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Sample records for gypsy moth

  1. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  2. HISTORICAL GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION FREQUENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gypsy moth populations may exist for many years at low densities such that it may be difficult to find any life stages. Then, for reasons that are not completely understood, populations may rise to very high densities and substantial defoliation of the canopy may occur. These da...

  3. FUTURE RISK OF GYPSY MOTH DEFOLIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the suitable habitit combined with forest density, and adjusted by prefered species basal area and the predicited geographic pattern of defoliation can be used to predict future potential for gypsy moth defoliation.

  4. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  5. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs. PMID:26371156

  6. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  7. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  8. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  9. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  10. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  11. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  12. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  13. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  14. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  15. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  17. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  18. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth. PMID:23016284

  19. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics. PMID:26201216

  20. Gypsy moths: Geographic distribution and control. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). The occurrence, population dynamics, reproduction, environmental impact, and controls of gypsy moths are considered. Methods of control include use of insecticide, natural predators, introduced diseases, and local trapping. Economic impacts as well as environmental disruption due to major infestation in hardwood forests by this introduced pest are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

    1997-02-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

  2. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  3. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  4. Computer analysis and mapping of gypsy moth levels in Pennsylvania using LANDSAT-1 digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effectiveness of using LANDSAT-1 multispectral digital data and imagery, supplemented by ground truth and aerial photography, was investigated as a new method of surveying gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar (L.)) (Lepidoptera; Lymantriidae) defoliation, which has greatly increased in Pennsylvania in recent years. Since the acreage and severity of gypsy moth defoliation reaches a peak from mid-June through the first few days of July, the July 8, 1973, LANDSAT-1 scene was chosen for analysis. Results indicate that LANDSAT-1 data can be used to discriminate between defoliated and healthy vegetation in Pennsylvania and that digital processing methods can be used to map the extent and degree of defoliation.

  5. Assessing MODIS-based Products and Techniques for Detecting Gypsy Moth Defoliation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    The project showed potential of MODIS and VIIRS time series data for contributing defoliation detection products to the USFS forest threat early warning system. This study yielded the first satellite-based wall-to-wall 2001 gypsy moth defoliation map for the study area. Initial results led to follow-on work to map 2007 gypsy moth defoliation over the eastern United States (in progress). MODIS-based defoliation maps offer promise for aiding aerial sketch maps either in planning surveys and/or adjusting acreage estimates of annual defoliation. More work still needs to be done to assess potential of technology for "now casts"of defoliation.

  6. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand’s North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand’s climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  7. THE EFFECT OF BACULOVIRUS INFECTION ON ECDYSTEROID TITER IN GYPSY MOTH LARVAE (LYMANTRIA DISPAR).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insect baculovirus carries a gene refered to as egt. This gene encodes an enzyme known as ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyl transferase which catalyzes the sugar conjugation of ecdysteroids. Using a gypsy moth embryonic cell line EGT activity of Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  8. VIRUS TRANSMISSION IN GYPSY MOTHS IS NOT A SIMPLE MASS ACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used the nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), to test one of the basic assumptions of most models of disease dynamics, that the rate of horizontal transmission is directly proportional to the product of the densiti...

  9. Developing Effective Brochures for Increasing Knowledge of Environmental Problems: The Case of the Gypsy Moth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charlotte F.; Witter, John A.

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational brochures in increasing participants' knowledge about the environmental problem of gypsy moth infestations and associated action strategies. Results suggest that brochures rated high in communication effectiveness were most useful in increasing knowledge. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/MDH)

  10. Transcriptome of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which...

  11. Survival of diverse bacillus thuringiensis strains in gypsy moth (Lepidotera: Lymantriidae) is correlated with urease production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium that can kill a variety of pest insects, but seldom causes epizootics because it replicates poorly in insects. By attempting to repeatedly pass lepidopteran-active B. thuringiensis strains through gypsy moth larvae, we found that only those str...

  12. Risk assessment in the face of a changing environment: gypsy moth and climate change in Utah.

    PubMed

    Logan, J A; Régnière, J; Gray, D R; Munson, A S

    2007-01-01

    The importance of efficaciously assessing the risk for introduction and establishment of pest species is an increasingly important ecological and economic issue. Evaluation of climate is fundamental to determining the potential success of an introduced or invasive insect pest. However, evaluating climatic suitability poses substantial difficulties; climate can be measured and assessed in a bewildering array of ways. Some physiological filter, in essence a lens that focuses climate through the requirements and constraints of a potential pest introduction, is required. Difficulties in assessing climate suitability are further exacerbated by the effects of climate change. Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) is an exotic, tree-defoliating insect that is frequently introduced into the western United States. In spite of an abundance of potential host species, these introductions have yet to result in established populations. The success of eradication efforts and the unsuccessful establishment of many detected and undetected introductions may be related to an inhospitable climate. Climatic suitability for gypsy moth in the western United States, however, is potentially improving, perhaps rapidly, due to a general warming trend that began in the mid 1970s and continues today. In this work, we describe the application of a physiologically based climate suitability model for evaluating risk of gypsy moth establishment on a landscape level. Development of this risk assessment system first required amassing databases that integrated the gypsy moth climatic assessment model, with host species distributions, and climate (historical, present, and future). This integrated system was then used to evaluate climate change scenarios for native host species in Utah, with the result that risk of establishment will dramatically increase during the remainder of the 21st century under reasonable climate change scenarios. We then applied the risk assessment system to several case histories of

  13. Semipermissive replication of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica in a gypsy moth cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.; Dougherty, E.M.; Weiner, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Several gypsy moth cell lines have been previously described as nonpermissive for the multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica (AcMNPV). In this report, the authors demonstrate the semipermissive infection of a gypsy moth cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y, with AcMNPV. IPLB-LD-652Y cells infected with AcMNPV produced classic cytopathic effects but failed to yield infectious progeny virus. Results of experiments employing DNA-DNA dot hybridization suggested that AcMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated from 8 to 12 h postinfection (p.i.), continued at a maximum rate from 12 to 20 h p.i., and declined from 20 to 36 h p.i. The rate of AcMNPV DNA synthesis approximated that observed in the permissive TN-368 cell line. AcMNPV-infected IPLB-LD-652Y cells, pulse-labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine at various time intervals p.i. and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, revealed four virus-induced proteins, one novel to the semipermissive system and three early ..cap alpha.. proteins, synthesized from 1 to 20 h p.i. Thereafter, both host and viral protein synthesis was completely suppressed. These results suggest that AcMNPV adsorbed, penetrated, and initiated limited macromolecular synthesis in the semipermissive gypsy moth cell line. However, the infection cycle was restricted during the early phase of AcMNPV replication.

  14. Influences on individual initiative to use gypsy moth control in New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jeffrey D.; Lindsay, Bruce E.

    1993-11-01

    Socioeconomic, demographic, and attitudinal factors likely to influence individual initiative to use control measures against gypsy moth infestation in New Hampshire are examined. Data were acquired through a mail survey from 629 individuals in three targeted towns: Bow, Conway, and Exeter. Using logit regression analysis, numerous variables are shown to be statistically significant in influencing an individual's willingness to use control measures. The influencing factors include: the individual knowing the difference between the gypsy moth caterpillar and the eastern tent caterpillar; the individual being a homeowner rather than a renter; the number of acres of land accompanying the individual's dwelling; the number of trees on the individual's property; the individual's gender; and the individual's level of income. Aesthetic damage and the nuisance caused by gypsy moth infestation were the primary reasons for individuals to use control measures. The results from this study indicate that the motivation behind an individual's initiative to use control measures is influenced by diverse and varying factors. The models, methodology, and results as applied and presented here are exploratory in nature, yet could prove informative for researchers seeking a greater understanding of the interaction between humans and insect pests.

  15. A Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Screening Gypsy Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in the United States for Evidence of an Asian Genotype.

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Barr, N B; Braswell, W E; Martinez, M; Ledezma, L A; Molongoski, J; Mastro, V; Schuenzel, E L

    2015-10-01

    European gypsy moth populations (Lymantria dispar L.) are well established and a proven destructive force in hardwood trees throughout the United States and Canada. Introduction of the exotic Asian gypsy moth into North America would be even more impactful, as Asian gypsy moth populations have wider host ranges, and are capable of naturally dispersing more rapidly due to female flight ability. To support early detection and exclusion of Asian gypsy moth, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) uses molecular techniques to screen moths trapped in North America for evidence of common Asian genotype. In order to strengthen U.S. domestic capacity to screen moths quickly and efficiently, we report a real-time PCR assay for this pest. A probe system using TaqMan 5' nuclease chemistry is reported for detection of an allele associated with common Asian gypsy moth genotypes. The targeted allele is located at the nuclear FS1 locus currently used by the USDA in conventional PCR tests to screen for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introductions or introgression. The diagnostic probe is successfully multiplexed with a conserved 18S probe system to detect reaction failure due to poor sample quality or quantity. The specificity, sensitivity, and repeatability of the FS1-18S multiplex real-time PCR assay were tested on laboratory-reared and field-collected moths to demonstrate diagnostic utility. Implications of the new assay as a screening tool for evidence of Asian gypsy moth introgression and introduction are discussed. PMID:26453734

  16. The cost of slowing the spread of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Mayo, Jefferson H; Straka, Thomas J; Leonard, Donna S

    2003-10-01

    Beginning in 1992, the Slow The Spread (STS) pilot project was initiated to target gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) spread rate reduction by controlling populations in the transition zone. The project uses intensive monitoring techniques, with pheromone-baited sticky moth traps, to detect low-level populations and target them for eradication. The primary objective of the pilot project was to evaluate the feasibility of using integrated pest management techniques to slow the spread of gypsy moths over a large geographical area. In this study, the cost of STS pilot project activities in 1993-1995 was investigated. A cost accounting system was developed and used as a framework to collect the cost data and to investigate cost patterns and characteristics. Total expenditures of STS activities for 1993-1995 were 7,685.2 million dollars. Per unit cost was 49.67 dollars per trap with the direct cost component being 35.03 dollars per trap. Trapper labor and vehicle expense accounted for approximately 90% of this direct cost. Per unit cost for treatment activities was found to average 27.86 dollars per treated acre. In general, the STS pilot project is labor intensive, specifically the trapping component. From 1993-1995, 59% of total project expenditures were spent on trapping activities, 28% on pesticide treatments, and 13% on data management. A trapper productivity rate regression model is described. PMID:14650517

  17. Disulfide connectivity and reduction in pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honson, Nicolette S.; Plettner, Erika

    2006-06-01

    Males of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, are attracted by a pheromone released by females. Pheromones are detected by olfactory neurons housed in specialized sensory hairs located on the antennae of the male moth. Once pheromone molecules enter the sensilla lymph, a highly abundant pheromone-binding protein (PBP) transports the molecule to the sensory neuron. The PBPs are members of the insect odorant-binding protein family, with six conserved cysteine residues. In this study, the disulfide bond connectivities of the pheromone-binding proteins PBP1 and PBP2 from the gypsy moth were found to be cysteines 19-54, 50-109, and 97-118 for PBP1, and cysteines 19-54, 50-110, and 97-119 for PBP2, as determined by cyanylation reactions and cyanogen bromide chemical cleavage. We have discovered that the second disulfide linkage is the most easily reduced of the three, and this same linkage is missing among four cysteine-containing insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). We are the first to identify the unique steric and electronic properties of this second disulfide linkage.

  18. Stand-damage model: A component of the gypsy moth life system model (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Stand-Damage Model (a component of the Gypsy Moth Life System Model) simulates the growth of a mixed hardwood forest and incorporates the effects of defoliation by gypsy moth or tree harvesting as prescribed by the user. It can be used to assess the damage from expected defoliation, view the differences between various degrees of defoliation, and describe the effects of defoliation on a standard under user-defined silvicultural prescriptions and defoliation scenarios. The user`s guide provides the information necessary to install and use the model software on DOS microcomputers. A reference section provides a more experienced user with a structure map of the system.

  19. Tracking changes in the susceptibility of forest land infested with gypsy moth. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gansner, D.A.; Quimby, J.W.; King, S.L.; Arner, S.L.; Drake, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    The report questions the forest land subject to intensive outbreaks of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) which become less susceptible to defoliation. A model for estimating the lifelihood of gypsy moth defoliation has been developed and validated. It was applied to forest-inventory plot data to quantity trends in the susceptibility of forest land in south-central Pennsylvania during a period of intensive infestation. Results show that even though susceptibility of the region's forest apparently has declined, the potential for future infestations remains relatively high.

  20. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, K. L.; Tobin, P. C.; Thistle, H. W.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions.

  1. Interpretation of gypsy moth frontal advance using meteorology in a conditional algorithm.

    PubMed

    Frank, K L; Tobin, P C; Thistle, H W; Kalkstein, Laurence S

    2013-05-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a non-native species that continues to invade areas in North America. It spreads generally through stratified dispersal where local growth and diffusive spread are coupled with long-distance jumps ahead of the leading edge. Long-distance jumps due to anthropogenic movement of life stages is a well-documented spread mechanism. Another mechanism is the atmospheric transport of early instars and adult males, believed to occur over short distances. However, empirical gypsy moth population data continue to support the possibility of alternative methods of long-range dispersal. Such dispersal events seemed to have occurred in the mid- to late-1990s with spread across Lake Michigan to Wisconsin. Such dispersal would be against the prevailing wind flow for the area and would have crossed a significant physical barrier (Lake Michigan). The climatology of the region shows that vigorous cyclones can result in strong easterly winds in the area at the time when early instars are present. It is hypothesized that these storms would enable individuals to be blown across the Lake and explain the appearance of new population centers observed at several locations on the western shore of Lake Michigan nearly simultaneously. A synoptic climatology model coupled with population dynamics data from the area was parameterized to show an association between transport events and population spread from 1996 to 2007. This work highlights the importance of atmospheric transport events relative to the invasion dynamics of the gypsy moth, and serves as a model for understanding this mechanism of spread in other related biological invasions. PMID:22842865

  2. Chemical modulators of the innate immune response alter gypsy moth larval susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The gut comprises an essential barrier that protects both invertebrate and vertebrate animals from invasion by microorganisms. Disruption of the balanced relationship between indigenous gut microbiota and their host can result in gut bacteria eliciting host responses similar to those caused by invasive pathogens. For example, ingestion of Bacillus thuringiensis by larvae of some species of susceptible Lepidoptera can result in normally benign enteric bacteria exerting pathogenic effects. Results We explored the potential role of the insect immune response in mortality caused by B. thuringiensis in conjunction with gut bacteria. Two lines of evidence support such a role. First, ingestion of B. thuringiensis by gypsy moth larvae led to the depletion of their hemocytes. Second, pharmacological agents that are known to modulate innate immune responses of invertebrates and vertebrates altered larval mortality induced by B. thuringiensis. Specifically, Gram-negative peptidoglycan pre-treated with lysozyme accelerated B. thuringiensis-induced killing of larvae previously made less susceptible due to treatment with antibiotics. Conversely, several inhibitors of the innate immune response (eicosanoid inhibitors and antioxidants) increased the host's survival time following ingestion of B. thuringiensis. Conclusions This study demonstrates that B. thuringiensis infection provokes changes in the cellular immune response of gypsy moth larvae. The effects of chemicals known to modulate the innate immune response of many invertebrates and vertebrates, including Lepidoptera, also indicate a role of this response in B. thuringiensis killing. Interactions among B. thuringiensis toxin, enteric bacteria, and aspects of the gypsy moth immune response may provide a novel model to decipher mechanisms of sepsis associated with bacteria of gut origin. PMID:20423490

  3. Impact of Entomophaga maimaiga (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) on outbreak gypsy moth populations (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): the role of weather.

    PubMed

    Reilly, James R; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Plymale, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The fungal pathogen Entomophaga maimaiga Humber, Shimazu, and Soper is prevalent in gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] populations throughout North America. To understand how weather-related variables influence gypsy moth-E. maimaiga interactions in the field, we measured fungal infection rates at 12 sites in central Pennsylvania over 3 yr, concurrently measuring rainfall, soil moisture, humidity, and temperature. Fungal mortality was assessed using both field-collected larvae and laboratory-reared larvae caged on the forest floor. We found significant positive effects of moisture-related variables (rainfall, soil moisture, and relative humidity) on mortality due to fungal infection in both data sets, and significant negative effects of temperature on the mortality of field-collected larvae. Lack of a clear temperature relationship with the mortality of caged larvae may be attributable to differential initiation of infection by resting spores and conidia or to microclimate effects. These relationships may be helpful in understanding how gypsy moth dynamics vary across space and time, and in forecasting how the gypsy moth and fungus will interact as they move into warmer or drier areas, or new weather conditions occur due to climate change. PMID:24805137

  4. Possible role of ozone in tree defoliation by the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffords, M.R.; Endress, A.G.

    1984-10-01

    Third-instar gypsy moth larvae were used to assess their feeding preference for white oak foliage which had been exposed to three concentrations of ozone. In separate experiments the insects preferred to feed on plant material exposed to the highest concentration of ozone (15 pphm). However, plant material exposed to the median concentration (9 pphm) was less preferred than the control (ambient air), which indicated a change in the chemistry of the foliage, making it less suitable as a host plant. A further experiment showed that this switch from preference to lack of preference occurred between 6 and 9 pphm ozone and reversed itself between 9 and 12 pphm.

  5. Mapping Historic Gypsy Moth Defoliation with MODIS Satellite Data: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Ryan, Robert E.; Smooth, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a project, the goal of which is to study the potential of MODIS data for monitoring historic gypsy moth defoliation. A NASA/USDA Forest Service (USFS) partnership was formed to perform the study. NASA is helping USFS to implement satellite data products into its emerging Forest Threat Early Warning System. The latter system is being developed by the USFS Eastern and Western Forest Threat Assessment Centers. The USFS Forest Threat Centers want to use MODIS time series data for regional monitoring of forest damage (e.g., defoliation) preferably in near real time. The study's methodology is described, and the results of the study are shown.

  6. Interactions between an injected polydnavirus and per os baculovirus in gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, V; Podgwaite, J D; Zerillo, R; Taylor, P; Fuester, R

    2013-10-01

    Larval gypsy moths, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) were co-infected with the L. dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) and the Cotesia melanoscela (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) polydnavirus (CmeBV). CmeBV was given along with a parasitoid egg and calyx products in a stinging event, or in the form of an injection of calyx-derived extract. LdMNPV was delivered per os, integrated into artificial diet. Mortality from all sources was recorded over the subsequent three-week period. Neither parasitism nor injections of purified CmeBV with toxin had any effect on the amount of mortality caused by concurrent challenges with LdMNPV. PMID:23933012

  7. Gypsy moths: Pest control research. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning control and research regarding gypsy moths or lymantria dispar. Both natural and synthetic controls are discussed, including parasites, viral diseases, fungal diseases, bird predation, bacterial diseases, pheromone trapping, insecticides, and physical and chemical localized protection. Laboratory and field studies on sex pheromones, environmental effects on life cycles, effects of feeding behavior, plant-insect interactions, and other research relating to the control of this forest pest are considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Monitoring the defoliation of hardwood forests in Pennsylvania using LANDSAT. [gypsy moth surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dottavio, C. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Williams, D. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    An automated system for conducting annual gypsy moth defoliation surveys using LANDSAT MSS data and digital processing techniques is described. A two-step preprocessing procedure was developed that uses multitemporal data sets representing forest canopy conditions before and after defoliation to create a digital image in which all nonforest cover types are eliminated or masked out of a LANDSAT image that exhibits insect defoliation. A temporal window for defoliation assessment was identified and a statewide data base was established. A data management system to interface image analysis software with the statewide data base was developed and a cost benefit analysis of this operational system was conducted.

  9. Acquisition and structuring of midgut bacterial communities in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-06-01

    Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model to investigate interactions between egg mass and environmental sources of bacteria on larval midgut communities. Egg masses were collected from several wild and laboratory populations, and the effects of diet, initial egg mass community, and internal host environment were evaluated using 454 16S-rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Wild populations were highly diverse, while laboratory-maintained egg masses were associated with few operational taxonomic units. As larvae developed, their midgut bacterial communities became more similar to each other and the consumed diet despite initial differences in egg mass-associated bacteria. Subsequent experiments revealed that while midgut membership was more similar to bacteria associated with diet than with egg mass-associated bacteria, we were unable to detect distinct, persistent differences attributable to specific host plants. The differences between foliar communities and midgut communities of larvae that ingested them were owing to relative changes in populations of several bacteria phylotypes. We conclude that gypsy moth has a relatively characteristic midgut bacterial community that is reflective of, but ultimately distinct from, its foliar diet. This work demonstrates that environmental acquisition of diverse microbes can lead to similar midgut bacterial assemblages, underscoring the importance of host physiological environment in structuring bacterial communities. PMID:24780292

  10. Transcriptome of the Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Michael E; Blackburn, Michael B; Kuhar, Daniel; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of 49,613 assembled transcript sequences, of which 838, 1,248 and 3,305 were respectively partitioned into high-, mid- and low-quality tiers on the basis of homology information. Digital gene expression profiles suggested genes differentially expressed at 24 hours post infection, and qRT-PCR analyses were performed for verification. The differentially expressed genes primarily associated with digestive function, including α-amylase, lipase and carboxypeptidase; immune response, including C-type lectin 4; developmental genes such as arylphorin; as well as a variety of binding proteins: cellular retinoic acid binding protein (lipid-binding), insulin-related peptide binding protein (protein-binding) and ovary C/EBPg transcription factor (nucleic acid-binding). This is the first study conducted to specifically investigate gypsy moth response to a bacterial infection challenge using large-scale sequencing technologies, and the results highlight important genes that could be involved in biopesticide resistance development or could serve as targets for biologically-based control mechanisms of this insect pest. PMID:23658687

  11. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-Qing; Sun, Shuang-Yan; Pu, Min

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern. PMID:23951339

  12. Influence of weather on the synchrony of gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) outbreaks in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M.

    1995-10-01

    Outbreaks of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), were partially synchronous across New England states (Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont) from 1938 to 1992. To explain this synchrony, we investigated the Moran effect, a hypothesis that local population oscillations, which result form similar density-dependent mechanisms operating at time lags, may be synchronized over wide areas by exposure to common weather patterns. We also investigated the theory of climatic release, which ostulates that outbreaks are triggered by climatic factors favorable for population growth. Time series analysis revealed defoliation series in 2 states as 1st-order autoregressive processes and the other 2 as periodic 2nd-order autoregressive processes. Defoliation residuals series computed using the autoregressive models for each state were cross correlated with series of weather variables recorded in the respective states. The weather variables significantly correlated with defoliation residuals in all 4 states were minimum temperature and precipitation in mid-December in the same gypsy moth generation and minimum temperature in mid- to late July of the previous generation. These weather variables also were correlated strongly among the 4 states. The analyses supported the predictions of the Moran effect and suggest the common weather may synchronize local populations so as to produce pest outbreaks over wide areas. We did not find convincing evidence to support the theory of climatic release. 41 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Suitability of north American tree species to the gypsy moth: A summary of field and laboratory tests. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Muzika, R.M.; Montgomery, M.E.; Young, R.

    1995-09-01

    As the gypsy moth expands its range into new portions of the United States, There is a need to predict which tree species will be attacked by this defoliating insect. There have been several studies describing feeding preferences of the gypsy moth, but these results have not been summarized in a single list. We report and summarize all of the major tests of foliage suitability to gypsy moth is a trait that is correlated among closely related species. As a result, it is possible to extrapolate foliage suitability of North American tree species for which no screenings have been performed. A list of suitability as suscepible, resistant, or immune.

  14. Detoxication activity in the gypsy moth: Effects of host CO[sub 2] and NO[sub 3][sup [minus

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Jung, S.M.; Feuker, A.M. )

    1993-02-01

    The authors investigated the effects of host species and resource (carbon dioxide, nitrate) availability on activity of detoxication enzymes in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Larvae were fed foliage from quaking aspen or sugar maple grown under ambient or elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2], with low or high soil NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  15. Transcriptome of the lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) larval midgut and its response to infection by bacillus thuringiensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptomic profiles of the serious lepidopteran insect pest Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) were characterized in the larval midgut in response to infection by Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a biopesticide commonly used for its control in nature. RNA-Seq approaches were used to define a set of ...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of the Strain of Lymantria dispar Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Found in the Gypsy Moth Biopesticide Virin-ENSh.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    We report the genome sequence of an alphabaculovirus from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) biopesticide Virin-ENSh. The genome sequence is 161,712 bp, and its structure and sequence similarity indicate that the virus used in Virin-ENSh is a strain of the species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. PMID:25593255

  17. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates of...

  18. Use of a secondary host by non-outbreak populations of the gypsy moth. [Pinus rigida; Quercus spp; Lymantria dispar

    SciTech Connect

    Rossiter, M.

    1987-08-01

    Oaks are the favored host of gypsy moths in the northeastern US, although the herbivore expands its host range dramatically during an outbreak. Pitch pine, a secondary host because of its unacceptability for early development, was found to be frequently used for oviposition in oak-pitch pine forests with non-outbreak populations. This observation led to the study of ecological and behavioral factors that can contribute to the use of a secondary host under low-density conditions by an irruptive herbivore species. A series of manipulative field and laboratory experiments plus a study of natural history provided data on the pattern of pitch pine use during the life cycle of the gypsy moth, the effect of pitch pine on larval growth, and the differential impact of natural enemies depending on host use. It was found that: 1) egg masses occurred far more frequently on pitch pine than was expected based on the frequency of pitch pine in forests with low-density gypsy moth populations; 2) in the laboratory, early-instar larvae could not survive on pitch pine while late-instar larvae grew well; 3) in the field, larvae began to use pitch pine to feed and rest after the onset of the fourth instar. Compared to oak, 4) egg masses on pitch pine experienced less parasitism; 5) the microhabitat of pitch pine held less nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV), a major mortality agent of the gypsy moth; 6) individuals hatching from eggs laid on pitch pine were less infected with NPV; and 7) larvae dosed with a known amount of NPV survived longer when feeding on pitch pine foliage. The use of pitch pine by individuals in low-density gypsy moth populations appeared to be beneficial and may have an important effect on population dynamics. The mobility associated with host switching by late-instar larvae and with dispersal by first-instar larvae oviposited on unacceptable food may represent an important mechanism for host-range extension.

  19. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents: DEET, IR3535, and picaridin.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Jillian L; Barski, Sharon A; Seen, Christina M; Dickens, Joseph C; Shields, Vonnie D C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

  20. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Gypsy Moth Larvae to Insect Repellents: DEET, IR3535, and Picaridin

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Barski, Sharon A.; Seen, Christina M.; Dickens, Joseph C.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensilla on the maxillary palps of gypsy moth larvae, and known to be sensitive to feeding deterrents, also responds to the insect repellents DEET, IR3535, and picaridin. These repellents did not elicit responses in the lateral styloconic sensilla. Moreover, behavioral studies demonstrated that each repellent deterred feeding. This is the first study to show perception of insect repellents by the gustatory system of a lepidopteran larva and suggests that detection of a range of bitter or aversive compounds may be a broadly conserved feature among insects. PMID:24955823

  1. Impact of temperature on postdiapause and diapause of the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Luo, You-Qing; Shi, Juan; Wang, Dei-Peng; Shen, Shao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Lymantria dispar asiatica (Vnukovskij) (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae) is one of three gypsy moth subspecies found in East Asia. Understanding the diapause and postdiapause phases of its eggs is important in characterizing its life cycle. The effects of different constant temperatures for different lengths of times on field-collected, postdiapause eggs were tested during the first year. In the second year, the effects of the same treatments on laboratory-raised eggs in diapause were investigated. The effects of temperature on percent egg hatching, time to hatching, and hatching duration were determined. When field-collected eggs were held at 0 and 5°C, they terminated postdiapause within 11 days. The percent hatching tended to decline with an increased duration of exposure at temperatures greater than 5°C. Diapause terminated slowly (> 37 days) and with a high percentage of hatching for postdiapause eggs held at 10°C. There was a positive correlation between temperature and the speed of postdiapause development for field-collected eggs held at constant temperatures between 10 and 25°C. However, the number of days to the first hatch was significantly longer than for eggs treated with lower temperatures before being transferred to 25°C. Freshly oviposited eggs treated at a constant 0 or 5°C for 200 days were unable to develop into pharate larva. However, eggs treated at a constant 20 or 25°C for 200 days developed into pharate larva but did not hatch even after a subsequent chill. This result suggests why L. dispar asiatica is not found in tropical areas and helps us to predict the distribution of the gypsy moth in China. PMID:25373152

  2. Aspen defense chemicals influence midgut bacterial community composition of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Lindroth, Richard L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial symbionts are becoming increasingly recognized as mediators of many aspects of plant - herbivore interactions. However, the influence of plant chemical defenses on gut associates of insect herbivores is less well understood. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), and differing trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) genotypes that vary in chemical defenses, to assess the influence of foliar chemistry on bacterial communities of larval midguts. We evaluated the bacterial community composition of foliage, and of midguts of larvae feeding on those leaves, using next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Plant defense chemicals did not influence the composition of foliar communities. In contrast, both phenolic glycosides and condensed tannins affected the bacterial consortia of gypsy moth midguts. The two most abundant operational taxonomic units were classified as Ralstonia and Acinetobacter. The relative abundance of Ralstonia was higher in midguts than in foliage when phenolic glycoside concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when phenolic glycosides were high. In contrast, the relative abundance of Ralstonia was lower in midguts than in foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but higher in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter showed a different relationship with host chemistry, being relatively more abundant in midguts than with foliage when condensed tannin concentrations were low, but lower in midguts when condensed tannins were high. Acinetobacter tended to have a greater relative abundance in midguts of insects feeding on genotypes with high phenolic glycoside concentrations. These results show that plant defense chemicals influence herbivore midgut communities, which may in turn influence host utilization. PMID:25475786

  3. Genetic structure, admixture and invasion success in a Holarctic defoliator, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunke; Molongoski, John J; Winograd, Deborah F; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Louyakis, Artemis S; Lance, David R; Mastro, Victor C; Harrison, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    Characterizing the current population structure of potentially invasive species provides a critical context for identifying source populations and for understanding why invasions are successful. Non-native populations inevitably lose genetic diversity during initial colonization events, but subsequent admixture among independently introduced lineages may increase both genetic variation and adaptive potential. Here we characterize the population structure of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus), one of the world's most destructive forest pests. Native to Eurasia and recently introduced to North America, the current distribution of gypsy moth includes forests throughout the temperate region of the northern hemisphere. Analyses of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA sequences for 1738 individuals identified four genetic clusters within L. dispar. Three of these clusters correspond to the three named subspecies; North American populations represent a distinct fourth cluster, presumably a consequence of the population bottleneck and allele frequency change that accompanied introduction. We find no evidence that admixture has been an important catalyst of the successful invasion and range expansion in North America. However, we do find evidence of ongoing hybridization between subspecies and increased genetic variation in gypsy moth populations from Eastern Asia, populations that now pose a threat of further human-mediated introductions. Finally, we show that current patterns of variation can be explained in terms of climate and habitat changes during the Pleistocene, a time when temperate forests expanded and contracted. Deeply diverged matrilines in Europe imply that gypsy moths have been there for a long time and are not recent arrivals from Asia. PMID:25655667

  4. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. PMID:27090923

  5. Simulating temperature-dependent ecological processes at the sub-continental scale: male gypsy moth flight phenology as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régnière, J.; Sharov, Alexei

    We simulated male gypsy moth flight phenology for the location of 1371 weather stations east of 100° W longitude and north of 35° N latitude in North America. The output of these simulations, based on average weather conditions from 1961 to 1990, was submitted to two map-interpolation methods: multiple regression and universal kriging. Multiple regression was found to be as accurate as universal kriging and demands less computing power. A map of the date of peak male gypsy moth flight was generated by universal kriging. This map itself constitutes a useful pest-management planning tool; in addition, the map delineates the potential range of the gypsy moth based on its seasonality at the northern edge of its current distribution in eastern North America. The simulation and map-interpolation methods described in this paper thus constitute an interesting approach to the study and monitoring of the ecological impacts of climate change and shifts in land-use patterns at the sub-continental level.

  6. Performance of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): A Comparison between Foliage and Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine L; Parry, Dylan; Faske, Trevor M; Hamilton, Audrey; Tobin, Patrick C; Agosta, Salvatore J; Johnson, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    The effects of long-term mass rearing of laboratory insects on ecologically relevant traits is an important consideration when applying research conclusions to wild populations or developing management strategies. Laboratory strains of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), an invasive forest pest in North America, have been continuously reared since 1967. Selection on these strains has enhanced a variety of traits, resulting in faster development, shorter diapause, and greater fecundity. As in many mass-reared insects, laboratory strains of the gypsy moth are also reared exclusively on artificial diets that lack much of the phytochemical and nutritional complexity associated with natural foliage. We tested for differences in growth and development of wild gypsy moth populations from across the invasive range in comparison to laboratory strains when reared on artificial diet and a preferred foliage host species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Overall, caterpillars reared on foliage had higher survival and faster development rates, with smaller differences among populations. When reared on artificial diet, laboratory strains had the highest performance as expected. The response from the wild populations was mixed, with two populations performing poorly on artificial diet and another performing nearly as well as the laboratory strains. Performance on diet was enhanced when larvae received cubed portions changed regularly, as opposed to filled cups. Understanding these relationships between food source and population performance is important for informing studies that examine population comparisons using wild and laboratory-reared strains. PMID:26313993

  7. Predicted effects of gypsy moth defoliation and climate change on forest carbon dynamics in the New Jersey pine barrens.

    PubMed

    Kretchun, Alec M; Scheller, Robert M; Lucash, Melissa S; Clark, Kenneth L; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years. PMID:25119162

  8. Predicted Effects of Gypsy Moth Defoliation and Climate Change on Forest Carbon Dynamics in the New Jersey Pine Barrens

    PubMed Central

    Kretchun, Alec M.; Scheller, Robert M.; Lucash, Melissa S.; Clark, Kenneth L.; Hom, John; Van Tuyl, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Disturbance regimes within temperate forests can significantly impact carbon cycling. Additionally, projected climate change in combination with multiple, interacting disturbance effects may disrupt the capacity of forests to act as carbon sinks at large spatial and temporal scales. We used a spatially explicit forest succession and disturbance model, LANDIS-II, to model the effects of climate change, gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) defoliation, and wildfire on the C dynamics of the forests of the New Jersey Pine Barrens over the next century. Climate scenarios were simulated using current climate conditions (baseline), as well as a high emissions scenario (HadCM3 A2 emissions scenario). Our results suggest that long-term changes in C cycling will be driven more by climate change than by fire or gypsy moths over the next century. We also found that simulated disturbances will affect species composition more than tree growth or C sequestration rates at the landscape level. Projected changes in tree species biomass indicate a potential increase in oaks with climate change and gypsy moth defoliation over the course of the 100-year simulation, exacerbating current successional trends towards increased oak abundance. Our research suggests that defoliation under climate change may play a critical role in increasing the variability of tree growth rates and in determining landscape species composition over the next 100 years. PMID:25119162

  9. Small mammal abundance and habitat relationships on deciduous forested sites with different susceptibility to gypsy moth defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahner, Richard H.; Smith, Harvey R.

    1991-01-01

    Small mammals are important predators of gypsy moths ( Lymantria dispar L.), which are major defoliators of deciduous forests in the northeastern United States. Abundance and habitat relationships of small mammals were studied during summers 1984 and 1985 on forested sites at Moshannon and Rothrock state forests in two physiographic regions of Pennsylvania (Allegheny High Plateaus Province and Valley and Ridge Province, respectively) that varied in potential susceptibility to defoliation. The white-footed mouse ( Peromyscus leucopus), which is a major vertebrate predator of gypsy moths, was the most common small mammal on all sites. Of the four common species, northern short-tailed shrews ( Blarina brevicauda), southern red-backed voles ( Clethrionomys gapperi), and white-footed mice were more abundant at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, but masked shrews ( Sorex cinereus) were more abundant at Rothrock. Elevation was a major factor affecting abundance and distribution of small mammals. Because of the greater abundance of small mammals and more suitable physiographic features at Moshannon compared to Rothrock State Forest, small mammals may be more effective as predators on gypsy moths in the Allegheny High Plateaus than the Valley and Ridge Province of Pennsylvania.

  10. Effects of aromatic compounds on antennal responses and on the pheromone-binding proteins of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar).

    PubMed

    Gong, Yongmei; Plettner, Erika

    2011-03-01

    Female gypsy moths emit a pheromone, (+)-disparlure, which the males follow until they locate the emitter. The male moths' antennae are covered with innervated sensory hairs, specialized in detection of the pheromone. The neurons in these sensory hairs are bathed by a solution rich in pheromone-binding protein (PBP). PBPs are soluble proteins that bind the pheromone and other odorants reversibly with variable thermodynamic and kinetic selectivity and are essential for olfactory responses. Here, we have studied the interaction between 2 gypsy moth PBPs with aromatic compounds that modulate the responses of male moth antennae to (+)-disparlure. The aromatic compounds do not elicit responses by themselves, but when administered together with pheromone, they inhibit, enhance, or prolong the electrophysiological response to the pheromone. Three interactions between the compounds and PBPs were studied: 1) the equilibrium binding of the compounds by themselves to the PBPs, 2) the equilibrium binding of the compounds in the presence of pheromone or a fluorescent reporter ligand, and 3) the effect of the compounds on the conformation of the pheromone-PBP complex. A subset of compounds causes a prolongation of the electroantennogram response, and from this study, we conclude that these compounds follow a structure-activity pattern and stabilize a particular conformer of the PBPs that appears to activate the olfactory response. PMID:21159920

  11. Aerial spraying for gypsy moth control: A handbook of technology. Updated version, January 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, R.; Mierzejewski, K.; Bryant, J.; Twardus, D.; Yendol, W.

    1991-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is a native pest of the forests of Europe and Asia that was introduced into the United States in Eastern Massachusetts in 1869 and in New Jersey in the 1920's. It is now established in all or parts of the 13 Northeastern States from western Pennsylvania, eastern West Virginia, and northern Virginia to central Maine, and extends into eastern Ohio and central Michigan. In Canada, this pest is established in southern Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario. In addition to existing populations in the generally infested area, 68 isolated infestations have been eradicated since 1982. The effectiveness of these Federal/State cooperative suppression projects using the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and, to a lesser extent, the chemical insecticide Dimilin, are monitored using a computer-based system (Treatment Monitoring Data Base) developed by Twardus. The effectiveness of these projects has been highly variable. It is thought that a large portion of the treatment failures has been due to ineffective aerial application techniques.

  12. Effects of the ant Formica fusca on the transmission of microsporidia infecting gypsy moth larvae.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-06-01

    Transmission plays an integral part in the intimate relationship between a host insect and its pathogen that can be altered by abiotic or biotic factors. The latter include other pathogens, parasitoids, or predators. Ants are important species in food webs that act on various levels in a community structure. Their social behavior allows them to prey on and transport larger prey, or they can dismember the prey where it was found. Thereby they can also influence the horizontal transmission of a pathogen in its host's population. We tested the hypothesis that an ant species like Formica fusca L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) can affect the horizontal transmission of two microsporidian pathogens, Nosema lymantriae Weiser (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Timofejeva) (Microsporidia: Burenellidae), infecting the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae). Observational studies showed that uninfected and infected L. dispar larvae are potential prey items for F. fusca. Laboratory choice experiments led to the conclusion that F. fusca did not prefer L. dispar larvae infected with N. lymantriae and avoided L. dispar larvae infected with V. disparis over uninfected larvae when given the choice. Experiments carried out on small potted oak, Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl. (Fagaceae), saplings showed that predation of F. fusca on infected larvae did not significantly change the transmission of either microsporidian species to L. dispar test larvae. Microscopic examination indicated that F. fusca workers never became infected with N. lymantriae or V. disparis after feeding on infected prey. PMID:23926361

  13. Enzymatic biomarkers as indicators of dietary cadmium in gypsy moth caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Mataruga, Vesna Perić; Mrdaković, Marija; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Nenadović, Vera; Ilijin, Larisa

    2013-05-01

    Heavy metals damage the structure, chemistry, and function of cells, including enzyme systems inside them. Variation in the profile of biochemical biomarkers in prevalent species should be used for assessing environmental contamination. The present study pays attention to the phosphatases present in the midgut of gypsy moth fourth instar caterpillars, which had been exposed to short- and long-term cadmium intake at 10 and 30 μg Cd/g dry food. Chronic cadmium ingestion significantly inhibited the activity of all examined phosphatases, while only the activity of lysosomal phosphatase was acutely decreased. Total acid phosphatase activity recovered from both long-term cadmium treatments within 3 days. The low index of phenotypic plasticity was connected to high variability of plasticity. Dependence of phosphatase isoforms on genotype and duration of cadmium treatment was determined. We concluded that, with further investigations, profiling of total acid phosphatase activity, as well as the lysosomal fraction can be used as a biomarker for acute sublethal metal toxicity. PMID:23143823

  14. Identification and Knockdown of the Olfactory Receptor (OrCo) in Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Yu, Yanxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Junhua; Dou, Liduo; Hao, Qin; Chen, Hongjun; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is an important economic pest that causes large-scale damage to forests worldwide. Because of its important role in initiating and controlling insect behavior, olfaction-and olfaction-based pest management-has drawn increasing attention from entomologists. In this study, we identified the gene that encodes the olfactory receptor co-receptor (OrCo). Through amino acid sequence alignment, we found that LdisOrCo shares high identity with other OrCo proteins from different insect orders. Next, we performed RNA-interference (RNAi) to assess the role of OrCo in olfaction. Electroantennographic assays showed that after RNAi, the average value of males' response to sex pheromones was 0.636 mV, significantly lower than that of the positive control (average = 1.472 mV). Females showed no response to sex pheromones before or after RNAi. Finally, quantitative PCR showed a strong decrease in the expression of OrCo after RNAi, by ~74% in males and by 23% in females relative to the positive controls. These results indicate that OrCo is not only critical to odor recognition, but it may also represent a new target for development of semiochemicals that can influence insect behavior. PMID:26078719

  15. Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

    2006-03-01

    Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

  16. Identification and Knockdown of the Olfactory Receptor (OrCo) in Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei; Yu, Yanxue; Zhou, Ping; Zhang, Junhua; Dou, Liduo; Hao, Qin; Chen, Hongjun; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, is an important economic pest that causes large-scale damage to forests worldwide. Because of its important role in initiating and controlling insect behavior, olfaction—and olfaction-based pest management—has drawn increasing attention from entomologists. In this study, we identified the gene that encodes the olfactory receptor co-receptor (OrCo). Through amino acid sequence alignment, we found that LdisOrCo shares high identity with other OrCo proteins from different insect orders. Next, we performed RNA-interference (RNAi) to assess the role of OrCo in olfaction. Electroantennographic assays showed that after RNAi, the average value of males' response to sex pheromones was 0.636 mV, significantly lower than that of the positive control (average = 1.472 mV). Females showed no response to sex pheromones before or after RNAi. Finally, quantitative PCR showed a strong decrease in the expression of OrCo after RNAi, by ~74% in males and by 23% in females relative to the positive controls. These results indicate that OrCo is not only critical to odor recognition, but it may also represent a new target for development of semiochemicals that can influence insect behavior. PMID:26078719

  17. Effects of pathogen exposure on life-history variation in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar).

    PubMed

    Páez, D J; Fleming-Davies, A E; Dwyer, G

    2015-10-01

    Investment in host defences against pathogens may lead to trade-offs with host fecundity. When such trade-offs arise from genetic correlations, rates of phenotypic change by natural selection may be affected. However, genetic correlations between host survival and fecundity are rarely quantified. To understand trade-offs between immune responses to baculovirus exposure and fecundity in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), we estimated genetic correlations between survival probability and traits related to fecundity, such as pupal weight. In addition, we tested whether different virus isolates have different effects on male and female pupal weight. To estimate genetic correlations, we exposed individuals of known relatedness to a single baculovirus isolate. To then evaluate the effect of virus isolate on pupal weight, we exposed a single gypsy moth strain to 16 baculovirus isolates. We found a negative genetic correlation between survival and pupal weight. In addition, virus exposure caused late-pupating females to be identical in weight to males, whereas unexposed females were 2-3 times as large as unexposed males. Finally, we found that female pupal weight is a quadratic function of host mortality across virus isolates, which is likely due to trade-offs and compensatory growth processes acting at high and low mortality levels, respectively. Overall, our results suggest that fecundity costs may strongly affect the response to selection for disease resistance. In nature, baculoviruses contribute to the regulation of gypsy moth outbreaks, as pathogens often do in forest-defoliating insects. We therefore argue that trade-offs between host life-history traits may help explain outbreak dynamics. PMID:26201381

  18. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

    2007-12-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion

  19. Modeling respiration from snags and coarse woody debris before and after an invasive gypsy moth disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas; Clark, Kenneth L.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.

    2014-04-01

    Although snags and coarse woody debris are a small component of ecosystem respiration, disturbances can significantly increase the mass and respiration from these carbon (C) pools. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure respiration rates of snags and coarse woody debris throughout the year in a forest previously defoliated by gypsy moths, (2) develop models for dead stem respiration rates, (3) model stand-level respiration rates of dead stems using forest inventory and analysis data sets and environmental variables predisturbance and postdisturbance, and (4) compare total dead stem respiration rates with total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange. Respiration rates were measured on selected Pinus and Quercus snags and coarse woody debris each month for 1 year in a northeastern U.S. temperate forest. Multiple linear regression using environmental and biometric variables including wood temperature, diameter, density, species, and decay class was used to model respiration rates of dead stems. The mass of snags and coarse woody debris increased more than fivefold after disturbance and respiration rates increased more than threefold. The contribution of dead stems to total ecosystem respiration more than tripled from 0.85% to almost 3% and respiration from dead stems alone was approximately equal to the net ecosystem exchange of the forest in 2011 (fourth year postdisturbance). This study highlights the importance of dead stem C pools and fluxes particularly during disturbance and recovery cycles. With climate change increasing the ranges of many forest pests and pathogens, these data become particularly important for accurately modeling future C cycling.

  20. How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jonathan A; Meixler, Marcia S; Mueller, Thomas; Fagan, William F; Tobin, Patrick C; Haynes, Kyle J

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony, due to differences in elevation and local heterogeneity in elevation (hilliness), can explain spatial heterogeneity in the population growth rate of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), along its invasion front in Virginia and West Virginia, USA. We used a spatially explicit model of the effects of reproductive asynchrony on mating success to develop predictions of the influences of elevation and elevational heterogeneity on local population growth rates. Population growth rates declined with increased elevation and more modestly with increased elevational heterogeneity. As in earlier work, we found a positive relationship between the population growth rate and the number of introduced egg masses, indicating a demographic Allee effect. At high elevations and high heterogeneity in elevation, the population growth rate was lowest and the density at which the population tended to replace itself (i.e. the Allee threshold) was highest. An analysis of 22 years of field data also showed decreases in population growth rates with elevation and heterogeneity in elevation that were largely consistent with the model predictions. These results highlight how topographic characteristics can affect reproductive asynchrony and influence mate-finding Allee effects in an invading non-native insect population. Given the dependence of developmental rates on temperature in poikilotherms, topographic effects on reproductive success could

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes. PMID:23726059

  2. Hitchhikers on trade routes: A phenology model estimates the probabilities of gypsy moth introduction and establishment.

    PubMed

    Gray, David R

    2010-12-01

    As global trade increases so too does the probability of introduction of alien species to new locations. Estimating the probability of an alien species introduction and establishment following introduction is a necessary step in risk estimation (probability of an event times the consequences, in the currency of choice, of the event should it occur); risk estimation is a valuable tool for reducing the risk of biological invasion with limited resources. The Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), is a pest species whose consequence of introduction and establishment in North America and New Zealand warrants over US$2 million per year in surveillance expenditure. This work describes the development of a two-dimensional phenology model (GLS-2d) that simulates insect development from source to destination and estimates: (1) the probability of introduction from the proportion of the source population that would achieve the next developmental stage at the destination and (2) the probability of establishment from the proportion of the introduced population that survives until a stable life cycle is reached at the destination. The effect of shipping schedule on the probabilities of introduction and establishment was examined by varying the departure date from 1 January to 25 December by weekly increments. The effect of port efficiency was examined by varying the length of time that invasion vectors (shipping containers and ship) were available for infection. The application of GLS-2d is demonstrated using three common marine trade routes (to Auckland, New Zealand, from Kobe, Japan, and to Vancouver, Canada, from Kobe and from Vladivostok, Russia). PMID:21265459

  3. The state of microbial complexes in soils of forest ecosystems after fires and defoliation of stands by gypsy moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Baranchikov, Yu. N.; Ivanova, G. A.

    2009-03-01

    The state of microbial cenoses in the soils of forest ecosystems damaged by fires of different strengths and gypsy moth outbreaks (Central Siberia) was assessed by the intensity of the basal respiration, the content of carbon of the microbial biomass, and the microbial metabolic quotient. The degree of the disturbance of the microbial cenoses in the soils under pine forests after fires was higher than that in the soils under the forests defoliated by gypsy moths. The greatest changes of the microbial complexes were recorded after the fires of high and medium intensity. In the litters, the content of the microbial biomass, the intensity of basal respiration, and the microbial metabolic quotient value were restored on the fifth year after the fires, whereas in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer, these parameters still differed from those in the control variant, especially after the highly intense fires. After the weak fires, the ecophysiological state of the microbial complexes was restored within two-three years.

  4. Leaf surface lipophilic compounds as one of the factors of silver birch chemical defense against larvae of gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Martemyanov, Vyacheslav V; Pavlushin, Sergey V; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Belousova, Irina A; Yushkova, Yuliya V; Morosov, Sergey V; Chernyak, Elena I; Glupov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defense against herbivores is a complex process which involves a number of secondary compounds. It is known that the concentration of leaf surface lipophilic compounds (SLCs), particularly those of flavonoid aglycones are increased with the defoliation treatment of silver birch Betula pendula. In this study we investigated how the alteration of SLCs concentration in the food affects the fitness and innate immunity of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. We found that a low SLCs concentrations in consumed leaves led to a rapid larval development and increased females' pupae weight (= fecundity) compared to larvae fed with leaves with high SLCs content. Inversely, increasing the compounds concentration in an artificial diet produced the reverse effects: decreases in both larval weight and larval survival. Low SLCs concentrations in tree leaves differently affected larval innate immunity parameters. For both sexes, total hemocytes count in the hemolymph increased, while the activity of plasma phenoloxidase decreased when larvae consume leaves with reduced content of SLCs. Our results clearly demonstrate that the concentration of SLCs in silver birch leaves affects not only gypsy moth fitness but also their innate immune status which might alter the potential resistance of insects against infections and/or parasitoids. PMID:25816371

  5. Consequences of enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2} and defoliation for foliar chemistry and gypsy moth performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lindroth, R.L.; Kinney, K.K.

    1998-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} are likely to interact with other factors affecting plant physiology to alter plant chemical profiles and plant-herbivore interactions. The authors evaluated the independent and interactive effects of enriched CO{sub 2} and artificial defoliation on foliar chemistry of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and the consequences of such changes for short-term performance of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). They grew aspen and maple seedlings in ambient and enriched CO{sub 2} environments at the University of wisconsin Biotron. Seven weeks after budbreak, trees in half of the rooms were subjected to 50% defoliation. Afterwards, foliage was collected for chemical analyses, and feeding trials were conducted with fourth-stadium gypsy moths. Enriched CO{sub 2} altered foliar levels of water, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and phenolics, and responses generally differed between the two tree species. Defoliation induced chemical changes only in aspen. They found no significant interactions between CO{sub 2} and defoliation for levels of carbon-based defenses (phenolic glycosides and tannins). CO{sub 2} treatment altered the performance of larvae fed aspen, but not maple, whereas defoliation had little effect on performance on insects. In general, results from this experimental system do not support the hypothesis that induction of carbon-based chemical defenses, and attendant effects on insects, will be stronger in a CO{sub 2}-enriched world.

  6. Single-stranded DNA fragments of insect-specific nuclear polyhedrosis virus act as selective DNA insecticides for gypsy moth control.

    PubMed

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2014-07-01

    This paper focuses on the DNA insecticides as a novel preparation against gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) based on DNA fragments of the anti-apoptotic gene of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus. It was found that the external application of a solution with two single-stranded DNA fragments from BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV (L.dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus) IAP-3 (inhibitor of apoptosis) gene induces a significantly higher mortality of gypsy moth caterpillars in comparison with the application of the control solutions. This effect does not depend on the infection of caterpillars with LdMNPV. The results also show that DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV IAP-3 gene fragments can be selective in action, and at least are not harmful to tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon). Part of the gypsy moth genome cloned with the fragments of BIR and RING domains of LdMNPV IAP-3 gene as primers, has an overlap with the corresponding part of the LdMNPV IAP-3 gene and L.dispar IAP-1 mRNA for an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with the high cover by query, allows assuming that we cloned a part of gypsy moth anti-apoptosis gene. This finding gives the grounding that proposed here DNA insecticides might act through the blocking of the mechanisms involved in post transcriptional expression of insect anti-apoptosis genes. The results show the insecticidal potential of the viral genome fragments that can be used to create safe and relatively fast-acting DNA insecticides to control the quantity of gypsy moth populations, important task for forestry and agriculture. PMID:25052520

  7. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  8. Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J.

    1995-08-01

    Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Glutathione S-transferase in the midgut tissue of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars exposed to dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Todorović, Dajana; Matić, Dragana; Lazarević, Jelica; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2016-06-01

    Activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in midgut of gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food was examined. Based on the enzyme reaction through conjugation with glutathione, overall activity remained unaltered after acute and chronic treatment. No-observed-effect-concentration (10μg Cd/g dry food) significantly increased activity only after 3-day recovery following cadmium administration. Almost all comparisons of the indices of phenotypic plasticity revealed statistically significant differences. Despite the facts that GST has important role in xenobiotic biotransformation, our results indicate that this enzyme in insect midgut does not represent the key factor in cadmium detoxification. PMID:27084993

  10. Larval serum proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar: Allometric changes during development suggest several functions for arylphorin and lipophorin

    SciTech Connect

    Karpells, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    Storage proteins are the major nutritive intermediates in insects and although the serum storage proteins are relatively well studied, definitive roles for many of them have yet to be established. To further characterize their roles in development and to establish quantitative baselines for future studies, two serum proteins, arylphorin (Ap) and lipophorin (Lp), of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, were studied. Ap and Lp, isolated from larval hemolymph, were partially characterized biochemically and immunologically. Hemolymph concentrations throughout larval development were determined using quantitative immunoelectrophoresis and absolute hemolymph amounts of protein were determined by measuring hemolymph volume. Cyclic fluctuations in hemolymph concentrations of Ap in particular correlated with each molting cycle and an increase in Lp levels just prior to pupation suggest a metamorphic change in the role or demand for the protein. Sexual dimorphism in protein concentrations are explained in part by the sexual dimorphism in the number of larval instars. In fact, an additional instar of Ap accumulation in the female gypsy moth is suggested to compensate for the lack of a female-specific storage protein in this species. The last two days of each instar were found to be the optimum time to sample protein concentration with minimum variance. Allometric relationships among Ap accumulation, Lp accumulation and weight gain were uncovered. Ap labelled with ({sup 14}C)-N-ethylmaleimide was shown to be incorporated into newly synthesized cuticle and setae during a larval-larval molt. The antiserum developed against L. dispar Ap was used to identify the Ap of Trichoplusia in and study Ap titers in parasitized T. in larvae. The antiserum was also used to determine the immunological relatedness of 5 species of Lepidoptera.

  11. Feeding Experience Affects the Behavioral Response of Polyphagous Gypsy Moth Caterpillars to Herbivore-induced Poplar Volatiles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Andrea C; Reinecke, Andreas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2016-05-01

    Plant volatiles influence host selection of herbivorous insects. Since volatiles often vary in space and time, herbivores (especially polyphagous ones) may be able to use these compounds as cues to track variation in host plant quality based on their innate abilities and previous experience. We investigated the behavioral response of naïve (fed on artificial diet) and experienced (fed on poplar) gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, a polyphagous species, towards constitutive and herbivore-induced black poplar (Populus nigra) volatiles at different stages of herbivore attack. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, both naïve and experienced caterpillars were attracted to constitutive volatiles and volatiles released after short-term herbivory (up to 6 hr). Naïve caterpillars also were attracted to volatiles released after longer-term herbivory (24-30 hr), but experienced caterpillars preferred the odor of undamaged foliage. A multivariate statistical analysis comparing the volatile emission of undamaged plants vs. plants after short and longer-term herbivory, suggested various compounds as being responsible for distinguishing between the odors of these plants. Ten compounds were selected for individual testing of caterpillar behavioral responses in a four-arm olfactometer. Naïve caterpillars spent more time in arms containing (Z)-3-hexenol and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate than in solvent permeated arms, while avoiding benzyl cyanide and salicyl aldehyde. Experienced caterpillars avoided benzyl cyanide and preferred (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) over solvent. Only responses to DMNT were significantly different when comparing experienced and naïve caterpillars. The results show that gypsy moth caterpillars display an innate behavioral response towards constitutive and herbivore-induced plant volatiles, but also that larval behavior is plastic and can be modulated by previous feeding experience. PMID:27170157

  12. Declines in dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams (1988-2003): Gypsy moth defoliation stimulates diatoms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, Amy E.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Galloway, James N.

    2007-03-01

    Dissolved silica concentrations in western Virginia streams showed a significant bias toward declines (p < 0.0001) over the time period from 1988 to 2003. Streams with the greatest declines were those that had the highest mean dissolved silica concentrations, specific to watersheds underlain by basaltic and granitic bedrock. We examined potential geochemical, hydrological, and biological factors that could account for the observed widespread declines, focusing on six core watersheds where weekly stream chemistry data were available. No relationships were evident between stream water dissolved silica concentrations and pH, a finding supported by the results from a geochemical model applied to the dominant bedrock mineralogy. Along with changes in watershed acidity, changes in precipitation and discharge were also discounted since no significant trends were observed over the study period. Analyses of two longer-term data sets that extend back to 1979 revealed that the initiation of the dissolved silica declines coincided with the timing of a gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation event. We develop a conceptual model centered on benthic diatoms, which are found within each of the six core watersheds but in greater abundance in the more silica-rich streams. Gypsy moth defoliation led to greater sunlight penetration and enhanced nitrate concentrations in the streams, which could have spurred population growth and silica uptake. The model can explain why the observed declines are primarily driven by decreased concentrations during low-flow conditions. This study illustrates lasting effects of disturbance on watershed biogeochemistry, in this case causing decadal-scale variability in stream water dissolved silica concentrations.

  13. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  14. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and heat shock proteins (Hsp70) of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae in response to long-term fluoranthene exposure.

    PubMed

    Mrdaković, Marija; Ilijin, Larisa; Vlahović, Milena; Matić, Dragana; Gavrilović, Anja; Mrkonja, Aleksandra; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may affect biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms, thus impairing fitness related traits and influencing their populations. This imposes the need for providing early-warning signals of pollution. Our study aimed to examine changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in homogenates of brain tissues of fifth instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae, exposed to the ubiquitous PAH, fluoranthene, supplemented to the rearing diet. Significantly increased activity of AChE in larvae fed on the diets with high fluoranthene concentrations suggests the necessity for elucidation of the role of AChE in these insects when exposed to PAH pollution. Significant induction of Hsp70 in gypsy moth larvae reared on the diets containing low fluoranthene concentrations, indicate that changes in the level of Hsp70 might be useful as an indicator of pollution in this widespread forest species. PMID:27343862

  15. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  16. Neurometamorphosis of the ear in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, and its homologue in the earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria.

    PubMed

    Lewis, F P; Fullard, J H

    1996-10-01

    The adult gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lymantriidae: Noctuoidea) has a pair of metathoracic tympanic ears that each contain a two-celled auditory chordotonal organ (CO). The earless forest tent caterpillar moth, Malacosoma disstria (Lasiocampidae: Bombycoidea), has a homologous pair of three-celled, nonauditory hindwing COs in their place. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the adult CO in both species arises from a preexisting larval organ or if it develops as a novel structure during metamorphosis. We describe the larval metathoracic nervous system of L. dispar and M. disstria, and identify a three-celled chordotonal organ in the anatomically homologous site as the adult CO. If the larval CO is severed from the homologue of the adult auditory nerve (IIIN1b1) in L. dispar prior to metamorphosis, the adult develops an ear lacking an auditory organ. Axonal backfills of the larval IIIN1b1 nerve in both species reveal three chordotonal sensory neurons and one nonchordotonal multipolar cell. The axons of these cells project into tracts of the central nervous system putatively homologous with those of the auditory pathway in adult L. dispar. Following metamorphosis, M. disstria moths retain all four cells (three CO and one multipolar) while L. dispar adults possess two cells that service the auditory CO and one nonauditory, multipolar cell. We conclude that the larval IIIN1b1 CO is the precursor of both the auditory organ in L. dispar and the putative proprioceptor CO in M. disstria and represents the premetamorphic condition of these insects. The implications of our results in understanding the evolution of the ear in the Lepidoptera and insects in general are discussed. PMID:8885204

  17. Forest defoliators and climatic change: Potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Liebhold, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    Changes in geographical ranges and spatial extent of outbreaks of pest species are likely consequences of climatic change. We investigated potential changes in spatial distribution of outbreaks of western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, and gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), in Oregon and Pennsylvania, respectively using maps of historial defoliation, climate, and forest type in a geographic information system. Maps of defoliation frequency at a resolution of 2 x 2 km were assembled from historical aerial survey data. Weather maps for mean monthly temperature maxima and minima and precipitation over 30 yr were developed by interpolation. Relationships between defoliation status and environmental variables were estimated using linear discriminant analysis. Five climatic change scenarios were investigated: an increase of 2{degrees}C, a 2{degrees}C increase with a small increase and a small decrease in precipitation, and projections of two general circulation models (GCMs) after 100 yr at doubled carbon dioxide. With an increase in temperature alone, the projected defoliated area decreased relative to ambient conditions for budworm and increased slightly for gypsy moth. With an increase in temperature and precipitation, defoliated area increased for both species. Conversely, defoliated area decreased for both when temperature increased and precipitation decreased. Results for the GCM scenarios contrasted sharply. For one GCM, defoliation by budworm was projected to cover Oregon completely, whereas no defoliation was projected by gypsy moth in Pennsylvania. For the other, defoliation disappeared completely for budworm and slightly exceeded that under ambient conditions for gypsy moth. The results are discussed in terms of current forest composition and its potential changes. 36 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Enantiomer and conformer recognition of (+) and (-)-disparlure and their analogs by the pheromone binding proteins of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Plettner, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Adult female gypsy moths produce a sex pheromone (+)-(7R,8S)-2-methyl-7,8-epoxyoctadecane, (+)-disparlure, to attract male gypsy moths. To better understand the recognition of (+)-disparlure by the male's olfactory system, we synthesized racemic and enantiopure oxa and thia analogs of (+)-disparlure (ee>98%). Ab initio calculations of the conformeric landscapes around the dihedral angles C5-6-7-8 and C7-8-9-10 of (+)-disparlure and corresponding dihedral angles of analogs revealed that introduction of the heteroatom changes the conformeric landscape around these important epitopes. The energy difference between HOMO and LUMO decreased after oxygen or sulfur was introduced into the backbone. Consistent with this, an enhancement of binding affinity between sulfur analogs and the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) was observed in vitro. Docking of the pheromone and analogs onto models of the two known PBPs of the gypsy moth revealed that the internal binding pocket of PBP1 showed higher selectivity than that of PBP2, consistent with in vitro binding assays. Further energy analysis revealed that enantiomers adopted different conformations with different energies when docked in the internal binding pocket of PBPs, resulting in enantiomer discrimination of PBPs towards disparlure and its analogs. PMID:23434366

  19. Field testing Chinese and Japanese gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus and disparvirus against a Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica in Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Duan, L Q; Otvos, I S; Xu, L B; Conder, N; Wang, Y

    2012-04-01

    The activity of three geographic isolates of the gypsy moth nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) was evaluated in field trials against larvae of the Chinese population of Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij in Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, in 2004, 2005, and 2006. Although the Chinese isolate of the virus, LdMNPV-H, was the most pathogenic of the isolates tested, having the lowest mean lethal concentration causing 50% and 95% larval mortality, the increase in efficacy that would be obtained by incorporating this isolate into a commercial product does not justify the time or expense required to register it for use in the United States or Canada. The commercially available North American isolate, LdMNPV-D, was moderately pathogenic, whereas the Japanese isolate, LdMNPV-J, was the least pathogenic. The slopes of the dose-response regression lines for the three virus isolates indicated that the Chinese gypsy moth larvae were more homogenously susceptible to LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D than to LdMNPV-J. Time-response data showed that LdMNPV-J was significantly more virulent, but at a much higher dose, than the other two isolates, causing 50% mortality in the shortest time, followed by LdMNPV-H and LdMNPV-D. Rainfall immediately after the application of LdMNPV-D in 2005 resulted in significantly reduced gypsy moth larval mortality. PMID:22606802

  20. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valaitis, Algimantas P

    2011-10-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins have been identified: an aminopeptidase N (APN-1) and a 270kDa anionic glycoconjugate (BTR-270). Studies have shown that APN-1 has a relatively weak affinity and a very narrow specificity to Cry1Ac, the only Cry1A toxin that it binds. In contrast, BTR-270 binds all toxins that are active against L. dispar larvae, and the affinities for these toxins to BTR-270 correlate positively with their respective toxicities. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was coupled with fluorescence microscopy to localize APN-1 and BTR-270 in paraffin embedded midgut sections of L. dispar larvae. The distribution of cadherin and alkaline phosphatase in the gut tissue was also examined. A strong reaction indicative of polyanionic material was detected with alcian blue staining over the entire epithelial brush border, suggesting the presence of acidic glycoconjugates in the microvillar matrix. The Cry1A toxin-binding sites were confined to the apical surface of the gut epithelial cells with intense labeling of the apical tips of the microvilli. APN-1, BTR-270, and alkaline phosphatase were found to be present exclusively along the brush border microvilli along the entire gut epithelium. In contrast, cadherin, detected only in older gypsy moth larvae, was present both in the apical brush border and in the basement membrane anchoring the midgut epithelial cells. The topographical relationship between the Bt Cry toxin-binding molecules BTR-270 and APN-1 and the Cry1A toxin-binding sites that were confined to the apical brush border of the midgut cells is consistent with findings implicating their involvement in the mechanism of the

  1. Census of the Bacterial Community of the Gypsy Moth Larval Midgut by Using Culturing and Culture-Independent Methods

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Nichole A.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Goodman, Robert M.; Handelsman, Jo

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about bacteria associated with Lepidoptera, the large group of mostly phytophagous insects comprising the moths and butterflies. We inventoried the larval midgut bacteria of a polyphagous foliivore, the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), whose gut is highly alkaline, by using traditional culturing and culture-independent methods. We also examined the effects of diet on microbial composition. Analysis of individual third-instar larvae revealed a high degree of similarity of microbial composition among insects fed on the same diet. DNA sequence analysis indicated that most of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes belong to the γ-Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive divisions and that the cultured members represented more than half of the phylotypes identified. Less frequently detected taxa included members of the α-Proteobacterium, Actinobacterium, and Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides divisions. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from 7 of the 15 cultured organisms and 8 of the 9 sequences identified by PCR amplification diverged from previously reported bacterial sequences. The microbial composition of midguts differed substantially among larvae feeding on a sterilized artificial diet, aspen, larch, white oak, or willow. 16S rRNA analysis of cultured isolates indicated that an Enterococcus species and culture-independent analysis indicated that an Entbacter sp. were both present in all larvae, regardless of the feeding substrate; the sequences of these two phylotypes varied less than 1% among individual insects. These results provide the first comprehensive description of the microbial diversity of a lepidopteran midgut and demonstrate that the plant species in the diet influences the composition of the gut bacterial community. PMID:14711655

  2. Influence of Genotype, Environment, and Gypsy Moth Herbivory on Local and Systemic Chemical Defenses in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides).

    PubMed

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Couture, John J; Major, Ian T; Constabel, C Peter; Lindroth, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have explored the impacts of intraspecific genetic variation and environment on the induction of plant chemical defenses by herbivory. Relatively few, however, have considered how those factors affect within-plant distribution of induced defenses. This work examined the impacts of plant genotype and soil nutrients on the local and systemic phytochemical responses of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) to defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). We deployed larvae onto foliage on individual tree branches for 15 days and then measured chemistry in leaves from: 1) branches receiving damage, 2) undamaged branches of insect-damaged trees, and 3) branches of undamaged control trees. The relationship between post-herbivory phytochemical variation and insect performance also was examined. Plant genotype, soil nutrients, and damage all influenced phytochemistry, with genotype and soil nutrients being stronger determinants than damage. Generally, insect damage decreased foliar nitrogen, increased levels of salicinoids and condensed tannins, but had little effect on levels of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, TI3. The largest damage-mediated tannin increases occurred in leaves on branches receiving damage, whereas the largest salicinoid increases occurred in leaves of adjacent, undamaged branches. Foliar nitrogen and the salicinoid tremulacin had the strongest positive and negative relationships, respectively, with insect growth. Overall, plant genetics and environment concomitantly influenced both local and systemic phytochemical responses to herbivory. These findings suggest that herbivory can contribute to phytochemical heterogeneity in aspen foliage, which may in turn influence future patterns of herbivory and nutrient cycling over larger spatial scales. PMID:26099738

  3. Characterization of the transcriptome of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar identifies numerous transcripts associated with insecticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, ChuanWang; Sun, LiLi; Wen, RongRong; Shang, QingLi; Ma, Ling; Wang, ZhiYing

    2015-03-01

    Although the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar causes extensive forest damage worldwide, little is known regarding the genes involved in its development or response to insecticides. Accordingly, characterization of the transcriptome of L. dispar larvae would promote the development of toxicological methods for its control. RNA-seq analysis of L. dispar larvae messenger RNA (mRNA) generated 62,063 unigenes with N50 of 993 bp, from which 23,975 unique sequences (E-value < 10(-5)) were identified using a BLASTx search of the NCBI non-redundant (nr) database. Using functional classification in the Gene Ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) databases, 7,309 indentified sequences were categorized into 51 functional groups and 8,079 sequences were categorized into 25 functional groups, respectively. Moreover, we identified a large number of transcripts encoding known insecticide targets, or proteins involved in the metabolism of insecticides. Reads per kilobase of unigene length per million mapped reads (RPKM) analysis identified 39 high abundance transcripts, of which 27 exhibited significantly altered expression patterns across the egg, larvae, pupae, male and female adult stages. Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic sequence resource for L. dispar, which will form the basis for future identification of candidate insecticide resistance genes in L. dispar. PMID:25868817

  4. Gypsy moth pheromone-binding protein-ligand interactions: pH profiles and simulations as tools for detecting polar interactions.

    PubMed

    Sanes, Jurgen T; Plettner, Erika

    2016-09-15

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are believed to control diffusion of pheromones in sensory hairs of insects. The interactions of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) PBPs with the sex attractant pheromone, (+)-Disparlure ((7R,8S)-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane), and the enantioselectivity of recognition are not completely understood. Enantioselectivity is important for L. dispar, because (-)-disparlure cancels the attraction of (+)-disparlure, so these moths use enantiopure (+)-disparlure for communication. We performed docking simulations of the protonated homology PBP models with the enantiomers of disparlure, 5-oxadisparlure, 10-oxadisparlure, 5-thiadisparlure and 10-thiadisparlure, together with a binding assay experiment, in which the pH profiles for the PBP-ligand combinations were surveyed. The molecular simulations revealed different amino acid residues in the binding sites, movement of specific amino acid residues at certain pH values, distinct amino acid-ligand interactions (side chain donors/acceptors, H-arene bonding, backbone donors/acceptors) and differences in the conformations of each protein-ligand complex. The pKa values obtained from the binding experiment and the results from the molecular simulations served as tools for detecting polar interactions between the PBPs and ligands. The differences found between structures docked with ligand enantiomers reveal the enantioselectivity of the gypsy moth PBPs towards the pheromone and its antipode, as well as towards enantiomers of pheromone analogs with heteroatom substitutions. PMID:27431057

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Light Intensity and Time Interval After the Start of Scotophase on the Female Flight Propensity of Asian Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Keena, Melody

    2016-04-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one from Korea) were compared under all combinations of three light intensities (0.05, 0.10, and 0.40 lux) and during three time intervals after the start of scotophase. A total of 567 females were flight tested. Female flight propensity, time to initiate walking, fanning, and flying, and duration of fanning differed significantly among geographic populations. Females were less likely to voluntarily fly during the 0-1-h time interval after the start of scotophase than during the later time intervals (1-2 and 2-3 h), suggesting that the light intensity cue has to occur at the correct time after the expected start of scotophase for flight initiation. Light intensity did not significantly affect the proportion of females that voluntarily flew, but did impact the timing of the walking and fanning preflight behaviors. The interaction between light intensity and time interval after the start of scotophase had a significant effect on the proportion of females that fanned. The proportion of females with sustained flight capability varied among the populations evaluated. These results may aid in determining the risk of Asian gypsy moth dispersal, but further work is needed to assess other factors that play a role in flight propensity. PMID:26748672

  6. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I.; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C.; Hamelin, Richard C.; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a “molecular key” (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5’ region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3’ region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the “FS1” nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS. PMID:27513667

  7. A Multi-Species TaqMan PCR Assay for the Identification of Asian Gypsy Moths (Lymantria spp.) and Other Invasive Lymantriines of Biosecurity Concern to North America.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Donald; Zahiri, Reza; Djoumad, Abdelmadjid; Freschi, Luca; Lamarche, Josyanne; Holden, Dave; Cervantes, Sandra; Ojeda, Dario I; Potvin, Amélie; Nisole, Audrey; Béliveau, Catherine; Capron, Arnaud; Kimoto, Troy; Day, Brittany; Yueh, Hesther; Duff, Cameron; Levesque, Roger C; Hamelin, Richard C; Cusson, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Preventing the introduction and establishment of forest invasive alien species (FIAS) such as the Asian gypsy moth (AGM) is a high-priority goal for countries with extensive forest resources such as Canada. The name AGM designates a group of closely related Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Lymantriinae) comprising two L. dispar subspecies (L. dispar asiatica, L. dispar japonica) and three closely related Lymantria species (L. umbrosa, L. albescens, L. postalba), all considered potential FIAS in North America. Ships entering Canadian ports are inspected for the presence of suspicious gypsy moth eggs, but those of AGM are impossible to distinguish from eggs of innocuous Lymantria species. To assist regulatory agencies in their identification of these insects, we designed a suite of TaqMan® assays that provide significant improvements over existing molecular assays targeting AGM. The assays presented here can identify all three L. dispar subspecies (including the European gypsy moth, L. dispar dispar), the three other Lymantria species comprising the AGM complex, plus five additional Lymantria species that pose a threat to forests in North America. The suite of assays is built as a "molecular key" (analogous to a taxonomic key) and involves several parallel singleplex and multiplex qPCR reactions. Each reaction uses a combination of primers and probes designed to separate taxa through discriminatory annealing. The success of these assays is based on the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5' region of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) or in its longer, 3' region, as well as on the presence of an indel in the "FS1" nuclear marker, generating North American and Asian alleles, used here to assess Asian introgression into L. dispar dispar. These assays have the advantage of providing rapid and accurate identification of ten Lymantria species and subspecies considered potential FIAS. PMID:27513667

  8. Gypsy moth caterpillar feeding has only a marginal impact on phenolic compounds in old-growth black poplar.

    PubMed

    Boeckler, G Andreas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2013-10-01

    Species of the Salicaceae produce phenolic compounds that may function as anti-herbivore defenses. Levels of these compounds have been reported to increase upon herbivory, but only rarely have these changes in phenolics been studied under natural conditions. We profiled the phenolics of old-growth black poplar (Populus nigra L.) and studied the response to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) herbivory in two separate field experiments. In a first experiment, foliar phenolics of 20 trees were monitored over 4 weeks after caterpillar infestation, and in a second experiment the bark and foliar phenolics of a single tree were measured over a week. Of the major groups of phenolics, salicinoids (phenolic glycosides) showed no short term response to caterpillar feeding, but after 4 weeks they declined up to 40 % in herbivore damaged and adjacent undamaged leaves on the same branch when compared to leaves of control branches. Flavonol glycosides, low molecular weight flavan-3-ols, and condensed tannins were not affected by herbivory in the first experiment. However, in the single-tree experiment, foliar condensed tannins increased by 10-20 % after herbivory, and low molecular weight flavan-3-ols decreased by 10 % in the leaves but increased by 10 % in the bark. Despite 15 % experimental leaf area loss followed by a 5-fold increase in foliar jasmonate defense hormones, we found no evidence for substantial induction of phenolic defense compounds in old growth black poplar trees growing in a native stand. Thus, if phenolics in these trees function as defenses against herbivory, our results suggest that they act mainly as constitutive defenses. PMID:24154955

  9. Role of ocular albinism type 1 (OA1) GPCR in Asian gypsy moth development and transcriptional expression of heat-shock protein genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, LiLi; Wang, ZhiYing; Wu, HongQu; Liu, Peng; Zou, ChuanShan; Xue, XuTing; Cao, ChuanWang

    2016-01-01

    The ocular albinism type 1 gene, named OA1, is a coding pigment cell-specific G protein-coupled receptor exclusively localized in intracellular organelles. However, the function of OA1 in insects remains generally unknown. In the present study, we explore for the first time the function of LdOA1 in the Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. To identify the function of LdOA1 gene in the development and growth of the Asian gypsy moth, the LdOA1 gene in third instar larvae was knocked down by RNAi. Compared with the controls, the knockdown of LdOA1 increased larval mortality but did not significantly affect their utilization of nutrition. Moreover, LdOA1 was stably transformed into the third chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. The LdOA1 gene in the transformed D. melanogaster modulated the expression of heat-shock protein (hsp) and increased the expression of hsp genes under deltamethrin stress, which indicates that LdOA1 is involved in the regulation of hsp gene expression. These results deepen our understanding of the molecular function of OA1 in insects. PMID:26778432

  10. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey. Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces. The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium. Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission. When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments. Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey. We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

  11. Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates.

    PubMed

    Onufrieva, Ksenia S; Thorpe, Kevin W; Hickman, Andrea D; Leonard, Donna S; Roberts, E Anderson; Tobin, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GM(TM), in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment. PMID:26466798

  12. Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates

    PubMed Central

    Onufrieva, Ksenia S.; Thorpe, Kevin W.; Hickman, Andrea D.; Leonard, Donna S.; Roberts, E. Anderson; Tobin, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GMTM, in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment. PMID:26466798

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-309-1739, Oregon Department of Human Resources, Health Division, Gypsy Moth Control Project, Eugene, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, L.J.; Huemann, M.; Sokolow, R.; Elefant, S.

    1986-10-01

    Evaluation of occupational and general public exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during application of this microbial agent for control of the gypsy moth was requested by the Oregon State Department of Human Resources, Health Division, located in Portland. Bt was applied by helicopter on about 250,000 acres of forest, rural, and urban areas in 1985 and 1986. Project operational plans, accident prevention, safety plans, personal protective-equipment usage, and work practices were reviewed and evaluated. Personal exposure and area air monitoring for Bt was carried out during application. Air sampling indicated there was a widespread exposure potential. The author recommends that care be taken by those employees handling Bt in solution and that splashing of Bt to the eye be avoided due to possible corneal ulcer development. The dispersing-agent Plyac is recommended for use in handling the waste-disposal problem. Access to the mixing and application areas should be restricted.

  14. Influence of the forest caterpillar hunter Calosoma sycophanta on the transmission of microsporidia in larvae of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Dörte; Hoch, Gernot

    2013-05-01

    The behaviour of predators can be an important factor in the transmission success of an insect pathogen. We studied how Calosoma sycophanta influences the interaction between its prey [Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae)] and two microsporidian pathogens [Nosema lymantriae (Microsporidia, Nosematidae) and Vairimorpha disparis (Microsporidia, Burellenidae)] infecting the prey.Using laboratory experiments, C. sycophanta was allowed to forage on infected and uninfected L. dispar larvae and to disseminate microsporidian spores when preying or afterwards with faeces.The beetle disseminated spores of N. lymantriae and V. disparis when preying upon infected larvae, as well as after feeding on such prey. Between 45% and 69% of test larvae became infected when C. sycophanta was allowed to disseminate spores of either microsporidium.Laboratory choice experiments showed that C. sycophanta did not discriminate between Nosema-infected and uninfected gypsy moth larvae. Calosoma sycophanta preferred Vairimorpha-infected over uninfected gypsy moth larvae and significantly influenced transmission.When C. sycophanta was allowed to forage during the latent period on infected and uninfected larvae reared together on caged, potted oak saplings, the percentage of V. disparis infection among test larvae increased by more than 70%. The transmission of N. lymantriae was not affected significantly in these experiments.Beetles never became infected with either microsporidian species after feeding on infected prey.We conclude that the transmission of N. lymantriae is not affected. Because no V. disparis spores are released from living larvae, feeding on infected larvae might enhance transmission by reducing the time to death and therefore the latent period. PMID:23794950

  15. Structural and Functional Difference of Pheromone Binding Proteins in Discriminating Chemicals in the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria Dispar

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanxue; Ma, Fei; Cao, Yixia; Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Yongan; Duan, Shengnan; Wei, Yadong; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Naizhong

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., play an important role in olfaction. Here structures of PBPs were first built by Homology Modeling, and each model of PBPs had seven α-helices and a large hydrophobic cavity including 25 residues for PBP1 and 30 residues for PBP2. Three potential semiochemicals were first screened by CDOCKER program based on the PBP models and chemical database. These chemicals were Palmitic acid n-butyl ester (Pal), Bis(3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl) adipate (Bis), L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-isoleucyl-proline methyl ester propylamide (CA-074). The analysis of chemicals docking the proteins showed one hydrogen bond was established between the residues Lys94 and (+)-Disparlure ((+)-D), and л-л interactions were present between Phe36 of PBP1 and (+)-D. The Lys94 of PBP1 formed two and three hydrogen bonds with Bis and CA-074, respectively. There was no residue of PBP2 interacting with these four chemicals except Bis forming one hydrogen bond with Lys121. After simulating the conformational changes of LdisPBPs at pH7.3 and 5.5 by constant pH molecular dynamics simulation in implicit solvent, the N-terminal sequences of PBPs was unfolded, only having five α-helices, and PBP2 had larger binding pocket at 7.3 than PBP1. To investigate the changes of α-helices at different pH, far-UV and near-UV circular dichroism showed PBPs consist of α-helices, and the tertiary structures of PBP1 and PBP2 were influenced at pH7.3 and 5.5. The fluorescence binding assay indicated that PBP1 and PBP2 have similarly binding affinity to (+)-D at pH 5.5 and 7.3, respectively. At pH 5.5, the dissociation constant of the complex between PBP1 and 2-decyl-1-oxaspiro [2.2] pentane (OXP1) was 0.68±0.01μM, for (+)-D was 5.32±0.11μM, while PBP2 with OXP1 and (+)-D were 1.88±0.02μM and 5.54±0.04μM, respectively. Three chemicals screened had higher affinity to PBP1 than (+)-D except Pal at pH5.5, and had lower affinity than (+)-D at pH7

  16. 76 FR 28948 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Gypsy Moth Host Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal... information collection associated with regulations to prevent the introduction of gypsy moth from Canada into... INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on regulations for the importation of gypsy moth host material...

  17. The development of gypsy moth larvae raised on gray and yellow birch foliage grown in ambient and elevated CO[sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Traw, M.B.B.; Bazzaz, F.A. )

    1993-06-01

    This study addresses insect-host plant interactions in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere. Gypsy moth larvae (Lynmtria dispar) were raised on two of their natural host species of New England's temperate forest, yellow and gray birch (Betula alleganiensis and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were germinated and grown at either ambient (350 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO[sub 2] in light and temperature controlled chambers. After four months, we added newly hatched L dispar larvae. Twenty-four mesh cages, each containing one caterpillar and one plant, were set up for each treatment (2 host species x 2 CO[sub 2] levels). Over the next two months, we tracked larval weights and behavior. A sub sample of birch were harvested to measure characteristics that might affect herbivores. A separate group of second and third instar larvae were given the choice of two different, detached leaves in a petri dish. Two preference tests were performed; between species (Yb vs Gb), CO[sub 2] levels (350 vs 700). Our results show that larvae grew significantly larger and reach maturity more rapidly at 350 ppm CO[sub 2] and on gray birch. In preference tests, larvae preferred yellow birch over gray at 350 ppm, and in yellow birch, preferred 350 ppm foliage over 700 ppm foliage. These results suggest that the impact of a generatist insect herbivore on different host plant species may change in an elevated CO[sub 2] atmosphere.

  18. Baculovirus replication: characterization of DNA and proteins synthesized by a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Lymantria dispar, the gypsy moth, in a homologous cell line

    SciTech Connect

    McClintock, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A multiple-embedded nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (LdMNPV), is used for biological control. However, LdMNPV has low natural virulence and a long infection cycle in relation to other NPVs. Therefore, the replicative cycle of LdMNPV was investigated using a homologous cell line, IPLB-LD-652Y. Based on analyses of virus growth curves LdMNPV nonoccluded virus and polyhedral inclusion bodies appeared approximately 20 and 50 hr postinfection (p.i.), respectively. LdMNPV polypeptides, identified by autoradiography of (/sup 35/S)-methionine labeled fractions in SDS-PAGE, were synthesized in sequential phases: (1) an early ..cap alpha.. phase of replication (4 polypeptides from 4 to 12 hr p.i.), (2) an intermediate ..beta.. phase (20 polypeptides from 12 to 24 hr p.i.), and a late ..gamma.. phase (4 polypeptides from 24 to 28 hr p.i.). In infected cells at least four polypeptides were post-translational cleaved and/or modified. Pulse-labeling with (/sup 3/H)-mannose, (/sup 3/H)-N-acetyl-glucosamine or (/sup 32/P)-monosodium phosphate revealed several viral polypeptides which were glycosylated and/or phosphorylated. DNA:DNA dot hybridization experiments suggested that LdMNPV DNA synthesis was initiated between 12 to 16 hr p.i., increasing significantly thereafter.

  19. Vairimorpha disparis n. comb. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae): a redescription and taxonomic revision of Thelohania disparis Timofejeva 1956, a microsporidian parasite of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Vavra, Jiri; Hylis, Miroslav; Vossbrinck, Charles R; Pilarska, Daniela K; Linde, Andreas; Weiser, Jaroslav; McManus, Michael L; Hoch, Gernot; Solter, Leellen F

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of pathogens of populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) in Central and Eastern Europe revealed the existence of a microsporidium (Fungi: Microsporidia) of the genus Vairimorpha. The parasite produced three spore morphotypes. Internally infective spores are formed in the gut and adjacent muscle and connective tissue; single diplokaryotic spores and monokaryotic spores grouped by eight in sporophorous vesicles develop in the fat body tissues. The small subunit rDNA gene sequences of various isolates of the Vairimorpha microsporidia, obtained from L. dispar in various habitats in the investigated region, revealed their mutual identity. In phylogenetic analyses, the organism clustered with other L. dispar microsporidia that form only diplokaryotic spores in the sporogony cycle. The octospores of certain microsporidia infecting Lepidoptera that were previously described as Thelohania spp., have recently been shown to be one of the several spore morphotypes produced by species in the genus Vairimorpha. Because the description and drawings of a parasite described as Thelohania disparis by Timofejeva fit the characteristics of Vairimorpha, and all octospore-producing microsporidia collected from L. dispar since 1985 are genetically identical Vairimorpha species, it is believed that the parasite characterized here is identical to T. disparis Timofejeva 1956, and is herein redescribed, characterized, and transferred to the genus Vairimorpha as the new combination Vairimorpha disparis n. comb. PMID:16872297

  20. Ecologically acceptable usage of derivatives of essential oil of sweet basil, Ocimum basilicum, as antifeedants against larvae of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1-F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2(nd) instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  1. The RING for gypsy moth control: Topical application of fragment of its nuclear polyhedrosis virus anti-apoptosis gene as insecticide.

    PubMed

    Oberemok, Volodymyr V; Laikova, Kateryna V; Zaitsev, Aleksei S; Gushchin, Vladimir A; Skorokhod, Oleksii A

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies suggest a cellular origin for the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) anti-apoptosis genes IAPs, thus opening a possibility to use the fragments of these genes for modulation of host metabolism. We report here the strong insecticidal and metabolic effect of single-stranded antisense DNA fragment from RING (really interesting new gene) domain of gypsy moth LdMNPV IAP-3 gene: specifically, on reduction of biomass (by 35%) and survival of L. dispar caterpillars. The treatment with this DNA fragment leads to a significantly higher mortality rates of female insects (1.7 fold) accompanied with the signs of apoptosis. Additionally, we show increased expression of host IAP-1, caspase-4 and gelsolin genes in eggs laid by survived females treated with RING DNA fragment accompanied with calcium and magnesium imbalance, indicating that the strong stress reactions and metabolic effects are not confined to treated insects but likely led to apoptosis in eggs too. The proposed new approach for insect pest management, which can be considered as advancement of "microbial pesticides", is based on the application of the specific virus DNA, exploiting the knowledge about virus-pest interactions and putting it to the benefit of mankind. PMID:27265824

  2. Ecologically Acceptable usage of Derivatives of Essential Oil of Sweet Basil, Ocimum basilicum, as Antifeedants Against Larvae of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar

    PubMed Central

    Popović, Zorica; Kostić, Miroslav; Stanković, Sladjan; Milanović, Slobodan; Sivčev, Ivan; Kostić, Igor; Kljajić, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol solutions of five fractions obtained from essential oil of sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) (F1–F5) were tested for their antifeedant properties against 2nd instar gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), in laboratory non-choice and feeding-choice experiments. Prior to bioassays, the chemical composition of each fraction was determined by gas chromatography analyses. Significant larval deterrence from feeding was achieved by application of tested solutions to fresh leaves of the host plant. The most effective were were F1 (0.5%), F4 (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5%), and F5 (0.1 and 0.5%), which provided an antifeedant index > 80% after five days. A low rate of larval mortality was observed in no-choice bioassay. In situ screening of chlorophyll fluorescence as an indicator of plant stress level (assessed by the induced fluorometry) confirmed that the tested compounds did not cause alternations in the photosynthetic efficiency of treated leaves. PMID:24773447

  3. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  4. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) consumption and utilization of northern red oak and white oak foliage exposed to simulated acid rain and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, W.N. Jr. )

    1993-06-01

    Two-year-old seedlings of white oak, Quercus alba L., and red oak, Q. rubra L., were exposed to ozone (O[sub 3]) fumigations in four continuously stirred tank reactor chambers in the greenhouse for 8 h/d, 3 d/wk for 6 wk. Fumigation treatments were charcoal-filtered air (CFA) and CFA + 0.15 ppm O[sub 3]. Two simulated rain treatments, pH 4.2 and pH 3.0, of-1.25 cm were applied once each week in rain-simulation chambers. Gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), third instars were allowed to feed on leaf disks from treated seedlings for 24 h. Leaf area consumed, food assimilated, weight gain, and relative growth rate (RGR) were examined. Overall, larvae fed white oak foliage consumed more foliage and gained more weight than those fed red oak foliage. Response to the fumigation and rain treatments was different for each oak species. On white oak foliage, larvae consumed significantly less foliage treated with CFA + pH 3.0 rain, but the lowest RGR occurred with the 0.15 ppm O[sub 3] + pH 4.2 rain treatment. The most food assimilated, greatest weight gain, and highest RGR occurred with the CFA + pH 4.2 rain control. Red oak foliage consumed was equivalent for all treatments, but foliage exposed to CFA + pH 3.0 rain resulted in more food assimilated, greater weight gain, and higher RGR for that species.

  5. Response of the Gypsy Moth, Lymantria dispar to Transgenic Poplar, Populus simonii x P. nigra, Expressing Fusion Protein Gene of the Spider Insecticidal Peptide and Bt-toxin C-peptide

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chuan-Wang; Liu, Gui-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Yan, Shan-Chun; Ma, Ling; Yang, Chuan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The response of the Asian gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) to a fusion gene consisting of the spider, Atrax robustus Simon (Araneae: Hexanthelidae) ω?-ACTX-Ar1 sequence coding for an ω?-atracotoxin and a sequence coding for the Bt-toxin C-peptide, expressed in transgenic poplar Populus simonii x P. nigra L. (Malphigiales: Salicaceae) was investigated. Individual performance, feeding selection, midgut proteinase activity and nutrition utilization were monitored. The growth and development of L. dispar were significantly affected by continually feeding on the transgenic poplar, with the larval instars displaying significantly shorter developmental times than those fed on nontransgenic poplar, but pupation was delayed. Mortality was higher in populations fed transgenic poplar leaves, than for larvae fed nontransgenic poplar leaves. The cumulative mortality during all stages of larvae fed transgenic leaves was 92% compared to 16.7% of larvae on nontransgenic leaves. The highest mortality observed was 71.7% in the last larval instar stage. A two-choice test showed that fifth-instar larvae preferred to feed on nontransgenic leaves at a ratio of 1:1.4. Feeding on transgenic leaves had highly significant negative effects on relative growth of larvae, and the efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food. Activity of major midgut proteinases was measured using substrates TAME and BTEE showed significant increases in tryptase and chymotrypsinlike activity (9.2- and 9.0-fold, respectively) in fifth-instar larvae fed on transgenic leaves over control. These results suggest transgenic poplar is resistant to L. dispar, and the mature L. dispar may be weakened by the transgenic plants due to Bt protoxins activated by elevated major midgut proteinase activity. The new transgenic poplar expressing fusion protein genes of Bt and a new spider insecticidal peptide are good candidates for managing gypsy moth. PMID:21268699

  6. Gypsies and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton, Sybil

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the treatment of Gypsies and the handicapped by Nazi Germany. Emphasizes that Gypsy populations were decimated in the same percentages as the Jews. Presents information and dates to show parallel developments of racial regulations against Jews, Gypsies, and the handicapped. Urges further research and historiography on the fate of Gypsies…

  7. Gypsies and health care.

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, A

    1992-01-01

    Gypsies in the United States are not a healthy group. They have a high incidence of heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. When they seek medical care, Gypsies often come into conflict with medical personnel who find their behavior confusing, demanding, and chaotic. For their part, Gypsies are often suspicious of non-Gypsy people and institutions, viewing them as a source of disease and uncleanliness. Gypsy ideas about health and illness are closely related to notions of good and bad fortune, purity and impurity, and inclusion and exclusion from the group. These basic concepts affect everyday life, including the way Gypsies deal with eating and washing, physicians and hospitals, the diagnosis of illness, shopping around for cures, and coping with birth and death. PMID:1413769

  8. In Vitro Spermatogenesis of Gypsy Moth Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judy; Loeb, Marcia J.

    1994-01-01

    Students establish simple cell developmental cultures to observe the process of spermatogenesis, mitosis, and meiosis in living cells. Using the background information, hints for further exploration, and experimental procedures provided, teachers can easily modify this experiment to suit their students needs. (ZWH)

  9. [Changes in the Gypsy population].

    PubMed

    Hooz, I

    1987-01-01

    The problems involved in estimating the numbers of the Gypsy population in Hungary are described. The author describes the first census of Gypsies carried out in 1983 and other attempts to survey this population. A comparative analysis of changes in the age distribution of the Gypsy and general population over the past 100 years is included. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12341019

  10. Teachers and Gypsy Travellers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Gwynedd; Stead, Joan; Jordan, Elizabeth; Norris, Claire

    1999-01-01

    Interviews in 12 Scottish schools examined how teachers and staff perceived and responded to the culture and behavior of Traveller children--both Gypsies and occupational migrants. The findings raise issues about "difference" versus deviance and the extent to which schools can accommodate cultural diversity when it challenges norms of behavior and…

  11. 78 FR 23740 - Gypsy Moth Program; Record of Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Register (69 FR 23492-23493) announcing the agencies' proposal to add the insecticide tebufenozide (trade... States: A Cooperative Approach (see 60 FR 61698). A notice of availability for the draft SEIS was..., 2008 (73 FR 54397, Docket No. ER-FRL-8585-7), and a notice of availability regarding the final SEIS...

  12. DNA hybridization assay for detection of gypsy moth nuclear polyhedrosis virus in infected gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, S.T.; Burand, J.P.; Elkinton, J.S. )

    1989-11-01

    Radiolabeled Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus DNA probes were used in a DNA hybridization assay to detect the presence of viral DNA in extracts from infected larvae. Total DNA was extracted from larvae, bound to nitrocellulose filters, and assayed for the presence of viral DNA by two methods: slot-blot vacuum filtration and whole-larval squashes. The hybridization results were closely correlated with mortality observed in reared larvae. Hybridization of squashes of larvae frozen 4 days after receiving the above virus treatments also produced accurate measures of the incidence of virus infection.

  13. Gypsy Children, Space, and the School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin P.; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on data generated from a 3-1/2-year ethnographic study of the interface between Gypsy culture and the educational system in England. The evidence suggests that Gypsy children have distinctive spatial orientations that are embedded in their own culture and life experience. These relate to issues revolving around degrees of…

  14. Mutation History of the Roma/Gypsies

    PubMed Central

    Morar, Bharti; Gresham, David; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; Gooding, Rebecca; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Schmidt, Carolin; Abicht, Angela; Lochmüller, Hanns; Tordai, Attila; Kalmár, Lajos; Nagy, Melinda; Karcagi, Veronika; Jeanpierre, Marc; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Beeson, David; Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Warwick Carter, Kim; Reeve, Jeff; de Pablo, Rosario; Kučinskas, Vaidutis; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2004-01-01

    The 8–10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of written records, has to be inferred from current genetic data. In this study, we have used five disease loci harboring private Gypsy mutations to examine some missing historical parameters and current structure. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the five mutations in 832–1,363 unrelated controls, representing 14 Gypsy populations, and the diversification of chromosomal haplotypes in 501 members of affected families. Sharing of mutations and high carrier rates supported a strong founder effect, and the identity of the congenital myasthenia 1267delG mutation in Gypsy and Indian/Pakistani chromosomes provided the best evidence yet of the Indian origins of the Gypsies. However, dramatic differences in mutation frequencies and haplotype divergence and very limited haplotype sharing pointed to strong internal differentiation and characterized the Gypsies as a founder population comprising multiple subisolates. Using disease haplotype coalescence times at the different loci, we estimated that the entire Gypsy population was founded ∼32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring ∼16–25 generations ago. The existence of multiple subisolates, with endogamy maintained to the present day, suggests a general approach to complex disorders in which initial gene mapping could be performed in large families from a single Gypsy group, whereas fine mapping would rely on the informed sampling of the divergent subisolates and searching for the shared genomic region that displays the strongest linkage disequilibrium with the disease. PMID:15322984

  15. Mutation history of the roma/gypsies.

    PubMed

    Morar, Bharti; Gresham, David; Angelicheva, Dora; Tournev, Ivailo; Gooding, Rebecca; Guergueltcheva, Velina; Schmidt, Carolin; Abicht, Angela; Lochmuller, Hanns; Tordai, Attila; Kalmar, Lajos; Nagy, Melinda; Karcagi, Veronika; Jeanpierre, Marc; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Beeson, David; Venkataraman, Viswanathan; Warwick Carter, Kim; Reeve, Jeff; de Pablo, Rosario; Kucinskas, Vaidutis; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2004-10-01

    The 8-10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of written records, has to be inferred from current genetic data. In this study, we have used five disease loci harboring private Gypsy mutations to examine some missing historical parameters and current structure. We analyzed the frequency distribution of the five mutations in 832-1,363 unrelated controls, representing 14 Gypsy populations, and the diversification of chromosomal haplotypes in 501 members of affected families. Sharing of mutations and high carrier rates supported a strong founder effect, and the identity of the congenital myasthenia 1267delG mutation in Gypsy and Indian/Pakistani chromosomes provided the best evidence yet of the Indian origins of the Gypsies. However, dramatic differences in mutation frequencies and haplotype divergence and very limited haplotype sharing pointed to strong internal differentiation and characterized the Gypsies as a founder population comprising multiple subisolates. Using disease haplotype coalescence times at the different loci, we estimated that the entire Gypsy population was founded approximately 32-40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16-25 generations ago. The existence of multiple subisolates, with endogamy maintained to the present day, suggests a general approach to complex disorders in which initial gene mapping could be performed in large families from a single Gypsy group, whereas fine mapping would rely on the informed sampling of the divergent subisolates and searching for the shared genomic region that displays the strongest linkage disequilibrium with the disease. PMID:15322984

  16. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  17. The flaming gypsy skirt injury.

    PubMed

    Leong, S C L; Emecheta, I E; James, M I

    2007-01-01

    On review of admissions over a 12-month period, we noted a significant number of women presenting with gypsy skirt burns. We describe all six cases to highlight the unique distribution of the wounds and the circumstances in which the accidents occurred. Four skirts were ignited by open fire heaters: two skirts ignited whilst the women were standing nearby, distracted with a telephone conversation; one brushed over the flame as she was walking past the heater; other whilst dancing in the lounge. One skirt was ignited by decorative candles placed on the floor during a social gathering. Another skirt was set alight by cigarette ember, whilst smoking in the toilet. Percentage surface area burned, estimated according to the rule of nines, showed that gypsy skirt burns were significant ranging from 7 to 14% total body surface area (TBSA) and averaging 9% TBSA. Two patients required allogenic split-skin grafts. Common sense care with proximity to naked flame is all that is needed to prevent this injury. PMID:17081546

  18. The Forgotten Holocaust of the Gypsies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrnauer, Gabrielle

    1991-01-01

    Traces the systematic murder of 250,000-500,000 Gypsies by the Nazis in the 1930s. Concludes little scholarship has been completed on this incident. States that files documenting the systematic extermination of these people on the grounds of Nazi claims to national security, genetic health, racial purity, and crime prevention are now available at…

  19. School and Ethnicity: The Case of Gypsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enguita, Mariano F.

    2004-01-01

    The schooling of Gypsy children has become a major challenge for the Spanish educational system. After centuries of, first, exclusion and then segregation in separate schools, an egalitarian policy and a sudden enforcement of compulsory schooling have resulted in difficulties and conflicts in numerous Spanish schools. The specificity of the Gypsy…

  20. Reflections on Educational Policies for Spanish Gypsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, the existence of a central government and the governments of 17 autonomous communities, each with its own authority and control over educational matters, results in variation and inequality in educational policies toward Gypsies. The conservative or progressive tendencies of political parties in office and their influence on education as…

  1. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Castagna, John P.; Jr., O'Meara, Daniel J.

    2000-01-12

    The overall objective of this project was to use extensive Gypsy Field Laboratory and data as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. This report describes progress since project report DOE/BC/14970-7 and covers the period June 1997-September 1998 and represents one year of funding originally allocated for the year 1996. During the course of the work previously performed, high resolution geophysical and outcrop data revealed the importance of fractures at the Gypsy site. In addition, personnel changes and alternative funding (OCAST and oil company support of various kinds) allowed the authors to leverage DOE contributions and focus more on geophysical characterization.

  2. SUPPRESSION OF GYPSY MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: LYMANTRIIDAE) POPULATIONS BY THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AS AFFECTED BY GYPSY MOTH LARVAL POPULATION DENSITY AND SUPPLEMENTAL WATERING.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the potential for inducing an earlier epizootic of the fungus Entomophaga maimaiga by inducing early sporulation of resting spores by spraying water around the base of trees. Potential test sites along Skyline Drive in the Shenandoah National Park were characterized during the year 2000....

  3. The De Havilland "Moth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

  4. [Food energy expenditure by the moth Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) at different stages of ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Vshivkova, T A

    2003-01-01

    Food energy expenditures by gypsy moth at different developmental stages under conditions of feeding on larch needles are described. The distribution of total food energy (%) for metabolism, the formation of exuvia (throughout ontogeny), and the formation of an adult insect is assessed. The proportion of food energy lost with excrements over the entire period of feeding is the same (58%) in females and males. The assimilated part of food energy is distributed differently: energy expenditures for the formation of exuvia and adult insects are greater in females than in males. The proportion of food energy expended for metabolism throughout the insect life span is approximately 30% in both females and males. PMID:14735789

  5. Gypsy Field Project in Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Castagna; William J. Lamb; Carlos Moreno; Roger Young; Lynn Soreghan

    2000-09-19

    The objective of the Gypsy Project was to properly calculate seismic attributes and integrate these into a reservoir characterization project. Significant progress was made on the project in four areas. (1) Attenuation: In order for seismic inversion for rock properties or calculation of seismic attributes used to estimate rock properties to be performed validly, it is necessary to deal with seismic data that has had true amplitude and frequency content restored to account for earth filtering effects that are generally not included in seismic reservoir characterization methodologies. This requires the accurate measurement of seismic attenuation, something that is rarely achieved in practice. It is hoped that such measurements may also provide additional independent seismic attributes for use in reservoir characterization studies. In 2000, we were concerned with the ground truthing of attenuation measurements in the vicinity of wells. Our approach to the problem is one of extracting as time varying wavelet and relating temporal variations in the wavelet to an attenuation model of the earth. This method has the advantage of correcting for temporal variations in the reflectivity spectrum of the earth which confound the spectral ratio methodology which is the most commonly applied means of measuring attenuation from surface seismic data. Part I of the report describes our efforts in seismic attenuation as applied to the Gypsy data. (2) Optimal Attributes: A bewildering array of seismic attributes is available to the reservoir geoscientist to try to establish correlations to rock properties. Ultimately, the use of such a large number of degrees of freedom in the search for correlations with limited well control leads to common misapplication of statistically insignificant results which yields invalid predictions. Cross-validation against unused wells can be used to recognize such problems, but does not offer a solution to the question of which attributes should be used

  6. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, N; Gans, M; Masson, M; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is stable and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovoD1 female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovoD1 reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. PMID:7713426

  7. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Prud`homme, N.; Gans, M.; Masson, M.; Terzian, C.; Bucheton, A.

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is table and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovo{sup D1} female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovo{sup D1} reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. 40 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Codling Moth Areawide IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agriculture Research Service funded a five-year multi-institutional project to implement the use of sex pheromones for codling moth in conjunction with the use of other selective control strategies for secondary pests across large contiguous areas of pome fruit production. Twenty-two sites were ...

  9. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  10. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Lincoln, and Sheffield. (5) York County. (i) That portion of York County that includes the City of... of Algoma District that includes the City of Sault Ste. Marie and the following townships: Bright... of Highway 17 and east of the City of Sault Ste. Marie; and (4) That portion of Manitoulin...

  11. Interpretation and mapping of gypsy moth defoilation from ERTS (LANDSAT)-1 temporal composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Kowalik, W. S.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photointerpretation of temporally composited color Diazo transparencies of ERTS(LANDSAT) images is a practical method for detecting and locating levels of widespread defoliation. ERTS 9 x 9 inch images are essentially orthographic and are produced at a nearly constant 1:1,000,000 scale. This allows direct superposition of scenes for temporal composites. ERTS coverage provides a sweeping 180 km (110 mile) wide view, permitting one interpreter to rapidly delineate defoliation in an area requiring days and weeks of work by aerial surveys or computerized processing. Defoliation boundaries can be located on the images within maximum errors on the order of hundreds of meters. The enhancement process is much less expensive than aerial surveys or computerized processing. Maps produced directly from interpretation are manageable working products. The 18 day periodic coverage of ERTS is not frequent enough to replace aerial survey mapping because defoliation and refoliation move as waves.

  12. 78 FR 63369 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 78 FR 24665-24666 on April 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER... \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on April 26, 2013 (78 FR 24665-24666, Docket No... interim rule that amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 78 FR 24665-24666 on April 26,...

  13. Monitoring gypsy moth defoliation by applying change detection techniques to Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. L.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    The overall objective of a research effort at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is to develop and evaluate digital image processing techniques that will facilitate the assessment of the intensity and spatial distribution of forest insect damage in Northeastern U.S. forests using remotely sensed data from Landsats 1, 2 and C. Automated change detection techniques are presently being investigated as a method of isolating the areas of change in the forest canopy resulting from pest outbreaks. In order to follow the change detection approach, Landsat scene correction and overlay capabilities are utilized to provide multispectral/multitemporal image files of 'defoliation' and 'nondefoliation' forest stand conditions.

  14. Response of α-glucosidase in gypsy moth larvae to acute and chronic dietary cadmium.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena S; Mataruga, Vesna D Perić; Lazarević, Jelica M; Mrdaković, Marija M; Matić, Dragana R; Todorović, Dajana D; Ilijin, Larisa A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute and chronic treatments with cadmium at 10 μg Cd/g dry food and 30 μg Cd/g dry food on α-glucosidase activity of the 4th instar larvae of Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) as well as subsequent recovery. Enzyme inhibition was recorded during acute exposure to 30 μg Cd/g dry food and during chronic treatment at the lower metal concentration. After three days recovery from 10 μg Cd/g dry food, the α-glucosidase activity returned to the control level. One-way ANOVA showed that cadmium significantly influenced the activity of α-glucosidase during all treatments. The index of phenotypic plasticity was higher during chronic treatment at 10 μg Cd/g dry food than at 30 μg Cd/g as well as during the recovery. We detected four glucosidase isoforms by NATIVE PAGE. The activities and expressions of the isoforms depended on both larval genotype and cadmium treatment. PMID:25714460

  15. Cadmium-induced changes of gypsy moth larval mass and protease activity.

    PubMed

    Vlahović, Milena; Ilijin, Larisa; Lazarević, Jelica; Mrdaković, Marija; Gavrilović, Anja; Matić, Dragana; Mataruga, Vesna Perić

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium uptake takes place mainly through food. Lymantria dispar larvae were exposed to dietary cadmium in concentrations of 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food (NOEC, no-observed-effect and LOEC, lowest-observed-effect concentration, respectively) for acute and chronic treatment and recovery. We established that metal contamination decreased mass only during the chronic treatment at 30μg Cd/dry food with no recovery on removal of cadmium for 3days. Significant reduction of protease activity was detected at LOEC after the acute and chronic treatments. Protease showed enhanced plasticity with regard to the fitness trait (mass) during environmental stress and the higher cadmium load, when it changed. The statistically significant higher index of phenotypic plasticity for protease correlated with lower variability. Protease isoforms at the same cadmium treatments differed between genotypes, while some protease isoforms from one egg-mass differed between cadmium treatments. Owing to the low sensitivity and plasticity of mass change during exposure to cadmium, as well as its small influence, we concluded that larval mass is not a good indicator of cadmium presence in food. We suggest that proteases, with further research, might be a suitable indicator of dietary cadmium contamination, as well as nutriment utilization during heavy metal stress. PMID:24230976

  16. Neurophysiological and behavioral responses of gypsy moth larvae to insect repellents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interactions between insect repellents and the olfactory system have been widely studied, however relatively little is known about the effects of repellents on the gustatory system of insects. In this study, we show that the gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) located in the medial styloconic sensi...

  17. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... route 7 to route 328; then south along route 328 to the shoreline of Cole Harbour; then west along the seashore from Cole Harbour to the point of beginning. (4) Hants County. The area of the county bounded by...

  18. 76 FR 60358 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... 29, 2011, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 76 FR 21613-21615 on April 18..., 2011 (76 FR 21613-21615, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0075), we amended Sec. 301.45-3(a) by adding portions... change, the interim rule that amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 76 FR 21613-21615 on...

  19. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... beginning at the intersection of the Halifax/Lunenburg County border and the Atlantic Ocean; then north..., Bright Additional, Cobden, Denis, Garden River First Nation, Indian Reserve #7, Johnson, Korah, Laird... Indian Reserves; and (5) That portion of Nipissing District that includes the City of North Bay; and...

  20. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beginning at the intersection of the Halifax/Lunenburg County border and the Atlantic Ocean; then north..., Bright Additional, Cobden, Denis, Garden River First Nation, Indian Reserve #7, Johnson, Korah, Laird... Indian Reserves; and (5) That portion of Nipissing District that includes the City of North Bay; and...

  1. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... beginning at the intersection of the Halifax/Lunenburg County border and the Atlantic Ocean; then north..., Bright Additional, Cobden, Denis, Garden River First Nation, Indian Reserve #7, Johnson, Korah, Laird... Indian Reserves; and (5) That portion of Nipissing District that includes the City of North Bay; and...

  2. Effects on forest birds of DDT used for gypsy moth control in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, N.; Pough, R.H.

    1946-01-01

    1. Systematic censuses of the birds on three 40-acre tracts of forest near Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, were made between May 1 and June 27, 1945, to determine the breeding populations....2. Between May 24 and June 1 a 600-acre area enclosing the first (Mile Square) was sprayed by airplane with DDT in oil solution at 5 pounds per acre. On June 9 a 350-acre area enclosing the second tract (Maple Lake) was sprayed with 1pound of DDT per acre. The third tract (Check) was not treated....3. Within 48 hours after treatment of the Mile Square tract, five sick birds were found with symptoms of DDT poisoning, and all died. Two other dead birds were found, and two nests apparently were abandoned. Species involved were red-eyed vireo (3), black-and-white warbler, black-throated blue warbler (nest abandoned), ovenbird (bird died, nest abandoned), redstart, and scarlet tanager....Within 48 hours after application of DDT to the final portion of the tract (on June 1) the population of living birds appeared to have been much reduced, and this condition continued. Before spraying the population total for all species was 1.6 pairs (3.2 birds) per acre. Three days after spraying had been completed there were only two singing males in the entire area; but on June 13 the estimated population was 0.5 bird per acre.....4. After DDT was applied to the Maple Lake tract, careful watch was kept for changes in the bird population and as to nest conditions there and on the Check tract. The apparent total reduction for all species in the Maple Lake tract was from 2.7 pairs to 2.6 pairs per acre; and in the Check tract from 2.7 pairs to 2.4 pairs per acre. Neither these changes nor the observed abandonment of nests and nestling mortality could be attributed to use of DDT.

  3. 76 FR 18510 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Gypsy Moth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... distinguished from each other. DNA analysis is the only way to accurately identify these insects.) The PPQ or... Form 305), which accompanies the insect to the laboratory. The worksheet enables both Federal and...

  4. 75 FR 78587 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Ohio, and Virginia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... interim rule \\1\\ effective and published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2009 (74 FR 48001-48002... FR 48001-48002 on September 21, 2009, is adopted as a final rule with the following changes: PART 301..., Edinburg, Enfield, Etna, Exeter, Garland, Glenburn, Grand Falls Plantation, Greenbush,...

  5. The stigmatization of obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children.

    PubMed

    Papp, Ildikó; Túry, Ferenc

    2013-06-01

    Prejudice against obese people has been widely confirmed in scientific papers. Therefore, recent studies have increasingly focused on investigating the individual and cultural factors related to attitudes towards obesity. Since there have been no comparative studies involving Gypsy people, our present research aimed at exploring the possible discrepancies in children's attitudes towards obese children between Gypsy and Hungarian cultures. Our survey included 247 children aged 9-16 (108 boys and 139 girls), of which 136 considered themselves Hungarian (55.1 %), while 111 children (44.9 %) claimed themselves as Gypsy. The subjects were asked to rank six male and six female figure drawings according to their preference. Each sequence of figure drawings included a healthy child, an obese child, and four drawings depicted children with disabilities. According to our results, the drawings portraying the healthy child figure were rated most preferable and those portraying the obese child figure the least preferable amongst the subjects regardless of gender and origin. However, the obese girl figures and boy figures were rated significantly more positively by Gypsy children than Hungarian children. Our results suggest that there is a difference in attitude towards obesity among Gypsy and Hungarian children. Therefore, it is worthwhile to further explore this phenomenon. PMID:23760848

  6. Pheromone Transduction in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Stengl, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors. PMID:21228914

  7. A newly discovered founder population: the Roma/Gypsies.

    PubMed

    Kalaydjieva, Luba; Morar, Bharti; Chaix, Raphaelle; Tang, Hua

    2005-10-01

    The Gypsies (a misnomer, derived from an early legend about Egyptian origins) defy the conventional definition of a population: they have no nation-state, speak different languages, belong to many religions and comprise a mosaic of socially and culturally divergent groups separated by strict rules of endogamy. Referred to as "the invisible minority", the Gypsies have for centuries been ignored by Western medicine, and their genetic heritage has only recently attracted attention. Common origins from a small group of ancestors characterise the 8-10 million European Gypsies as an unusual trans-national founder population, whose exodus from India played the role of a profound demographic bottleneck. Social and economic pressures within Europe led to gradual fragmentation, generating multiple genetically differentiated subisolates. The string of population bottlenecks and founder effects have shaped a unique genetic profile, whose potential for genetic research can be met only by study designs that acknowledge cultural tradition and self-identity. PMID:16163730

  8. Origins and divergence of the Roma (gypsies).

    PubMed

    Gresham, D; Morar, B; Underhill, P A; Passarino, G; Lin, A A; Wise, C; Angelicheva, D; Calafell, F; Oefner, P J; Shen, P; Tournev, I; de Pablo, R; Kuĉinskas, V; Perez-Lezaun, A; Marushiakova, E; Popov, V; Kalaydjieva, L

    2001-12-01

    The identification of a growing number of novel Mendelian disorders and private mutations in the Roma (Gypsies) points to their unique genetic heritage. Linguistic evidence suggests that they are of diverse Indian origins. Their social structure within Europe resembles that of the jatis of India, where the endogamous group, often defined by profession, is the primary unit. Genetic studies have reported dramatic differences in the frequencies of mutations and neutral polymorphisms in different Romani populations. However, these studies have not resolved ambiguities regarding the origins and relatedness of Romani populations. In this study, we examine the genetic structure of 14 well-defined Romani populations. Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers of different mutability were analyzed in a total of 275 individuals. Asian Y-chromosome haplogroup VI-68, defined by a mutation at the M82 locus, was present in all 14 populations and accounted for 44.8% of Romani Y chromosomes. Asian mtDNA-haplogroup M was also identified in all Romani populations and accounted for 26.5% of female lineages in the sample. Limited diversity within these two haplogroups, measured by the variation at eight short-tandem-repeat loci for the Y chromosome, and sequencing of the HVS1 for the mtDNA are consistent with a small group of founders splitting from a single ethnic population in the Indian subcontinent. Principal-components analysis and analysis of molecular variance indicate that genetic structure in extant endogamous Romani populations has been shaped by genetic drift and differential admixture and correlates with the migrational history of the Roma in Europe. By contrast, social organization and professional group divisions appear to be the product of a more recent restitution of the caste system of India. PMID:11704928

  9. Origins and Divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, David; Morar, Bharti; Underhill, Peter A.; Passarino, Giuseppe; Lin, Alice A.; Wise, Cheryl; Angelicheva, Dora; Calafell, Francesc; Oefner, Peter J.; Shen, Peidong; Tournev, Ivailo; de Pablo, Rosario; Kuĉinskas, Vaidutis; Perez-Lezaun, Anna; Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2001-01-01

    The identification of a growing number of novel Mendelian disorders and private mutations in the Roma (Gypsies) points to their unique genetic heritage. Linguistic evidence suggests that they are of diverse Indian origins. Their social structure within Europe resembles that of the jatis of India, where the endogamous group, often defined by profession, is the primary unit. Genetic studies have reported dramatic differences in the frequencies of mutations and neutral polymorphisms in different Romani populations. However, these studies have not resolved ambiguities regarding the origins and relatedness of Romani populations. In this study, we examine the genetic structure of 14 well-defined Romani populations. Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers of different mutability were analyzed in a total of 275 individuals. Asian Y-chromosome haplogroup VI-68, defined by a mutation at the M82 locus, was present in all 14 populations and accounted for 44.8% of Romani Y chromosomes. Asian mtDNA-haplogroup M was also identified in all Romani populations and accounted for 26.5% of female lineages in the sample. Limited diversity within these two haplogroups, measured by the variation at eight short-tandem-repeat loci for the Y chromosome, and sequencing of the HVS1 for the mtDNA are consistent with a small group of founders splitting from a single ethnic population in the Indian subcontinent. Principal-components analysis and analysis of molecular variance indicate that genetic structure in extant endogamous Romani populations has been shaped by genetic drift and differential admixture and correlates with the migrational history of the Roma in Europe. By contrast, social organization and professional group divisions appear to be the product of a more recent restitution of the caste system of India. PMID:11704928

  10. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

  11. Moths smell with their antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  12. Prevalence of hepatitis A antibody among disadvantaged gypsy children in northern Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Cilla, G.; Perez-Trallero, E.; Marimon, J. M.; Erdozain, S.; Gutierrez, C.

    1995-01-01

    The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a group of socially and economically disadvantaged Spanish gypsy children was compared to that of a group of non-gypsy middle-class children. The study included 438 children, 73 gypsies (38 girls and 35 boys, mean age 8.5 years, age range 2-16 years) and 365 non-gypsy controls, randomly selected by age. The presence of anti-HAV was investigated using ELISA. Among the gypsy children, 82% had antibodies to HAV compared with 9.3% of the children in the control group. The unfavourable living conditions of the gypsy population (e.g. homes with poor sanitary conditions, overcrowding) may explain the high prevalence of HAV infection. These findings underline the need for specific action which targets disadvantaged populations. PMID:7641829

  13. Some aspects of health status of the Gypsy population in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Bartosovic, I

    2016-01-01

    Population of the Gypsy people living currently in Slovakia reaches approximately 400,000 people which represents 7.5% of the total Slovak population. The age structure of the Gypsy population is of a considerably progressive type with a high number of children and very low number of old people. This is due to the high natality and high mortality of Gypsies, whose health status is worse than the health status of the majority population. Gypsy people represent an important "old-new" risk group in case of tuberculosis and a more frequent occurrence of other transmitted diseases is observed in them while a higher incidence of genetically conditioned diseases has been confirmed, as well. As for children, a higher frequency of infectious diseases, injuries, intoxications and burns can be found as a result of their environmental conditions. A high level of infant mortality of the Gypsy children is a very negative phenomenon. We can state that the lifestyle of the Gypsy population is unhealthy, characterized by bad dietary habits, drinking alcohol, frequent smoking already in a very young age, higher weight and lower physical activity. All findings confirm that the Gypsy population is threatened by cardiovascular diseases at younger age already. Due to a more difficult approach to the health care, part of the Gypsies consult the physician only when in a serious health state. Health status of the Gypsy seniors has been reported only at minimum due to their low representation in population. Typical feature of this ethnic is, that they take care of their seniors. To prove this, during the author´s twenty seven-year practice he met just three old Gypsy women in social institutions. It is very difficult to address problems related to the Gypsy population; this task requires engagement of all spheres of our society, in particular of the Gypsies themselves, including their organizations (Ref. 50). PMID:26810166

  14. The Song of the Other/Public Space as a Learning Environment and Gypsy Musicians in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Ulas

    2013-01-01

    This work focuses on both public musical practices of Gypsy musicians who live in the Thracian land lying within the northwest of Turkey, and musical learning that takes place here. I primarily highlight the historic dimensions of the relation between Gypsies and music and emphasized musicianship in the lives of Gypsies as a fundamental class…

  15. Conflicting Value Systems: Gypsy Females and the Home-School Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin P.; Sparkes, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on data from a three-year ethnographic study of Gypsy life in England, this article explores the experience and attitudes of Gypsy women regarding the home-school interface. Specific attention is given to the following: role expectations in the different contexts; changing perceptions of role in the face of economic and social change; the…

  16. Comparative and functional studies of Drosophila species invasion by the gypsy endogenous retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Mejlumian, Lucine; Pélisson, Alain; Bucheton, Alain; Terzian, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. Phylogenetic studies suggest that occasional horizontal transfer events of gypsy occur between Drosophila species. gypsy possesses infective properties associated with the products of the envelope gene that might be at the origin of these interspecies transfers. We report here the existence of DNA sequences putatively encoding full-length Env proteins in the genomes of Drosophila species other than D. melanogaster, suggesting that potentially infective gypsy copies able to spread between sexually isolated species can occur. The ability of gypsy to invade the genome of a new species is conditioned by its capacity to be expressed in the naive genome. The genetic basis for the regulation of gypsy activity in D. melanogaster is now well known, and it has been assigned to an X-linked gene called flamenco. We established an experimental simulation of the invasion of the D. melanogaster genome by gypsy elements derived from other Drosophila species, which demonstrates that these non- D. melanogaster gypsy elements escape the repression exerted by the D. melanogaster flamenco gene. PMID:11805056

  17. Marginal Groups in Marginal Times: Gypsy and Traveller Parents and Home Education in England, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant; Myers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of home education for Gypsy and Traveller groups in England, UK. We argue that home education is perceived in a particular historical "moment" characterised in the media and more generally throughout society by "risk". Against this backdrop this article considers Gypsy and Traveller…

  18. At the Crossroads: Gypsy and Traveller Parents' Perceptions of Education, Protection and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Martin; McGhee, Derek; Bhopal, Kalwant

    2010-01-01

    This article uses empirical data gathered during a pilot study funded by a local education authority to consider Gypsy and Traveller parents' perceptions of education. It examines the changing role of education within the lives of Gypsy and Traveller parents and children reflecting changing social circumstances, in particular how many parents now…

  19. In between: Gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster Reveals New Insights into Endogenous Retrovirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Touret, Franck; Guiguen, François; Greenland, Timothy; Terzian, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses are RNA viruses that are able to synthesize a DNA copy of their genome and insert it into a chromosome of the host cell. Sequencing of different eukaryote genomes has revealed the presence of many such endogenous retroviral sequences. The mechanisms by which these retroviral sequences have colonized the genome are still unknown, and the endogenous retrovirus gypsy of Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful experimental model for deciphering this process in vivo. Gypsy is expressed in a layer of somatic cells, and then transferred into the oocyte by an unknown mechanism. This critical step is the start of the endogenization process. Moreover gypsy has been shown to have infectious properties, probably due to its envelope gene acquired from a baculovirus. Recently we have also shown that gypsy maternal transmission is reduced in the presence of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. These studies demonstrate that gypsy is a unique and powerful model for understanding the endogenization of retroviruses. PMID:25502325

  20. The relationship between the flamenco gene and gypsy in Drosophila: how to tame a retrovirus.

    PubMed

    Bucheton, A

    1995-09-01

    For a long time, retroviruses have been considered to be restricted to vertebrates. However, the genome of insects contains elements like gypsy in Drosophila melanogaster that are strikingly similar to vertebrate proviruses of retroviruses, which were considered to be transposable elements. Recent results indicate that gypsy has infective properties and is therefore a retrovirus, the first to be identified in invertebrates. It is normally repressed by a host gene called flamenco, which apparently controls the transposition and infective properties of gypsy. This provides an exceptional experimental model to investigate the genetic relationships between retroviruses and their hosts. PMID:7482786

  1. Founder mutation causing infantile GM1-gangliosidosis in the Gypsy population.

    PubMed

    Sinigerska, Ivanka; Chandler, David; Vaghjiani, Vijesh; Hassanova, Irfet; Gooding, Rebecca; Morrone, Amelia; Kremensky, Ivo; Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2006-05-01

    The Gypsies are a trans-national founder population of Asian descent, whose genetic heritage is still incompletely characterized. Here, we describe the first founder mutation leading to a lysosomal storage disorder in this population: R59H in GLB1, which causes infantile GM1-gangliosidosis. The R59H carrier rate is approximately 2% in the general Gypsy population and approximately 10% in the Rudari sub-isolate. Haplotype analysis suggests that the Gypsy diaspora may have contributed to the spread of this mutation to South America. PMID:16466959

  2. Superior underwater vision in a human population of sea gypsies.

    PubMed

    Gislén, Anna; Dacke, Marie; Kröger, Ronald H H; Abrahamsson, Maths; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J

    2003-05-13

    Humans are poorly adapted for underwater vision. In air, the curved corneal surface accounts for two-thirds of the eye's refractive power, and this is lost when air is replaced by water. Despite this, some tribes of sea gypsies in Southeast Asia live off the sea, and the children collect food from the sea floor without the use of visual aids. This is a remarkable feat when one considers that the human eye is not focused underwater and small objects should remain unresolved. We have measured the visual acuity of children in a sea gypsy population, the Moken, and found that the children see much better underwater than one might expect. Their underwater acuity (6.06 cycles/degree) is more than twice as good as that of European children (2.95 cycles/degree). Our investigations show that the Moken children achieve their superior underwater vision by maximally constricting the pupil (1.96 mm compared to 2.50 mm in European children) and by accommodating to the known limit of human performance (15-16 D). This extreme reaction-which is routine in Moken children-is completely absent in European children. Because they are completely dependent on the sea, the Moken are very likely to derive great benefit from this strategy. PMID:12747831

  3. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Meara, Jr., D. J.

    1997-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as a focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation. Data from these sites entail geological descriptions, core measurements, well logs, vertical seismic surveys, a 3D seismic survey, crosswell seismic surveys, and pressure transient well tests. The overall project consists of four interdisciplinary sub-projects which are closely interlinked: modeling depositional environments; sweep efficiency; tracer testing; and integrated 3D seismic interpretation. The first of these aims at improving the ability to model complex depositional environments which trap movable oil. The second is a development geophysics project which proposes to improve the quality of reservoir geological models through better use of 3D seismic data. The third investigates the usefulness of a new numerical technique for identifying unswept oil through rapid calculation of sweep efficiency in large reservoir models. The fourth explores what can be learned from tracer tests in complex depositional environments, particularly those which are fluvial dominated.

  4. Expression of the Drosophila retrovirus gypsy as ultrastructurally detectable particles in the ovaries of flies carrying a permissive flamenco allele.

    PubMed

    Lécher, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1997-09-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is controlled by the Drosophila gene flamenco (flam). New insertions of gypsy occur in any individual Drosophila if its mother is homozygous for the flam1 permissive allele and contains functional gypsy proviruses. The ovaries of flam1 females also contain high amounts of gypsy RNAs. Unexpectedly however, gypsy derepression does not occur in the flam1 female germ-line proper but in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. Since extracts from these females are able to efficiently infect the germ-line of a strain devoid of active gypsy proviruses, we assume that a similar kind of germ-line infection, which would occur inside the flam1 females themselves, could be required for gypsy insertions to occur in their progeny. This hypothesis was confirmed by electron microscopy observations showing that non-enveloped intracytoplasmic particles containing gypsy RNAs accumulate in the apical region of the flam1 follicle cells, close to specific membrane domains to which the gypsy envelope proteins are targeted, whereas both are absent in the flam+ controls. Low amounts of similar virus-like particles were also observed in flam1 oocytes, but it is not yet known whether they entered passively or as a result of membrane fusion. This is the first report of the beginning of a retrovirus cycle in invertebrates and these observations should be taken into account when explaining the maternal effect of the flamenco gene on the multiplication of gypsy proviruses. PMID:9292028

  5. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  7. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  8. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  9. 7 CFR 301.45-6 - Compliance agreement and cancellation thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301... agreement shall specify safeguards necessary to prevent spread of the gypsy moth, such as...

  10. Congenital cataract, facial dysmorphism and demyelinating neuropathy (CCFDN) in 10 Czech gypsy children – frequent and underestimated cause of disability among Czech gypsies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital Cataract Facial Dysmorphism and demyelinating Neuropathy (CCFDN, OMIM 604468) is an autosomal recessive multi-system disorder which was first described in Bulgarian Gypsies in 1999. It is caused by the homozygous founder mutation c.863 + 389C > T in the CTDP1 gene. The syndrome has been described exclusively in patients of Gypsy ancestry. The prevalence of this disorder in the Gypsy population in the Czech Republic and Central Europe is not known and is probably underestimated and under-diagnosed. Methods We clinically diagnosed and assessed 10 CCFDN children living in the Czech Republic. All patients are children of different ages, all of Gypsy origin born in the Czech Republic. Molecular genetic testing for the founder CTDP1 gene mutation was performed. Results All patients are homozygous for the c.863 + 389C > T mutation in the CTDP1 gene. All patients presented a bilateral congenital cataract and microphthalmos and had early cataract surgery. Correct diagnosis was not made until the age of two. All patients had variably delayed motor milestones. Gait is characteristically paleocerebellar in all the patients. Mental retardation was variable and usually mild. Conclusions Clinical diagnosis of CCFDN should be easy for an informed pediatrician or neurologist by the obligate signalling trias of congenital bilateral cataract, developmental delay and later demyelinating neuropathy. Our data indicate a probably high prevalence of CCFDN in the Czech Gypsy ethnic subpopulation. PMID:24690360

  11. The flamenco locus controls the gypsy and ZAM retroviruses and is required for Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mével-Ninio, Maryvonne; Pelisson, Alain; Kinder, Jennifer; Campos, Ana Regina; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-04-01

    In Drosophila, the as yet uncloned heterochromatic locus flamenco (flam) controls mobilization of the endogenous retrovirus gypsy through the repeat-associated small interfering (rasi) RNA silencing pathway. Restrictive alleles (flamR) downregulate accumulation of gypsy transcripts in the somatic follicular epithelium of the ovary. In contrast, permissive alleles (flamP) are unable to repress gypsy. DIP1, the closest transcription unit to a flam-insertional mutation, was considered as a good candidate to be a gypsy regulator, since it encodes a dsRNA-binding protein. To further characterize the locus we analyzed P-induced flam mutants and generated new mutations by transposon mobilization. We show that flam is required somatically for morphogenesis of the follicular epithelium, the tissue where gypsy is repressed. This developmental activity is necessary to control gypsy and another retroelement, ZAM. We also show that flam is not DIP1, as none of the new permissive mutants affect the DIP1 coding sequence. In addition, two deletions removing DIP1 coding sequences do not affect any of the flamenco functions. Our results suggest that flamenco extends proximally to DIP1, spanning >130 kb of transposon-rich heterochromatin. We propose a model explaining the multiple functions of this large heterochromatic locus. PMID:17277359

  12. Immunoglobulin allotypes in Hungarian Gypsies. Relationship to populations from India.

    PubMed

    van Loghem, E; Tauszik, T; Hollàn, S; Nijenhuis, L E

    1985-06-01

    The allotypic markers of immunoglobulin heavy chains (Gm, Am and Em allotypes) provide important contributions to the differentiation between populations, and they are informative for tracing racial origin, migration and admixture of isolates and stray groups. The combined G1m; G2m; G3m; A2m; Em haplotypes are a highly polymorphic system that is a powerful tool in population genetics because of the existence of haplotypes that are unique for a particular race. In this paper, data on Gypsies living in Hungary are compared with those obtained in other populations, in particular Hindus and non-Hindus from India. The analysis agrees with anthropological and philological evidence for population movements from Asia to Europe. PMID:3937857

  13. Metal-supplemented diets alter carbohydrate levels in tissue and hemolymph of gypsy moth larvae (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Larvae of Lymantria dispar were exposed to two concentrations each of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn from hatching to day 3 of the fourth instar. The metals were applied via artificial diet (wheat germ diet); two control groups were reared on either an uncontaminated artificial diet (C) or on a natural diet (oak leaves, EF). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed to analyze the hemolymph carbohydrates, whereas body glycogen and glucose were determined enzymatically. The results were analyzed with respect to diet-specific differences (oak leaves versus wheat germ diet) and metal exposure compared with the uncontaminated artificial diet. Hemolymph trehalose levels were higher in oak leaf-reared individuals than in those fed on the wheat germ diet (p < 0.01), whereas the opposite applied to the body glycogen and free glucose levels (p < 0.01). The average trehalose value of the control (C) (4.3 mg/ml) was reduced by metal contamination, dependent on both the metal itself and the concentration (Cd, Cu, Zn; 1.4--3.3 mg/ml). Sorbitol was not detected in the hemolymph of EF specimens, whereas it occurred in all artificial diet-fed groups. Metal- and dose-dependent differences in the hemolymph sorbitol levels were observed in the treatment groups, but not in the controls. Glycogen content increased in the low concentration of Cd, Pb, and Cu, whereas a decrease was observed for the low Cd and both Zn concentrations. Tissue free glucose was enhanced only in three of the metal groups. Generally, fresh and dry weights of larvae were reduced in all groups except the high Cu-contaminated one. The results may indicate that mass outbreaks of an important forest pest insect like L. dispar may be facilitated in metal-contaminated areas because parasitization success of antagonistic species may decline due to deterioration of nourishment within the metal-stressed host.

  14. Transcription profiling of 12 asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) cytochrome P450 genes in response to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Wang, Zhiying; Zou, Chuanshan; Cao, Chuanwang

    2014-04-01

    As the main group of detoxification enzymes, cytochrome P450 monoxygenases (P450s) catalyse an extremely diverse range of reactions that play an important role in the detoxification of foreign compounds. Transcription profiling of 12 Lymantria dispar P450 genes from the CYP6 subfamily believed to be involved in insecticide metabolism was performed in this study. Life-stage transcription profiling of CYP6 genes revealed significant variations between eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult males and females. Exposure of larvae to sublethal doses of deltamethrin, omethoate, and carbaryl enhanced the transcription of most of the CYP6 P450 genes, with induction peaking between 24 and 72 h after exposure. Transcription profiles were dependent on the levels of insecticide exposure and the various developmental stages. PMID:24488622

  15. Gypsy moth defoliation assessment: Forest defoliation in detectable from satellite imagery. [New England, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J. (Principal Investigator); Rohde, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery obtained over eastern Pennsylvania during July 1973, indicates that forest defoliation is detectable from satellite imagery and correlates well with aerial visual survey data. It now appears that two damage classes (heavy and moderate-light) and areas of no visible defoliation can be detected and mapped from properly prepared false composite imagery. In areas where maple is the dominant species or in areas of small woodlots interspersed with agricultural areas, detection and subsequent mapping is more difficult.

  16. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  17. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms. PMID:21697434

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of new Drosophila cell lines established from a strain permissive for gypsy transposition.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, F; Debec, A; Marcaillou, C; Rougeau, C; Bucheton, A

    1998-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified in invertebrates. Its transposition is controlled by a host gene called flamenco (flam): restrictive alleles of this gene maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state while permissive alleles allow high levels of transposition. To develop a cell system to study the gypsy element, we established four independent cell lines derived from the Drosophila strain SS, which contains a permissive allele of flamenco, and which is devoid of transposing copies of gypsy. The ultrastructural analysis of three SS cell lines revealed some remarkable characteristics, such as many nuclear virus-like particles, cytoplasmic dense particles, and massive cisternae filled with a fibrous material of unknown origin. Gypsy intragenomic distribution has been compared between the three cell lines and the original SS fly strain, and revealed in two of the cell lines an increase in copy number of a restriction fragment usually present in active gypsy elements. This multiplication seems to have occurred during the passage to the cell culture. Availability of SS cell lines should assist studies of gypsy transposition and infectivity and might be useful to produce high amounts of gypsy viral particles. These new lines already allowed us to show that the Envelope-like products of gypsy can be expressed as membrane proteins. PMID:9870529

  19. Evidence for a piwi-dependent RNA silencing of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus by the Drosophila melanogaster flamenco gene.

    PubMed

    Sarot, Emeline; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Bucheton, Alain; Pélisson, Alain

    2004-03-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the endogenous retrovirus gypsy is repressed by the functional alleles (restrictive) of an as-yet-uncloned heterochromatic gene called flamenco. Using gypsy-lacZ transcriptional fusions, we show here that this repression takes place not only in the follicle cells of restrictive ovaries, as was previously observed, but also in restrictive larval female gonads. Analyses of the role of gypsy cis-regulatory sequences in the control of gypsy expression are also presented. They rule out the hypothesis that gypsy would contain a single binding region for a putative Flamenco repressor. Indeed, the ovarian expression of a chimeric yp3-lacZ construct was shown to become sensitive to the Flamenco regulation when any of three different 5'-UTR gypsy sequences (ranging from 59 to 647 nucleotides) was incorporated into the heterologous yp3-lacZ transcript. The piwi mutation, which is known to affect RNA-mediated homology-dependent transgene silencing, was also shown to impede the repression of gypsy in restrictive female gonads. Finally, a RNA-silencing model is also supported by the finding in ovaries of short RNAs (25-27 nucleotides long) homologous to sequences from within the gypsy 5'-UTR. PMID:15082550

  20. Characterization of Ty3-gypsy-like elements in Hibiscus syriacus.

    PubMed

    Jeung, Ji-Ung; Cho, Sung Ki; Lee, Seung Jae; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2005-06-30

    Southern blot analysis revealed a ubiquitous distribu-tion and high copy number of Ty3-gypsy-like elements in the genome of Hibiscus syriacus. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit of Rubisco and the integrase region of Ty3-gypsy elements in various plant species indicated that the retrotransposon-like sequences have different evolutionary histories and their own unique polymorphism in the H. syriacus population. Sequence-tagged site-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (STS-RFLP) analysis also indicated great variability in the numbers and sequences of Ty3-gypsy-like elements within H. syriacus varieties. Ty3-gypsy-like elements may still be active within H. syriacus, since Northern analysis of wounded leaves of H. syriacus variety Saehan with a probe for the integrase domain gave strong hybridization signals. The sequence heterogeneity and ubiquity of the Ty3-gypsy-like elements in H. syriacus genomes could provide reliable DNA markers for line identification as well for the analysis of genetic diversity in H. syriacus. PMID:15995347

  1. Transcription of gypsy elements in a Y-chromosome male fertility gene of Drosophila hydei

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstenbach, R.; Harhangi, H.; Hennig, W.

    1996-02-01

    We have found that defective gypsy retrotransposons are a major constituent of the lampbrush loop pair Nooses in the short arm of Y chromosome of Drosophila hydei. The loop pair is formed by male fertility gene Q during the primary spermatocyte stage of spermatogenesis, each loop being a single transcription unit with an estimated length of 260 kb. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that throughout the loop transcripts gypsy elements are interspersed with blocks of a tandemly repetitive Y-specific DNA sequence, ayl. Nooses transcripts containing both sequence types show a wide size range on Northern blots, do not migrate to the cytoplasm, and are degraded just before the first meiotic division. Only one strand of ayl and only the coding strand of gypsy can be detected in the loop transcripts. However, as cloned genomic DNA fragments also display opposite orientations of ayl and gypsy, such DNA sections cannot be part of the Nooses. Hence, they are most likely derived from the flanking heterochromatin. The direction of transcription of ayl and gypsy thus appears to be of a functional significance. 76 refs., 5 figs.

  2. The Suppressor of Hairy-Wing Protein Regulates the Tissue-Specific Expression of the Drosophila Gypsy Retrotransposon

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P. A.; Corces, V. G.

    1995-01-01

    The gypsy retrotransposon of Drosophila melanogaster causes mutations that show temporal and tissue-specific phenotypes. These mutant phenotypes can be reversed by mutations in su(Hw), a gene that also regulates the transcription of the gypsy element. Gypsy encodes a full-length 7.0-kb RNA that is expressed in the salivary gland precursors and fat body of the embryo, imaginal discs and fat body of larvae, and fat body and ovaries of adult females. The su(Hw)-binding region inserted upstream of the promoter of a lacZ reporter gene can induce β-galactosidase expression in a subset of the embryonic and larval tissues where gypsy is normally transcribed. This expression is dependent on the presence of a functional su(Hw) product, suggesting that this protein is a positive activator of gypsy transcription. Flies transformed with a construct in which the 5' LTR and leader sequences of gypsy are fused to lacZ show β-galactosidase expression in all tissues where gypsy is normally expressed, indicating that sequences other than the su(Hw)-binding site are required for proper spatial and temporal expression of gypsy. Mutations in the zinc fingers of su(Hw) affect its ability to bind DNA and to induce transcription of the lacZ reporter gene. Two other structural domains of su(Hw) also play an important role in transcriptional regulation of gypsy. Deletion of the amino-terminal acidic domain results in the loss of lacZ expression in larval fat body and adult ovaries, whereas mutations in the leucine zipper region result in an increase of lacZ expression in larval fat body and a decrease in adult ovaries. These effects might be the result of interactions of su(Hw) with activator and repressor proteins through the acidic and leucine zipper domains to produce the final pattern of tissue-specific expression of gypsy. PMID:7705625

  3. Evolutionary Dynamics of the Ty3/Gypsy LTR Retrotransposons in the Genome of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Tubio, Jose Manuel C.; Tojo, Marta; Bassaganyas, Laia; Escaramis, Georgia; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Tornador, Cristian; Unger, Maria F.; Naveira, Horacio; Costas, Javier; Besansky, Nora J.

    2011-01-01

    Ty3/gypsy elements represent one of the most abundant and diverse LTR-retrotransposon (LTRr) groups in the Anopheles gambiae genome, but their evolutionary dynamics have not been explored in detail. Here, we conduct an in silico analysis of the distribution and abundance of the full complement of 1045 copies in the updated AgamP3 assembly. Chromosomal distribution of Ty3/gypsy elements is inversely related to arm length, with densities being greatest on the X, and greater on the short versus long arms of both autosomes. Taking into account the different heterochromatic and euchromatic compartments of the genome, our data suggest that the relative abundance of Ty3/gypsy LTRrs along each chromosome arm is determined mainly by the different proportions of heterochromatin, particularly pericentric heterochromatin, relative to total arm length. Additionally, the breakpoint regions of chromosomal inversion 2La appears to be a haven for LTRrs. These elements are underrepresented more than 7-fold in euchromatin, where 33% of the Ty3/gypsy copies are associated with genes. The euchromatin on chromosome 3R shows a faster turnover rate of Ty3/gypsy elements, characterized by a deficit of proviral sequences and the lowest average sequence divergence of any autosomal region analyzed in this study. This probably reflects a principal role of purifying selection against insertion for the preservation of longer conserved syntenyc blocks with adaptive importance located in 3R. Although some Ty3/gypsy LTRrs show evidence of recent activity, an important fraction are inactive remnants of relatively ancient insertions apparently subject to genetic drift. Consistent with these computational predictions, an analysis of the occupancy rate of putatively older insertions in natural populations suggested that the degenerate copies have been fixed across the species range in this mosquito, and also are shared with the sibling species Anopheles arabiensis. PMID:21283637

  4. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  5. Drosophila germline invasion by the endogenous retrovirus gypsy: involvement of the viral env gene.

    PubMed

    Pelisson, A; Mejlumian, L; Robert, V; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    2002-10-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is expressed at high levels in mutant flamenco female flies. Gypsy viral particles extracted from such flies can infect naive flamenco individuals raised in the presence of these extracts mixed into their food. This results in the integration of new proviruses into the germline genome. These proviruses can then increase their copy number by (1) expression in the flamenco female somatic cells, (2) transfer into the oocyte and (3) integration into the genome of the progeny. Surprisingly, unlike the infection observed in the feeding experiments, this strategy of endogenous proviral multiplication does not seem to involve the expression of the viral env gene. PMID:12225916

  6. Copia-, Gypsy- and Line-like Retrotransposon Fragments in the Mitochondrial Genome of Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Knoop, V.; Unseld, M.; Marienfeld, J.; Brandt, P.; Sunkel, S.; Ullrich, H.; Brennicke, A.

    1996-01-01

    Several retrotransposon fragments are integrated in the mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana. These insertions are derived from all three classes of nuclear retrotransposons, the Ty1/copia-, Ty3/gypsy- and non-LTR/LINE-families. Members of the Ty3/gypsy group of elements have not yet been identified in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. The varying degrees of similarity with nuclear elements and the dispersed locations of the sequences in the mitochondrial genome suggest numerous independent transfer-insertion events in the evolutionary history of this plant mitochondrial genome. Overall, we estimate remnants of retrotransposons to cover >/=5% of the mitochondrial genome in Arabidopsis. PMID:8852855

  7. 7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-1 Definitions. Terms used in the.... An eradication program is considered to be effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of an... conducted in accordance with Section II, “Survey Procedures—Gypsy Moth,” of the Gypsy Moth Treatment...

  8. 7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-1 Definitions. Terms used in the.... An eradication program is considered to be effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of an... conducted in accordance with Section II, “Survey Procedures—Gypsy Moth,” of the Gypsy Moth Treatment...

  9. 7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-1 Definitions. Terms used in the.... An eradication program is considered to be effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of an... conducted in accordance with Section II, “Survey Procedures—Gypsy Moth,” of the Gypsy Moth Treatment...

  10. 7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-1 Definitions. Terms used in the.... An eradication program is considered to be effectively diminishing the gypsy moth population of an... conducted in accordance with Section II, “Survey Procedures—Gypsy Moth,” of the Gypsy Moth Treatment...

  11. About the origin of retroviruses and the co-evolution of the gypsy retrovirus with the Drosophila flamenco host gene.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, A; Teysset, L; Chalvet, F; Kim, A; Prud'homme, N; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    1997-01-01

    The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster is the first retrovirus identified so far in invertebrates. According to phylogenetic data, gypsy belongs to the same group as the Ty3 class of LTR-retrotransposons, which suggests that retroviruses evolved from this kind of retroelements before the radiation of vertebrates. There are other invertebrate retroelements that are also likely to be endogenous retroviruses because they share with gypsy some structural and functional retroviral-like characteristics. Gypsy is controlled by a Drosophila gene called flamenco, the restrictive alleles of which maintain the retrovirus in a repressed state. In permissive strains, functional gypsy elements transpose at high frequency and produce infective particles. Defective gypsy proviruses located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of all strains seem to be very old components of the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, which indicates that gypsy invaded this species, or an ancestor, a long time ago. At that time, Drosophila melanogaster presumably contained permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. One can imagine that the species survived to the increase of genetic load caused by the retroviral invasion because restrictive alleles of flamenco were selected. The characterization of a retrovirus in Drosophila, one of the most advanced model organisms for molecular genetics, provides us with an exceptional clue to study how a species can resist a retroviral invasion. PMID:9440256

  12. Proviral amplification of the Gypsy endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster involves env-independent invasion of the female germline.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, F; Teysset, L; Terzian, C; Prud'homme, N; Santamaria, P; Bucheton, A; Pélisson, A

    1999-05-01

    Gypsy is an infectious endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. The gypsy proviruses replicate very efficiently in the genome of the progeny of females homozygous for permissive alleles of the flamenco gene. This replicative transposition is correlated with derepression of gypsy expression, specifically in the somatic cells of the ovaries of the permissive mothers. The determinism of this amplification was studied further by making chimeric mothers containing different permissive/restrictive and somatic/germinal lineages. We show here that the derepression of active proviruses in the permissive soma is necessary and sufficient to induce proviral insertions in the progeny, even if the F1 flies derive from restrictive germ cells devoid of active proviruses. Therefore, gypsy endogenous multiplication results from the transfer of some gypsy-encoded genetic material from the soma towards the germen of the mother and its subsequent insertion into the chromosomes of the progeny. This transfer, however, is not likely to result from retroviral infection of the germline. Indeed, we also show here that the insertion of a tagged gypsy element, mutant for the env gene, occurs at high frequency, independently of the production of gypsy Env proteins by any transcomplementing helper. The possible role of the env gene for horizontal transfer to new hosts is discussed. PMID:10228177

  13. A diversity of moths (Lepidoptera) trapped with two feeding attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding attractants for moths are useful as survey tools to assess moth species diversity, and for monitoring of the relative abundance of certain pest species. We assessed the relative breadth of attractiveness of two such lures to moths, at sites with varied habitats during 2006. Eighty-six of the...

  14. Codling moth management and chemical ecology.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Stelinski, Lukasz; Gut, Larry; Thomson, Don

    2008-01-01

    Lepidopteran insects use sex pheromones to communicate for mating. Olfactory communication and mate-finding can be prevented by permeating the atmosphere with synthetic pheromone. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption has become a commercially viable pest management technique and is used to control the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, a key insect pest of apple, on 160,000 ha worldwide. The codling moth sex pheromone, codlemone, is species specific and nontoxic. Orchard treatments with up to 100 grams of synthetic codlemone per hectare effectively control codling moth populations over the entire growing season. Practical implementation of the mating disruption technique has been realized at an opportune time, as codling moth has become resistant to many insecticides. We review codling moth chemical ecology and factors underlying the behavioral mechanisms and practical implementation of mating disruption. Area-wide programs are the result of collaborative efforts between academic research institutions, extension, chemical industries, and grower organizations, and they demonstrate the environmental and economic relevance of pheromone research. PMID:17877451

  15. Continuity or Rupture? Roma/Gypsy Communities in Rural and Urban Environments under Post-Socialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzicka, Michal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the article is to contribute to existing research and debates on social change associated with the post-socialist transformation in Eastern and Central Europe. It does so by drawing attention to and examining the diversity of ways in which such change has been lived through and reflected upon by members of Roma (Gypsy) communities…

  16. Retroviruses in invertebrates: the gypsy retrotransposon is apparently an infectious retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, A; Terzian, C; Santamaria, P; Pélisson, A; Purd'homme, N; Bucheton, A

    1994-01-01

    Retroviruses are commonly considered to be restricted to vertebrates. However, the genome of many eukaryotes contains mobile sequences known as retrotransposons with long terminal repeats (LTR retrotransposons) or viral retrotransposons, showing similarities with integrated proviruses of retroviruses, such as Ty elements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, copia-like elements in Drosophila, and endogenous proviruses in vertebrates. The gypsy element of Drosophila melanogaster has LTRs and contains three open reading frames, one of which encodes potential products similar to gag-specific protease, reverse transcriptase, and endonuclease. It is more similar to typical retroviruses than to LTR retrotransposons. We report here experiments showing that gypsy can be transmitted by microinjecting egg plasma from embryos of a strain containing actively transposing gypsy elements into embryos of a strain originally devoid of transposing elements. Horizontal transfer is also observed when individuals of the "empty" stock are raised on medium containing ground pupae of the stock possessing transposing elements. These results suggest that gypsy is an infectious retrovirus and provide evidence that retroviruses also occur in invertebrates. Images PMID:8108403

  17. Wolbachia Influences the Maternal Transmission of the gypsy Endogenous Retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Touret, Franck; Guiguen, François

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are present in most insects and are maternally transmitted through the germline. Moreover, these intracellular bacteria exert antiviral activity against insect RNA viruses, as in Drosophila melanogaster, which could explain the prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations. Wolbachia is maternally transmitted in D. melanogaster through a mechanism that involves distribution at the posterior pole of mature oocytes and then incorporation into the pole cells of the embryos. In parallel, maternal transmission of several endogenous retroviruses is well documented in D. melanogaster. Notably, gypsy retrovirus is expressed in permissive follicle cells and transferred to the oocyte and then to the offspring by integrating into their genomes. Here, we show that the presence of Wolbachia wMel reduces the rate of gypsy insertion into the ovo gene. However, the presence of Wolbachia does not modify the expression levels of gypsy RNA and envelope glycoprotein from either permissive or restrictive ovaries. Moreover, Wolbachia affects the pattern of distribution of the retroviral particles and the gypsy envelope protein in permissive follicle cells. Altogether, our results enlarge the knowledge of the antiviral activity of Wolbachia to include reducing the maternal transmission of endogenous retroviruses in D. melanogaster. PMID:25182324

  18. Understanding Gypsy Children's Conceptions of Learning: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Azevedo, Raquel; Cunha, Jennifer; Pereira, Armanda; Mourão, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    In Portugal, as in other European countries, gypsy children remain largely at the margins of the educational system. Their underachievement and the associated dropout rates from school are serious educational issues and factors contributing to their marginalization in society. However, there is limited research qualitatively examining the…

  19. "What about Us?" Gypsies, Travellers and "White Racism" in Secondary Schools in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "White racism" in relation to the experiences of Gypsy and Traveller groups in England. It is based on ethnographic research conducted in two secondary schools during the years 2006-2009. Interviews were carried out with pupils attending the secondary schools, their mothers and members of the Traveller…

  20. Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4): structural and functional differences, and distribution in fly stocks.

    PubMed

    Lyubomirskaya, N V; Smirnova, J B; Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Surkov, S A; Avedisov, S N; Kim, A I; Ilyin, Y V

    2001-04-01

    Two variants of the Drosophila melanogaster retrotransposon gypsy were subjected to detailed structural and functional analysis. A series of hybrid constructs containing various combinations of "active" and "inactive" gypsy copies were tested for their ability to produce new DNA copies in cultured cells by means of reverse transcription. It was shown that the previously demonstrated variations in retrotranspositional activity are associated with either one or both of two amino acid substitutions at the beginning of ORF2. The first substitution is located at the boundary between the putative protease and reverse transcriptase domains and, hence, may influence the processing of the polyprotein. The other substitution may alter reverse transcriptase activity since it is located in the second of the seven conserved domains of the RT gene. To address the question of the evolutionary relationship between the two gypsy variants, their distribution was analyzed in among various fly stocks. Southern analysis revealed that all D. melanogaster strains studied so far contain the "inactive" gypsy variant, while the "active" copies are present only in some strains; most of the latter were established from flies recently isolated from natural populations. Finally, in stocks carrying the flamenco mutation the "active" gypsy variant is much more abundant than the "inactive" form. Possible scenarios for the orgin of the "active" form of gypsy are discussed. PMID:11361349

  1. Codling Moth has a New Calendar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in 10 apple orchards in Washington State from 2003-2006 to characterize the seasonal cumulative curves of codling moth flight and the occurrence of fruit injury. Data from each generation were fit to logistic curves and these data were compared to a current widely-used model. ...

  2. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  3. MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

  4. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  5. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  6. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  7. Gypsy Field project in reservoir characterization. [Quarterly report], October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    O`Meara, D.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this project is to use the extensive Gypsy Field laboratory and data set as focus for developing and testing reservoir characterization methods that are targeted at improved recovery of conventional oil. The Gypsy Field laboratory, as described by Doyle, O`Meara, and Witterholt (1991), consists of coupled outcrop and subsurface sites which have been characterized to a degree of detail not possible in a production operation. Data from these sites entail geological descriptions, core measurements, well logs, vertical seismic surveys, a 3D seismic survey, crosswell seismic surveys, and pressure transient well tests. The over all project consists of four inter disciplinary sub-projects which are closely interlinked: (1) modeling depositional environments; (2) upscaling; (3) sweep efficiency; and (4) tracer testing. During this quarter, the main activities involved task 1, modeling depositional environments, for which progress is reported. This task aims at improving the investigators ability to model complex depositional environments which trap movable oil.

  8. The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements: release 2.0.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Carlos; Futami, Ricardo; Covelli, Laura; Domínguez-Escribá, Laura; Viu, Jose M; Tamarit, Daniel; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Jose; Vicente-Ripolles, Miguel; Fuster, Gonzalo; Bernet, Guillermo P; Maumus, Florian; Munoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Sempere, Jose M; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the second release of the Gypsy Database of Mobile Genetic Elements (GyDB 2.0): a research project devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and transposable elements based on their phylogenetic classification (per lineage and protein domain). The Gypsy Database (GyDB) is a long-term project that is continuously progressing, and that owing to the high molecular diversity of mobile elements requires to be completed in several stages. GyDB 2.0 has been powered with a wiki to allow other researchers participate in the project. The current database stage and scope are long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements and relatives. GyDB 2.0 is an update based on the analysis of Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia and Bel/Pao LTR retroelements and the Caulimoviridae pararetroviruses of plants. Among other features, in terms of the aforementioned topics, this update adds: (i) a variety of descriptions and reviews distributed in multiple web pages; (ii) protein-based phylogenies, where phylogenetic levels are assigned to distinct classified elements; (iii) a collection of multiple alignments, lineage-specific hidden Markov models and consensus sequences, called GyDB collection; (iv) updated RefSeq databases and BLAST and HMM servers to facilitate sequence characterization of new LTR retroelement and caulimovirus queries; and (v) a bibliographic server. GyDB 2.0 is available at http://gydb.org. PMID:21036865

  9. The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements: release 2.0

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Carlos; Futami, Ricardo; Covelli, Laura; Domínguez-Escribá, Laura; Viu, Jose M.; Tamarit, Daniel; Aguilar-Rodríguez, Jose; Vicente-Ripolles, Miguel; Fuster, Gonzalo; Bernet, Guillermo P.; Maumus, Florian; Munoz-Pomer, Alfonso; Sempere, Jose M.; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andres

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the second release of the Gypsy Database of Mobile Genetic Elements (GyDB 2.0): a research project devoted to the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and transposable elements based on their phylogenetic classification (per lineage and protein domain). The Gypsy Database (GyDB) is a long-term project that is continuously progressing, and that owing to the high molecular diversity of mobile elements requires to be completed in several stages. GyDB 2.0 has been powered with a wiki to allow other researchers participate in the project. The current database stage and scope are long terminal repeats (LTR) retroelements and relatives. GyDB 2.0 is an update based on the analysis of Ty3/Gypsy, Retroviridae, Ty1/Copia and Bel/Pao LTR retroelements and the Caulimoviridae pararetroviruses of plants. Among other features, in terms of the aforementioned topics, this update adds: (i) a variety of descriptions and reviews distributed in multiple web pages; (ii) protein-based phylogenies, where phylogenetic levels are assigned to distinct classified elements; (iii) a collection of multiple alignments, lineage-specific hidden Markov models and consensus sequences, called GyDB collection; (iv) updated RefSeq databases and BLAST and HMM servers to facilitate sequence characterization of new LTR retroelement and caulimovirus queries; and (v) a bibliographic server. GyDB 2.0 is available at http://gydb.org. PMID:21036865

  10. Life history attributes of Indian meal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) reared on transgenic corn kernels.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, J D; Komaravalli, S R; Hanley, A M; Price, B D; Davis, P M

    2001-04-01

    The Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), and Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), are two globally distributed stored-grain pests. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the impact that corn (Zea mays L.) kernels (i.e., grain) of some Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) corn hybrids containing CrylAb Bt delta-endotoxin have on life history attributes of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Stored grain is at risk to damage from Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth; therefore, Bt corn may provide a means of protecting this commodity from damage. Thus, the objective of this research was to quantify the effects of transgenic corn seed containing CrylAb delta-endotoxin on Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth survival, fecundity, and duration of development. Experiments with Bt grain, non-Bt isolines, and non-Bt grain were conducted in environmental chambers at 27 +/- 1 degrees C and > or = 60% RH in continuous dark. Fifty eggs were placed in ventilated pint jars containing 170 g of cracked or whole corn for the Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth, respectively. Emergence and fecundity were observed for 5 wk. Emergence and fecundity of Indian meal moth and emergence of Angoumois grain moth were significantly lower for individuals reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt, MON 810 and Bt-11 transformed hybrids, respectively, than on their non-Bt transformed isolines. Longer developmental times were observed for Indian meal moth reared on P33V08 and N6800Bt than their non-Bt-transformed isolines. These results indicate that MON 810 and Bt-11 CrylAb delta-endotoxin-containing kernels reduce laboratory populations of Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth. Thus, storing Bt-transformed grain is a management tactic that warrants bin scale testing and may effectively reduce Indian meal moth and Angoumois grain moth populations in grain without application of synthetic chemicals or pesticides. PMID:11332858

  11. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests. PMID:26549128

  12. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  13. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  14. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars. PMID:26045330

  15. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220 mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3 ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10 ms in the lightest moths to 25 ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9 m s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2 m s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1 µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1 µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90 m s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage. PMID:25883381

  16. A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

  17. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of gypsy retrotransposons in the Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.).

    PubMed

    Payen, Thibaut; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis

    2016-08-01

    Truffles are ascomycete fungi belonging to genus Tuber, and they form ectomycorrhizal associations with trees and shrubs. Transposable elements constitute more than 50 % of the black Périgord truffle (Tuber melanosporum) genome, which are mainly class 1 gypsy retrotransposons, but their impact on its genome is unknown. The aims of this study are to investigate the diversity of gypsy retrotransposons in this species and their evolutionary history by analysing the reference genome and six resequenced genomes of different geographic accessions. Using the reverse transcriptase sequences, six different gypsy retrotransposon clades were identified. Tmt1 and Tmt6 are the most abundant transposable elements, representing 14 and 13 % of the T. melanosporum genome, respectively. Tmt6 showed a major burst of proliferation between 1 and 4 million years ago, but evidence of more recent transposition was observed. Except for Tmt2, the other clades tend to aggregate, and their mode of transposition excluded the master copy model. This suggests that each new copy has the same probability of transposing as other copies. This study provides a better view of the diversity and dynamic nature of gypsy retrotransposons in T. melanosporum. Even if the major gypsy retrotransposon bursts are old, some elements seem to have transposed recently, suggesting that they may continue to model the truffle genomes. PMID:27025914

  18. 'Caravan wives' and 'decent girls': Gypsy-Traveller women's perceptions of gender, culture and morality in the North of England.

    PubMed

    Casey, Rionach

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the beliefs and practices that constitute gender among Gypsy-Traveller women and then attempts to discern the consequences that flow from these. It analyses gender ideology and expectations among women and the shared investment in the moral identity attached to being a good Gypsy-Traveller wife. The paper argues that 'Gypsy-Traveller woman' cannot be understood as an identity that stands apart from gender and racial oppression. It is within this context that the tension between change and permanence in gender relations is played out. It argues that the maintenance of cultural taboos embodied and symbolised in the surveillance of womens' bodies is an important issue that problematises the construction of Gypsy-Traveller women. It posits that the appeal to morality may represent as much an avoidance of anxiety as a defence of marked gendered divisions within Gypsy-Traveller society. The paper suggests that the demands of cultural survival play a significant role in framing the degree to which women are willing or able to challenge the status quo. PMID:24828902

  19. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs. PMID:22299357

  20. 76 FR 38599 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Moth Identification Worksheet. OMB Control Number: 0579-0104.l Summary of Collection: Under the Plant... Regulations (CFR) part 301. The European gypsy moth is one of the most destructive pests of fruit and ornamental trees as well as hardwood forests. The Asian gypsy moth is an exotic strain of gypsy moth that...

  1. CAPTURE OF NOCTUID AND PYRALID MOTHS USING FEEDING ATTRACTANT LURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of floral chemicals dispensed in two-component lures were used to capture noctuid and pyralid moths in north-central Florida. Blends of phenylacetaldehyde plus '-myrcene, cis jasmone, linalool, and methyl-2-methoxy benzoate were successful in capturing large numbers of several moth spec...

  2. Multiple occurrences of mutualism in the yucca moth lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, O; Thompson, J N

    1992-01-01

    The complex mutualism between yuccas and the moths that pollinate their flowers is regarded as one of the most obvious cases of coevolution. Studies of related genera show that at least two of the critical behavioral and life history traits suggested to have resulted from coevolved mutualism in yucca moths are plesiomorphic to the family. Another trait, oviposition into flowers, has evolved repeatedly within the family. One species with these traits, Greya politella, feeds on and pollinates plants of a different family, but pollination occurs through a different component of the oviposition behavior than in the yucca moths. Major differences compared with yucca moths and their hosts are that G. politella only passively pollinates its host and that copollinators often contribute to pollination. This analysis suggests that evolution of mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths may have required few behavioral and life history changes in the moths. The truly coevolved features of this interaction appear to be the evolution of active pollination by the moths, the associated morphological structures in the moths for carrying pollen, and the exclusion of copollinators by yuccas. Images PMID:11607287

  3. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  4. Biology and population dynamics of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was a successful biological control agent against prickly pear cacti in Australia in the 1920’s. Since then, it was introduced to other countries including the Carribean islands. In 1989, the cactus moth was reported in Florida and has continued to spread nort...

  5. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  6. Worldwide Variability of Insecticide Resistance Mechanisms in the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Known resistance mechanisms including the action of detoxifying enzymes and insensitive variants of target proteins were examined in individual male and female moths from 29 populations of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L collected in 11 countries in Africa, Europe, North America and the Australian c...

  7. Capture of noctuid moths in Florida with floral compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Migratory moths are serious pests of several agricultural crops in the southeast, including sweet corn, field corn, cotton, peanuts, turfgrasses and pasture grasses. Monitoring for these pests have traditionally included pheromone traps which only attract and capture male moths. Research in Florid...

  8. Determining Host-Plant Resistance Mechanisms for Banded Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth is a key pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Female moths deposit eggs on the outer surface of the bracts of the sunflower head. Larval feeding in the heads causes seed loss and lower oil content resulting in reduced yield. Upon reaching maturity larvae drop to the gr...

  9. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  10. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  11. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  12. Restrictive flamenco alleles are maintained in Drosophila melanogaster population cages, despite the absence of their endogenous gypsy retroviral targets.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, Alain; Payen-Groschêne, Geneviève; Terzian, Christophe; Bucheton, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The flamenco (flam) locus, located at 20A1-3 in the centromeric heterochromatin of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome, is a major regulator of the gypsy/mdg4 endogenous retrovirus. In restrictive strains, functional flam alleles maintain gypsy proviruses in a repressed state. By contrast, in permissive strains, proviral amplification results from infection of the female germ line and subsequent insertions into the chromosomes of the progeny. A restrictive/permissive polymorphism prevails in natural and laboratory populations. This polymorphism was assumed to be maintained by the interplay of opposite selective forces; on one hand, the increase of genetic load caused by proviral insertions would favor restrictive flam alleles because they make flies resistant to these gypsy replicative transpositions and, on the other, a hypothetical resistance cost would select against such alleles in the absence of the retrovirus. However, the population cage data presented in this paper do not fit with this simple resistance cost hypothesis because restrictive alleles were not eliminated in the absence of functional gypsy proviruses; on the contrary, using 2 independent flam allelic pairs, the restrictive frequency rose to about 90% in every experimental population, whatever the pair of alleles and the allelic proportions in the initial inoculum. These data suggest that the flam polymorphism is maintained by some strong balancing selection, which would act either on flam itself, independently of the deleterious effect of gypsy, or on a hypothetical flanking gene, in linkage disequilibrium with flam. Alternatively, restrictive flam alleles might also be resistant to some other retroelements that would be still present in the cage populations, causing a positive selection for these alleles. Whatever selective forces that maintain high levels of restrictive alleles independently of gypsy, this unknown mechanism can set up an interesting kind of antiviral innate immunity, at

  13. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  14. Gypsy transposition correlates with the production of a retroviral envelope-like protein under the tissue-specific control of the Drosophila flamenco gene.

    PubMed

    Pélisson, A; Song, S U; Prud'homme, N; Smith, P A; Bucheton, A; Corces, V G

    1994-09-15

    Gypsy displays striking similarities to vertebrate retroviruses, including the presence of a yet uncharacterized additional open reading frame (ORF3) and the recent evidence for infectivity. It is mobilized with high frequency in the germline of the progeny of females homozygous for the flamenco permissive mutation. We report the characterization of a gypsy subgenomic ORF3 RNA encoding typical retroviral envelope proteins. In females, env expression is strongly repressed by one copy of the non-permissive allele of flamenco. A less dramatic reduction in the accumulation of other transcripts and retrotranscripts is also observed. These effects correlate well with the inhibition of gypsy transposition in the progeny of these females, and are therefore likely to be responsible for this phenomenon. The effects of flamenco on gypsy expression are apparently restricted to the somatic follicle cells that surround the maternal germline. Moreover, permissive follicle cells display a typically polarized distribution of gypsy RNAs and envelope proteins, both being mainly accumulated at the apical pole, close to the oocyte. We propose a model suggesting that gypsy germinal transposition might occur only in individuals that have maternally inherited enveloped gypsy particles due to infection of the maternal germline by the soma. PMID:7925283

  15. Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.

    PubMed Central

    Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

    1995-01-01

    The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

  16. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  17. Coordinated control of dCTCF and gypsy chromatin insulators in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimova, Tatiana I.; Lei, Elissa P.; Bushey, Ashley M.; Corces, Victor G.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY CTCF plays a central role in vertebrate insulators and forms part of the Fab-8 insulator in Drosophila. dCTCF is present at hundreds of sites in the Drosophila genome, where it is located at the boundaries between bands and interbands in polytene chromosomes. dCTCF co-localizes with CP190, which is required for proper binding of dCTCF to chromatin, but not with the other gypsy insulator proteins Su(Hw) or Mod(mdg4)2.2. Mutations in the CP190 gene affect Fab-8 insulator activity, suggesting that CP190 is an essential component of both gypsy and dCTCF insulators. dCTCF is present at specific nuclear locations forming large insulator bodies that overlap with those formed by Su(Hw), Mod(mdg4)2.2 and CP190. The results suggest that Su(Hw) and dCTCF may be the DNA-binding components of two different subsets of insulators that share CP190 and cooperate in the formation of insulator bodies to regulate the organization of the chromatin fiber in the nucleus. PMID:18082602

  18. "What's the Plan?" "What Plan?" Changing Aspirations among Gypsy Youngsters, and Implications for Future Cultural Identities and Group Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    Considering data from a research project with two Gypsy communities (2010-2012) in South West England, this article explores issues of education and identity. The two communities have contrasting experiences within the education system. Informed by inter-disciplinary perspectives on identity and assimilation theories, the article explores these…

  19. Culture and the School: The Degree of Educational Integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese Region of Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded…

  20. Culture and the school: The degree of educational integration of Roma and Gypsies in the Peloponnese region of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiprianos, Pandelis; Daskalaki, Ivi; Stamelos, Georgios B.

    2012-10-01

    This article examines the degree of integration of Roma and Gypsy children in formal education in the Peloponnese region of Greece. It is based on field research conducted by the University of Patras during the school year 2006/07 within the framework of the Greek Ministry of Education's "Integration of Roma children in school" programme, funded by the European Union. Despite governmental incentives for poor families to enrol their school-aged children, school attendance of Roma and Gypsy children was found to decline from primary year one to primary year six, with hardly any of them entering secondary school at all. Besides looking at school attendance figures and Roma and Gypsy children's proficiency in reading, writing and numeracy, this paper also considers gender, family composition, living conditions and economic situation, as well as culturally constructed perceptions of childhood and a person's life cycle. The aim of this article is to highlight the contradictions and ambiguities involved in the process of incorporating Roma and Gypsy children in formal education, and to evaluate their school performance and assess their academic choices.

  1. Description of the stand-damage model: Part of the gypsy moth life system model. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, J.J.; Sheehan, K.A.

    1995-08-16

    This document describes the structure, organization, and mathematical formulations for the Stand-Damage Model and the Biological basis for these formulations. Growth, mortality, and regeneration are modeled along with the effects of user-prescribed defoliation and stand-management actions. The appendices provide a full description of the logic and mathematics in the form of code listings, structure charts, and files.

  2. Development of a data management front end for use with a LANDSAT based information system. [assessing gypsy moth defoliation damage in Pennsylvania

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A user friendly front end was constructed to facilitate access to the LANDSAT mosaic data base supplied by JPL and to process both LANDSAT and ancillary data. Archieval and retrieval techniques were developed to efficiently handle this data base and make it compatible with requirements of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry. Procedures are ready for: (1) forming the forest/nonforest mask in ORSER compressed map format using GSFC-supplied classification procedures; (2) registering data from a new scene (defoliated) to the mask (which may involve mosaicking if the area encompasses two LANDSAT scenes; (3) producing a masked new data set using the MASK program; (4) analyzing this data set to produce a map showing degrees of defoliation, output on the Versatec plotter; and (5) producing color composite maps by a diazo-type process.

  3. First Record of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from Interior Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of Plutella xylostella, the diamondback moth, and subsequent crop damage was detected during 2005 at three locations in interior Alaska (64°50’22N, 148°07’52W; 64°51’22N, 147°51’04W; 64°42’01N, 148°51’42W). This represents the first record of diamondback moth in interior Alaska. Due to...

  4. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement.

    PubMed

    Degen, Tobias; Mitesser, Oliver; Perkin, Elizabeth K; Weiß, Nina-Sophie; Oehlert, Martin; Mattig, Emily; Hölker, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. In this study, we sought to determine whether street lights could limit moth dispersal and whether there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex-specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for 2 years at an experimental set-up. To estimate the attraction radii, we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0·44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner light was 2·77 times more attractive than a wing light with an equivalentre attraction radius of c. 23 m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume (i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures and (ii) that public lighting may affect moth movement between patches. PMID:27146262

  5. 7 CFR 301.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be construed in accordance with this definition. OHA document. The self-inspection checklist portion... in the Gypsy Moth Program Manual. 2 2 The Gypsy Moth Program Manual may be viewed on the Internet...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  7. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  8. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  9. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  10. 7 CFR 301.45 - Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of specified regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45 Notice of quarantine; restriction on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Linnaeus), a dangerous insect injurious to...

  11. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5 Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

  12. Serotonin modulation of moth central olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kloppenburg, Peter; Mercer, Alison R

    2008-01-01

    In the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) acting at the level of the antennal lobes contributes significantly to changing the moth's responsiveness to olfactory stimuli. 5HT targets K(+) conductances in the cells, increasing the excitability of central olfactory neurons and their responsiveness to olfactory cues. Effects of 5HT modulation are apparent not only at the single cell level, but also in the activity patterns of populations of neurons that convey olfactory information from antennal lobes to higher centers of the brain. Evidence suggests that 5HT-induced changes in activity within neural circuits of the antennal lobes might also drive structural plasticity, providing the basis for longer-term changes in antennal lobe function. PMID:18067443

  13. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  14. Infection of the germ line by retroviral particles produced in the follicle cells: a possible mechanism for the mobilization of the gypsy retroelement of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Song, S U; Kurkulos, M; Boeke, J D; Corces, V G

    1997-07-01

    The gypsy retroelement of Drosophila moves at high frequency in the germ line of the progeny of females carrying a mutation in the flamenco (flam) gene. This high rate of de novo insertion correlates with elevated accumulation of full-length gypsy RNA in the ovaries of these females, as well as the presence of an env-specific RNA. We have prepared monoclonal antibodies against the gypsy Pol and Env products and found that these proteins are expressed in the ovaries of flam females and processed in the manner characteristic of vertebrate retroviruses. The Pol proteins are expressed in both follicle and nurse cells, but they do not accumulate at detectable levels in the oocyte. The Env proteins are expressed exclusively in the follicle cells starting at stage 9 of oogenesis, where they accumulate in the secretory apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum. They then migrate to the inner side of the cytoplasmic membrane where they assemble into viral particles. These particles can be observed in the perivitelline space starting at stage 10 by immunoelectron microscopy using anti-Env antibodies. We propose a model to explain flamenco-mediated induction of gypsy mobilization that involves the synthesis of gypsy viral particles in the follicle cells, from where they leave and infect the oocyte, thus explaining gypsy insertion into the germ line of the subsequent generation. PMID:9226450

  15. [Mobile genetic element MDG4 (gypsy) in Drosophila melanogaster. Features of structure and regulation of transposition].

    PubMed

    Kusulidu, L K; Karpova, N N; Razorenova, O V; Glukhov, I A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-12-01

    Distribution of two structural functional variants of the MDG4 (gypsy) mobile genetic element was examined in 44 strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The results obtained suggest that less transpositionally active MDG4 variant is more ancient component of the Drosophila genome. Using Southern blotting, five strains characterized by increased copy number of MDG4 with significant prevalence of the active variant over the less active one were selected for further analysis. Genetic analysis of these strains led to the suggestion that some of them carry factors that mobilize MDG4 independently from the cellular flamenco gene known to be responsible for transposition of this element. Other strains probably contained a suppressor of the flam- mutant allele causing active transpositions of the MDG4. Thus, the material for studying poorly examined relationships between the retrovirus and the host cell genome was obtained. PMID:11785284

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited... infested area and has not been exposed to the gypsy moth while within the generally infested area; or (2... finds it to be free of the gypsy moth; or (3) It has been treated under the direction of an inspector...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  18. 7 CFR 319.77-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-1... gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Canadian noninfested area. Any area of Canada that is not listed as a gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Certification of...

  19. 7 CFR 319.77-4 - Conditions for the importation of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Somerset, ME (i.e., areas in those counties that are not listed in 7 CFR 301.45-3). (2) Trees without roots... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth... inspected and found free of gypsy moth or that the trees or shrubs have been treated for gypsy moth...

  20. 7 CFR 301.45-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles and outdoor household articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-4 Conditions governing... gypsy moth life stages. (c) A regulated article originating in a generally infested area may be moved... adequate to prevent the dissemination of the gypsy moth, i.e., conditions of treatment,...

  1. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited... infested area and has not been exposed to the gypsy moth while within the generally infested area; or (2... finds it to be free of the gypsy moth; or (3) It has been treated under the direction of an inspector...

  2. 7 CFR 301.45-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles and outdoor household articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-4 Conditions governing... gypsy moth life stages. (c) A regulated article originating in a generally infested area may be moved... adequate to prevent the dissemination of the gypsy moth, i.e., conditions of treatment,...

  3. 7 CFR 319.77-4 - Conditions for the importation of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Somerset, ME (i.e., areas in those counties that are not listed in 7 CFR 301.45-3). (2) Trees without roots... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth... inspected and found free of gypsy moth or that the trees or shrubs have been treated for gypsy moth...

  4. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  5. 7 CFR 301.45-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles and outdoor household articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-4 Conditions governing... gypsy moth life stages. (c) A regulated article originating in a generally infested area may be moved... adequate to prevent the dissemination of the gypsy moth, i.e., conditions of treatment,...

  6. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited... infested area and has not been exposed to the gypsy moth while within the generally infested area; or (2... finds it to be free of the gypsy moth; or (3) It has been treated under the direction of an inspector...

  7. 7 CFR 319.77-4 - Conditions for the importation of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Somerset, ME (i.e., areas in those counties that are not listed in 7 CFR 301.45-3). (2) Trees without roots... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth... inspected and found free of gypsy moth or that the trees or shrubs have been treated for gypsy moth...

  8. 7 CFR 319.77-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-1... gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Canadian noninfested area. Any area of Canada that is not listed as a gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Certification of...

  9. 7 CFR 319.77-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-1... gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Canadian noninfested area. Any area of Canada that is not listed as a gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Certification of...

  10. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited... infested area and has not been exposed to the gypsy moth while within the generally infested area; or (2... finds it to be free of the gypsy moth; or (3) It has been treated under the direction of an inspector...

  11. 7 CFR 301.45-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles and outdoor household articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-4 Conditions governing... gypsy moth life stages. (c) A regulated article originating in a generally infested area may be moved... adequate to prevent the dissemination of the gypsy moth, i.e., conditions of treatment,...

  12. 7 CFR 319.77-4 - Conditions for the importation of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Somerset, ME (i.e., areas in those counties that are not listed in 7 CFR 301.45-3). (2) Trees without roots... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth... inspected and found free of gypsy moth or that the trees or shrubs have been treated for gypsy moth...

  13. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  14. 7 CFR 301.45-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited permits, and outdoor household article documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates, limited... infested area and has not been exposed to the gypsy moth while within the generally infested area; or (2... finds it to be free of the gypsy moth; or (3) It has been treated under the direction of an inspector...

  15. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  16. 7 CFR 319.77-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-1... gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Canadian noninfested area. Any area of Canada that is not listed as a gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Certification of...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-2 - Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally infested areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-2 Authorization to designate and terminate designation of generally... § 301.45-3 each State or each portion thereof in which a gypsy moth general infestation has been found... Administrator has determined that: (1) The area is subject to a gypsy moth eradication program conducted by...

  18. 77 FR 9620 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... of Gypsy Moth Host Materials from Canada. OMB Control Number: 0579-0142. Summary of Collection: The... plant or insect pests such as the gypsy moth. Failing to collect this information would cripple APHIS... harbor gypsy moths. Description of Respondents: Business or other for-profit; Individuals or...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles and outdoor household articles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-4 Conditions governing... gypsy moth life stages. (c) A regulated article originating in a generally infested area may be moved... adequate to prevent the dissemination of the gypsy moth, i.e., conditions of treatment,...

  20. 7 CFR 319.77-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-1... gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Canadian noninfested area. Any area of Canada that is not listed as a gypsy moth infested area in § 319.77-3 of this subpart. Certification of...

  1. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy--Lom (HMSNL): refined genetic mapping in Romani (Gypsy) families from several European countries.

    PubMed

    Chandler, D; Angelicheva, D; Heather, L; Gooding, R; Gresham, D; Yanakiev, P; de Jonge, R; Baas, F; Dye, D; Karagyozov, L; Savov, A; Blechschmidt, K; Keats, B; Thomas, P K; King, R H; Starr, A; Nikolova, A; Colomer, J; Ishpekova, B; Tournev, I; Urtizberea, J A; Merlini, L; Butinar, D; Chabrol, B; Voit, T; Baethmann, M; Nedkova, V; Corches, A; Kalaydjieva, L

    2000-12-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Lom, initially identified in Roma (Gypsy) families from Bulgaria, has been mapped to 8q24. Further refined mapping of the region has been undertaken on DNA from patients diagnosed across Europe. The refined map consists of 25 microsatellite markers over approximately 3 cM. In this collaborative study we have identified a number of historical recombinations resulting from the spread of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Lom gene through Europe with the migration and isolation of Gypsy groups. Recombination mapping and the minimal region of homozygosity reduced the original 3 cM hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Lom region to a critical interval of about 200 kb. PMID:11053686

  2. Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests?

    PubMed

    Kaukonen, Maarit; Ruotsalainen, Anna Liisa; Wäli, Piippa R; Männistö, Minna K; Setälä, Heikki; Saravesi, Karita; Huusko, Karoliina; Markkola, Annamari

    2013-02-01

    Massive moth outbreaks cause large-scale damage in subarctic mountain birch forests with a concomitant decrease in carbon flux to mycorrhizal fungi and an increased deposition of dissolved carbon and nutrients as moth frass into soil. We investigated impacts of moth herbivory along three replicated gradients with three levels of moth herbivory (undamaged, once damaged, repeatedly damaged) on soil nutrient levels and biological parameters. We found an increase in soil nutrients and in the biomass of enchytraeid worms, which are key faunal decomposers. Fungi bacteria ratio and C:N ratio decreased in humus with increasing severity of herbivory. Our findings suggest enhanced resource turnover in mountain birch forests due to massive moth herbivory. This may provide a shortcut for carbon and nutrient input to subarctic soils, which largely bypasses the main routes of carbon from plants to soil via mycorrhizal and litter-decomposing fungi. Moreover, a temporal shift occurs in carbon allocation to soil, providing decomposers an opportunity to use an early-season peak in resource availability. Our results suggest a hitherto unappreciated role of massive insect herbivore attacks on resource dynamics in subarctic ecosystems. PMID:23691644

  3. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed. PMID:26995936

  4. Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  5. RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  6. Context variations and pluri-methodological issues concerning the expression of a social representation: the example of the Gypsy community.

    PubMed

    Piermattéo, Anthony; Lo Monaco, Grégory; Moreau, Laure; Girandola, Fabien; Tavani, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Within the social representations' field of research, the "mute zone" hypothesis considers that some objects are characterized by counternormative content that people usually do not express in standard conditions of production. Within the framework of this approach, this study aims to explore the variations in the expression about the Gypsy community following the manipulation of different contexts and the issues associated with a pluri-methodological approach of data analysis. Indeed, two methodologies have been combined. The participants were asked to express themselves in public or in private. In addition, the identity of the experimenter was also manipulated as she presented herself as a Gypsy or not. Then, through a set of analyses based on a methodological triangulation approach, we were able to observe a recurrent modulation of the participants' answers. These analyses highlighted a greater incidence of the expression of counternormative elements when the context of expression was private and especially when the experimenter did not present herself as a Gypsy (p < .01, η p ² = .06). These results will be discussed in terms of the contribution of the methodologies employed and their comparison within the framework of the study of counternormative content. PMID:26054842

  7. Interactions between the Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) proteins required for gypsy insulator function

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dolanchanpa; Gerasimova, Tatiana I.; Corces, Victor G.

    2001-01-01

    The gypsy insulator is thought to play a role in nuclear organization and the establishment of higher order chromatin domains by bringing together several individual insulator sites to form rosette-like structures in the interphase nucleus. The Su(Hw) and Mod(mdg4) proteins are components of the gypsy insulator required for its effect on enhancer–promoter interactions. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we show that the Mod(mdg4) protein can form homodimers, which can then interact with Su(Hw). The BTB domain of Mod(mdg4) is involved in homodimerization, whereas the C-terminal region of the protein is involved in interactions with the leucine zipper and adjacent regions of the Su(Hw) protein. Analyses using immunolocalization on polytene chromosomes confirm the involvement of these domains in mediating the interactions between these proteins. Studies using diploid interphase cells further suggest the contribution of these domains to the formation of rosette-like structures in the nucleus. The results provide a biochemical basis for the aggregation of multiple insulator sites and support the role of the gypsy insulator in nuclear organization. PMID:11350941

  8. Characterizing and modeling the heterogeneity of fluvial reservoirs, a case study from Gypsy outcrop site, Pawnee County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, R.; Forgotson, J.M. Jr.; O'Meara, D.J. Jr. )

    1996-01-01

    The genetic relationships between lithofacies and depositional environments and between lithofacies and permeability make the heterogeneity of fluvial reservoirs predictable and mappable. Two types of geological models (with/without lithofacies- dominated heterogeneity interpolation) have been simulated to illustrate the impact of geological modelling on predictions of oil recovery and sweep efficiency. Lithofacies, defined by certain types of constituents and sedimentary textures and structures, are responses to certain depositional flow regimes or local hydraulic conditions. The Gypsy outcrop site in Pawnee County, Oklahoma, which includes well exposed roadcuts with 22 cored boreholes behind the outcrop, provides a realistic three dimensional geological site and database for developing reservoir characterization techniques. Four lithofacies that control permeability are recognized at the Gypsy outcrop site. From bottom to top of a complete channel sequence, these are: (1) mudclast sandstones (low permeability); (2) sandstones dominated by cross beds and planar laminated sets (high permeability); (3) ripple and bioturbated sandstone (low permeability); (4) mudstone and millstone (flow barrier). The lithofacies within each channel were mapped based on the Gypsy outcrop and cored borehole data. These maps provided input to geological modelling software for 3-D visualization. A flow simulator was used to study models consisting of up to 500,000 grid cells.

  9. Characterizing and modeling the heterogeneity of fluvial reservoirs, a case study from Gypsy outcrop site, Pawnee County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, R.; Forgotson, J.M. Jr.; O`Meara, D.J. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    The genetic relationships between lithofacies and depositional environments and between lithofacies and permeability make the heterogeneity of fluvial reservoirs predictable and mappable. Two types of geological models (with/without lithofacies- dominated heterogeneity interpolation) have been simulated to illustrate the impact of geological modelling on predictions of oil recovery and sweep efficiency. Lithofacies, defined by certain types of constituents and sedimentary textures and structures, are responses to certain depositional flow regimes or local hydraulic conditions. The Gypsy outcrop site in Pawnee County, Oklahoma, which includes well exposed roadcuts with 22 cored boreholes behind the outcrop, provides a realistic three dimensional geological site and database for developing reservoir characterization techniques. Four lithofacies that control permeability are recognized at the Gypsy outcrop site. From bottom to top of a complete channel sequence, these are: (1) mudclast sandstones (low permeability); (2) sandstones dominated by cross beds and planar laminated sets (high permeability); (3) ripple and bioturbated sandstone (low permeability); (4) mudstone and millstone (flow barrier). The lithofacies within each channel were mapped based on the Gypsy outcrop and cored borehole data. These maps provided input to geological modelling software for 3-D visualization. A flow simulator was used to study models consisting of up to 500,000 grid cells.

  10. Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

  11. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers. PMID:15889737

  12. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20–40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  13. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda.

    PubMed

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-04-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20-40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  14. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  15. Serial Monodomy in the Gypsy Ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides: Does Nest Odor Reduction Influence Colony Relocation?

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Serial monodomy is the nesting behavior in which a colony of animals maintains multiple nests for its exclusive use, occupying one nest at a time. Among serially monodomous ants, the availability of unoccupied nests reduces the probability and costs of army ant attacks. It has been proposed that nest odors mediate serial monodomy in the gypsy ant, Aphaenogaster araneoides Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and that colonies avoid returning to previously occupied nests that harbor colony odors. To evaluate this hypothesis, the odors inside the nests of A. araneoides colonies were experimentally reduced through ventilation; the nest movement behaviors of treatment and control colonies were compared. Odor reduction was found to have increased the frequency of movements into and out of the treated nest, without a change in the total occupation duration in the treated nest. Nests with a more open architecture that permitted natural flow of air were reoccupied more quickly than nests with smaller nest entrances. In summary, the openness of the architecture of A. araneoides nests and the ventilation of air through nests alters the use of these nests. These findings further support the working hypothesis that nest-bound odors mediate the pattern of serial monodomy in A. araneoides. PMID:21268704

  16. Early predictors of reading in three groups of native Spanish speakers: Spaniards, Gypsies, and Latin Americans.

    PubMed

    López-Escribano, Carmen; Beltrán, Jesús A

    2009-05-01

    The main purpose of the study reported here was to examine the early linguistic predictors of reading (e.g., Knowledge About Print, Listening Comprehension, Receptive Vocabulary, Rapid Naming of Objects and Letters, and Phonological Awareness), for a sample of 77 Spaniards, 48 Latinos, and 30 Gypsies kindergartens (mean age = 5 years 9 months) living in Spain. The relative contribution of ethnic background, neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender was assessed. Findings revealed that ethnic background, neighborhood SES, and age differentially predicted children's pre-literacy skills. The implications of these results for understanding the role played by these demographic and socio-cultural variables in alphabetic literacy acquisition are discussed. The second purpose of this study was to add to the growing literature on the nature of reading challenges in children who are learning to read a transparent orthography-Spanish. Cross-linguistic research between different subtypes of readers will add to understand the impact of language characteristics in reading acquisition. Finally, the present study suggested that early assessment of pre-literacy skills can be a highly effective way to determine the instructional needs of students who are at risk for reading failure before formal reading instruction begins. PMID:19476222

  17. Origins of the Moken Sea Gypsies inferred from mitochondrial hypervariable region and whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Chan, Chim W; Arunotai, Narumon Hinshiranan; Lum, J Koji

    2009-02-01

    The origins of the Moken 'Sea Gypsies,' a group of traditionally boat-dwelling nomadic foragers, remain speculative despite previous examinations from linguistic, sociocultural and genetic perspectives. We explored Moken origin(s) and affinities by comparing whole mitochondrial genome and hypervariable segment I sequences from 12 Moken individuals, sampled from four islands of the Mergui Archipelago, to other mainland Asian, Island Southeast Asian (ISEA) and Oceanic populations. These analyses revealed a major (11/12) and a minor (1/12) haplotype in the population, indicating low mitochondrial diversity likely resulting from historically low population sizes, isolation and consequent genetic drift. Phylogenetic analyses revealed close relationships between the major lineage (MKN1) and ISEA, mainland Asian and aboriginal Malay populations, and of the minor lineage (MKN2) to populations from ISEA. MKN1 belongs to a recently defined subclade of the ancient yet localized M21 haplogroup. MKN2 is not closely related to any previously sampled lineages, but has been tentatively assigned to the basal M46 haplogroup that possibly originated among the original inhabitants of ISEA. Our analyses suggest that MKN1 originated within coastal mainland SEA and dispersed into ISEA and rapidly into the Mergui Archipelago within the past few thousand years as a result of climate change induced population pressure. PMID:19158811

  18. Gypsy embryo specifies ovule curvature by regulating ovule/integument development in rice.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, S; Satoh, H; Nagato, Y

    2005-10-01

    The embryo position in a seed is stable in most plant species, indicating the existence of a strict regulatory mechanism that specifies the embryo position in the seed. To elucidate this mechanism, we analyzed the gypsy embryo (gym) mutant of rice, in which the position of the mature embryo in the seed is altered at a low frequency. Analyses of early embryogenesis and ovule development showed that the ectopic embryo was derived from an ill-positioned egg cell, which resulted from the incomplete curvature of the ovule. Although the development of both the inner and outer integuments was impaired, the ovule curvature was associated closely with the extent of inner integument growth. Therefore, inner integument development controls ovule curvature in rice. The expression patterns of OSH1 and OsMADS13 indicated that, in gym, a small number of indeterminate cells are maintained on the style side of the ovule and then in the integument primordium at a low frequency. The prolonged survival of these indeterminate cells disturbs normal integument development. The gym fon2 double mutant suggests that GYM and FON2 are involved redundantly in floral meristem determinacy. Possible functions of the GYM gene and the ovule developmental mechanism are discussed. PMID:16001259

  19. Nested Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons of a single Beta procumbens centromere contain a putative chromodomain.

    PubMed

    Weber, Beatrice; Schmidt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    LTR retrotransposons belong to a major group of DNA sequences that are often localized in plant centromeres. Using BAC inserts originating from the centromere of a monosomic wild beet (Beta procumbens) chromosome fragment in Beta vulgaris, two complete LTR retrotransposons were identified. Both elements, designated Beetle1 and Beetle2, possess a coding region with genes in the order characteristic for Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons. Beetle1 and Beetle2 have a chromodomain in the C-terminus of the integrase gene and are highly similar to the centromeric retrotransposons (CRs) of rice, maize, and barley. Both retroelements were localized in the centromeric region of B. procumbens chromosomes by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. They can therefore be classified as centromere-specific chromoviruses. PCR analysis using RNA as template indicated that Beetle1 and Beetle2 are transcriptionally active. On the basis of the sequence diversity between the LTR sequences, it was estimated that Beetle1 and Beetle2 transposed within the last 60,000 years and 130,000 years, respectively. The centromeric localization of Beetle1 and Beetle2 and their transcriptional activity combined with high sequence conservation within each family play an important structural role in the centromeres of B. procumbens chromosomes. PMID:19322668

  20. The Role of Values in Attitudes towards Violence: Discrimination against Moroccans and Romanian Gypsies in Spain.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, José Luis; Morais de Oliveira, Thiago; Torres, Ana Raquel Rosas; Pereira, Cicero; Garrido, Alicia; Camino, Leoncio

    2015-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate whether police violence is more tolerated when the victim is a member of a social minority (e.g., Moroccan immigrants and Romanian Gypsies in Spain) than when the victim is a member of the social majority (e.g., Spaniards). The second objective was to use Schwartz value theory to examine the moderating role of values on attitudes towards tolerance of police violence. The participants were 207 sociology and social work students from a public university in Madrid. Overall, in this study, police violence was more accepted when the victim was a member of a social minority; F(2, 206) = 77.91, p = .001, ηp 2 = 0.433, and in general, values moderated this acceptance. Thus, greater adherence to the conservation and self-promotion values subsystems would strengthen support for police violence towards a social minority member. On the other hand, greater adherence to the openness to change and self-transcendence subsystems diminish this support. PMID:26303575

  1. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  2. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights. PMID:27003884

  3. Rapid Assessment of the Sex of Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two different methods were tested to identify the sex of the early developmental stages of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with a WZ/ZZ (female/male) sex chromosome system. Firstly, it was shown that the sex of all larval stages can be easily determined by the ...

  4. The De Havilland "Tiger Moth"a low wing monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    With a speed of 186.5 M.P.H. and an operational altitude of 20,000 feet the De Havilland Tiger Moth has caused comment as it was introduced just before the King's Cup race of 1927. It is a single seater with unusual control configuration due to the cramped cockpit area.

  5. Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

  6. Use of Low Temperature to Control Postharvest Indianmeal Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The restrictions on the use of fumigants for product disinfestation due to worker safety or environmental concerns has increased interest in non-chemical alternatives. The Indianmeal moth is often the most serious pest of postharvest tree nuts, and has been the target of numerous studies examining t...

  7. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

  8. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  9. Effects of Temperature and Controlled Atmospheres on Codling Moth Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although controlled atmosphere temperature treatments are effective in controlling codling moth in fruit, the mechanism by which this combination treatment kills the larvae is unknown. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the effects of elevated temperatures, low oxygen, and high ...

  10. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  11. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  12. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  13. Bin sterilization to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Laboratory tests, conducted to determine efficacious temperatures of hot water baths to prevent adult emergence, found baths at 80°C for > ...

  14. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  15. Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In tropical and subtropical agroecosystems, the potato tuber moth (PTM) (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller) is considered the most damaging potato pest. Larvae mine both leaves and tubers, in the field and in storage making the pest difficult to control. Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has...

  16. Olfactory coding in five moth species from two families.

    PubMed

    Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Carlsson, Mikael A; Sugimoto, Yuki; Schubert, Marco; Mißbach, Christine; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine what impact phylogeny and life history might have on the coding of odours in the brain. Using three species of hawk moths (Sphingidae) and two species of owlet moths (Noctuidae), we visualized neural activity patterns in the antennal lobe, the first olfactory neuropil in insects, evoked by a set of ecologically relevant plant volatiles. Our results suggest that even between the two phylogenetically distant moth families, basic olfactory coding features are similar. But we also found different coding strategies in the moths' antennal lobe; namely, more specific patterns for chemically similar odorants in the two noctuid species than in the three sphingid species tested. This difference demonstrates the impact of the phylogenetic distance between species from different families despite some parallel life history traits found in both families. Furthermore, pronounced differences in larval and adult diet among the sphingids did not translate into differences in the olfactory code; instead, the three species had almost identical coding patterns. PMID:22496291

  17. An Overview of Microbial Control of the Potato Tuber Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over reliance on broad spectrum insecticides has resulted in the development of resistance in potato tuber moth populations, safety risks to farm workers, the food supply, and the environment. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy, in which natural enemies of pest arthropods and other alterna...

  18. Cold storage to control codling moth larvae in fresh apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1°C was examined for possible control on three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing ...

  19. Almond moth oviposition patterns in continuous layers of peanuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial distribution of eggs laid over a 48-h period by individual female almond moths, Cadra cautella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was examined in bioassays where peanuts covered either the center quarter (quarter-coverage) or the whole (whole-coverage) of a 120-cm square arena gridded into...

  20. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

  1. HLA genetic diversity in Hungarians and Hungarian Gypsies: complementary differentiation patterns and demographic signals revealed by HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Inotai, D; Szilvasi, A; Benko, S; Boros-Major, A; Illes, Z; Bors, A; Kiss, K P; Rajczy, K; Gelle-Hossó, A; Buhler, S; Nunes, J M; Sanchez-Mazas, A; Tordai, A

    2015-08-01

    Systematic analyses of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profiles in different populations may increase the efficiency of bone marrow donor selection and help reconstructing human peopling history. We typed HLA-A, -B, and -DRB1 allele groups in two bone marrow donor cohorts of 2402 Hungarians and 186 Hungarian Gypsies and compared them with several Central-European, Spanish Gypsy, and Indian populations. Our results indicate that different European Gypsy populations share a common origin but diverged genetically as a consequence of founder effect and rapid genetic drift, whereas other European populations are related genetically in relation to geography. This study also suggests that while HLA-A accurately depicts the effects of genetic drift, HLA-B, and -DRB1 conserve more signatures of ancient population relationships, as a result of balancing selection. PMID:26149581

  2. Suppressor of hairy-wing, modifier of mdg4 and centrosomal protein of 190 gene orthologues of the gypsy insulator complex in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Carballar-Lejarazú, R; Brennock, P; James, A A

    2016-08-01

    DNA insulators organize independent gene regulatory domains and can regulate interactions amongst promoter and enhancer elements. They have the potential to be important in genome enhancing and editing technologies because they can mitigate chromosomal position effects on transgenes. The orthologous genes of the Anopheles stephensi putative gypsy-like insulator protein complex were identified and expression characteristics studied. These genes encode polypeptides with all the expected protein domains (Cysteine 2 Histidine 2 (C2H2) zinc fingers and/or a bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger). The mosquito gypsy transcripts are expressed constitutively and are upregulated in ovaries of blood-fed females. We have uncovered significant experimental evidence that the gypsy insulator protein complex is widespread in vector mosquitoes. PMID:27110891

  3. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG.

    PubMed

    Douillard, François P; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  4. The N-Terminal GYPSY Motif Is Required for Pilin-Specific Sortase SrtC1 Functionality in Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P.; Rasinkangas, Pia; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Palva, Airi; de Vos, Willem M.

    2016-01-01

    Predominantly identified in pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, sortase-dependent pili are also found in commensal species, such as the probiotic-marketed strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG. Pili are typically associated with host colonization, immune signalling and biofilm formation. Comparative analysis of the N-terminal domains of pilin-specific sortases from various piliated Gram-positive bacteria identified a conserved motif, called GYPSY, within the signal sequence. We investigated the function and role of the GYPSY residues by directed mutagenesis in homologous (rod-shaped) and heterologous (coccoid-shaped) expression systems for pilus formation. Substitutions of some of the GYPSY residues, and more specifically the proline residue, were found to have a direct impact on the degree of piliation of Lb. rhamnosus GG. The present findings uncover a new signalling element involved in the functionality of pilin-specific sortases controlling the pilus biogenesis of Lb. rhamnosus GG and related piliated Gram-positive species. PMID:27070897

  5. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  6. Bin sanitizer - An effective way to reduce codling moth and fungal decay sporesation to prevent reintroduction of codling moth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important source of reinfestation of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the return of fruit bins containing diapausing larvae. Blue mold caused by Penicillum spp. is a major postharvest disease of apples and pears. An applied test conducted at a commercial packing h...

  7. Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids

    PubMed Central

    Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K.; Spalding, Adrian; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations. PMID:23720524

  8. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  9. Potentially active copies of the gypsy retroelement are confined to the Y chromosome of some strains of Drosophila melanogaster possibly as the result of the female-specific effect of the flamenco gene.

    PubMed

    Chalvet, F; di Franco, C; Terrinoni, A; Pelisson, A; Junakovic, N; Bucheton, A

    1998-04-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus present in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. This element is mobilized only in the progeny of females which contain active gypsy elements and which are homozygous for permissive alleles of a host gene called flamenco (flam). Some data strongly suggest that gypsy elements bearing a diagnostic HindIII site in the central region of the retrovirus body represent a subfamily that appears to be much more active than elements devoid of this site. We have taken advantage of this structural difference to assess by the Southern blotting technique the genomic distribution of active gypsy elements. In some of the laboratory Drosophila stocks tested, active gypsy elements were found to be restricted to the Y chromosome. Further analyses of 14 strains tested for the permissive vs. restrictive status of their flamenco alleles suggest that the presence of permissive alleles of flam in a stock tends to be associated with the confinement of active gypsy elements to the Y chromosome. This might be the result of the female-specific effect of flamenco on gypsy activity. PMID:9541538

  10. Sex pheromone of the winter moth, a geometrid with unusually low temperature precopulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, W L; Hill, A S; Linn, C E; Meinwald, J; Jain, S C; Herbert, H J; Smith, R F

    1982-08-13

    The sex pheromone for the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.), has been identified as the novel compound (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene. The male moths respond to the pheromone at low temperatures (4 degrees to 15 degrees C) and exhibit an upper response limit that coincides with the lower response limit for other reported moth sex pheromone systems. The pheromone attracted two other geometrid species, O. bruceata (Bruce spanworm) and O. occidentalis. PMID:17817538

  11. Predator Mimicry: Metalmark Moths Mimic Their Jumping Spider Predators

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Jadranka; Wagner, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping spiders responded to Brenthia with territorial displays, indicating that Brenthia were sometimes mistaken for jumping spiders, and not recognized as prey. Our experimental results and a review of wing patterns of other insects indicate that jumping spider mimicry is more widespread than heretofore appreciated, and that jumping spiders are probably an important selective pressure shaping the evolution of diurnal insects that perch on vegetation. PMID:17183674

  12. The Genetic Basis of Pheromone Evolution in Moths.

    PubMed

    Groot, Astrid T; Dekker, Teun; Heckel, David G

    2016-03-11

    Moth sexual pheromones are widely studied as a fine-tuned system of intraspecific sexual communication that reinforces interspecific reproductive isolation. However, their evolution poses a dilemma: How can the female pheromone and male preference simultaneously change to create a new pattern of species-specific attraction? Solving this puzzle requires us to identify the genes underlying intraspecific variation in signals and responses and to understand the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for their interspecific divergence. Candidate gene approaches and functional analyses have yielded insights into large families of biosynthetic enzymes and pheromone receptors, although the factors controlling their expression remain largely unexplored. Intra- and interspecific crosses have provided tantalizing evidence of regulatory genes, although, to date, mapping resolution has been insufficient to identify them. Recent advances in high-throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with established techniques, have great potential to help scientists identify the specific genetic changes underlying divergence and resolve the mystery of how moth sexual communication systems evolve. PMID:26565898

  13. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Bente G.; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC)-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:26462937

  14. Variation in Copy Number of Ty3/Gypsy Centromeric Retrotransposons in the Genomes of Thinopyrum intermedium and Its Diploid Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Divashuk, Mikhail G.; Khuat, Thi Mai L.; Kroupin, Pavel Yu.; Kirov, Ilya V.; Romanov, Dmitry V.; Kiseleva, Anna V.; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Zelenin, Alexandr S.; Klimushina, Marina V.; Razumova, Olga V.; Karlov, Gennady I.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation and allopolyploidization in cereals may be accompanied by dramatic changes in abundance of centromeric repeated transposable elements. Here we demonstrate that the reverse transcriptase part of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon (RT-CR) is highly conservative in the segmental hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (JrJvsSt) and its possible diploid progenitors Th. bessarabicum (Jb), Pseudoroegneria spicata (St) and Dasypyrum villosum (V) but the abundance of the repeats varied to a large extent. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed hybridization signals in centromeric region of all chromosomes in the studied species, although the intensity of the signals drastically differed. In Th. intermedium, the strongest signal of RT-CR probe was detected on the chromosomes of Jv, intermediate on Jr and faint on Js and St subgenome suggesting different abundance of RT-CR on the individual chromosomes rather than the sequence specificity of RT-CRs of the subgenomes. RT-CR quantification using real-time PCR revealed that its content per genome in Th. bessarabicum is ~ 2 times and P. spicata is ~ 1,5 times higher than in genome of D. villosum. The possible burst of Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposon in Th. intermedium during allopolyploidization and its role in proper mitotic and meiotic chromosome behavior in a nascent allopolyploid is discussed. PMID:27119343

  15. A founder EIF2AK4 mutation causes an aggressive form of pulmonary arterial hypertension in Iberian Gypsies.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, J; Navas, P; Barrios, E; Fernández, L; Nevado, J; Quezada, C A; López-Meseguer, M; Arias, P; Mena, R; Lobo, J L; Alvarez, C; Heath, K; Escribano-Subías, P; Lapunzina, P

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pathological condition characterized by a persistent and progressive elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance with devastating consequences if untreated. In the past recent years, several genes have been related to PAH, however, the molecular defect remains unknown in a significant proportion of patients with familial PAH (∼20%). During the past few years, we have observed that PAH shows a particular behavior in Iberian Gypsies, with more aggressive course and frequently affecting multiple members of the same family. We studied five Gypsy families in whom at least one individual from each family developed a severe form of PAH and in whom no mutation had been identified in the common genes. We applied SNP-array-based homozygosity mapping in three families and obtained, among others, one of which included the gene EIF2AK4, recently reported in patients with PAH from group-1' pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH). Subsequently, we sequenced EIF2AK4 and found a homozygous mutation in all five families: c.3344C>T(p.P1115L). The majority of our patients required early lung transplantation. Hence, this mutation appeared with a more severe phenotype than previously reported for other EIF2AK4 mutations. The finding of this novel mutation is important for genetic counseling and calculation of population recurrence risks. PMID:25512148

  16. A novel Gypsy founder mutation, p.Arg1109X in the CMT4C gene, causes variable peripheral neuropathy phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, R; Colomer, J; King, R; Angelicheva, D; Marns, L; Parman, Y; Chandler, D; Bertranpetit, J; Kalaydjieva, L

    2005-01-01

    Background: Linkage, haplotype and sequencing analysis in a large Spanish Gypsy kindred with multiple members affected by autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy led to the identification of a novel mutation, p.Arg1109X, in the CMT4C gene. The screening of further unrelated patients, and of a panel of ethnically matched controls, showed that p.Arg1109X is an ancestral mutation which occurs in Gypsy populations across Europe and is the most common cause of autosomal recessive Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease in Spanish Gypsies. Objective: To report the identification of a novel Gypsy founder mutation causing autosomal recessive CMT4C disease in a sample of homozygous affected individuals. Results: The mutation was associated with a surprisingly broad spectrum of neuropathy phenotypes, with variation in the age at onset, rate of progression, severity of muscle and sensory involvement, the presence of scoliosis, and cranial nerve involvement. Conclusions: Ascertainment and further studies of CMT4C patients in this population will provide a unique opportunity for characterising the full range of clinical manifestations of the disease in a genetically homogeneous sample. PMID:16326826

  17. hobo Induced rearrangements in the yellow locus influence the insulation effect of the gypsy su(Hw)-binding region in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Gause, M; Hovhannisyan, H; Kan, T; Kuhfittig, S; Mogila, V; Georgiev, P

    1998-01-01

    The su(Hw) protein is responsible for the insulation mediated by the su(Hw)-binding region present in the gypsy retrotransposon. In the y2 mutant, su(Hw) protein partially inhibits yellow transcription by repressing the function of transcriptional enhancers located distally from the yellow promoter with respect to gypsy. y2 mutation derivatives have been induced by the insertion of two hobo copies on the both sides of gypsy: into the yellow intron and into the 5' regulatory region upstream of the wing and body enhancers. The hobo elements have the same structure and orientation, opposite to the direction of yellow transcription. In the sequence context, where two copies of hobo are separated by the su(Hw)-binding region, hobo-dependent rearrangements are frequently associated with duplications of the region between the hobo elements. Duplication of the su(Hw)-binding region strongly inhibits the insulation of the yellow promoter separated from the body and wing enhancers by gypsy. These results provide a better insight into mechanisms by which the su(Hw)-binding region affects the enhancer function. PMID:9649529

  18. Towards Intercultural Education: Training for Teachers of Gypsy Pupils: Report. Proceedings of a European Teachers' Seminar (Benidorm, Spain, 9-13 June 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegois, Jean-Pierre

    This conference proceeding discusses the provision of school for Gypsy and Traveller children with a particular focus on the training of those who teach them. A relevant issue for all Europe, the seminar provided the opportunity to compare the policies and results of different institutional bodies. Presentations included the following topics: (1)…

  19. An Exploration of Training and Support Issues For Those Working with Children, Young People and Families from Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Show People Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Martin, Kerry; Haines, Ben; Kinder, Kay; Wilkin, Anne; Derrington, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown the extent of social exclusion among children and young people of Traveller, Irish Traveller, Gypsy, Roma and Showpeople (GRT) communities, in terms of education, health, and accommodation, and that many mainstream services have little experience of working effectively with these communities. The Every Child Matters (ECM) agenda…

  20. Supporting the Learning of Nomadic Communities across Transnational Contexts: Exploring Parallels in the Education of UK Roma Gypsies and Indigenous Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Martin; Hooley, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Deriving from the authors' respective ethnographic fieldwork (around two decades in each context), this position paper considers experiences of education across two communities: Gypsy/Roma in the UK and Indigenous in Australia. The article brings together understandings across these traditionally nomadic communities, with no shared history or…

  1. The CDCC Teacher Bursaries Scheme. European Teachers' Seminar on "Towards Intercultural Education: Training for Teachers of Gypsy Pupils" (Benidorm, Spain, June 9-13, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liegois, Jean-Pierre

    The Council of Europe's third seminar on Gypsy and migrant children's education attracted 75 educators from 6 European countries. This report provides a synopsis of each of eight plenary lectures and complete reports from four workshops. An introduction offers background information and an opening address by Jean-Pierre Liegois is given in full.…

  2. Imprinted moth-eye antireflection patterns on glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung-Hoon; Bae, Byeong-Ju; Han, Kang-Soo; Hong, Eun-Ju; Lee, Heon; Choi, Kyung-Woo

    2009-03-01

    Sub-micron sized, conical shaped moth-eye structure was transferred to thermoplastic polymer film, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using hot embossing process. Since master template was made of polycarbonate, embossing temperature and pressure were carefully maintained to 100°C and 10 atm. Conical shaped moth-eye pattern was reversed to tapered hole pattern on PVC film. Hot embossed PVC film was then used as transparent template for subsequent UV nanoimprint process, in order to form the conical shaped sub-micron moth-eye structure on glass substrate. After thin layer of Si oxide and monolayer of self-assembled, silane based molecules was coated on hot embossed PVC film. UV nanoimprint process was done on the glass substrate using hot embossed PVC film. As a result, the transmittance of glass substrate was increased from 91 to 94% for single side patterned and 96% for both side patterned glass substrate for the spectral range of 350 to 800 nm.

  3. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  4. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  5. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-β-caryophyllene, ( E)-β-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  6. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to ‘cheat’ females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  7. Proteomic analysis of peach fruit moth larvae treated with phosphine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Wang, Yuejin

    2012-01-01

    Phosphine has been used worldwide for the control of stored-product insects for many years. However, the molecular mechanism of its toxicity is not clearly understood. In the current study, larvae of the peach fruit moth were fumigated with phosphine. Proteomic analysis was then performed to identify the regulated proteins. Our results confirmed the phosphine toxicity on the peach fruit moth. The median lethal time LT50 was 38.5 h at 330 ppm at 25 degrees C. During fumigation, the respiration of the peach fruit moth was extremely inhibited. Of the 26 regulated proteins, 16 were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry after a 24 h treatment. The proteins were classified as related to metabolism (25 %), anti-oxidation (6 %), signal transduction (38 %), or defense (19 %). The rest (13 %) were unclassified. Phosphine regulation of ATP and glutathione contents, as well as of ATP synthase and glutathione S-transferase 2 activities were confirmed by enzyme activity analysis. These results demonstrate that complex transcriptional regulations underlie phosphine fumigation. New theories on the mechanism of phosphine toxicity may also be established based on these results. PMID:22201993

  8. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  9. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  10. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients’ sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  11. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  12. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

  13. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S

    2014-04-01

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae), were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone were attractive to P. orphisalis, whereas benzyl acetate, eugenol, cis-jasmone, limonene, linalool, methyl-2-methoxybenzoate, methyl salicylate, beta-myrcene, and 2-phenylethanol were not. When used in combination with phenylacetaldehyde, 4-oxoisophorone and methyl-2-methoxybenzoate increased catches of P. orphisalis in traps by -50%, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. A second crambid species, the false celery leaftier moth, Udea profundalis Packard, was also attracted to phenylacetaldehyde, but was not attracted to any other single-chemical lure. Cis-jasmone, limonene, and 4-oxoisophorone increased catches of U. profundalis by -50% when presented in traps with phenylacetaldehyde, while linalool increased the catch 2.5-fold, and beta-myrcene tripled the trap catch. Both sexes of each species were similarly attracted to most of these lures. These findings provide chemical lures for trapping males and females of both P. orphisalis and U. profundalis. PMID:24772546

  14. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  20. Field Attraction of Codling Moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Apple and Pear Fruit, and Quantitation of Kairomones from Attractive Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) responded in orchards to fruit placed within traps. Numbers of codling moths in traps baited with immature uninfested apples, immature apples infested with larval codling moth, ripe apples, and ripe pears were significantly greater than in un-bait...

  1. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis. PMID:24205118

  2. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  3. Codling moth resistance and associated pytochemical variation in fruit of Malus tschonoskii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work is ongoing to evaluate the potential for host plant resistance to codling moth and other apple pests among the diverse Malus germplasm housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PRGU) in Geneva, NY. Significant resistance to larval feeding from codling moth has been observed in fruit fro...

  4. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

  5. Combining mutualistic yeast and pathogenic virus - a novel method for control for codling moth control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies evaluated the lethal effectiveness of combining yeasts isolated from larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) with the codling moth granulosis virus (CpGV). Apples were treated with CpGV and three yeast species, including Metschnikowia pulcherrima Pitt and Miller, Cryptococcus tephrensis...

  6. Good News? Codling Moth Exhibits Negative Cross Resistance Between Guthion and Rimon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of adult codling moth from several field-collected populations and a laboratory-reared colony to residues of Rimon were evaluated in plastic cup adult bioassays. Both fecundity and successful egg hatch varied among populations. Populations of codling moth that exhibited the highest LC5...

  7. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  8. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  9. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  10. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate. PMID:5507205

  11. Revisiting an old question: Is the natural blend best for disruption of pheromone communication in moths?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-lived microlepidoptera must, by force, be very good at finding their mate and reproducing. Insects are very good at this and moths, in particular, are highly evolved to use volatile signals (pheromones) to communicate and locate conspecifics. The chemical structures of many pheromones of moths...

  12. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  13. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  14. Unique synteny and alternate splicing of the chitin synthases in closely related heliothine moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two chitin synthase genes were characterized in the genomes of two heliothine moths: the corn earworm/cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In both moths, the coding sequences for the two ge...

  15. CHEMICAL ATTRACTANTS FOR MOTHS, U.S. PATENT NO. 6.344.191

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositions and lures are described which provide synthetic chemical attractants which function as highly effective attractants for male and female moths, primarily moths of the family Noctuidae. In one aspect, the attractants provide an effective attractant amount of vapor of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3...

  16. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  17. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  18. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  19. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl...

  20. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth. PMID:25533775

  1. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  2. An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2010-09-14

    Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude. PMID:20727755

  3. Feeding attractant lures to trap moths under the Alaska midnight sun

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling moths in Alaska can be difficult due to the long days and short nights that might affect noctuid activity and capture. This trial was established to study noctuid activity in interior Alaska (20:04, light:dark cycle). Universal moth traps (UniTrap®, white bucket, yellow cone, green lid) wer...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL TACTICS AGAINST THE INVASIVE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, IN NORTH AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biocontrol of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pears (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has invaded North America and its ability to control its host plant raises concerns for the safety and surviva...

  5. Chromosomal distribution and evolution of abundant retrotransposons in plants: gypsy elements in diploid and polyploid Brachiaria forage grasses.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fabíola Carvalho; Guyot, Romain; do Valle, Cacilda Borges; Chiari, Lucimara; Techio, Vânia Helena; Heslop-Harrison, Pat; Vanzela, André Luís Laforga

    2015-09-01

    Like other eukaryotes, the nuclear genome of plants consists of DNA with a small proportion of low-copy DNA (genes and regulatory sequences) and very abundant DNA sequence motifs that are repeated thousands up to millions of times in the genomes including transposable elements (TEs) and satellite DNA. Retrotransposons, one class of TEs, are sequences that amplify via an RNA intermediate and reinsert into the genome, are often the major fraction of a genome. Here, we put research on retrotransposons into the larger context of plant repetitive DNA and genome behaviour, showing features of genome evolution in a grass genus, Brachiaria, in relation to other plant species. We show the contrasting amplification of different retroelement fractions across the genome with characteristics for various families and domains. The genus Brachiaria includes both diploid and polyploid species, with similar chromosome types and chromosome basic numbers x = 6, 7, 8 and 9. The polyploids reproduce asexually and are apomictic, but there are also sexual species. Cytogenetic studies and flow cytometry indicate a large variation in DNA content (C-value), chromosome sizes and genome organization. In order to evaluate the role of transposable elements in the genome and karyotype organization of species of Brachiaria, we searched for sequences similar to conserved regions of TEs in RNAseq reads library produced in Brachiaria decumbens. Of the 9649 TE-like contigs, 4454 corresponded to LTR-retrotransposons, and of these, 79.5 % were similar to members of the gypsy superfamily. Sequences of conserved protein domains of gypsy were used to design primers for producing the probes. The probes were used in FISH against chromosomes of accesses of B. decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Brachiaria humidicola. Probes showed hybridization signals predominantly in proximal regions, especially those for retrotransposons of the clades CRM and Athila, while elements of Del and Tat

  6. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  7. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Ziang; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin Wang, Dapeng

    2014-05-28

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  8. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  9. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments. PMID:25675276

  10. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  11. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  12. [Interlineage distribution and characteristics of the structure of two subfamilies of Drosophila melanogaster MDG4 (gypsy) retrotransposon].

    PubMed

    Razorenova, O V; Karpova, N N; Smirnova, Iu B; Kusulidu, L K; Reneva, N K; Subocheva, E A; Kim, A I; Liubomirskaia, N V; Il'in, Iu V

    2001-02-01

    The distribution of two variants of MDG4 (gypsy) was analyzed in several Drosophila melanogaster strains. Southern blot hybridization revealed the inactive variant of MDG4 in all strains examined and active MDG4 only in some of them. Most of the strains harboring the active MDG4 variant were recently isolated from natural populations. It is of interest that the active MDG4 prevailed over the inactive one only in strains carrying the mutant flamenco gene. Several lines were analyzed in more detail. The number of MDG4 sites on salivary-gland polytene chromosomes was established via in situ hybridization, and MDG4 was tested for transposition using the ovoD test. PMID:11253423

  13. Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

  14. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control. PMID:24508043

  15. Jule from the fish Xiphophorus is the first complete vertebrate Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon from the Mag family.

    PubMed

    Volff, J N; Körting, C; Altschmied, J; Duschl, J; Sweeney, K; Wichert, K; Froschauer, A; Schartl, M

    2001-02-01

    Jule is the second complete long-terminal-repeat (LTR) Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposon identified to date in vertebrates. Jule, first isolated from the poeciliid fish Xiphophorus maculatus, is 4.8 kb in length, is flanked by two 202-bp LTRs, and encodes Gag (structural core protein) and Pol (protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase, in that order) but no envelope. There are three to four copies of Jule per haploid genome in X. maculatus. Two of them are located in a subtelomeric region of the sex chromosomes, where they are associated with the Xmrk receptor tyrosine kinase genes, of which oncogenic versions are responsible for the formation of hereditary melanoma in Xiphophorus. One almost intact copy of Jule was found in the first intron of the X-chromosomal allele of the Xmrk proto-oncogene, and a second, more corrupted copy is present only 56 nt downstream of the polyadenylation signal of the Xmrk oncogene. Jule-related elements were detected by Southern blot hybridization with less than 10 copies per haploid genome in numerous other poeciliids, as well as in more divergent fishes, including the medakafish Oryzias latipes and the tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Database searches also identified Jule-related sequences in the zebrafish Danio rerio and in both genome project pufferfishes, Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Jule is the first member of the Mag family of Ty3/Gypsy retrotransposons described to date in vertebrates. This family includes the silkworm Mag and sea urchin SURL retrotransposons, as well as sequences from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Additional related elements were identified in the genomes of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides. Phylogeny of Mag-related elements suggested that the Mag family of retrotransposons is polyphyletic and is constituted of several ancient lineages that diverged before their host genomes more than 600 MYA. PMID

  16. Floral CO2 reveals flower profitability to moths.

    PubMed

    Thom, Corinna; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G

    2004-06-01

    The hawkmoth Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), an experimentally favorable Lepidopteran that is highly sensitive to carbon dioxide (CO2), feeds on the nectar of a range of flowering plants, such as Datura wrightii (Solanaceae). Newly opened Datura flowers give off dramatically elevated levels of CO2 and offer ample nectar. Thus, floral CO2 emission could indicate food-source profitability. This study documents that foraging Manduca moths prefer surrogate flowers that emit high levels of CO2, characteristic of newly opened Datura flowers. We show for the first time that CO2 may play an important role in the foraging behavior of nectar-feeding insects. PMID:15303329

  17. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  18. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

  19. Camouflage through an active choice of a resting spot and body orientation in moths.

    PubMed

    Kang, C-K; Moon, J-Y; Lee, S-I; Jablonski, P G

    2012-09-01

    Cryptic colour patterns in prey are classical examples of adaptations to avoid predation, but we still know little about behaviours that reinforce the match between animal body and the background. For example, moths avoid predators by matching their colour patterns with the background. Active choice of a species-specific body orientation has been suggested as an important function of body positioning behaviour performed by moths after landing on the bark. However, the contribution of this behaviour to moths' crypticity has not been directly measured. From observations of geometrid moths, Hypomecis roboraria and Jankowskia fuscaria, we determined that the positioning behaviour, which consists of walking and turning the body while repeatedly lifting and lowering the wings, resulted in new resting spots and body orientations in J. fuscaria and in new resting spots in H. roboraria. The body positioning behaviour of the two species significantly decreased the probability of visual detection by humans, who viewed photographs of the moths taken before and after the positioning behaviour. This implies that body positioning significantly increases the camouflage effect provided by moth's cryptic colour pattern regardless of whether the behaviour involves a new body orientation or not. Our study demonstrates that the evolution of morphological adaptations, such as colour pattern of moths, cannot be fully understood without taking into account a behavioural phenotype that coevolved with the morphology for increasing the adaptive value of the morphological trait. PMID:22775528

  20. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold. PMID:21989514

  1. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken'Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective 'single pgFARs' produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a 'single reductase' can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  2. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  3. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  4. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  5. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  6. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  7. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  8. Peripheral and central olfactory tuning in a moth.

    PubMed

    Ong, Rose C; Stopfer, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  9. A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in OSTRINIA moths.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C B; Li, X; Dopman, E B

    2015-06-01

    Despite unparalleled access to species' genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process-genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports a role for recombination suppressors during speciation between the Z and E strains of European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Our results are consistent with the presence of an inversion that has contributed to accumulation of ecologically adaptive alleles and genetic differentiation across roughly 20% of the Ostrinia sex chromosome (~4 Mb). Patterns in Ostrinia suggest that chromosomal divergence may involve two separate phases-one driving its transient origin through local adaptation and one determining its stable persistence through differential introgression. As the evolutionary rate of rearrangements in lepidopteran genomes appears to be one of the fastest among eukaryotes, structural mutations may have had a disproportionate role during adaptive divergence and speciation in Ostrinia and in other moths and butterflies. PMID:25626887

  10. A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in OSTRINIA moths

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, C B; Li, X; Dopman, E B

    2015-01-01

    Despite unparalleled access to species' genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process—genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports a role for recombination suppressors during speciation between the Z and E strains of European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Our results are consistent with the presence of an inversion that has contributed to accumulation of ecologically adaptive alleles and genetic differentiation across roughly 20% of the Ostrinia sex chromosome (~4 Mb). Patterns in Ostrinia suggest that chromosomal divergence may involve two separate phases—one driving its transient origin through local adaptation and one determining its stable persistence through differential introgression. As the evolutionary rate of rearrangements in lepidopteran genomes appears to be one of the fastest among eukaryotes, structural mutations may have had a disproportionate role during adaptive divergence and speciation in Ostrinia and in other moths and butterflies. PMID:25626887

  11. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  12. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  13. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  14. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    PubMed Central

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  15. Identification of a Gypsy SHOX mutation (p.A170P) in Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Barca-Tierno, Verónica; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Barroso, Eva; Heine-Suner, Damia; Azmanov, Dimitar; Rosell, Jordi; Ezquieta, Begoña; Montané, Lucia Sentchordi; Vendrell, Teresa; Cruz, Jaime; Santos, Fernando; Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Pozo, Jesús; Argente, Jesús; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gracía, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Heath, Karen E

    2011-01-01

    We report the clinical and molecular characteristics of 12 Spanish families with multiple members affected with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) or Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), who present the SHOX (short stature homeobox gene) mutation p.A170P (c.508G>C) in heterozygosity or homozygosity, respectively. In all studied families, the A170P mutation co-segregated with the fully penetrant phenotype of mesomelic limb shortening and Madelung deformity. A shared haplotype around SHOX was observed by microsatellite analysis, confirming the presence of a common ancestor, probably of Gypsy origin, as 11 of the families were of this ethnic group. Mutation screening in 359 Eastern-European Gypsies failed to identify any carriers. For the first time, we have shown SHOX expression in the human growth plate of a 22-week LMD fetus, homozygous for the A170P mutation. Although the mutant SHOX protein was expressed in all zones of the growth plate, the chondrocyte columns in the proliferative zone were disorganized with the chondrocytes occurring in smaller columnal clusters. We have also identified a novel mutation at the same residue, c. 509C>A (p.A170D), in two unrelated Spanish LWD families, which similar to A170P mutation impedes nuclear localization of SHOX. In conclusion, we have identified A170P as the first frequent SHOX mutation in Gypsy LWD and LMD individuals. PMID:21712857

  16. Identification of a Gypsy SHOX mutation (p.A170P) in Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and Langer mesomelic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Barca-Tierno, Verónica; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Barroso, Eva; Heine-Suner, Damia; Azmanov, Dimitar; Rosell, Jordi; Ezquieta, Begoña; Montané, Lucia Sentchordi; Vendrell, Teresa; Cruz, Jaime; Santos, Fernando; Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Pozo, Jesús; Argente, Jesús; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Gracía, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Angel; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Heath, Karen E

    2011-12-01

    We report the clinical and molecular characteristics of 12 Spanish families with multiple members affected with Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) or Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD), who present the SHOX (short stature homeobox gene) mutation p.A170P (c.508G>C) in heterozygosity or homozygosity, respectively. In all studied families, the A170P mutation co-segregated with the fully penetrant phenotype of mesomelic limb shortening and Madelung deformity. A shared haplotype around SHOX was observed by microsatellite analysis, confirming the presence of a common ancestor, probably of Gypsy origin, as 11 of the families were of this ethnic group. Mutation screening in 359 Eastern-European Gypsies failed to identify any carriers. For the first time, we have shown SHOX expression in the human growth plate of a 22-week LMD fetus, homozygous for the A170P mutation. Although the mutant SHOX protein was expressed in all zones of the growth plate, the chondrocyte columns in the proliferative zone were disorganized with the chondrocytes occurring in smaller columnal clusters. We have also identified a novel mutation at the same residue, c. 509C>A (p.A170D), in two unrelated Spanish LWD families, which similar to A170P mutation impedes nuclear localization of SHOX. In conclusion, we have identified A170P as the first frequent SHOX mutation in Gypsy LWD and LMD individuals. PMID:21712857

  17. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  18. Influence of within-orchard trap placement on catch of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2007-04-01

    The influence of trap placement on catches of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., was examined in a series of studies conducted in orchards treated with Isomate-C Plus sex pheromone dispensers. Mark-recapture tests with sterilized moths released along the interface of pairs of treated and untreated apple and pear plots found that significantly more male but not female moths were recaptured on interception traps placed in the treated plots. In a second test, significantly higher numbers of wild male and female moths were caught on interception traps placed in treated versus untreated plots within a heavily infested orchard. The highest numbers of male moths were caught on traps placed along the interior edge of the treated plots. Trap position had no influence on the captures of female moths. In a third test, north-south transects of sex pheromone-baited traps were placed through adjacent treated and untreated plots that received a uniform release of sterilized moths. Traps on the upwind edge of the treated plots caught similar numbers of moths as traps upwind from the treated plots. Moth catch was significantly reduced at all other locations inside versus outside of the treated plots, including traps placed on the downwind edge of the treated plot. In a fourth test, five apple orchards were monitored with groups of sex pheromone-baited traps placed either on the border or at three distances inside the orchards. The highest moth counts were in traps placed at the border, and the lowest moth counts were in traps placed 30 and 50 m from the border. In a fifth test, the proportion of traps failing to catch any moths despite the occurrence of local fruit injury was significantly higher in traps placed 50 versus 25 m from the border. The implications provided by these data for designing an effective monitoring program for codling moth in sex pheromone-treated orchards are discussed. PMID:17445378

  19. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale. PMID:18767708

  20. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  1. Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

    2014-09-01

    The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

  2. Susceptibility of Apple Clearwing Moth Larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Beauveria basiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple clearwing moth larvae, Synanthedon myopaeformis (Lepidoptera: Sessidae) collected from orchards in British Columbia, Canada, were naturally infected with the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum (Petch). In laboratory bioassays, larvae were susceptible to infection and dose related mo...

  3. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  4. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  5. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  6. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  7. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  8. Selective flower abortion maintains moth cooperation in a newly discovered pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Goto, Ryutaro; Okamoto, Tomoko; Kiers, E Toby; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    The evolutionary stability of mutualisms is enhanced when partners possess mechanisms to prevent overexploitation by one another. In obligate pollination-seed consumption mutualisms, selective abortion of flowers containing excessive eggs represents one such mechanism, but empirical tests have long been limited to the yucca-yucca moth mutualism. We present evidence for selective abortion in the recently discovered mutualism between Glochidion trees and Epicephala moths. In Glochidion acuminatum, proportion of aborted flowers progressively increased both with higher egg load and increased ovule damage. Selective abortion resulted in a 16% seed production increase compared with expectations under random abortion, and moths suffered fitness losses as high as 62% when ovipositing into pre-infested flowers. Moth eggs were laid singly more often than expected under random oviposition, thus avoiding potential disadvantages from multiple infestations. As new pollination mutualisms are being discovered, selective abortion mechanisms may prove to be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:20113331

  9. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  10. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Surviving cave bats: auditory and behavioural defences in the Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans.

    PubMed

    Fullard, James H; Jackson, Matt E; Jacobs, David S; Pavey, Chris R; Burwell, Chris J

    2008-12-01

    The Australian noctuid moth, Speiredonia spectans shares its subterranean day roosts (caves and abandoned mines) with insectivorous bats, some of which prey upon it. The capacity of this moth to survive is assumed to arise from its ability to listen for the bats' echolocation calls and take evasive action; however, the auditory characteristics of this moth or any tropically distributed Australian moth have never been examined. We investigated the ears of S. spectans and determined that they are among the most sensitive ever described for a noctuid moth. Using playbacks of cave-recorded bats, we determined that S. spectans is able to detect most of the calls of two co-habiting bats, Rhinolophus megaphyllus and Miniopterus australis, whose echolocation calls are dominated by frequencies ranging from 60 to 79 kHz. Video-recorded observations of this roost site show that S. spectans adjusts its flight activity to avoid bats but this defence may delay the normal emergence of the moths and leave some 'pinned down' in the roosts for the entire night. At a different day roost, we observed the auditory responses of one moth to the exceptionally high echolocation frequencies (150-160 kHz) of the bat Hipposideros ater and determined that S. spectans is unable to detect most of its calls. We suggest that this auditory constraint, in addition to the greater flight manoeuvrability of H. ater, renders S. spectans vulnerable to predation by this bat to the point of excluding the moth from day roosts where the bat occurs. PMID:19043053

  13. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  14. Wolbachia infection lowers fertile sperm transfer in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Z.; Champion de Crespigny, F. E.; Sait, S. M.; Tregenza, T.; Wedell, N.

    2011-01-01

    The endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis manipulates host reproduction by rendering infected males reproductively incompatible with uninfected females (cytoplasmic incompatibility; CI). CI is believed to occur as a result of Wolbachia-induced modifications to sperm during maturation, which prevent infected sperm from initiating successful zygote development when fertilizing uninfected females' eggs. However, the mechanism by which CI occurs has been little studied outside the genus Drosophila. Here, we show that in the sperm heteromorphic Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, infected males transfer fewer fertile sperm at mating than uninfected males. In contrast, non-fertile apyrene sperm are not affected. This indicates that Wolbachia may only affect fertile sperm production and highlights the potential of the Lepidoptera as a model for examining the mechanism by which Wolbachia induces CI in insects. PMID:20880864

  15. Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    González, A; Rossini, C; Eisner, M; Eisner, T

    1999-05-11

    The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

  16. Evolutionary escalation: the bat-moth arms race.

    PubMed

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-06-01

    Echolocation in bats and high-frequency hearing in their insect prey make bats and insects an ideal system for studying the sensory ecology and neuroethology of predator-prey interactions. Here, we review the evolutionary history of bats and eared insects, focusing on the insect order Lepidoptera, and consider the evidence for antipredator adaptations and predator counter-adaptations. Ears evolved in a remarkable number of body locations across insects, with the original selection pressure for ears differing between groups. Although cause and effect are difficult to determine, correlations between hearing and life history strategies in moths provide evidence for how these two variables influence each other. We consider life history variables such as size, sex, circadian and seasonal activity patterns, geographic range and the composition of sympatric bat communities. We also review hypotheses on the neural basis for anti-predator behaviours (such as evasive flight and sound production) in moths. It is assumed that these prey adaptations would select for counter-adaptations in predatory bats. We suggest two levels of support for classifying bat traits as counter-adaptations: traits that allow bats to eat more eared prey than expected based on their availability in the environment provide a low level of support for counter-adaptations, whereas traits that have no other plausible explanation for their origination and maintenance than capturing defended prey constitute a high level of support. Specific predator counter-adaptations include calling at frequencies outside the sensitivity range of most eared prey, changing the pattern and frequency of echolocation calls during prey pursuit, and quiet, or 'stealth', echolocation. PMID:27252453

  17. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  18. Unexpected dynamic up-tuning of auditory organs in day-flying moths.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-07-01

    In certain nocturnal moth species the frequency range of best hearing shifts to higher frequencies during repeated sound stimulation. This could provide the moths with a mechanism to better detect approaching echolocating bats. However, such a dynamic up-tuning would be of little value for day-flying moths that use intra-specific acoustic communication. Here we examined if the ears of day-flying moths provide stable tuning during longer sound stimulation. Contrary to our expectations, dynamic up-tuning was found in the ear of the day-flying species Urania boisduvalii and Empyreuma pugione. Audiograms were measured with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The level of the dominant distortion product (i.e. 2f1-f2) varied as a function of time by as much as 45 dB during ongoing acoustic stimulation, showing a systematic decrease at low frequencies and an increase at high frequencies. As a consequence, within about 2 s of acoustic stimulation, the DPOAEs audiogram shifted from low to high frequencies. Despite the up-tuning, the range of best audition still fell within the frequency band of the species-specific communication signals, suggesting that intra-specific communication should not be affected adversely. Up-tuning could be an ancestral condition in moth ears that in day-flying moths does not underlie larger selection pressure. PMID:25894491

  19. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  20. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  1. An endemic population of western poplar clearwing moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) invades a monoculture of hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, John J; Kittelson, Neal T; Hannon, Eugene R; Walsh, Douglas B

    2006-06-01

    Western poplar clearwing, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is endemic in Pacific Northwest riparian habitats at low population densities. These moths have colonized commercial hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) plantings. Moth populations increased rapidly and became a major pest. Trap catches of male moths in mid-season surveys increased 190-fold from 95 in 2001 to >18,500 in 2002 across 6597 ha of poplars monitored. The outbreak of western poplar clearwings was widespread in 2002. Pheromone-baited traps placed one trap per 81.75 ha over 13,274 ha of commercial poplars captured >108,000 male moths in 2002. Damage to commercial poplars included girdling of saplings and burrows in limbs and trunks of trees. Repeated applications of chlorpyrifos failed to reduce the abundance of moths in 2002. Two management strategies over two separate plantations of approximately 6500 ha each were contrasted. Future control strategies recommend a halt to the use of contact insecticides that target adult moths. Short-term (3-5 yr) control should involve a pheromone-based mating disruption strategy followed eventually by selection of a clone that is less susceptible to P. robiniae attack. PMID:16813311

  2. Fabrication of silica moth-eye structures by photo-nanoimprinting using ordered anodic porous alumina molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagishita, Takashi; Endo, Takahide; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Moth-eye structures composed of an ordered array of tapered SiO2 pillars were fabricated by photo-nanoimprinting using anodic porous alumina as a mold. The formation of SiO2 moth-eye structures was carried out using a photosensitive polysilane solution as a precursor of silica. The SiO2 moth-eye structures formed on the surface of a glass plate effectively suppressed the reflection of incident light.

  3. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  4. The gleaning attacks of the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, are relatively inaudible to moths.

    PubMed

    Faure, P A; Fullard, J H; Dawson, J W

    1993-05-01

    This study empirically tests the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaning insectivorous bats (short duration, high frequency, low intensity) are acoustically mismatched to the ears of noctuid moths and are less detectable than those of aerially hawking bats. We recorded auditory receptor cell action potentials elicited in underwing moths (Catocala spp.) by echolocation calls emitted during gleaning attacks by Myotis septentrionalis (the northern long-eared bat) and during flights by the aerial hawker Myotis lucifugus (the little brown bat). The moth ear responds inconsistently and with fewer action potentials to the echolocation calls emitted by the gleaner, a situation that worsened when the moth's ear was covered by its wing (mimicking a moth resting on a surface). Calls emitted by the aerial-hawking bat elicited a significantly stronger spiking response from the moth ear. Moths with their ears covered by their wings maintained their relative hearing sensitivity at their best frequency range, the range used by most aerial insectivorous bats, but showed a pronounced deafness in the frequency range typically employed by gleaning bats. Our results (1) support the prediction that the echolocation calls of gleaners are acoustically inconspicuous to the ears of moths (and presumably other nocturnal tympanate insects), leaving the moths particularly vulnerable to predation, and (2) suggest that gleaners gain a foraging advantage against eared prey. PMID:8315370

  5. [Transcriptional analysis of the Grp gene, a genomic homolog of the retrotransposon gypsy gag gene, in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Nefedova, L N; Kuz'min, I V; Burmistrova, D A; Rezazadekh, S; Kim, A I

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, we studied the Grp gene (CG4680, Gag related protein) expression at the transcriptional level. It was found that at the embryonic and larval stages of D. melanogaster development the Grp expression proceeds at a low level, but it significantly increases at the adult stage. Adult individuals display a tissue-specific expression: an eleveated level of transcription is observed in the gut tissues, but not in the chitin carcass, head, and gonads. Since the gut may potentially be a primary barrier for the penetration of a viral infection, we conducted a comparative analysis of Grp gene transcription in D. melanogaster strains differing in the presence of active copies of the gypsy errantivirus and in the status of the flamenco gene controlling sensitivity to errantiviral infections. No noticeable differences in the level of Grp gene transcription were revealed. Thus, the Grp gene is not a pseudogene, but it is a functional gene of the D. melanogaster genome whose role remains to be elucidated. PMID:21954611

  6. HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections in a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Ujhelyi, Eszter; Neaigus, Alan

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of HIV and selected blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among a convenience sample of 64 residents of Dzsumbuj, a predominantly Roma (Gypsy) neighbourhood in Budapest, Hungary. No cases of HIV were detected, while the prevalence of Hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc) was 27% and syphilis prevalence was 2%. Romas (n=50) were significantly more likely than non-Romas (n=14) to have HAV antibodies (80% vs. 43%) and less likely to be HBV immunized (anti-HBs only; 6% vs. 29%). Current drug injectors (n=13) were more likely than non-injectors (n=51) to have antibodies against HAV (85% vs. 69%) and HCV (85% vs. 8%). While HIV has not been introduced in this population, risk conditions for a potentially explosive HIV epidemic are present. Health care policies should focus on expanding coverage for HAV and HBV immunizations, and access to HIV preventive services needs to be extended to marginalized, mostly minority populations, such as the Roma in Europe. PMID:18935777

  7. Ethnic Differences in the Association of Thrombophilic Polymorphisms with Obstetric Complications in Slovak and Roma (Gypsy) Populations

    PubMed Central

    Gabrikova, Dana; Pitonak, Jozef; Bernasovska, Jarmila; Macekova, Sona; Lohajova-Behulova, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Hereditary as well as acquired thrombophilia is associated with a higher incidence of severe obstetric complications such as preeclampsia, spontaneous pregnancy loss, placental abruption, and fetal growth retardation. The aim of our study was to examine the association of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms (factor V Leiden, MTHFR C677T, and MTHFR A1298C) with pregnancy complications in the Slovak majority population and the Roma (Gypsy) ethnic population. The study included 354 women; 120 patients and 105 controls from the Slovak majority population, 50 patients and 79 controls from the Slovak Roma population. Genotyping was performed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction method using TaqMan® MGB probes. Results: A statistically significant higher frequency of factor V Leiden (p=0.001, odds ratio [OR]=5.9) and MTHFR C677T polymorphism (p=0.011, OR=1.7) was observed in the Slovak majority patient group compared to the control group. The incidence of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism between patients and controls did not differ significantly. None of the three polymorphisms studied was in association with pregnancy complications in the group of Roma women. Conclusions: Our study has confirmed the variable distribution of selected thrombophilic polymorphisms in different ethnic groups as well as their various effects on the clinical phenotype. PMID:25549181

  8. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  9. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher. PMID:21729701

  10. Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction. PMID:23274850

  11. The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2005-12-01

    We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger moths and wild-caught bats under conditions mimicking those found in nature and to demand the use of both aerial hawking and gleaning strategies by bats. Further, it is the first to report spectrograms of the sounds produced by tiger moths while under aerial attack by echolocating bats. During both aerial hawking and gleaning trials, all muted C. tenera and perched intact C. tenera were attacked by M. septentrionalis, indicating that M. septentrionalis did not discriminate C. tenera from palatable moths based on potential echoic and/or non-auditory cues. Intact C. tenera were attacked significantly less often than muted C. tenera during aerial hawking attacks: tymbal clicks were therefore an effective deterrent in an aerial hawking context. During gleaning attacks, intact and muted C. tenera were always attacked and suffered similar mortality rates, suggesting that while handling prey this bat uses primarily chemical signals. Our results also show that C. tenera temporally matches the onset of click production to the ;approach phase' echolocation calls produced by aerial hawking attacking bats and that clicks themselves influence the echolocation behaviour of attacking bats. In the context of past research, these findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats. We suggest these signals are specialized for an aerial context. PMID

  12. A moth pheromone brewery: production of (Z)-11-hexadecenol by heterologous co-expression of two biosynthetic genes from a noctuid moth in a yeast cell factory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moths (Lepidoptera) are highly dependent on chemical communication to find a mate. Compared to conventional unselective insecticides, synthetic pheromones have successfully served to lure male moths as a specific and environmentally friendly way to control important pest species. However, the chemical synthesis and purification of the sex pheromone components in large amounts is a difficult and costly task. The repertoire of enzymes involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis in insecta can be seen as a library of specific catalysts that can be used to facilitate the synthesis of a particular chemical component. In this study, we present a novel approach to effectively aid in the preparation of semi-synthetic pheromone components using an engineered vector co-expressing two key biosynthetic enzymes in a simple yeast cell factory. Results We first identified and functionally characterized a ∆11 Fatty-Acyl Desaturase and a Fatty-Acyl Reductase from the Turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. The ∆11-desaturase produced predominantly Z11-16:acyl, a common pheromone component precursor, from the abundant yeast palmitic acid and the FAR transformed a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding alcohols which may serve as pheromone components in many moth species. Secondly, when we co-expressed the genes in the Brewer’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a set of long-chain fatty acids and alcohols that are not naturally occurring in yeast were produced from inherent yeast fatty acids, and the presence of (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH), demonstrated that both heterologous enzymes were active in concert. A 100 ml batch yeast culture produced on average 19.5 μg Z11-16:OH. Finally, we demonstrated that oxidized extracts from the yeast cells containing (Z)-11-hexadecenal and other aldehyde pheromone compounds elicited specific electrophysiological activity from male antennae of the Tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens, supporting the idea that

  13. Blend chemistry and field attraction of commercial pheromone lures for monitoring grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grape berry moth pheromone lures from four manufacturers, Alpha Scents, Inc. (West Linn, OR), ISCA Technologies (Riverside, CA), Suterra (Bend, OR), and Trécé, Inc. (Adair, OK), were evaluated for purity and efficacy of attracting grape berry moth and a non-target torticid moth in vineyards. The pe...

  14. Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

  15. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology.

    PubMed

    Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A M; Visser, Marcel E; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-08-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth. PMID:26227816

  16. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities. PMID:26979402

  17. Her odours make him deaf: crossmodal modulation of olfaction and hearing in a male moth.

    PubMed

    Skals, Niels; Anderson, Peter; Kanneworff, Morten; Löfstedt, Christer; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2005-02-01

    All animals have to cope with sensory conflicts arising from simultaneous input of incongruent data to different sensory modalities. Nocturnal activity in moths includes mate-finding behaviour by odour detection and bat predator avoidance by acoustic detection. We studied male moths that were simultaneously exposed to female sex pheromones indicating the presence of a potential mate, and artificial bat cries simulating a predation risk. We show that stimulation of one sensory modality can modulate the response to information from another, suggesting that behavioural thresholds are dynamic and depend on the behavioural context. The tendency to respond to bat sounds decreased as the quality and/or the amount of sex pheromone increased. The behavioural threshold for artificial bat cries increased by up to 40 dB when male moths where simultaneously exposed to female sex pheromones. As a consequence, a male moth that has detected the pheromone plume from a female will not try to evade an approaching bat until the bat gets close, hence incurring increased predation risk. Our results suggest that male moths' reaction to sensory conflicts is a trade-off depending on the relative intensity of the input to CNS from the two sensory modalities. PMID:15695752

  18. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs. PMID:26313953

  19. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth. PMID:26487743

  20. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities. PMID:26979402

  1. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Derks, Martijn F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth. PMID:26227816

  2. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  3. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  4. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  5. Moth-Eye TiO2 Layer for Improving Light Harvesting Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Min; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Yoon, Jungjin; Yoo, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jin-Wook; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A moth-eye nanostructured mp-TiO2 film using conventional lithography, nano-imprinting and polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) stamping methods is demonstrated for the first time. Power conversion efficiency of the moth-eye patterned perovskite solar cell is improved by ≈11%, which mainly results from increasing light harvesting efficiency by structural optical property. PMID:26990492

  6. Effect of radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from South Africa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the key pest of pome fruit in South Africa, and control of codling moth in apple and pear orchards relies on the application of insecticides and in some cases pheromone mediated mating disruption. Development of resistance to insecticides and placement of restr...

  7. Monitoring grape berry moth (Paralobesia vitianna: Lepidoptera) in commercial vineyards using a host plant based synthetic lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For some Lepidopteran pests, such as the grape berry moth Paralobesia vitianna, poor correspondence between male captures in traps baited with sex pheromone and oviposition activities of female moths has called into question the value of pheromone-based monitoring for these species. As an alternativ...

  8. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  9. Experimental use of the micro-encapsulated pear ester kairomone for control of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in walnuts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus invasion of tree nuts is primarily through insect damage by moth larvae, such as the codling moth (CM) attacking walnuts. Our goal is to diminish insect-caused nut damage through the use of novel, species-specific host-plant kairomones. We have identified the pear ester (PE) (ethyl (2E, ...

  10. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  11. Apple and sugar feeding in adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella: effects on longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attraction of adult codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to sweet baits has been well documented; however, beneficial effects of sugar feeding on moth fitness have not been demonstrated convincingly. Longevity, fecundity, and egg fertility were examined for female/male pair...

  12. Monitoring grape berry moth (Paralobesia vitianna: Lepidoptera) in commercial vineyards using a host plant based synthetic lure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For some Lepidopteran pests, such as the grape berry moth Paralobesia vitianna, poor correlation between male captures in traps baited with sex pheromone and oviposition activities of female moths has called into question the value of pheromone-based monitoring for these species. As an alternative, ...

  13. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  14. 7 CFR 301.45-9 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Moth § 301.45-9 Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests. Any properly identified... disposal of regulated articles, outdoor household articles, and gypsy moths as provided in sections...

  15. 7 CFR 301.45-9 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Moth § 301.45-9 Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests. Any properly identified... disposal of regulated articles, outdoor household articles, and gypsy moths as provided in sections...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-9 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Moth § 301.45-9 Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests. Any properly identified... disposal of regulated articles, outdoor household articles, and gypsy moths as provided in sections...

  17. 7 CFR 301.45-9 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Moth § 301.45-9 Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests. Any properly identified... disposal of regulated articles, outdoor household articles, and gypsy moths as provided in sections...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45-9 - Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Moth § 301.45-9 Inspection and disposal of regulated articles and pests. Any properly identified... disposal of regulated articles, outdoor household articles, and gypsy moths as provided in sections...

  19. UNderstanding uptake of Immunisations in TravellIng aNd Gypsy communities (UNITING): protocol for an exploratory, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Cath; Crocker, Annie; Emslie, Carol; Dyson, Lisa; Gallagher, Bridget; Schicker, Frieda; Shepherd, Christine; Smith, Lesley; Vousden, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gypsies, Travellers and Roma (referred to here as Travellers) experience significantly poorer health and have shorter life expectancy than the general population. They are also less likely to access health services including immunisation. To improve immunisation rates, we need to understand what helps and hinders individuals in these communities in taking up immunisations. This study has two aims: (1) Investigate the barriers and facilitators to acceptability and uptake of immunisations among six Traveller communities in the UK; (2) Identify potential interventions to increase uptake in these Traveller communities. Methods and analysis A three-phase qualitative study with six Traveller communities. PHASE 1: In each community, we will explore up to 45 Travellers’ views about the influences on their immunisation behaviours and ideas for improving uptake in their community. PHASE 2: In each community, we will investigate 6–8 service providers’ perspectives on barriers and facilitators to childhood and adult immunisations for Traveller communities with whom they work, and ideas to improve uptake. Interview data will be analysed using the Framework approach. PHASE 3: The findings will be discussed and interventions prioritised in six workshops, each with 10–12 phase 1 and 3–4 phase 2 participants. Ethics and dissemination This research received approval from NRES Committee Yorkshire and The Humber-Leeds East (Ref. 13/YH/02). It will produce (1) findings on the barriers and facilitators to uptake of immunisations in six Traveller communities; (2) a prioritised list of potentially feasible and acceptable interventions for increasing uptake in these communities; and (3) methodological development in undertaking research with diverse Traveller communities. The study has the potential to inform new ways of delivering services to ensure high immunisation uptake. Findings will be disseminated to participants, relevant UK organisations with responsibility

  20. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference

    PubMed Central

    Saveer, Ahmed M.; Kromann, Sophie H.; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S.; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G.; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-01-01

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores. PMID:22319127