabilizing light emission. The developed CL system was applied to detecting HCV core antigen (HCV-cAg) using a sandwich structure inside microwells. Our experimental results showed that there was good linear relationship between CL intensity and HCV-cAg concentration in the 0.6-3.6 pg/mL range (R = 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 4.5-5.8% and 5.0-7.3%, respectively. In addition, sensitive determination of HCV-cAg in serum samples using the luminol-H2O2-HRP-4-TRP CL system was also feasible in clinical settings. PMID:25820800

  16. [Effect of long-term monosodium glutamate administration on structure and functional state of the stomach and body weight in rats].

    PubMed

    Falalieieva, T M; Kukhars'kyĭ, V M; Berehova, T V

    2010-01-01

    The influence of prolonged administration of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on basal gastric acid secretion, body weight and gastric mucosa in rats was studied. We found that 10-, 20-, 30-days feeding by MSG in doses 15 to 30 mg/kg (equivalent to I and 2 g/person) leads to erosive and ulcerative lesions of the gastric mucosa and an increased secretion of hydrochloric acid and an increased body weight. It is concluded that the stimulating effect of MSG on the basal secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach may be implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of acid-dependent diseases. An excessive consumption of MSG can cause a "Chinese Restaurant Syndrome" and gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers. Therefore, the maximum dose of MSG should be reconsidered taking into account its influence on the secretory capacity of the stomach. We also conclude that prolonged, excessive and systemic consumption of MSG causes obesity. PMID:20968043

  17. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE, AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-01-12

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal, and sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results from the development of an improved titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and effective capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  18. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATEPHASE II INTERIM REPORT FOR EXTERNAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Mary Thompson, M

    2006-08-31

    This document provides an interim summary report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST materials. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger laboratory scale, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and characterization of the modified MST. Key findings and conclusions include the following: (1) Samples of the modified MST prepared by Method 2 and Method 3 exhibited the best combination of strontium and actinide removal. (2) We selected Method 3 to scale up and test performance with actual waste solution. (3) We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using the Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. (4) Performance tests indicated successful scale-up to the 25-gram scale with excellent performance and reproducibility among each of the three batches. For example, the plutonium decontamination factors (6-hour contact time) for the modified MST samples averaged 13 times higher than that of the baseline MST sample at half the sorbent concentration (0.2 g L{sup -1} for modified MST versus 0.4 g L{sup -1} for baseline MST). (5) Performance tests with actual waste supernate demonstrated that the modified MST exhibited better strontium and plutonium removal performance than that of the baseline MST. For example, the decontamination factors for the modified MST measured 2.6 times higher for strontium and between 5.2 to 11 times higher for plutonium compared to the baseline MST sample. The modified MST did not exhibit improved neptunium removal performance over that of the baseline MST. (6) Two strikes of the modified MST provided increased removal of strontium and actinides from actual waste compared to a single strike. The improved performance

  19. FATE OF FISSILE MATERIAL BOUND TO MONOSODIUM TITANATE DURING COOPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF TANK 48H WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-08-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of {approx}34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to

  20. Determination of Montelukast in Plasma Using β - Cyclodextrins Coated on CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles in Luminol-H2O2 Chemiluminescence System Optimized by Doehlert Design.

    PubMed

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Bakhtiar, Alireza; Fatemi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-05-01

    A novel chemiluminescence method using β - cyclodextrins coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles is proposed for the chemiluminometric determination of montelukast in plasma. The effect of coated β - cyclodexterinon CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles in the chemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 system was investigated. It was found that β - cyclodexterin coated on CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles could greatly enhance the chemiluminescence of the luminol-H2O2 system. Doehlert design was applied in order to optimize the number of experiments to be carried out to ascertain the possible interactions between the parameters and their effects on the chemiluminescence emission intensity. This design was selected because the levels of each variable may vary in a very efficient way with few experiments. Doehlert design and response surface methodology have been employed for optimization pH and concentrations of the components. Results showed under the optimized experimental conditions, the relative CL intensity (ΔI) is increased linearly in the concentration range of 0.003-0.586 μgml(-1) of montelukast with limit of detection (LOD) 1.09 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) at S/N ratio of 3, limit of quantitative (LOQ) 3.59 × 10(-4) μgml(-1) and the relative standard deviation 2.63 %. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of montelukast in plasma of human body. Results specified that relative chemiluminescence intensity (ΔI) has good proportional with the montelukast concentration with R(2) = 0.99979. The test of the recovery efficiency for known amounts of montelukast was also performed, the recoveries range obtained from 98.2 to 103.3 %, with RSDs of <4 % indicated that the proposed method was reliable. PMID:26979057

  1. Synthesis and characterization of higher amino acid Schiff bases, as monosodium salts and neutral forms. Investigation of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding in all Schiff bases, antibacterial and antifungal activities of neutral forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güngör, Özlem; Gürkan, Perihan

    2014-09-01

    Schiff bases derived from 5-nitro-salicylaldehyde and 4-aminobutyric acid, 5-aminopentanoic acid and 6-aminohexanoic acid were synthesized both as monosodium salts (1a-3a) and neutral forms (1b-3b). The monosodium-Schiff bases were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H/13C NMR, IR, powder XRD, UV-vis spectra and conductivity measurements. The neutral-Schiff bases were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H/13C NMR, 2D NMR (HMQC), mass, IR, powder XRD, UV-vis spectra and conductivity measurements. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding and related tautomeric equilibria in all the Schiff bases were studied by UV-vis and 1H NMR spectra in solution. Additionally, the neutral-Schiff bases were screened against Staphylococcus aureus-EB18, S. aureus-ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli-ATCC 11230, Candida albicans-M3 and C. albicans-ATCC 16231.

  2. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    PubMed

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045. PMID:24768895

  3. Both Dietary Supplementation with Monosodium L-Glutamate and Fat Modify Circulating and Tissue Amino Acid Pools in Growing Pigs, but with Little Interactive Effect

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zemeng; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wu, Fei; Yao, Kang; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Tiejun; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients. Methods and Results Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets (basal diet, high fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG) were provided to growing pigs. The dietary supplementation with fat and MSG used alone and in combination were found to modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs. Both dietary fat and MSG modified the expression of gene related to amino acid transport in jejunum. Conclusions Both dietary fat and MSG clearly influenced amino acid content in tissues but in different ways. Both dietary fat and MSG enhance the absorption of amino acids in jejunum. However, there was little interaction between the effects of dietary fat and MSG. PMID:24465415

  4. Anorexigenic effect of cholecystokinin is lost but that of CART (Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript) peptide is preserved in monosodium glutamate obese mice.

    PubMed

    Zelezná, B; Maixnerová, J; Matysková, R; Haugvicová, R; Blokesová, D; Maletínská, L

    2009-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment of neonatal mice results in a selective damage to the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and development of obesity with increased adiposity at sustained body weight in the adulthood. Feeding pattern of the MSG obese mice is unusual. Our previous results showed that after 24-h fasting, MSG mice consumed negligible amount of food in several hours and therefore, it was impossible to register the effect of peptides attenuating food intake such as cholecystokinin (CCK) or cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide. To overcome this problem, two findings were used: firstly, orexigenic effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was attenuated both by CCK or CART peptide in lean fed mice and secondly, orexigenic effect of NPY was preserved in fed rats with MSG obesity. In this study, short-term food intake in fed lean and MSG obese C57BL/6 male mice was measured after simultaneous central administration of orexigenic NPY with either CART peptide or peripherally administered CCK. Anorexigenic action of exogenous CART peptide was preserved in MSG obese mice. On the other hand, satiety effect of exogenous CCK was completely lost in MSG obese mice. In conclusion, effective leptin signaling in ARC is necessary for satiety effect of CCK. PMID:19093718

  5. Lycopene modulates cholinergic dysfunction, Bcl-2/Bax balance, and antioxidant enzymes gene transcripts in monosodium glutamate (E621) induced neurotoxicity in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Kadry; Abouzed, Tarek; Nasr, Sherif

    2016-04-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on brain tissue and the relative ability of lycopene to avert these neurotoxic effects were investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups: group I, untreated (placebo); group II, injected with MSG (5 mg·kg(-1)) s.c.; group III, gastrogavaged with lycopene (10 mg·kg(-1)) p.o.; and group IV received MSG with lycopene with the same mentioned doses for 30 days. The results showed that MSG induced elevation in lipid peroxidation marker and perturbation in the antioxidant homeostasis and increased the levels of brain and serum cholinesterase (ChE), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes BB (CPK-BB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and gene expression were increased and glutathione content was reduced in the MSG-challenged rats, and these effects were ameliorated by lycopene. Furthermore, MSG induced apoptosis in brain tissues reflected in upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax while lycopene upregulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Our results indicate that lycopene appears to be highly effective in relieving the toxic effects of MSG by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inducing modifications in the activity of cholinesterase and antioxidant pathways. Interestingly, lycopene protects brain tissue by inhibiting apoptosis signaling induced by MSG. PMID:26900785

  6. Long-term ingestion of monosodium L-glutamate did not induce obesity, dyslipidemia or insulin resistance: a two-generation study in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehiro; Kawamata, Yasuko; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Smriga, Miro; Sakai, Ryosei

    2013-01-01

    The use of monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a flavor enhancer spans more than 100 y and there are many studies indicating the safety of general use of MSG. Recently, however, Collison et al. (2010) reported a two-generation study with a low dose of MSG that caused abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in mice. Due to public health concerns over metabolic syndrome, their report merits careful analysis. The present study attempted to repeat the Collison et al. findings. Groups of male or female C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet or one supplemented with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at a level of 20%. Drinking water control was provided or treatment groups were given 0.064% MSG solution (w/v). Diets and MSG administration continued throughout mating and during gestation and lactation periods. To further investigate the effects of ingestion of MSG, the offspring were continued on the same dosing conditions until they reached 32 wk of age. MSG administration in mice fed a normal or a HFCS diet throughout gestation and for 32 wk after birth, did not affect growth, girth size, abdominal fat weight or body composition. This study reports that MSG did not trigger insulin resistance, dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis, regardless of the diet, not reproducing the results of the above-mentioned study (Collison et al., 2010). PMID:23727643

  7. Effects of deer bone extract on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and cartilage-related genes in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunji; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Park, Yooheon; Ahn, Chang Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo Hyun; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2014-01-01

    Deer bone extract has the potential to relieve the discomfort or the articular cartilaginous damage associated with osteoarthritic (OA) and may be useful as a natural supplement for OA treatment without serious side effects. We analyzed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine and cartilage-related genes in monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA rats. Increases in the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly inhibited by the administration of deer bone extract (p<0.05). Decreases in the expression of collagen type II (COL2) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) mRNAs in the cartilage were significantly inhibited by deer bone extract treatment (p<0.05). The deer bone extract significantly suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mRNAs in the cartilage. The deer bone extract induced the up-regulation of COL2 and TIMP mRNAs and the down-regulation of MMP mRNAs by suppressing the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs. PMID:25273135

  8. Neuroendocrine, metabolic, and immune functions during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in monosodium L-glutamate-damaged, hyperadipose male rat.

    PubMed

    Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andrés; Spinedi, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    In rats, neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) induces several metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, which result in hyperadiposity. No data exist, however, regarding neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute endotoxemia in the MSG-damaged rat. We studied the consequences of MSG treatment during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress. Neonatal male rats were treated with MSG or vehicle (controls, CTR) and studied at age 90 days. Pituitary, adrenal, adipo-insular axis, immune, metabolic and gonadal functions were explored before and up to 5 h after single sub-lethal i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg). Our results showed that, during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in MSG rats: (1) the corticotrope-adrenal, leptin, insulin and triglyceride responses were higher than in CTR rats, (2) pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha) cytokine response was impaired and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine response was normal, and (3) changes in peripheral estradiol and testosterone levels after LPS varied as in CTR rats. These data indicate that metabolic and neroendocrine-immune functions are altered in MSG-damaged rats. Our study also suggests that the enhanced corticotrope-corticoadrenal activity in MSG animals could be responsible, at least in part, for the immune and metabolic derangements characterizing hypothalamic obesity. PMID:18382067

  9. Zisheng Shenqi decoction ameliorates monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jieru; Xie, Ying; Sui, Fangyu; Liu, Chunhong; Du, Xiaowei; Liu, Chenggang; Feng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Deyou

    2016-01-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicinal theories on gouty arthritis, Zisheng Shenqi decoction (ZSD), a novel Chinese medicinal formula, was developed due to its multiple functions, including reinforcing renal function, promoting blood circulation and relieving pain. In the present study, the effect of ZSD on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were examined. The data from these investigations showed that the injection of MSU crystals into the ankle joint cavity caused significant elevations in ankle swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration into the synovium, whereas these abnormal changes were markedly suppressed by oral administration of ZSD (40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Mechanically, ZSD treatment prevented MSU crystal-induced inflammatory responses, as evidenced by downregulation in the expression levels of NACHT domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein (NALP) 1 and NALP6 inflammasomes, decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, and inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB. In addition, ZSD administration markedly enhanced the anti-oxidant status in MSU crystal-induced rats by the increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and the levels of reduced glutathione. These results indicated that ZSD effectively prevented MSU crystal-induced gouty arthritis via modulating multiple anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory pathways, suggesting a promising herbal formula for the prevention and treatment of gouty arthritis. PMID:27432278

  10. The use of concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater as a conditioning agent for adjusting acidity and minimizing ammonia volatilization in livestock manure composting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Kong, Haimin; Lu, Beibei; Wang, Jibing; Xie, Yuan; Fang, Ping

    2015-09-15

    In this study, concentrated monosodium glutamate waste (CMGW) was proposed as a conditioning agent to adjust acidity and decrease ammonia (NH3) volatilization in thermophilic aerobic composting based on two incubation experiments. The results showed that with the addition of CMGW, NH3 volatilization of compost mixture under high temperature phase decreased significantly and pH met the current national standard within 5.5-8.5. When CMGW dosage increased to 2% (v/w), the decrease in NH3 volatilization was as high as 78.9%. This effect was enhanced by repeated application of CMGW. Furthermore, although the electrical conductivity increased with the application of CMGW, both the germination index and the microbial respiration of compost mixture implied that CMGW had no negative effects on the maturity of compost, instead, a comprehensive maturity might be accelerated. It was concluded that CMGW was an optional conditioning agent for thermophilic aerobic composting of livestock manure in regards to adjusting acidity and preventing nitrogen loss from NH3 volatilization. PMID:26164271