Science.gov

Sample records for gyratory testing machines

  1. Friction-Testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, F. J.; Dixon, D. S.; Shaw, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Testing machine evaluates wear and ignition characteristics of materials in rubbing contact. Offers advantages over other laboratory methods of measuring wear because it simulates operating conditions under which material will actually be used. Machine used to determine wear characteristics, rank and select materials for service with such active oxidizers as oxygen, halogens, and oxides of nitrogen, measure wear characteristics, and determine coefficients of friction.

  2. Hydraulic Fatigue-Testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodo, James D.; Moore, Dennis R.; Morris, Thomas F.; Tiller, Newton G.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue-testing machine applies fluctuating tension to number of specimens at same time. When sample breaks, machine continues to test remaining specimens. Series of tensile tests needed to determine fatigue properties of materials performed more rapidly than in conventional fatigue-testing machine.

  3. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  4. Dynamic impact testing with servohydraulic testing machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardenheier, R.; Rogers, G.

    2006-08-01

    The design concept of “Crashworthiness” requires the information on material behaviour under dynamic impact loading in order to describe and predict the crash behaviour of structures. Especially the transport related industries, like car, railway or aircraft industry, pursue the concept of lightweight design for a while now. The materials' maximum constraint during loading is pushed to permanently increasing figures. This means in terms of crashworthiness that the process of energy absorption in structures and the mechanical behaviour of materials must well understood and can be described appropriately by material models. In close cooperation with experts from various industries and research institutes Instron has developed throughout the past years a new family of servohydraulic testing machines specifically designed to cope with the dynamics of high rate testing. Main development steps are reflected versus their experimental necessities.

  5. Machine Tests Optical Fibers In Flexure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darejeh, Hadi; Thomas, Henry; Delcher, Ray

    1993-01-01

    Machine repeatedly flexes single optical fiber or cable or bundle of optical fibers at low temperature. Liquid nitrogen surrounds specimen as it is bent back and forth by motion of piston. Machine inexpensive to build and operate. Tests under repeatable conditions so candidate fibers, cables, and bundles evaluated for general robustness before subjected to expensive shock and vibration tests.

  6. Baseline Test Specimen Machining Report

    SciTech Connect

    mark Carroll

    2009-08-01

    specimens drawn from carefully controlled sections of each billet. To this end, this report will discuss the machining of the first set of test specimens that will be evaluated in this program through tensile, compressive, and flexural testing. Validation that the test specimens have been produced to the tolerances required by the applicable ASTM standards, and to the quality control levels required by this program, will demonstrate the viability of sending graphite to selected suppliers that will provide valuable and certifiable data to future data sets that are integral to the NGNP program and beyond.

  7. Design of an impact abrasion testing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Beeley, P. R.; Baker, A. J.

    1994-04-01

    By using a cam-flat follower-impact shaft with a crank-flat rotating anvil system, the machine to be described can create various impact abrasion conditions to simulate a large range of industrial situations encountered in this field. The main features of the machine are the long working life of the flat rotating anvil, which works in the same way as that of the disk in a pin-on-disk wear tester, and the accurate control of both the impact energy delivered to the specimen and the total sliding distance of the specimen on the anvil. Statistical analysis of test results on the machine with EN24 steel and cast high manganese steel shows that the uncertainty of the population mean is within +/- 4.7% of the sample mean under a 95% confidence level of student distribution, which indicates a very good accuracy of test.

  8. Machine tests slow-speed sliding friction in high vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skyrus, J.; Wilkinson, C.

    1967-01-01

    Testing machine that operates without any lubrication of the machine elements within the vacuum chamber measures static friction and sliding friction at very low speeds. Moving parts are held to a minimum to simplify operation in the vacuum chamber.

  9. Multi-axial fatigue testing machine

    SciTech Connect

    Sallberg, D.W.; Lawson, T.J.; Cardon, M.H.

    1989-02-07

    A testing machine is described for multi-axis fatigue testing of a component having inner and outer elements subject to linear and rotational forces about different axes comprising a base, first, second and third hydraulic actuators secured to the base, hydraulic pressure means and control means coupled to the actuators for controlled operation of the actuators, gimbal means comprising first and second gimbals mounted on the base and interconnected for rotation about mutually perpendicular axes, the first gimbal having means for attachment to one of the elements, means for substantially independently coupling the first and second actuators to the first and second gimbals respectively so that each actuator effects rocking movement of one gimbal without inputting torque about the axis of the other gimbal, and means for attaching the third actuator to the other of the elements, whereby the three actuators independently and controllably apply loads to the component about three axes of motion.

  10. Human Machine Interface Programming and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Thomas Garrison

    2013-01-01

    Human Machine Interface (HMI) Programming and Testing is about creating graphical displays to mimic mission critical ground control systems in order to provide NASA engineers with the ability to monitor the health management of these systems in real time. The Health Management System (HMS) is an online interactive human machine interface system that monitors all Kennedy Ground Control Subsystem (KGCS) hardware in the field. The Health Management System is essential to NASA engineers because it allows remote control and monitoring of the health management systems of all the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) and associated field devices. KGCS will have equipment installed at the launch pad, Vehicle Assembly Building, Mobile Launcher, as well as the Multi-Purpose Processing Facility. I am designing graphical displays to monitor and control new modules that will be integrated into the HMS. The design of the display screen will closely mimic the appearance and functionality of the actual modules. There are many different field devices used to monitor health management and each device has its own unique set of health management related data, therefore each display must also have its own unique way to display this data. Once the displays are created, the RSLogix5000 application is used to write software that maps all the required data read from the hardware to the graphical display. Once this data is mapped to its corresponding display item, the graphical display and hardware device will be connected through the same network in order to test all possible scenarios and types of data the graphical display was designed to receive. Test Procedures will be written to thoroughly test out the displays and ensure that they are working correctly before being deployed to the field. Additionally, the Kennedy Ground Controls Subsystem's user manual will be updated to explain to the NASA engineers how to use the new module displays.

  11. Information Model for Machine-Tool-Performance Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y. Tina; Soons, Johannes A.; Donmez, M. Alkan

    2001-01-01

    This report specifies an information model of machine-tool-performance tests in the EXPRESS [1] language. The information model provides a mechanism for describing the properties and results of machine-tool-performance tests. The objective of the information model is a standardized, computer-interpretable representation that allows for efficient archiving and exchange of performance test data throughout the life cycle of the machine. The report also demonstrates the implementation of the information model using three different implementation methods.

  12. Machine Shop. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    This drafting criterion-referenced test item bank is keyed to the machine shop competency profile developed by industry and education professionals in Missouri. The 16 references used for drafting the test items are listed. Test items are arranged under these categories: orientation to machine shop; performing mathematical calculations; performing…

  13. Machining as a mechanical property test revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David L.

    There is much need for data on mechanical behavior of metals at high strains and strain rates. This need is dictated by modeling of processes like forming and machining, wherein the material in the deformation zone is subjected to severe deformation conditions atypical of conventional material property tests such as tension and torsion. Accurate flow stress data is an essential input for robust prediction of process outputs. Similar requirements arise from applications in high speed ballistic penetration and design of materials for armor. Since the deformation zone in cutting of metals is characterized by unique and extreme combinations of strain, strain rate and temperature, an opportunity exists for using plane-strain cutting as a mechanical property test for measuring flow properties of metals. The feasibility of using plane-strain cutting to measure flow properties of metals is revisited in the light of recent data showing controllability of the deformation conditions in chip formation by systematic variation of process input parameters. A method is outlined as to how the deformation conditions can be varied by changing the process parameters. The method is applied to cutting of commercially pure copper (FCC), iron (BCC) and zinc (HCP). Forces and chip geometries are measured, in conjunction with particle image velocimetry characterization of the deformation using high speed image sequences. The flow stresses are estimated from these measurements. The measured flow stress and its dependence on strain are shown to agree well with prior measurements of these parameters using conventional tests, and flow stress inferred from hardness characterization. The method is also demonstrated to be able to measure properties of metals that recrystallize at room temperature (zinc), wherein quasi-static tests predict much lower strength. Sources of variability and uncertainty in the application of this measurement technique are discussed. Future work in the context of further

  14. Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce-Lockhart, Michael; Norvell, Theodore; Crescenzi, Pierluigi

    2009-01-01

    We propose an extension of the Teaching Machine project, called Quiz Generator, that allows instructors to produce assessment quizzes in the field of algorithm and data structures quite easily. This extension makes use of visualization techniques and is based on new features of the Teaching Machine that allow third-party visualizers to be added as…

  15. Soliton propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma at critical density of negative ions: Effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kawata, Shigeo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions on soliton propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma that contains positive ions, negative ions, and electrons are studied at a critical density of negative ions. Since at this critical negative ion density the nonlinear term of the relevant Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation vanishes, a higher order of nonlinearity is considered by retaining higher-order perturbation terms in the expansion of dependent quantities together with the appropriate set of stretched coordinates. Under this situation, time-dependent perturbation leads to the evolution of modified KdV solitons, which are governed by a modified form of the KdV equation that has an additional term due to the density gradient present in the plasma. On the basis of the solution of this equation and obliquely applied magnetic field, the effects of gyratory and thermal motions of ions are analyzed on the soliton propagation for three cases, n{sub n0}n{sub e0}, together with n{sub n0} (n{sub e0}) as the density of negative ions (electrons). The role of the negative ions in the evolution of the modes and the solitons is also discussed. Under the limiting cases, our calculations reduce to the ones obtained by other investigators in the past. This substantiates the generality of the present analysis.

  16. Testing of new banknotes for machines that process currency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Eugenie E.

    2000-04-01

    Banknotes are now frequently use din machines. The Federal Reserve Board and the US Department of the Treasury have identified a need to produce notes that are reliably accepted in a variety of machine applications. This paper describes the steps that led to identifying requirements of manufacturers of machines that process banknotes for test notes, and the program developed for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to address those requirements.

  17. IQ Tests Are Not for Machines, Yet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowe, David L.; Hernandez-Orallo, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Complex, but specific, tasks--such as chess or "Jeopardy!"--are popularly seen as milestones for artificial intelligence (AI). However, they are not appropriate for evaluating the intelligence of machines or measuring the progress in AI. Aware of this delusion, Detterman has recently raised a challenge prompting AI researchers to evaluate their…

  18. VIEW EASTLEFTBUILDING 2 PHYSICAL TESTING HOUSE (1928) RIGHTBUILDING 7 MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW EAST-LEFT-BUILDING 2 PHYSICAL TESTING HOUSE (1928) RIGHT-BUILDING 7 MACHINE SHOP (1901 SECTION) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  19. Performance verification of impact machines for testing plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Siewert, T.A.; Vigliotti, D.P.; Dirling, L.B.; McCowan, C.N.

    1999-12-01

    Valid comparison of impact test energies reported by various organizations and over time depends on consistent performance of impact test machines. This paper investigates the influence of various specimen and test parameters on impact energies in the 1 J to 2 J range for both Charpy V-notch and Izod procedures, leading toward the identification of a suitable material for use in a program to verify machine performance. The authors investigated the influences on the absorbed energy of machine design, test material, specimen cross sectional area, and machine energy range. For comparison to published round robin data on common plastics, this study used some common metallic alloys, including those used in the international verification program for metals impact machines and in informal calibration programs of tensile machines. The alloys that were evaluated include AISI type 4340 steel, and five aluminum alloys: 2014-T6, 2024-T351, 2219-T87, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6. They found that certain metallic alloys have coefficients of variation comparable to those of the best plastics that are reported in the literature. Also, they found that the differences in absorbed energy between two designs of machines are smaller than the differences that can be attributed to the specimens alone.

  20. Performance Verification of Impact Machines for Testing Plastics

    PubMed Central

    Siewert, T. A.; Vigliotti, D. P.; Dirling, L. B.; McCowan, C. N.

    1999-01-01

    Valid comparison of impact test energies reported by various organizations and over time depends on consistent performance of impact test machines. This paper investigates the influence of various specimen and test parameters on impact energies in the 1 J to 2 J range for both Charpy V-notch and Izod procedures, leading toward the identification of a suitable material for use in a program to verify machine performance. We investigated the influences on the absorbed energy of machine design, test material, specimen cross sectional area, and machine energy range. For comparison to published round robin data on common plastics, this study used some common metallic alloys, including those used in the international verification program for metals impact machines and in informal calibration programs of tensile machines. The alloys that were evaluated include AISI type 4340 steel, and five aluminum alloys: 2014-T6, 2024-T351, 2219-T87, 6061-T6, and 7075-T6. We found that certain metallic alloys have coefficients of variation comparable to those of the best plastics that are reported in the literature. Also, we found that the differences in absorbed energy between two designs of machines are smaller than the differences that can be attributed to the specimens alone.

  1. Machine Vision Tests for Spent Fuel Scrap Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BERGER, W.W.

    2000-04-27

    The purpose of this work is to perform a feasibility test of a Machine Vision system for potential use at the Hanford K basins during spent nuclear fuel (SNF) operations. This report documents the testing performed to establish functionality of the system including quantitative assessment of results. Fauske and Associates, Inc., which has been intimately involved in development of the SNF safety basis, has teamed with Agris-Schoen Vision Systems, experts in robotics, tele-robotics, and Machine Vision, for this work.

  2. Application of accelerated tool life tests to machining of titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Stagner, R.T.

    1980-09-01

    The tool life of several commercial C-2 grade cutting tools used in machining titanium was estimated using two experimental techniques, the quick facing test and the multipass facing test. Comparisons among the tools tested were made statistically by analyzing differences in regression equations derived from test data. Tool life end points were determined by operator judgement, tool force analysis, and tool wear measurement. Of the ten tools tested, nine had the same life under the test conditions.

  3. Testing Flight Systems with Machine Executable Scripts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Don; Bone, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The MSAP project at JPL has been testing spacecraft avionics and flight software since 2005, in part using computer executable scripts. The scripts are document files of a common word processor and comply with the format of a traditional, formal test procedure common at JPL. These procedures use keywords to issue commands and evaluate responses, mimicking a human test operator. In effect, script lines are inserted into a normal procedure. Even though the executable structure of the procedures is limited to linear sequences of fairly simple operations, we have found significant value in certain test regimes given the repeatability, ease of execution, and readily understandable intent of these procedures.

  4. Machine for development impact tests in sports seats and similar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the stages of development of a machine to perform impact tests in sport seats, seats for spectators and multiple seats. This includes reviews and recommendations for testing laboratories that have needs similar to the laboratory where unfolded this process.The machine was originally developed seeking to meet certain impact tests in accordance with the NBR15925 standards; 15878 and 16031. The process initially included the study of the rules and the election of the tests for which the machine could be developed and yet all reports and outcome of interaction with service providers and raw materials.For operating facility, it was necessary to set entirely the machine control, which included the concept of dialogue with operator, the design of the menu screens and the procedures for submission and registration of results. To ensure reliability in the process, the machine has been successfully calibrated according to the requirements of the Brazilian network of calibration.The criticism to this enterprise covers the technical and economic aspects involved and points out the main obstacles that were needed to overcome.

  5. Software Development and Testing for Machine Learning Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Takaki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    It is not easy to test software used in studies of machine learning with statistical frameworks. In particular, software for randomized algorithms such as Monte Carlo methods compromises testing process. Combined with underestimation of the importance of software testing in academic fields, many software programs without appropriate validation are being used and causing problems. In this article, we discuss the importance of writing test codes for software used in research, and present a practical way for testing, focusing on programs using Monte Carlo methods.

  6. Testing and Validating Machine Learning Classifiers by Metamorphic Testing☆

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaoyuan; Ho, Joshua W. K.; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail; Xu, Baowen; Chen, Tsong Yueh

    2011-01-01

    Machine Learning algorithms have provided core functionality to many application domains - such as bioinformatics, computational linguistics, etc. However, it is difficult to detect faults in such applications because often there is no “test oracle” to verify the correctness of the computed outputs. To help address the software quality, in this paper we present a technique for testing the implementations of machine learning classification algorithms which support such applications. Our approach is based on the technique “metamorphic testing”, which has been shown to be effective to alleviate the oracle problem. Also presented include a case study on a real-world machine learning application framework, and a discussion of how programmers implementing machine learning algorithms can avoid the common pitfalls discovered in our study. We also conduct mutation analysis and cross-validation, which reveal that our method has high effectiveness in killing mutants, and that observing expected cross-validation result alone is not sufficiently effective to detect faults in a supervised classification program. The effectiveness of metamorphic testing is further confirmed by the detection of real faults in a popular open-source classification program. PMID:21532969

  7. A New Method for Incremental Testing of Finite State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedrosa, Lehilton Lelis Chaves; Moura, Arnaldo Vieira

    2010-01-01

    The automatic generation of test cases is an important issue for conformance testing of several critical systems. We present a new method for the derivation of test suites when the specification is modeled as a combined Finite State Machine (FSM). A combined FSM is obtained conjoining previously tested submachines with newly added states. This new concept is used to describe a fault model suitable for incremental testing of new systems, or for retesting modified implementations. For this fault model, only the newly added or modified states need to be tested, thereby considerably reducing the size of the test suites. The new method is a generalization of the well-known W-method and the G-method, but is scalable, and so it can be used to test FSMs with an arbitrarily large number of states.

  8. A Physiological Dynamic Testing Machine for the Elbow Joint

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Johannes; Wendlandt, Robert; Heinritz, Marcus; Schall, Angelika; Schulz, Arndt-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of our study was to develop a test setup combining realistic force transmission with physiological movement patterns at a frequency that mimicked daily use of the elbow, to assess implants in orthopedic joint reconstruction and trauma surgery. Methods: In a multidisciplinary approach, an in vitro biomechanical testing machine was developed and manufactured that could simulate the repetitive forceful movement of the human elbow joint. The construction involved pneumatic actuators. An aluminum forearm module enabled movements in 3 degrees of freedom, while motions and forces were replicated via force and angular sensors that were similar to in vivo measurements. Results: In the initial testing, 16 human elbow joint specimens were tested at 35 Nm in up to 5000 cycles at a range of 10° extension to 110° flexion. The transmitted forces led to failure in 9 out of the 16 tested specimens, significantly more often in females and small specimens. Conclusions: It is possible to construct a testing machine to simulate nearly physiological repetitive elbow motions. The prototype has a number of technical deficiencies that could be modified. When testing implants for the human elbow with cadaver specimens, the specimen has to be chosen according to the intended use of the implant under investigation. PMID:23667406

  9. Tests of disinfection by heat in a bedpan washing machine.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, G A; Collins, B J; Deverill, C E

    1974-09-01

    Tests of effectiveness of disinfection of metal and polypropylene bedpans were made in a washer fitted with a steam generator. Broth cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, or Streptococcus faecalis (approximately 4 x 10(8) organisms) were sealed in lengths of capillary tubing and attached to the surface of the pans. In other tests, pans were contaminated with an artificial soil containing Str. faecalis (10(8) organisms/ml). In both series of tests, counts of surviving organisms were made at the end of the washing and disinfection cycle. The tests using capillary tubes showed that the Gram-negative bacilli were effectively killed, but not necessarily Gram-positive cocci. However, when incorporated in standard soil, Str. faecalis was killed or removed during the cycle. The results indicate that the disinfection process was effective for metal bedpans, but less so for polypropylene. Possible disadvantages and modification of the machine are suggested. PMID:4214841

  10. Coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    1994-08-30

    A coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method which iudes a rotary spindle having an upper phase plate and an axis of rotation, a kinematic ball mount attached to the phase plate concentric with the axis of rotation of the phase plate, a groove mounted at the circumference of the phase plate, and an arm assembly which rests in the groove. The arm assembly has a small sphere at one end and a large sphere at the other end. The small sphere may be a coordinate measuring machine probe tip and may have variable diameters. The large sphere is secured in the kinematic ball mount and the arm is held in the groove. The kinematic ball mount includes at least three mounting spheres and the groove is an angular locating groove including at least two locking spheres. The arm may have a hollow inner core and an outer layer. The rotary spindle may be a ratio reducer. The device is used to evaluate the measuring performance of a coordinate measuring machine for periodic recertification, including 2 and 3 dimensional accuracy, squareness, straightness, and angular accuracy.

  11. Coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, L.F.

    1994-08-30

    A coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method are disclosed which includes a rotary spindle having an upper phase plate and an axis of rotation, a kinematic ball mount attached to the phase plate concentric with the axis of rotation of the phase plate, a groove mounted at the circumference of the phase plate, and an arm assembly which rests in the groove. The arm assembly has a small sphere at one end and a large sphere at the other end. The small sphere may be a coordinate measuring machine probe tip and may have variable diameters. The large sphere is secured in the kinematic ball mount and the arm is held in the groove. The kinematic ball mount includes at least three mounting spheres and the groove is an angular locating groove including at least two locking spheres. The arm may have a hollow inner core and an outer layer. The rotary spindle may be a ratio reducer. The device is used to evaluate the measuring performance of a coordinate measuring machine for periodic recertification, including 2 and 3 dimensional accuracy, squareness, straightness, and angular accuracy. 5 figs.

  12. 1000–ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V.

    2014-01-29

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R and D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented.

  13. 1000-ton testing machine for cyclic fatigue tests of materials at liquid nitrogen temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitruk, A. A.; Klimchenko, Yu. A.; Kovalchuk, O. A.; Marushin, E. L.; Mednikov, A. A.; Nasluzov, S. N.; Privalova, E. K.; Rodin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, D. B.; Sukhanova, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main tasks of superconductive magnets R&D is to determine the mechanical and fatigue properties of structural materials and the critical design elements in the cryogenic temperature range. This paper describes a new facility built based on the industrial 1000-ton (10 MN) testing machine Schenk PC10.0S. Special equipment was developed to provide the mechanical and cyclic tensile fatigue tests of large-scale samples at the liquid nitrogen temperature and in a given load range. The main feature of the developed testing machine is the cryostat, in which the device converting a standard compression force of the testing machine to the tensile force affected at the test object is placed. The control system provides the remote control of the test and obtaining, processing and presentation of test data. As an example of the testing machine operation the test program and test results of the cyclic tensile fatigue tests of fullscale helium inlet sample of the PF1 coil ITER are presented.

  14. A microdynamic version of the tensile test machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    Very large space structures require structural reactions to control forces associated with nanometer-level displacements; JPL has accordingly built a tensile test machine capable of mN-level force measurements and nm-level displacement measurements, with a view to the study of structural linear joining technology at the lower limit of its resolution. The tester is composed of a moving table that is supported by six flexured legs and a test specimen cantilevered off the table to ground. Three vertical legs contain piezoactuators allowing changes in length up to 200 microns while generating axial load and bending moments. Displacements between ground and table are measured by means of three laser-interferometric channels.

  15. Identification of kinematic errors of five-axis machine tool trunnion axis from finished test piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ya; Fu, Jianzhong; Chen, Zichen

    2014-09-01

    Compared with the traditional non-cutting measurement, machining tests can more accurately reflect the kinematic errors of five-axis machine tools in the actual machining process for the users. However, measurement and calculation of the machining tests in the literature are quite difficult and time-consuming. A new method of the machining tests for the trunnion axis of five-axis machine tool is proposed. Firstly, a simple mathematical model of the cradle-type five-axis machine tool was established by optimizing the coordinate system settings based on robot kinematics. Then, the machining tests based on error-sensitive directions were proposed to identify the kinematic errors of the trunnion axis of cradle-type five-axis machine tool. By adopting the error-sensitive vectors in the matrix calculation, the functional relationship equations between the machining errors of the test piece in the error-sensitive directions and the kinematic errors of C-axis and A-axis of five-axis machine tool rotary table was established based on the model of the kinematic errors. According to our previous work, the kinematic errors of C-axis can be treated as the known quantities, and the kinematic errors of A-axis can be obtained from the equations. This method was tested in Mikron UCP600 vertical machining center. The machining errors in the error-sensitive directions can be obtained by CMM inspection from the finished test piece to identify the kinematic errors of five-axis machine tool trunnion axis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method can reduce the complexity, cost, and the time consumed substantially, and has a wider applicability. This paper proposes a new method of the machining tests for the trunnion axis of five-axis machine tool.

  16. Design and Testing of a Friction Stir Processing Machine for Laboratory Research

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Miller; Rodney J. Bitsoi; Eric D. Larsen; Herschel B. Smartt

    2006-08-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication and testing of a friction stir processing machine. The machine is intended to be a flexible research tool for a broad range of friction stir processing studies. The machine design also addresses the need for an affordable, robust design for general laboratory use.

  17. Can Machine Scoring Deal with Broad and Open Writing Tests as Well as Human Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the claim that machine scoring of writing test responses agrees with human readers as much as humans agree with other humans. These claims about the reliability of machine scoring of writing are usually based on specific and constrained writing tasks, and there is reason for asking whether machine scoring of writing requires…

  18. MACHINING TEST SPECIMENS FROM HARVESTED ZION RPV SEGMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, Randy K; Rosseel, Thomas M; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Zion Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois, presents a special and timely opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, an international nuclear services company, the selective procurement of materials, structures, components, and other items of interest from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), cutting these segments into blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material and machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for microstructural (TEM, SEM, APT, SANS and nano indention) characterization. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models [1].

  19. Testing and heat treating of beryllium for machine-damage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Corle, R R; Leslie, W W; Brewer, A W

    1981-09-10

    The work performed in this program was designed to develop a sensitive test for detecting machine damage in beryllium and to evaluate heat treatment as a means of removing that damage. An impact-shear test was developed which proved to be very discriminating for the detection of machine damage in beryllium. The validity of this test was verified by high strain rate tensile tests. The data revealed that heat treating is equally as effective as chemical etching in removing machine damage from commercial grades of beryllium. The impact-shear test is significantly more discriminating than tensile testing at normal strain rates.

  20. Laboratory Test of Vending Machine with Advanced Defrosting Technology and Integrated Accumulatory/Expander Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Bryne, M E; Domitrovic, R E; Mei, V C; Chen, F C; Fransson, J H.M.

    2000-10-01

    The manufacturer delivered an off-the-shelf soft drink vending machine for testing to ORNL. The machine was tested for baseline performance and it was found that the cold air passage was not properly designed. An inadequate cold air supply to the product resulted in recirculation of the evaporator air and heavy frost accumulation on the evaporator coil.

  1. Designing of a Testing Machine for Shear-Mode Fatigue Crack Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaba, A.; Okazaki, S.; Endo, M.; Yanase, K.

    As recognized, flaking-type failure is one of the serious problems for railroad tracks and bearings. In essence, flaking-type failure is closely related to the growth of the shear-mode (Mode-II and Mode-III) fatigue crack. In our research group, it is demonstrated that a shear-mode fatigue crack can be reproduced for cylindrical specimens by applying the cyclic torsion in the presence of the static axial compressive stress. However, a biaxial servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine is quite expensive to purchase and costly to maintain. The low testing speed (about 10Hz) of the testing machine further aggravates the situation. As a result, study on shear-mode fatigue crack growth is still in the nascent stage. To overcome the difficulties mentioned above, in this research activity, we developed a high-performance and cost-effective testing machine to reproduce the shear-mode fatigue crack growth by improving the available resonance-type torsion fatigue testing machine. The primary advantage of using the resonance-type torsion fatigue testing machine is cost-efficiency. In addition, the testing speed effectively can be improved, in comparison with that of a biaxial servo-hydraulic fatigue testing machine. By utilizing the newly-designed testing machine, we have demonstrated that we can successfully reproduce the shear-mode fatigue crack.

  2. Comparing machines and humans on a visual categorization test.

    PubMed

    Fleuret, François; Li, Ting; Dubout, Charles; Wampler, Emma K; Yantis, Steven; Geman, Donald

    2011-10-25

    Automated scene interpretation has benefited from advances in machine learning, and restricted tasks, such as face detection, have been solved with sufficient accuracy for restricted settings. However, the performance of machines in providing rich semantic descriptions of natural scenes from digital images remains highly limited and hugely inferior to that of humans. Here we quantify this "semantic gap" in a particular setting: We compare the efficiency of human and machine learning in assigning an image to one of two categories determined by the spatial arrangement of constituent parts. The images are not real, but the category-defining rules reflect the compositional structure of real images and the type of "reasoning" that appears to be necessary for semantic parsing. Experiments demonstrate that human subjects grasp the separating principles from a handful of examples, whereas the error rates of computer programs fluctuate wildly and remain far behind that of humans even after exposure to thousands of examples. These observations lend support to current trends in computer vision such as integrating machine learning with parts-based modeling. PMID:22006295

  3. Construction of a cylindrical brine test room using a tunnel boring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Likar, V.F.; Burrington, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a horizontal cylindrical brine test room at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The room was constructed in the bedded salt formation at a depth of 655 meters with a tunnel boring machine. The machine leasing, technical and operational management, parameters involved, and successful completion of this effort are included. 3 figs.

  4. Tests of Lead-bronze Bearings in the DVL Bearing-testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, G

    1940-01-01

    The lead-bronze bearings tested in the DVL machine have proven themselves very sensitive to load changes as in comparison with bearings of light metal. In order to prevent surface injuries and consequently running interruptions, the increase of the load has to be made in small steps with sufficient run-in time between steps. The absence of lead in the running surface, impurities in the alloy (especially iron) and surface irregularities (pores) decreases the load-carrying capacity of the bearing to two or three times that of the static load.

  5. US Department of Energy National Lab Activities in Marine Hydrokinetics: Machine Performance Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S; Chamorro, Leonardo; Hill, Craig; Gunawan, Budi; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-01-01

    Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technology performance testing in the laboratory and field supports the US Department of Energy s MHK program goals to advance the technology readiness levels of MHK machines, to ensure environmentally responsible designs, to identify key cost drivers, and to reduce the cost of energy of MHK technologies. Laboratory testing results from scaled model machine testing at the University of Minnesota s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) main channel flume are presented, including simultaneous machine power and inflow measurements for a 1:10 scale three-bladed axial flow turbine used to assess machine performance in turbulent flows, and detailed measurements of inflow and wake flow velocity and turbulence, including the assessment of the effects of large energetic organized vortex shedding on machine performance and wake turbulence downstream. Scaled laboratory testing provides accurate data sets for near- and far-field hydrodynamic models, and useful information on technology and environmental readiness levels before full-scale testing and demonstration in open water. This study validated turbine performance for a technology in order to advance its technology readiness level. Synchronized ADV measurements to calculate spatio-temporal characteristics of turbulence supported model development of the inflow turbulence model, Hydro-TurbSim, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate unsteady loading on MHK machines. Wake flow measurements supported model development of the far-field model, SNL-EFDC, developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to optimize spacing for MHK machine arrays.

  6. Design and fabrication of a unique electromechanical machine for long-term fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect

    Boling, K.W.

    1984-12-01

    An electromechanical machine has been designed and fabricated for performing long-term fatigue tests under conditions that simulate those in modern plants. The machine is now commercially available. Its advantages over current electrohydraulic machines are lower initial cost, minimum maintenance requirements, and greater reliability especially when performing long tests. The machine operates in closed-loop fashion by utilizing continuous feedback signals from the specimen extensometer or load cell, it is programmable for testing in strain or load control. The maximum ram rate is 0.056 mm/s (0.134 in./min), maximum ram travel is 102 mm (4 in.) and load capacity is +-44 (+-10 kips). Induction heating controls speciment temperatures to 1000/sup 0/C.

  7. Topical Report Tantalum – 2.5% Tungsten Machinability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus

    2009-09-02

    Protection Association (NFPA). NFPA 484, Standard for Combustible Metals, Chapter 9 Tantalum and Annex E, supplemental Information on Tantalum require cutting oil be used when machining tantalum because it burns at such a high temperature that it breaks down the water in a water-based metalworking fluid (MWF). The NFPA guide devotes approximately 20 pages to this material. The Kansas City Plant (KCP) uses Fuchs Lubricants Ecocut Base 44 LVC as a MWF. This is a highly chlorinated oil with a high flash point (above 200° F). The chlorine is very helpful in preventing BUE (Built Up Edge) that occurs frequently with this very gummy material. The Ecocut is really a MWF additive that Fuchs uses to add chlorinated fats to other non-chlorinated MWF.

  8. Research on test techniques of fault forewarning and diagnosis for high-end CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bin; Xu, Xiaoli

    2010-12-01

    With the progress of modern science and technique, the manufacturing industry becomes more and more complex and intelligent. It is the challenge for stable, safe running and economical efficiency of machining equipment such as high-quality numerical control because of its complex structure and integrated functions, and the potential faults are easy to happen. How to ensure the equipment runs stably and reliably becomes the key problem to improve the machining precision and efficiency. In order to prolong the average no-fault time, stable running and machining precision of numerical control, it is very important to make relative test and research on acquisition of data of numerical control sample and establishment of sample database. Take high-end CNC Machine Tool for example, the research on test techniques for data acquisition of sample of typical functional parts in CNC Machine Tool will be made and test condition will be set up; the test methods for sample acquisition on running state monitoring and fault forewarning and diagnosis of numerical control is determined; the test platform for typical functional parts of numerical control is established; the sample database is designed and the sample base and knowledge mode is made. The test and research provide key test techniques to disclosure dynamic performance of fault and precision degeneration, and analyze the impact factors to fault.

  9. A new mechanism of injury for scaphoid fractures: 'test your strength' punch-bag machines.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P A; Clifford, O; Davis, T R C

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the mechanism of injury in a consecutive series of 153 confirmed scaphoid fractures. We found that ten (6%) occurred as a result of using a 'test your strength' punch-bag machine, a device found in public houses and amusement arcades. Clinicians should be aware that scaphoid fractures can occur as a result of punching these machines or other similar objects. PMID:20100710

  10. Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed M.; Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in educational technologies and the wide-spread use of computers in schools have fueled innovations in test construction and analysis. As the measurement accuracy of a test depends on the quality of the items it includes, item selection procedures play a central role in this process. Mathematical programming and the item response…

  11. Three-dimensional graphics simulator for testing mine machine computer-controlled algorithms -- phase 1 development

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, D.H. )

    1993-01-01

    Using three-dimensional (3-D) graphics computing to evaluate new technologies for computer-assisted mining systems illustrates how these visual techniques can redefine the way researchers look at raw scientific data. The US Bureau of Mines is using 3-D graphics computing to obtain cheaply, easily, and quickly information about the operation and design of current and proposed mechanical coal and metal-nonmetal mining systems. Bureau engineers developed a graphics simulator for a continuous miner that enables a realistic test for experimental software that controls the functions of a machine. Some of the specific simulated functions of the continuous miner are machine motion, appendage motion, machine position, and machine sensors. The simulator uses data files generated in the laboratory or mine using a computer-assisted mining machine. The data file contains information from a laser-based guidance system and a data acquisition system that records all control commands given to a computer-assisted mining machine. This report documents the first phase in developing the simulator and discusses simulator requirements, features of the initial simulator, and several examples of its application. During this endeavor, Bureau engineers discovered and appreciated the simulator's potential to assist their investigations of machine controls and navigation systems.

  12. Placement Testing: Man and Machine, Doing the Best We Can?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how and why Texas A&M University at Qatar (TAMUQ) has developed a system aiming to effectively place students in freshman and developmental English programs. The placement system includes: triangulating data from external test scores, with scores from a panel-marked hand-written essay (HWE),…

  13. Embedded Ethernet-Based Measurement and Control System for Friction and Wear Testing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Li, Niu

    Measurement and control system is main section of friction & wear testing machines. But current measurement and control systems have low versatility and high design cost. To solve these problems, this paper designed an Ethernet-based measurement and control system, which can be used in most types of friction & wear testing machines with a few modifications of programs. The DSP processor and touch screen system were successfully integrated into the presented measurement and control system. The functions and implementation processes of each module were introduced in detail, and a reconfigurable software system was designed according to ideas of virtual instruments theory.

  14. Fracture Tests of Etched Components Using a Focused Ion Beam Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan, L.; Fettig, Rainer K.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Orloff, Jon; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many optical MEMS device designs involve large arrays of thin (0.5 to 1 micron components subjected to high stresses due to cyclic loading. These devices are fabricated from a variety of materials, and the properties strongly depend on size and processing. Our objective is to develop standard and convenient test methods that can be used to measure the properties of large numbers of witness samples, for every device we build. In this work we explore a variety of fracture test configurations for 0.5 micron thick silicon nitride membranes machined using the Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) process. Testing was completed using an FEI 620 dual focused ion beam milling machine. Static loads were applied using a probe. and dynamic loads were applied through a piezo-electric stack mounted at the base of the probe. Results from the tests are presented and compared, and application for predicting fracture probability of large arrays of devices are considered.

  15. Testing of the Support Vector Machine for Binary-Class Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholten, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The Support Vector Machine is a powerful algorithm, useful in classifying data in to species. The Support Vector Machines implemented in this research were used as classifiers for the final stage in a Multistage Autonomous Target Recognition system. A single kernel SVM known as SVMlight, and a modified version known as a Support Vector Machine with K-Means Clustering were used. These SVM algorithms were tested as classifiers under varying conditions. Image noise levels varied, and the orientation of the targets changed. The classifiers were then optimized to demonstrate their maximum potential as classifiers. Results demonstrate the reliability of SMV as a method for classification. From trial to trial, SVM produces consistent results

  16. Rare variants detection with kernel machine learning based on likelihood ratio test.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Liwei; Huang, Shuiping; Chen, Feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly utilizes likelihood-based tests to detect rare variants associated with a continuous phenotype under the framework of kernel machine learning. Both the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and the restricted likelihood ratio test (ReLRT) are investigated. The relationship between the kernel machine learning and the mixed effects model is discussed. By using the eigenvalue representation of LRT and ReLRT, their exact finite sample distributions are obtained in a simulation manner. Numerical studies are performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches under the contexts of standard mixed effects model and kernel machine learning. The results have shown that the LRT and ReLRT can control the type I error correctly at the given α level. The LRT and ReLRT consistently outperform the SKAT, regardless of the sample size and the proportion of the negative causal rare variants, and suffer from fewer power reductions compared to the SKAT when both positive and negative effects of rare variants are present. The LRT and ReLRT performed under the context of kernel machine learning have slightly higher powers than those performed under the context of standard mixed effects model. We use the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 exome sequencing SNP data as an illustrative example. Some interesting results are observed from the analysis. Finally, we give the discussion. PMID:24675868

  17. Test Generation Algorithm for Fault Detection of Analog Circuits Based on Extreme Learning Machine

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingyu; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin; Ren, Xuelong

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel test generation algorithm based on extreme learning machine (ELM), and such algorithm is cost-effective and low-risk for analog device under test (DUT). This method uses test patterns derived from the test generation algorithm to stimulate DUT, and then samples output responses of the DUT for fault classification and detection. The novel ELM-based test generation algorithm proposed in this paper contains mainly three aspects of innovation. Firstly, this algorithm saves time efficiently by classifying response space with ELM. Secondly, this algorithm can avoid reduced test precision efficiently in case of reduction of the number of impulse-response samples. Thirdly, a new process of test signal generator and a test structure in test generation algorithm are presented, and both of them are very simple. Finally, the abovementioned improvement and functioning are confirmed in experiments. PMID:25610458

  18. Test generation algorithm for fault detection of analog circuits based on extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingyu; Tian, Shulin; Yang, Chenglin; Ren, Xuelong

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel test generation algorithm based on extreme learning machine (ELM), and such algorithm is cost-effective and low-risk for analog device under test (DUT). This method uses test patterns derived from the test generation algorithm to stimulate DUT, and then samples output responses of the DUT for fault classification and detection. The novel ELM-based test generation algorithm proposed in this paper contains mainly three aspects of innovation. Firstly, this algorithm saves time efficiently by classifying response space with ELM. Secondly, this algorithm can avoid reduced test precision efficiently in case of reduction of the number of impulse-response samples. Thirdly, a new process of test signal generator and a test structure in test generation algorithm are presented, and both of them are very simple. Finally, the abovementioned improvement and functioning are confirmed in experiments. PMID:25610458

  19. SGC tests for influence of material composition on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun; Li, Yuzhi

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  20. SGC Tests for Influence of Material Composition on Compaction Characteristic of Asphalt Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2013-01-01

    Compaction characteristic of the surface layer asphalt mixture (13-type gradation mixture) was studied using Superpave gyratory compactor (SGC) simulative compaction tests. Based on analysis of densification curve of gyratory compaction, influence rules of the contents of mineral aggregates of all sizes and asphalt on compaction characteristic of asphalt mixtures were obtained. SGC Tests show that, for the mixture with a bigger content of asphalt, its density increases faster, that there is an optimal amount of fine aggregates for optimal compaction and that an appropriate amount of mineral powder will improve workability of mixtures, but overmuch mineral powder will make mixtures dry and hard. Conclusions based on SGC tests can provide basis for how to adjust material composition for improving compaction performance of asphalt mixtures, and for the designed asphalt mixture, its compaction performance can be predicted through these conclusions, which also contributes to the choice of compaction schemes. PMID:23818830

  1. Influence of the stiffness of testing machines on the adherence of elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Barquins, M.

    1983-08-01

    It is shown that the introduction of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as the strain energy release rate G, to solve the problem of the adherence of elastomers, the edge of contact being seen as a crack propagating in mode I in the interface, allows one to predict the dependence of the adherence force with stiffness of testing machines. Moreover, it is shown the general equation of the kinetics of adherence proposed in 1978 in Maugis and Barquins, G - w = w(phi)(a/sub T/..nu..), where w is Dupre's work of adhesion and phi a dissipation function characteristic of the material only depending on temperature and crack speed, is confirmed whatever the stiffness of the testing machine and the instantaneous deformation imposed on the system. Experiments realized with a hemispherical glass lens in contact on a polyurethane surface verify theoretical predictions with an accuracy better than 1%.

  2. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  3. Testing and estimation in marker-set association study using semiparametric quantile regression kernel machine.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dehan; Maity, Arnab; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Tzeng, Jung-Ying

    2016-06-01

    We consider quantile regression for partially linear models where an outcome of interest is related to covariates and a marker set (e.g., gene or pathway). The covariate effects are modeled parametrically and the marker set effect of multiple loci is modeled using kernel machine. We propose an efficient algorithm to solve the corresponding optimization problem for estimating the effects of covariates and also introduce a powerful test for detecting the overall effect of the marker set. Our test is motivated by traditional score test, and borrows the idea of permutation test. Our estimation and testing procedures are evaluated numerically and applied to assess genetic association of change in fasting homocysteine level using the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention Trial data. PMID:26575303

  4. Data acquisition testing in supercritical water oxidation using machine cutting oils and metals

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, K.M.

    1996-12-31

    The Department of Energy, the Navy, and SERDP provided funding for an extensive series of testing of a Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) system. The goal of the testing was to create performance data on the process when dealing with highly chlorinated wastes containing heavy metals, and radionuclides. The testing was performed in a MODAR vessel oxidizer. Performance was measured by the ability of the process to achieve greater than 99.99% destruction of the organic content, to partition the metals and radionuclide surrogates for mass balance, and survive the highly corrosive species in the effluent. The test data has shown that these goals were accomplished. 30 gal/day of highly chlorinated machine cutting oil was treated for 130 hrs. There were no significant corrosion or solids handling problems. This machine cutting oil, TRIM{reg_sign}SOL was chosen by DOE for its complex nature and has proven to be one of the more refractory organic feeds encountered by MODAR. The Navy provided 8 waste streams collected from their shore facilities operation. These paints varied in solids content with wastes such as paint chips, and adhesives. The ninth test run was with all 8 series of wastes combined. The MODAR system successfully treated all of these waste streams providing performance data on the ability of SCWO to treat difficult sludges.

  5. The Kansas Squat Test Modality Comparison: Free Weights vs. Smith Machine.

    PubMed

    Luebbers, Paul E; Fry, Andrew C

    2016-08-01

    Luebbers, PE and Fry, AC. The Kansas squat test modality comparison: free weights vs. smith machine. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2186-2193, 2016-Standardized methods of testing power are instrumental in planning and implementing training regimens for many athletes, and also in tracking training adaptations. Previous work has demonstrated that the Kansas squat test (KST) is a valid test for measuring indices of mean and peak power when compared with the Wingate anaerobic cycle test. Although the KST was designed for use with a Smith machine (SM), many power athletes use free weights for training. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using free weights (FW) for the KST by comparing it with the SM modality. Twenty-three track and field athletes participated (mean ± SD; weight, 69.7 ± 10.6 kg; age, 20.1 ± 1.1 years) in this study. Each completed familiarization sessions with the FW and SM modalities before data collection. A 1-repetition maximum squat was also determined for both the FW and SM. Correlation coefficients indicated significant relationships between the FW KST and SM KST on measures of peak test power (r = 0.955; p < 0.01) and mean test power (r = 0.959; p < 0.01) but not for relative fatigue (r = -0.198; p > 0.05) or posttest lactate (r = 0.109; p > 0.05). Paired samples t-tests indicated that the FW KST resulted in significantly higher measures of peak power and mean power (p ≤ 0.01), although no differences were observed for relative fatigue or lactate (p > 0.05). These data indicate that the FW KST is a valid and feasible alternative to the SM KST in measuring peak and mean power. PMID:26950349

  6. Investigation of Dynamic Force/Vibration Transmission Characteristics of Four-Square Type Gear Durability Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahraman, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    In this study, design requirements for a dynamically viable, four-square type gear test machine are investigated. Variations of four-square type gear test machines have been in use for durability and dynamics testing of both parallel- and cross-axis gear set. The basic layout of these machines is illustrated. The test rig is formed by two gear pairs, of the same reduction ratio, a test gear pair and a reaction gear pair, connected to each other through shafts of certain torsional flexibility to form an efficient, closed-loop system. A desired level of constant torque is input to the circuit through mechanical (a split coupling with a torque arm) or hydraulic (a hydraulic actuator) means. The system is then driven at any desired speed by a small DC motor. The main task in hand is the isolation of the test gear pair from the reaction gear pair under dynamic conditions. Any disturbances originated at the reaction gear mesh might potentially travel to the test gearbox, altering the dynamic loading conditions of the test gear mesh, and hence, influencing the outcome of the durability or dynamics test. Therefore, a proper design of connecting structures becomes a major priority. Also, equally important is the issue of how close the operating speed of the machine is to the resonant frequencies of the gear meshes. This study focuses on a detailed analysis of the current NASA Glenn Research Center gear pitting test machine for evaluation of its resonance and vibration isolation characteristics. A number of these machines as the one illustrated has been used over last 30 years to establish an extensive database regarding the influence of the gear materials, processes surface treatments and lubricants on gear durability. This study is intended to guide an optimum design of next generation test machines for the most desirable dynamic characteristics.

  7. Development of a linear pin wear test machine. [304 ss on 3. 50 maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Bourcier, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    In support of a study of the mechanical properties of amorphous alloys produced by laser surface melting, a linear pin wear test machine has been developed and constructed. The machine repeatedly follows a single straight path in one direction through the use of simple kinematic principles. The wear pin is held in a tone arm-like assembly which rides on an off-center rotating bearing. Wear track length can be adjusted by varying bearing eccentricity and tone-arm offset, while wear track location may be changed by specimen translation via two micrometer mounted ball slides. Frictional force is measured by using a load cell mounted on precision bearings while displacement is monitored by using a precalibrated LVDT. The specimen holder is designed to hold irregular specimens up to 0.46 x 1.90 x 2.54 cm. Selected frictional load and displacement data are recorded using a digital oscilloscope. Results of tests performed on an annealed 304 stainless steel specimen using a 350 maraging steel pin are presented.

  8. Machine Learning and Data Mining for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, S; Vaidya, S

    2009-07-30

    The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is gaining renewed attention in light of growing worldwide interest in mitigating risks of nuclear weapons proliferation and testing. Since the International Monitoring System (IMS) installed the first suite of sensors in the late 1990's, the IMS network has steadily progressed, providing valuable support for event diagnostics. This progress was highlighted at the recent International Scientific Studies (ISS) Conference in Vienna in June 2009, where scientists and domain experts met with policy makers to assess the current status of the CTBT Verification System. A strategic theme within the ISS Conference centered on exploring opportunities for further enhancing the detection and localization accuracy of low magnitude events by drawing upon modern tools and techniques for machine learning and large-scale data analysis. Several promising approaches for data exploitation were presented at the Conference. These are summarized in a companion report. In this paper, we introduce essential concepts in machine learning and assess techniques which could provide both incremental and comprehensive value for event discrimination by increasing the accuracy of the final data product, refining On-Site-Inspection (OSI) conclusions, and potentially reducing the cost of future network operations.

  9. Methodologies for Combined Loads Tests Using a Multi-Actuator Test Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, Marshall

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Langley COmbined Loads Test System (COLTS) Facility was designed to accommodate a range of fuselage structures and wing sections and subject them to both quasistatic and cyclic loading conditions. Structural tests have been conducted in COLTS that address structural integrity issues of metallic and fiber reinforced composite aerospace structures in support of NASA Programs (i.e. the Aircraft Structural Integrity (ASIP) Program, High-Speed-Research program and the Supersonic Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Composite Crew Module Project, and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Program),. This paper presents experimental results for curved panels subjected to mechanical and internal pressure loads using a D-box test fixture. Also, results are presented that describe use of a checkout beam for development of testing procedures for a combined mechanical and pressure loading test of a Multi-bay box. The Multi-bay box test will be used to experimentally verify the structural performance of the Multi-bay box in support of the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project at NASA Langley.

  10. Wear of combinations of acrylic resin and porcelain, on an abrasion testing machine.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A

    1978-04-01

    Wear tests of various combinations of acrylic resin and porcelain were made using a machine which was designed to test materials under conditions similar to those of masticatory function by simulating the loads, sliding distances, and contact times encountered in the human masticatory cycle. The results showed that the amount of wear of the two materials worn in combination depended on the nature of the surrounding medium and on the surface roughness of the opposing material. Acrylic resin showed good wear resistance provided no third party abrasive or opposing hard, rough surface was present. When a mild abrasive was incorporated in the system, the acrylic resin vs acrylic resin combination wore almost seven times more than porcelain vs porcelain. Clinical experience would suggest that this is a reasonably sound order of wear. PMID:213546

  11. Material test machine for tension-compression tests at high temperature

    DOEpatents

    Cioletti, Olisse C.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus providing a device for testing the properties of material specimens at high temperatures and pressures in controlled water chemistries includes, inter alia, an autoclave housing the specimen which is being tested. The specimen is connected to a pull rod which couples out of the autoclave to an external assembly which includes one or more transducers, a force balance chamber and a piston type actuator. The pull rod feeds through the force balance chamber and is compensated thereby for the pressure conditions existing within the autoclave and tending to eject the pull rod therefrom. The upper end of the push rod is connected to the actuator through elements containing a transducer comprising a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The housing and coil assembly of the LVDT is coupled to a tube which runs through a central bore of the pull rod into the autoclave where it is connected to one side of the specimen. The movable core of the LVDT is coupled to a stem which runs through the tube where it is then connected to the other side of the specimen through a coupling member. A transducer in the form of a load cell including one or more strain gages is located on a necked-down portion of the upper part of the pull rod intermediate the LVDT and force balance chamber.

  12. A novel concealed information test method based on independent component analysis and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junfeng; Lu, Liang; Yang, Yong; Yu, Gang; Na, Liantao; Rao, NiNi

    2012-01-01

    The concealed information test (CIT) has drawn much attention and has been widely investigated in recent years. In this study, a novel CIT method based on denoised P3 and machine learning was proposed to improve the accuracy of lie detection. Thirty participants were chosen as the guilty and innocent participants to perform the paradigms of 3 types of stimuli. The electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded and separated into many single trials. In order to enhance the signal noise ratio (SNR) of P3 components, the independent component analysis (ICA) method was adopted to separate non-P3 components (i.e., artifacts) from every single trial. In order to automatically identify the P3 independent components (ICs), a new method based on topography template was proposed to automatically identify the P3 ICs. Then the P3 waveforms with high SNR were reconstructed on Pz electrodes. Second, the 3 groups of features based on time,frequency, and wavelets were extracted from the reconstructed P3 waveforms. Finally, 2 classes of feature samples were used to train a support vector machine (SVM) classifier because it has higher performance compared with several other classifiers. Meanwhile, the optimal number of P3 ICs and some other parameter values in the classifiers were determined by the cross-validation procedures. The presented method achieved a balance test accuracy of 84.29% on detecting P3 components for the guilty and innocent participants. The presented method improves the efficiency of CIT in comparison with previous reported methods. PMID:22423552

  13. The high frequency light load fatigue testing machine based on giant magnetostrictive material and stroke multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M. D.; Li, D. S.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhong, K. M.; Sun, L. N.

    2013-08-01

    In the notebook and clamshell mobile phone, data communication wire often requires repeated bending. Generally, communication wire with the actual application conditions, the test data cannot assess bending resistance performance of data communication wire is tested conventionally using wires with weights of 90 degree to test bending number, this test method and device is not fully reflect the fatigue performance in high frequency and light load application condition, at the same time it has a large difference between the test data of the long-term reliability of high frequency and low load conditions. In this paper, high frequency light load fatigue testing machine based on the giant magnetostrictive material and stroke multiplier is put forward, in which internal reflux stroke multiplier is driven by giant magnetostrictive material to realize the rapid movement of light load. This fatigue testing device has the following advantages: (1) When the load is far less than the friction, reducing friction is very effective to improve the device performance. Because the body is symmetrical, the friction loss of radial does not exist in theory, so the stress situation of mechanism is good with high transmission efficiency and long service life. (2) The installation position of the output hydraulic cylinder, can be arranged conveniently as ordinary cylinder. (3) Reciprocating frequency, displacement and speed of high frequency movement can be programmed easily to change with higher position precision. (4)Hydraulic oil in this device is closed to transmit, which does not produce any environment pollution. The device has no hydraulic pump and tank, and less energy conversion processes, so it is with the trend of green manufacturing.

  14. Integrating Symbolic and Statistical Methods for Testing Intelligent Systems Applications to Machine Learning and Computer Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Sumit Kumar; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Embedded intelligent systems ranging from tiny im- plantable biomedical devices to large swarms of autonomous un- manned aerial systems are becoming pervasive in our daily lives. While we depend on the flawless functioning of such intelligent systems, and often take their behavioral correctness and safety for granted, it is notoriously difficult to generate test cases that expose subtle errors in the implementations of machine learning algorithms. Hence, the validation of intelligent systems is usually achieved by studying their behavior on representative data sets, using methods such as cross-validation and bootstrapping.In this paper, we present a new testing methodology for studying the correctness of intelligent systems. Our approach uses symbolic decision procedures coupled with statistical hypothesis testing to. We also use our algorithm to analyze the robustness of a human detection algorithm built using the OpenCV open-source computer vision library. We show that the human detection implementation can fail to detect humans in perturbed video frames even when the perturbations are so small that the corresponding frames look identical to the naked eye.

  15. A moving-load controlled-displacement fracture-toughness testing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, V. K.; Finnie, I.; Hauser, F. E.

    1981-06-01

    A testing procedure using a moving-load controlled-displacement fracture-toughness testing machine is described. It provides simple means for studying fracture-toughness gradients in structural materials caused by varying thickness, heat-treatment variations, mechanical working gradients, welding, and different corrosive environments. The energy-release rate at the onset of crack propagation and the plane-strain fracture toughness can be measured directly without compliance calibration or stress-intensity evaluation. Specimens made of 7075-76 aluminum-alloy were used in the testing, both at constant and linearly varying net-section thickness. The large number of fracture-toughness points obtained allowed the probability distribution of toughness values to be studied with the curve showing a normal distribution. It is concluded that the strain-energy release-rate expression derived for this system is independent of crack length and the specimen geometry is simple. Furthermore, the technique of controlled crack propagation (discrete jump) provides a large number of data points along the specimen length.

  16. Testing of machine wound second generation HTS tape Vacuum Pressure Impregnated coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaffield, D.; Lewis, C.; Eugene, J.; Ingles, M.; Peach, D.

    2014-05-01

    Delamination of second generation (2G) High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) tapes has previously been reported when using resin based insulation systems for wound coils. One proposed root cause is the differential thermal contraction between the coil former and the resin encapsulated coil turns resulting in the tape c-axis tensile stress being exceeded. Importantly, delamination results in unacceptable degradation of the superconductor critical current level. To mitigate the delamination risk and prove winding, jointing and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) processes in the production of coils for superconducting rotating machines at GE Power Conversion two scaled trial coils have been wound and extensively tested. The coils are wound from 12mm wide 2G HTS tape supplied by AMSC onto stainless steel 'racetrack' coil formers. The coils are wound in two layers which include both in-line and layer-layer joints subject to in-process test. The resin insulation system chosen is VPI and oven cured. Tests included; insulation resistance, repeat quench and recovery of the superconductor, heat runs and measurement of n-value, before and after multiple thermal cycling between ambient and 35 Kelvin. No degradation of coil performance is evidenced.

  17. Neuropsychological Test Selection for Cognitive Impairment Classification: A Machine Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jennifer A.; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Cook, Diane J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reducing the amount of testing required to accurately detect cognitive impairment is clinically relevant. The aim of this research was to determine the fewest number of clinical measures required to accurately classify participants as healthy older adult, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia using a suite of classification techniques. Methods Two variable selection machine learning models (i.e., naive Bayes, decision tree), a logistic regression, and two participant datasets (i.e., clinical diagnosis, clinical dementia rating; CDR) were explored. Participants classified using clinical diagnosis criteria included 52 individuals with dementia, 97 with MCI, and 161 cognitively healthy older adults. Participants classified using CDR included 154 individuals CDR = 0, 93 individuals with CDR = 0.5, and 25 individuals with CDR = 1.0+. Twenty-seven demographic, psychological, and neuropsychological variables were available for variable selection. Results No significant difference was observed between naive Bayes, decision tree, and logistic regression models for classification of both clinical diagnosis and CDR datasets. Participant classification (70.0 – 99.1%), geometric mean (60.9 – 98.1%), sensitivity (44.2 – 100%), and specificity (52.7 – 100%) were generally satisfactory. Unsurprisingly, the MCI/CDR = 0.5 participant group was the most challenging to classify. Through variable selection only 2 – 9 variables were required for classification and varied between datasets in a clinically meaningful way. Conclusions The current study results reveal that machine learning techniques can accurately classifying cognitive impairment and reduce the number of measures required for diagnosis. PMID:26332171

  18. Kernel machine testing for risk prediction with stratified case cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi

    2016-06-01

    Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this article, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus, we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We, therefore, propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:26692376

  19. Kernel Machine Testing for Risk Prediction with Stratified Case Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this paper, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We therefore propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:26692376

  20. Rare-Variant Kernel Machine Test for Longitudinal Data from Population and Family Samples

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qi; Weeks, Daniel E.; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Yi, Nengjun; Zhang, Kui; Gao, Guimin; Lin, Wan-Yu; Lou, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Nianjun

    2016-01-01

    Objective The kernel machine (KM) test reportedly performs well in the set-based association test of rare variants. Many studies have been conducted to measure phenotypes at multiple time points, but the standard KM methodology has only been available for phenotypes at a single time point. In addition, family-based designs have been widely used in genetic association studies; therefore, the data analysis method used must appropriately handle familial relatedness. A rare variant test does not currently exist for longitudinal data from family samples. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to introduce an association test for rare variants, which includes multiple longitudinal phenotype measurements for either population or family samples. Methods This approach uses KM regression based on the linear mixed model framework and is applicable to longitudinal data from either population (L-KM) or family samples (LF-KM). Results In our population-based simulation studies, L-KM has good control of Type I error rate and increased power in all the scenarios we considered, compared with other competing methods. Conversely, in the family-based simulation studies, we found an inflated Type I error rate when L-KM was applied directly to the family samples, whereas LF-KM retained the desired Type I error rate and had the best power performance overall. Finally, we illustrate the utility of our proposed LF-KM approach by analyzing data from an association study between rare variants and blood pressure from the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 (GAW18). Conclusion We propose a method for rare-variant association testing in population and family samples, using phenotypes measured at multiple time points for each subject. The proposed method has the best power performance compared to competing approaches in our simulation study. PMID:27161037

  1. Machining Test Specimens from Harvested Zion RPV Segments for Through Wall Attenuation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Nanstad, Randy K

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Zion Units 1 and 2 Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois presents a special opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, the selective procurement of materials, structures, and components from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the cutting of these segments into sections and blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material, the current status of machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for chemical and microstructural (TEM, APT, SANS, and nano indention) characterization, as well as the current test plans and possible collaborative projects. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models (Rosseel et al. (2012) and Rosseel et al. (2015)).

  2. An Hybrid Approach Based on Machining and Dynamic Tests Data for the Identification of Material Constitutive Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Walid; Songmene, Victor; Bocher, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest for the identification of material constitutive equations using machining tests (inverse method). However, the inverse method has shown some drawbacks that could affect the accuracy of the identified material constants. On one hand, this approach requires the use of analytical model to estimate the cutting temperature. Nevertheless, the used temperature models lead to large discrepancies for the calculated temperatures even for the same work material and cutting conditions. On the other hand, some computation issues were observed when all material constants were determined, in the same time, using machining tests data. Therefore, this study attempts to provide a methodology for identifying the coefficients of the Marusich's constitutive equation (MCE) which demonstrated a good capability for the simulation of the material behavior in high speed machining. The proposed approach, which is based on an analytical inverse method together with dynamic tests, was applied to aluminum alloys AA6061-T6 and AA7075-T651, and induction hardened AISI 4340 steel (60 HRC). The response surface methodology was used in this approach. Two sets of material coefficients, for each tested work material, were determined using two different temperature models (Oxley and Loewen-Shaw). The obtained constitutive equations were validated using dynamic tests and finite element simulation of high speed machining. The predictions obtained are also compared to those performed with the corresponding Johnson and Cook constitutive equations (JCE) from the literature. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the selected temperature models used in the analytical inverse method can affect significantly the identified material constants and thereafter predicted dynamic response and machining data. Moreover, the MCE obtained using the hybrid method performed better than the JCE obtained by only dynamic tests.

  3. Technical Report on Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Proof-Machine Operator (Banking) 217.388.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Employment Service.

    Research which resulted in the development of the United States Employment Service Specific Aptitude Test Battery for use in selecting inexperienced or untrained individuals for training as proof-machine operators is described. Occupational norms were established in terms of each significant aptitude measure which when combined, predict job…

  4. Combination of Universal Mechanical Testing Machine with Atomic Force Microscope for Materials Research.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian; He, Dannong

    2015-01-01

    Surface deformation and fracture processes of materials under external force are important for understanding and developing materials. Here, a combined horizontal universal mechanical testing machine (HUMTM)-atomic force microscope (AFM) system is developed by modifying UMTM to combine with AFM and designing a height-adjustable stabilizing apparatus. Then the combined HUMTM-AFM system is evaluated. Finally, as initial demonstrations, it is applied to analyze the relationship among macroscopic mechanical properties, surface nanomorphological changes under external force, and fracture processes of two kinds of representative large scale thin film materials: polymer material with high strain rate (Parafilm) and metal material with low strain rate (aluminum foil). All the results demonstrate the combined HUMTM-AFM system overcomes several disadvantages of current AFM-combined tensile/compression devices including small load force, incapability for large scale specimens, disability for materials with high strain rate, and etc. Therefore, the combined HUMTM-AFM system is a promising tool for materials research in the future. PMID:26265357

  5. Combination of Universal Mechanical Testing Machine with Atomic Force Microscope for Materials Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jian; He, Dannong

    2015-01-01

    Surface deformation and fracture processes of materials under external force are important for understanding and developing materials. Here, a combined horizontal universal mechanical testing machine (HUMTM)-atomic force microscope (AFM) system is developed by modifying UMTM to combine with AFM and designing a height-adjustable stabilizing apparatus. Then the combined HUMTM-AFM system is evaluated. Finally, as initial demonstrations, it is applied to analyze the relationship among macroscopic mechanical properties, surface nanomorphological changes under external force, and fracture processes of two kinds of representative large scale thin film materials: polymer material with high strain rate (Parafilm) and metal material with low strain rate (aluminum foil). All the results demonstrate the combined HUMTM-AFM system overcomes several disadvantages of current AFM-combined tensile/compression devices including small load force, incapability for large scale specimens, disability for materials with high strain rate, and etc. Therefore, the combined HUMTM-AFM system is a promising tool for materials research in the future. PMID:26265357

  6. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  7. Development of a machine protection system for the Superconducting Beam Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, A.; Carmichael, L.; Church, M.; Neswold, R.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Fermilab's Superconducting RF Beam Test Facility currently under construction will produce electron beams capable of damaging the acceleration structures and the beam line vacuum chambers in the event of an aberrant accelerator pulse. The accelerator is being designed with the capability to operate with up to 3000 bunches per macro-pulse, 5Hz repetition rate and 1.5 GeV beam energy. It will be able to sustain an average beam power of 72 KW at the bunch charge of 3.2 nC. Operation at full intensity will deposit enough energy in niobium material to approach the melting point of 2500 C. In the early phase with only 3 cryomodules installed the facility will be capable of generating electron beam energies of 810 MeV and an average beam power that approaches 40 KW. In either case a robust Machine Protection System (MPS) is required to mitigate effects due to such large damage potentials. This paper will describe the MPS system being developed, the system requirements and the controls issues under consideration.

  8. SNP Selection in Genome-Wide Association Studies via Penalized Support Vector Machine with MAX Test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseog; Kim, Dennis (Dong Hwan); Jung, Sin-Ho

    2013-01-01

    One of main objectives of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) is to develop a prediction model for a binary clinical outcome using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and for better understanding of the relationship between the disease and SNPs. Penalized support vector machine (SVM) methods have been widely used toward this end. However, since investigators often ignore the genetic models of SNPs, a final model results in a loss of efficiency in prediction of the clinical outcome. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a two-stage method such that the the genetic models of each SNP are identified using the MAX test and then a prediction model is fitted using a penalized SVM method. We apply the proposed method to various penalized SVMs and compare the performance of SVMs using various penalty functions. The results from simulations and real GWAS data analysis show that the proposed method performs better than the prediction methods ignoring the genetic models in terms of prediction power and selectivity. PMID:24174989

  9. Combination of Universal Mechanical Testing Machine with Atomic Force Microscope for Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jian; He, Dannong

    2015-08-01

    Surface deformation and fracture processes of materials under external force are important for understanding and developing materials. Here, a combined horizontal universal mechanical testing machine (HUMTM)-atomic force microscope (AFM) system is developed by modifying UMTM to combine with AFM and designing a height-adjustable stabilizing apparatus. Then the combined HUMTM-AFM system is evaluated. Finally, as initial demonstrations, it is applied to analyze the relationship among macroscopic mechanical properties, surface nanomorphological changes under external force, and fracture processes of two kinds of representative large scale thin film materials: polymer material with high strain rate (Parafilm) and metal material with low strain rate (aluminum foil). All the results demonstrate the combined HUMTM-AFM system overcomes several disadvantages of current AFM-combined tensile/compression devices including small load force, incapability for large scale specimens, disability for materials with high strain rate, and etc. Therefore, the combined HUMTM-AFM system is a promising tool for materials research in the future.

  10. A multi-station machine for the fatigue testing of denture base materials.

    PubMed

    Manley, T R; Stonebanks, J A

    1980-07-01

    A multi-station machine has been designed and built to determine the resistance to fatigue failure of denture base materials. The machine has enabled complete S-N curves to be plotted for conventional and reinforced denture base materials involving many megacycles of operation. The resistance to fatigue failure of conventional denture base polymers is similar to that of 'Perspex'; that of PMMA reinforced with carbon fibre is of an order of magnitude greater. PMID:7470562

  11. Defining and Testing the Influence of Servo System Response on Machine Tool Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D J

    2004-03-24

    Compliance can be defined as the measurement of displacement per unit of force applied e.g. nano-meters per Newton (m/N). Compliance is the reciprocal of stiffness. High stiffness means low compliance and visa versa. It is an important factor in machine tool characteristics because it reflects the ability of the machine axis to maintain a desired position as it encounters a force or torque. Static compliance is a measurement made with a constant force applied e.g. the average depth of cut. Dynamic compliance is a measurement made as a function of frequency, e.g. a fast too servo (FTS) that applies a varying cutting force or load, interrupted cuts and external disturbances such as ground vibrations or air conditioning induced forces on the machine. Compliance can be defined for both a linear and rotary axis of a machine tool. However, to properly define compliance for a rotary axis, the axis must allow a commanded angular position. Note that this excludes velocity only axes. In this paper, several factors are discussed that affect compliance but emphasis is placed on how the machine servo system plays a key role in compliance at low to mid frequency regions. The paper discusses several techniques for measuring compliance and provides examples of results from these measurements.

  12. The Effect of Test Machine Compliance on the Measured Shear Punch Yield Stress as Predicted Using Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo; Abe, Katsunori; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Garner, Francis A.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2001-10-01

    In previous research involving the use of the shear punch test, it was assumed that the displacement of the punch tip was only slightly different than the crosshead displacement. The present work explores this assumption and its ramifications by simulating the shear punch test with finite element analysis (FEA). The simulations suggest that punch tip displacement is much less than previously assumed, and that for the test frames which have been used, crosshead displacement is over an order of magnitude greater than punch tip displacement. This difference in displacements is thought to be due to test machine and punch compliance, and a simple elasticity calculation of the compliance of the punch, the test machine, and a specimen gives a result which is in agreement with the FEA simulations. The effect of using punch tip displacement on the observed effective shear yield stress was evaluated using FEA simulated shear punch tests on several different metals. Yield was measured at several different offset shear strains with a 1.0% offset shear yield strength measurement providing the best correlation with 0.2% offset uniaxial yield strength. When using the 1.0% offset shear yield values, the previously observed material-to-material variability in the tensile-shear correlation all but disappeared. Based on this work, it appears that the material-to-material variations in prior correlations between uniaxial yield strength and shear yield strength is due to a combination of large test machine compliance and material-to-material differences in the work hardening exponent.

  13. Machine Assisted Reference Service in a Public Library: A One Month Test Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raedeke, Amy

    1978-01-01

    The Minneapolis Public Library and Information Center collected data in November, 1977 on the use of the machine assisted reference service (MARS) with no charge to the library patron. Results are reported in tabular form from responses to questionnaires completed by both patrons and searchers for data bases used, time, online charges, and percent…

  14. Local Growth and the Outside Contacts of Influentials: An Alternative Test of the "Growth Machine" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.

    1984-01-01

    While other studies of local efforts to promote small town growth have generally shown negative results, this study of 88 small northwestern Michigan towns during the 1970s focused on external ties and contacts of local influentials and tended to support the growth machine hypothesis. Extensive metropolitan contacts increased population/program…

  15. Characterization of a medical X-ray machine for testing the response of electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, Margarete C.; Da Silva, Teógenes A.

    2014-11-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) based on solid state detectors have been used for personnel monitoring for radiation protection purpose; their use has been extended to practices with pulsed radiation beams although their performance is not well known. Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed radiation fields have been reported; they were not detected before since type tests and calibrations of EPDs were established in terms of continuous X and gamma reference radiations. An ISO working group was formed to elaborate a standard for test conditions and performance requirements of EPDs in pulsed beams; the PTB/Germany implemented a special X-ray facility for generating the reference pulsed radiation beams. In this work, an 800 Plus VMI medical X-ray machine of the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of CDTN/CNEN was characterized to verify its feasibility to perform EPD tests. Characterization of the x-ray beam was done in terms of practical peak voltage, half-value layer, mean energy and air kerma rate. Reference dosimeters used for air kerma measurements were verified as far their metrological coherence and a procedure for testing EDPs was established. Electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) have been used for personnel monitoring. EPD use has been extended to pulsed radiation beams. Deficiencies in the EPD response in pulsed beams have been reported. The feasibility of using a medical X-ray machine to perform EPD tests was studied. Reference dosimeters were verified and EPD testing procedure was established.

  16. Prediction of Military Vehicle's Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Wei; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong

    2016-01-01

    The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM) including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO) is employed for parameter optimization. As the relations between drawbar pull and its influencing factors have not been tested on real vehicles, a series of experimental analyses based on real vehicle test data are done to confirm the effective influencing factors. A dynamic testing system is applied to conduct field tests and gain required test data. Gaussian kernel RVM, polynomial kernel RVM, support vector machine (SVM) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are also used to compare with the MkRVM model. The results indicate that the MkRVM model is a preferable model in this case. Finally, the proposed novel model is compared to the traditional prediction model of drawbar pull. The results show that the MkRVM model significantly improves the prediction accuracy. A great potential of improved RVM is indicated in further research of wheel-soil interactions. PMID:26978359

  17. Prediction of Military Vehicle’s Drawbar Pull Based on an Improved Relevance Vector Machine and Real Vehicle Tests

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Sun, Wei; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong

    2016-01-01

    The scientific and effective prediction of drawbar pull is of great importance in the evaluation of military vehicle trafficability. Nevertheless, the existing prediction models have demonstrated lots of inherent limitations. In this framework, a multiple-kernel relevance vector machine model (MkRVM) including Gaussian kernel and polynomial kernel is proposed to predict drawbar pull. Nonlinear decreasing inertia weight particle swarm optimization (NDIWPSO) is employed for parameter optimization. As the relations between drawbar pull and its influencing factors have not been tested on real vehicles, a series of experimental analyses based on real vehicle test data are done to confirm the effective influencing factors. A dynamic testing system is applied to conduct field tests and gain required test data. Gaussian kernel RVM, polynomial kernel RVM, support vector machine (SVM) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) are also used to compare with the MkRVM model. The results indicate that the MkRVM model is a preferable model in this case. Finally, the proposed novel model is compared to the traditional prediction model of drawbar pull. The results show that the MkRVM model significantly improves the prediction accuracy. A great potential of improved RVM is indicated in further research of wheel-soil interactions. PMID:26978359

  18. Powerful tests for detecting a gene effect in the presence of possible gene-gene interactions using garrote kernel machines.

    PubMed

    Maity, Arnab; Lin, Xihong

    2011-12-01

    We propose in this article a powerful testing procedure for detecting a gene effect on a continuous outcome in the presence of possible gene-gene interactions (epistasis) in a gene set, e.g., a genetic pathway or network. Traditional tests for this purpose require a large number of degrees of freedom by testing the main effect and all the corresponding interactions under a parametric assumption, and hence suffer from low power. In this article, we propose a powerful kernel machine based test. Specifically, our test is based on a garrote kernel method and is constructed as a score test. Here, the term garrote refers to an extra nonnegative parameter that is multiplied to the covariate of interest so that our score test can be formulated in terms of this nonnegative parameter. A key feature of the proposed test is that it is flexible and developed for both parametric and nonparametric models within a unified framework, and is more powerful than the standard test by accounting for the correlation among genes and hence often uses a much smaller degrees of freedom. We investigate the theoretical properties of the proposed test. We evaluate its finite sample performance using simulation studies, and apply the method to the Michigan prostate cancer gene expression data. PMID:21504419

  19. Tensile Tests of NACA and Conventional Machine-countersunk Flush Rivets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartone, Leonard M.; Mandel, Merven W.

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the tensile strength of NACA and conventional machine-countersunk flush rivets of several rivet-head angles and varying countersunk depth. The results of the investigation are presented in the form of curves that show the variation of the tensile strength of the rivet with the ratio of the sheet thickness to the rivet diameter. For the same rivet-head angle and for a given angle of c/d, the NACA rivets developed higher tensile strength than the conventional rivets.

  20. Drilling Machines: Vocational Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John C.

    The lessons and supportive information in this field tested instructional block provide a guide for teachers in developing a machine shop course of study in drilling. The document is comprised of operation sheets, information sheets, and transparency masters for 23 lessons. Each lesson plan includes a performance objective, material and tools,…

  1. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  2. Production-Machine Operator (mach. shop) 609.885--Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Packager, Machine (any ind.) 920.885--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Machine Attendant (hardware) 619.885--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitudes; Numerical…

  5. Tabulating Machine Operator 213.782 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  6. Stemmer, Machine (tobacco) 521.885 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  7. LLNL small-scale static spark machine: static spark sensitivity test

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, M F; Simpson, L R

    1999-08-23

    Small-scale safety testing of explosives and other energetic materials is done in order to determine their sensitivity to various stimuli, such as friction, static spark, and impact. Typically this testing is done to discover potential handling problems that may exist for either newly synthesized materials of unknown behavior, or materials that have been stored for long periods of time. This report describes the existing ''Static Spark Test Apparatus'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as well as the method used to evaluate the relative static spark sensitivity of energetic materials. The basic design, originally developed by the Picatinny Arsenal in New Jersey, is discussed. The accumulated data for the materials tested to date is not included here, with the exception of specific examples that have yielded interesting or unusual results during the tests.

  8. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    SciTech Connect

    Brombin, M. Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-15

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors’ holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  9. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  10. Business Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pactor, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has projected a 106 percent increase in the demand for office machine operators over the next 10 years. Machines with a high frequency of use include printing calculators, 10-key adding machines, and key punch machines. The 12th grade is the logical time for teaching business machines. (CH)

  11. A new test machine for measuring friction and wear in controlled atmospheres to 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new high-temperature friction and wear test apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used as a pin-on-disk or pin-on-ring configuration and is specially designed to measure the tribological properties of ceramics and high temperature metallic alloys from room temperature to 1200 C. Sliding mode can be selected to be either unidirectional at velocities up to 22 m/sec or oscillating at frequencies up to 4.6 Hz and amplitudes up to + or - 60 deg. The test atmosphere is established by a controlled flow rate of a purge gas. All components within the test chamber are compatible with oxidizing, inert or reducing gases.

  12. A new test machine for measuring friction and wear in controlled atmospheres to 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a new high temperature friction and wear test apparatus (tribometer) at NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. The tribometer can be used as a pin-on-disk or pin-on-ring configuration and is specially designed to measure the tribological properties of ceramics and high temperature metallic alloys from room temperature to 1200 C. Sliding mode can be selected to be either unidirectional at velocities up to 22 m/sec or oscillating at frequencies up 4.5 Hz and amplitudes up to + or - 60 deg. The test atmosphere is established by a controlled flow rate of a purge gas. All components within the test chamber are compatible with oxidizing, inert, or reducing gases.

  13. Optical Testing of Diamond Machined, Aspheric Mirrors for Groundbased, Near-IR Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, V. John; Mink, Ronald G.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Connelly, Joseph A.; Mentzell, J. Eric; Arnold, Steven M.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Winsor, Robert S.; MacKenty, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrometer (IRMOS) is a facility-class instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory 4 and 2.1 meter telescopes. IRMOS is a near-IR (0.8-2.5 micron) spectrometer and operates at approximately 80 K. The 6061-T651 aluminum bench and mirrors constitute an athermal design. The instrument produces simultaneous spectra at low- to mid-resolving power (R=lambda/delta lambda= 300-3000) of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field. We describe ambient and cryogenic optical testing of the IRMOS mirrors across a broad range in spatial frequency (figure error, mid-frequency error, and microroughness). The mirrors include three rotationally symmetric, off-axis conic sections, one off-axis biconic, and several flat fold mirrors. The symmetric mirrors include convex and concave prolate and oblate ellipsoids. They range in aperture from 94x86 mm to 286x269 mm and in f-number from 0.9 to 2.4. The biconic mirror is concave and has a 94x76 mm aperture, R(sub x)=377 mm, k(sub x)=0.0778, R(sub y)=407 mm, and k(sub y)=0.1265 and is decentered by -2 mm in X and 227 mm in Y. All of the mirrors have an aspect ratio of approximately 6:1. The surface error fabrication tolerances are less than 10 nm RMS microroughness, 'best effort' for mid-frequency error, and less than 63.3 nm RMS figure error. Ambient temperature (approximately 293 K) testing is performed for each of the three surface error regimes, and figure testing is also performed at approximately 80 K. Operation of the ADE Phaseshift MicroXAM white light interferometer (micro-roughness) and the Bauer Model 200 profilometer (mid-frequency error) is described. Both the sag and conic values of the aspheric mirrors make these tests challenging. Figure testing is performed using a Zygo GPI interferometer, custom computer generated holograms (CGH), and optomechanical alignment fiducials. Cryogenic CGH null testing is discussed in detail. We discuss complications such as the change in

  14. Dynamic Characteristics of High Intensity Shock Effect for Medium Weight Shock Testing Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Feng; Sai, Jiangang; Yun, He; Bo, Gao

    This paper analyses the dynamic characteristics of MWMS by optimizing the design of the anvil table to ensure the waveform in allowing limit, simulating the impact of MWMS, and demonstrating the influence of the low-pass filter and the height of hammer drop to test results.

  15. Re-Design and Beat Testing of the Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System: MIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Man-machine Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is a human factors design and analysis system that combines human cognitive models with 3D CAD models and rapid prototyping and simulation techniques. MIDAS allows designers to ask 'what if' types of questions early in concept exploration and development prior to actual hardware development. The system outputs predictions of operator workload, situational awareness and system performance as well as graphical visualization of the cockpit designs interacting with models of the human in a mission scenario. Recently, MIDAS was re-designed to enhance functionality and usability. The goals driving the redesign include more efficient processing, GUI interface, advances in the memory structures, implementation of external vision models and audition. These changes were detailed in an earlier paper. Two Beta test sites with diverse applications have been chosen. One Beta test site is investigating the development of a new airframe and its interaction with the air traffic management system. The second Beta test effort will investigate 3D auditory cueing in conjunction with traditional visual cueing strategies including panel-mounted and heads-up displays. The progress and lessons learned on each of these projects will be discussed.

  16. Design and control of a high velocity, high force hydraulic shock test machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favour, J. D.

    1986-04-01

    This paper discusses the design and control of a large hydraulic shock testing device. The system is capable of peak velocities up to 10.2 m/s (400 in/sec) and peak forces up to 801 kN (180,000 lbs). The major challenges discussed are: (1) the concept design, (2) the specification and procurement of two very large (2500 gpm) electrohydraulic servovalves and (3) the failsafe control of the servovalves and system response. The system performance is briefly discussed.

  17. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  18. Usability testing of the human-machine interface for the Light Duty Utility Arm System

    SciTech Connect

    Kiebel, G.R.; Ellis, J.E.; Masliah, M.R.

    1994-09-20

    This report describes the usability testing that has been done for the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. A program of usability testing has been established as a part of a process for making the LDUA as easy to use as possible. The LDUA System is being designed to deploy a family of tools, called End Effectors, into underground storage tanks by means of a robotic arm on the end of a telescoping mast, and to collect and manage the data that they generate. The LDUA System uses a vertical positioning mast, to lower the arm into a tank through an existing 30.5 cm access riser. A Mobile Deployment Subsystem is used to position the mast and arm over a tank riser for deployment, and to transport them from tank to tank. The LDUA System has many ancillary subsystems including the Operations Control Trailer, the Tank Riser Interface and Confinement Subsystem, the Decontamination Subsystem, and the End Effector Exchange Subsystem. This work resulted in the identification of several important improvements to the LDUA control and data acquisition system before the design was frozen. The most important of these were color coding of joints in motion, simultaneous operator control of multiple joints, and changes to the field-of-views of the camera lenses for the robot and other camera systems.

  19. In-vitro tensile testing machine for vibration study of fresh rabbit Achilles tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Gian M.; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo; Pianosi, Antonella

    2001-10-01

    A lot of people, overall athletic one suffer from tendinitis or complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. This structure becomes inflamed and damaged mainly from a variety of mechanical forces and sometimes due to metabolic problems, such as diabetes or arthritis. Over the past three decades extensive studies have been performed on the structural and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon trying to explain the constitutive equations to describe and foresee tendon behavior. Among the various mechanical parameters, the vibrational behavior is also of interest. Several investigations are performed in order to study how the Achilles tendon vibrations influence the response of the muscle proprioception and human posture. The present article describes how in vitro tensile experiments can be performed, taking into account the need to simulate physiological condition of Achilles tendon and thus approaching some opened problems in the design of the experimental set-up. A new system for evaluating tendon vibrations by non contact techniques is proposed. Preliminary simple elongation tests are made extracting the main mechanical parameters: stress and strain at different fixed stretches, in order to characterize the tissue. Finally, a vibration study is made at each pretensioned tendon level evaluating the oscillating curves caused by a small hammer.

  20. Characterising knee motion and laxity in a testing machine for application to total knee evaluation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter S; Arno, Sally; Borukhoy, Ilya; Bell, Christopher P

    2015-10-15

    The goal of this study was to determine knee motions in specimens under combined input forces over a full range of flexion, so that the various flexion angles and loading combinations encountered in functional conditions would be contained. The purpose was that the data would act as a benchmark for the evaluation of TKR designs using the same testing methodology. We measured the neutral path of motion and laxity about the neutral path. The femur was flexed in a continuous movement, rather than at discrete flexion angles, using optical tracking. The motion of the femoral circular axis relative to the tibia was determined, as well as the contact patches on the tibial surfaces. The neutral path of motion was independent of compressive load, and consisted of a relatively constant medial contact and steady posterior displacement laterally, in agreement with previous studies. The anterior-posterior laxities of the lateral and medial condyles were similar whether AP forces or torques were applied. The lateral laxity was predominantly anterior with respect to the neutral path, while on the medial side, the laxity was less than lateral and predominantly posterior of the neutral path. Contact on the anterior surface of the medial tibial plateau only occurred in some cases in 5° hyperextension and at 0° flex when an anterior femoral shear or an external femoral torque were applied. The method can be regarded as a development of the ASTM constraint standard, with the addition of the benchmark, for the evaluation of total knee designs. PMID:26315916

  1. Hard Machinable Machining of Cobalt Super Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Petrů, Jana; Čepová, Lenka; Sadílek, Marek; Kratochvíl, Jiří

    2012-12-01

    The article deals with difficult-to-machine cobalt super alloys. The main aim is to test the basic properties of cobalt super alloys and propose suitable cutting materials and machining parameters under the designation 188 when machining. Although the development of technology in chipless machining such as moulding, precision casting and other manufacturing methods continues to advance, machining is still the leading choice for piece production, typical for energy and chemical engineering. Nowadays, super alloys are commonly used in turbine engines in regions that are subject to high temperatures, which require high strength, high temperature resistance, phase stability, as well as corrosion or oxidation resistance.

  2. Design, Fabrication, Optical Testing, and Performance of Diamond Machined Aspheric Mirrors for Ground-Based Near-IR Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Mink, Ronald; Chambers, V. John; Connelly, Joseph A.; Mentzell, J. Eric; Tveekrem, June L.; Howard, Joseph M.; Preuss, Werner; Schroeder, Mechthild; Sohn, Alex; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Challenges in fabrication and testing have historically limited the choice of surfaces available for the design of reflective optical instruments. Spherical and conic mirrors are common, but, for future science instruments, more degrees of freedom are necessary to meet challenging performance and packaging requirements. These instruments will be composed of unusual aspheres located far off-axis with large spherical departure, and some designs will require asymmetric surface profiles. In particular, single-surface astigmatism correction in spectrographs necessitates a toroidal surface, which lacks an axis of rotational symmetry. We describe the design, fabrication, optical testing, and performance of three rotationally symmetric, off-axis, aspheric mirrors and one toroidal, off-axis, biconic camera mirror on aluminum substrates for the Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (IRMOS) instrument. IRMOS is a facility instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory's Mayall Telescope (3.8 m) and an engineering prototype for a possible design of the Next Generation Space Telescope/Multi-Object Spectrograph. The symmetric mirrors range in aperture from 94x86 mm to 286x269 mm and in f-number from 0.9 to 2.4. They are various off-axis, convex and concave, prolate and oblate ellipsoids. The concave biconic mirror has a 94x76 mm aperture, Rx=377 mm, kx=0.0778, Ry=407 mm, and ky=0.1265 and is decentered. by -2 mm in x and 227 mm in y. The mirrors have an aspect ratio of approximately 4:1. The surface error fabrication tolerances are less than 63.3 nm RMS figure error and less than 10 nm RMS microroughness. The mirrors are attached to the instrument bench via a semi-kinematic, integral flexure mount. We describe mirror design, diamond machining, the results of figure testing using computer-generated holograms, and imaging and scattered light modeling and performance.

  3. Preliminary results from Charpy impact testing of irradiated JPDR weld metal and commissioning of a facility for machining of irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect

    Iskander, S.K.; Hutton, J.T.; Creech, L.E.; Nanstad, R.K.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Rosseel, T.M.; Bishop, P.S.

    1999-09-01

    Forty two full-size Charpy specimens were machined from eight trepans that originated from the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). They were also successfully tested and the preliminary results are presented in this report. The trends appear to be reasonable with respect to the location of the specimens with regards to whether they originated from the beltline or the core regions of the vessel, and also whether they were from the inside or outside regions of the vessel wall. A short synopsis regarding commissioning of the facility to machine irradiated materials is also provided.

  4. Fourdrinier-Machine Tender (paper & pulp, wallboard) 539.782; Back Tender, Paper Machine (paper & pulp) 534.782--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Effect of Thermal and Chemical Treatment on the Microstructural, Mechanical and Machining Performance of W319 Al-Si-Cu Cast Alloy Engine Blocks and Directionally Solidified Machinability Test Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szablewski, Daniel

    The research presented in this work is focused on making a link between casting microstructural, mechanical and machining properties for 319 Al-Si sand cast components. In order to achieve this, a unique Machinability Test Block (MTB) is designed to simulate the Nemak V6 Al-Si engine block solidification behavior. This MTB is then utilized to cast structures with in-situ nano-alumina particle master alloy additions that are Mg based, as well as independent in-situ Mg additions, and Sr additions to the MTB. The Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer (UMSA) Technology Platform is utilized for characterization of each cast structure at different Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) levels. The rapid quench method and Jominy testing is used to assess the capability of the nano-alumina master alloy to modify the microstructure at different SDAS levels. Mechanical property assessment of the MTB is done at different SDAS levels on cast structures with master alloy additions described above. Weibull and Quality Index statistical analysis tools are then utilized to assess the mechanical properties. The MTB is also used to study single pass high speed face milling and bi-metallic cutting operations where the Al-Si hypoeutectic structure is combined with hypereutectoid Al-Si liners and cast iron cylinder liners. These studies are utilized to aid the implementation of Al-Si liners into the Nemak V6 engine block and bi-metallic cutting of the head decks. Machining behavior is also quantified for the investigated microstructures, and the Silicon Modification Level (SiML) is utilized for microstructural analysis as it relates to the machining behavior.

  6. Database machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiefel, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The functions and performance characteristics of data base machines (DBM), including machines currently being studied in research laboratories and those currently offered on a commerical basis are discussed. The cost/benefit considerations that must be recognized in selecting a DBM are discussed, as well as the future outlook for such machines.

  7. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  8. Corn-Cutting-Machine Operator (can. & preserv.) 529.886; Corn-Husking-Machine Operator (can. preserv.) 529.886; Cutter, Machine (can. & preserv.) 529.886 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  9. Easy-to-clean property and durability of superhydrophobic flaky γ-alumina coating on stainless steel in field test at a paper machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoxue; Liu, Xuwen; Laakso, Jarmo; Levänen, Erkki; Mäntylä, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    Superhydrophobic flaky γ-alumina coating was prepared on AISI 316 2B stainless steel and was field-tested near size roll at a paper machine in a paper mill for 6 weeks consisting of two running periods of machine to check the easy-to-clean property and durability, as compared to an uncoated reference stainless steel. In the end of the field test, both the superhydrophobic and the reference stainless steel were fully covered with substances from the testing environment. Major part of the collected substances on the superhydrophobic stainless steel can be washed away by pressurized water; however, the collected substances remained on the reference stainless steel after washing. The field-tested samples were characterized visually and by stereomicroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, laser profilometry and contact angle tester. The field test revealed the easy-to-clean property of the superhydrophobic surface and the superhydrophobic coating survived rather well after the first running period of 16 days in the field test. The resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic surface still needs to be further improved for longer term application in paper industry. Nanoindentation was used to further study the mechanical properties of the γ-alumina coating. It was found that the γ-alumina coating became much softer after transforming from flat to flaky form. In addition, the flaky γ-alumina coating demonstrated a phenomenon of time-dependent plasticity and some flexibility.

  10. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards & Labeling Programs for Copy Machines, External Power Supplies, LED Displays, Residential Gas Cooktops and Televisions

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2012-03-01

    This report presents a technical review of international minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), voluntary and mandatory energy efficiency labels and test procedures for five products being considered for new or revised MEPS in China: copy machines, external power supply, LED displays, residential gas cooktops and flat-screen televisions. For each product, an overview of the scope of existing international standards and labeling programs, energy values and energy performance metrics and description and detailed summary table of criteria and procedures in major test standards are presented.

  11. Nonplanar machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. )

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

  12. Electric machine

    DOEpatents

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  13. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067

  14. Use of system code to estimate equilibrium tritium inventory in fusion DT machines, such as ARIES-AT and components testing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    C.P.C. Wong; B. Merrill

    2014-10-01

    ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MWfusion class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively.

  15. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    -linear perspex-machine which is very much easier to program than the original perspex-machine. We then show how to map the whole of perspex space into a unit cube. This allows us to construct a fractal of perspex machines with the cardinality of a real-numbered line or space. This fractal is the universal perspex machine. It can solve, in unit time, the halting problem for itself and for all perspex machines instantiated in real-numbered space, including all Turing machines. We cite an experiment that has been proposed to test the physical reality of the perspex machine's model of time, but we make no claim that the physical universe works this way or that it has the cardinality of the perspex machine. We leave it that the perspex machine provides an upper bound on the computational properties of physical things, including manufactured computers and biological organisms, that have a cardinality no greater than the real-number line.

  16. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, G.A.

    1985-05-07

    A haulage system for a mining machine comprises a mining machine mounted on and/or guided by a conveyor and reciprocable with respect thereto, the conveyor being provided with a rack having plural rows of teeth of identical pitch, with the teeth of one row staggered with respect to an adjacent row(s), and the machine being provided with at least one power driven haulage sprocket comprising plural sets of peripherally arranged teeth of identical pitch, one set being angularly staggered with respect to an adjacent set(s), whereby one set is engageable with each row of teeth of the rack. The invention also includes a mining machine provided with such a power driven haulage sprocket, and a rack as above described and provided with end fittings for securing in articulated manner to an adjacent rack.

  17. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  18. Machine tool evaluation and machining operation development

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.; Kegg, R.

    1997-03-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to support Cincinnati Milacron`s needs in fabricating precision components, from difficult to machine materials, while maintaining and enhancing the precision manufacturing skills of the Oak Ridge Complex. Oak Ridge and Cincinnati Milacron personnel worked in a team relationship wherein each contributed equally to the success of the program. Process characterization, control technologies, machine tool capabilities, and environmental issues were the primary focus areas. In general, Oak Ridge contributed a wider range of expertise in machine tool testing and monitoring, and environmental testing on machining fluids to the defined tasks while Cincinnati Milacron personnel provided equipment, operations-specific knowledge and shop-floor services to each task. Cincinnati Milacron was very pleased with the results of all of the CRADA tasks. However, some of the environmental tasks were not carried through to a desired completion due to an expanding realization of need as the work progressed. This expansion of the desired goals then exceeded the time length of the CRADA. Discussions are underway on continuing these tasks under either a Work for Others agreement or some alternate funding.

  19. Waxed-Bag-Machine Operator (paper goods) 649.885--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  20. Woodworking Machine Operator, General (woodworking) 6-33.910--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes. General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  1. Compression-Molding-Machine Tender (fabric. plastics prod.) 556.885--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Braiding-Machine Operator (cot. small wares; textiles) 6-19.986--Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  3. Inspector and Machine Operator, Diode Subassemblies (electronics) 726.685--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  4. Blown Plastic Container Machine Operator (fabric. plastic prod.) 556.885--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  5. Candy-Wrapping-Machine Operator (Confection) 920.885-034 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  6. Vending-Machine Repairman (bus. ser.; coin mach.) 639.381--Technical Report on Development on USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  7. Knitting-Machine Fixer, Socks (hosiery) 689.280 -- Technical Report on Development of the USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  8. Stitcher, Machine (boot & shoe) 6-61.211--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  9. Sewing-Machine Repairman (any ind.) 639.281--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  10. Sewing Machine Operators, Selected 786.782 and 787.782--Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  11. Changing World Patterns of Machine-Scored Objective Testing: The Expected Impact of the Multi-Digit Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.; Saliba, Alcyone

    The use of optical scanners and computers in educational testing is common where objective testing methods (such as true-false, matching, and multiple-choice items) are well-established means of evaluating educational achievement. Where non-objective testing methods (such as fill-in-the-blank, short-answer, and essay items) have been more common,…

  12. Printed-Napkin-Machine Operator (paper goods) 649.885 -- Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first publihed in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  13. Envelope-Machine Set-Up Man (paper goods) 641.780--Technical Report on Development of USES Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  14. Folding-Machine Operator (print. & pub.) 4-49.051--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  15. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  16. Comparison of Test Procedures and Energy Efficiency Criteria in Selected International Standards and Labeling Programs for Clothes Washers, Water Dispensers, Vending Machines and CFLs

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2010-06-01

    Since the late 1970s, energy labeling programs and mandatory energy performance standards have been used in many different countries to improve the efficiency levels of major residential and commercial equipment. As more countries and regions launch programs covering a greater range of products that are traded worldwide, greater attention has been given to harmonizing the specific efficiency criteria in these programs and the test methods for measurements. For example, an international compact fluorescent light (CFL) harmonization initiative was launched in 2006 to focus on collaboration between Australia, China, Europe and North America. Given the long history of standards and labeling programs, most major energy-consuming residential appliances and commercial equipment are already covered under minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) and/or energy labels. For these products, such as clothes washers and CFLs, harmonization may still be possible when national MEPS or labeling thresholds are revised. Greater opportunity for harmonization exists in newer energy-consuming products that are not commonly regulated but are under consideration for new standards and labeling programs. This may include commercial products such as water dispensers and vending machines, which are only covered by MEPS or energy labels in a few countries or regions. As China continues to expand its appliance standards and labeling programs and revise existing standards and labels, it is important to learn from recent international experiences with efficiency criteria and test procedures for the same products. Specifically, various types of standards and labeling programs already exist in North America, Europe and throughout Asia for products in China's 2010 standards and labeling programs, namely clothes washers, water dispensers, vending machines and CFLs. This report thus examines similarities and critical differences in energy efficiency values, test procedure specifications and other

  17. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  18. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  19. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  20. Quantitative Comparisons of Difficulty, Discrimination and Reliability of Machine-Scored Completion Items and Tests (in the MDT Un-Cued Answer-Bank Format) in Contrast with Statistics from Comparable Multiple Choice Questions: The First Round of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Paul S.; Hyers, Albert D.

    Three descriptive statistics (difficulty, discrimination, and reliability) of multiple-choice (MC) test items were compared to those of a new (1980s) format of machine-scored questions. The new method, answer-bank multi-digit testing (MDT), uses alphabetized lists of up to 1,000 alternatives and approximates the completion style of assessment…

  1. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  2. A study of coal particle shape and three-body wear: Part 1, Design and development of a new three-body wear testing machine: Part 2, Particle shape and three-body wear

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; Means, K.H.; James, R.; Thompson, T.

    1991-01-01

    Three-body wear involves two surfaces and an intermediate particle trapped between the two surfaces. A machine has been constructed to measure normal and frictional forces due to three-body wear. This machine accurately positions specimens a predetermined distance apart from each other and introduces particles to the interface between the specimens. Different types of specimen combinations have been tested to give a variety of data. Loads that result from the wear test are sampled and stored. Wear coefficients and rates of wear have been calculated for all specimens. (VC)

  3. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Fullerenes possess remarkable properties and many investigators have examined the mechanical, electronic and other characteristics of carbon SP2 systems in some detail. In addition, C-60 can be functionalized with many classes of molecular fragments and we may expect the caps of carbon nanotubes to have a similar chemistry. Finally, carbon nanotubes have been attached to t he end of scanning probe microscope (Spill) tips. Spills can be manipulated with sub-angstrom accuracy. Together, these investigations suggest that complex molecular machines made of fullerenes may someday be created and manipulated with very high accuracy. We have studied some such systems computationally (primarily functionalized carbon nanotube gears and computer components). If such machines can be combined appropriately, a class of materials may be created that can sense their environment, calculate a response, and act. The implications of such hypothetical materials are substantial.

  4. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  5. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  6. Machine Learning Model Analysis and Data Visualization with Small Molecules Tested in a Mouse Model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection (2014-2015).

    PubMed

    Ekins, Sean; Perryman, Alexander L; Clark, Alex M; Reynolds, Robert C; Freundlich, Joel S

    2016-07-25

    The renewed urgency to develop new treatments for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection has resulted in large-scale phenotypic screening and thousands of new active compounds in vitro. The next challenge is to identify candidates to pursue in a mouse in vivo efficacy model as a step to predicting clinical efficacy. We previously analyzed over 70 years of this mouse in vivo efficacy data, which we used to generate and validate machine learning models. Curation of 60 additional small molecules with in vivo data published in 2014 and 2015 was undertaken to further test these models. This represents a much larger test set than for the previous models. Several computational approaches have now been applied to analyze these molecules and compare their molecular properties beyond those attempted previously. Our previous machine learning models have been updated, and a novel aspect has been added in the form of mouse liver microsomal half-life (MLM t1/2) and in vitro-based Mtb models incorporating cytotoxicity data that were used to predict in vivo activity for comparison. Our best Mtb in vivo models possess fivefold ROC values > 0.7, sensitivity > 80%, and concordance > 60%, while the best specificity value is >40%. Use of an MLM t1/2 Bayesian model affords comparable results for scoring the 60 compounds tested. Combining MLM stability and in vitro Mtb models in a novel consensus workflow in the best cases has a positive predicted value (hit rate) > 77%. Our results indicate that Bayesian models constructed with literature in vivo Mtb data generated by different laboratories in various mouse models can have predictive value and may be used alongside MLM t1/2 and in vitro-based Mtb models to assist in selecting antitubercular compounds with desirable in vivo efficacy. We demonstrate for the first time that consensus models of any kind can be used to predict in vivo activity for Mtb. In addition, we describe a new clustering method for data visualization and apply this

  7. Machine Learning Model Analysis and Data Visualization with Small Molecules Tested in a Mouse Model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection (2014–2015)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The renewed urgency to develop new treatments for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection has resulted in large-scale phenotypic screening and thousands of new active compounds in vitro. The next challenge is to identify candidates to pursue in a mouse in vivo efficacy model as a step to predicting clinical efficacy. We previously analyzed over 70 years of this mouse in vivo efficacy data, which we used to generate and validate machine learning models. Curation of 60 additional small molecules with in vivo data published in 2014 and 2015 was undertaken to further test these models. This represents a much larger test set than for the previous models. Several computational approaches have now been applied to analyze these molecules and compare their molecular properties beyond those attempted previously. Our previous machine learning models have been updated, and a novel aspect has been added in the form of mouse liver microsomal half-life (MLM t1/2) and in vitro-based Mtb models incorporating cytotoxicity data that were used to predict in vivo activity for comparison. Our best Mtbin vivo models possess fivefold ROC values > 0.7, sensitivity > 80%, and concordance > 60%, while the best specificity value is >40%. Use of an MLM t1/2 Bayesian model affords comparable results for scoring the 60 compounds tested. Combining MLM stability and in vitroMtb models in a novel consensus workflow in the best cases has a positive predicted value (hit rate) > 77%. Our results indicate that Bayesian models constructed with literature in vivoMtb data generated by different laboratories in various mouse models can have predictive value and may be used alongside MLM t1/2 and in vitro-based Mtb models to assist in selecting antitubercular compounds with desirable in vivo efficacy. We demonstrate for the first time that consensus models of any kind can be used to predict in vivo activity for Mtb. In addition, we describe a new clustering method for data visualization and apply this to

  8. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  9. Constitutive modeling for Ti-6Al-4V alloy machining based on the SHPB tests and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Ke, Zhihong; Ren, Chengzu; Li, Jun

    2016-06-01

    A constitutive model is critical for the prediction accuracy of a metal cutting simulation. The highest strain rate involved in the cutting process can be in the range of 104-106 s-1. Flow stresses at high strain rates are close to that of cutting are difficult to test via experiments. Split Hopkinson compression bar (SHPB) technology is used to study the deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy at strain rates of 10-4-104s-1. The Johnson Cook (JC) model was applied to characterize the flow stresses of the SHPB tests at various conditions. The parameters of the JC model are optimized by using a genetic algorithm technology. The JC plastic model and the energy density-based ductile failure criteria are adopted in the proposed SHPB finite element simulation model. The simulated flow stresses and the failure characteristics, such as the cracks along the adiabatic shear bands agree well with the experimental results. Afterwards, the SHPB simulation is used to simulate higher strain rate(approximately 3×104 s-1) conditions by minimizing the size of the specimen. The JC model parameters covering higher strain rate conditions which are close to the deformation condition in cutting were calculated based on the flow stresses obtained by using the SHPB tests (10-4-104 s-1) and simulation (up to 3×104 s-1). The cutting simulation using the constitutive parameters is validated by the measured forces and chip morphology. The constitutive model and parameters for high strain rate conditions that are identical to those of cutting were obtained based on the SHPB tests and simulation.

  10. Sequential Indentation Tests to Investigate the Influence of Confining Stress on Rock Breakage by Tunnel Boring Machine Cutter in a Biaxial State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie; Cao, Ping; Han, Dongya

    2016-04-01

    The influence of confining stress on rock breakage by a tunnel boring machine cutter was investigated by conducting sequential indentation tests in a biaxial state. Combined with morphology measurements of breaking grooves and an analysis of surface and internal crack propagation between nicks, the effects of maximum confining stress and minimum stress on indentation efficiency, crack propagation and chip formation were investigated. Indentation tests and morphology measurements show that increasing a maximum confining stress will result in increased consumed energy in indentations, enlarged groove volumes and promoted indentation efficiency when the corresponding minimum confining stress is fixed. The energy consumed in indentations will increase with increase in minimum confining stress, however, because of the decreased groove volumes as the minimum confining stress increases, the efficiency will decrease. Observations of surface crack propagation show that more intensive fractures will be induced as the maximum confining stress increases, whereas the opposite occurs for an increase of minimum confining stress. An observation of the middle section, cracks and chips shows that as the maximum confining stress increases, chips tend to form in deeper parts when the minimum confining stress is fixed, whereas they tend to formed in shallower parts as the minimum confining stress increases when the maximum confining stress is fixed.

  11. SPHERE-IRDIS assembly, integration and testing: from bits and metal to a planet-hunting machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madec, Fabrice; Dohlen, Kjetil; Blanchard, Patrick; Carle, Michael; Origné, Alain; Jaquet, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Barette, Rudy; Moreaux, Gabriel; Arthaud, Gilles; Ferrand, Didier; Blanc, Jean-Claude; Vors, Patrick; Ducret, Franck; Gluck, Laurence; Saisse, Michel; Fabron, Christophe; Laurent, Philippe; Benedetti, Jean-Antoine; Bon, William; Llored, Marc; Moutou, Claire; Gry, Cécile; Meunier, Jean-Charles; Vigan, Arthur; Hill, Lucien; Langlois, Maud P.; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Naranjo, Vianak; Brast, Roland; Feldt, Markus; Popovic, Dan

    2012-09-01

    SPHERE, a second-generation instrument for the VLT, is currently under performance validation before shipping to Chile. The IRDIS sub-system, an Infra-Red Dual-Imager and Spectrograph, was integrated on the SPHERE bench last December, and this paper tells the story of the 12 months preceding this milestone: the Assembly, integration and Tests (AIT) performed at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM). Key points of the AIT strategy are then presented, and the successes and failures---human, technical, and managerial---of this adventure are discussed. We also report on the excellent optical quality achieved, paramount to guarantee ultimate performance of the SPHERE instrument, thanks to high-quality optical manufacture and a successfully applied alignment strategy.

  12. Can the Kern-ME5000 Mekometer Replace Invar Measurements? Results of Test Measurements with Three Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland-Davis, T.W.; /SLAC

    2005-08-12

    The use of the Kern Me5000 as a ''stand alone'' instrument is restricted to a minimum measurement distance of approximately 20m (Kern internal ''low range'' program), with 2 display readout to the nearest 100{micro}m. Using an external program, it is possible to extend both, the display resolution to 10{micro}m, 2nd the range down to distances well below 20m. This paper attempts to explain Kern's reasoning behind the original limitation of approximately 20m, and presents the results from testing three Mekometer Me5000 instruments. Their similarities, differences, and accuracies are assessed for distances below 25m providing a comparison against the use of invar wires.

  13. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  14. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  15. Tunneling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L.L.

    1980-02-19

    A diametrically compact tunneling machine for boring tunnels is disclosed. The machine includes a tubular support frame having a hollow piston mounted therein which is movable from a retracted position in the support frame to an extended position. A drive shaft is rotatably mounted in the hollow piston and carries a cutter head at one end. The hollow piston is restrained against rotational movement relative to the support frame and the drive shaft is constrained against longitudinal movement relative to the hollow piston. A plurality of radially extendible feet project from the support frame to the tunnel wall to grip the tunnel wall during a tunneling operation wherein the hollow piston is driven forwardly so that the cutter head works on the tunnel face. When the hollow piston is fully extended, a plurality of extendible support feet, which are fixed to the rearward and forward ends of the hollow piston, are extended, the radially extendible feet are retracted and the support frame is shifted forwardly by the piston so that a further tunneling operation may be initiated.

  16. Target-specific support vector machine scoring in structure-based virtual screening: computational validation, in vitro testing in kinases, and effects on lung cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liwei; Khanna, May; Jo, Inha; Wang, Fang; Ashpole, Nicole M; Hudmon, Andy; Meroueh, Samy O

    2011-04-25

    We assess the performance of our previously reported structure-based support vector machine target-specific scoring function across 41 targets, 40 among them from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic plots (ROC-AUC) revealed that scoring with SVM-SP resulted in consistently better enrichment over all target families, outperforming Glide and other scoring functions, most notably among kinases. In addition, SVM-SP performance showed little variation among protein classes, exhibited excellent performance in a test case using a homology model, and in some cases showed high enrichment even with few structures used to train a model. We put SVM-SP to the test by virtual screening 1125 compounds against two kinases, EGFR and CaMKII. Among the top 25 EGFR compounds, three compounds (1-3) inhibited kinase activity in vitro with IC₅₀ of 58, 2, and 10 μM. In cell cultures, compounds 1-3 inhibited nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (H1299) cancer cell proliferation with similar IC₅₀ values for compound 3. For CaMKII, one compound inhibited kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner among 20 tested with an IC₅₀ of 48 μM. These results are encouraging given that our in-house library consists of compounds that emerged from virtual screening of other targets with pockets that are different from typical ATP binding sites found in kinases. In light of the importance of kinases in chemical biology, these findings could have implications in future efforts to identify chemical probes of kinases within the human kinome. PMID:21438548

  17. Anaesthesia Machine: Checklist, Hazards, Scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Goneppanavar, Umesh; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    From a simple pneumatic device of the early 20th century, the anaesthesia machine has evolved to incorporate various mechanical, electrical and electronic components to be more appropriately called anaesthesia workstation. Modern machines have overcome many drawbacks associated with the older machines. However, addition of several mechanical, electronic and electric components has contributed to recurrence of some of the older problems such as leak or obstruction attributable to newer gadgets and development of newer problems. No single checklist can satisfactorily test the integrity and safety of all existing anaesthesia machines due to their complex nature as well as variations in design among manufacturers. Human factors have contributed to greater complications than machine faults. Therefore, better understanding of the basics of anaesthesia machine and checking each component of the machine for proper functioning prior to use is essential to minimise these hazards. Clear documentation of regular and appropriate servicing of the anaesthesia machine, its components and their satisfactory functioning following servicing and repair is also equally important. Trace anaesthetic gases polluting the theatre atmosphere can have several adverse effects on the health of theatre personnel. Therefore, safe disposal of these gases away from the workplace with efficiently functioning scavenging system is necessary. Other ways of minimising atmospheric pollution such as gas delivery equipment with negligible leaks, low flow anaesthesia, minimal leak around the airway equipment (facemask, tracheal tube, laryngeal mask airway, etc.) more than 15 air changes/hour and total intravenous anaesthesia should also be considered. PMID:24249887

  18. Parallel machines: Parallel machine languages

    SciTech Connect

    Iannucci, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a framework for understanding the tradeoffs between the conventional view and the dataflow view with the objective of discovering the critical hardware structures which must be present in any scalable, general-purpose parallel computer to effectively tolerate latency and synchronization costs. The author presents an approach to scalable general purpose parallel computation. Linguistic Concerns, Compiling Issues, Intermediate Language Issues, and hardware/technological constraints are presented as a combined approach to architectural Develoement. This book presents the notion of a parallel machine language.

  19. Radon in homes of the Portland, Oregon Area: Radon data from local radon testing companies collected by CRM (Continuous Radon Measurement) machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, H.; Lindsey, K.; Linde, T.; Burns, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Students from the Department of Geology at Portland State University paired up with the Oregon Health Authority to better understand radon gas values in homes of the Portland metropolitan area. This study focuses on radon values collected by continuous radon measurement (CRM) machines, taken by local radon testing companies. The local companies participating in this study include Alpha Environmental Services, Inc., Cascade Radon, Environmental Works, The House Detectives, LLC, and Soil Solutions Environmental Services, Inc. In total, 2491 radon readings spanning across 77 zip codes were collected from local companies in the Portland metropolitan area. The maximum value, average value, percentage of homes greater than 4 pCi/L and total rank sum was calculated and used to determine the overall radon potential for each zip code (Burns et al., 1998). A list and four maps were produced showing the results from each category. Out of the total records, 24 zip codes resulted in high radon potential and the average reading for the entire Portland Metropolitan area was 3.7 pCi/L. High potential zip codes are thought to be a result of sand and gravel (Missoula Flood deposits) and faults present in the subsurface. The CRM data was compared with both long-term and short-term data provided by the Oregon Health Authority to validate radon potentials in each zip code. If a home is located in a zip code with high or moderate radon potential across two types of data sets, it is recommended that those homes be tested for radon gas.

  20. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  1. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  2. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  3. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  4. 30 CFR 18.61 - Final inspection of complete machine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final inspection of complete machine. 18.61... and Tests § 18.61 Final inspection of complete machine. (a) A completely assembled new machine or a... with the requirements of this part it shall be corrected before an approval of the machine will...

  5. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. PMID:23792091

  6. Machine musicianship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  7. Machining technique prevents undercutting in tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moscater, R. E.; Royster, D. M.

    1968-01-01

    Machining technique prevents undercutting at the test section in tensile specimens when machining the four corners of the reduced section. Made with a gradual taper in the test section, the width of the center of the tensile specimen is less than the width at the four corners of the reduced section.

  8. Z Machine at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-17

    Sandia Labs' Z machine is the largest laboratory source of x-rays in the world. For the few nanoseconds of a Z Machine test, its electrical output equals the output of 50x the electrical generating stations of all the power plants on earth. The Z Machine complex encompasses an area roughly the size of a major college basketball arena. Originally created to validate nuclear weapons models, the Z Machine is also considered a "dark horse" in the race for viable fusion energy production. After the famous "arcs and sparks" photo of Z (a photo no longer possible after its refurbishment), this is a fast-motion video of workers completing Z's recent refurbishment.

  9. Diamond Measuring Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  10. Advanced coordinate measuring machine at Sandia National Laboratories/California

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, R.D.; Klevgard, P.A.

    1993-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/California has acquired a new Moore M-48V CNC five-axis universal coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Site preparation, acceptance testing, and initial performance results are discussed. Unique features of the machine include a ceramic ram and vacuum evacuated laser pathways (VELPS). The implementation of a VELPS system on the machine imposed certain design requirements and entailed certain start-up problems. The machine`s projected capabilities, workload, and research possibilities are outlined.

  11. Humanizing machines: Anthropomorphization of slot machines increases gambling.

    PubMed

    Riva, Paolo; Sacchi, Simona; Brambilla, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Do people gamble more on slot machines if they think that they are playing against humanlike minds rather than mathematical algorithms? Research has shown that people have a strong cognitive tendency to imbue humanlike mental states to nonhuman entities (i.e., anthropomorphism). The present research tested whether anthropomorphizing slot machines would increase gambling. Four studies manipulated slot machine anthropomorphization and found that exposing people to an anthropomorphized description of a slot machine increased gambling behavior and reduced gambling outcomes. Such findings emerged using tasks that focused on gambling behavior (Studies 1 to 3) as well as in experimental paradigms that included gambling outcomes (Studies 2 to 4). We found that gambling outcomes decrease because participants primed with the anthropomorphic slot machine gambled more (Study 4). Furthermore, we found that high-arousal positive emotions (e.g., feeling excited) played a role in the effect of anthropomorphism on gambling behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Our research indicates that the psychological process of gambling-machine anthropomorphism can be advantageous for the gaming industry; however, this may come at great expense for gamblers' (and their families') economic resources and psychological well-being. PMID:26322589

  12. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  13. Machine Shop Lathes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This guide, the second in a series of five machine shop curriculum manuals, was designed for use in machine shop courses in Oklahoma. The purpose of the manual is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trade at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed so that it can be used in…

  14. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed. PMID:25361517

  15. Insulating-Machine Operator (insulated wire) 7-00.210; Pairing-Machine Operator (insulated wire) 7-00.220--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  16. The finite element machine: An experiment in parallel processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storaasli, O. O.; Peebles, S. W.; Crockett, T. W.; Knott, J. D.; Adams, L.

    1982-01-01

    The finite element machine is a prototype computer designed to support parallel solutions to structural analysis problems. The hardware architecture and support software for the machine, initial solution algorithms and test applications, and preliminary results are described.

  17. Reusable State Machine Code Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

    2010-12-01

    The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

  18. On-machine dimensional verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rendulic, W.

    1993-08-01

    General technology for automating in-process verification of machined products has been studied and implemented on a variety of machines and products at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Tests have been performed to establish system accuracy and probe reliability on two numerically controlled machining centers. Commercial software has been revised, and new cycles such as skew check and skew machining, have been developed to enhance and expand probing capabilities. Probe benefits have been demonstrated in the area of setup, cycle time, part quality, tooling cost, and product sampling.

  19. Shock Mounting for Heavy Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    Elastomeric bearings eliminate extraneous forces. Rocket thrust transmitted from motor to load cells via support that absorbs extraneous forces so they do not affect accuracy of thrust measurements. Adapter spoked cone fits over forward end of rocket motor. Shock mounting developed for rocket engines under test used as support for heavy machines, bridges, or towers.

  20. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  1. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  2. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Weigl, P

    2000-01-01

    Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems. PMID:10898875

  3. Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John B O

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

  4. An HTS Machine Laboratory Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijatovic, N.; Jensen, B. B.; Træholta, C.; Abrahamsen, A. B.; Zermeno, V. M. R.; Pedersen, N. F.

    This paper describes Superwind HTS machine laboratory setup which is a small scale HTS machine designed and build as a part of the efforts to identify and tackle some of the challenges the HTS machine design may face. One of the challenges of HTS machines is a Torque Transfer Element (TTE) which is in this design integral part of the cryostat. The discussion of the requirements for the TTE supported with a simple case study comparing a shaft and a cylinder as candidates for TTE are presented. The discussion resulted with a cylinder as a TTE design rated for a 250Nm and with more then 10 times lower heat conduction compared to a shaft. The HTS machine was successfully cooled to 77K and tests have been performed. The IV curves of the HTS field winding employing 6 HTS coils indicate that two of the coils had been damaged. The maximal value of the torque during experiments of 78Nm was recorded. Loaded with 33%, the TTE performed well and showed suffcient margin for future experiments.

  5. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  6. Machining lead wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Recently, MEC-6 machined some 4-inch-diameter lead wafers to precision tolerances. The tolerance on the wafer thickness was +-0.000080 inch. A diamond tool was used to machine the wafers on a Moore No. 3 lathe. This report discusses the methods used to machine the wafers, the fixtures used to hold the wafers, and the inspection methods and results.

  7. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  8. Advanced coordinate measuring machine at Sandia National Laboratories/California

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, R.D.; Klevgard, P.A.

    1993-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/California has acquired a new Moore M-48V CNC five-axis universal coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Site preparation, acceptance testing, and initial performance results are discussed. Unique features of the machine include a ceramic ram and vacuum evacuated laser pathways (VELPS). The implementation of a VELPS system on the machine imposed certain design requirements and entailed certain start-up problems. The machine's projected capabilities, workload, and research possibilities are outlined.

  9. Testing normative and self-appraisal feedback in an online slot-machine pop-up in a real-world setting.

    PubMed

    Auer, Michael M; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, there have been an increasing number of gaming operators that have incorporated on-screen pop-up messages while gamblers play on slot machines and/or online as one of a range of tools to help encourage responsible gambling. Coupled with this, there has also been an increase in empirical research into whether such pop-up messages are effective, particularly in laboratory settings. However, very few studies have been conducted on the utility of pop-up messages in real-world gambling settings. The present study investigated the effects of normative and self-appraisal feedback in a slot machine pop-up message compared to a simple (non-enhanced) pop-up message. The study was conducted in a real-world gambling environment by comparing the behavioral tracking data of two representative random samples of 800,000 gambling sessions (i.e., 1.6 million sessions in total) across two conditions (i.e., simple pop-up message versus an enhanced pop-up message). The results indicated that the additional normative and self-appraisal content doubled the number of gamblers who stopped playing after they received the enhanced pop-up message (1.39%) compared to the simple pop-up message (0.67%). The data suggest that pop-up messages influence only a small number of gamblers to cease long playing sessions and that enhanced messages are slightly more effective in helping gamblers to stop playing in-session. PMID:25852630

  10. Green machining of gelcast ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.; Kirby, G.H.

    1996-04-01

    Ceramic green bodies prepared by gelcasting were shown to be readily machinable using WC cutting tools. Samples of alumina and silicon nitride were examined. It was found that a gelcasting formulation which uses a high molecular weight cross-linking agent produces a green body having superior machining characteristics. Samples fabricated with a lower molecular weight cross-linker exhibited a poor machined surface finish due to chipping. Machining tests showed that using a 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) diameter cutting tool at a cutting speed of 162.5 cm/sec (64 ft./sec.) to machine a flat-bottomed groove 3.2 mm wide and 9.5 mm deep (0.125 x 0.375 in.) using three passes, feed rates ranging from 0.85 to 6.35 cm/sec (0.33 to 2.50 in./sec.) could be used without damaging the sample.

  11. Machinability of hypereutectic silicon-aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, T.; Akasawa, T.

    1999-08-01

    The machinability of high-silicon aluminum alloys made by a P/M process and by casting was compared. The cutting test was conducted by turning on lathes with the use of cemented carbide tools. The tool wear by machining the P/M alloy was far smaller than the tool wear by machining the cast alloy. The roughness of the machined surface of the P/M alloy is far better than that of the cast alloy, and the turning speed did not affect it greatly at higher speeds. The P/M alloy produced long chips, so the disposal can cause trouble. The size effect of silicon grains on the machinability is discussed.

  12. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  13. Clicking-Machine Operator (boot & show; leather prod.) 6-62.055--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  14. Balling-Machine Operator (textile; tex. prod., n.e.c.) 6-19.110--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  15. Machine Operator, Mass Mailing (clerical) 234.885 (1-25.411)--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  16. Levers-Lace-Machine Operator (tex. prod., n. e. c.) 683.782--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  17. Screw-Machine Set-Up Operator, Jobbing (mach. shop) 604.380-028--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  18. Boarder II 6-14.171; Boarding-Machine Operator 6-14.173 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  19. Die-Casting-Machine Operator (nonfer. metal alloys & prod.) II 6-82.916--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  20. Injection-Molding-Machine Tender (fabric-plastics prod.) 556.885--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  1. Typesetter-Perforator Operator (print. & pub.)1-37.41; Tape-Perforating-Machine Operator (print. & pub.)--Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  2. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  3. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  4. Chaotic Boltzmann machines

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hideyuki; Imura, Jun-ichi; Horio, Yoshihiko; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The chaotic Boltzmann machine proposed in this paper is a chaotic pseudo-billiard system that works as a Boltzmann machine. Chaotic Boltzmann machines are shown numerically to have computing abilities comparable to conventional (stochastic) Boltzmann machines. Since no randomness is required, efficient hardware implementation is expected. Moreover, the ferromagnetic phase transition of the Ising model is shown to be characterised by the largest Lyapunov exponent of the proposed system. In general, a method to relate probabilistic models to nonlinear dynamics by derandomising Gibbs sampling is presented. PMID:23558425

  5. Learning Machine Learning: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavesson, N.

    2010-01-01

    This correspondence reports on a case study conducted in the Master's-level Machine Learning (ML) course at Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden. The students participated in a self-assessment test and a diagnostic test of prerequisite subjects, and their results on these tests are correlated with their achievement of the course's learning…

  6. Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coteaţǎ, Margareta; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Pop, Nicolae; Beşliu, Irina; Slǎtineanu, Laurenţiu

    2011-05-01

    Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

  7. Machinability of a Stainless Steel by Electrochemical Discharge Microdrilling

    SciTech Connect

    Coteata, Margareta; Pop, Nicolae; Slatineanu, Laurentiu; Schulze, Hans-Peter; Besliu, Irina

    2011-05-04

    Due to the chemical elements included in their structure for ensuring an increased resistance to the environment action, the stainless steels are characterized by a low machinability when classical machining methods are applied. For this reason, sometimes non-traditional machining methods are applied, one of these being the electrochemical discharge machining. To obtain microholes and to evaluate the machinability by electrochemical discharge microdrilling, test pieces of stainless steel were used for experimental research. The electrolyte was an aqueous solution of sodium silicate with different densities. A complete factorial plan was designed to highlight the influence of some input variables on the sizes of the considered machinability indexes (electrode tool wear, material removal rate, depth of the machined hole). By mathematically processing of experimental data, empirical functions were established both for stainless steel and carbon steel. Graphical representations were used to obtain more suggestive vision concerning the influence exerted by the considered input variables on the size of the machinability indexes.

  8. Metal release from coffee machines and electric kettles.

    PubMed

    Müller, Frederic D; Hackethal, Christin; Schmidt, Roman; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The release of elemental ions from 8 coffee machines and 11 electric kettles into food simulants was investigated. Three different types of coffee machines were tested: portafilter espresso machines, pod machines and capsule machines. All machines were tested subsequently on 3 days before and on 3 days after decalcification. Decalcification of the machines was performed with agents according to procedures as specified in the respective manufacturer's manuals. The electric kettles showed only a low release of the elements analysed. For the coffee machines decreasing concentrations of elements were found from the first to the last sample taken in the course of 1 day. Metal release on consecutive days showed a decreasing trend as well. After decalcification a large increase in the amounts of elements released was encountered. In addition, the different machine types investigated clearly differed in their extent of element release. By far the highest leaching, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was found for the portafilter machines. With these products releases of Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr and Zn were in the range and beyond the release limits as proposed by the Council of Europe. Therefore, a careful rinsing routine, especially after decalcification, is recommended for these machines. The comparably lower extent of release of one particular portafilter machine demonstrates that metal release at levels above the threshold that triggers health concerns are technically avoidable. PMID:26436214

  9. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  10. JBK-75 stainless steel machinability study

    SciTech Connect

    McManigle, A.P.; Simonis, A.W.

    1993-09-02

    The study on forgings characterized machinability of the material by varying cutting speeds and feedrates utilizing four tools for the roughing operation and four tools for the semi-finish operation. Tools tested were obtained from four manufacturers. Twelve parts were machined utilizing an experimental design to determine all possible interactions between cutting speeds and feedrates. To evaluate the machinability of the material, quantitative measures in tool life, tool wear, surface finish, chip control, and material removal rates were analyzed. Benefits gained from this study are: higher material removal rates, longer tool life, minimal tool wear, improved chip control and reliability, increased productivity, and cost minimization.

  11. Vibration absorber modeling for handheld machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Azman; Mustafa, Mohd Muhyiddin; Jamil, Jazli Firdaus; Salim, Mohd Azli; Ramli, Faiz Redza

    2015-05-01

    Handheld machine tools produce continuous vibration to the users during operation. This vibration causes harmful effects to the health of users for repeated operations in a long period of time. In this paper, a dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) is designed and modeled to reduce the vibration generated by the handheld machine tool. Several designs and models of vibration absorbers with various stiffness properties are simulated, tested and optimized in order to diminish the vibration. Ordinary differential equation is used to derive and formulate the vibration phenomena in the machine tool with and without the DVA. The final transfer function of the DVA is later analyzed using commercial available mathematical software. The DVA with optimum properties of mass and stiffness is developed and applied on the actual handheld machine tool. The performance of the DVA is experimentally tested and validated by the final result of vibration reduction.

  12. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  13. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  14. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  15. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  16. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  17. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  18. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  19. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  20. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  1. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  3. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining. PMID:22802498

  4. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  5. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  6. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  7. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  8. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

  9. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  10. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.