Sample records for h2 partial pressures

  1. The electrochemical behaviour of 316L austenitic stainless steel in Cl- containing environment under different H2S partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jinhui; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Minxu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zhibin; Hao, Wenhui

    2014-01-01

    In oil-gas production environments, presence of H2S-Cl- can induce deterioration of the passive film, leading to pitting corrosion of stainless steels. In this paper, by using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and capacitance measurements (Mott-Schottky analysis), the electrochemical behaviour of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel was investigated in Cl- solutions under different H2S partial pressures (from 0 to 1.0 bar). The results indicated that presence of H2S in Cl- solution can accelerate both the cathodic and anodic current density, leading to a metastable passive state in higher passive potential range, changing the semiconductor behaviour from p-type to n-type, increasing its susceptibility to corrosion. XPS analysis was employed to characterize the surface film after potentiostatic polarization, whose results provide good evidences for the electrochemical measurements.

  2. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  3. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  4. Pressure-induced metallization of dense (H2S)2H2 with high-Tc superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Defang; Liu, Yunxian; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Huang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Zhonglong; Yu, Hongyu; Liu, Bingbing; Tian, Wenjing; Cui, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The high pressure structures, metallization, and superconductivity of recently synthesized H2-containing compounds (H2S)2H2 are elucidated by ab initio calculations. The ordered crystal structure with P1 symmetry is determined, supported by the good agreement between theoretical and experimental X-ray diffraction data, equation of states, and Raman spectra. The Cccm structure is favorable with partial hydrogen bond symmetrization above 37?GPa. Upon further compression, H2 molecules disappear and two intriguing metallic structures with R3m and Im-3m symmetries are reconstructive above 111 and 180?GPa, respectively. The predicted metallization pressure is 111?GPa, which is approximately one-third of the currently suggested metallization pressure of bulk molecular hydrogen. Application of the Allen-Dynes-modified McMillan equation for the Im-3m structure yields high Tc values of 191?K to 204?K at 200?GPa, which is among the highest values reported for H2-rich van der Waals compounds and MH3 type hydride thus far. PMID:25382349

  5. Melting Temperature and Partial Melt Chemistry of H2O-Saturated Mantle Peridotite to 11 Gigapascals

    PubMed

    Kawamoto; Holloway

    1997-04-11

    The H2O-saturated solidus of a model mantle composition (Kilborne Hole peridotite nodule, KLB-1) was determined to be just above 1000°C from 5 to 11 gigapascals. Given reasonable H2O abundances in Earth's mantle, an H2O-rich fluid could exist only in a region defined by the wet solidus and thermal stability limits of hydrous minerals, at depths between 90 and 330 kilometers. The experimental partial melts monotonously became more mafic with increasing pressure from andesitic composition at 1 gigapascal to more mafic than the starting peridotite at 10 gigapascals. Because the chemistry of the experimental partial melts is similar to that of kimberlites, it is suggested that kimberlites may be derived by low-temperature melting of an H2O-rich mantle at depths of 150 to 300 kilometers. PMID:9092469

  6. Copper extraction from white metal by pressure leaching in H 2SO 4–FeSO 4–O 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Ruiz; E. Gallardo; R. Padilla

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, pressure leaching experiments were carried out in H2SO4–FeSO4–O2 and H2SO4–O2 media to clarify the role of iron in the leaching of white metal produced in a Teniente Converter reactor. The dissolution rate of copper was studied in the range of 80 to 150°C, using oxygen partial pressure from 203 to 1013kPa. The results on the dissolution of

  7. Vapour pressures of H2SO4\\/HNO3\\/HCI\\/HBr\\/H2O solutions to low stratospheric temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beiping Luo; Kenneth S. Carslaw; Thomas Peter; Simon L. Clegg

    1995-01-01

    Vapor pressures of H2O, HNO3, HCl and HBr over supercooled aqueous mixtures with sulfuric acid have been calculated using an activity coefficient model, for 185 K less than T less than 235 K, 0 less than wt% (H2SO4) + wt% (HNO3) less than 70, and assuming HCl and HBr to be minor constituents. Predicted vapor pressures agree well with most

  8. Partial pressure analysis of plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.

    1984-11-01

    The application of partial pressure analysis for plasma diagnostic measurements is reviewed. A comparison is made between the techniques of plasma flux analysis and partial pressure analysis for mass spectrometry of plasmas. Emphasis is given to the application of quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS). The interface problems associated with the coupling of a QMS to a plasma device are discussed including: differential-pumping requirements, electromagnetic interferences from the plasma environment, the detection of surface-active species, ion source interactions, and calibration procedures. Example measurements are presented from process monitoring of glow discharge plasmas which are useful for cleaning and conditioning vacuum vessels.

  9. Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,

    E-print Network

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE

  10. The effect of H2O on partial melting of garnet peridotite at 3.5 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, Travis J.; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Humayun, Munir

    2012-03-01

    We present experimental determinations of the influence of H2O on partial melting of garnet peridotite (+1.5, 2.5, and 5 wt. % added H2O) at 3.5 GPa and 1200-1450°C. Experiments produced complex polyphase regions of quenched melt and equilibrium partial melt compositions were reconstructed by combined EMP and LA-ICP-MS analyses. Mass balance-derived melt fractions (F) range from 0.18 to 0.33 and dissolved water contents range from 4.5 to 23.5 wt. %. One exceptional experiment quenched glass, allowing independent verification of H2O concentration by FTIR. The influence of H2O on melt production is quantified by the temperature difference required to achieve a given F under dry and wet conditions, ?T, which is controlled by the H2O concentration in partial melts. Melts with 1.5, 5, 10, and 15 wt. % H2O yield ?T values of 50, 150, 250, and 320°C, respectively, consistent with a cryoscopic parameterization that assumes 3 oxygens per mole of silicate melt. Based on this parameterization, we calculate that beneath oceanic ridges, peridotite H2O storage capacity increases from 0 to 240 ppm from 66 to 110 km depth. For H2O to be solely responsible for melting in the oceanic low velocity zone (LVZ) at least 5.7 wt. % H2O must be dissolved in the melt at 110 km, and considerably more (e.g., 15 wt.% at 220 km) is required for melting throughout the entire observed interval. The addition of H2O results in 3.5 GPa partial melts of garnet peridotite (normalized anhydrous) that are SiO2 and Al2O3 poor (43-50 and 9-11.5 wt. %, respectively), and MgO and CaO rich (18-27 and 7-12 wt. %, respectively) when compared to anhydrous analogues. These effects become highly pronounced deep in the upper mantle, and are opposite to the effect of H2O on melt compositions in the spinel stability field, potentially owing in part to OH-association with network modifying cations in high pressure, depolymerized melts and in part to low-temperature stabilization of garnet, which enhances CaO/Al2O3.

  11. Vapour pressures of H2SO4/HNO3/HCI/HBr/H2O solutions to low stratospheric temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, B.; Carslaw, K.S.; Peter, T.; Clegg, S.L. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); [Univ. of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    Vapor pressures of H2O, HNO3, HCl and HBr over supercooled aqueous mixtures with sulfuric acid have been calculated using an activity coefficient model, for 185 K less than T less than 235 K, 0 less than wt% (H2SO4) + wt% (HNO3) less than 70, and assuming HCl and HBr to be minor constituents. Predicted vapor pressures agree well with most laboratory data, and give confidence in the validity of the model. The results are parameterized as simple formulae, which reproduce the model results to within 40% and cover the entire stratospherically relevant range of composition and temperature.

  12. Maximizing H 2 production by combined partial oxidation of CH 4 and water gas shift reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Maiya; T. J. Anderson; R. L. Mieville; J. T. Dusek; J. J. Picciolo; U. Balachandran

    2000-01-01

    A dense ceramic membrane reactor has been constructed to exclusively transport oxygen for the partial oxidation of methane (CH4) to syngas (a mixture of CO and H2) at temperatures of 850–900°C. H2 production is enhanced in a second catalytic reactor through the water gas shift reaction, in which the CO reacts with steam that is injected into the reactor at

  13. Energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure rovibrationally excited molecular H2

    E-print Network

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    Energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure rovibrationally excited molecular H2 David J. Saiki 2005; published online 14 September 2005 The energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure molecular H2 gas, vibrational energy-transfer studies at high pressure typically assume that the rotational levels have achieved

  14. Partial covering of the emission regions of Q 0528-250 by intervening H2 clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Balashev, S. A.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Ledoux, C.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Varshalovich, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the molecular hydrogen absorption system at zabs = 2.811 in the spectrum of the blazar Q 0528-250. We demonstrate that the molecular cloud does not cover the background source completely. The partial coverage reveals itself as a residual flux at the bottom of the saturated H2 absorption lines. This amounts to about (2.22 ± 0.54) per cent of the continuum and does not depend on the wavelength. This value is small and it explains why this effect has not been detected in previous studies of this quasar spectrum. However, it is robustly detected and is significantly higher than the zero-flux level at the bottom of the saturated lines of the Ly? forest, (-0.21 ± 0.22) per cent. The presence of the residual flux could be caused by unresolved quasar multicomponents, by light scattered by dust and/or by jet-cloud interaction. The H2 absorption system is very well described by a two-component model without the inclusion of additional components when we take partial coverage into account. The derived total column densities in the H2 absorption components A and B are log N(H2)(cm-2) = 18.10 ± 0.02 and 17.82 ± 0.02, respectively. HD molecules are present only in component B. Given the column density, log N(HD) = 13.33 ± 0.02, we find N(HD)/2N(H2) = (1.48 ± 0.10) × 10- 5, significantly lower than previous estimations. We argue that it is crucial to take into account the partial coverage effects in any analysis of H2 bearing absorption systems, in particular when studying the physical state of the high-redshift interstellar medium.

  15. Brillouin scattering of H2O ice to megabar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Ahart, Muhtar; Somayazulu, Maddury; Gramsch, Stephen A.; Boehler, Reinhard; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2011-01-01

    The sound velocity in polycrystalline ice was measured as a function of pressure at room temperature to 100 GPa, through the phase field of ice VII and crossing the ice X transition, by Brillouin scattering in order to examine the elasticity, compression mechanism, and structural transitions in this pressure range. In particular, we focused on previously proposed phase transitions below 60 GPa. Throughout this pressure range, we find no evidence for anomalous changes in compressibility, and the sound velocities and elastic moduli do not exhibit measurable discontinuous shifts with pressure. Subtle changes in the pressure dependence of the bulk modulus at intermediate pressures can be attributed to high shear stresses at these compressions. The C{sub 11} and C{sub 12} moduli are consistent with previously reported results to 40 GPa and increase monotonically at higher pressures.

  16. H2SO4 vapor pressure of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Marti; Anne Jefferson; Xiao Ping Cai; Chad Richert; Peter H. McMurry; Fred Eisele

    1997-01-01

    Few measurements of H2SO4 vapor pressure have been made for sulfuric acid in the temperature and concentration ranges of atmospheric interest because of the very low pressures involved (below 10-4Pa, or 10-6torr); no such measurements appear to have been made for sulfuric acid solutions neutralized with ammonia. This work presents measurements of H2SO4 vapor pressure for aqueous sulfuric acid solutions

  17. Solubility of H2O in rhyolitic melts at low pressures and a new empirical model for mixed H2OCO2 solubility in rhyolitic melts

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Youxue

    Solubility of H2O in rhyolitic melts at low pressures and a new empirical model for mixed H2O­CO2 solubility in rhyolitic melts Yang Liua,T, Youxue Zhanga , Harald Behrensb a Department of Geological Experiments of H2O solubility in synthetic haplogranitic and natural rhyolitic melts were conducted at 700

  18. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Nanosized MgH2-0.1TiH2 Prepared by Ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure Milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2010-07-29

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) is an attractive candidate for solid state hydrogen storage applications. To improve the kinetics and thermodynamic properties of MgH2 during dehydrogenation-rehydrogenation cycles, a nano-structured MgH2-0.1TiH2 material system prepared by ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure mechanical milling was investigated. High-resolution TEM and scanning TEM analysis showed that the grain size of the milled MgH2-0.1TiH2 powder is approximately 5-10 nm with uniform distributions of TiH2 among MgH2 particles. Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) analysis demonstrated that both the nanosize and the addition of TiH2 contributed to the significant improvement of the kinetics of dehydrogenation and hydrogenation compared to commercial MgH2. More importantly, PCT cycle analysis demonstrated that the MgH2-0.1TiH2 material system showed excellent cycle stability which is attributed to the inhibition of coarsening by TiH2. The results also showed that the ?H value for the dehydrogenation of nanostructured MgH2-0.1TiH2 is significantly lower than that of commercial MgH2. However, the ?S value of the reaction was also lower which results in minimum net effects of the nanosize and the addition of TiH2 on the equilibrium pressure of dehydrogenation reaction of MgH2.

  19. Advanced High Pressure O2/H2 Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morea, S. F. (editor); Wu, S. T. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    Activities in the development of advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen stage combustion rocket engines are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the Space Shuttle main engine. The areas of engine technology discussed include fracture and fatigue in engine components, manufacturing and producibility engineering, materials, bearing technology, structure dynamics, fluid dynamics, and instrumentation technology.

  20. Structural stability and pressure-induced phase transitions in MgH2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Vajeeston; P. Ravindran; B. C. Hauback; H. Fjellvåg; A. Kjekshus; S. Furuseth; M. Hanfland

    2006-01-01

    The structural stability of MgH2 has been studied up to 16GPa using a high-pressure synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. Several pressure-induced phase transitions have been identified in this pressure range. Owing to the close structural similarity between the alpha and gamma modifications the high-pressure gamma form can be stabilized as a metastable phase after pressure release. The experimentally observed structural transition

  1. The Role of Pressure in GMC Formation II: The H_2 - Pressure Relation

    E-print Network

    Leo Blitz; Erik Rosolowsky

    2006-05-01

    We show that the ratio of molecular to atomic gas in galaxies is determined by hydrostatic pressure and that the relation between the two is nearly linear. The pressure relation is shown to be good over three orders of magnitude for 14 galaxies including dwarfs, HI-rich, and H_2-rich galaxies as well as the Milky Way. The sample spans a factor of five in mean metallicity. The rms scatter of individual points of the relation is only about a factor of two for all the galaxies, though some show much more scatter than others. Using these results, we propose a modified star formation prescription based on pressure determining the degree to which the ISM is molecular. The formulation is different in high and low pressure regimes defined by whether the gas is primarily atomic or primarily molecular. This formulation can be implemented in simulations and provides a more appropriate treatment of the outer regions of spiral galaxies and molecule-poor systems such as dwarf irregulars and damped Lyman-alpha systems.

  2. Ru(EDTA) mediated partial reduction of O2 by H2S.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debabrata; Jaiswal, Namita; Sarkar, Papiya

    2015-04-01

    An effective procedure for selective reduction of O2 to H2O2 exploring the use of hydrogen sulfide, an obnoxious industrial pollutant as reductant is reported herein. The reduction of [Ru(III)(EDTA)pz](-) (EDTA(4-) = ethylenediaminetetraacetate; pz = pyrazine) by hydrogen sulfide resulting in the formation of a red [Ru(II)(EDTA)pz](2-) complex (?max = 462 nm) has been studied spectrophotometrically and kinetically using both rapid scan and stopped-flow techniques. The time course of the reaction was followed as a function of [HS(-)]i, pH (5.5-8.5), and temperature. Alkali metal ions were found to have a positive influence (K(+) > Na(+) > Li(+)) on the reaction rate. Kinetic data and activation parameters are interpreted in terms of a mechanism (admittedly speculative) involving outer-sphere electron transfer between the reaction partners. Reaction of the red [Ru(II)(EDTA)pz](2-) complex with molecular oxygen regenerates the [Ru(III)(EDTA)pz](-) species in the reacting system along with the formation of H2O2, a partially reduced product of dioxygen (O2) reduction. A detailed reaction mechanism in agreement with the spectral and kinetic data is presented. PMID:25811914

  3. Ab initio calculations for high-pressure phases of Ar(H2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Naoki; Nagara, Hitose

    2007-09-01

    High-pressure structures of Ar(H2)2 are studied with possible molecular dissociation and metallization using density functional theory in the local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the exchange-correlation energy. We have estimated the transition pressure from the low-pressure MgZn2-type structure to the high-pressure AlB2-type structure to be around 240 GPa. The band gap of the MgZn2-type structure does not close, while the band gap of the AlB2 closes at 420 GPa, which is much higher than the pressure of the band gap closure in pure hydrogen obtained by the same GGA. The lattice vibrations in those structures are also studied. The frequencies of the vibronic motions show good agreement with experiments. The molecular dissociation of the hydrogen in Ar(H2)2 occurs at higher pressures than in pure hydrogen.

  4. A System for Incubations at High Gas Partial Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1?MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60?MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid–gas–rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O–CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5?MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample. PMID:22347218

  5. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1?MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60?MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H(2)O as well as a H(2)O-CO(2) mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5?MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample. PMID:22347218

  6. High pressure Raman spectroscopy of H2O-CH3OH mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chien, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-02-01

    Complex intra-molecular interactions and the hydrogen-bonding network in H2O-volatile mixtures play critical roles in many dynamics processes in physical chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary sciences. We used high pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the pressure evolution of vibrational frequencies and bonding behavior in H2O-CH3OH mixtures. We found that the presence of low CH3OH content in H2O increases the transition pressure where water crystallizes to ice VI, but does not significantly change the pressure where ice VI transforms to ice VII. Furthermore, the stiffening rates of C-H stretching frequencies d?/dP in CH3OH significantly decrease upon the crystallization of water, and the softening rates of the O-H stretching frequencies of ice VII are suppressed over a narrow pressure range, after which the frequencies of these modes shift with pressure in ways similar to pure CH3OH and ice VII, respectively. Such complex pressure evolution of Raman frequencies along with pronounced variations in Raman intensities of CH3OH within the sample, and the hysteresis of the water-ice VI phase transition suggest pressure-induced segregation of low content CH3OH from ice VII. These findings indicate the significant influence of volatiles on the crystallization of sub-surface ocean and thermal evolution within large icy planets and satellites.

  7. High pressure Raman spectroscopy of H2O-CH3OH mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chien, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Complex intra-molecular interactions and the hydrogen-bonding network in H2O-volatile mixtures play critical roles in many dynamics processes in physical chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary sciences. We used high pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the pressure evolution of vibrational frequencies and bonding behavior in H2O-CH3OH mixtures. We found that the presence of low CH3OH content in H2O increases the transition pressure where water crystallizes to ice VI, but does not significantly change the pressure where ice VI transforms to ice VII. Furthermore, the stiffening rates of C-H stretching frequencies d?/dP in CH3OH significantly decrease upon the crystallization of water, and the softening rates of the O-H stretching frequencies of ice VII are suppressed over a narrow pressure range, after which the frequencies of these modes shift with pressure in ways similar to pure CH3OH and ice VII, respectively. Such complex pressure evolution of Raman frequencies along with pronounced variations in Raman intensities of CH3OH within the sample, and the hysteresis of the water-ice VI phase transition suggest pressure-induced segregation of low content CH3OH from ice VII. These findings indicate the significant influence of volatiles on the crystallization of sub-surface ocean and thermal evolution within large icy planets and satellites. PMID:25704667

  8. H2O diffusion models in rhyolitic melt with new high pressure data Huaiwei Ni, Youxue Zhang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Youxue

    H2O diffusion models in rhyolitic melt with new high pressure data Huaiwei Ni, Youxue Zhang in silicate melts, especially rhyolitic melt. However, the pressure dependence of H2O diffusion is not constrained satisfactorily. We investigated H2O diffusion in rhyolitic melt at 0.95­1.9 GPa and 407­1629 °C

  9. Rotational quenching of H2CO by molecular hydrogen: cross-sections, rates and pressure broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesenfeld, L.; Faure, A.

    2013-07-01

    We compute the rotational quenching rates of the first 81 rotational levels of ortho- and para-H2CO in collision with ortho- and para-H2, for a temperature range of 10-300 K. We make use of the quantum close-coupling and coupled-state scattering methods combined with the high accuracy potential energy surface of Troscompt et al. Rates are significantly different from the scaled rates of H2CO in collision with He; consequently, critical densities are notably lower. We compare a full close-coupling computation of pressure broadening cross-sections with experimental data and show that our results are compatible with the low-temperature measurements of Mengel & De Lucia, for a spin temperature of H2 around 50 K.

  10. The solubility of gold in H 2O–H 2S vapour at elevated temperature and pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Yu. Zezin; Artashes A. Migdisov; Anthony E. Williams-Jones

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study sheds light on the complexation of gold in reduced sulphur-bearing vapour, specifically, in H2O–H2S gas mixtures. The solubility of gold was determined in experiments at temperatures of 300, 350 and 365°C and reached 2.2, 6.6 and 6.3?g\\/kg, respectively. The density of the vapour varied from 0.02 to 0.22g\\/cm3, the mole fraction of H2S varied from 0.03 to

  11. Mineral stability in the presence of H2O fluid at high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakapenka, V.

    2013-12-01

    Detail knowledge of the fundamental processes of phase transition and chemistry of minerals at high pressure and temperature in the presence of volatile fluids is one of the key factors in understanding the complexity of the planet interiors, its heterogeneous structure and dynamics. Pressure effects on the mechanism of phase transition, chemistry, crystal growth, melting phenomena and structure of the multi-component phases constituting the terrestrial and giant planets can be effectively studied with state-of-the-art technologies available at 3rd generation synchrotrons. In this work, we report the application of advanced, flat top laser heating technique combined with high resolution micro x-ray diffraction recently developed at GSECARS (APS, Argonne, USA) for in-situ high pressure/temperature studies of minerals in a diamond anvil cell. We were able to perform on-line melting experiments in the Mbar pressure range for the H2O sample surrounded by various minerals. Phase transition of MgO in the presence of H2O fluid was observed above 30 GPa and temperatures above 2000 K while SiO2 phases where stable within studied pressure-temperature range. The experimental details and results of structural stability of MgO, SiO2 , MgSiO3 and C in the presence of molten H2O at pressures up to 150 GPa and implications of these results for understanding the composition and structure of the planet interiors will be discussed.

  12. Mechanism of H2O insertion and chemical bond formation in AlPO(4)-54·xH2O at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Alabarse, Frederico G; Rouquette, Jérôme; Coasne, Benoît; Haidoux, Abel; Paulmann, Carsten; Cambon, Olivier; Haines, Julien

    2015-01-21

    The insertion of H2O in AlPO4-54·xH2O at high pressure was investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Monte Carlo molecular simulation. H2O molecules are concentrated, in particular, near the pore walls. Upon insertion, the additional water is highly disordered. Insertion of H2O (superhydration) is found to impede pore collapse in the material, thereby strongly modifying its mechanical behavior. However, instead of stabilizing the structure with respect to amorphization, the results provide evidence for the early stages of chemical bond formation between H2O molecules and tetrahedrally coordinated aluminum, which is at the origin of the amorphization/reaction process. PMID:25564928

  13. Gibbs free energy of reactions involving SiC, Si3N4, H2, and H2O as a function of temperature and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isham, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon carbide and silicon nitride are considered for application as structural materials and coating in advanced propulsion systems including nuclear thermal. Three-dimensional Gibbs free energy were constructed for reactions involving these materials in H2 and H2/H2O. Free energy plots are functions of temperature and pressure. Calculations used the definition of Gibbs free energy where the spontaneity of reactions is calculated as a function of temperature and pressure. Silicon carbide decomposes to Si and CH4 in pure H2 and forms a SiO2 scale in a wet atmosphere. Silicon nitride remains stable under all conditions. There was no apparent difference in reaction thermodynamics between ideal and Van der Waals treatment of gaseous species.

  14. Superconductivity in GeH4(H2)2 above 220 GPa high-pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Guohua; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Guangfen; Song, Jianjun; Liu, Zhuang; Yang, Chunlei

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen-rich materials have fascinating physical and chemical properties such as various structures and superconductivity under high-pressure. They are believed as an alternative approach to realize the hydrogen superconducting. In the previous report ([17] Zhong et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 116 (2012) 5225), we had presented structural phase-transitions and bonding interaction variations induced by pressure, and predicted a stable and superconductive phase above 220 GPa, P21/c. In this study, we focus on the change of superconducting transition temperature induced by pressure above 220 GPa for GeH4(H2)2. The variations of bond lengths, electronic structures, phonon spectra, and electron-phonon interaction with the increases of pressure are investigated. We find that the superconducting transition temperature monotonously decreases with the increase of pressure from 230 to 350 GPa. The origin is mainly the stiff of phonon frequency induced by pressurization.

  15. In situ observations of a high-pressure phase of H2O ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Blank, J.G.; Goncharov, A.F.; Mao, H.-K.; Hemley, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A previously unknown solid phase of H2O has been identified by its peculiar growth patterns, distinct pressure-temperature melting relations, and vibrational Raman spectra. Morphologies of ice crystals and their pressure-temperature melting relations were directly observed in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell for H2O bulk densities between 1203 and 1257 kilograms per cubic meter at temperatures between -10??and 50??C. Under these conditions, four different ice forms were observed to melt: two stable phases, ice V and ice VI, and two metastable phases, ice IV and the new ice phase. The Raman spectra and crystal morphology are consistent with a disordered anisotropic structure with some similarities to ice VI.

  16. Application of Sn-activated carbon in pressure swing adsorption for purification of H 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E Iyuke; W. R. W Daud; A. B Mohamad; A. A. H Kadhum; Z Fisal; A. M Shariff

    2000-01-01

    Sn-activated carbon (Sn–AC) in pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system has been successfully used in the purification of hydrogen for PEM fuel cell application. Activated carbon was impregnated with 34.57% SnCl2.2H2O salt and then dried at 180°C to produce AC–SnO2 to improve its adsorptive interaction with CO. The amount of CO adsorbed was almost equal to that desorbed which could imply

  17. Pressure dependence of high temperature phase transitions in solid CsH2PO4 and RbH2PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, B.; Friesel, M.; Lundén, A.

    1988-02-01

    Temperatures and enthalpies of phase transitions have been determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for CsH2PO4 and RbH2PO4 in the pressure range up to 1 GPa and 0.75 GPa, respectively. For temperatures between ambient and 400 K the cesium salt has two monoclinic phases at normal pressure, while the rubidium salt has one tetragonal and two monoclinic phases. For both salts the transition between monoclinic phases is reversible, although very sluggish for cooling. Adsorbed water has an influence on the reversibility of the transition between tetragonal and monoclinic RbH2PO4. For CsH2PO4 the transition temperature is 380 ± 2 K at normal pressure and about 440 K at 1 GPa, and the transition enthalpy decreases when the pressure is increased. For RbH2PO4 the temperature of the structural transition increases from 352 ± 3 K at normal pressure to about 370 K at 0.75 GPa, while the enthalpy decreases. The transition between monoclinic phases (380 ± 3 K at normal pressure) appears to have a tricritical point at about 0.15 GPa and 374 K, where, the enthalpy approaches zero while the gradient dT/dp has a sharp change. An alternative interpretation would be a triple point, but this is excluded since no evidence of a similar behaviour is noticed for the transition line of the lower transition. A brief comparison is made of the results for the two dihydrogen phosphates with what is reported in the literature concerning RbD2PO4.

  18. High-pressure phase transition and metallization in Ar(H2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yansun; Klug, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    The high-pressure phase transition and the metallization of Ar(H2)2 are investigated using first-principles methods. A phase transition from the experimentally observed MgZn2 structure to a CeCu2-type structure is predicted near 66 GPa. This phase transition provides a possible explanation for the disappearance of the Raman active vibron mode in experiment between 55 and 70 GPa. The metallization of the CeCu2 structure is promoted by the intermolecular interactions among H2 molecules, but hindered by the modulation of Ar atoms. The competition between these two mechanisms implies that the pressure for metallization in Ar(H2)2 is higher than that suggested for pure hydrogen. This prediction is a result of an examination of a previous proposal that hydrogen could metallize at much lower pressure by mixing with Ar, and provides insight for future studies on metallization of hydrogen through the use of hydrogen-rich mixtures.

  19. Melting phase relations in the system H2O - NH3 at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, E.; Hirose, K.; Komabayashi, T.; Ohishi, Y.; Hirao, N.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The density models of Uranus and Neptune constrained by their gravitational moments from Voyager mission suggest that mantles of these planets may be predominantly comprised of water (H2O), methane (CH4), and ammonia (NH3). The impurities in pure water would greatly influence the phase relations in the water-rich system expected in the icy mantle, which must be known to construct a plausible planetary model. One of important effects of the impurity is on the liquidus temperature (Tliq), since it decides the actual presence of solid phase within the icy mantle. In order to determine Tliq in H2O-rich region of the H2O - CH4 - NH3 ternary system, the melting phase relations in the H2O - CH4 and H2O - NH3 systems must be accurately known. However, previous melting experiments on each binary system were limited to several gigapascals, thus need to be explored to higher P-T conditions for application in interiors of Uranus and Neptune. We have investigated high-pressure (P) and -temperature (T) melting phase relations in the H2O - NH3 system based on a combination of visual observation and angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements at BL10XU, SPring-8. High-P-T conditions were generated in an externally-resistive heated diamond anvil cell (DAC). Starting material was 20wt% NH3 aqueous solution whose composition was checked via Tliq of the solution measured in a DAC at near atmospheric pressure. The aqueous solution was loaded into a gold-lined hole in a preindented rhenium gasket in order to insulate the sample from rhenium. Pressure was determined from the unit-cell volume of gold liner. Melting and freezing of the sample were detected by monitoring disappearance/appearance of diffraction peaks of solid and diffuse scattering of liquids, as well as observing melting/crystallization of crystal grains under microscope. Up to 20 GPa at room temperature, in addition to ice VII, diffraction peaks of bcc-like phase, which is most likely to be the reported phase VI of ammonia monohydrate (AMH VI), were observed, although the diffraction peaks were either too broad or too few to specify its structure. When temperature was raised until diffuse scattering appeared, the diffraction peaks of AMH VI disappeared, indicating ice VII is the liquidus phase. Newly obtained Tliq were higher than all the exiting melting curves of pure H2O determined in externally-heated DAC by 50 K at 15 GPa at minimum. This contradicts the previous reports that the H2O - NH3 system is eutectic, i.e. Tliq of our sample should be lower than the melting temperature of the H2O end member. We will discuss possible sources for this discrepancy. We also propose a new phase diagram of the system H2O - NH3 and possible implications for the structure of the icy planets.

  20. Hole superconductivity in H2S and other sulfides under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, J. E.; Marsiglio, F.

    2015-04-01

    Superconductivity at temperatures up to 190 K at high pressures has recently been observed in H2S and interpreted as conventional BCS-electron-phonon-driven superconductivity (Drozdov et al., 2014). Instead we propose that it is another example of the mechanism of hole superconductivity at work. Within this mechanism high temperature superconductivity arises when holes conduct through negatively charged anions in close proximity. We propose that electron transfer from H to S leads to conduction by holes in a nearly full band arising from direct overlap of S= p orbitals in a planar structure. The superconductivity is non-phononic and is driven by pairing of heavily dressed hole carriers to lower their kinetic energy. Possible explanations for the observed lower critical temperature of D2S are discussed. We predict that high temperature superconductivity will also be found in other sulfides under high pressure such as Li2S,Na2S and K2S .

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of high-pressure phase equilibria of CO2-H2O mixtures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2011-05-26

    Histogram-reweighting grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations were used to obtain the phase behavior of CO(2)-H(2)O mixtures over a broad temperature and pressure range (50 °C ? T ? 350 °C, 0 ? P ? 1000 bar). We performed a comprehensive test of several existing water (SPC, TIP4P, TIP4P2005, and exponential-6) and carbon dioxide (EPM2, TraPPE, and exponential-6) models using conventional Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules for the unlike-pair parameters. None of the models we studied reproduce adequately experimental data over the entire temperature and pressure range, but critical assessments were made on the range of T and P where particular model pairs perform better. Away from the critical region (T ? 250 °C), the exponential-6 model combination yields the best predictions for the CO(2)-rich phase, whereas the TraPPE/TIP4P2005 model combination provides the most accurate coexistence composition and pressure for the H(2)O-rich phase. Near the critical region (250 °C < T ? 350 °C), the critical points are not accurately estimated by any of the models studied, but the exponential-6 models are able to qualitatively capture the critical loci and the shape of the phase envelopes. Local improvements can be achieved at specific temperatures by introducing modification factors to the Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, but the modified combining rule is still not able to achieve global improvements over the entire temperature and pressure range. Our work points to the challenge and importance of improving current atomistic models so as to accurately predict the phase behavior of this important binary mixture. PMID:21528884

  2. Dehydrating a granulite: The behavior of H2O and CO2 during high-pressure metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Athabasca Granulite Terrane, in northern Saskatchewan, consists of isobaric assemblages of high-pressure, high-temperature metamorphic rocks. Within the terrane, is a suite of 2.6 Ga granitoids that were probably intruded into the deep crust and subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies (emplacement at >900° C and 1.0 GPa and metamorphism at 750° C and 1.0 GPa; Williams et al., 2000). The original mineral assemblage within these granites includes alkali feldspar + plagioclase + quartz × orthopyroxene. Several granulite facies metamorphic reactions, including what is locally termed the 'Mary' reaction (orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = garnet + clinopyroxene (× hornblende in more hydrous areas) + Na-plagioclase + quartz), are commonly preserved. Because the Mary reaction typically involves anhydrous mineral phases, studying the distribution of structural H2O and CO2 in the minerals involved in this reaction should reveal the partitioning behavior of these volatile phases during high-grade metamorphism. We used a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with a focal plane array detector to map volatile concentrations in several samples preserving the Mary reaction. Most of our samples contain pyroxene crystals that were partially hydrated to amphibole, but the other mineral phases involved in the reaction are generally pristine. Preliminary results show that CO2 and H2O behave differently during metamorphism. CO2 concentrations are generally low and homogenous within single mineral grains. However, maps of CO2 concentrations indicate that there is slightly more structural CO2 in product minerals (mostly in garnet, but also, in some samples, in quartz and Na-plagioclase mantles on Ca-rich plagioclase) than in reactant minerals. Water, however, is preferentially concentrated along grain boundaries and is zoned in primary, Ca-rich plagioclase and alkali feldspar, both of which commonly contain H2O-poor cores and H2O-rich rims. This zoning could arise from water migrating into or out of feldspars in response to deformation or could be a relict of igneous zoning. Although structural water is mostly absent from garnet crystals and Na-rich overgrowths on plagioclase, it appears to be concentrated in neoblastic quartz associated with garnet. In general, it appears that CO2 can partition into the products of granulite-facies metamorphic reactions (garnet, Na-rich plagioclase, and quartz), while structural water is either lost from reactant mineral phases or relegated to metamorphic quartz. Williams, M. L., Melis, E. A., Kopf, C. F. & Hammer, S. (2000). Microstructural tectonometamorphic processes and the development of gneissic layering: a mechanism for metamorphic segregation. J. Metamorphic Geol. 18, 41-57.

  3. Structure and Transport Properties of Hydrogen Filled Ices (H2O:1\\/6H2 and H2O:H2) at Pressures to 4 GPa by Solid State Diamond-Anvil-Cell NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Okuchi; M. Takigawa; J. Shu; H. Mao; R. J. Hemley; T. Yagi

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen filled ices are composed of H2O-ice lattice and hydrogen molecules intercalated to interstitial cavities of the lattice. They can accommodate large amount of hydrogen while keeping the host structure of ices (Vos et al., 1993). At room temperature, their stability field begins at 0.7 GPa and expands to at least 30 GPa. Their properties are important to understand evolution

  4. Elevated atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 and plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suan-Chin Wong

    1990-01-01

    Cotton plants were grown in late spring under full sunlight in glasshouses containing normal ambient partial pressure of CO2 (32±2Pa) and enriched partial pressure of CO2 (64±1.5Pa) and at four levels of nitrogen nutrition. Thirty-five days after planting, the total dry weights of high CO2-grown plants were 2- to 3.5-fold greater than plants grown in normal ambient CO2 partial pressure.

  5. Feature Article Negative pressure dependence of mass burning rates of H2/CO/O2/diluent flames

    E-print Network

    Ju, Yiguang

    Feature Article Negative pressure dependence of mass burning rates of H2/CO/O2/diluent flames negative pressure dependence of burning rate at high pres- sure, low flame temperature conditions for all Available online 8 October 2009 Keywords: Hydrogen Syngas Flame speed Burning velocity Negative reaction

  6. Partially reduced iridium oxide clusters dispersed on titania as efficient catalysts for facile synthesis of dimethylformamide from CO2, H2 and dimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Bi, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Jian-Dong; Liu, Yong-Mei; Xie, Song-Hai; He, He-Yong; Cao, Yong

    2014-08-21

    A novel bifunctional catalyst based on partially reduced iridium oxide supported on TiO2 was found to be exceedingly efficient for the organic-solvent-free synthesis of dimethylformamide from CO2, H2 and dimethylamine. PMID:24990297

  7. Measurement and Simulation of Spontaneous Raman Scattering Spectra in High-Pressure, Fuel-Rich H2-Air Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    Rotational vibrational spontaneous Raman spectra (SRS) of H2, N2, and H2O have been measured in H2-air flames at pressures up to 30 atm as a first stem towards establishing a comprehensive Raman spectral database for temperatures and species in high-pressure combustion. A newly developed high-pressure burner facility provides steady, reproducible flames with a high degree of flow precision. We have obtained an initial set of measurements that indicate the spectra are of sufficient quality in terms of spectral resolution, wavelength coverage, and signal-to-noise ratio for use in future reference standards. The fully resolved Stokes and anti-Stokes shifted SRS spectra were collected in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm) using pulse-stretched 532 nm excitation and a non-intensified CCD spectrograph with a high-speed shutter. Reasonable temperatures were determined via the intensity distribution of rotational H2 lines at stoichiometry and fuel-rich conditions. Theoretical Raman spectra of H2 were computed using a semi-classical harmonic-oscillator model with recent pressure broadening data and were compared with experimental results. The data and simulation indicated that high-J rotational lines of H2 might interfere with the N2 vibrational Q-branch lines, and this could lead to errors in N2-Raman thermometry based on the line-fitting method. From a comparison of N2 Q-branch spectra in lean H2 low-pressure (1.2 atm) and high-pressure (30 atm) flames, we found no significant line-narrowing or -broadening effects at the current spectrometer resolution of 0.04 nm.

  8. High-pressure investigations under CO/H2 of rhodium complexes containing hemispherical diphosphites.

    PubMed

    Sémeril, David; Matt, Dominique; Toupet, Loïc; Oberhauser, Werner; Bianchini, Claudio

    2010-12-10

    The two rhodium complexes [Rh(acac)(L(R))] (L(R)=(S,S)-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-di(OR)-26,28-bis(1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dioxyphosphanyloxy)calix[4]arene; 6: R=benzyl, 7: R=fluorenyl), each based on a hemispherical chelator forming a pocket about the metal centre upon chelation, are active in the hydroformylation of 1-octene and styrene. As expected for this family of diphosphanes, both complexes resulted in remarkably high selectivity towards the linear aldehyde in the hydroformylation of 1-octene (l/b?15 for both complexes). Linear aldehyde selectivity was also observed when using styrene, but surprisingly only 6 displayed a marked preference for the linear product (l/b=12.4 (6) vs. 1.9 (7)). A detailed study of the structure of the complexes under CO or CO/H(2) in toluene was performed by high-pressure NMR (HP NMR) and FT-IR (HP-IR) spectroscopies. The spectroscopic data revealed that treatment of 6 with CO gave [Rh(acac)(CO)(?(1)-L(benzyl))] (8), in which the diphosphite behaves as a unidentate ligand. Subsequent addition of H(2) to the solution resulted in a well-defined chelate complex with the formula [RhH(CO)(2)(L(benzyl))] (9). Unlike 6, treatment of complex 7 with CO only led to ligand dissociation and concomitant formation of [Rh(acac)(CO)(2)], but upon addition of H(2) a chelate complex analogous to 9 was formed quantitatively. In both [RhH(CO)(2)(L(R))] complexes the diphosphite adopts the bis-equatorial coordination mode, a structural feature known to favour the formation of linear aldehydes. As revealed by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, these complexes show the typical fluxionality of trigonal bipyramidal [RhH(CO)(2)(diphosphane)] complexes. The lower linear selectivity of 7 versus 6 in the hydroformylation of styrene was assigned to steric effects, due to the pocket in which the catalysis takes place being less adapted to accommodate CO or larger olefins and, therefore, possibly leading to facile ligand decoordination. This interpretation was corroborated by an X-ray structure determination carried out for 7. PMID:20957623

  9. Hydrogen CARS thermometry in a high-pressure H2–air flame. Test of H2 temperature accuracy and influence of line width by comparison with N2 CARS as reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hussong; R. Lückerath; W. Stricker; X. Bruet; P. Joubert; J. Bonamy; D. Robert

    2001-01-01

    .   This work describes a further step towards the determination of the temperature accuracy of H2 Q-branch CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering) at high pressure with regard to the influence of the H2 line widths. In laminar steady H2\\/air flames in the pressure range 1–15 bar and at fuel-rich conditions with stoichiometries between two and four, quasi-simultaneous\\u000a temperature measurements were performed

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Interference of Spontaneous Raman Scattering in High-Pressure Fuel-Rich H2-Air Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spectral interferences in the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra of major combustion products in 30-atm fuel-rich hydrogen-air flames. An effective methodology is introduced to choose an appropriate line-shape model for simulating Raman spectra in high-pressure combustion environments. The Voigt profile with the additive approximation assumption was found to provide a reasonable model of the spectral line shape for the present analysis. The rotational/vibrational Raman spectra of H2, N2, and H2O were calculated using an anharmonic-oscillator model using the latest collisional broadening coefficients. The calculated spectra were validated with data obtained in a 10-atm fuel-rich H2-air flame and showed excellent agreement. Our quantitative spectral analysis for equivalence ratios ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 revealed substantial amounts of spectral cross-talk between the rotational H2 lines and the N2 O-/Q-branch; and between the vibrational H2O(0,3) line and the vibrational H2O spectrum. We also address the temperature dependence of the spectral cross-talk and extend our analysis to include a cross-talk compensation technique that removes the nterference arising from the H2 Raman spectra onto the N2, or H2O spectra.

  11. Sensor for headspace pressure and H2O concentration measurements in closed vials by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tingdong; Wang, Guishi; Cao, Zhensong; Zhang, Weijun; Gao, Xiaoming

    2014-07-01

    The concentration of H2O and the pressure in the headspace of vials are simultaneously measured by a tunable diode laser sensor based on absorption spectroscopy techniques. The 7168.437 cm-1 spectral line of H2O is chosen as the sensing transition for its strong absorption strength and being reasonably far away from its neighboring molecular transitions. In order to prevent interference absorption by ambient water vapor in the room air, a difference between the measured signal and the referenced signal is used to calculate the pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials, eliminating the need for inert gas purges and calibration with known gas. The validation of the sensor is conducted in a static vial, yielding an accuracy of 1.23% for pressure and 3.81% for H2O concentration. The sensitivity of the sensor is estimated to be about 2.5 Torr for pressure and 400 ppm for H2O concentration over a 3 cm absorption path length respectively. Accurate measurements for commercial freeze-dried products demonstrate the in-line applications of the sensor for the pharmaceutical industry.

  12. Reaction pathways for bio-active species in a He/H2O atmospheric pressure capacitive discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Lieberman, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Helium/trace gas atmospheric pressure radio-frequency (rf) capacitive discharges have increasing biomedical applications. We have performed a principal pathway analysis for a chemically complex, bounded He/H2O atmospheric pressure, planar capacitive discharge, with a discharge gap of 0.5 mm and a power of 0.85 W cm?2 at 13.56 MHz (ne ? 1.6 × 1017 m?3). The discharge is embedded in a larger volume in which the H2O fraction is controlled to be 0.001. The generation and loss pathways for eleven species of interest for discharge maintenance and biomedical applications have been determined. The production and consumption pathways of He*, H2O, {{\\text{H}}11}\\text{O}5+ and electrons are found to be tightly coupled. The metastable He* generated by electron impact excitation of He is mostly consumed by Penning reactions with H2O, followed by subsequent three-body association reactions with H2O, to form the dominant positive ion, {{\\text{H}}11}\\text{O}5+ . The main loss pathways for {{\\text{H}}11}\\text{O}5+ are ion cluster fragmentations at the wall, which are important generation pathways for H2O. The generation and loss pathways for electrons are almost the same as for {{\\text{H}}11}\\text{O}5+ . OH and H2O2 generation and loss are strongly coupled, and they are important intermediate species in the generation pathways for the purely O-containing bio-active species: O2(a), O, O3 and O*. The generation and loss pathways for the latter four species were found to be strongly coupled by volume and surface processes, with O2 as an important precursor. The generation of O2 from H2O involves H2O2 as a key long-lived intermediate.

  13. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction Cl + C2H2 from 210-361 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the role of chlorine compounds in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. However, while some reactions have been studied extensively, the kinetic data for the reaction of Cl with C2H2 is sparse with only three known determinations of the rate constant k3. The reactions involved are Cl + C2H2 yields reversibly ClC2H2(asterisk) (3a) and ClC2H2(asterisk) + M yields ClC2H2 + M (3b). In the present study, flash photolysis coupled with chlorine atomic resonance fluorescence have been employed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of k3 with the third body M = Ar. Room temperature values are also reported for M = N2. The pressure dependence observed in the experiments confirms the expectation that the reaction involves addition of Cl to the unsaturated C2H2 molecule followed by collisional stabilization of the resulting adduct radical.

  14. Melting behavior of H2O at high pressures and temperatures Jung-Fu Lin,1

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    and synchrotron x-ray diffraction have been used to examine the phase diagram of H2O. A discontinuous change mantle above 60 GPa. The presence of solid H2O would result in a jump in the viscosity of the mid-lower mantle and provides an additional explanation for the observed higher viscosity of the mid-lower mantle

  15. The solubility of gold in H2OH2S vapour at elevated temperature and pressure

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    on the complexation of gold in reduced sulphur-bearing vapour, specifically, in H2O­ H2S gas mixtures. The solubility of reduced sulphur species to the transport of gold in aqueous vapour at temperatures up to 365 °C

  16. Water-Steel Canister Interaction and H2 Gas Pressure Buildup in aNuclear Waste Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Senger, Rainer; Finstele, Stefan

    2007-01-02

    Corrosion of steel canisters, stored in a repository forspent fuel and high-level waste, leads to hydrogen gas generation in thebackfilled emplacement tunnels, which may significantly affect long-termrepository safety. Previous modeling studies used a constant H2generation rate. However, iron corrosion and H2 generation rates varywith time, depending on factors such as water chemistry, wateravailability, and water contact area. To account for these factors andfeedback mechanisms, we developed a chemistry model related to ironcorrosion, coupled with two-phase (liquid and gas) flow phenomena thatare driven by gas pressure buildup and water consumption. Resultsindicate that if H2 generation rates are dynamically calculated based ona chemistry model, the degree and extent of gas pressure buildup are muchsmaller compared to a simulation in which the coupling between flow andreactive transport mechansism is neglected.

  17. Run to run control in tungsten chemical vapor deposition using H2 WF6 at low pressures

    E-print Network

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    through the use of the microbalance. A set of simulations in Matlab® preceded the control implementationRun to run control in tungsten chemical vapor deposition using H2 ÕWF6 at low pressures Ramaswamy Sreenivasan Institute for Systems Research and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Maryland

  18. The solubility of gold in H 2 OH 2 S vapour at elevated temperature and pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Yu. Zezin; Artashes A. Migdisov; Anthony E. Williams-Jones

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study sheds light on the complexation of gold in reduced sulphur-bearing vapour, specifically, in H 2 O-H 2 S gas mixtures. The solubility of gold was determined in experiments at temperatures of 300, 350 and 365 °C and reached 2.2, 6.6 and 6.3 mug\\/kg, respectively. The density of the vapour varied from 0.02 to 0.22 g\\/cm 3 ,

  19. A theoretical study of MgH2 ambient and high-pressure phases using NQCC parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Marjan A.

    2014-12-01

    Quadrupolar parameters of nuclei can be used as a tool to understand the electronic structure of the compounds. Magnesium hydride (MgH2) is a potential hydrogen storage material due to its outstanding hydrogen capacity, however, its high thermodynamic stability is unfavorable for dehydrogenation processes. Understanding the bonding nature of Mg and H is essential for improving its dehydrogenation performance. In this work the charge density distribution in MgH2 is studied. For this purpose, using calculated NQCCs of hydrogen atoms, the electronic structure of ?-MgH2 with several high pressure forms of MgH2 were compared. The results show that in the high pressure phases (?, ?, and ?) some hydrogens have very small NQCC and therefore these hydrogens form weaker bond with Mg. In other words, easier condition for dehydrogenation in pressure-induced forms is expected. The electric field gradient (EFG) at the site of quadrupolar nuclei were calculated to obtain NQCC parameters using Gaussian 03 at B3LYP/6-31G level of theory. The selected level and basis set give the rather acceptable qualitative NQCCs of hydrogen atoms.

  20. Elevated atmospheric partial pressure of CO 2 and plant growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Wong

    1979-01-01

    Cotton and maize plants were grown under full sunlight in glass houses containing normal ambient partial pressure of CO2 (330±20 µbar) and enriched partial pressure of CO2 (640 ±15 µbar) with four levels of nitrogen nutrient. In 40 day old cotton plants grown in high CO2, there was a 2-fold increase in day weight and a 1.6-fold increase in leaf

  1. Influence of under pressure dissolved oxygen on trichloroethylene degradation by the H2O2/TiO2 process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The widespread use of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its frequent release into the environment has caused many environmental and health problems. In this study the degradation of TCE at different micromolar concentrations was investigated in a stainless steel reactor with various concentrations of H2O2 and TiO2 at different oxygen pressures and three different pHs. Methods To examine the synergistic effect of under pressure oxygen on TCE degradation, the concentrations of H2O2 and TiO2 as well as pH were first optimized, and then the experiments were performed under optimal conditions. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (FID) was used to measure TCE concentrations. Results Results showed that the percentage of TCE degradation without pressurized oxygen was low and it increased with increasing pressure of oxygen at all initial concentrations of TCE. The degradation percentages without oxygen pressure were 48.27%, 51.22%, 58.13% and 64.33% for TCE concentrations of 3000, 1500, 300 and 150 ?g/L respectively. At an oxygen pressure of 2.5 atmospheres (atm) the percent degradation of TCE reached 84.85%, 89.14%, 93.13% and 94.99% respectively for the aforementioned TCE concentrations. Conclusions The results of this study show that the application of dissolved oxygen under pressure increases the efficiency of the H2O2/TiO2 process on the degradation of TCE and can be used along with other oxidants as an effective method for the removal of this compound from aqueous solutions. PMID:24359702

  2. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  6. Experimental Study of Dehydration and Partial Melting of Biotite-Amphibole Gneiss Under Influence of the H2O-CO2-(K, Na)cl Fluids at 5.5 Kbar and 750 and 800 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, O.; Kosova, S.

    2012-12-01

    Chloride-rich brines coexisting with CO2-rich fluids are an important agent of high-grade metamorphism and metasomatism in the lower to middle crust. Thermodynamic and transport properties of the chloride-rich fluids are well constrained both theoretically and experimentally. Nevertheless, their effects on complex natural assemblages are poorly understood and demand systematic experimental study. We report results of the experiments on interaction of the biotite-amphibole gneiss from the Sand River formation (Limpopo Complex, South Africa) with the H2O-CO2, H2O-CO2-KCl, H2O-CO2-NaCl, and H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids at 5.5 kbar, 750 and 800 C, the chloride/(H2O+CO2) ratio varying from 0 to 0.1, and molar CO2/(CO2+H2O) = 0.5. Experiments were carried out using internally-heated gas pressure vessel. Major purposes of the experiments were to trace changes in phase assemblages in dependence on temperature, salt concentration in a fluid, KCl/NaCl ratio and to show a possibility for partial melting. Heating of the gneiss both at 750 and 800 C without any fluid produced no visible changes in its phase assemblage. Interaction of the gneiss with the H2O-CO2 fluid at 750 C did not significantly influence on its phase assemblage, as well. Addition of KCl in the H2O-CO2 fluid at 750 C resulted in the formation of reaction textures consisting of clinopyroxene and K-feldspar around biotite and amphibole at the contacts with plagioclase. No evidence for partial melting was detected in the samples interacted with the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CO2-KCl fluids at 750 C. Addition of NaCl provokes melting with formation of trachytic and trachyandesitic melts along with the new assemblages Cpx+Kfs+Pl+Ti-Mt and Cpx+Amp+Pl+Ti-Mt. Characteristic of feature of amphiboles, forming in the NaCl-rich fluids is their elevated Na2O content. Products of the runs at 750 C do not contain orthopyroxene. This phase appears at 800 C as a result of biotite breakdown in presence of the H2O-CO2 fluid. It is accompanied by dacitic melt and Ti-magnetite. Newly formed assemblages regularly change with an increase of the KCl content in the fluid: Opx+Ti-Mt+melt, Opx+Amp+Ilm+Ti-Mt + melt, Opx+Cpx+Ilm+melt, Cpx+ Ilm+melt. In this sequence, the melt evolves toward potassic rhyolitic composition. Orthopyroxene appears in assemblage with sodic amphibole in equilibrium with NaCl-rich fluids, as well. Present experiments allow conclusion that the interaction of the biotite-amphibole gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids can be accompanied by a partial melting at 750-800 C. Melting progress is vitally depends on the NaCl/KCl ratio in a fluid. NaCl intensifies melting because of higher solubility of Cl and CO2 in the sodic melts in comparison to the potassic varieties. Charnockitic and mangeritic assemblages (Opx+Cpx+Kfs+Pl) form in presence of the partial melts at temperature 800 C and are stable in presence of KCl-bearing fluids with relatively low salt concentrations (H2O/(KCl+H2O) < 0.015). Fluids of higher salinity result in formation syenitic and monzonitic assemblages (Cpx+Amp+Kfs+Pl). Applicability of the experimental data is demonstrated by mineral assemblages of local-scale dehydration zones in the high-grade terrains.

  7. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet utilizing Ar and Ar/H2O mixtures and its applications to bacteria inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Shen, Jie; Xiao, De-Zhi; Xie, Hong-Bing; Lan, Yan; Fang, Shi-Dong; Meng, Yue-Dong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated with Ar with H2O vapor is characterized and applied to inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores. The emission spectra obtained from Ar/H2O plasma shows a higher intensity of OH radicals compared to pure argon at a specified H2O concentration. The gas temperature is estimated by comparing the simulated spectra of the OH band with experimental spectra. The excitation electron temperature is determined from the Boltzmann's plots and Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H? line is applied to measure the electron density. The gas temperature, excitation electron temperature, and electron density of the plasma jet decrease with the increase of water vapor concentration at a fixed input voltage. The bacteria inactivation rate increases with the increase of OH generation reaching a maximum reduction at 2.6% (v/v) water vapor. Our results also show that the OH radicals generated by the Ar/H2O plasma jet only makes a limited contribution to spore inactivation and the shape change of the spores before and after plasma irradiation is discussed.

  8. Phonon-assisted ortho-para conversion in solid H 2 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feodosyev, S. B.; Gospodarev, I. A.; Strzhemechny, M. A.; Hemley, R. J.

    2001-07-01

    A version of the Jacobi matrix method is employed to calculate, in the harmonic approximation, certain spectral densities which are involved in the evaluation of conversion rates in solid hydrogen at elevated pressures. The elements of the dynamical matrix used in spectral density calculations were reconstructed from measured (acoustic and Brillouin scattering) and calculated elastic moduli cij. Double conversion (i.e., the process when both interacting ortho molecules become para) is shown to bring an appreciable contribution (comparable to that of single conversion) at pressures above 250 MPa ( 2.5 kbar). Other factors that are important at high pressures have been taken into account, in particular, the compression-related decrease in conversion energy caused by the increasing negative offset due to the electrostatic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction between ortho molecules. The conversion rates calculated as a function of pressure are in good agreement with experiment at moderate pressures.

  9. Deactivation of lipopolysaccharide by Ar and H2 inductively coupled low-pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartis, E. A. J.; Barrett, C.; Chung, T.-Y.; Ning, N.; Chu, J.-W.; Graves, D. B.; Seog, J.; Oehrlein, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    Using an inductively coupled plasma system, we study the effects of direct plasma, plasma-generated high-energy photons in the ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV), and radical treatments on lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS is a biomolecule found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and a potent stimulator of the immune system composed of polysaccharide and lipid A, which contains six aliphatic chains. LPS film thickness spun on silicon was monitored by ellipsometry while the surface chemistry was characterized before and after treatments by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, biological activity was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay under (a) a sensitive regime (sub-µM concentrations of LPS) and (b) a bulk regime (above µM concentrations of LPS) after plasma treatments. Direct plasma treatment causes rapid etching and deactivation of LPS in both Ar and H2 feed gases. To examine the effect of UV/VUV photons, a long-pass filter with a cut-off wavelength of 112 nm was placed over the sample. H2 UV/VUV treatment causes material removal and deactivation due to atomic and molecular UV/VUV emission while Ar UV/VUV treatment shows minimal effects as Ar plasma does not emit UV/VUV photons in the transmitted wavelength range explored. Interestingly, radical treatments remove negligible material but cause deactivation. Based on the amphiphilic structure of LPS, we expect a lipid A rich surface layer to form at the air-water interface during sample preparation with polysaccharide layers underneath. XPS shows that H2 plasma treatment under direct and UV/VUV conditions causes oxygen depletion through removal of C-O and O-C = O bonds in the films, which does not occur in Ar treatments. Damage to these groups can remove aliphatic chains that contribute to the pyrogenicity of LPS. Radical treatments from both Ar and H2 plasmas remove aliphatic carbon from the near-surface, demonstrating the important role of neutral species.

  10. Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  11. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  12. Laser-fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in low-pressure H2/O2/NO flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattolica, R. J.; Mataga, T. G.; Cavolowsky, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration profiles of NO in low-pressure (76 Torr) H2/O2/Ar flames to which nitric oxide is added are measured by pulsed laser-induced fluorescence. Temporally resolved fluorescence measurements are used to determine the collisional deexcitation rates needed to convert time-integrated fluorescence signal into oxide concentration. Five flames are studied with H2/O2 equivalence ratios of 0.88, 0.98, 1.22, 1.37, and 1.50. In these flames the collisional deexcitation rate decreases rapidly above the burner surface as the density decreases with increasing temperature. A 20 percent decrease is observed for the lean flames, and a 30 percent decrease for the rich flames. Within the precision of the measurement technique (+ or - 10 percent), no significant removal of nitric oxide is observed in these flames.

  13. Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures to Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent

    2007-01-01

    This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid. A predetermined volume of air is injected into a calibrated tube filled with a liquid whose vapor pressure is to be measured. The volume of the liquid displaced is greater than…

  14. Pressurized H_{2} rf Cavities in Ionizing Beams and Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; et al.

    2013-10-01

    A major technological challenge in building a muon cooling channel is operating RF cavities in multi-tesla external magnetic fields. We report the first experimental characterization of a high pressure gas-filled 805 MHz RF cavity for use with intense ionizing beams and strong external magnetic fields. RF power consumption by beam-induced plasma was investigated with hydrogen and deuterium gases with pressures between 20 and 100 atm and peak RF gradients between 5 and 50 MV/m. The energy absorption per ion pair-RF cycle ranges from 10?18 to 10?16 J. The low pressure case agrees well with an analytical model based on electron and ion mobilities. Varying concentrations of oxygen gas were investigated to remove free electrons from the cavity and reduce the RF power consumption. Measurements of the electron attachment time to oxygen and rate of ion-ion recombination were also made. Additionally, we demonstrate the operation of the gas-filled RF cavity in a solenoidal field of up to 3 T, finding no major magnetic field dependence. These results indicate that a high pressure gas-filled cavity is potentially a viable technology for muon ionization cooling.

  15. Pressure-induced transformations in LiCl-H2O at 77 K.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, G N; Bove, L E; Corti, H R; Loerting, T

    2014-09-14

    A systematic study of the properties of high-density amorphous ice (HDA) in the presence of increasing amounts of salt is missing, especially because it is challenging to avoid ice crystallization upon cooling the pressurized liquid. In order to be able to study HDA also in the presence of small amounts of salt, we have investigated the transformation behaviour of quenched aqueous LiCl solutions (mole fraction x < 0.25) upon pressurization in a piston-cylinder setup at 77 K. The sample properties were characterized by in situ dilatometry under high pressure conditions and after recovery by ex situ powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at ambient pressure. Two regimes can be identified, with a rather sharp switch at about x = 0.12. At x < 0.12 the samples show the phenomenology also known for pure water samples. They are composed mainly of hexagonal ice (Ih) and experience pressure-induced amorphization to HDA at P > 1 GPa. The observed densification is consistent with the idea that a freeze concentrated LiCl solution of x = 0.14 (R = 6) segregates, which transforms to the glassy state upon cooling, and that the densification is only due to the Ih ? HDA transition. Also the XRD patterns and DSC scans are almost unaffected by the presence of the segregated glassy LiCl solution. Upon heating at ambient pressure HDA experiences the polyamorphic transition to low-density amorphous ice (LDA) at ?120 K, even at x ? 0.10. Based on the latent heat evolved in the transition we suggest that almost all water in the sample transforms to an LDA-like state, even the water in the vicinity of the ions. The glassy LiCl solution acts as a spectator that does not shift the transformation temperature significantly and experiences a glass-to-liquid transition at ?140 K prior to the crystallization to cubic ice. By contrast, at x > 0.12 the phenomenology completely changes and is now dominated by the salt. Hexagonal ice no longer forms upon quenching the LiCl solution, but instead LDA forms. A broad pressure-induced transformation at >0.6 GPa can be attributed to the densification of LDA, the glassy LiCl solution and/or glassy hydrates. PMID:25072395

  16. Electrical conductivity and partial melting of mafic rocks under pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maumus; N. Bagdassarov; H. Schmeling

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate the importance of electric conductivity measurements of partially molten mafic rocks by examining of Oman gabbro, Karelia olivinite, Ronda and Spitzbergen peridotites. The electrical conductivities of these rocks were estimated using the impedance spectroscopy at temperatures between 800°C and 1450°C and at pressures between 0.3 and 2 GPa in experiments performed in a piston cylinder apparatus. At temperatures

  17. EQUILIBRIUM PARTIAL PRESSURE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE IN ALKALINE SCRUBBING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of IERL-RTP in-house studies in which equilibrium partial pressure of SO2 was measured as a function of pH, temperature, and concentration of sulfur (IV) on various scrubber liquors. These studies were done for potassium-, sodium-, and citrate-based scrub...

  18. Pressure Induced Local Structure Distortions in Cu(pyz)F2(H2O)2

    SciTech Connect

    Musfeldt, J.L.; Carr, G.; Liu, Z.; Li, S.; Kang, C.L., Jena, P.; Manson, J.L.; Schlueter, J.A. Whangbo, M.H.

    2011-06-06

    We employed infrared spectroscopy along with complementary lattice dynamics and spin density calculations to investigate pressure-driven local structure distortions in the copper coordination polymer Cu(pyz)F{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}. Here, pyz is pyrazine. Our study reveals rich and fully reversible local lattice distortions that buckle the pyrazine ring, disrupt the bc-plane O-H {hor_ellipsis} F hydrogen-bonding network, and reinforce magnetic property switching. The resiliency of the soft organic ring is a major factor in the stability of this material. Interestingly, the collective character of the lattice vibrations masks direct information on the Cu-N and Cu-O linkages through the series of pressure-induced Jahn-Teller axis switching transitions, although Cu-F bond softening is clearly identified above 3 GPa. These findings illustrate the importance of combined bulk and local probe techniques for microscopic structure determination in complex materials.

  19. Experimental and numerical study of detailed reaction mechanism optimization for syngas (H 2 + CO) production by non-catalytic partial oxidation of methane in a flow reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanghyun Han; Soonho Song; Kwang Min Chun

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) detailed reaction mechanism of methane combustion was optimized based on a flow reactor experiment to obtain syngas (H2 + CO). The experimental methane partial oxidation was conducted with pre-mixed gas in a flow reactor. Specifically, 0.2% methane and 0.1% oxygen were diluted with 99.7% argon, restraining the exothermic effect. The experiment was conducted from

  20. A unified equation for calculating methane vapor pressures in the CH4-H2O system with measured Raman shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-M.; Burruss, R.C.; Song, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A unified equation has been derived by using all available data for calculating methane vapor pressures with measured Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band (??1) in the vapor phase of sample fluids near room temperature. This equation eliminates discrepancies among the existing data sets and can be applied at any Raman laboratory. Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band of methane in the vapor phase of CH4-H2O mixtures prepared in a high-pressure optical cell were also measured at temperatures between room temperature and 200 ??C, and pressures up to 37 MPa. The results show that the CH4 ??1 band position shifts to higher wavenumber as temperature increases. We also demonstrated that this Raman band shift is a simple function of methane vapor density, and, therefore, when combined with equation of state of methane, methane vapor pressures in the sample fluids at elevated temperatures can be calculated from measured Raman peak positions. This method can be applied to determine the pressure of CH4-bearing systems, such as methane-rich fluid inclusions from sedimentary basins or experimental fluids in hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell or other types of optical cell. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optical and electrical characterization of atmospheric pressure microplasma for CH3OH/H2O/Ar mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jin Hoon; Park, Young Dong; Choi, Myeong Yeol; Moo Lee, Woong

    2009-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure, non-equilibrium microplasmas have become powerful experimental tools for many applications including microfabrications in microelectronics, surface modifications, environmental processing and many other areas. We investigated that comparative study of atmospheric pressure microdischarge generated in different nonequlibrium discharge with respect to observation optical and electrical characteristics at CH3OH/H2O/Ar mixtures. This paper focuses on plasma chemical reactions from methanol and water vapor mixture and the effects of plasma generation methods in the perspective of hydrogen generation. The microplasmas were generated by resorting to discharge modes such as some variations of glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and also a variation of corona discharge called a microdischarge inside a porous ceramic (MIPC). Plasma chemical reactions were monitored using optical emission spectroscopy to gather information on the degree of non-equilibrium, electron density, uniformity of plasma reaction and concentrations of transient species.

  2. The vapor pressures of supercooled NHO3/H2O solutions. [in polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, David R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure utilizing the Gibbs-Duhem relation is used to extrapolate vapor pressures of supercooled HNO3 mixtures to 190 K. Values of A and B from the equation logP = A - B/T are presented for solutions between 0.20 and 0.25 mole fraction HNO3. In the stratosphere, if sufficient HNO3 vapor is present because it has not come into equilibrium with the nitric acid trihydrate, supercooled nitric acid solutions could condense at temperatures up to 1.5 + or - 0.8 K above the ice point.

  3. Effects of partial inhibition of respiratory complex I on H2O 2 production by isolated brain mitochondria in different respiratory states.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Luiz G B; Benevento, Carlos E; Rossato, Franco A; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Castilho, Roger F

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of partial inhibition of respiratory complex I by rotenone on H2O2 production by isolated rat brain mitochondria in different respiratory states. Flow cytometric analysis of membrane potential in isolated mitochondria indicated that rotenone leads to uniform respiratory inhibition when added to a suspension of mitochondria. When mitochondria were incubated in the presence of a low concentration of rotenone (10 nm) and NADH-linked substrates, oxygen consumption was reduced from 45.9 ± 1.0 to 26.4 ± 2.6 nmol O2 mg(-1) min(-1) and from 7.8 ± 0.3 to 6.3 ± 0.3 nmol O2 mg(-1) min(-1) in respiratory states 3 (ADP-stimulated respiration) and 4 (resting respiration), respectively. Under these conditions, mitochondrial H2O2 production was stimulated from 12.2 ± 1.1 to 21.0 ± 1.2 pmol H2O2 mg(-1) min(-1) and 56.5 ± 4.7 to 95.0 ± 11.1 pmol H2O2 mg(-1) min(-1) in respiratory states 3 and 4, respectively. Similar results were observed when comparing mitochondrial preparations enriched with synaptic or nonsynaptic mitochondria or when 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) was used as a respiratory complex I inhibitor. Rotenone-stimulated H2O2 production in respiratory states 3 and 4 was associated with a high reduction state of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotides. In succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration, where most of the mitochondrial H2O2 production relies on electron backflow from complex II to complex I, low rotenone concentrations inhibited H2O2 production. Rotenone had no effect on mitochondrial elimination of micromolar concentrations of H2O2. The present results support the conclusion that partial complex I inhibition may result in mitochondrial energy crisis and oxidative stress, the former being predominant under oxidative phosphorylation and the latter under resting respiration conditions. PMID:25287903

  4. High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

  5. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Borokowski, R. P.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH + C2H2 yields products has been examined at five temperatures ranging from 228 to 413 K. The experimental techniques which was used is flash photolysis-resonance fluoresence. OH was produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons were measured by multiscaling techniques. The results indicate that the low pressure bimolecular rate constant is 4 x 10 the the minus 13th power cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1) over the temperature range studied. A substantial increase in the bimolecular rate constant with an increase in pressure was observed at all temperatures except 228 K. This indicates the importance of initial adduct formation and subsequent stablization. The high pressure results are well represented by the Arrhenius expression (k sub bi) sub infinity = (6.83 + or - 1.19) x 10 to the minus 12th power exp(-646 + or - 47/T)cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1). The results are compared to previous investigated and are theoretically discussed. The implications of these results on modeling of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and also in combustion chemistry are discussed.

  6. Laboratory measurement of H2O2 pressure broadening parameter for JEM/SMILES Observation from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Mizoguchi, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kanamori, H.

    2009-12-01

    A new generation of sub-millimeter-wave receivers employing sensitive SIS (Superconductor Insulator Superconductor) detector technology will provide new opportunities for precise remote sensing measurements of minor constituents in the earth and planetary atmosphere.Superconducting Sub-Millimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was designed to be onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS) as a collaboration project of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).SMILES in Transfer Vehicle (HTV) plan to launch in September 11 2009 by Japanese H-IIB rocket. JEM/SMILES will allow to observe the atmospheric species such as O3, H35Cl, H37Cl, ClO, BrO, HOCl, HO2, H2O2, HNO3 and CH3CN, Ozone isotope species, and water vapor with the precisions in a few to several tens percents [1] in the altitude region upper troposphere (about 8km in mid-latitude) and the mesosphere (about 90km in mid-latitude). In this paper, laboratory measurement of the pressure broadening parameter (?) of Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at JKa,Kc = 201,19 - 192,17 rotational transition (625.044 GHz) will be presented. This is one of the target transitions of JEM/SMILES observation. ? of H2O2 in sub-millimeter-wave region was measured for the first time. The measurement was carried out using a sub-millimeter-wave absorption spectrometric system in Tokyo Institute of Technology.The radiation source from a backward wave oscillator (BWO) was phase-locked to the harmonics of a synthesized sweeper with two-step phase lock loop. The BWO source frequency was modulated with the modulation frequency of 51 kHz. H2O2 sample was prerpared by distillation of commercial available 30% solution. The pressures of sample and buffer gas (N2 and O2) were controlled by a mass flow meter and monitored by two Baratron monitors in the cell. From the observed profiles of the spectrum, the pressure broadening line widths were determined using a convolution method proposed by Pickett [2], [3]. ? was determined by fitting the measured line widths to a linear function with a least-square method. ? (N2) = 4.03 ± 0.06 [MHz/Torr] (1.4%), ? (O2) = 2.49 ± 0.04 [MHz/Torr] (1.7%). The errors are presumably caused by representational accuracy fluctuation of Baratron pressure monitor. Precision of JEM/SMILES sensitive observation requires the precise value of ? of H2O2 within the error of 3%. We confirmed that the precision of the measurement fulfills the SMILES observation requirement. Refferences [1] JEM/SMILES mission plan. Version 2.1, November 15, 2002. [2] M. M. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, M. Habara, T. Amano, and B. J. Drouin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 391-399 (2003). [3] H. M. Pickett, Appl. Opt. 19, 2745 (1980).

  7. Removal of H2S and SO2 by CaCO3-Based Sorbents at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Stratis V. Sotirchos

    1998-02-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigation of the mechanism of SO2 and H2S removal by CaCO3 -based sorbents (limestones and dolomites) in pressurized uidized-bed coal combustors (PFBC) and high pressure gasi#12;ers, respectively, is the main objective of this study. It is planned to carry out reactivity evolution experiments under simulated high pressure conditions or in high pressure thermogravimetric and, if needed, uidized- bed reactor (high pressure) arrangements. The pore structure of fresh, heat-treated, and half-calcined solids (dolomites) will be analyzed using a variety of methods. Our work will focus on limestones and dolomites whose reaction with SO2 or H2S under atmospheric conditions has been studied by us or other research groups in past studies. Several theoret- ical tools will be employed to analyze the obtained experimental data including a variable di#11;usivity shrinking-core model and models for di#11;usion, reaction, and structure evolution in chemically reacting porous solids. During the six months of this reporting period, work was primarily done on the study of the behavior of the sul#12;dation of limestones under sequential calcination conditions in the presence of small amounts of oxygen and the development of a stochastic simulation code for determining the extent of pore volume trapping (formation of inaccessible pore space) in gas-solid reactions accompanied by pore volume reduction such as the sulfation and sul#12;dation of calcined limestones and dolomites. The incentive for carrying out sul#12;dation experiments in the presence of oxygen was provided by the observation that some sul#12;dation experiments that were conducted as oxygen was accidentally leaking into the feed mixture of the reactor showed completely di#11;erent behavior from that obtained in the absence of oxygen. Experiments were carried out in the thermogravimetric analysis system that we developed for studying gas-solid reactions at atmospheric or subambient pressures. The two CaCO3 solids (Greer limestone and Iceland spar) that we employed in our previous experiments were used in the sulfidation.

  8. Biological nitrogen fixation under primordial Martian partial pressures of dinitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingler, J. M.; Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most striking differences between the conditions on early Mars and earth was a low (18 mb) partial pressure of N2 (pN2) on early Mars, as opposed to 780 mb N2 on earth. To investigate the possibility of biological nitrogen fixation under conditions of early Mars, experiments were carried out on the growth of Azotobacter vinelandii and Azomonas agilis in nitrogen-free synthetic medium under various partial pressures of N2 (ranging from 780 to 0 mb). It was found that, although the biomass, cell number, and growth rate of these bacteria decreased with decreasing pN2 values below pN2 of 400 mb, both microorganisms were capable of growing at pN2 as low as 5 mb (but not at of below 1 mb), indicating that biological fixation of nitrogen could have occurred on primordial Mars.

  9. Measurement of Hydrogen Radical Density and Its Impact on Reduction of Copper Oxide in Atmospheric-Pressure Remote Plasma Using H2 and Ar Mixture Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Hirotoshi; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Sekine, Makoto; Kano, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Naofumi; Hori, Masaru

    2010-12-01

    A 60 Hz alternating current excited atmospheric-pressure plasma with an ultrahigh electron density of over 1016 cm-3 employing H2/Ar [ p(H2)/p(H2+Ar) 1-3%] gases was used to reduce copper oxides on copper. The remote plasma reduced CuO and Cu2O at room temperature. The ground-state hydrogen (H) radical density in the atmospheric-pressure plasma was measured by vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy using a micro hollow cathode lamp. The ratio of reduction of amount of CuO flux to the H radical flux was determined from the measured H radical density and gas temperature.

  10. Low carbon dioxide partial pressure in a productive subtropical lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binhe GuClaire; Claire L. Schelske; Michael F. Coveney

    The purposes of this study were to assess if Lake Apopka (FL, USA) was autotrophic or heterotrophic based on the partial pressure\\u000a of dissolved carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the surface water and to evaluate factors that influence the long-term changes in pCO2. Monthly average pH, alkalinity and other limnological variables collected between 1987 and 2006 were used to estimate dissolved

  11. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  12. Gradual crossover in molecular organization of stable liquid H2O at moderately high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Yoshikata; Westh, Peter; Yoshida, Koh; Inaba, Akira; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro

    2014-09-01

    Using the literature raw data of the speed of sound and the specific volume, the isothermal compressibility, ?T, a second derivative thermodynamic quantity of G, was evaluated for liquid H2O in the pressure range up to 350 MPa and the temperature to 50 °C. We then obtained its pressure derivative, d?T/dp, a third derivative numerically without using a fitting function to the ?T data. On taking yet another p-derivative at a fixed T graphically without resorting to any fitting function, the resulting d2?T/dp2, a fourth derivative, showed a weak but clear step anomaly, with the onset of the step named point X and its end point Y. In analogy with another third and fourth derivative pair in binary aqueous solutions of glycerol, d?p/dxGly and d2?p/dxGly2, at 0.1 MPa (?p is the thermal expansivity and xGly the mole fraction of solute glycerol) in our recent publication [J. Solution Chem. 43, 663-674 (2014); DOI:10.1007/s10953-013-0122-7], we argue that there is a gradual crossover in the molecular organization of pure H2O from a low to a high p-regions starting at point X and ending at Y at a fixed T. The crossover takes place gradually spanning for about 100 MPa at a fixed temperature. The extrapolated temperature to zero p seems to be about 70 - 80 °C for points X and 90 - 110 °C for Y. Furthermore, the mid-points of X and Y seem to extrapolate to the triple point of liquid, ice Ih and ice III. Recalling that the zero xGly extrapolation of point X and Y for binary aqueous glycerol at 0.1 MPa gives about the same T values respectively, we suggest that at zero pressure the region below about 70 °C the hydrogen bond network is bond-percolated, while above about 90 °C there is no hydrogen bond network. Implication of these findings is discussed.

  13. Calibration-free sensor for pressure and H2O concentration in headspace of sterile vial using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tingdong; Gao, Guangzhen; Liu, Ying

    2013-11-10

    Tunable diode laser absorption measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials using a distributed-feedback (DFB) diode laser near 1.4 ?m are reported. A H2O line located near 7161.41 cm(-1) is selected based on its strong absorption strength and isolation from interference of neighboring transitions. Direct absorption spectra of H2O are obtained for the measurement path as well as the reference path by scanning the laser wavelength. The pressure and H2O vapor concentration in the headspace of a vial are inferred from a differential absorption signal, which is the difference between the measured and the referenced absorbance spectra. This sensor is calibration-free and no purge gas is needed. The demonstrated capability would enable measurements of pressure and H2O concentration in the headspace of vials within 2.21% and 2.86%, respectively. A precision of 1.02 Torr and 390 ppm is found for the pressure and H2O concentration, respectively. A set of measurements for commercial freeze-dried products are also performed to illustrate the usefulness of this sensor. PMID:24216725

  14. EPR theoretical study of hydrostatic pressure and temperature dependence of local lattice structure for [Mn(H 2O) 6] 2+ octahedral complex in the Zn(BF 4) 2 · 6H 2O:Mn 2+ system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Xiong; Kuang Xiao-Yu

    2007-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the local molecular structure for Mn2+ ions in the Zn(BF4)2·6H2O:Mn2+ system have been investigated by diagonalizing the complete energy matrices for a d5 configuration ion in a trigonal ligand-field. By simulating the EPR parameters D and (a?F), the local lattice structure parameters R and ? under different conditions have been determined. The

  15. Determination of the partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure lamp arcs: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.; Aubes, M.

    1986-08-01

    The partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure Hg-TlI discharges with different mercury, thallium, and electron pressures has been measured by using the optically thin line Tl 655 nm and the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm. The partial pressure of the arc axis has been measured from the line Tl 655nm. The effective partial pressure has been measured from the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm on the basis of the multiparameter method, and it has been calculated from the known axis pressure of thallium and the calculation of its radial variation by taking into account the chemical reactions. The experimental results confirm the dispersion character of the blue wing of the line Tl 535 nm. The systematic difference obtained between the measured and calculated effective pressure, particularly at the moment of minimum electron density, may be interpreted by deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) caused by overpopulation of the upper level of the line Tl 535 nm.

  16. Insights on the constant oxygen partial pressure in CCR diving (J. Riba) 1/16 Insights on constant oxygen partial pressure in CCR diving

    E-print Network

    Riba Sagarra, Jaume

    Insights on the constant oxygen partial pressure in CCR diving (J. Riba) 1/16 Insights on constant oxygen partial pressure in CCR diving Jaume Riba jaume.riba@upc.edu Warning: this document may contain://gps-tsc.upc.es/comm/jriba/personal.html (rebreather_riba_en.pdf) August 2009 V01 #12;Insights on the constant oxygen partial pressure in CCR diving (J

  17. Catalytic oxidative degradation of 17?-ethinylestradiol by FeIII-TAML/H2O2: estrogenicities of the products of partial, and extensive oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian Lin; Ravindran, Shanthinie; Swift, Simon; Wright, L James; Singhal, Naresh

    2012-12-01

    The oxidative degradation of the oral contraceptive 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)) in water by a new advanced catalytic oxidation process was investigated. The oxidant employed was hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution and the catalyst was the iron tetra-amido macrocyclic ligand (Fe(III)-TAML) complex that has been designated Na[Fe(H(2)O)(B*)] (Fe(III)-B*). EE(2) (10 ?M) was oxidised rapidly by the Fe(III)-B*/H(2)O(2) (5 nM/4 mM) catalytic oxidation system at 25 °C, and for reactions at pH 8.40-11.00, no unchanged EE2 was detected in the reaction mixtures after 60 min. No oxidation of EE(2) was detected in blank reactions using either H(2)O(2) or Fe(III)-B* alone. The maximum rate of EE(2) loss occurred at pH 10.21. At this pH the half-life of EE(2) was 2.1 min and the oxidised products showed around 30% estrogenicity removal, as determined by the yeast estrogen screen (YES) bioassay. At pH 11.00, partial oxidation of EE(2) by Fe(III)-B*/H(2)O(2) (5 nM/4 mM) was studied (half-life of EE(2) was 14.5 min) and in this case the initial intermediates formed were a mixture of the epimers 17?-ethynyl-1,4-estradiene-10?,17?-diol-3-one (1a) and 17?-ethynyl-1,4-estradiene-10?,17?-diol-3-one (1b) (identified by LC-ToF-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy). Significantly, this product mixture displayed a slightly higher estrogenicity than EE(2) itself, as determined by the YES bioassay. Upon the addition of further aliquots of Fe(III)-B* (to give a Fe(III)-B* concentration of 500 nM) and H(2)O(2) (to bring the concentration up to 4 mM assuming the final concentration had dropped to zero) to this reaction mixture the amounts of 1a and 1b slowly decreased to zero over a 60 min period as they were oxidised to unidentified products that showed no estrogenicity. Thus, partial oxidation of EE(2) gave products that have slightly increased estrogenicity, whereas more extensive oxidation by the advanced catalytic oxidation system completely removed all estrogenicity. These results underscore the importance of controlling the level of oxidation during the removal of EE(2) from water by oxidative processes. PMID:23022118

  18. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 )...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 )...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 )...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 )...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer...Diagnostic Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 )...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2003-10-29

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

  4. Statistical modelling of human blood carbon dioxide partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Ibbini, M; Amer, M B

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with statistical modelling of blood carbon dioxide partial pressure pCO2. The clinical measurements were carried out in the Arab Centre for Heart and Special Surgery in Amman. The statistical analysis of the results obtained demonstrates that pCO2 for arterial, venous and capillary blood have histograms approaching normal ones. Moreover, the experimental data suggest that the blood pCO2 can be expressed by a linear regression model. Making use of this regression model, the blood pCO2 population can indirectly be obtained with accuracy fulfilling clinical requirements. Therefore, this approach will not only lead to less invasive methods but will also result in decreasing the cost of projected analyser for blood gas analysis. The implementation of this proposed regression equation ensures the effectiveness of the model as an indirect method for pCO2 measurements. PMID:11695660

  5. Thermodynamic modelling of clay dehydration, stability and compositional evolution with temperature, pressure and H 2O activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, O.; Dubacq, B.

    2009-11-01

    We propose a thermodynamic approach to model the stepwise dehydration with increasing temperature or decreasing H 2O activity of K, Na, Ca and Mg-smectite. The approach relies on the relative stability of the different solid-solutions that describe the hydration of di- or trioctahedral-smectites containing 0, 1, 2 or 3 interlayer water layers. The inclusion of anhydrous mica end-members makes it possible to cover, with the same solid-solution model, the entire range of composition from low-charge smectite to mica, through high-charge smectite and illite. Non-ideal Margules parameters were used to describe the non-ideality of the solid solutions between the hydrated and dehydrated smectite end-members. Standard state properties of all smectite end-members as well as Ca- and Mg-muscovite and -phlogopite were initially estimated by oxide summation. These values were then refined and the other non-ideal interactions were estimated on the basis of different experimental data. The stepwise dehydration of smectite, and its stability and compatibility relations were calculated by Gibbs free energy minimising. Our results account for the progressive evolution of smectite to interlayered illite/smectite and then to mica, as observed in nature and experiments, and our model provides an explanation for the thermodynamic stability of smectite and illite/smectite compared to mica + kaolinite or pyrophyllite assemblages. The results suggest that the enthalpic contribution of interlayer water is a function of the ionic potential of the interlayer cation and the number of interlayer water molecules. This evolution makes possible to estimate the standard-state thermodynamic parameters and hydration-temperature behaviour of smectite of virtually all possible compositions. For the four-interlayer cations considered in the study, our model reproduces the 3 ? 2 ? 1 water-layer transitions that accompany a reduction of water activity or an increase of temperature at ambient pressure. The range of water content and interlayer distance calculated for the 3w, 2w and 1w states are also in fair agreement with the experimental values at ambient pressure.

  6. Rotational state-to-state rate constants and pressure broadening coefficients for He-C2H2 collisions: Theory and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tino G. A. Heijmen; Robert Moszynski; Paul E. S. Wormer; Ad van der Avoird; Armin D. Rudert; Joshua B. Halpern; José Martin; Wen Bin Gao; Helmut Zacharias

    1999-01-01

    Converged close-coupling and coupled-states calculations were used to obtain state-to-state rate constants and pressure broadening coefficients for the collisional rotational (de-)excitation of C2H2 by He. The ab initio potential used in these calculations was previously computed by symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. The computed pressure broadening coefficients and total rate constants agree well with the available experimental data. In the experimental part

  7. H2O activity in concentrated NaCl solutions at high pressures and temperatures measured by the brucite-periclase equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y. Aranovich; R. C. Newton

    1996-01-01

    H2O activities in concentrated NaCl solutions were measured in the ranges 600° 900° C and 2 15 kbar and at NaCl concentrations up to halite saturation by depression of the brucite (Mg(OH)2) periclase (MgO) dehydration equilibrium. Experiments were made in internally heated Ar pressure apparatus at 2 and 4.2 kbar and in 1.91-cm-diameter piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl pressure medium at

  8. Growth and product formation of actinomycetes cultivated at increased total pressure and oxygen partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Liefke, E; Kaiser, D; Onken, U

    1990-03-01

    Influence of pressure (P) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) on cultivation of various Streptomyces spp. and Micromonospora purpurea was examined in pressurized air-lift and stirred tank fermenters. The maximum PO2 was 2100 mbar. Growth and product formation of all cultures tested were markedly influenced by PO2 higher than 1000 mbar. There is evidence that wild strains are more oxygen tolerant than production strains. At a certain PO2 the metabolic activities of all cultures were inhibited. However, results obtained with S. aureofaciens and S. rimosus indicated an increase in specific product formation rate at elevated pressure. With increase in oxygen tension incorporation of oxygen into tetracycline molecules was enhanced. Since elevated oxygen tension can either show inhibiting effects or may be used for regulation of product formation and selectivity, the influence of PO2 should be determined in an appropriate experimental set-up for each process. PMID:1366540

  9. Pressure-induced Jahn-Teller suppression in Rb2 CuCl4 ( H2 O ) 2 : Pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, F.; Rodríguez, F.; Valiente, R.; Itié, J. P.; Munsch, P.

    2004-12-01

    In this work we investigate the variation of the local structure around Cu2+ as well as the crystal structure in Rb2CuCl4(H2O)2 through x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) as a function of pressure. We show that the application of pressure induces a local structural change in the Jahn-Teller (JT) CuCl4(H2O)22- complex from an axially elongated complex to a compressed one, yielding disappearance of the JT distortion related to the four in-plane Cl- ligands, which are responsible for the antiferrodistortive structure displayed by the crystal at ambient pressure. According to the Pseudo-Jahn-Teller (PJT) theory (electron-phonon coupling E?e ), the presence of water ligands enhances the JT release at pressures well below the metallization pressure. The results are compared with recent pressure experiments on A2CuCl4 layered perovskites and heteronuclear CuCl4L2 complex series, L:Cl?H2O?NH3 , and explained on the basis of the PJT model.

  10. Infrared spectroscopic and modeling studies of H2/CH4 microwave plasma gas phase from low to high pressure and power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rond, C.; Hamann, S.; Wartel, M.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.; Röpcke, J.

    2014-09-01

    InfraRed Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy technique has been implemented in a H2/CH4 Micro-Wave (MW frequency f = 2.45 GHz) plasma reactor dedicated to diamond deposition under high pressure and high power conditions. Parametric studies such as a function of MW power, pressure, and admixtures of methane have been carried out on a wide range of experimental conditions: the pressure up to 270 mbar and the MW power up to 4 kW. These conditions allow high purity Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond deposition at high growth rates. Line integrated absorption measurements have been performed in order to monitor hydrocarbon species, i.e., CH3, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6. The densities of the stable detected species were found to vary in the range of 1012-1017 molecules cm-3, while the methyl radical CH3 (precursor of diamond growth under these conditions) measured into the plasma bulk was found up to 1014 molecules cm-3. The experimental densities have been compared to those provided by 1D-radial thermochemical model for low power and low pressure conditions (up to 100 mbar/2 kW). These densities have been axially integrated. Experimental measurements under high pressure and power conditions confirm a strong increase of the degree of dissociation of the precursor, CH4, associated to an increase of the C2H2 density, the most abundant reaction product in the plasma.

  11. Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4 µm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-pressure and -temperature gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenstein, C. S.; Spearrin, R. M.; Schultz, I. A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-05-01

    The development, validation and demonstration of a two-color tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption sensor for measurements of temperature and H2O in high-pressure and high-temperature gases are presented. This sensor uses first-harmonic-normalized wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f/1f) to account for non-absorbing transmission losses and emission encountered in harsh, high-pressure environments. Two telecommunications-grade TDLs were used to probe H2O absorption transitions near 1391.7 and 1469.3 nm. The lasers were frequency-multiplexed and modulated at 160 and 200 kHz to enable a measurement bandwidth up to 30 kHz along a single line-of-sight. In addition, accurate measurements are enabled at extreme conditions via an experimentally derived spectroscopic database. This sensor was validated under low-absorbance (<0.05) conditions in shock-heated H2O-N2 mixtures at temperatures and pressures from 700 to 2400 K and 2 to 25 atm. There, this sensor recovered the known temperature and H2O mole fraction with a nominal accuracy of 2.8% and 4.7% RMS, respectively. Lastly, this sensor resolved expected transients with high bandwidth and high precision in a reactive shock tube experiment and a pulse detonation combustor.

  12. Effect of total and partial pressure (oxygen and carbon dioxide) on aerobic microbial processes.

    PubMed

    Onken, U; Liefke, E

    1989-01-01

    In industrial bioreactors, levels and gradients of total and partial pressures are considerably higher than on the laboratory scale. In the relevant range (in general up to 2 or 3 bar, maximum approx. 10 bar), effects of total pressure on aerobic cultures are negligibly small. CO2 partial pressures of more than approx. 100 mbar may have inhibitory effects on aerobic cultures. Growth of aerobic cultures can be enhanced by O2 partial pressures higher than 210 mbar (corresponding to air at 1 bar), if oxygen transfer is limited. In many cases, however, increased O2 partial pressure (higher than approx. 1 bar) is toxic to aerobic cultures and inhibits microbial growth and product formation. Stepwise and cyclic variations of O2 partial pressure may have positive or negative effects, depending on strain of microorganism, culturing conditions, and range of dissolved oxygen concentration. Knowledge of these effects is required in process development and bioreactor scale-up. PMID:2515758

  13. H 2 O activity in concentrated NaCl solutions at high pressures and temperatures measured by the brucite-periclase equilibrium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y. Aranovich; R. C. Newton

    1996-01-01

    H2O activities in concentrated NaCl solutions were measured in the ranges 600–900?C and 2–15 kbar and at NaCl concentrations\\u000a up to halite saturation by depression of the brucite (Mg(OH)2) – periclase (MgO) dehydration equilibrium. Experiments were made in internally heated Ar pressure apparatus at 2 and 4.2\\u000a kbar and in 1.91-cm-diameter piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl pressure medium at 4.2, 7,

  14. A New Parameterization of H2SO4/H2O Aerosol Composition: Atmospheric Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Toon, Owen B.; Clegg, Simon L.; Hamill, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Recent results from a thermodynamic model of aqueous sulfuric acid are used to derive a new parameterization for the variation of sulfuric acid aerosol composition with temperature and relative humidity. This formulation is valid for relative humidities above 1 % in the temperature range of 185 to 260 K. An expression for calculating the vapor pressure of supercooled liquid water, consistent with the sulfuric acid model, is also presented. We show that the Steele and Hamill [1981] formulation underestimates the water partial pressure over aqueous H2SOI solutions by up to 12% at low temperatures. This difference results in a corresponding underestimate of the H2SO4 concentration in the aerosol by about 6 % of the weight percent at approximately 190 K. In addition, the relation commonly used for estimating the vapor pressure of H2O over supercooled liquid water differs by up to 10 % from our derived expression. The combined error can result in a 20 % underestimation of water activity over a H2SO4 solution droplet in the stratosphere, which has implications for the parameterization of heterogeneous reaction rates in stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols. The influence of aerosol composition on the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation from a H2SO4 solution droplet is also discussed. This parameterization can also be used for homogeneous gas phase nucleation calculations of H2SO4 solution droplets under various environmental conditions such as in aircraft exhaust or in volcanic plumes.

  15. Comparative ecology of H2 cycling in sedimentary and phototrophic ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; Alperin, Marc J.; Bebout, Brad M.; Martens, Christopher S.; Des Marais, David J.

    2002-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of H2 is critical to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. The sensitivity of each of these processes to H2 can be described collectively, through the quantitative language of thermodynamics. A necessary prerequisite is to understand the factors that, in turn, control H2 partial pressures. These factors are assessed for two distinctly different ecosystems. In anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight (North Carolina, USA), H2 partial pressures are strictly maintained at low, steady-state levels by H2-consuming organisms, in a fashion that can be quantitatively predicted by simple thermodynamic calculations. In phototrophic microbial mats from Baja California (Mexico), H2 partial pressures are controlled by the activity of light-sensitive H2-producing organisms, and consequently fluctuate over orders of magnitude on a daily basis. The differences in H2 cycling can subsequently impact any of the H2-sensitive microbial processes in these systems. In one example, methanogenesis in Cape Lookout Bight sediments is completely suppressed through the efficient consumption of H2 by sulfate-reducing bacteria; in contrast, elevated levels of H2 prevail in the producer-controlled phototrophic system, and methanogenesis occurs readily in the presence of 40 mM sulfate.

  16. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.; Borkowski, R. P.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction of the hydroxyl radical with acetylene, important in both atmospheric and combustion chemistry, is determined for temperatures between 228 and 413 K. The flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique was employed at five temperatures over wide ranges of pressure and acetylene concentrations, with the OH produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons measured by multiscaling techniques. Results indicate that, except at the lowest temperature, the bimolecular rate constant for the reaction depends strongly on total pressure, with the pressure effect becoming more pronounced with increasing temperature. At limiting high pressures, the rate constant is found to be equal to 6.83 + or - 1.19 x 10 to the -12th exp (-646 + or - 47/T) cu cm/molecule per sec, where T is the temperature. Results thus demonstrate the importance of environmental conditions in theoretical studies of atmospheric and combustion product compositions

  17. Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.F.

    1992-02-25

    Progress during the past year of research under Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE'' has been significant. As was described in our previous progress report, the startup phase of this research was severely frustrated by delays in the US WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP), which in turn were caused by delays in the mid-life refit of the R/V Knorr. As a result the high latitude southeastern Pacific work (WHP lines P19S and P16S) originally scheduled for the 1990 austral summer has still not been carried out. As a substitute, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington was pressed into service during mid-1991 to carry out lower-latitude portions of the WHP P16 and P17 lines - the TUNES Expedition. Because this ship is much smaller than the R/V Knorr, she could not carry a full complement of WHP programs and seagoing personnel and was restricted by her size and the time of year to lower-latitude work. Our original proposal for carbon dioxide measurements was designed to divide the work between legs in which we participated as part of the WHP dissolved CFC program (under separate NSF funding) and legs in which we entrusted the operation of our system to other CFC or carbon dioxide laboratories with expertise in gas chromatography. Since we were not involved in any CFC work on the substituted Washington expedition, and since all the seagoing programs on the Washington were additionally stressed by a shortage of people and space, this placed our carbon dioxide program at an unwelcome disadvantage. The preliminary results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. We are forced to rely on spotty manual observations and station CTD temperatures to reconstruct our equilibrator temperature solubility corrections for portions of that leg. We did not get our usual reliable data return, but the results were surely worth effort, especially for this vast and rarely-visited region of the world oceans.

  18. Effects of complex formation in flowing fluids on the hydrothermal solubilities of minerals as a function of fluid pressure and temperature in the critical and supercritical regions of the system H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgeson, Harold C.

    1992-08-01

    Consideration of Darcy's law and its analogs for open channel flow, together with the thermodynamics of hydrolysis reactions in hydrothermal systems indicates that either fluid pressure and/or isothermal mineral solubilities or both may decrease or increase in the direction of fluid flow, depending on the volume of reaction and the permeability or aperture, cross-sectional area, and angle of flow as a function of distance along the flow path. Recent progress in theoretical geochemistry has led to improved equations of state which can be used to calculate the standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of both charged and neutral inorganic and organic aqueous species at pressures and temperatures to 1000°C and 5 kb ( TANGER and HELGESON, 1988; SHOCK and HELGESON, 1988, 1990; SHOCK, et al., 1989, 1992; SVERJENSKY et al., 1992). Thermodynamic properties generated from these revised equations of state for the hydrolysis of minerals to form aqueous complexes at high pressures and temperatures indicate that the signs of the standard partial molal volume, enthalpy, and heat capacity of reaction depend primarily on the number of ligands in the complexes, as well as their charge. If polyligand complexes and/or certain neutral aqueous species appear on the right side of the reaction, the isobaric and isothermal partial derivatives of the logarithm of the equilibrium constant ( logK) at PSAT may tend toward infinity and negative infinity, respectively, as fluid pressure and temperature increase in the liquid phase region and approach the critical point of H 2O. This behavior results in positive values of ( ?logK/ ?T) p and negative values of ( ?logK/ ?P) T at supercritical pressures and temperatures. For example, thermodynamic calculations indicate that values of log K for reactions representing hydrothermal sulfide solubilities in the acid pH range where the predominant sulfide species is H 2S (aq) decrease with increasing fluid pressure to an increasing degree with increasing temperature, which is consistent with experimental data reported by HEMLEY et al. (1986, 1992). In contrast, ( ?logK/ ?T) p and ( ?logK/ ?P) T in the supercritical region may be negative and positive, respectively, for reactions representing sulfide solubilities in hydrothermal solutions with higher pHs where HS - predominates over H 2S, but only if the chloride concentration is low. The opposite may be the case in concentrated alkali chloride solutions, regardless of the pH. Similar calculations indicate that log K for the incongruent reaction of K-feldspar or other aluminosilicates with supercritical hydrothermal solutions to form quartz and A1(OH) 4-increases monotonically with increasing fluid pressure at constant temperature. However, the log K values maximize with increasing temperature at all pressures to at least ~3 kb, which is not true of the solubility of quartz. In contrast, values of log K for analogous reactions written in terms of Al 3+ or Al (OH) 2+ minimize with increasing temperature at constant pressure.

  19. The partial (1)H NMR spectra of Al-OH and molecular H(2)O in hydrous aluminosilicate glasses: Component-Resolved analysis of (27)Al-(1)H cross polarization and (1)H spin-echo MAS NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Malfait, Wim J; Xue, Xianyu

    2010-01-01

    The Component-Resolved methodology was applied to (1)H spin-echo and (27)Al-(1)H cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR data of aluminosilicate glasses. The method was able to resolve two components with different T2 relaxation rates, hydroxyl groups (OH) and molecular water (H(2)O(mol)), from the spin-echo data and to determine partial spectra and the relative abundances of OH and H(2)O(mol). The algorithm resolved two to three components with different (27)Al-(1)H CP dynamics from the (27)Al-(1)H cross polarization data; the obtained partial NMR spectra for Al-OH are in excellent agreement with those obtained previously from the difference spectra between spectra with various contact times and confirm previous quantitative results and models for the Al-OH, Si-OH and H(2)O(mol) speciation (Malfait and Xue, 2010). PMID:20418075

  20. Germination, Respiration, andAdenylate Energy Charge of Seeds atVarious OxygenPartial Pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIPPE RAYMOND

    Theeffect of02partial pressure onthegermination andtherespiration of12cultivated species wasstudied. Thereciprocal ofthetime necessary toobserve rootlet emergence in50%oftheseeds wasusedtoapproach thegermination rate. Themaximumgermination andrespiration rates werereached inmostseeds at02pressures close tothat ofair. Decreasing the02pressure produced agradual decrease ofthegermination rate. Theseeds could beclassed intwogroups according totheir response to IOW02pressures. Group Iincludes lettuce, sunflower, radish, turnip, cabbage, flax, andsoybean: at02pressures close to2kilopascals, the germination inthis group wasstopped

  1. Co-gasification of different rank coals with biomass and petroleum coke in a high-pressure reactor for H(2)-rich gas production.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, J; Arias, B; Gil, M V; Plaza, M G; Pevida, C; Pis, J J; Rubiera, F

    2010-05-01

    Four coals of different rank were gasified, using a steam/oxygen mixture as gasifying agent, at atmospheric and elevated pressure in a fixed bed reactor fitted with a solids feeding system in continuous mode. Independently of coal rank, an increase in gasification pressure led to a decrease in H(2) + CO production and carbon conversion. Gasification of the different rank coals revealed that the higher the carbon content and reactivity, the greater the hydrogen production. Co-gasification experiments of binary (coal-biomass) and ternary blends (coal-petcoke-biomass) were conducted at high pressure to study possible synergetic effects. Interactions between the blend components were found to modify the gas production. An improvement in hydrogen production and cold gas efficiency was achieved when the coal was gasified with biomass. PMID:20061144

  2. Impact of hydrogen partial pressure on coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, D.; Hoover, D.S.; Schweighardt, F.K.

    1984-06-01

    This program was conducted to determine the effects of hydrogen partial pressure on the SRC-I direct coal liquefaction process and SRC-I Demonstration Plant design. A native solvent was produced in quantity and slurried with Kentucky number 9 Mulford coal in a series of coal liquefaction runs under varying hydrogen gas rates, temperatures, residence times, and hydrogen partial pressures. The results showed that hydrogen partial pressure significantly affected product distribution; the magnitude of the effect was comparable to changes in temperature and residence time. Also, the impact of hydrogen partial pressure was enhanced by increases in both temperature and residence time. Operating at low hydrogen partial pressure did not show any apparent advantage; it reduced coal conversion, reduced oil yield, and had a detrimental effect on the yield distribution of other products. An increase in hydrogen partial pressure had the following effects: increased coal conversion; increased conversion of asphaltenes and preasphaltenes to lighter products; significantly increased the oil yield; increased light gas yields; decreased sulfur content in the SRC; increased hydrogen content of the recycle solvent; and increased hydrogen consumption. This study strongly suggests that further studies should be conducted to optimize the effects of hydrogen partial pressure on the process, both within and, preferably, beyond the constraints of the current basic SRC-I design, considering the major impact of this variable on the process. 10 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  3. FEM-based reconstruction of sound pressure field damped by partially absorbing boundary conditions

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Christian

    FEM-based reconstruction of sound pressure field damped by partially absorbing boundary conditions. The problem is discretised by using finite elements to reconstruct the sound pressure field of a cavity based to reconstruct sound pressure field inside a two-dimensional sedan passenger compartment. Ã? 2006 Elsevier Ltd

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  5. Influence of total and oxygen partial pressure on growth and metabolism of Methylomonas clara.

    PubMed

    Liefke, E; Onken, U

    1992-09-01

    The effect of total and oxygen partial pressure on metabolic activities of Methylomonas clara has been investigated in batch and continuous cultivation experiments using a pressurizable airlift loop reactor. At Oxygen partial pressures of more than 1000 mbar growth of M. Clara is retarded and completely inhibited at 1200 mbr. However, after several hours of incubation at elevated oxygen partial pressures, biomass formation is nearly doubled in subsequent continuous operation, Cells pretreated with oxygen are characterized by a change of cytochrome content; they excrete carboxylic acids into the medium. The results indicate that, by sparging an aerobic culture intermittently with pure oxygen, formation of biomass might be enhanced. PMID:18601172

  6. Partial Pressures of Te2 and Thermodynamic Properties of Ga-Te System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with Ga(1-x)Te(x) samples were measured by optical absorption technique from 450 to 1100 C for compositions, x, between 0.333 and 0.612. To establish the relationship between the partial pressure of Te, and the measured optical absorbance, the calibration runs of a pure Te sample were also conducted to determine the Beer's Law constants. The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with the GaTe(s) and Ga2Te3(s)compounds, or the so-called three-phase curves, were established. These partial pressure data imply the existence of the Ga3Te4(s) compound. From the partial pressures of Te2 over the Ga-Te melts, partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing for Te were derived and they agree reasonable well with the published data. The activities of Te in the Ga-Te melts were also derived from the measured partial pressures of Te2. These data agree well with most of the previous results. The possible reason for the high activity of Te measured for x less than 0.60 is discussed.

  7. Characteristics of high-purity Cu thin films deposited on polyimide by radio-frequency Ar/H2 atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Zheng, W.; Meng, Y. D.; Nagatsu, M.

    2013-03-01

    With a view to fabricating future flexible electronic devices, an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet driven by 13.56 MHz radio-frequency power is developed for depositing Cu thin films on polyimide, where a Cu wire inserted inside the quartz tube was used as the evaporation source. A polyimide substrate is placed on a water-cooled copper heat sink to prevent it from being thermally damaged. With the aim of preventing oxidation of the deposited Cu film, we investigated the effect of adding H2 to Ar plasma on film characteristics. Theoretical fitting of the OH emission line in OES spectrum revealed that adding H2 gas significantly increased the rotational temperature roughly from 800 to 1500 K. The LMM Auger spectroscopy analysis revealed that higher-purity Cu films were synthesized on polyimide by adding hydrogen gas. A possible explanation for the enhancement in the Cu film deposition rate and improvement of purity of Cu films by H2 gas addition is that atomic hydrogen produced by the plasma plays important roles in heating the gas to promote the evaporation of Cu atoms from the Cu wire and removing oxygen from copper oxide components via reduction reaction.

  8. Comparative Ecology of H2 Cycling in Organotrophic and Phototrophic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Bebout, Brad M.; Martens, Christopher S.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of H2 is critical to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. The sensitivity of these many processes to H2 can be described quantitatively, at a basic thermodynamic level. This shared dependence on H2 may provide a means for interpreting the ecology and system-level biogeochemistry of widely variant microbial ecosystems on a common (and quantitative) level. Understanding the factors that control H2 itself is a critical prerequisite. Here, we examine two ecosystems that vary widely with respect to H2 cycling. In anoxic, 'organotrophic' sediments from Cape Lookout Bight (North Carolina, USA), H2 partial pressures are strictly maintained at low, steady-state levels by H2-consuming organisms, in a fashion that can be quantitatively predicted by simple thermodynamic calculations. In phototrophic microbial mats from Baja, Mexico, H2 partial pressures are instead controlled by the activity of light-sensitive H2-producing organisms. In consequence, H2 partial pressures within the system fluctuate by orders of magnitude on hour-long time scales. The differences in H2 cycling subsequently impact H2-sensitive microbial processes, such as methanogenesis. For example, the presence of sulfate in the organotrophic system always yielded low levels of H2 that were inhibitory to methanogenesis; however, the elevated levels of H2 in the phototrophic system favored methane production at significant levels, even in the presence of high sulfate concentrations. The myriad of other H2-sensitive microbial processes are expected to exhibit similar behavior.

  9. Spectrophotometric and potentiometric investigations of the H 2 PO 4 ? -HPO 4 2? equilibrium at elevated pressure and temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Haufe

    1985-01-01

    The second dissociation reaction of phosphoric acid has been studied Raman spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically at pressures up to 100 MPa and temperatures up to 473.2 K in solutions with ionic strengths from 0.3 to about 1.0 mol-kg-1. Molalities, of orthophosphate salts from 0.005 to 0.1 mol-kg-1 have been used. The changes of the widths at half-height and the Raman shifts

  10. Hydrogen-induced cracking in 4340-type steel: Effects of composition, yield strength, and H 2 pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Bandyopadhyay; Jun Kameda; C. J. Mcmahon

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the threshold stress intensity for hydrogen-induced crack extension,Kth at room temperature were made on bolt-loaded WOL specimens of a commercial 4340 steel and of laboratory heats in which the\\u000a bulk concentrations of manganese, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur were varied. The hydrogen pressure was varied from 200 to\\u000a 1600 torr (~0.03 to 0.22 MPa), and the yield strengths were

  11. MEASUREMENT OF PARTIAL VAPOR PRESSURE OF AMMONIA OVER ACID AMMONIUM SULFATE SOLUTIONS BY AN INTEGRAL METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a simple, integral, passive method for measuring partial vapor pressure. ntegral methods are useful tools when dealing with very low concentrations because collection over extended periods increases the analytical sensitivity. assive methods have the advantage of not i...

  12. Pressure-Induced Magnetic Crossover Driven by Hydrogen Bonding in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Brinzari, Tatiana V.; Wright, Joshua B.; Ma, Chunli; Giri, Santanab; Schlueter, John A.; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru; Liu, Zhenxian; Musfeldt, Janice L.

    2014-08-01

    Hydrogen bonding plays a foundational role in the life, earth, and chemical sciences, with its richness and strength depending on the situation. In molecular materials, these interactions determine assembly mechanisms, control superconductivity, and even permit magnetic exchange. In spite of its long-standing importance, exquisite control of hydrogen bonding in molecule-based magnets has only been realized in limited form and remains as one of the major challenges. Here, we report the discovery that pressure can tune the dimensionality of hydrogen bonding networks in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine) to induce magnetic switching. Specifically, we reveal how the development of exchange pathways under compression combined with an enhanced ab-plane hydrogen bonding network yields a three dimensional superexchange web between copper centers that triggers a reversible magnetic crossover. Similar pressure- and strain-driven crossover mechanisms involving coordinated motion of hydrogen bond networks may play out in other quantum magnets.

  13. Pressure-Induced Magnetic Crossover Driven by Hydrogen Bonding in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine)

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Brinzari, Tatiana V.; Wright, Joshua B.; Ma, Chunli; Giri, Santanab; Schlueter, John A.; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru; Liu, Zhenxian; Musfeldt, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding plays a foundational role in the life, earth, and chemical sciences, with its richness and strength depending on the situation. In molecular materials, these interactions determine assembly mechanisms, control superconductivity, and even permit magnetic exchange. In spite of its long-standing importance, exquisite control of hydrogen bonding in molecule-based magnets has only been realized in limited form and remains as one of the major challenges. Here, we report the discovery that pressure can tune the dimensionality of hydrogen bonding networks in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine) to induce magnetic switching. Specifically, we reveal how the development of exchange pathways under compression combined with an enhanced ab-plane hydrogen bonding network yields a three dimensional superexchange web between copper centers that triggers a reversible magnetic crossover. Similar pressure- and strain-driven crossover mechanisms involving coordinated motion of hydrogen bond networks may play out in other quantum magnets. PMID:25116701

  14. Feasibility of measuring dissolved carbon dioxide based on head space partial pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barnaby J. Watten; Claude E. Boyd; Michael F. Schwartz; Steven T. Summerfelt; Brian L. Brazil

    2004-01-01

    We describe an instrument prototype that measures dissolved carbon dioxide (DC) without need for standard wetted probe membranes or titration. DC is calculated using Henry’s Law, water temperature, and the steady-state partial pressure of carbon dioxide that develops within the instrument’s vertical gas–liquid contacting chamber. Gas-phase partial pressures were determined with either an infrared detector (ID) or by measuring voltage

  15. Partial Alkane Oxidation Kinetics at High Pressures: Methane Oxidation in Stainless Steel and Quartz Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. S. Arutyunov; V. M. Rudakov; V. I. Savchenko; E. V. Sheverdenkin; O. G. Sheverdenkina; A. Yu. Zheltyakov

    2002-01-01

    Homogeneous partial methane oxidation in quartz and stainless steel flow reactors was studied systematically in the pressure range 15–80 atm. Product yields were determined as functions of basic process parameters (pressure, temperature, residence time of the mixture in the reactor, initial oxygen concentration). The process was found to depend strongly on the material of the reactor surface.

  16. Generation of extremely high vacuum by ordinary procedures with a SUS304 vacuum chamber and total and partial pressure measurements by hot cathode ionization gauges and a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. S.; Chung, K. H.; Shin, Y. H.; Arakawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present study generated an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa by very common methods such as using SUS304 chamber material, electropolishing surface treatment and turbomolecular pumping technology. We examined the gas phase and electron-stimulated desorption ions of the ion gauges, the effect of ambient temperature, total pressure and H2 partial pressure. One of the results showed that, as is well known, most of the residual gas in the extremely high vacuum chamber was H2 but there was also a little F, which is not so well known.

  17. Experimental data on the effect of pressure on the volatiles partitioning (Cl, F, H2O) in fluid-magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevychelov, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    Fluids, separating from the silicate melt with decreasing pressure during magma ascent, will contain all smaller amounts of chlorine and presumably of fluorine due to repartitioning of these halogens into the melt. Effect of pressure on the partitioning of F is expressed more weakly compared with Cl. Experimental studies on the solubility (1N NaCl +0.1N HCl) chloride acidoulous fluid in model melts of granodioritic, granitic and leucogranitic compositions were carried out at T =900-1000oC and P =500 and 100 MPa (Chevychelov, Chevychelova, 1997). The mass ratio of fluid / melt was (2-3): 1. The chlorine content after the experiments was defined only in granitoid melts (glasses). It is shown that, when the pressure is reduced from 500 to 100 MPa, the chlorine content in the silicate melt increases 3-2.5 times (from 0.3 wt.% to 0.9-0.8 wt.% in granodioritic melt, from 0.2% to 0.6-0.5% in granitic melt and from 0.2% to 0.5-0.4% in the leucogranitic melt). At these conditions the content of H2O in granitoid melts decreases approximately 2.5 times from 9-11 wt.% to 4 wt.% (Johannes, Holtz, 1996). Another series of experiments on the solubility of (HCl + HF) fluids of various concentration (from 1N to 16N) in phonolitic melt was held at T =1000°C and P =400, 200 and 50 MPa (Chevychelov, Mukhanova, 2008). The mass ratio of fluid / melt was 0.15:1. The chlorine and fluorine contents in the melt (glass) after the experiments were determined by microprobe analysis. With decreasing pressure the water content in the silicate melts decreased from 8-9 wt.% at 400 MPa to about 6 wt.% at 200 MPa and up to 2-3 wt.% at 50 MPa (Behrens et al., 2009). The Cl, F and H2O contents in the fluid coexisting with phonolitic melt were calculated using the mass balance method. It is shown that with decreasing pressure the chlorine content in phonolitic melt increases (from 0.1 wt.% to 0.35 wt.% at 1N HCl), and the chlorine content in the fluid decreases (from 8-9 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%). With increasing concentration of fluid the pressure effect on the partitioning of Cl decreases. The pressure has a weaker influence on the partitioning of F compared with Cl. At 3-7N HF fluid with decreasing pressure the fluorine content in the fluid coexisting with phonolitic melt decreases. At 1N HF fluid the pressure effect on the partitioning of F is not identified.

  18. Growth Responses of Neurospora crassa to Increased Partial Pressures of the Noble Gases and Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, R. G.; Schreiner, H. R.; Doebbler, G. F.

    1966-01-01

    Buchheit, R. G. (Union Carbide Corp., Tonawanda, N.Y.), H. R. Schreiner, and G. F. Doebbler. Growth responses of Neurospora crassa to increased partial pressures of the noble gases and nitrogen. J. Bacteriol. 91:622–627. 1966.—Growth rate of the fungus Neurospora crassa depends in part on the nature of metabolically “inert gas” present in its environment. At high partial pressures, the noble gas elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) inhibit growth in the order: Xe > Kr> Ar ? Ne ? He. Nitrogen (N2) closely resembles He in inhibitory effectiveness. Partial pressures required for 50% inhibition of growth were: Xe (0.8 atm), Kr (1.6 atm), Ar (3.8 atm), Ne (35 atm), and He (? 300 atm). With respect to inhibition of growth, the noble gases and N2 differ qualitatively and quantitatively from the order of effectiveness found with other biological effects, i.e., narcosis, inhibition of insect development, depression of O2-dependent radiation sensitivity, and effects on tissue-slice glycolysis and respiration. Partial pressures giving 50% inhibition of N. crassa growth parallel various physical properties (i.e., solubilities, solubility ratios, etc.) of the noble gases. Linear correlation of 50% inhibition pressures to the polarizability and of the logarithm of pressure to the first and second ionization potentials suggests the involvement of weak intermolecular interactions or charge-transfer in the biological activity of the noble gases. PMID:5883104

  19. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  20. Frequency shifts of vibrational and rotational states of dilute H2, D2, and HD impurities in solid Ar under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvi, B.; Chandrasekharan, V.; Chergui, M.; Etters, R. D.

    1986-02-01

    The frequency shifts of the vibrational and rotational transitions of H2, D2, and HD molecules trapped in solid Ar are calculated at zero temperature and at pressures 0<=P<=373 kbar. It is found that the pure vibrational and rotational-vibrational transition frequencies are strongly red-shifted in the solid at P=0, compared to gas-phase values, and the agreement with Raman scattering measurements is generally good. The calculated pure rotational transitions also show a small red shift at P=0 in the solid and are in generally good agreement with the measurements of Jodl and Bier, but less so with those of Prochaska and Andrews, who, except for D2(Ar), measure small blue shifts. The calculated local-mode frequencies of the impurity molecules in the solid at P=0 are also in good agreement with experiment, especially when thermal corrections are considered. With increasing pressure all transition frequencies and the local-mode frequencies are strongly blue-shifted with respect to P=0 solid values.

  1. Efficient representation of the absorption line blackbody distribution function for H2O, CO2, and CO at variable temperature, mole fraction, and total pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John T.; Webb, Brent W.; Solovjov, Vladimir P.; Ma, Jiefu

    2014-05-01

    The absorption line blackbody distribution function (ALBDF) is the primary tool used in the SLW model for calculating the weights of gray gases. The ALBDF for H2O, CO2, and CO is calculated rigorously using the HITEMP 2010 spectroscopic database. The line-by-line data is the basis for an updated and improved hyperbolic tangent correlation of the ALBDF, valid for temperatures ranging from 400 K to 3000 K and total pressures ranging from 0.1 atm to 50 atm. The correlations are first established at atmospheric pressure, and variable total pressure is accounted for as a shift from the atmospheric pressure calculation. Further, the line-by-line ALBDF data have been tabulated to directly represent the ALBDF; the ALBDF has been tabulated for discrete temperatures ranging from 300 K to 3000 K, mole fractions (where appropriate) from 0 to 1, and total pressures ranging from 0.1 atm to 50 atm. The data have been made available on the website http://albdf.byu.edu. Improvements made compared to other representations of the ALBDF include more rigorous generation of the detailed spectral absorption cross-section, correlation and tabulation of the ALBDF for CO, expansion to variable total pressure, and a higher temperature ceiling. The accuracy of the hyperbolic tangent correlation is characterized and regimes of relative lower accuracy identified, and it is demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate for engineering applications. The tabulated ALBDF data, which can be used directly in place of the correlation, are shown to be considerably more accurate than the correlation. There is an initial computational cost to read the tabulated data after which interpolation is used to obtain the ALBDF at specified conditions. The updated and expanded ALBDF correlation and the tabulated ALBDF data are used to compute total emissivity and radiative transfer in both homogeneous, isothermal media and non-homogeneous, non-isothermal media and are compared to line-by-line benchmark calculations. The hyperbolic tangent correlation performs very well in these calculations and shows excellent accuracy, while the accuracy of calculations using the tabulated data is considerably better.

  2. Burn rates of TiH2/KClO4/Viton and output testing of NASA SKD26100098-301 pressure cartridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holy, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The burn rates of the pyrotechnic TiH2/KClO4/Viton with a mass ratio of 30/65/5 have been measured as a function of pressure in nitrogen up to 312 MPa(45 Kpsi). The burn rates were fit to R = a pn, with a = 2.055 cm/sec/MPan and n = 0.472 between 0.15 MPa (22 psi) and 21.6 MPa (3.13 Kpsi) and a = 4.38 cm/sec/MPan and n = 0.266 between 70 MPa (10.15 Kpsi) and 312 MPa (45.25 Kpsi). The decrease in slope at the higher pressures is attributed to a diffusion limited reaction. No acoustically driven flame instabilities or large conductive-to-convective burn transitions were observed. Solid reaction products were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction detected only TiO2 and KC1. SEM showed that the particle size of the reaction products increased as the nitrogen pressure increased. There were no anomalous characteristics of the burn of this pyrotechnic that could be interpreted as a cause of the o-ring blow-by problem in the forward shear bolt assembly. Three NASA SKD26100098-301 pressure cartridges were fired into a fixed volume vessel that was sealed with an O-ring. A maximum pressure of 181.7 MPa(26,350 psi) was reached in around 100 ,mu sec for two shots fired into a volume of 16.3 cm3(0.996 in3). A maximum pressure of 33,460 psi was reached for one shot fired into a volume of 9.55 cm3(0.583 in3). The O-ring burned through on one shot in the larger volume and leaked on the other two thereby simulating the effects of an O-ring leak. The results imply that the piston in the shear bolt assembly would receive a large impulse even if there was a leak in an O-ring seal.

  3. A Direct Confirmation of the Standard Method of Estimating Intercellular Partial Pressure of CO2

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Thomas D.; Imai, Katsu; Farquhar, Graham D.; Cowan, Ian R.

    1982-01-01

    The partial pressure of CO2 inside leaves of several species was measured directly. Small gas exchange chambers were clamped above and below the same section of an amphistomatous leaf. A flowing gas stream through one chamber allowed normal CO2 and water vapor exchange. The other chamber was in a closed circuit consisting of the chamber, an infrared gas analyzer, and a peristaltic pump. The CO2 in the closed system rapidly reached a steady pressure which it is believed was identical to the CO2 pressure inside the leaf, because there was no flux of CO2 across the epidermis. This measured partial pressure was in close agreement with that estimated from a consideration of the fluxes of CO2 and vapor at the other surface. PMID:16662268

  4. Si(001) surface variation with annealing in ambient H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komeda, T.; Kumagai, Y.

    1998-07-01

    Monohydride termination and surface variation of Si(001)-2×1 by annealing in H2 ambient has been investigated with scanning-tunneling-microscopy (STM). A clean Si(001)-2×1 surface was annealed and cooled to room temperature in H2 ambient with various partial pressure of P(H2). Hydrogen termination of the surface is observed when P(H2) exceeds 10-3 torr, and complete monohydride termination is obtained with P(H2)~0.1 torr. The results are reproduced well by the calculation using the temperature-dependent sticking coefficient of molecular H2 on Si(001). [Kolasinski et al., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 7082 (1994)]. The surface obtained by H2 annealing shows characteristic SB-step shape, which has a long kink-free portion connected by a long kink. It is shown that the etching of Si surface by H2 is not responsible for the determination of the shape of SB steps. Instead, the presence of passivating hydrogen at the temperature above the frozen temperature of step motion on Si(001) is the origin of the characteristic step shape.

  5. In situ observations of temperature- and pressure-induced phase transitions in TiH 2: Angle-dispersive and synchrotron energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia E. Kalita; Andrew L. Cornelius; Kristina E. Lipinska-Kalita; Cédric L. Gobin; H. Peter Liermann

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the behavior of the structure of titanium hydride (TiH2), an important compound in hydrogen storage research, at elevated temperatures (0–120°C) and high pressures (1bar–34GPa). Temperature-induced changes of TiH2 as indicated in the alteration of the ambient X-ray demonstrated a cubic to tetragonal phase transition occurring at about 17°C. The main focus of this study was to identify any

  6. Accelerated carbon sequestration in mine tailings using elevated CO2 partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. L.; Power, I. M.; Dipple, G. M.; Mayer, K. U.

    2011-12-01

    Mineralization of atmospheric CO2 within hydrated Mg-carbonate minerals occurs passively in ultramafic mine tailings at low temperature via weathering of Mg-silicate minerals [1]. If this process were accelerated, large mines may have the capacity to sequester millions of tonnes of CO2 annually, providing the potential to offset the greenhouse gas emissions of mining. Recent laboratory evidence indicates the rate-limiting step for sequestration in mine tailings is the uptake of atmospheric CO2 into solution [2]. Supplying elevated partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) into mine tailings may accelerate carbon sequestration by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon and enhancing mineral dissolution. Passive carbon mineralization has been documented at the Mount Keith Nickel Mine (MKM), Western Australia [3]. MKM produces ~11 Mt of tailings annually, consisting primarily of Mg-silicate serpentine minerals. Brucite [Mg(OH)2] is present at lower abundance (~1-2.5 wt.%) [3], yet is more rapidly carbonated. The effect of elevated pCO2 on the carbonation rate of brucite was investigated experimentally with solutions mimicking process water chemistry and temperature conditions in tailings at MKM. Gas streams ranging in composition from 10 to 100% CO2 (balance N2) were sparged into 3.0 L alkaline slurries containing 5% brucite. Brucite was completely replaced by nesquehonite [MgCO3?3H2O] ± dypingite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2?5H2O] within 75, 12, and 7 hours with 10%, 50%, and 100% CO2 gas, respectively. This corresponds to a linear increase in carbon mineralization rate with pCO2. Approximately 30% of supplied CO2 was sequestered within these time periods. PHREEQC geochemical modelling using experimentally determined mineral dissolution rate laws suggests acceleration of the brucite carbonation rate with pCO2 is attributable to HCO3- promoted dissolution. Modelling of experimental conditions indicates that equilibrium between CO2 in the gas and aqueous phases is not attained during the carbonation reaction. This implies CO2 uptake into solution remains the rate-limiting step during brucite carbonation at elevated pCO2, providing further potential for acceleration. An increase in carbonation rate of serpentine with pCO2 is expected due to increased acidity, but the effect of HCO3- requires further investigation. Modelling reveals a non-linear relationship between both acidity and HCO3- promoted dissolution and carbonation rate of serpentine and brucite with pCO2. This implies use of lower pCO2 gas (e.g. 10%) may be sufficient to achieve similar carbonation rates as 100% CO2 gas if CO2 uptake were enhanced. The minimum experimental brucite carbonation rate is in excess of that required to completely carbonate the average mass of brucite produced annually at MKM. Achievement of this rate at the mine scale would sequester 80 - 210 kt CO2/year, offsetting annual mine emissions by ~22 - 56%. [1] Wilson et al. (2009), Econ. Geol. 104: 95-112. [2] Wilson et al. (2010), Environ. Sci. Technol. 44: 9522-9529. [3] Wilson (2009), PhD thesis, UBC, Vancouver, Canada.

  7. Soil carbon dioxide partial pressure and dissolved inorganic carbonate chemistry under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Karberg; K. S. Pregitzer; J. S. King; A. L. Friend; J. R. Wood

    2005-01-01

    Global emissions of atmospheric CO 2 and tropospheric O 3 are rising and expected to impact large areas of the Earth’s forests. While CO 2 stimulates net primary production, O 3 reduces photosynthesis, altering plant C allocation and reducing ecosystem C storage. The effects of multiple air pollutants can alter belowground C allocation, leading to changes in the partial pressure

  8. Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will be provided.

  9. Oxidation of C/SiC Composites at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Serra, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    T-300 carbon fibers and T-300 carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites (C/SiC) were oxidized in flowing reduced oxygen partial pressure environments at a total pressure of one atmosphere (0.5 atm O2, 0.05 atm O2 and 0.005 atm O2, balance argon). Experiments were conducted at four temperatures (816deg, 1149deg, 1343deg, and 1538 C). The oxidation kinetics were monitored using thermogravimetric analysis. T-300 fibers were oxidized to completion for times between 0.6 and 90 h. Results indicated that fiber oxidation kinetics were gas phase diffusion controlled. Oxidation rates had an oxygen partial pressure dependence with a power law exponent close to one. In addition, oxidation rates were only weakly dependent on temperature. The C/SiC coupon oxidation kinetics showed some variability, attributed to differences in the number and width of cracks in the SiC seal coat. In general, weight losses were observed indicating oxidation of the carbon fibers dominated the oxidation behavior. Low temperatures and high oxygen pressures resulted in the most rapid consumption of the carbon fibers. At higher temperatures, the lower oxidation rates were primarily attributed to crack closure due to SiC thermal expansion, rather than oxidation of SiC since these reduced rates were observed even at the lowest oxygen partial pressures where SiC oxidation is minimal.

  10. The stability and Raman spectra of ikaite, CaCO3??6H2O, at high pressure and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shahar, A.; Bassett, William A.; Mao, H.-K.; Chou, I.-Ming; Mao, W.

    2005-01-01

    Raman analyses of single crystals of ikaite, CaCO3??6H2O, synthesized in a diamond-anvil cell at ambient temperature yield spectra from 0.14 to 4.08 GPa; the most intense peaks are at 228 and 1081 cm-1 corresponding to Eg (external) and A1g (internal) modes of vibrations in CO32- ions, respectively. These are in good agreement with Raman spectra previously published for ikaite in powder form at ambient temperature and pressure. Visual observations of a sample consisting initially of a mixture of calcite + water in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell yielded a P-T phase diagram up to 2 GPa and 120 ??C; the boundary for the reaction ikaite ??? aragonite + water has a positive slope and is curved convexly toward the aragonite + water field similar to typical melt curves. This curvature can be explained in terms of the Clapeyron equation for a boundary between a solid phase and a more compressible liquid phase or largely liquid phase assemblage.

  11. Experimental study of the pressure fluctuations in a pump turbine at large partial flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Hongjuan; Luo, Xianwu; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Xin; Xu, Hongyuan

    2012-11-01

    Frequent shifts of output and operating mode require a pump turbine with excellent stability. Current researches show that large partial flow conditions in pump mode experience positive-slope phenomena with a large head drop. The pressure fluctuation at the positive slope is crucial to the pump turbine unit safety. The operating instabilities at large partial flow conditions for a pump turbine are analyzed. The hydraulic performance of a model pump turbine is tested with the pressure fluctuations measured at unstable operating points near a positive slope in the performance curve. The hydraulic performance tests show that there are two separated positive-slope regions for the pump turbine, with the flow discharge for the first positive slope from 0.85 to 0.91 times that at the maximum efficiency point. The amplitudes of the pressure fluctuations at these unstable large partial flow conditions near the first positive slope are much larger than those at stable operating condtions. A dominant frequency is measured at 0.2 times the impeller rotational frequency in the flow passage near the impeller exit, which is believed to be induced by the rotating stall in the flow passage of the wicket gates. The test results also show hysteresis with pressure fluctuations when the pump turbine is operated near the first positive slope. The hysteresis creates different pressure fluctuations for those operation points even though their flow rates and heads are similar respectively. The pressure fluctuation characteristics at large partial flow conditions obtained by the present study will be helpful for the safe operation of pumped storage units.

  12. [Device to assess in-socket pressure distribution for partial foot amputation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Camacho, Michelín; Urrusti, José Luis; Acero, María Del Carmen; Galván Duque-Gastélum, Carlos; Rodríguez-Reyes, Gerardo; Mendoza-Cruz, Felipe

    2014-07-01

    A device for dynamic acquisition and distribution analysis of in-socket pressure for patients with partial foot amputation is presented in this work. By using the developed system, we measured and generated pressure distribution graphs, obtained maximal pressure, and calculated pressure-time integral (PTI) of three subjects with partial foot amputation and of a group of Healthy subjects (Hs) (n = 10). Average maximal pressure in the healthy group was 19.4 ± 4.11 PSI, while for the three amputated patients, this was 27.8 ± 1.38, 17.6 ± 1.15, 29.10 ± 3.9 PSI, respectively. Maximal pressure-time integral for healthy subjects was 11.56 ± 2.83 PSI*s, and for study subjects was 19.54 ± 1.9, 12.35 ± 1.48, and 13.17 ± 1.31 PSI*s, respectively. The results of the control group agree with those previously reported in the literature. The pressure distribution pattern showed clear differences between study subjects and those of the control group; these graphs allowed us to identify the pressure in regions-of-interest that could be critical, such as surgical scars. The system presented in this work will aid to assess the effectiveness with which prosthetic systems distribute load, given that the formation of ulcers is highly linked to the pressure exercised at the point of contact; in addition, these results will help to investigate the comfort perception of the prosthesis, a factor directly influenced by the stump's pressure distribution. PMID:25264793

  13. Postoperative Pharyngolaryngeal Adverse Events with Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA Supreme) in Laparoscopic Surgical Procedures with Cuff Pressure Limiting 25?cmH2O: Prospective, Blind, and Randomised Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joo-Eun; Choi, Jae Won; Son, Il Soon

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events, laryngeal mask airway (LMA) manufacturers recommend maximum cuff pressures not exceeding 60?cmH2O. We performed a prospective randomised study, comparing efficacy and adverse events among patients undergoing laparoscopic surgical procedures who were allocated randomly into low (limiting 25?cmH2O, L group) and high (at 60?cmH2O, H group) LMA cuff pressure groups with LMA Supreme. Postoperative pharyngolaryngeal adverse events were evaluated at discharge from postanaesthetic care unit (PACU) (postoperative day 1, POD 1) and 24 hours after discharge from PACU (postoperative day 2, POD 2). All patients were well tolerated with LMA without ventilation failure. Before pneumoperitoneum, cuff volume and pressure and oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP) showed significant differences. Postoperative sore throat at POD 2 (3 versus 12 patients) and postoperative dysphagia at POD 1 and POD 2 (0 versus 4 patients at POD 1; 0 versus 4 patients at POD 2) were significantly lower in L group, compared with H group. In conclusion, LMA with cuff pressure limiting 25?cmH2O allowed both efficacy of airway management and lower incidence of postoperative adverse events in laparoscopic surgical procedures. This clinical trial is registered with KCT0000334. PMID:24778598

  14. Experimental investigation of the H2O-CO2 system between 250-330 K and 0-1.7 GPa and modeling of the sI clathrate hydrate of CO2 and CH4 at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollengier, O.; Choukroun, M.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; Bellino, G.; Morizet, Y.; Bezacier, L.; Oancea, A.; Taffin, C.; Tobie, G.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the importance of carbon dioxide for the understanding of water-rich outer solar system bodies, few studies have been devoted so far to the H2O-CO2 system at pressures and temperatures relevant to the interior of the icy moons of the giant planets. We report here new sapphire and diamond anvil cell experiments recently conducted in this binary system to constrain the stability of the CO2 hydrates and H2O ice VI at CO2 saturation in the 250 - 330 K and 0 - 1.7 GPa temperature and pressure ranges. Using Raman spectroscopy and optical monitoring, (1) we constrained the equilibrium between the CO2 sI clathrate hydrate and the H2O-rich liquid over the entire pressure range of stability of the hydrate, up to 0.8 GPa, with results in agreement with previous studies at lower pressures, (2) we confirmed the transition from the CO2 sI clathrate hydrate to a new CO2 high-pressure hydrate reported recently, and (3) we determined for the first time the melting curve of the H2O ice VI at CO2 saturation between 0.8 and 1.7 GPa. Using these third set of data and a chemical potential model for H2O, we propose a first assessment of the solubility of CO2 in water at these P-T conditions. With all these new results and available data in the literature, we propose a P-T-X description of the H2O-CO2 system over the explored pressure and temperature ranges. In addition, the dissociation curve of the CO2 sI clathrate hydrate has been modeled using the approach of van der Waals and Platteeuw. The model adequately reproduces the stability domain of the hydrate up to the highest pressures constrained experimentally. Results of the modeling of the sI clathrate hydrate structure currently being implemented for the H2O-CH4 binary and H2O-CO2-CH4 ternary systems will also be presented.

  15. High-pressure partial melting of gabbro and its role in the Hawaiian magma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggi, A. Susana; Lopez-Sanchez, Higinio; Caragea, Petrutza; Westgate, Mark; Arritt, Raymond; Clark, Craig A.

    2007-10-01

    We have conducted high-pressure experiments on a natural oceanic gabbro composition (Gb108). Our aim was to test recent proposals that Sr-enrichment in rare primitive melt inclusions from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, may have resulted from melting of garnet pyroxenite formed in the magma source regions by reaction of peridotite with siliceous, Sr-enriched partial melts of eclogite of gabbroic composition. Gb108 is a natural, Sr-enriched olivine gabbro, which has a strong positive Sr anomaly superimposed on an overall depleted incompatible trace element pattern, reflecting its origin as a plagioclase-rich cumulate. At high pressures it crystallises as a coesite eclogite assemblage, with the solidus between 1,300 and 1,350°C at 3.5 GPa and 1,450 and 1,500°C at 4.5 GPa. Clinopyroxenes contain 4 9% Ca-eskolaite component, which varies systematically with pressure and temperature. Garnets are almandine and grossular-rich. Low degree partial melts are highly siliceous in composition, resembling dacites. Coesite is eliminated between 50 and 100°C above the solidus. The whole-rock Sr-enrichment is primarily hosted by clinopyroxene. This phase dominates the mode (>75 wt%) at all investigated PT conditions, and is the major contributor to partial melts of this eclogite composition. Hence the partial melts have trace element patterns sub-parallel to those of clinopyroxene with ?10× greater overall abundances and with strong positive Sr anomalies. Recent studies of primitive Hawaiian volcanics have suggested the incorporation into their source regions of eclogite, formerly gabbroic material recycled through the mantle at subduction zones. The models suggest that formerly gabbroic material, present as eclogite in the Hawaiian plume, partially melted earlier than surrounding peridotite (i.e. at higher pressure) because of the lower solidus temperature of eclogite compared with peridotite. This produced highly siliceous melts which reacted with surrounding peridotite producing hybrid pyroxene + garnet lithologies. The Sr-enriched nature of the formerly plagioclase-rich gabbro was present in the siliceous partial melts, as demonstrated by these experiments, and was transferred to the reactive pyroxenite. These in turn partially melted, producing Sr-enriched picritic liquids which mixed with normal picritic partial melts of peridotite before eruption. On rare occasions these mixed, relatively Sr-rich melts were trapped as melt inclusions in primitive olivine phenocrysts.

  16. High-pressure partial melting of gabbro and its role in the Hawaiian magma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaxley, G. M.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    We have conducted high-pressure experiments on a natural oceanic gabbro composition (Gb108). Our aim was to test recent proposals that Sr-enrichment in rare primitive melt inclusions from Mauna Loa, Hawaii, may have resulted from melting of garnet pyroxenite formed in the magma source regions by reaction of peridotite with siliceous, Sr-enriched partial melts of eclogite of gabbroic composition. Gb108 is a natural, Sr-enriched olivine gabbro, which has a strong positive Sr anomaly superimposed on an overall depleted incompatible trace element pattern, reflecting its origin as a plagioclase-rich cumulate. At high pressures it crystallises as a coesite eclogite assemblage, with the solidus between 1,300 and 1,350°C at 3.5 GPa and 1,450 and 1,500°C at 4.5 GPa. Clinopyroxenes contain 4-9% Ca-eskolaite component, which varies systematically with pressure and temperature. Garnets are almandine and grossular-rich. Low degree partial melts are highly siliceous in composition, resembling dacites. Coesite is eliminated between 50 and 100°C above the solidus. The whole-rock Sr-enrichment is primarily hosted by clinopyroxene. This phase dominates the mode (>75 wt%) at all investigated PT conditions, and is the major contributor to partial melts of this eclogite composition. Hence the partial melts have trace element patterns sub-parallel to those of clinopyroxene with ?10× greater overall abundances and with strong positive Sr anomalies. Recent studies of primitive Hawaiian volcanics have suggested the incorporation into their source regions of eclogite, formerly gabbroic material recycled through the mantle at subduction zones. The models suggest that formerly gabbroic material, present as eclogite in the Hawaiian plume, partially melted earlier than surrounding peridotite (i.e. at higher pressure) because of the lower solidus temperature of eclogite compared with peridotite. This produced highly siliceous melts which reacted with surrounding peridotite producing hybrid pyroxene + garnet lithologies. The Sr-enriched nature of the formerly plagioclase-rich gabbro was present in the siliceous partial melts, as demonstrated by these experiments, and was transferred to the reactive pyroxenite. These in turn partially melted, producing Sr-enriched picritic liquids which mixed with normal picritic partial melts of peridotite before eruption. On rare occasions these mixed, relatively Sr-rich melts were trapped as melt inclusions in primitive olivine phenocrysts.

  17. Near-solidus rhyolitic melts of MORB+4 wt% H2O from base-of-crust through shallow subducted slab pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisson, T. W.; Kelemen, P. B.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent numerical models of subduction dynamics indicate that uncommon circumstances (slab edges, slow subduction of young oceanic crust) are required for slabs to heat beyond the H2O-saturated basalt solidus at sub-arc depths (Syracuse et al. 2010 EPSL, among others). In contrast, some geochemical evidence points to widespread incipient slab melting (Cooper et al. 2012 G3). Irrespective of current conditions, hotter mantle in the early Earth may have led to ubiquitous slab melting, and the thickening, foundering, and detaching roots of protocontinents could also have melted to low degrees. Experimental information on melting under such conditions helps to develop and test these hypotheses. Liu et al. (1996 EPSL) performed long duration (commonly 10 days) oxygen buffered (QFM, QFsM) experiments on N-MORB glass+4 wt% H2O from 0.8 to 3 GPa mainly to study slab metamorphism. The H2O-saturated basalt solidus was bracketed between 700 and 750 °C. Many runs 800 °C and hotter have analyzable melt that are examined in this study. Normalized anhydrous, 800 °C melts range from evolved low-K rhyodacite (or leuco-tonalite: 68.9 wt% SiO2) at 1 GPa to low-K high-silica rhyolite (or leuco-trondhjemite: 76.5 wt% SiO2) at 2.7 GPa, coexisting with residual assemblages of garnet-plagioclase amphibolite (0.9-1.2 GPa), amphibole eclogite (1.4-1.8 GPa), eclogite (2.0-2.6 GPa), and quartz eclogite (2.7 GPa) (+apatite, ilmenite, or rutile above 1.4 GPa). Mass-balance based estimates of melt fraction diminish modestly from ~0.3 at 1 GPa to ~0.17 at 2.7 GPa along the 800 °C isotherm. The consistently rhyolitic character of 800 °C melts at upper mantle pressures indicates that liquids closer to the solidus would also be evolved rhyolites. Limited trace element analyses (SIMS) are as expected, with the most evolved liquids coexisting with rutile-quartz eclogite having high Sr/Y (180-240) and Zr/Nb (90-110). Rare earth element-rich accessory minerals (allanite, monazite) have not been found, consistent with only weak Ba/La fractionation in glasses. Notably, estimated bulk solid/liquid Ds for Ba and Sr are low and similar (?0.02), and are only slightly exceeded by those for K and La (0.03-0.05, 0.06-0.08) for high-silica rhyolite melt coexisting with rutile-quartz eclogite. An implication is that if low-degree hydrous melting of basalt, leaving residual eclogite, were the dominant source of element enrichment during continental growth, the continents would be similarly enriched in Ba, Sr, and K, relative to bulk earth. This is true for K and Ba, but not for Sr (35-60, 40-80, vs. 15-20 × primitive mantle), suggesting that (1) Sr was sequestered somewhere (delaminated eclogized continental roots?) after release from slabs, (2) much element transfer from slabs is via fluid, not melt, for which the D for Sr>Ba (Kessel et al., 2005, Nature), (3) the elevated Ba/Sr and K/Sr of the continents reflects early Earth MORB values transferred to the continents by subduction processing, or (4) the bulk Sr concentration of the continents has been underestimated.

  18. Effect of Partial H2O-D2O Replacement on the Anisotropy of Transverse Proton Spin Relaxation in Bovine Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Tadimalla, Sirisha; Momot, Konstantin I.

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy of transverse proton spin relaxation in collagen-rich tissues like cartilage and tendon is a well-known phenomenon that manifests itself as the “magic-angle” effect in magnetic resonance images of these tissues. It is usually attributed to the non-zero averaging of intra-molecular dipolar interactions in water molecules bound to oriented collagen fibers. One way to manipulate the contributions of these interactions to spin relaxation is by partially replacing the water in the cartilage sample with deuterium oxide. It is known that dipolar interactions in deuterated solutions are weaker, resulting in a decrease in proton relaxation rates. In this work, we investigate the effects of deuteration on the longitudinal and the isotropic and anisotropic contributions to transverse relaxation of water protons in bovine articular cartilage. We demonstrate that the anisotropy of transverse proton spin relaxation in articular cartilage is independent of the degree of deuteration, bringing into question some of the assumptions currently held over the origins of relaxation anisotropy in oriented tissues. PMID:25545955

  19. Flight test evaluation of an RAF high altitude partial pressure protective assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, G. R.; Putnam, T. W.; Dana, W. J.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Winter, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    A partial pressure suit was evaluated during tests in an F-104 and F-15 as a protective garment for emergency descents. The garment is an pressure jerkin and modified anti-g suit combined with an oronasal mask. The garment can be donned and doffed at the aircraft to minimize thermal buildup. The oronasal mask was favored by the pilots due to its immobility on the face during high g-loading. The garment was chosen to provide optimum dexterity for the pilot, which is not available in a full pressure suit, while protecting the pilot at altitudes up to 18,288 meters, during a cabin decompression, and subsequent aircraft descent. During cabin decompressions in the F-104 and F-15, cabin pressure altitude was measured at various aircraft angles of attack, Mach numbers, and altitudes to determine the effect of the aerodynamic slipstream on the cabin altitude.

  20. An investigation on the effect of high partial pressure of hydrogen on the nanocrystalline structure of silicon carbide thin films prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Daouahi, Mohsen; Omri, Mourad; Kerm, Abdul Ghani Yousseph; Al-Agel, Faisal Abdulaziz; Rekik, Najeh

    2014-10-22

    The aim of the study reported in this paper is to investigate the role of the high partial pressure of hydrogen introduced during the growth of nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films (nc-SiC:H). For this purpose, we report the preparation as well as spectroscopic studies of four series of nc-SiC:H obtained by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at high partial pressure of hydrogen by varying the percentage of H2 in the gas mixture from 70% to 100% at common substrate temperature (TS=500°C). The effects of the dilution on the structural changes and the chemical bonding of the different series have been studied using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. For this range of hydrogen dilution, two groups of films were obtained. The first group is characterized by the dominance of the crystalline phase and the second by a dominance of the amorphous phase. This result confirms the multiphase structure of the grown nc-SiC:H thin films by the coexistence of the SiC network, carbon-like and silicon-like clusters. Furthermore, infrared results show that the SiC bond is the dominant absorption peak and the carbon atom is preferentially bonded to silicon. The maximum value obtained of the crystalline fraction is about 77%, which is relatively important compared to other results obtained by other techniques. In addition, the concentration of CHn bonds was found to be lower than that of SiHn for all series. Raman measurements revealed that the crystallization occurs in all series even at 100% H2 dilution suggesting that high partial pressure of hydrogen favors the formation of silicon nanocrystallites (nc-Si). The absence of both the longitudinal acoustic band and the transverse optical band indicate that the crystalline phase is dominant. PMID:25459700

  1. An investigation on the effect of high partial pressure of hydrogen on the nanocrystalline structure of silicon carbide thin films prepared by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daouahi, Mohsen; Omri, Mourad; Kerm, Abdul Ghani Yousseph; Al-Agel, Faisal Abdulaziz; Rekik, Najeh

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study reported in this paper is to investigate the role of the high partial pressure of hydrogen introduced during the growth of nanocrystalline silicon carbide thin films (nc-SiC:H). For this purpose, we report the preparation as well as spectroscopic studies of four series of nc-SiC:H obtained by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at high partial pressure of hydrogen by varying the percentage of H2 in the gas mixture from 70% to 100% at common substrate temperature (TS = 500 °C). The effects of the dilution on the structural changes and the chemical bonding of the different series have been studied using Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy. For this range of hydrogen dilution, two groups of films were obtained. The first group is characterized by the dominance of the crystalline phase and the second by a dominance of the amorphous phase. This result confirms the multiphase structure of the grown nc-SiC:H thin films by the coexistence of the Sisbnd C network, carbon-like and silicon-like clusters. Furthermore, infrared results show that the Sisbnd C bond is the dominant absorption peak and the carbon atom is preferentially bonded to silicon. The maximum value obtained of the crystalline fraction is about 77%, which is relatively important compared to other results obtained by other techniques. In addition, the concentration of CHn bonds was found to be lower than that of SiHn for all series. Raman measurements revealed that the crystallization occurs in all series even at 100% H2 dilution suggesting that high partial pressure of hydrogen favors the formation of silicon nanocrystallites (nc-Si). The absence of both the longitudinal acoustic band and the transverse optical band indicate that the crystalline phase is dominant.

  2. Collision-induced first overtone band of H2 in binary mixtures H2 N2 and H2 CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Kharma, M.; Stamp, C.; Varghese, G.; Paddi Reddy, S.

    2006-02-01

    Enhancement spectra of the collision-induced absorption (CIA) of H2 in its first overtone region 7500 9500cm in binary mixtures H2 N2 and H2 CO were studied at 298 K for base densities of H2 in the range 89 145 amagat and for partial densities of N2 and CO in the range 19 392 amagat. The observed spectra confirm that the isotropic overlap induction is absent in the 2 0 band of H2 unlike in the CIA spectra of the fundamental band of H2. Binary and ternary absorption coefficients were determined from the integrated absorption coefficients of the band. Enhancement absorption profiles of H2 N2 and H2 CO consist of a total of 434 components of quadrupolar double transitions. Profile analysis of the spectra was carried out using Birnbaum Cohen line shape function for the individual components of the band and characteristic line shape parameters were determined from the analysis.

  3. Measured pressure distributions inside nonaxisymmetric nozzles with partially deployed thrust reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert S.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at static conditions to measure the pressure distributions inside a nonaxisymmetric nozzle with simultaneous partial thrust reversing (50-percent deployment) and thrust vectoring of the primary (forward-thrust) nozzle flow. Geometric forward-thrust-vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. were tested. Test data were obtained at static conditions while nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to 4.0. Results indicate that, unlike the 0 deg. vector angle nozzle, a complicated, asymmetric exhaust flow pattern exists in the primary-flow exhaust duct of the 15 deg. vectored nozzle.

  4. Oxidation of C/SiC Composites at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Serra, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-fiber reinforced SiC (C/SiC) composites are proposed for leading edge applications of hypersonic vehicles due to the superior strength of carbon fibers at high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). However, the vulnerability of the carbon fibers in C/SiC to oxidation over a wide range of temperatures remains a problem. Previous oxidation studies of C/SiC have mainly been conducted in air or oxygen, so that the oxidation behavior of C/SiC at reduced oxygen partial pressures of the hypersonic flight regime are less well understood. In this study, both carbon fibers and C/SiC composites were oxidized over a wide range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures to facilitate the understanding and modeling of C/SiC oxidation kinetics for hypersonic flight conditions.

  5. Noninvasive Oxygen Partial Pressure Measurement of Human Body Fluids In Vivo Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Zaharchuk; Reed F. Busse; Guy Rosenthal; Geoffery T. Manley; Orit A. Glenn; William P. Dillon

    Rationale and Objectives. The oxygen partial pressure (pO2) of human body fluids reflects the oxygenation status of sur- rounding tissues. All existing fluid pO2 measurements are invasive, requiring either microelectrode\\/optode placement or fluid removal. The purpose of this study is to develop a noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging method to measure the pO2 of human body fluids. Materials and Methods. We

  6. Carbon dioxide partial pressure and carbon fluxes of air-water interface in Taihu Lake, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chengxin Fan; Weiping Hu; Phillip W. Ford; Yuwei Chen; Wenchuan Qu; Lu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    To obtain carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between water-air interface of Taihu lake, monthly water samplers at 14 sites and the local meteorological data of\\u000a the lake were collected and analyzed in 1998. Carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2) at air-water interface in the lake were calculated using alkalinity, pH, ionic strength, active coefficient, and water temperature.\\u000a The carbon fluxes at different

  7. Introduction to total- and partial-pressure measurements in vacuum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Kern, F. A.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to the fundamentals of total and partial pressure measurement in the vacuum regime (760 x 10 to the -16th power Torr) is presented. The instrument most often used in scientific fields requiring vacuum measurement are discussed with special emphasis on ionization type gauges and quadrupole mass spectrometers. Some attention is also given to potential errors in measurement as well as calibration techniques.

  8. Prediction of arterial partial pressure of oxygen with pulse oxygen saturation measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Brockway; William W. Hay

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: We studied 22 neonates with gestational ages from 26 to 40 weeks to determine how accurately pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) could predict arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and how much time and effort would be required to achieve and maintain a desired SpO2 value.Study design: SpO2 was maintained at 90%, 92%, 94%, 96%, and 98% by adjustment of

  9. Experimental study of local dehydration and partial melting of biotite-amphibole gneiss with participation of the H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids at the middle-crustal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, O.; Kozhukhantseva, S.

    2012-04-01

    Activity of aqueous chloride-rich brines coexisting with CO2-rich fluids is identified in many amphibolite and granulite terrains suggesting that this type of fluid is an important agent of high-grade metamorphism in the lower to middle crust (see reviews in Touret, 2009; Newton, Manning, 2010). Although thermodynamic and transport properties of these fluids is well constrained both theoretically and experimentally, their affect on complex natural assemblages is poorly understood and demands systematic experimental study. We report here results of the experiments on interaction of the biotite-amphibole gneiss from the Sand River formation (Limpopo Complex, South Africa) with the fluids H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl at 5.5 kbar, 750 and 800 C, the chloride/(H2O+CO2) varying from 0 0.1, and molar CO2/(CO2+H2O) = 0.5. No any reaction textures were identified in the sample interacted with the chloride-free CO2-H2O fluid at 750 C. At this temperature, addition of KCl into the fluid resulted in formation of spectacular reaction textures around biotite (Bt), amphibole (Amp), plagioclase (Pl) and quartz (Qtz) in the starting gneiss. These textures are intergrowths of low-Al clinopyroxene (Cpx) and K-feldspar (Kfs) (sporadically accompanied by ilmenite, sphene and Ti-bearing low-Al mica) corresponding to a progress of the following reactions: Phl + 3An + 18Qtz + 3(K2O in fluid) = 3Di + 7Kfs + (H2O in fluid) and Prg + Ed + 7(K2O in fluid) + 37Qtz + 5An = 9Di + 14Kfs + (2H2O + Na2O in fluid). Local partial melting of the gneiss interacted with KCl-bearing fluids at 750OC was observed only in the run at KCl/(CO2+H2O) = 1/30 and could be caused by local variation of water activity in the sample. Nevertheless, at 800 OC, granitic (>70 wt. % of SiO2) K2O-rich and Cl-bearing melt appears along the grain boundaries in all run samples. This melt produces K-feldspar and clinopyroxene, which are found as euhedral crystals in the glass. Melt films are usually accompanied by K-feldspar microveins and Cpx similar to those in the runs at 750 C. At KCl/(CO2+H2O) = 1/10, strongly "K-feldspartized" portions of the samples along cracks contain minute kalsilite, Ca-garnet, and calcite. In contrast, all NaCl-bearing (including mixed KCl-NaCl-bearing) runs both at 750 and 800 C show evidence for melting, whose intensity clearly increases with increasing NaCl/(CO2+H2O) ratio in the fluid. Na-granitic (> 70 wt. % of SiO2) melt forms at relatively low degrees of melting. Depending on NaCl concentration in the fluid, this melt coexists with Cpx, Opx and Na-rich (richteritic) Amp. Formation of Na-amphibole proceeds via peritectic reactions of biotite and pargasite-edenite amphibole with plagioclase and sodium-rich fluid, for example 5/3Phl + An + 12Qtz + 2Na2O = Richteritic Amp + [5/3Kfs + 2Ab] + 2/3H2O and 5/4Prg + 23/4Qtz + 1/4Na2O = Richteritic Amp + 1/4H2O + 3/2An + [1/4Ab], where Kfs and Ab are the basis of the silicate melt. Euhedral albite was observed crystallizing from the melt in the runs, where NaCl was the only chloride species in the fluid. Euhedral plagioclase crystals were found in glass in the runs with the mixed KCl-NaCl-bearing fluid, while melt films and pockets in the samples are accompanied by K-feldspar microveins. Na-rich "phonolitic" (55-56 wt. % of SiO2) melt containing up to 1.8 wt. % of Cl forms at almost complete melting of the gneiss in presence of NaCl-rich fluids. This melt coexists with pargasite-richterite amphibole and clinopyroxene, as well as with residual accessory phases. It should be noted that solubility of chlorine in the melts forming in equilibrium with the NaCl-rich fluids is by 0.3-0.5 wt. % higher than in the melts equilibrated with the KCl-rich fluids. Thus, the results of the experiments demonstrate that interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids is able to produce a wide spectrum of mineral assemblages and melts depending on temperature, bulk chloride concentration, and K/Na ratio in the fluid. These assemblages vary from syenitic Cpx+Kfs in presence of KCl-rich flu

  10. Peak airway pressure increase is a late warning sign of partial endotracheal tube obstruction whereas change in expiratory flow is an early warning sign.

    PubMed

    Kawati, Rafael; Lattuada, Marco; Sjöstrand, Ulf; Guttmann, Josef; Hedenstierna, Göran; Helmer, Alois; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Michael

    2005-03-01

    If peak inspiratory airway pressure (Ppeak) is used to monitor airway patency, progressive obstruction of the endotracheal tube (ETT) resulting from secretions can go undetected for a prolonged period. The reason is that any increase in Ppeak depends not only on the degree of narrowing but also on the inspiratory flow () rate. Although the impact of narrowing on low inspiratory is small, its decelerating effect on the high expiratory is pronounced and, hence, easily detectable. Dividing the volume-flow curve of a passive expiration into five consecutive segments (slices) and calculating the time constants (tau(Epsilon)) of these slices allows for analyzing whether and how expiratory is impeded by a partial obstruction. In nine piglets, during volume-controlled ventilation, three grades of ETT obstruction were created with an external clamp. In all animals the tau(E) increased with ETT obstruction (mean for the first slice: 550 ms with unobstructed ETT; grade 1: 661; grade 2: 877; and grade 3: 1563 ms, respectively) and this increase was significant with grade 2 and 3 obstruction. Ppeak, by contrast, did not increase significantly (base: 13, grade 1: 14, grade 2: 15 cm H(2)O) until the most severe (grade 3: 20 cm H(2)O) obstruction was created. We conclude that partial obstruction of the ETT can be reliably monitored with the expiratory V signal and has the potential of monitoring ETT narrowing in ventilator-dependent patients independent of the inspiratory pattern applied. PMID:15728085

  11. Effect of Plasma Treatment on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for the Detection of H2S and SO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yang, Bing; Wang, Xiaojing; Luo, Chenchen

    2012-01-01

    H2S and SO2 are important characteristic gases of partial discharge (PD) generated by latent insulated defects in gas insulated switchgear (GIS). The detection of H2S and SO2 is of great significance in the diagnosis and assessment of the operating status of GIS. In this paper, we perform experiments on the gas sensitivity of unmodified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and those modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma at different times (30, 60 and 120 s) for H2S and SO2, respectively. The results show that the sensitivity and response time of modified MWNTs to H2S are both improved, whereas the opposite effects are observed for SO2. The modified MWNTs have almost zero sensitivity to SO2. Thus, the MWNTs modified by atmospheric pressure DBD air plasma present good selectivity to H2S, and have great potential in H2S detection. PMID:23012548

  12. Assessment of metabolic flux distribution in the thermophilic hydrogen producer Caloramator celer as affected by external pH and hydrogen partial pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. Depending on the growth conditions C. celer can produce H2 at high yields. For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Results Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer. Two innate factors pertaining to culture conditions have been identified to significantly affect the metabolic flux distribution: culture pH and partial pressures of H2 (PH2). Overall, at alkaline to neutral pH the rate of biomass synthesis was maximized, whereas at acidic pH the lower growth rate and the less efficient biomass formation are accompanied with more efficient energy recovery from the substrate indicating high cell maintenance possibly to sustain intracellular pH homeostasis. Higher H2 yields were associated with fermentation at acidic pH as a consequence of the lower synthesis of other reduced by-products such as formate and ethanol. In contrast, PH2 did not affect the growth of C. celer on glucose. At high PH2 the cellular redox state was balanced by rerouting the flow of carbon and electrons to ethanol and formate production allowing unaltered glycolytic flux and growth rate, but resulting in a decreased H2 synthesis. Conclusion C. celer possesses a flexible fermentative metabolism that allows redistribution of fluxes at key metabolic nodes to simultaneously control redox state and efficiently harvest energy from substrate even under unfavorable conditions (i.e. low pH and high PH2). With the H2 production in mind, acidic pH and low PH2 should be preferred for a high yield-oriented process, while a high productivity-oriented process can be achieved at alkaline pH and high PH2. PMID:24678972

  13. Proximate nutritional composition of celss crops grown at different CO2 partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1994-11-01

    Two CELSS candidate crops, soybean (Glycine max) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), were grown hydroponically in controlled environments maintained at carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 kPa (500 to 10,000 ppm at 101 kPa atmospheric pressure). Plants were harvested at maturity (90 days for soybean and 105 days for potato) and all tissues analyzed for proximate nutritional composition (i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash content). Soybean seed ash and crude fiber were higher and carbohydrate was lower than values reported for field-grown seed. Potato tubers showed little difference from field-grown tubers. With the exception of increased crude fiber of soybean seed with increased CO2, no trends were apparent with regard to CO2 effects on proximate composition of soybean seed and potato tubers. Crude fiber of soybean stems and leaves increased with increased CO2, as did soybean leaf protein (total nitrogen). Potato leaf and stem (combined) protein levels also increased with increased CO2, while leaf and stem carbohydrates decreased. Values for leaf and stem protein and ash were higher than values generally reported for field-grown plants for both species. Results suggest that CO2 partial pressure should have little influence on proximate composition of potato tubers or soybean seed, but that high ash and protein levels might be expected from leaves and stems of crops grown in controlled environments of a CELSS.

  14. Toxicity of elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide to invasive New Zealand mudsnails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, R. Jordan; Moffitt, Christine M.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors tested the efficacy of elevated partial pressures of CO2 to kill invasive New Zealand mudsnails. The New Zealand mudsnails were exposed to 100 kPa at three water temperatures, and the survival was modeled versus dose as cumulative °C-h. We estimated an LD50 of 59.4°C-h for adult and juvenile New Zealand mudsnails. The results suggest that CO2 may be an effective and inexpensive lethal tool to treat substrates, tanks, or materials infested with New Zealand mudsnails.

  15. Pressure Distribution Over a Rectangular Airfoil with a Partial-Span Split Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Harris, Thomas A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of pressure-distribution tests of a Clark y wing model with a partial-span split flap made to determine the distribution of air loads over both the wing and the flap. The model was used in conjunction with a reflection plane in the NACA 7 by 10 foot wind tunnel. The 20-percent-chord split flap extended over the inboard 60 percent of the semispan. The tests were made at various flap deflections up to 45 degrees and covered a range of angles of attack from zero lift to approximately maximum lift for each deflection.

  16. Observation of a new phase of sonoluminescence at low partial pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, B.P.; Weninger, K.; Loefstedt, R.; Putterman, S. [Physics Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)

    1995-06-26

    The acoustically driven pulsations of a gas bubble lead to 10{sup 6}-fold changes in its volume and the emission of a light flash upon collapse. Mass diffusion between the bubble and the gas dissolved in the surrounding fluid maintains this steady-state bubble motion only at low partial pressures, around 3 Torr. This diffusion-controlled regime is uniquely favorable to sonoluminescence (SL) from hydrogenic gases and polyatomic gases with low adiabatic heating. Our analysis indicates that the previously investigated SL from bubbles at 200 Torr requires a nondiffusive mass flow mechanism.

  17. The formation of infinite-layer cuprates and correlation with temperature and partial pressure of oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-J. Liu; S. Koriyama; H. Yamauchi

    1993-01-01

    Various combinations of calcination temperature and oxygen partial pressures have been investigated to stabilize the infinite-layer structure in Ca1-xSrxCuO2 and (Ca1-x-yYy)SrxCuO2 systems using a solid-state reaction method. It is found that the stability of infinite-layer structure for different compositions strongly depends on the calcination conditions. The infinite-layer structure is stable in the range of 0.12 <= x <= 0.16 for

  18. Partial molar volumes and activity coefficients of the water in aqueous polyol solutions and the osmotic pressures of these solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keitaro Kiyosawa

    1992-01-01

    The freezing-point depression and density of aqueous polyol (alditol) solutions were measured, and the osmotic pressure and\\u000a the partial molar volume of the water of these solutions were calculated. The osmotic pressures calculated from the freezing-point\\u000a depression data were compared with those calculated with van't Hoff's equation and fairly good agreement was found. The partial\\u000a molar volumes of the water

  19. Partial melting of dry peridotites at high pressures: Determination of compositions of melts segregated from peridotite using aggregates of diamond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Hirose; Ikuo Kushiro

    1993-01-01

    The compositions of melts formed by partial melting of two relatively fertile spinel lherzolites were determined at pressures between 10 and 30 kbar under dry conditions using a layer of diamond aggregates sandwiched between peridotite layers. Partial melts segregate and migrate into the pore space between diamond grains soon after their formation. Overgrowth of minerals at quenching modifies the composition

  20. Effect of the nonlinearity of the carbonate system on partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trela, Piotr; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Moore, Robert M.; Kelley, Dan E.

    1995-01-01

    Partial pressure of CO2 is a nonlinear function of several seawater properties. Due to the nonlinearity in this relationship, the partial pressure of a uniform ocean would be different from that of a nonuniform ocean with the same bulk seawater properties. Assuming uniformity of seawater properties at some temporal and spatial scales in carbon models leads to systematic errors in partial pressure of CO2. In this paper we evaluate the magnitude of these errors. We partition the Geochemical Ocean Sections Study and Transient Tracers in the Oceans data according to the horizontal structure of several box models from the literature. Our results suggest that assumption of uniformity at large scales leads to understanding of underestimation of global surface ocean partial pressure of CO2 by at least 3 - 12 microatm. Nonlinear effects also introduce systematic errors in the buffer factor estimated from bulk seawater properties. We find the standard deviation of partial pressure of CO2 to be an indicator of the magnitude of the nonlinear effects. We discuss the implications of these errors for some conclusions drawn from carbon models. Biogeochemical processes, such as mixing, gas exchange, or biological activity, influence the distribution of the seawater properties. A shift in spatial or temporal patterns of these processes can modify the nonuniformity of the seawater properties and thus alter the partial pressure of the surface waters, even if the mean intensities of the processes remain constant.

  1. Stability of ZrO2 layers on Si (001) during high-temperature anneals under reduced oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmer, Susanne; Chen, Zhiqiang; Keding, Ralf; Maria, Jon-Paul; Wicaksana, Dwi; Kingon, Angus I.

    2002-07-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate ZrO2 layers grown by electron-beam evaporation in a molecular-beam epitaxy system. ZrO2/Si layers were investigated before and after uncapped annealing at 1000 degC under different oxygen partial pressures. The thickness of a SiO2-like, low-dielectric constant layer at the silicon interface was found to depend on the oxygen partial pressure during annealing. At oxygen partial pressures of about 10-4 torr the interfacial silicon oxide thickness increased through oxygen diffusion through the ZrO2 layer and silicon consumption at the interface. At oxygen partial pressures in the range of approximately 10-5 torr, only a thin (1 nm) interfacial silicon oxide layer was present, as required for low-equivalent oxide thicknesses of gate stacks incorporating alternative oxides. Further reduction of the oxygen partial pressures (about 10-7 torr) during annealing resulted in zirconium silicide formation at the interface. ZrO2 films annealed at the optimal partial pressure for a thin interfacial oxide were found to crystallize and contain no silicon. High-resolution analytical capabilities afforded by scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques proved essential in analyzing the stability of these ultrathin layers.

  2. Collision-induced first overtone band of H2 in H2-Kr and H2-Xe mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R. D. G.; Gillard, P. G.; Reddy, S. Paddi

    1997-10-01

    Enhancement of the collision-induced absorption (CIA) spectra of the first overtone infrared band of H2 in the H2-Kr and H2-Xe binary mixtures were recorded at 295 K for base densities of H2 in the range 30-57 amagat and for partial densities in the range 50-250 amagat for each of Kr and Xe. The observed spectra consist of single transitions O2(J), Q2(J), and S2(J) corresponding to the selection rule ?J=-2, 0, and 2, respectively. Binary, ternary, and quarternary absorption coefficients of the band arising from collisions of the type H2-X, H2-X-X, H2-H2-X,H2-X-X-X, H2-H2-X-X, and H2-H2-H2-X, where X represents Kr or Xe, have been determined from the integrated absorption coefficients of the band. The spectra are interpreted in terms of the quadrupolar induction mechanism and no evidence of the contribution from the isotropic overlap induction mechanism is found unlike in the CIA spectra of the fundamental band of H2 [see S. P. Reddy, in Phenomena Induced by Intermolecular Interactions, edited by G. Birnbaum (Plenum, New York, 1985), p. 129]. Analysis of the absorption profiles of the observed spectra was carried out using the Birnbaum-Cohen line-shape function [G. Birnbaum and E. R. Cohen, Can. J. Phys. 54, 593 (1976)] for individual components of the band and characteristic line shape parameters were determined from the analysis.

  3. Pressure-induced elastic and structural changes in hydrous basalt glasses: The effect of H2O on the gravitational stability of basalt melts at the base of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Yang, De-Bin; Xie, Hong-Sen; Li, Fang-Fei; Hu, Bo; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gao, Chun-Xiao

    2014-11-01

    To understand the effect of hydration on the elastic properties of silicate melts, we conducted in situ high-pressure Brillouin scattering measurements on two hydrous basalt glasses with different water contents in diamond anvil cells. Second-order phase transitions were observed in the hydrous basalt glasses and are due to the topological rearrangement of the silicate network to a high [Si, Al]-O coordination. Up to a pressure of 10 GPa at 300 K, the extra 2.23 wt% H2O lowers the elastic moduli of FX-2 basalt glass (2.69 wt% H2O) by 10%-18%, but does not affect the pressure derivatives of the elastic moduli, compared with FX-1 (0.46 wt% H2O) basalt glass. The phase transition takes place at a higher pressure in FX-2 compared with FX-1, possibly because of the depolymerization of water to silicate glass. Water interacts with network-forming cations and creates Si-OH and Al-OH groups, and prohibits nonbridging oxygen ions from being connected to other nearby framework cations (i.e., [5,6](Si, Al)), resulting in the hysteresis of the second-order phase transition. The density contrasts of our hydrous basalt melts with previous mid-ocean ridge basalt and preliminary reference Earth model data indicate that basalt melts may need very low water content (<0.46 wt% H2O) to maintain gravitational stability at the base of the upper mantle. Our results show that the elastic properties of hydrous silicate melts may have important implications for the dynamic evolution and chemical differentiation of the mantle.

  4. HCl Vapour Pressures and Reaction Probabilities for ClONO2 + HCl on Liquid H2SO4-HNO3-HCl-H20 Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, M. J.; Koch, R. E.; Kim, J. E.; Molina, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Henry's Law solubility constants for HCl have been measured for liquid H2SO4-HNO3-HCl-H2O solutions; the results are in good agreement with predictions from published semiempirical models. The ClONO2 + HCl reaction on the surfaces of such solutions with compositions simulating those of stratospheric aerosols has been investigated; as the composition changes following the temperature drop characteristic of the high-latitude stratosphere the reaction probability gamma increases rapidly. Furthermore, the gamma values remain essentially unchanged when HN03 uptake is neglected; the controlling factor appears to be the solubility of HCl. These results corroborate our earlier suggestion that supercooled liquid sulfate aerosols promote chlorine activation at low temperatures as efficiently as solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  5. Autothermal Cyclic Reforming Based H2 Generating & Dispensing System

    E-print Network

    Efficiency = HHV of H2 Produced / HHV of NG Fed PSA ­ Pressure Swing Adsorption #12;Praxair/ BP 6 High capital cost & inherent CO2 separation #12;Praxair/ BP 5 High Pressure vs. Low Pressure Reforming High Pressure Reforming Comp- ressor 100 psig 100 psig Reformer H2 PSA SyngasNatural Gas Low Pressure Reforming

  6. H2S concentrations in the arterial blood during H2S administration in relation to its toxicity and effects on breathing

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Trushin, Neil; Prokopczyk, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to establish in spontaneously breathing urethane-anesthetized rats, the relationship between the concentrations of H2S transported in the blood and the corresponding clinical manifestations, i.e., breathing stimulation and inhibition, during and following infusion of NaHS at increasing rates. The gaseous concentration of H2S (CgH2S, one-third of the total soluble form) was computed from the continuous determination of H2S partial pressure in the alveolar gas, while H2S, both dissolved and combined to hemoglobin, was measured at specific time points by sulfide complexation with monobromobimane (CMBBH2S). We found that using a potent reducing agent in vitro, H2S added to the whole blood had little interaction with the plasma proteins, as sulfide appeared to be primarily combined and then oxidized by hemoglobin. In vivo, H2S was undetectable in the blood in its soluble form in baseline conditions, while CMBBH2S averaged 0.7 ± 0.5 ?M. During NaHS infusion, H2S was primarily present in nonsoluble form in the arterial blood: CMBBH2S was about 50 times higher than CgH2S at the lowest levels of exposure and 5 or 6 times at the levels wherein fatal apnea occurred. CgH2S averaged only 1.1 ± 0.7 ?M when breathing increased, corresponding to a CMBBH2S of 11.1 ± 5.4 ?M. Apnea occurred at CgH2S above 5.1 ?M and CMBBH2S above 25.4 ?M. At the cessation of exposure, CMBBH2S remained elevated, at about 3 times above baseline for at least 15 min. These data provide a frame of reference for studying the putative effects of endogenous H2S and for testing antidotes against its deadly effects. PMID:23904109

  7. Experimental determination of the PVTX properties of aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures using synthetic fluid inclusions: H2O-NaCl as an example

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Bodnar

    1995-01-01

    The Synthetic Fluid Inclusion Technique provides a new and relatively simple experimental procedure for determining the Pressure-Volume-Temperature-Composition (PVTX) properties of aqueous solutions at elevated temperatures and pressures. With this technique, samples of the fluid(s) are isolated in quartz (Si02) at elevated temperatures and pressures and maintained for later laboratory study. Application of the Synthetic Fluid Inclusion Technique to determine isochores,

  8. Deformation mechanisms in granodiorite at effective pressures to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Bauer, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Deformation mechanisms in room-dry and water-saturated specimens of Charcoal Granodiorite, shortened at 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective pressures (Pe) to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting (less than or equal to 1050/sup 0/C) are documented with a view toward providing criteria to recognize and characterize the deformation for geological and engienering applications. Above 800/sup 0/C strength decreases dramatically at effective pressures greater than or equal to 50 MPa and water-weakening reduces strength an additional 30 to 40% at Pe = 100 MPa. Strains at failure are only 0.1 to 2.2% with macroscopic ductility (within this range) increasing as the effective pressures are increased and in wet versus dry tests. Shattering (multiple faulting) gives way to faulting along a single zone to failure without macroscopic faulting as ductility increases. Microscopically, cataclasis (extension microfracturing and thermal cracking with rigid-body motions) predominates at all conditions. Dislocation gliding contributes little to the strain. Precursive extension microfractures coalesce to produce the throughgoing faults with gouge zones exhibiting possible Riedel shears. Incipient melting, particularly in wet tests, produces a distinctive texture along feldspar grain boundaries that suggests a grain-boundary-softening effect contributes to the weakening. In addition, it is demonstrated that the presence of water does not lead to more microfractures, but to a reduction in the stresses required to initiate and propagate them.

  9. Partial Melting in the Iron-Sulfur System at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Seagle, C. T.; Heinz, D. L.; Shen, G.; Prakapenka, V. B.

    2005-12-01

    Melting in the Fe-rich portion of the Fe-S system was investigated to pressures of 80 GPa, using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction through a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at the GSECARS sector of APS. Intimately mixed Fe-FeS powders were compressed between insulating layers of NaCl in the diamond anvil cell. Double-sided laser heating was used to reduce axial temperature gradients, and temperatures were measured spectroradiometrically on both sides of the cell. Only the central, hottest part of the laser-heated region was probed with the 5x7 micron x-ray beam. At high pressures, Fe3S was formed by reaction between Fe and FeS upon laser heating, with excess Fe remaining. The Fe was used as an internal, high-temperature pressure standard based on existing equation of state data. Diffraction data were collected during laser heating and also from the quenched sample following each heating episode. The use of an image plate area detector greatly improved our ability to verify the presence of both metal and sulfide during heating. The eutectic temperature was bracketed by the absence of one phase above the melting point and the presence of both phases at lower temperature. The reappearance of the absent component (sulfide or metal) upon rapid quenching was taken as confirmation that partial melting had been achieved. Our results using this method are in broad agreement with earlier data that were based on textural criteria.

  10. H2SO4-HNO3-H2O ternary system in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, C. S.; Hamill, P.

    1974-01-01

    Estimation of the equilibrium vapor pressure over the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O to study the possibility of stratospheric aerosol formation involving HNO3. It is shown that the vapor pressures for the ternary system H2SO4-HNO3-H2O with weight composition around 70-80% H2SO4, 10-20% HNO3, 10-20% H2O at -50 C are below the order of 10 to the minus 8th mm Hg. It is concluded that there exists more than sufficient nitric acid and water vapor in the stratosphere to participate in ternary system aerosol formation at -50 C. Therefore, HNO3 should be present in stratospheric aerosols, provided that H2SO4 is also present.

  11. Partial Pressures for Several In-Se Compositions from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3-60.99 at.% Se and 673-1418 K was measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gauge measurements for compositions between 50-61 at.%, but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Knudsen-torsion cell measurements. It is found that 60.99 at.% Se lies outside the sesquiselenide homogeneity range and 59.98 at.% Se lies inside and is the congruently melting composition. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000-1300 K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 to -38 kJ per g atomic weight for 50 and 56% Se at 1200 and 1300 K.

  12. Diurnal changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in coral reef waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kayanne, Hajime; Suzuki, Atsushi [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Hiroshi [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1995-07-14

    Coral reefs are considered to be a source of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of their high calcium carbonate production and low net primary production. This was tested by direct measurement of diurnal changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P{sub CO2}) in reef waters during two 3-day periods, one in March 1993 and one in March 1994, on Shiraho reef of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Although the P{sub CO2} values in reef waters exhibited large diurnal changes ranging from 160 to 520 microatmospheres, they indicate that the reef flat area is a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. This suggests that the net organic production rate of the reef community exceeded its calcium carbonate production rate during the observation periods. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Partial Pressures of In-Se from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3 and 61 atomic percent and 673 and 1418K has been measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gage measurements for compositions between 50 and 61 atomic percent but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Torsion-Knudsen cell measurements. The sequiselenide is found to sublime incongruently. Congruent vaporization occurs for the liquid above 1000 K between 50.08 and 56 at. percent Se. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000 and 1300K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 and -38 kJ per gram atomic weight for 50 and 56 percent Se at 1200 and 1300K.

  14. Real-time visualization of oxygen partial pressures in straight channels of running polymer electrolyte fuel cell with water plugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Katsuya; Suga, Takeo; Nagumo, Yuzo; Uchida, Makoto; Inukai, Junji; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Visualization inside polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for elucidating the reaction distributions is expected to improve the performance, durability, and stability. An oxygen-sensitive film of a luminescent porphyrin was used to visualize the oxygen partial pressures in five straight gas-flow channels of a running PEFC with liquid-water blockages formed at the end of the channels. The blockage greatly lowered and unstabilized the cell voltage. The oxygen partial pressure decreased nearly to 0 kPa in the blocked channel. With a water blockage in a channel, the oxygen partial pressures in the adjacent channels were lowered due to an extra demand of oxygen consumption. When the number of the blocked channels increased, the oxygen partial pressure in the unblocked channels became much lowered. When the water blockages disappeared, the oxygen partial pressures quickly returned to the values before plugging. The influence of the cross flows of air through the gas diffusion layers in straight channels was much smaller than that in serpentine flow channels.

  15. Qualitative determination of H2S crossover rates in nation membranes using ion-probe techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Uribe, Francisco A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H2S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. The H2S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion PEMFC membranes was studied using ion probe techniques. A sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H2S that permeated through 50 cm2samples of Nafion 117 and 212 membranes using a partial pressure difference up to I030ppm at room temperature. Experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order to achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(N03)2. The rate of H2S crossover for dry 117 and 212 were identical at 1.2e-7 g/min. Humidification increased the crossover rate to 5.ge-7 glmin and 1.8e-6 glmin for 117 and 212 respectively. Although the data collected in this work show that the rate of H2S crossover increases with water content and reduced membrane thickness, an accurate determination of permeation constants from this work was not possible because the H2S partial pressure was not constant throughout the experiment.

  16. Effect of H2O on the density of silicate melts at high pressures: Static experiments and the application of a modified hard-sphere model of equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhicheng; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2012-05-01

    Density of ultramafic silicate melts was determined using the sink/float technique at high pressures. Seven melt compositions were studied, among which three were dry compositions with different Mg#'s (molar MgO/(MgO + FeO) × 100) and the other four were hydrous compositions synthesized by adding 2-7 wt.% H2O to the anhydrous ones. Experimental conditions range from 9 to 15 GPa and from 2173 to 2473 K. The sinking and floatation of density markers were observed for all melt compositions. Melt density data were analyzed by applying the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a newly developed equation of state for silicate melts based on the model of hard sphere mixtures. The presence of water can significantly reduce the density of melts due to its small molecular mass. On the other hand, water makes hydrous silicate melts more compressible than anhydrous melts and therefore the effect of H2O on melt density is less significant at high pressures. The density of hydrous melts was then calculated as a function of H2O content at the conditions of the bottom of the upper mantle, and was compared with the density of the dominant upper mantle minerals. Results show that the conditions for a negatively buoyant melt that coexists with a pyrolite mantle atop the 410 km discontinuity are marginally satisfied if H2O is the only volatile component to facilitate melting, but such conditions will be satisfied by a broader range of conditions when other heavier volatile elements (C, K, etc.) are also present.

  17. Oxidation of SiC/BN/SiC Composites in Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Boyd, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composites with a BN interphase are proposed for use as leading edge structures of hypersonic vehicles. The durability of these materials under hypersonic flight conditions is therefore of interest. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterize the oxidation kinetics of both the constituent fibers and composite coupons at four temperatures: 816, 1149, 1343, and 1538 C (1500, 2100, 2450, and 2800 F) and in oxygen partial pressures between 5% and 0.1% (balance argon) at 1 atm total pressure. One edge of the coupons was ground off so the effects of oxygen ingress into the composite could be monitored by post-test SEM and EDS. Additional characterization of the oxidation products was conducted by XPS and TOF-SIMS. Under most conditions, the BN oxidized rapidly, leading to the formation of borosilicate glass. Rapid initial oxidation followed by volatilization of boria lead to protective oxide formation and further oxidation was slow. At 1538C in 5% oxygen, both the fibers and coupons exhibited borosilicate glass formation and bubbling. At 1538C in 0.1% oxygen, active oxidation of both the fibers and the composites was observed leading to rapid SiC degradation. BN oxidation at 1538C in 0.1% oxygen was not significant.

  18. Thickness and oxygen partial pressure dependence on optical band gap of indium oxide by reactive evaporation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammed Ali, A. V.; Kekuda, Dhananjaya

    2015-02-01

    Indium oxide film is deposited by reactive evaporation of indium in the presence of oxygen gas onto an unheated glass substrate. It was found that thickness of the film and partial oxygen pressure during the deposition affects the optical properties of the indium oxide thin film. We studied the optical band gap for different thickness and partial pressure keeping a constant annealing temperature. It was found that the band gap varies from 3.5 to 3.8eV, as thickness of the film increased. The band gap energy had also shows the similar trend and it was also studied as a function of annealing temperature. A systematic investigation of the optical band gap as a function of thickness and oxygen partial pressure at different annealing temperature was carried out.

  19. Organic Tank Safety Project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water content of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-U-105

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1997-09-01

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P{sub H2O} is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site`s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as {open_quotes}Unsafe.{close_quotes} To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P{sub H2O} on their equilibrium water content.

  20. Pressure dependence of the electro-optic response function in partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystals in a new configuration, termed partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystal (PEPDFLC), respond to external pressures and demonstrate pressure-induced electro-optic switching response. When the PEPDFLC thin film is sandwiched between two transparent conducting electrodes, one a glass plate and the other a flexible sheet such as polyvenylidene fluoride, the switching characteristics of the thin film are a function of the pressure applied to the flexible transparent electrode and the bias voltage across the electrodes. Response time measurements reveal a linear dependence of the change in electric field with external pressure.

  1. In situ FTIR study on the formation and adsorption of CO on alumina-supported noble metal catalysts from H2 and CO2 in the presence of water vapor at high pressures.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Narisawa, Satomi; Fujita, Shin-ichiro; Ruixia, Liu; Arai, Masahiko

    2012-04-14

    The formation and adsorption of CO from CO(2) and H(2) at high pressures were studied over alumina-supported noble metal catalysts (Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru) by in situ FTIR measurements. To examine the effects of surface structure of supported metal particles and water vapor on the CO adsorption, FTIR spectra were collected at 323 K with untreated and heat (673 K) treated catalysts in the absence and presence of water (H(2)O, D(2)O). It was observed that the adsorption of CO occurred on all the metal catalysts at high pressures, some CO species still remained adsorbed under ambient conditions after the high pressure FTIR measurements, and the frequencies of the adsorbed CO species were lower either for the heat treated samples or in the presence of water vapor. It is assumed that the CO absorption bands on atomically smoother surfaces appear at lower frequencies and that water molecules are adsorbed more preferentially on atomically rough surfaces rather than CO species. PMID:22395771

  2. Chemical vapor infiltration of pyrocarbon —II. The influence of increasing methane partial pressure at constant total pressure on infiltration rate and degree of pore filling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Benzinger; K. J. Hüttinger

    1998-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration of pyrocarbon with methane as the carbon source was studied at a total pressure of 20 kPa, a temperature of 1100 °C and methane partial pressures from 2.5 to 20 kPa. A cylindrically-shaped porous alumina ceramic, 20 mm in height and 16 mm in diameter, was used as the substrate. The pore entrance diameters of the porous

  3. Stigmatically focusing partial pressure analyzer with dual chamber ion source. Ph.D. Thesis - Technical Univ. of Munich, 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasskopf, Klaus F.

    1987-01-01

    The partial pressure analyzer developed has a high absolute sensitivity and high resolution. Interaction effects, as they occur in conventional partial pressure analyzers between the heating filament for the emission of electrons and the residual gas, are suppressed by removing the heating filament from the measurement area. The electron beam is generated in an auxiliary vacuum compartment, and passes subsequently through an aperture into the ionization compartment. The probability is small, therefore, that the presence of substances produced at the heating filament by chemical reactions and thermal decompositions will have disturbing effects. The high sensitivity and resolution of the instrument are obtained with the aid of an electron path configuration of unconventional characteristics.

  4. Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts to Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee-Yon Lee; Hee-Soo Yoo; Jong Sook Park; Kwang-Jin Hwang; Jin Seog Kim

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous mixing of helium and air in a helium-inflated balloon is described in an experiment in which the partial pressure of the gases in the balloon are determined from the mole factions and the total pressure measured in the balloon. The results described provide a model for teaching concepts of partial pressure, chemical potential, and…

  5. H2O Adsorption on Smectites: Application to the Diurnal Variation of H2O in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Howard, J.; Quinn, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of the Martian planetary boundary layer lead to interpretations that are baffling and contradictory. In this paper, we specifically address the question of whether or not water vapor finds a substantial diurnal reservoir in the Martian regolith. To address this issue, we have measured H2O adsorption kinetics on SWy-1, a Na-rich montmorillonite from Wyoming. The highest-temperature (273 K) data equilibrates rapidly. Data gathered at realistic H2O partial pressures and temperatures appropriate to early morning show two phenomena that preclude a significant role for smectites in diurnally exchanging a large column abundance. First, the equilibration timescale is longer than a sol. Second, the equilibrium abundances are a small fraction of that predicted by earlier adsorption isotherms. The explanation for this phenomenon is that smectite clay actually increases its surface area as a function of adsorptive coverage. At Mars-like conditions, we show that the interlayer sites of smectites are likely to be unavailable.

  6. Prediction of the local pressure gradient during partially developed subcooled boiling in research reactors of high power density

    SciTech Connect

    McDuffee, J.L. [JBF Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ruggles, A.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    A model is presented for predicting the pressure gradient in partially developed subcooled boiling of water for velocities from 15 to 30 m/s and inlet peaked, nonuniform axial flux profiles with channel average flux values of 6 MW/m{sup 2}. The partially and fully developed boiling regions are considered separately, however, the same general modeling technique is used for both. several correlations for the void fraction at onset of significant void are considered, and their effect on the channel pressure drop is evaluated. The effect of nonuniform axial heat flux on the channel pressure drop is also evaluated. The model is compared with pressure drop data from the thermal-hydraulic test loop at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and is found to agree with the data within 24%.

  7. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O: V. Thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high temperatures and pressures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sterner, S.M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Downs, R.T.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Gibbs energies of mixing for NaCl-KCl binary solids and liquids and solid-saturated NaCl-KCl-H2O ternary liquids were modeled using asymmetric Margules treatments. The coefficients of the expressions were calibrated using an extensive array of binary solvus and solidus data, and both binary and ternary liquidus data. Over the PTX range considered, the system exhibits complete liquid miscibility among all three components and extensive solid solution along the anhydrous binary. Solid-liquid and solid-solid phase equilibria were calculated by using the resulting equations and invoking the equality of chemical potentials of NaCl and KCl between appropriate phases at equilibrium. The equations reproduce the ternary liquidus and predict activity coefficients for NaCl and KCl components in the aqueous liquid under solid-saturation conditions between 673 and 1200 K from vapor saturation up to 5 kbar. In the NaCl-KCl anhydrous binary system, the equations describe phase equilibria and predict activity coefficients of the salt components for all stable compositions of solid and liquid phases between room temperature and 1200 K and from 1 bar to 5 kbar. ?? 1992.

  8. Spectroscopic studies on nanocrystalline silicon thin films prepared from H2-diluted SiH4-plasma in inductively coupled low pressure RF PECVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Mahua; Banerjee, Amit; Das, Debajyoti

    2014-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on the evolution of the microstructure as well as optical constants and dielectric functions of intrinsic hydrogenated nano-crystalline silicon thin films prepared by highly H2 diluted SiH4 plasma in a planar inductively coupled RF plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) reactor has been performed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Films are assumed to have a three-layer structure, with a thin incubation layer at substrate/bulk interface, the bulk layer and a thin growth zone and surface roughness layer. Individual composition and the thickness of each layer have been estimated from the simulation of the ellipsometry data using Bruggeman effective medium approximation (BEMA). The ellipsometry results are correlated with atomic force microscopy and micro-Raman data of these films. The effect of the flow rate of SiH4 and the key role of hydrogen dilution on growth dynamics, optical constants and dielectric functions of highly crystalline nanosilicon films is discussed elaborately. The bulk crystalline volume fraction of the deposited films varies considerably (~67-84%) with the change in flow rate of SiH4. With increasing SiH4 flow rate the overall bulk crystallinity reduces; however the ultra-nanocrystalline component (Xunc) enhances substantially that helps reducing the porosity and surface roughness.

  9. Experimental multi-phase H2O-CO2 brine interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuel and other anthropogenic activities have caused a continuous and dramatic 30% increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past 150 yr. CO2 sequestration is increasingly being viewed as a tool for managing these anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. CO2-saturated brine-rock experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration in mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were generally consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions were occurring on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  10. Effects of nitrogen partial pressure on titanium oxynitride films deposited by reactive RF magnetron sputtering onto PET substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Lin; L.-S. Chang; H. C. Lin

    2008-01-01

    Titanium oxynitride (TiNxOy) films have been deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates by reactive radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influence of the nitrogen (N2) partial pressure in the discharge atmosphere, with a set pressure of 0.133 Pa, was examined. Other deposition conditions were held constant. The deposition rate of the films, which exhibit an island-type morphology, was found to decrease

  11. Change in expiratory flow detects partial endotracheal tube obstruction in pressure-controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Kawati, Rafael; Vimlati, Laszlo; Guttmann, Josef; Hedenstierna, Göran; Sjöstrand, Ulf; Schumann, Stefan; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Only extreme degrees of endotracheal tube (ETT) narrowing can be detected with monitoring of tidal volume (V(T)) during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). To assess the degree of ETT obstruction in PCV and to compare it to V(T) monitoring, we produced 3 levels of partial ETT obstruction in 11 healthy anesthetized piglets using ETTs of 4 different inner diameters (IDs 9.0, 8.0, 7.0, and 6.0 mm). An expiratory flow over volume ((e)-V) curve was plotted and the time constant (tau(e)) at 15% of expiration time (T(e)) was calculated. We also calculated the fractional volume expired during the first 15% of T(e) (V(ex fract,15)) and compared those variables to full expiratory V(T) for each of the 3 obstructions. V(T) monitoring failed to detect ETT narrowing. By contrast, V(ex fract,15) decreased and tau(e) increased significantly with increasing ETT narrowing (for IDs 9.0, 8.0, 7.0, and 6.0, mean V(ex fract,15) was 195, 180, 146, and 134 mL respectively and mean tau(e) was 380, 491, 635, 794 ms for IDs 9.0, 8.0, 7.0, and 6.0 respectively). We conclude that when the elastic recoil that drives (e) is appropriately considered, analysis of (e) and V(ex fract,15) detects partial ETT obstruction during PCV. PMID:16931676

  12. Effect of H2S and COS in the fuel gas on the performance of ambient pressure phosphoric acid fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P. N., Jr.

    1985-04-01

    The objective of this project was to determine in laboratory cells the tolerance of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) to hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulphide impurities in the anode feed gas. The study was conducted in three phases: the first was testing in a small (1 sq cm) free electrolyte cell to examine the effect of electrode structure on cell tolerance and to determine the order of magnitude of sulfur causing failure in cells at zero utilization; the second was testing in standard 2' x 2' PAFC laboratory hardware at ambient pressure to examine the effect of hydrogen utilization on tolerance and the possible effect of fuel impurities on cathode performance; the final phase was testing with a 2' x 2' cell in a pressure vessel to determine the effect of pressurized operation on cell tolerance. The poisoning effect of hydrogen sulfide was characteristically different from the effects of carbon monoxide, in that it was not manifested by a marginal (e.g., 0 to 50 mV) increase in anode potential but either had no effect or caused catastrophic polarization. Critical levels were derived for hydrogen sulfide as related to cell operating conditions.

  13. Partial Defect Verification of the Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S

    2010-02-05

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the responsibility to carry out independent inspections of all nuclear material and facilities subject to safeguards agreements in order to verify compliance with non-proliferation commitments. New technologies have been continuously explored by the IAEA and Member States to improve the verification measures to account for declared inventory of nuclear material and detect clandestine diversion and production of nuclear materials. Even with these efforts, a technical safeguards challenge has remained for decades for the case of developing a method in identifying possible diversion of nuclear fuel pins from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies. We had embarked on this challenging task and successfully developed a novel methodology in detecting partial removal of fuel from pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies. The methodology uses multiple tiny neutron and gamma detectors in the form of a cluster and a high precision driving system to obtain underwater radiation measurements inside a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel assembly without any movement of the fuel. The data obtained in such a manner can provide spatial distribution of neutron and gamma flux within a spent fuel assembly. The combined information of gamma and neutron signature is used to produce base signatures and they are principally dependent on the geometry of the detector locations, and exhibit little sensitivity to initial enrichment, burn-up or cooling time. A small variation in the fuel bundle such as a few missing pins changes the shape of the signature to enable detection. This resulted in a breakthrough method which can be used to detect pin diversion without relying on the nuclear power plant operator's declared operation data. Presented are the results of various Monte Carlo simulation studies and experiments from actual commercial PWR spent fuel assemblies.

  14. Near-infrared spectra of H2O under high pressure and high temperature: Implications for a transition from proton tunneling to hopping states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Naoki; Komatsu, Kazuki; Shinozaki, Ayako; Shinoda, Keiji; Kagi, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    The nature of protons in ice VII up to 368 °C and 16 GPa was investigated with synchrotron near-infrared spectroscopy. The absorption band of the first OH stretching overtone mode divided into doublet peaks above 5 GPa at room temperature, suggesting that proton tunneling occurs at the overtone level. As the temperature increased, the doublet peaks gradually reduced to a singlet. This result implies that thermally activated protons hop between the two potential minima along the oxygen-oxygen axis. A pressure-temperature diagram for the proton state was constructed from the changing band shape of the overtone mode.

  15. Silicate Carbonation in Supercritical CO2 Containing Dissolved H2O: An in situ High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Miller, Quin RS; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Arey, Bruce W.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have been significant in recent years for managing environmentally harmful emissions (mostly CO2) resulting from combustion of fossil fuels. Deep underground geologic formations are emerging as reasonable options for long term storage of CO2 but mechanisms controlling rock and mineral stability in contact with injected supercritical fluids containing water are relatively unknown. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring between supercritical CO2 containing water and the silicate minerals forsterite (Mg2SiO4), wollastonite (CaSiO3), and enstatite (MgSiO3). This study utilizes newly developed in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) and in situ infra red (IR) to examine mineral transformation reactions. Forsterite and enstatite were selected as they are important minerals present in igneous and mafic rocks and have been the subject of a large number of aqueous dissolution studies that can be compared with non-aqueous fluid tests in this study. Wollastonite, classified as a pyroxenoid (similar to a pyroxene), was chosen as a suitably fast reacting proxy for examining silicate carbonation processes associated with a wet scCO2 fluid as related to geologic carbon sequestration. The experiments were conducted under modest pressures (90 to 160 bar), temperatures between 35° to 70° C, and varying concentrations of dissolved water. Under these conditions scCO2 contains up to 3,500 ppm dissolved water.

  16. Spectroscopic study of partially-ordered semiconductor heterojunction under high pressure and high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.Y.; Martinez, G.; Zeman, J.; Uchida, K.

    2000-12-31

    Photoluminescence upconversion (PLU) is a phenomenon in which a sample emits photons with energy higher than that of the excitation photon. This effect has been observed in many materials including rare earth ions doped in insulating hosts and semiconductor heterostructures without using high power lasers as the excitation source. Recently, this effect has been observed also in partially CuPt-ordered GaInP{sub 2} epilayers grown on GaAs substrates. As a spectroscopic technique photoluminescence upconversion is particularly well suited for studying band alignment at heterojunction interface. The value of band-offset has been determined with meV precision using magneto-photoluminescence. Using the fact that the pressure coefficient of electrons in GaAs is higher than those in GaInP{sub 2} they have been able to manipulate the band-offset at the GaInP/GaAs interface. By converting the band-offset from Type I to Type II they were able to demonstrate that the efficiency of the upconversion process is greatly enhanced by a Type II band-offset.

  17. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus_minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus_minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus_minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  18. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and silver additions on microstructure and related properties of YBCO superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.P.; Joo, J.; Guttschow, R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1992-02-01

    Microstructure has a great influence on the mechanical and superconducting properties of YBCO. Mechanical properties of YBCO can be improved by both modifying the monolithic microstructure and developing composites of YBCO with silver (Ag). When monolithic YBCO was sintered to high densities ({approx} 91%) at a relatively low temperature ({approx} 910{degrees}C) by controlling oxygen partial pressure during sintering, the result was a small-grain microstructure (average grain size {approx} 5 {mu}m) and hence a high strength of 191 {plus minus} 7 MPa. Addition of Ag as a second phase further improved the strength of YBCO. Composites of YBCO with 10 to 15 vol % Ag has a strength of 225 {plus minus} 6 MPa and a fracture toughness of 3.3 {plus minus} 0.2 MPa{radical}m. These improvements are believed to be due to compressive stresses in the YBCO matrix as a result of thermal mismatch between the YBCO and Ag phases. Furthermore, the Ag particles may provide increased resistance to crack propagation by pinning the crack. On the other hand, addition of Ag as a dopant to substitute for Cu sites in YBCO has a profound but nonmonotonic effect on grain microstructure and the resulting critical current density.

  19. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2014-04-01

    Protein allostery is essential for vital activities. Allosteric regulation of human hemoglobin (HbA) with two quaternary states T and R has been a paradigm of allosteric structural regulation of proteins. It is widely accepted that oxygen molecules (O2) act as a ``site-specific'' homotropic effector, or the successive O2 binding to the heme brings about the quaternary regulation. However, here we show that the site-specific allosteric effect is not necessarily only a unique mechanism of O2 allostery. Our simulation results revealed that the solution environment of high O2 partial pressure enhances the quaternary change from T to R without binding to the heme, suggesting an additional ``non-site-specific'' allosteric effect of O2. The latter effect should play a complementary role in the quaternary change by affecting the intersubunit contacts. This analysis must become a milestone in comprehensive understanding of the allosteric regulation of HbA from the molecular point of view.

  20. Fiber Optic Chemical Sensor For The Measurement Of Partial Pressure Of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Kisholoy; Klainer, Stanley M.; Tokar, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The estimation of partial pressure of oxygen in gaseous samples, aqueous samples and biological fluids has very important ramifications in environmental, medicinal and analytical chemistry. We have devised a fiber optic chemical sensor for the determination of oxygen concentration based on the dynamic luminescence quenching of a fluorophore bx oxygen. Ruthenium(II)tris(bipyridine), [Ru(bpy)3]4+, has been employed in our studies as the oxygen sensitive dye. The emission of Ru(bpy)32+ is centered at 610 nm and has a lifetime of 685 ns in argon purged aqueous solution. Our fiber optic chemical sensor consists of a custom built spectrometer containing argon ion laser light source, detector and associated electronics. A fiber optic cable is employed to guide light into and out of the spectrometer. A known amount of the sensing material in solution is used in a specially designed cell which has a gas permeable membrane at one end and the other end is coupled with the long cable to the spectrometer. Further research is being continued in improving the sensor chemistry and its dynamic detection range.

  1. [The influence of low partial oxygen pressure on the biolodical process of mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Berezovsky?, V Ia; Plotnikova, L M; Vesel'sky?, S P; Litovka, I H

    2014-01-01

    The influence of low partial oxygen pressure (Po2) on the amino acid composition in culture medium of human mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) lines 4BL has been studied. At 23 mm Hg (3% oxygen), a significant decrease (by 31%) in the concentration of proline and hydroxyproline was registered. Under these conditions, the concentration of serine and aspartic acid decreased by 45% compared to the control. Maximum consumption of free amino acids from the culture medium required for the synthesis of collagen (proline and hydroxyproline by 42%, serine and aspartic acid by 62%) was observed at a gas-phase Po2 of 38 mm Hg (5% O2). At Po2 76 mm Hg (10% O2), a lack of amino acids proline and hydroxyproline was only 21%, while that of glutamine and alanine amounted 12% compared to the control. This intensity ratio of consumption of amino acids may indicate that the maximum of MSC vital functions occurs at Po2 38 mm Hg. PMID:25095672

  2. Chemical diffusion of oxygen in tin dioxide: Effects of dopants and oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Kamp, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Merkle, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: s.weiglein@fkf.mpg.de; Lauck, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Maier, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-10-15

    Tin dioxide SnO{sub 2-{delta}} is a pronounced n-type electron conductor due to its oxygen deficiency. This study investigates the rate of chemical diffusion of oxygen in SnO{sub 2-{delta}} single crystals, which is a crucial step in the overall stoichiometry change of the material. The chemical diffusion coefficient D{sup {delta}} was determined from conductivity- and EPR-relaxation methods. The temperature dependence was found to be D{sup {delta}}=exp(-4+/-2)cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}exp(-(1.1+/-0.3)eV/kT). The dependence on crystal orientation, dopant content and oxygen partial pressure was below experimental error. The latter observation leads to the conclusion that the chemical diffusion coefficient is close to the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies. Along with the relaxation process resulting from the chemical diffusion of oxygen, additional processes were observed. One of these was attributed to complications in the defect chemistry of the material. The relevance of the results for the kinetics of drift processes of Taguchi sensors is discussed.

  3. Flow-independent dynamics in aneurysm (FIDA): pressure measurements following partial and complete flow impairment in experimental aneurysm model

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masaki; Chaudhry, Saqib A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2014-01-01

    Background: There have been growing concerns regarding delayed aneurysm rupture subsequent to the flow-diverting stent deployment. Therefore, more investigations are needed regarding hemodynamic changes secondary to flow-diverting stent deployment. Objective: To study intra-aneurysmal and perianeurysmal pressures after partial and complete flow impairment into the aneurysm. Methods A silicone model of an 8-mm-sized aneurysm (neck diameter: 5 mm, vessel size: 4 mm) was used. The aneurysm wall was encapsulated and sealed within a 5 ml syringe filled with saline and a pressure sensor guide wire (ComboWire, Volcano Corp.) to detect pressure changes in the perivascular compartment (outer aneurysm wall). A second pressure sensor guide wire was advanced inside the aneurysm sac. Both pressure sensors were continuously measuring pressure inside and outside the aneurysm under pulsatile flow under the following conditions: 1) baseline (reference); 2) a 16 mm by 3.75 mm flow-diverting stent (ev3/Covidien Vascular, Mansfield, MA) deployed in front of the aneurysm; 3) two flow-diverting stents (16 mm by 3.5 mm) were deployed; and 4) a covered stent (4 mm by 16 mm VeriFlex coronary artery stent covered with rubber sheet) was deployed. Results: Mean (±SD) baseline pressures inside and outside the aneurysm were 53.9 (±2.4) mmHg (range 120–40 mmHg) and 15.4 (±0.7) mmHg (range 40–8mmHg), respectively. There was no change in pressure inside and outside the aneurysm after deploying the first and second flow-diverting stents (partial flow impairment) and it remained at 53.9 (±2.7) mmHg and 14.9 (±1) mmHg for the pressure inside and outside the aneurysm, respectively. The pressure recording from outside the aneurysm dropped from 15.4 (±0.7) mmHg to 0.3 (±0.7) mmHg after deploying the covered stent (complete flow impairment). There was no change in pressure inside the aneurysm after deploying the covered stent. Mean (±SD) pressure within the aneurysm was 55.1 (±1.7) mmHg and it remained 54.7 (±1.7) mmHg after covered stent deployment. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a major discordance between the pressures within the aneurysm and partial or complete flow impairment (flow independent). The outer wall pressure is reduced after covered stent placement. These finding may assist clinicians in better understanding of aneurysm hemodynamics and rupture after flow-diverting stent deployment. PMID:25298859

  4. The effect of different atmospheric ozone partial pressures on photosynthesis and growth of nine fruit and nut tree species.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, W A; Williams, L E; DeJong, T M

    1991-01-01

    Nursery stock of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. O'Henry), nectarine (P. persica L. Batsch, cv. Fantasia), plum (P. salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman), apricot (P. armeniaca L., cv. Tilton), almond (P. dulcis Mill., cv. Nonpareil), prune (P. domestica L., cv. Improved French), cherry (P. avium L., cv. Bing), oriental pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Rehd., cv. 20th Century), and apple (Malus pumula Mill., cv. Granny Smith) were planted in open-top chambers on April 1, 1988 at the University of California's Kearney Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley (30 degrees 40' N 119 degrees 40' W). Trees were exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal-filtered air (C), ambient air (A), or ambient air + ozone (T)) from August 1 to November 17, 1988. The mean 12-h (0800 to 2000 h) ozone partial pressures measured in open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.030, 0.051, and 0.117 microPa Pa(-1) in the C, A and T treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO(2) assimilation rate decreased linearly with increasing 12-h mean ozone partial pressure for the almond, plum, apricot, prune, pear, and apple cultivars. Stomatal conductances of apricot, apple, almond, and plum decreased linearly with increasing ozone partial pressure. Cross-sectional area relative growth rates of almond, plum, apricot, and pear decreased linearly with increasing ozone partial pressure. Net CO(2) assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, and trunk growth of cherry, peach and nectarine were unaffected by the ozone treatments. Reduced leaf gas exchange probably contributed to ozone-induced growth reduction of the susceptible species and cultivars. Several of the commercial fruit tree species and cultivars studied were relatively tolerant to the ozone treatments. PMID:14972900

  5. An Experimental Study of Magnetite Solubility as a Function of Pressure Along the Dewpoint Curve in the NaCl-, KCl-, HCl-H2O-Melt System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. C.

    2001-12-01

    Magnetite (Mt) is a ubiquitous phase in magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits and, thus, any model which aims to predict the evolving physical chemistry of porphyry-ore deposit environments must incorporate data on the equilibria that control the precipitation of Mt in such systems. Extant experimental data indicate that Mt solubility is controlled via the equilibrium Fe3O4Mt + 6HClV + H2V = 3FeCl2V + 4H2OV (Chou and Eugster, 1977, AJS, p 1296); however their experiments were performed at T=500-650° C by equilibrating Mt with a HCl-bearing supercritical aqueous fluid (NaCl-, KCl-free). Conversely, data from some natural Fe-bearing fluid inclusions have evinced that initial temperatures of magmatic volatile phases (MVP) in magmatic-hydrothermal environments may exceed 800° C, possibly even approaching 900° C, in the presence of melt (Clark and Arancibia, 1995, Giant Ore Deposits-II Conference, p. 511). Thus, there currently are no data constraining Mt solubility in the high-temperature regime obtained in natural magmatic systems. Additionally, there are no data on Mt solubility as a function of changes in the chemistry of the MVP. In the system NaCl-H2O, the composition and, thus, the density of brine-saturated vapor change significantly as a function of pressure along a given isotherm and the components KCl and HCl act to shift the limbs of the solvii (Bodnar et al., 1985, GCA, p 1861; Anderko and Pitzer, 1993, GCA, p 1657; Shinohara and Fujimoto, 1994, GCA, p 4857). The absence of data constraining Mt solubility as a function of pressure along a given isotherm, the resultant change in composition and density, as well as deviations in the Na:K:H ratio of the MVP hinder the development of forward models of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. In order to provide these critical data constraining Mt solubility in geologically reasonable magmatic systems we have performed a set of experiments as a function of pressure in the vapor-only field near the 800° C isotherm in the NaCl-H2O system. Natural Mt (aFe3O4 ~1), a synthetic haplogranitic minimum melt (100 MPa) and an aqueous phase (molar K:Na:H=1) were reacted in Au capsules in rapid-quench Stellite-25 vessels, using water as the pressure medium, at 800° C, log fO2 controlled by the NNO buffer, pressures of 100 and 120 MPa, and aqueous salinities of 1.8 and 3.0 wt. % NaCl equivalent, respectively. In all experiments the mass ratio of Mt:melt:fluid was 1:1:4. Detailed petrographic examination of run products did not reveal the presence of brine inclusions; however, fluid inclusions do contain opaque phases. Using the newly determined mFeCl2 (0.0345 at 100 MPa and 0.0359 at 120 MPa) and mHCl (0.0769 at 100 MPa and 0.0947 at 120 MPa) in the quenched MVP and the known fugacities of H2O (? =1) and H2 (? =1) at P and T, apparent equilibrium constants were calculated as log K' = (CFeCl2)3 \\times (fH2O)4 \\div (CHCl)6 \\times fH2. The values of log K' are 1.605 at 100 MPa and 13.01 at 120 MPa. K is fixed for a given P and T except for the effect of activity coefficients for HCl and FeCl2. The values of log K obtained in this study will facilitate more detailed characterization of the chemistry of magmatic-hydrothermal MVPs; both fossil MVPs and those that obtain in modern geothermal reservoirs. Determination of P, T, fH2 and mFeCl2 in fluid inclusions will allow for the direct calculation of a model HCl concentration in the MVP.

  6. Single-component and binary CO2 and H2O adsorption of amine-functionalized cellulose.

    PubMed

    Gebald, Christoph; Wurzbacher, Jan A; Borgschulte, Andreas; Zimmermann, Tanja; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2014-02-18

    A fundamental analysis of single-component and binary CO2 and H2O adsorption of amine-functionalized nanofibrillated cellulose is carried out in the temperature range of 283-353 K and at CO2 partial pressures in the range of 0.02-105 kPa, where the ultralow partial pressure range is relevant for the direct capture of CO2 from atmospheric air. Single-component CO2 and H2O adsorption experimental data are fitted to the Toth and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer models, respectively. Corresponding heats of adsorption, derived from explicit solutions of the van't Hoff equation, are -50 kJ/mol CO2 and -48.8 kJ/mol H2O. Binary CO2/H2O adsorption measurements for humid air reveal that the presence of H2O at 2.55 kPa enhances CO2 adsorption, while the presence of CO2 at 0.045 kPa does not influence H2O adsorption. The energy demand of the temperature-vacuum-swing adsorption/desorption cycle for delivering pure CO2 from air increases significantly with H2O adsorption and indicates the need to reduce the hygroscopicity of the adsorbent. PMID:24437467

  7. Revealing sub-?m and ?m-scale textures in H2O ice at megabar pressures by time-domain Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Sergey M; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Gasteau, Damien; Castagnede, Bernard; Zerr, Andreas; Gusev, Vitalyi E

    2015-01-01

    The time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, also known as picosecond ultrasonic interferometry, allows monitoring of the propagation of coherent acoustic pulses, having lengths ranging from nanometres to fractions of a micrometre, in samples with dimension of less than a micrometre to tens of micrometres. In this study, we applied this technique to depth-profiling of a polycrystalline aggregate of ice compressed in a diamond anvil cell to megabar pressures. The method allowed examination of the characteristic dimensions of ice texturing in the direction normal to the diamond anvil surfaces with sub-micrometre spatial resolution via time-resolved measurements of the propagation velocity of the acoustic pulses travelling in the compressed sample. The achieved imaging of ice in depth and in one of the lateral directions indicates the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging and quantitative characterisation of the acoustical, optical and acousto-optical properties of transparent polycrystalline aggregates in a diamond anvil cell with tens of nanometres in-depth resolution and a lateral spatial resolution controlled by pump laser pulses focusing, which could approach hundreds of nanometres. PMID:25790808

  8. Revealing sub-?m and ?m-scale textures in H2O ice at megabar pressures by time-domain Brillouin scattering

    PubMed Central

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Gasteau, Damien; Castagnede, Bernard; Zerr, Andreas; Gusev, Vitalyi E.

    2015-01-01

    The time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, also known as picosecond ultrasonic interferometry, allows monitoring of the propagation of coherent acoustic pulses, having lengths ranging from nanometres to fractions of a micrometre, in samples with dimension of less than a micrometre to tens of micrometres. In this study, we applied this technique to depth-profiling of a polycrystalline aggregate of ice compressed in a diamond anvil cell to megabar pressures. The method allowed examination of the characteristic dimensions of ice texturing in the direction normal to the diamond anvil surfaces with sub-micrometre spatial resolution via time-resolved measurements of the propagation velocity of the acoustic pulses travelling in the compressed sample. The achieved imaging of ice in depth and in one of the lateral directions indicates the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging and quantitative characterisation of the acoustical, optical and acousto-optical properties of transparent polycrystalline aggregates in a diamond anvil cell with tens of nanometres in-depth resolution and a lateral spatial resolution controlled by pump laser pulses focusing, which could approach hundreds of nanometres. PMID:25790808

  9. A Dual Luminophore Pressure Sensitive Paint: Eliminating the Temperature Interference in the Measurement of Oxygen Partial Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammet E. Kose; Joanne M. Bedlek-Anslow; James P. Hubner; Bruce F. Carroll; Kirk S. Schanze

    Luminescence imaging, combined with pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is an optical method for measuring surface air pressure\\u000a distributions on aerodynamic models in wind tunnels.1, 2 This method is of particular of interest to the aerospace industry for determining loads in aerodynamic prototype testing.\\u000a When compared to conventional methods such as pressure tap measurements, luminescence imaging has the advantage of providing

  10. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Carreau, Aude; Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra El; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique ‘tissue normoxia’ or ‘physioxia’ status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO2, i.e. ‘hypoxia’. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO2 values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O2 whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O2, an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. PMID:21251211

  11. Global Autocorrelation Scales of the Partial Pressure of Oceanic CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.

    2004-01-01

    A global database of approximately 1.7 million observations of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters (pCO2) collected between 1970 and 2003 is used to estimate its spatial autocorrelation structure. The patterns of the lag distance where the autocorrelation exceeds 0.8 is similar to patterns in the spatial distribution of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation indicating that ocean circulation processes play a significant role in determining the spatial variability of pCO2. For example, the global maximum of the distance at which autocorrelations exceed 0.8 averages about 140 km in the equatorial Pacific. Also, the lag distance at which the autocorrelation exceed 0.8 is greater in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream than it is near the Kuroshio, approximately 50 km near the Gulf Stream as opposed to 20 km near the Kuroshio. Separate calculations for times when the sun is north and south of the equator revealed no obvious seasonal dependence of the spatial autocorrelation scales. The pCO2 measurements at Ocean Weather Station (OWS) 'P', in the eastern subarctic Pacific (50 N, 145 W) is the only fixed location where an uninterrupted time series of sufficient length exists to calculate a meaningful temporal autocorrelation function for lags greater than a few days. The estimated temporal autocorrelation function at OWS 'P', is highly variable. A spectral analysis of the longest four pCO2 time series indicates a high level of variability occurring over periods from the atmospheric synoptic to the maximum length of the time series, in this case 42 days. It is likely that a relative peak in variability with a period of 3-6 days is related to atmospheric synoptic period variability and ocean mixing events due to wind stirring. However, the short length of available time series makes identifying temporal relationships between pCO2 and atmospheric or ocean processes problematic.

  12. Effects of elevated oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures on respiratory function and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Gill, Matthew; Natoli, Michael J; Vacchiano, Charles; MacLeod, David B; Ikeda, Keita; Qin, Michael; Pollock, Neal W; Moon, Richard E; Pieper, Carl; Vann, Richard D

    2014-08-15

    Hyperoxia during diving has been suggested to exacerbate hypercapnic narcosis and promote unconsciousness. We tested this hypothesis in male volunteers (12 at rest, 10 at 75 W cycle ergometer exercise) breathing each of four gases in a hyperbaric chamber. Inspired Po2 (PiO2 ) was 0.21 and 1.3 atmospheres (atm) without or with an individual subject's maximum tolerable inspired CO2 (PiO2 = 0.055-0.085 atm). Measurements included end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PetCO2 ), rating of perceived discomfort (RPD), expired minute ventilation (V?e), and cognitive function assessed by auditory n-back test. The most prominent finding was, irrespective of PetCO2 , that minute ventilation was 8-9 l/min greater for rest or exercise with a PiO2 of 1.3 atm compared with 0.21 atm (P < 0.0001). For hyperoxic gases, PetCO2 was consistently less than for normoxic gases (P < 0.01). For hyperoxic hypercapnic gases, n-back scores were higher than for normoxic gases (P < 0.01), and RPD was lower for exercise but not rest (P < 0.02). Subjects completed 66 hyperoxic hypercapnic trials without incident, but five stopped prematurely because of serious symptoms (tunnel vision, vision loss, dizziness, panic, exhaustion, or near syncope) during 69 normoxic hypercapnic trials (P = 0.0582). Serious symptoms during hypercapnic trials occurred only during normoxia. We conclude serious symptoms with hyperoxic hypercapnia were absent because of decreased PetCO2 consequent to increased ventilation. PMID:24947022

  13. The high-pressure stability of chlorite and other hydrates in subduction mélanges: experiments in the system Cr2O3-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Patrizia; Poli, Stefano; Fischer, Johannes; Merlini, Marco; Gemmi, Mauro

    2014-02-01

    The solubility of chromium in chlorite as a function of pressure, temperature, and bulk composition was investigated in the system Cr2O3-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O, and its effect on phase relations evaluated. Three different compositions with X Cr = Cr/(Cr + Al) = 0.075, 0.25, and 0.5 respectively, were investigated at 1.5-6.5 GPa, 650-900 °C. Cr-chlorite only occurs in the bulk composition with X Cr = 0.075; otherwise, spinel and garnet are the major aluminous phases. In the experiments, Cr-chlorite coexists with enstatite up to 3.5 GPa, 800-850 °C, and with forsterite, pyrope, and spinel at higher pressure. At P > 5 GPa other hydrates occur: a Cr-bearing phase-HAPY (Mg2.2Al1.5Cr0.1Si1.1O6(OH)2) is stable in assemblage with pyrope, forsterite, and spinel; Mg-sursassite coexists at 6.0 GPa, 650 °C with forsterite and spinel and a new Cr-bearing phase, named 11.5 Å phase (Mg:Al:Si = 6.3:1.2:2.4) after the first diffraction peak observed in high-resolution X-ray diffraction pattern. Cr affects the stability of chlorite by shifting its breakdown reactions toward higher temperature, but Cr solubility at high pressure is reduced compared with the solubility observed in low-pressure occurrences in hydrothermal environments. Chromium partitions generally according to ? > ? > . At 5 GPa, 750 °C (bulk with X Cr = 0.075) equilibrium values are = 0.27, = 0.08, = 0.05; at 5.4 GPa, 720 °C = 0.33, = 0.06, and = 0.04; and at 3.5 GPa, 850 °C = 0.12 and = 0.07. Results on Cr-Al partitioning between spinel and garnet suggest that at low temperature the spinel- to garnet-peridotite transition has a negative slope of 0.5 GPa/100 °C. The formation of phase-HAPY, in assemblage with garnet and spinel, at pressures above chlorite breakdown, provides a viable mechanism to promote H2O transport in metasomatized ultramafic mélanges of subduction channels.

  14. Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene · Reproduction · Selection Introduction That the high atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) projected is important for predicting the degree to which plants may sequester atmospheric CO2 in the fu- ture

  15. A comparative study of the centrifugal and vacuum-pressure techniques of casting removable partial denture frameworks.

    PubMed

    Shanley, J J; Ancowitz, S J; Fenster, R K; Pelleu, G B

    1981-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate two techniques for casting accuracy on removable partial denture frameworks: centrifugal casting and vacuum-pressure casting. A standard metal die with predetermined reference points in a horizontal plane was duplicated in refractory investment. The casts were waxed, and castings of nickel-chrome alloy were fabricated by the two techniques. Both the casts and the castings were measured between the reference points with a measuring microscope. With both casting methods, the differences between the casts and the castings were significant, but no significant differences were found between castings produced by the two techniques. Vertical measurements at three designated points also showed no significant differences between the castings. Our findings indicate that dental laboratories should be able to use the vacuum-pressure method of casting removable partial denture frameworks and achieve accuracy similar to that obtained by the centrifugal method of casting. PMID:7007622

  16. Two Phase Flow Modeling: Summary of Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop Correlations in Reduced and Partial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Rame, E.; Kizito, J.; Kassemi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of state-of-the-art predictions for two-phase flows relevant to Advanced Life Support. We strive to pick out the most used and accepted models for pressure drop and flow regime predictions. The main focus is to identify gaps in predictive capabilities in partial gravity for Lunar and Martian applications. Following a summary of flow regimes and pressure drop correlations for terrestrial and zero gravity, we analyze the fully developed annular gas-liquid flow in a straight cylindrical tube. This flow is amenable to analytical closed form solutions for the flow field and heat transfer. These solutions, valid for partial gravity as well, may be used as baselines and guides to compare experimental measurements. The flow regimes likely to be encountered in the water recovery equipment currently under consideration for space applications are provided in an appendix.

  17. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of electrical conductivity in {gamma}'-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, C.M.C. [Laboratorio de Peliculas Delgadas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, (1063) Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: cvera@fi.uba.ar; Aragon, R. [Laboratorio de Peliculas Delgadas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, (1063) Buenos Aires (Argentina); CINSO, CONICET, CITEFA, Lasalle 4397, Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-05-15

    The electrical conductivity of {gamma}'-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} was surveyed between 450 and 750 deg. C as a function of oxygen partial pressure, in the range 0.01-1 atm. A -1/6 power law dependence, consistent with a Frenkel defect model of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies and interstitials, is evidence for an n-type semiconductive component, with an optical band gap of 2.9 eV. The absence of this dependence is used to map the onset of dominant ionic conduction. - Graphical abstract: Temporal dependence of electrical conductivity at 500 deg. C for {gamma}'-Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} at controlled partial pressures of oxygen.

  18. Structural and optical properties of ZnO:Mg thin films grown under different oxygen partial pressures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haixia Chen; Jijun Ding; Shuyi Ma

    2010-01-01

    Pure and Mg-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Mg) films were deposited using RF reactive magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. The microstructures and optical properties in doped ZnO films were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results indicated that ZnO grain orientation behavior was significantly affected by Mg-doping. And the ZnO:Mg film prepared

  19. Serial blood pressure measurements and exogenous creatinine clearance rates in partially nephrectomized dogs: the effect of dietary sodium intake

    E-print Network

    Greco, Deborah Susan

    1987-01-01

    . , University of California, Davis. Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. George E. Lees Serial arterial blood pressure measurements and exogenous creatinine clearance determinations were performed on 8 partially nephrectomized dogs (with residual renal... of functional renal impairment, and changes in GFR are not dependent upon dietary sodium intake at the concentrations tested. iv DEDICATION This thesis is dedicated to my father and my husband; their love of and dedication to basic science were...

  20. Tuning magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet film with oxygen partial pressure in sputtering and annealing process

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Qinghui; Zhang Huaiwu; Wen Qiye; Liu Yingli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiao, John Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the magnetic properties of these films which deposited and annealed at different atmospheres were investigated. The experimental results show that the magnetic properties of yttrium iron garnet films prepared by rf magnetron sputtering method can be tuned with oxygen partial pressure in sputtering and annealing processes. The optimal condition is depositing in atmosphere of R=0 and annealing at 0.5 Pa O{sub 2}, or depositing in atmosphere of R=2% and annealed in vacuum.

  1. New method for H(2)S removal in acid solutions.

    PubMed

    de Angelis, Alberto; Bellussi, Giuseppe; Pollesel, Paolo; Perego, Carlo

    2010-07-19

    Several different technologies are available for H(2)S removal from the gas stream of medium capacity. Among them, the most widely used is Locat with more than 120 plants worldwide. In the last decade, many new processes, such as Sulfatreat-DO, Crystasulf, Caltech, and UCSR, were proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the state-of-the-art processes (low sulfur purity, chemical degradation, thiosulfate formation). We have developed a new H(2)S conversion method based on acid ferric nitrate solution, co-catalyzed by a heteropolyacid. H(2)S was converted to pure sulfur (>99.9 %), with no traces of organic compounds. Due to the acid pH of the solution, no chelant or surfactant was needed and iron content in the solution could reach very high levels. Keggin heteropolyacid (H(6)PW(9)V(3)O(40)) catalyzed the reoxidation of reduced ferrous solution with air at mild temperature and at very high reaction rate. The undesired side reaction (NO(x) formation) could be avoided by simply increasing the oxygen partial pressure. PMID:20564280

  2. Carbon dioxide partial pressure and carbon fluxes of air-water interface in Taihu Lake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chengxin; Hu, Weiping; Ford, Phillip W.; Chen, Yuwei; Qu, Wenchuan; Zhang, Lu

    2005-03-01

    To obtain carbon dioxide (CO2) flux between water-air interface of Taihu lake, monthly water samplers at 14 sites and the local meteorological data of the lake were collected and analyzed in 1998. Carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2) at air-water interface in the lake were calculated using alkalinity, pH, ionic strength, active coefficient, and water temperature. The carbon fluxes at different sublakes and areas were estimated by concentration gradient between water and air in consideration of Schmidt numbers of 600 and daily mean windspeed at 10 m above water surface. The results indicated that the mean values of pCO2 in Wuli Lake, Meiliang Bay, hydrophyte area, west littoral zone, riverine mouths, and the open lake areas were 1 807.8±1 071.4 (mean±standard deviation) ?atm (1atm=1.013 25×105Pa), 416.3±217.0 ?atm, 576.5±758.8 ?atm, 304.2±243.5 ?atm, 1 933.6±1 144.7 ?atm, and 448.5±202.6 ?atm, respectively. Maximum and minimum pCO2 values were found in the hypertrophic (4 053.7 ?atm) and the eutrophic (3.2 ?atm) areas. The riverine mouth areas have the maximum fluxes (82.0±62.8 mmol/m2a). But there was no significant difference between eutrophic and mesotrophic areas in pCO2 and the flux of CO2. The hydrophyte area, however, has the minimum (-0.58±12.9 mmol/m2a). In respect to CO2 equilibrium, input of the rivers will obviously influence inorganic carbon distribution in the riverine estuary. For example, the annual mean CO2 flux in Zhihugang River estuary was 19 times of that in Meiliang Bay, although the former is only a part of the latter. The sites in the body of the lake show a clear seasonal cycle with pCO2 higher than atmospheric equilibrium in winter, and much lower than atmospheric in summer due to CO2 consumption by photosynthesis. The CO2 amount of the net annual evasion that enters the atmosphere is 28.42×104 t/a, of which those from the west littoral zone and the open lake account for 53.8% and 36.7%, respectively.

  3. Spatial and temporal dynamics of CO2 partial pressure in the Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lu, X. X.; Richey, J. E.; Sun, H.; Han, J.; Yu, R.; Liao, S.; Yi, Q.

    2014-10-01

    Carbon transport in river systems is an important component of the global carbon cycle. Most rivers of the world act as atmospheric CO2 sources due to high riverine CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). We investigated the pCO2 dynamics in the Yellow River watershed by using historical water chemistry records (1950s-1984) and recent sampling along the mainstem (2011-2012). Except the headwater region where the pCO2 was lower than the atmospheric equilibrium (i.e., 380 ?atm), river waters in the remaining watershed were supersaturated with CO2. The average pCO2 for the watershed was estimated at 2810 ± 1985 ?atm, which is 7-fold the atmospheric equilibrium. This indicates a strong CO2 outgassing across the water-air interface. As a result of severe soil erosion and dry climate, waters from the Loess Plateau in the middle reaches had higher pCO2 than that from the upper and lower reaches. From a seasonal perspective, the pCO2 varied from about 200 ?atm to >30 000 ?atm with higher pCO2 usually occurring in the dry season and low pCO2 in the wet season (at 73% of the sampling sites), suggesting the dilution effect of water. While the pCO2 responded positively to total suspended solids (TSS) transport when the TSS was less than 100 kg m-3, it slightly decreased and remained stable when the TSS exceeded 100 kg m-3. This stable pCO2 is largely due to gully erosion that mobilizes subsoils characterized by low organic matter for decomposition. In addition, human activities have changed the pCO2 dynamics. Particularly, flow regulation by dams can diversely affect the temporal changes of pCO2, depending on the physiochemical properties of the regulated waters and adopted operation scheme. Given the high pCO2 in the Yellow River waters, the resultant CO2 outgassing is expected to be substantial and warrants further investigation.

  4. Method for sensing and measuring a concentration or partial pressure of a reactant used in a redox reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findl, E.

    1984-12-01

    A method for sensing or measuring the partial pressure or concentration of an electroactive species used in conjunction with an electrolyte, the method being characterized by providing a constant current between an anode and a cathode of an electrolyte-containing cell, while measuring changes in voltage that occur between either the anode and cathode or between a reference electrode and one of the main electrodes of the cell, thereby to determine the concentration or partial pressure of the electro-active species as a function of said measured voltage changes. The method of the invention can be practiced using either a cell having only an anode and a cathode, or using a cell having an anode and a cathode in combination with a reference electrode. Accurate measurements of small concentrations or partial pressures of electro-active species are obtainable with the method of the invention, by using constant currents of only a few microamperes between the anode and cathode of the cell, while the concentration-determining voltage is measured.

  5. Experimental studies of condensation processes of silicate materials at low pressures and high temperatures, I. Phase equilibria in the system CaMgSi2O6-H2 in the temperature range 1200-1500°C and the pressure range (PH2) 10-6 to 10-9 bar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn O. Mysen; David Virgo; Kushiro Ikuo

    1985-01-01

    Phase equilibria in the system CaMgSi2O6-H2 in the pressure and temperature ranges 10-9 to 10-6 bar and 1200-1500°C, respectively, have been experimentally determined. The vaporous curve was determined by monitoring evaporation rate and compositional changes as a function of temperature. Crystalline diopside condenses from a gas phase along a vaporous curve with a positive slope of approximately 16°C\\/log unit PH2

  6. The H2O content of granite embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Omar; Cesare, Bernardo; Remusat, Laurent; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Poli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    Quantification of H2O contents of natural granites has been an on-going challenge owing to the extremely fugitive character of H2O during cooling and ascent of melts and magmas. Here we approach this problem by studying granites in their source region (i.e. the partially melted continental crust) and we present the first NanoSIMS analyses of anatectic melt inclusions (MI) hosted in peritectic phases of migmatites and granulites. These MI which totally crystallized upon slow cooling represent the embryos of the upper-crustal granites. The approach based on the combination of MI and NanoSIMS has been here tested on amphibolite-facies migmatites at Ronda (S Spain) that underwent fluid-present to fluid-absent melting at ˜700 °C and ˜5 kbar. Small (?5 ?m) crystallized MI trapped in garnet have been remelted using a piston-cylinder apparatus and they show leucogranitic compositions. We measure high and variable H2O contents (mean of 6.5±1.4 wt%) in these low-temperature, low-pressure granitic melts. We demonstrate that, when the entire population from the same host is considered, MI reveal the H2O content of melt in the specific volume of rock where the host garnet grew. Mean H2O values for the MI in different host crystals range from 5.4 to 9.1 wt%. This range is in rather good agreement with experimental models for granitic melts at the inferred P-T conditions. Our study documents for the first time the occurrence of H2O heterogeneities in natural granitic melts at the source region. These heterogeneities are interpreted to reflect the birth of granitic melts under conditions of “mosaic” equilibrium, where the distinct fractions of melt experience different buffering assemblages at the micro-scale, with concomitant differences in melt H2O content. These results confirm the need for small-scale geochemical studies on natural samples to improve our quantitative understanding of crustal melting and granite formation. The same approach adopted here can be applied to MI hosted in higher-temperature, granulite-facies rocks that represent the parents of many upper-crustal granites. This will result in a better understanding of formation and evolution of granitic magmas.

  7. Partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with protein intake from lean red meat lowers blood pressure in hypertensive persons1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M Hodgson; Valerie Burke; Lawrence J Beilin; Ian B Puddey

    Background:Comparedwithcarbohydrateintake,dietaryintakeof plant protein can lower blood pressure in humans, but the effects of animal protein intake on blood pressure have yet to be investigated. Objective: We aimed to determine whether partial substitution of carbohydrate intake with animal protein intake from lean red meat changes blood pressure and other markers of cardiovascular disease risk in hypertensive persons. Design: Hypertensive persons (n

  8. CO2 Solubility in Natural Rhyolitic Melts at High Pressures - Implications for Carbon Flux in Subduction Zones by Sediment Partial Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M. S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2011-12-01

    Partial melts of subducting sediments is thought to be a critical agent in carrying trace elements and water to arc basalt source regions. For subduction zones that contain significant amount of carbonates in ocean-floor sediments, sediment melts likely also act as a carrier of CO2. However, the CO2 carrying capacity of natural rhyolitic melts at sub-arc depths remains unconstrained. We conducted experiments on a synthetic composition, similar to average, low-degree experimental partial melt of pelitic sediments. The composition was constructed with reagent grade oxides and carbonates, the source of excess CO2. Experiments were conducted between 1 and 3 GPa at 1200 °C in Au80Pd20 capsules using a piston cylinder apparatus with a half-inch BaCO3 assembly at Rice University. Quench products showed glasses with bubbles, the latter suggesting saturation of the melt with a CO2-rich vapor phase. Oxygen fugacity during the experiments was not strictly controlled but the presence of CO2 bubbles and absence of graphite indicates fO2 above the CCO buffer. Major element concentrations of glasses were measured using EPMA. The CO2 and H2O contents of experimental doubly polished (50-110 ?m), bubble-free portions of the glass chips were determined using a Thermo Nicolet Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Spectra were recorded with a resolution of 4 cm-1, 512 scans, from 650 to 4000 cm-1, under a nitrogen purge to eliminate atmospheric gases. Dissolved volatile concentrations were quantified using the Beer-Lambert law and linear molar absorption coefficients from previous studies [1, 2]. Total dissolved carbon dioxide of experimental glasses was determined from the intensity of the ?3 antisymmetric stretch bands of CO32- at 1430 cm-1 and CO2mol at 2348 cm-1. Dissolved water content of experimental glasses was determined from the intensity of O-H stretching at 3520 cm-1. Estimated total CO2 concentrations at 3 GPa are in the range of 1-2 wt%, for melts with H2O contents between 1.5 and 2.5 wt%. Compared to previous work on CO2 solubility in complex rhyolitic melts at lower pressures [3-5], there is a general trend of increasing CO2 solubility with pressure. Dissolved CO2 is present both as molecular CO2 and as CO32-, consistent with previous, simple system studies at high pressures [e.g. 2, 6]. The CO2mol/CO2Tot values are within the range of previous high pressure studies [e.g. 7] and range from 0.35 to 0.55. Experiments at variable P, T, and melt water content are underway. [1] Fine and Stolper (1985), CMP, 91, 105-121; [2] Stolper et al. (1987), AM, 72, 1071-1085; [3] Blank et al. (1993), EPSL, 119, 27-36; [4] Fogel and Rutherford (1990), AM, 75, 1331-1326; [5] Tamic et al. (2001), CG, 174, 333-347; [6] Mysen and Virgo (1980), AM, 65, 855-899; [7] Mysen (1976), AJS, 276, 969-996.

  9. Collision-induced absorption for H2-H2 and H2-He interactions at 5 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouanich, J. P.; Brodbeck, C.; Drossart, P.; Lellouch, E.

    1989-08-01

    Absorption coefficients for collision-induced spectra of H2 have been measured at 299 K between 1830 and 2260 cm. The weak absorption of H2 in this spectral range has been detected by using a 3-m long cell with pressures ranging from 80 to 215 bar. The rototranslational spectrum of H2 has been computed in the high-frequency wing from an extended Birnbaum-Cohen model that fits the results of quantum calculations accurately. The theoretical results for the binary absorption coefficient are generally 3-13 percent larger than the experimental values. The very weak absorption coefficients for H2-He interactions have also been estimated between 1830 and 2200 cm by using pressures of the gas mixtures up to 346 bar. A calculation based on two simple line-shape models, the parameters of which were recently obtained from spectral moments computed with a quantum formalism, yields binary coefficients for H2-He that are in satisfactory agreement with our measurements.

  10. Structure of H 2O-saturated peralkaline aluminosilicate melt and coexisting aluminosilicate-saturated aqueous fluid determined in-situ to 800 °C and ˜800 MPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2010-07-01

    The structure of H 2O-saturated silicate melts and of silicate-saturated aqueous solutions, as well as that of supercritical silicate-rich aqueous liquids, has been characterized in-situ while the sample was at high temperature (to 800 °C) and pressure (up to 796 MPa). Structural information was obtained with confocal microRaman and with FTIR spectroscopy. Two Al-bearing glasses compositionally along the join Na 2O•4SiO 2-Na 2O•4(NaAl)O 2-H 2O (5 and 10 mol% Al 2O 3, denoted NA5 and NA10) were used as starting materials. Fluids and melts were examined along pressure-temperature trajectories of isochores of H 2O at nominal densities (from PVT properties of pure H 2O) of 0.85 g/cm 3 (NA10 experiments) and 0.86 g/cm 3 (NA5 experiments) with the aluminosilicate + H 2O sample contained in an externally-heated, Ir-gasketed hydrothermal diamond anvil cell. Molecular H 2O (H 2O°) and OH groups that form bonds with cations exist in all three phases. The OH/H 2O° ratio is positively correlated with temperature and pressure (and, therefore, fugacity of H 2O, f H2O) with (OH/H 2O°) melt > (OH/H 2O°) fluid at all pressures and temperatures. Structural units of Q3, Q2, Q1, and Q0 type occur together in fluids, in melts, and, when outside the two-phase melt + fluid boundary, in single-phase liquids. The abundance of Q0 and Q1 increases and Q2 and Q3 decrease with f H2O. Therefore, the NBO/ T (nonbridging oxygen per tetrahedrally coordination cations), of melt is a positive function of f H2O. The NBO/ T of silicate in coexisting aqueous fluid, although greater than in melt, is less sensitive to f H2O. The melt structural data are used to describe relationships between activity of H 2O and melting phase relations of silicate systems at high pressure and temperature. The data were also combined with available partial molar configurational heat capacity of Q n-species in melts to illustrate how these quantities can be employed to estimate relationships between heat capacity of melts and their H 2O content.

  11. Measurement and modeling of neutral, radical, and ion densities in H2-N2-Ar plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sode, M.; Jacob, W.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Kersten, H.

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of absolute ion and neutral species densities in an inductively coupled H2-N2-Ar plasma was carried out. Additionally, the radical and ion densities were calculated using a zero-dimensional rate equation model. The H2-N2-Ar plasma was studied at a pressure of 1.5 Pa and an rf power of 200 W. The N2 partial pressure fraction was varied between fN2=0 % and 56% by a simultaneous reduction of the H2 partial pressure fraction. The Ar partial pressure fraction was held constant at about 1%. NH3 was found to be produced almost exclusively on the surfaces of the chamber wall. NH3 contributes up to 12% to the background gas. To calculate the radical densities with the rate equation model, it is necessary to know the corresponding wall loss times twrad of the radicals. twrad was determined by the temporal decay of radical densities in the afterglow with ionization threshold mass spectrometry during pulsed operation and based on these experimental data the absolute densities of the radical species were calculated and compared to measurement results. Ion densities were determined using a plasma monitor (mass and energy resolved mass spectrometer). H3+ is the dominant ion in the range of 0.0 ?fN2<3.4 % . For 3.4 H2+ , ArH+, and NH2+ . Ion species with densities less than 0.5% of ni,tot are H+, Ar+, N+, and NH+. Our model describes the measured ion densities of the H2-N2-Ar plasma reasonably well. The ion chemistry, i.e., the production and loss processes of the ions and radicals, is discussed in detail. The main features, i.e., the qualitative abundance of the ion species and the ion density dependence on the N2 partial pressure fraction, are well reproduced by the model.

  12. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  13. High magnetic-refrigeration performance of plate-shaped La0.5Pr0.5Fe11.4Si1.6 hydrides sintered in high-pressure H2 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, N. K.; Guo, J.; Zhao, X. G.; Si, P. Z.; Huang, J. H.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-03-01

    La(Fe, Si)13 hydride is regarded as one of the most promising room-temperature refrigerants. However, to use the alloys in an active magnetic regenerator machine, it is vital to prepare thin refrigerants. In this work, a high H2 gas pressure of 50 MPa was employed to suppress the desorption of hydrogen atoms during the sintering process of plate-shaped La0.5Pr0.5Fe11.4Si1.6 hydrides. At 330 K, a high-density sintered thin plate shows a large magnetic-entropy change ?Sm of 15.5 J/kg K (106 mJ/cm3 K) for a field change of 2 T. The volumetric ?Sm is almost twice as large as that of bonded La(Fe,Si)13 hydrides. Favorably, hysteresis is almost absent due to the existence of micropores with a porosity of 0.69% which has been analyzed with high-resolution X-ray microtomography.

  14. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  15. Far infrared spectra of H2 mixtures of H2-CH4 and H2-He

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, G.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the far infrared absorption of H2 and of mixtures of H2 with CH4 and He are presented, and fits to the pure H2 spectra with a semiempirical line shape are described. Such results are needed in analyzing the thermal emission from the atmospheres of the outer planets.

  16. Pressure of Partial Crystallization of Katla Magmas: Implications for Magma Chamber Depth and for the Magma Plumbing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenison, A.; Kelley, D. F.; Barton, M.

    2012-12-01

    Iceland is home to some of the most active volcanoes in the world, and recent eruptions emphasize the need for additional studies to better understand the volcanism and tectonics in this region. Historical patterns of eruptive activity and an increase in seismic activity suggest that Katla is showing signs of an impending eruption. The last major eruption in 1918 caused massive flooding and deposited enough sediment to extend part of Iceland's southern shoreline by 5 km. It also generated sufficient ash over many weeks to cause a brief drop in global temperature. A future eruption similar to the 1918 event could have serious global consequences, including severe disruptions in air travel, short-term global cooling, and shortened growing seasons. Relatively few studies have focused on establishing the depth of the main magma chamber beneath Katla, although knowledge of magma chamber depth is essential for constraining models for magma evolution and for understanding the eruption dynamics of this volcano. The results of seismic and geodetic studies suggest the presence of a shallow magma body at a depth of 2-4 km, but do not provide firm evidence for the presence of deeper chambers in contrast to results obtained for other volcanoes in Iceland. Studies of volcanic ash layers reveal a history of alternating cycles of basaltic and silicic eruptions. We suggest that the shallow magma chamber is primarily the source of silica-rich magma, and postulate that there must be one or more additional chambers in the middle or deep crust that serve as the storage site of the basaltic magma erupted as lava and ash. We have tested this proposal by calculating the pressures of partial crystallization for basalts erupted at Katla using petrological methods. These pressures can be converted to depths and the results provide insight into the likely configuration of the magma plumbing system. Published analyses of volcanic glasses (lava, ash and hyaloclastite) were used as input data. The raw data were filtered to remove non basalts and to exclude basalt samples with anomalous chemical compositions. Pressures of partial crystallization were calculated by quantitatively comparing the compositions of the glasses with those of experimental liquids in equilibrium with olivine, plagioclase, and augite at different pressures and temperatures using the approach described by Yang and co-workers (1996). The results for samples that yielded pressures associated with unrealistically large uncertainties were filtered out of the database. Pressures for the remaining samples were converted to depths assuming an average crustal density of 2900 kg/m3. The results indicate that most magmas partially crystallized over a range of pressures corresponding to a range of depths from 20 to 25 km. We conclude that one or more magma chamber occur in this depth range, or at slightly shallower depths if the effects of water on calculated pressures of partial crystallization are taken into account. Most erupted basalts have ascended from this depth directly to the surface, presumably via dikes. The Katla plumbing system is thus similar to that at other major volcanoes (Hekla, Bardarbunga, Grimsvotn) in the eastern volcanic zone inasmuch as the majority of the erupted magmas are supplied from chambers in the middle and lower crust at depths of 10 to 30 km.

  17. Mass Spectrometric Approach for Characterizing the Disordered Tail Regions of the Histone H2A/H2B Dimer.

    PubMed

    Saikusa, Kazumi; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Hara, Kana; Fuchigami, Sotaro; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Akashi, Satoko

    2015-02-17

    The histone H2A/H2B dimer is a component of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The structure of the dimer at the atomic level has not yet been revealed. A possible reason for this is that the dimer has three intrinsically disordered tail regions: the N- and C-termini of H2A and the N-terminus of H2B. To investigate the role of the tail regions of the H2A/H2B dimer structure, we characterized behaviors of the H2A/H2B mutant dimers, in which these functionally important disordered regions were depleted, using mass spectrometry (MS). After verifying that the acetylation of Lys residues in the tail regions had little effect on the gas-phase conformations of the wild-type dimer, we prepared two histone H2A/H2B dimer mutants: an H2A/H2B dimer depleted of both N-termini (dN-H2A/dN-H2B) and a dimer with the N- and C-termini of H2A and the N-terminus of H2B depleted (dNC-H2A/dN-H2B). We analyzed these mutants using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). With IM-MS, reduced structural diversity was observed for each of the tail-truncated H2A/H2B mutants. In addition, global HDX-MS proved that the dimer mutant dNC-H2A/dN-H2B was susceptible to deuteration, suggesting that its structure in solution was somewhat loosened. A partial relaxation of the mutant's structure was demonstrated also by IM-MS. In this study, we characterized the relationship between the tail lengths and the conformations of the H2A/H2B dimer in solution and gas phases, and demonstrated, using mass spectrometry, that disordered tail regions play an important role in stabilizing the conformation of the core region of the dimer in both phases. PMID:25594579

  18. Temperature measurements of partially-melted tin as a function of shock pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Seifter, Achim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Furlanetto, Michael R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, David B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obst, Andrew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Payton, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stone, J B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Grover, M [NST; Macrum, G [NST; Stevens, G D [NST; Swift, D C [LLNL; Turley, W D [NST; Veeser, L R [NST

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrium equation of state theory predicts that the free surface release temperature of shock loaded tin will show a plateau of 505 K in the pressure range from 19.5 to 33.0 GPa, corresponding to the solid-liquid mixed-phase region. In this paper we report free surface temperature measurements on shock-loaded tin from 15 to 31 GPa using multi-wavelength optical pyrometry. The shock waves were generated by direct contact of detonating high explosive with the sample. The pressure in the sample was determined by free surface velocity measurements using Photon Doppler Velocimetry. The emitted thermal radiance was measured at four wavelength bands in the near IR region from 1.5 to 5.0 {micro}m. The samples in most of the experiments had diamond-turned surface finishes, with a few samples being polished or ball rolled. At pressures higher than 25 GPa the measured free surface temperatures were higher than the predicted 505 K and increased with increasing pressure. This deviation could be explained by hot spots and/or variations in surface emissivity and requires a further investigation.

  19. Pressure build-up during CO 2 storage in partially confined aquifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YagnaDeepika Oruganti; Steven L. Bryant

    2009-01-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is an attractive option for GHG mitigation, but an associated risk is pressure buildup in the aquifer, which could increase the probability of fracturing the seal or activating a fault. We report on a series of simulations to quantify this risk factor. This work also evaluates injectivity limitations from the “backpressure” at sealing faults,

  20. Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic friction reduction in microchannel flow

    E-print Network

    Hidrovo, Carlos H.

    of the transport of small organic molecules in an organic vapor phase deposition system J. Appl. Phys. 112, 113502 in the microtextures, pressure drops versus flow rates for each microchannel are measured and analyzed in terms of the non-dimensional friction coefficient. The frictional behavior of the Poiseuille flow suggests that (1

  1. Distribution of the CO2 partial pressure in the Atlantic ocean between Iceland and the Antarctic peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, B.; Morlang, J.

    1995-02-01

    CO2 partial pressure of surface water, (pCO2)sw, was measured continuously during two cruises in the Atlantic Ocean in November/December 1991 and May 1992. A (pCO2)sw profile between Iceland and the Antarctic Peninsula is obtained which demonstrates that along the investigated transect the Atlantic Ocean is largely a potential sink for atmospheric CO2, especially at high latitudes, where partial pressure differences of -80µatm to -100 µatm are observed. A significant potential source region exists only between the equator and 10°S with a maximum ?pCO2 of 35 µatm. An attempt is made to identify the processes that control the (pCO2)sw, distribution pattern. The investigations at latitudes > 40° in both hemispheres were performed during spring and correlations between (pCO2)sw and chlorophyll a contents indicate that biological production mainly controls the distribution of (pCO2)sw. At lower latitudes, (pCO2)sw is mainly related to temperature and salinity, but also an upwelling effect could be identified close to the equator.

  2. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chang-Jin; Li, Chao; Lv, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Cong; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hui; Luo, Yun-Xiu; Li, Yan; Xiao, Mingyong; Yin, Jun; Lang, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3-127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2-53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7-124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2-62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14-47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice. PMID:24078878

  3. ?H2AX and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, William M.; Redon, Christophe E.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Sedelnikova, Olga A.; Solier, Stéphanie; Pommier, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Histone H2AX phosphorylation on a serine four residues from the carboxyl terminus (producing ?H2AX) is a sensitive marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs may lead to cancer but, paradoxically, are also used to kill cancer cells. Using ?H2AX detection to determine the extent of DSB induction may help to detect precancerous cells, to stage cancers, to monitor the effectiveness of cancer therapies and to develop novel anticancer drugs. PMID:19005492

  4. H2A Delivery H2A Hydrogen Delivery

    E-print Network

    -Truck ­ Tube Trailer -Truck - LH2 -Pipeline -Liquefier -Compressor (one-stage and multi-stage) -Forecourt Compressor -Terminals (gaseous and liquid) #12;H2A Delivery Spreadsheet Features · Yes/no toggle Input User Input Required Calculated Cells #12;H2A Delivery Component Model Hierarchy Component Design

  5. H2 Detection via Polarography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus; Barile, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Polarography is the measurement of the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The actual form of the observed polarographic current depends upon the manner in which the voltage is applied and on the characteristics of the working electrode. The new gas polarographic H2 sensor shows a current level increment with concentration of the gaseous H2 similar to those relating to metal ions in liquid electrolytes in well-known polarography. This phenomenon is caused by the fact that the diffusion of the gaseous H2 through a gas diffusion hole built in the sensor is a rate-determining step in the gaseous-hydrogen sensing mechanism. The diffusion hole artificially limits the diffusion of the gaseous H2 toward the electrode located at the sensor cavity. This gas polarographic H2 sensor is actually an electrochemical-pumping cell since the gaseous H2 is in fact pumped via the electrochemical driving force generated between the electrodes. Gaseous H2 enters the diffusion hole and reaches the first electrode (anode) located in the sensor cavity to be transformed into an H ions or protons; H ions pass through the electrolyte and reach the second electrode (cathode) to be reformed to gaseous H2. Gas polarographic O2 sensors are commercially available; a gas polarographic O2 sensor was used to prove the feasibility of building a new gas polarographic H2 sensor.

  6. Effect of prosthetic design on center of pressure excursion in partial foot prostheses.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Michael P; Fatone, Stefania; Hansen, Andrew H

    2011-01-01

    Investigations into the gait of persons with partial foot amputation (PFA) suggest that the effective foot length can be restored when the prosthesis incorporates a relatively stiff forefoot, restricts dorsiflexion, and includes a mechanism whereby forces caused by loading the toe lever can be comfortably distributed to the leg (e.g., an anterior tibial shell). The purpose of this investigation was to systematically alter these variables to understand which design elements are responsible for restoration of the effective foot length. By manipulating features of the prosthesis design in two persons with PFA, we demonstrated using three-dimensional motion analysis that the prosthesis must incorporate each of these design elements to restore the effective foot length. When these design elements were used in concert, the persons with PFA adopted a gait pattern more consistent with nondisabled persons. Further work is required on a larger cohort to ensure the observations are generalizable. PMID:21480090

  7. Highly oriented NdFeCoB nanocrystalline magnets from partially disproportionated compacts by reactive deformation under low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying, E-mail: liuying5536@163.com; Yu, Yunping; Lian, Lixian [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In the present investigation, we take advantage of the ultrafine grain size of NdFeCoB partially hydrogen-disproportionated phases, and prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with full density and homogenous microstructure and texture by reactive deformation under low pressure. Our results suggest that the pressure could properly promote an occurrence of desorption-recombination reaction due to a shorter-range rearrangement of the atoms, and the newly recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with fine grain size could undergo deformation immediately after the phase transformation, and then an obvious anisotropy and uniform alignment would be obtained. The maximum magnetic properties, (BH){sub max}?=?25.8 MGOe, Br?=?11.8 kG, H{sub cj}?=?5.5 kOe, were obtained after being treated for 5?min at 820?°C in vacuum. The present study highlights the feasibility to prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with homogeneous microstructure and a strong (00l) texture of uniform grain size under low pressure.

  8. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Sang Guk; Yang, Jin-Young

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5?Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis. PMID:25506001

  9. Simultaneous imaging of cerebral partial pressure of oxygen and blood flow during functional activation and cortical spreading depression

    PubMed Central

    Sakadži?, Sava; Yuan, Shuai; Dilekoz, Ergin; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Ayata, Cenk; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a novel imaging technique that provides real-time two-dimensional maps of the absolute partial pressure of oxygen and relative cerebral blood flow in rats by combining phosphorescence lifetime imaging with laser speckle contrast imaging. Direct measurement of blood oxygenation based on phosphorescence lifetime is not significantly affected by changes in the optical parameters of the tissue during the experiment. The potential of the system as a novel tool for quantitative analysis of the dynamic delivery of oxygen to support brain metabolism was demonstrated in rats by imaging cortical responses to forepaw stimulation and the propagation of cortical spreading depression waves. This new instrument will enable further study of neurovascular coupling in normal and diseased brain. PMID:19340106

  10. Influence of Ca content and oxygen partial pressure on microstructural evolution of (Co,Ca)O at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kusinski, J; Cieniek, L; Petot-Ervas, G; Petot, C; Baldinozzi, G

    2006-10-01

    Ca-doped (1, 1.7, 5 and 10 mol% CaO) cobalt oxide single-crystal samples, with an [001] orientation, were annealed at elevated temperatures of 1000-1200 degrees C for different times and at different oxygen partial pressures. The microstructure was examined by means of transmission light and electron microscopy. High-temperature X-ray diffractometry was used, with the aim of determining the temperature of the CoO <--> Co(3)O(4) transition in these materials. Extensive precipitation of Ca-free Co(3)O(4) spinel crystals was observed with increasing Ca content and oxygen activity. It is suggested that the electrical conductivity changes in this material may be related to this precipitation, because it changes the electronic state of cobalt cations. PMID:17100900

  11. Aldehydes in hydrothermal solution - Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties and relative stabilities at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte, Mitchell D.; Shock, Everett L.

    1993-01-01

    Aldehydes are common in a variety of geologic environments and are derived from a number of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. Experimental data for aqueous aldehydes were taken from the literature and used, along with parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state, to estimate standard partial molal thermodynamic data for aqueous straight-chain alkyl aldehydes at high temperatures and pressures. Examples of calculations involving aldehydes in geological environments are given, and the stability of aldehydes relative to carboxylic acids is evaluated. These calculations indicate that aldehydes may be intermediates in the formation of carboxylic acids from hydrocarbons in sedimentary basin brines and hydrothermal systems like they are in the atmosphere. The data and parameters summarized here allow evaluation of the role of aldehydes in the formation of prebiotic precursors, such as amino acids and hydroxy acids on the early Earth and in carbonaceous chondrite parent bodies.

  12. Growth of GaAs from a free surface melt under controlled arsenic pressure in a partially confined configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Wu, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A partially confined configuration for the growth of GaAs from melt in space was developed, consisting of a triangular prism containing the seed crystal and source material in the form of a rod. It is suggested that the configuration overcomes two obstacles in the growth of GaAs in space: total confinement in a quartz crucible and lack of arsenic pressure control. Ground tests of the configuration show that it is capable of crystal growth in space and is useful for studying the growth of GaAs from a free-surface melt on earth. The resulting chemical composition, electrical property variations, and phenomenological models to account for the results are presented.

  13. Thermoelectric response of Lanthanum-doped SrTiO3 thin-films grown under various oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scullin, Matthew L.; Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Huijben, Mark; Yu, Choongho; Mukerjee, Subroto; Moore, Joel; Majumdar, Arun; Ramesh, R.

    2008-03-01

    Doped strontium titanate is a strong candidate for the next-generation high-Z bulk thermoelectric material due to both its wide tunability in transport properties and very large carrier effective mass. Thermoelectric thin-films of Sr1-xLaxTiO3-? with various La content were grown via pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) on (001)-oriented LSAT substrates under various oxygen partial pressures. We find that electron transport is dominated by carriers from oxygen vacancies in samples grown at low pO2 < 10-6 Torr, and that thermopower as high as 1000 ?V/K can be achieved even in heavily La-doped samples. Doping combinations that yield resistivities as low as 5 m?-cm yield power factors @ 300K as high as 0.7 W/m-K, implying ZT > 0.1.

  14. The Partial Pressure of Resting End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide Predicts Major Cardiac Events In Patients with Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan; Abella, Joshua; Pinkstaff, Sherry; Brubaker, Peter; Moore, Brian; Kitzman, Dalane; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Bensimhon, Daniel; Chase, Paul; Guazzi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background The resting partial pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) has been shown to reflect cardiac performance in acute care settings in patients with heart failure (HF). The purpose of the present study was to compare the prognostic ability of the partial pressure of PETCO2 at rest to other commonly collected resting variables in patients with systolic HF. Methods A total of 353 patients (mean age: 58.6 ±13.7, 72% male) with systolic HF were included in this study. All patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing where NYHA class, resting PETCO2, peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope were determined. Subjects were then followed for major cardiac events (mortality, LVAD implantation, urgent heart transplantation). Results There were one hundred and four major cardiac events during the 23.6 ± 17.0 month tracking period. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed NYHA class (Chi-square: 28.7, p<0.001), LVEF (Residual chi-square: 21.7, p<0.001) and resting PETCO2 (Residual chi-square: 14.1, p<0.001) were all prognostically significant and retained in the regression. In a separate Cox regression analysis, LVEF (residual chi-square: 8.8, p=0.003), NYHA class (residual chi-square: 7.7, p=0.005) and resting PETCO2 (residual chi-square: 5.7, p=0.02) added prognostic value to the VE/VCO2 slope (Chi-square: 26.0, p<0.001). Conclusion Resting PETCO2 can be non-invasively collected from subjects in a short period of time, at a low cost and with no risk or discomfort to the patient. Given the prognostic value demonstrated in the present study, the clinical assessment of resting PETCO2 in the HF population may be warranted. PMID:19061716

  15. VUV Photoionization Cross Sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra. PMID:25621533

  16. Raman scattering study of ?-MgH2 and ?-MgH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzovnikov, M. A.; Efimchenko, V. S.; Filatov, E. V.; Maksimov, A. A.; Tartakovskii, I. I.; Ramirez-Cuesta, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Two modifications of MgH2 have been studied by Raman spectroscopy: ?-MgH2 with the P42/mnm space group and ?-MgH2 with the Pbcn space group. The latter was prepared from ?-MgH2 by exposing it to a pressure of 5.6 GPa at 470 °C for 1.5 h. A comparison of the experimental spectra with ab-initio calculations allowed identification of a few phonon modes. A broad feature in the Raman spectrum of ?-MgH2 in the range 1470-1790 cm-1 was identified as the B2g phonon mode. A Raman spectrum of ?-MgH2 consists of five discernible peaks at 186 cm-1, 313 cm-1, 509 cm-1, 660 cm-1, 706 cm-1 and of three broad features in the regions 890-980 cm-1, 1010-1220 cm-1 and 1240-1430 cm-1. The peaks are identified as the 1Ag (186 cm-1), 3B3g (509 cm-1), 2Ag (660 cm-1) and 3B1g (706 cm-1) phonon modes.

  17. Evaluation of the Cs Mo I O and Cs U I O diagrams and determination of iodine and oxygen partial pressure in spent nuclear fuel rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walle, Eric; Perrot, Pierre; Foct, Jacques; Parise, Marion

    2005-02-01

    This work provides three dimensions potential diagrams calculated in view of the evaluation of the iodine partial pressure in spent PWR fuel pellets intended to be stored for 100 years. These diagrams can be interpreted, on the basis of spent fuel examinations. It is shown that the iodine partial pressure could be controlled by the formation of cesium uranate Cs2UO4 from cesium iodide CsI in the fuel. If the formation of cesium molybdate Cs2MoO4 would take place during the storage, the iodine partial pressure is expected to increase. Such an evolution can't be excluded because of the temperature that could reach the spent fuel assemblies during the transport step up to the place of the storage.

  18. H2 Educate Teacher Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide was developed by the National Energy Education Development (NEED) Project's Teacher Advisory Board for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The guide provides information and hands-on activities to teach students about hydrogen as a fuel for the future. There is also a student guide available for download from DOE. Materials for the H2 Educate kit can be purchased from NEED (http://www.need.org/needpdf/H2EducatePriceList.pdf).

  19. The role of H2O in the Saturn ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemansky, Donald; Liu, Xianming

    2010-05-01

    Stellar occultations in the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph Experiment observation program have provided measurements of the vertical profiles of H2 and and minor components of the atmosphere. The minor species identified and measured in the extinction spectra to date are CH4, C2H2, and C2H4. Measurements of abundance profiles are reported here, with limits on H2O content. The focus of this paper is on H2O because of the importance of this species to the understanding of upper atmospheric physical chemistry with significant consequences for ionospheric properties and energy budget. Ionospheric theory published in several papers beginning as early as 1984 have a common critical dependence on a sufficiently large H2O mixing ratio to control the lifetime of the assumed dominant ion, H+. The vertical extinction profiles, which extend down to an impact parameter of 300 km above the 1 bar pressure level, show no evidence of H2O in the spectrum at mid and low latitudes, establishing a mixing ratio [H2O]/[H2] ? 4 × 10-8, compatible with earlier global average measurements. The upper limit on H2O abundance at mid latitude establishes a mixing ratio more an order of magnitude too low to influence the ionosphere population in competition with calculated H+ + H2 X(v:J) charge capture reaction rates. The analysis of the extinction spectra produces densities and mixing ratios of the observed species and these results are reported and discussed.

  20. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the crystallization of CeO 2 and La 2Zr 2O 7 bi-axially textured thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Guibadj; P. Odier; B. Benbarta; L. Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Films of CeO2 and La2Zr2O7 have been formed by metal-organic decomposition and their crystallization studied under different oxygen partial pressures. Single crystalline substrates were use to model the phenomenon: (001)SrTiO3 (STO) for CeO2 and (001)LaAlO3 (LAO) for La2Zr2O7. A chemical interaction has been noticed in the case of CeO2\\/STO above 900°C, which also depends on the oxygen partial pressure, such

  1. Photochemistry of CO and H2O - Analysis of laboratory experiments and applications to the prebiotic earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Jun-Shan; Pinto, Joseph P.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1989-01-01

    The role photochemical reactions in the early earth's atmosphere played in the prebiotic synthesis of simple organic molecules was examined, extending an earlier calculation of formaldehyde production rates to more reduced carbon species, such as methanol, methane, and acetaldehyde. The experimental results of Bar-Nun and Chang (1983) are simulated as an aid in the construction of the photochemical scheme and as a way of validating the model. The results indicate that some fraction of CO2 and H2 present in the primitive atmosphere could have been converted to simple organic molecules. The exact amount is dependent on the partial pressure of CO2 and H2 in the atmosphere and on what assumptions are made concerning the shape of the absorption spectra of CO2 and H2O.

  2. Photochemistry of CO and H2O - Analysis of laboratory experiments and applications to the prebiotic earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jun-Shan; Pinto, Joseph P.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1989-10-01

    The role photochemical reactions in the early earth's atmosphere played in the prebiotic synthesis of simple organic molecules was examined, extending an earlier calculation of formaldehyde production rates to more reduced carbon species, such as methanol, methane, and acetaldehyde. The experimental results of Bar-Nun and Chang (1983) are simulated as an aid in the construction of the photochemical scheme and as a way of validating the model. The results indicate that some fraction of CO2 and H2 present in the primitive atmosphere could have been converted to simple organic molecules. The exact amount is dependent on the partial pressure of CO2 and H2 in the atmosphere and on what assumptions are made concerning the shape of the absorption spectra of CO2 and H2O.

  3. Evaluation of Energy Density based on Volume Optimization of Supply and Demand Balancing Pressure-Buffer of the Hydrogen Producer on NaBH4-H2-Fuel Cell System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Deaheum; Doi, Yusuke; Ishida, Masayoshi

    So far, as a part of NaBH4-H2-Fuel Cell study we have been through optimization of hydrogen production reactor size and operating conditions to reach 100% of hydrogen production rate. Moreover, the potential of NaBH4-H2-Fuel Cells were verified by testing a 1000mL pressurebuffer for steady hydrogen supply under variable load conditions within maximum limit of 1.2kW. However, the buffer used gives rise to decreased energy density of the system due to its big size relatively to other components. Hence, minimized buffer volume under the limit of applied conditions is required to compact the system. In this study, the pressurebuffer volume which satisfies load following as well as compact size is found. Load following ability is approved as a result of hydrogen generation system operation, which has 325mL and 170mL buffer volume at 0°C and 20°C respectively within load variation of the average load 700W, peak load 1200W and 2 seconds of load cycle. Furthermore, NaBH4-H2-Fuel Cell's energy density is calculated. At last, all these come into the result that NaBH4-H2-Fuel Cell has high usefulnessas a high density mobile power source over 2.7kWh.

  4. Enhancement of atmospheric H2SO4/H2O nucleation: organic oxidation products versus amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndt, T.; Sipilä, M.; Stratmann, F.; Petäjä, T.; Vanhanen, J.; Mikkilä, J.; Patokoski, J.; Taipale, R.; Mauldin, R. Lee, III; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric H2SO4/H2O nucleation influencing effects have been studied in the flow tube IfT-LFT (Institute for Tropospheric Research - Laminar Flow Tube) at 293 ± 0.5 K and a pressure of 1 bar using synthetic air as the carrier gas. The presence of a~possible background amine concentration in the order of 107-108 molecule cm-3 throughout the experiments has to be taken into account. In a first set of investigations, ozonolysis of olefins (tetramethylethylene, 1-methyl-cyclohexene, ?-pinene and limonene) for close to atmospheric concentrations, served as the source of OH radicals and possibly other oxidants initiating H2SO4 formation starting from SO2. The oxidant generation is inevitably associated with the formation of a series of organic oxidation products arising from the parent olefins. These products (first generation mainly) showed no clear effect on the number of nucleated particles within a wide range of experimental conditions for H2SO4 concentrations higher than ~107 molecule cm-3. A comparison of the results of two different particle counters (50% cut-off size: about 1.5 nm or 2.5-3 nm) suggested that the early growth process of the nucleated particles was not significantly influenced by the organic oxidation products. An additional, H2SO4-independent process of particle (nano-CN) formation was observed in the case of ?-pinene and limonene ozonolysis for H2SO4 concentrations smaller than ~10 7 molecule cm-3. Furthermore, the findings confirm the existence of an additional oxidant for SO2 beside OH radicals, very likely stabilized Criegee Intermediate (sCI). In the case of the ozonolysis of tetramethylethylene, the H2SO4 measurements in the absence and presence of an OH radical scavenger were well described by modelling using recently obtained kinetic data for the sCI reactivity in this system. A second set of experiments has been performed in the presence of added amines (trimethylamine, dimethylamine, aniline and pyridine) in the concentration range of a few 107-1010 molecule cm-3. Here, photolytic OH radical generation was applied for H2SO4 production with no addition of other organics. All amines showed a significant nucleation enhancement with increasing efficiency in the order pyridine < aniline < dimethylamine < trimethylamine. This result supports the idea of H2SO4 cluster stabilization by amines due to strong H2SO4 \\leftrightarrow amine interactions. On the other hand, this study reveals that for organic oxidation products (in presence of the possible amine background as stated) a distinct H2SO4/H2O nucleation enhancement can be due to increased H2SO4 formation caused by additional organic oxidant production (sCI) rather than by stabilization of H2SO4 clusters due to H2SO4 \\leftrightarrow organics interactions. However, because the molecular composition of nucleating clusters was not measured, the role of any background substances, unavoidably present in any system, to experimental data remains unclear. Also the experimental conditions do not cover fully the range of atmospheric observations, e.g., the concentration of precursor vapours represents rather the upper end of the atmospheric range. More experimental work is needed before definite conclusions about the nucleation mechanisms in the atmosphere can be drawn.

  5. Electrochemical and Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking Behaviors of Tubing Steels in a H2S/CO2 Annular Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. Y.; Wang, X. Z.; Liu, R. K.; Du, C. W.; Li, X. G.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical and sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) behaviors of 13Cr stainless steel and P110 steel were investigated in a simulated acidic annular environment with low-temperature and high-pressure H2S/CO2 using electrochemical methods, U-bend immersion tests, and scanning electron microscopy. In the solution containing high pressure CO2, 13Cr, and P110 steels exhibited general corrosion and severe pitting, respectively. Compared with sweet corrosion, additional H2S in the solution enhanced the corrosion of 13Cr steel but inhibited the corrosion of P110 steel. By contrast, in a solution containing 4 MPa CO2 and different (0-0.3 MPa), the susceptibility of both 13Cr stainless steel and P110 steel toward SSCC was significantly promoted by increases in H2S partial pressure. The 13Cr stainless steel exhibited higher susceptibility toward SSCC than P110 steel under a H2S/CO2 environment but lower susceptibility under a pure CO2 environment.

  6. Effects of Ambient and Acute Partial Pressures of Ozone on Leaf Net CO2 Assimilation of Field-Grown Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Teryl R.; Williams, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O3 partial pressures reduced net CO2 assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O3 for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O3 when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO2 partial pressure (ci) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O3 when compared to the controls, while ci of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of 03 increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O3 and short-term exposure to acute levels of O3 reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances. PMID:16667208

  7. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  8. Calculation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of aqueous species at high pressures and temperatures: Standard partial molal properties of inorganic neutral species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everett L Shock; Harold C Helgeson; Dimitri A Sverjensky

    1989-01-01

    Consideration of interactions between neutral aqueous species and HâO dipoles in terms of effective Born coefficients permits extension of the revised HKF equations of state for the standard partial molal properties of ionic species at high pressures and temperatures to include inorganic gases, acids, and other neutral aqueous species. Correlation algorithms similar to those used to estimate equation of state

  9. Rare earth elements in hydrothermal systems: Estimates of standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous complexes of the rare earth elements at high pressures and temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnson R. Haas; Everett L. Shock; David C. Sassani

    1995-01-01

    Standard partial molal thermodynamic properties including association constants for 246 inorganic aqueous rare earth element (REE) complexes with chloride, fluoride, hydroxide, carbonate, sulfate, bicarbonate, nitrate, and orthophosphate can be calculated at pressures from 1 to 5000 bars and temperatures from 0 to 1000°C, using experimental data from the literature and correlation algorithms. Predicted association constants for REE complexes are used

  10. CO partial pressure dependence of the kinetics of melting of HbS aggregates studied in high concentration phosphate buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroutiounian, Svetlana

    2002-10-01

    Deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) monomers enter the polymer phase either by incorporation into a critical nucleus, through heterogeneous nucleation and or through linear growth of the polymers when the concentration of monomers exceeds the solubility. CO-bound, R-state HbS monomers do not polymerize. Thus, polymer melting is enhanced by binding of carbon monoxide (CO) to HbS polymerized monomers. In our study, the melting of HbS aggregates mediated by dilution and CO binding to polymerized monomers is observed with time-resolved extinction spectroscopy. The CO partial pressure (pCO) dependence of the kinetics of melting is studied for pCO = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 atm with difference progress curves. A phenomenological description with slow and fast relaxation modes reveals a variable relaxation time near the pCO=0.5 due to competition of kinetic mechanisms. The slow component increases with increasing pCO. It has a positive intercept due to the combined action of dilution of the sample and CO-ligation. The pCO dependence is near linear due to non-cooperative CO binding. Significant slowing down of aged samples, most likely due to gelation, is observed. As possible mechanism for variable relaxation time near pCO=0.5atm the fractional percolation threshold is discussed. This work was supported by NIH grant HL58091 (awarded to Daniel. B. Kim-Shapiro).

  11. Two-photon high-resolution measurement of partial pressure of oxygen in cerebral vasculature and tissue.

    PubMed

    Sakadzi?, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Mandeville, Emiri T; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Boas, David A

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO(2) measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here we report to our knowledge the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO(2) measurements in small rodents' cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 microm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. The properties of the probe allowed for direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO(2), opening many possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies. PMID:20693997

  12. Role of composition and oxygen partial pressure on microstructural and crystalline phase evolution in aluminosilicate derived aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luscher, Walter G.

    Spherical aggregates, approximately 1mm in diameter, derived from either kaolinite or bauxite are used in tonnage quantities to aid the extraction of oil and natural gas. Aggregates intended for this application are referred to as proppants and key characteristics include low density and high strength, which are influenced by processing temperature and variation in raw ore chemistry. Kaolinite and bauxite ores doped with varying concentrations of K2O and Fe2O3 were sintered at different temperatures to elucidate composition-processing-property relationships. The dopants are known to form low temperature ternary eutectics with Al2O3 and SiO2 and are anticipated to facilitate low temperature densification and enhance mullite formation. In addition, proppants doped with Fe2 O3 were studied under varying oxygen partial pressures to further enhance low temperature densification by manipulating the valence state of iron. Microstructure and crystalline phase assemblage were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively, and correlated with results of density and strength measurements obtained by gas pycnometry and diametral compression, respectively. Results indicate that dopant enhanced densification can simultaneously improve strength and processing economy of proppants by lowering sintering temperatures up to 100°C. Controlled atmosphere studies revealed that manipulating the valence of iron produces unique microstructures that may be useful in a number of different applications. These microstructures include aggregates with metallic coatings and aggregates with core-shell microstructures, which exhibit a porous core enclosed by a relatively dense outer shell.

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of the desulfurization of liquid blast furnace slags by Ar-H2O gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, B.; Yurek, G. J.; Elliott, J. F.

    1983-06-01

    The rate of evolution of sulfur-bearing gases from liquid silicate slags at 1400 ‡C when exposed to Ar-H2O gas mixtures has been studied. The rate was first order with respect both to the concentration of sulfur ions adsorbed on the surface of the slag and to the partial pressure of water vapor when PH 2O was greater than 0.15 atm. When the partial pressure of water vapor was less than 0.15 atm, the rate was second order with respect to the concentration of sulfur ions adsorbed on the surface early in the reaction. At longer times in the latter case, the rate was independent of the partial pressure of water vapor, but first order with respect to the concentration of sulfur ions adsorbed on the surface. It was concluded, based on the kinetics of desulfurization, that the sulfur-bearing species evolved from the surface of the slag was S2 when the rate was second order with respect to the concentration of adsorbed sulfur ions, but SO2 was evolved when the rate was first order with respect to the concentration of adsorbed sulfur ions. Under the conditions employed in the experiments, H2S never evolved from the surface of the slag, although it did form, in some instances, in the gas phase.

  14. Modified Configuration Interaction calculations of H_2^+ and H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempe, J.; Goldman, S. P.

    1997-04-01

    A variational approach to molecular calculations is introduced that easily yields accurate non-perturbative values for the electronic-vibrational spectrum of diatomic molecules, avoiding multi-center ed or correlated integrations. With the origin of coordinates at the nuclear center of mass, multi-centered calculations are avoided by expanding the nuclear potential and the electron-electron poten tial as sum_kr_<^k / r_>^k+1 P_k. If Ri is the radial coordinate of the nuclei and ri of the electrons then r< (r_>) is the smallest (largest) of ri and either Rj or r_j. Fa st variational convergence is obtained using the Modified Configuration Interaction (MCI) method. Moreover if the Radially Uncoupled version of MCI is used, all the radial integrals are simp le products of one dimensional integrals (no correlated integrations at all). The calculations for H_2^+ including (non-perturbatively) the vibrational and electronic spectra are identical i n structure to those for a He atom, while those for H2 to those for Li. Preliminary results for H_2^+ will be presented.

  15. Observed increase in springtime surface partial pressure of CO2 in the east equatorial Indian Ocean during 1962-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Yu, W.; Wang, H.; Feng, L.; Wei, Q.; Ning, C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly rising atmospheric CO2 and global warming may have been impacting the ocean, and, in contrast, the response of surface CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in the equatorial Indian Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the variation of springtime sea surface pCO2 in the east equatorial Indian Ocean (5° N to 5° S along 90° E and 95° E, EIO), which is relatively better occupied, using data collected in May 2012, together with the historical data since 1962 (LDEO_Database_V2012). Results showed that sea surface pCO2 in the investigation area increased from ~308 ?atm in April 1963, through ~373 ?atm in May 1999, to ~387?atm in May 2012, with a mean increase rate of ~1.7?atm yr-1. Given that the EIO during the study period was almost always a CO2 source to the atmosphere, it was obvious that the observed increase of sea surface pCO2 with time in this region was not due to the local uptake of CO2 via air-sea exchange, although quickly increasing atmospheric CO2 had the potential to increase seawater pCO2. Further, we checked the effects of variations in sea surface temperature, salinity, mixed layer depth and chlorophyll a (as a proxy of biological production) on surface pCO2. We found surface ocean warming partially contributed to sea surface pCO2 increase, whereas the effects of salinity, mixed layer depth, and biological activity were not significant. The pCO2 increase in the equatorial waters (CO2 source to the atmosphere) was probably due to the transport of carbon accumulated in the CO2 sink region (to the atmosphere) towards the CO2 source region on a basin scale via ocean circulation. Additionally, our study showed that more and more release of CO2 from the ocean to the atmosphere and big pH reduction (0.07 pH units) in the past 50 yr (from 1963 to 2012) may have occurred in the EIO. It also demonstrated that ocean acidification may have taken place in the global ocean, not just limited to the CO2 sink region.

  16. Collision-Induced First Overtone Band of H2 in H and H2 ˜- ˜ CO2 - MixturesN_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Kharma, Mahmoud; Stamp, Cliff; Reddy, Satti Paddi; Varghese, George

    2004-03-01

    Enhancement in the collision induced absorption (CIA) spectra of the first overtone infrared band of H2 in the H2 - N2 and H2 - CO binary mixtures was studied at room temperature for base densities of H2 in the range 89 - 145 amagat and for partial densities of N2 and CO in the range 19 - 392 amagat. The observed spectra consist of the quadrupolar double transitions, Q_2(J) (H_2) + S_0(J) (N_2/CO) and Q_2(J) (H_2) + O_0(J) (N_2/CO), and of the transitions, O_2(2) (H_2) + Q_0(J) (N_2/CO), S_2(J) (H_2) + Q_0(J) (N_2/CO) and Q_2(J) (H_2) + Q_0(J) (N_2/CO) with J = 0 - 4 for H2 and J=1 - 25 for N_2/CO. The observed spectra confirm that the isotropic overlap interaction does not contribute to the absorption of the first overtone band, unlike in the CIA spectra of the fundamental band. The binary and ternary absorption coefficients were determined from the integrated absorption coefficients of the band. Profile analysis of the observed spectra was carried out using the Birnbaum-Cohen line shape function^1 for each component of the band and the characteristic half-width parameters ?1 and ?2 for the transitions were determined. The present analysis also confirms that there is no contribution from th electric dipole of CO to the induction mechanism in H2 - CO mixtures. * Research supported by NSERC grant A-2440 awarded to S. P. R. 1 G. Birnbaum and E. R. Cohen , Can. J. Phys. (54), 593 (1976)

  17. Measurement of low oxygen pressures with a solid-state electrolyte miniaturised sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Gutierrez Monreal; G. Vitter

    1983-01-01

    An electrochemical gauge with internal reference is applied for measuring partial oxygen pressures. This device has been applied to measure the oxygen coming from the H2+1\\/2O2 to or from H2O reaction, made at low oxygen pressures down to 10-39 atmospheres ( approximately=10-34Pa). The results showed that the accuracies obtained were about 1.5% between the measured values and the theoretical ones.

  18. CO(2) partial pressure and calcite saturation in springs - useful data for identifying infiltration areas in mountainous environments.

    PubMed

    Hilberg, Sylke; Brandstätter, Jennifer; Glück, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mountainous regions such as the Central European Alps host considerable karstified or fractured groundwater bodies, which meet many of the demands concerning drinking water supply, hydropower or agriculture. Alpine hydrogeologists are required to describe the dynamics in fractured aquifers in order to assess potential impacts of human activities on water budget and quality. Delineation of catchment areas by means of stable isotopes and hydrochemical data is a well established method in alpine hydrogeology. To achieve reliable results, time series of (at least) one year and spatial and temporal close-meshed data are necessary. In reality, test sites in mountainous regions are often inaccessible due to the danger of avalanches in winter. The aim of our work was to assess a method based on the processes within the carbonic acid system to delineate infiltration areas by means of single datasets consisting of the main hydrochemical parameters of each spring. In three geologically different mountainous environments we managed to classify the investigated springs into four groups. (1) High PCO2 combined with slight super-saturation in calcite, indicating relatively low infiltration areas. (2) Low PCO2 near atmospheric conditions in combination with calcite saturation, which is indicative of relatively high infiltration areas and a fractured aquifer which is not covered by topsoil layers. (3) High PCO2 in combination with sub-saturation in calcite, representing a shallow aquifer with a significant influence of the topsoil layer. (4) The fourth group of waters is characterized by low PCO2 and sub-saturation in calcite, which is interpreted as evidence for a shallow aquifer without significant influence of any hard rock aquifer or topsoil layer. This study shows that CO2-partial pressure can be an ideal natural tracer to estimate the elevation of infiltration areas, especially in non-karstified fractured groundwater bodies. PMID:23429574

  19. Carbon dioxide partial pressure and 13C content of north temperate and boreal lakes at spring ice melt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Kortelainen, P.; Chanton, J.P.; Wickland, K.P.; Bugna, G.C.; Rantakari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulates under lake ice in winter and degasses to the atmosphere after ice melt. This large springtime CO2 pulse is not typically considered in surface-atmosphere flux estimates, because most field studies have not sampled through ice during late winter. Measured CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) of lake surface water ranged from 8.6 to 4,290 Pa (85-4,230 ??atm) in 234 north temperate and boreal lakes prior to ice melt during 1998 and 1999. Only four lakes had surface pCO2 less than or equal to atmospheric pCO2, whereas 75% had pCO2 >5 times atmospheric. The ??13CDIC (DIC = ??CO2) of 142 of the lakes ranged from -26.28??? to +0.95.???. Lakes with the greatest pCO2 also had the lightest ??13CDIC, which indicates respiration as their primary CO2 source. Finnish lakes that received large amounts of dissolved organic carbon from surrounding peatlands had the greatest pCO2. Lakes set in noncarbonate till and bedrock in Minnesota and Wisconsin had the smallest pCO2 and the heaviest ??13CDIC, which indicates atmospheric and/or mineral sources of C for those lakes. Potential emissions for the period after ice melt were 2.36 ?? 1.44 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with average pCO2 values and were as large as 13.7 ?? 8.4 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with high pCO2 values.

  20. The inhibiting action of intrinsic impurities in natural calcium carbonate minerals to their dissolution kinetics in aqueous H 2O–CO 2 solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Eisenlohr; Krassimira Meteva; Franci Gabrovšek; Wolfgang Dreybrodt

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the surface controlled dissolution rates of natural calcium carbonate minerals (limestone and marble) in H2O–CO2 solutions by using free drift batch experiments under closed system conditions with respect to CO2, at 10°C with an initial partial pressure of carbon dioxide of 5 · 10?2 atm. All experiments revealed reaction rates F, which can be described by the

  1. Kinetic degradation model and estrogenicity changes of EE 2 (17?-ethinylestradiol) in aqueous solution by UV and UV\\/H 2O 2 technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhaohan Zhang; Yujie Feng; Yu Liu; Qingfang Sun; Peng Gao; Nanqi Ren

    2010-01-01

    The photochemical degradation and estrogenicity removal of 17?-ethinylestradiol in aqueous solutions was investigated via ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and UV\\/H2O2 process with a low-pressure UV lamp. The results indicated that the kinetics of both oxidation processes well fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics. EE2 can be partially removed by UV radiation alone with kinetic constants increasing from 0.0054 to 0.2753min?1 with the UV

  2. An electrode-kinetic investigation of CO and CO\\/H 2 oxidation in phosphotungstic acid (H3PW12O40) electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Aricò; E. Modica; P. Cretìa; V. Antonucci; Salita S. Lucia

    An electrode-kinetic investigation of the oxidation of CO and CO\\/H 2 mixtures on a Pt-Ru\\/C catalyst was carried out in phosphotungstic acid (PWA) electrolyte. The chemical, structure and surface properties of the Pt-Ru\\/C catalyst were investigated by X-ray diffr action (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of temperature, CO partial pressure and proton concentration on the elect rochemical

  3. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-H2S System

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2013-08-01

    Basalt samples representing five different formations were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical carbon dioxide containing 1% hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at reservoir conditions (100 bar, 90°C) for up to 3.5 years. Surface coatings in the form of pyrite and metal cation substituted carbonates were identified as reaction products associated with all five basalts. In some cases, high pressure tests contained excess H2S, which produced the most corroded basalts and largest amount of secondary products. In comparison, tests containing limited amounts of H2S appeared least reacted with significantly less concentrations of reaction products. In all cases, pyrite appeared to precede carbonation, and in some instances, was observed in the absence of carbonation such as in cracks, fractures, and within the porous glassy mesostasis. Armoring reactions from pyrite surface coatings observed in earlier shorter duration tests were found to be temporary with carbonate mineralization observed with all the basalts tested in these long duration experiments. Geochemical simulations conducted with the geochemical code EQ3/6 accurately predicted early pyrite precipitation followed by formation of carbonates. Reactivity with H2S was correlated with measured Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios in the basalts with more facile pyrite formation occurring with basalts containing more Fe(III) phases. These experimental and modeling results confirm potential for long term sequestration of acid gas mixtures in continental flood basalt formations.

  4. Hydrothermal phase equilibria in Ln 2O 3-H 2O-CO 2 systems . I. The lighter lanthanides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tareen, J. A. K.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    1980-10-01

    Phase diagrams for Nd 2O 3-H 2O-CO 2 and Gd 2O 3-H 2O-CO 2 systems at 1500 atm are given along with the results of selected runs in La, Sm and Eu systems. The stable phases in systems of La and Nd, are Ln(OH)CO 3-B, Ln 2O 2CO 3-II and LnOOH, in addition to the Ln(OH) 3 phase at extremely low partial pressures of CO 2 in the system. The systems become more and more complex with decreasing ionic radi and the number of stable carbonate phases increases. Ln 2(CO 3) 3 · 3H 2O orthorhombic (tengerate-like phase) is stable from Sm to Gd in addition to the other phases. The Gd(OH)CO 3-A (ancylite-like phase) is hydrothermally stable at XCO 2 ? 0.5 while its hexagonal polymorph, Gd(OH)CO 3-B is stable at low partial pressures of CO 2 in the system.

  5. Two-stage high-rate biogas (H2 and CH4) production from food waste using anaerobic mixed microflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Lee, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Ebie, Y.; Li, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2010-12-01

    To achieve the high-rate H2 and CH4 production from food waste using fermentative anaerobic microflora, the effects of carbonate-alkalinity in the recirculated digestion sludge on continuous two-stage fermentation were investigated. Higher H2 production rate of 2.9 L-H2/L/day was achieved at the recycle ratio of 1.0 in an alkalinity range of 9000 to 10000 mg-CaCO3/L. The maximum CH4 production rate was stably maintained at the range of 1.85 to 1.88 L-CH4/L/day without alkalinity change. Carbonate alkalinity in digestion sludge could reduce the H2 partial pressure in the headspace of the fermentation reactors, and improve a biogas production capacity in the two-stage fermentation process. The average volatile solids degradation rate in the overall process increased as the digestion sludge recycle increased from 0.5 to 1.0. These results show that the alkalinity in recycle of the digestion sludge is crucial factor in determining biogas (H2 and CH4) production capacity and reducing the total solids.

  6. Thermodynamics of Silicon-Hydroxide Formation in H2O Containing Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Myers, Dwight; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile silicon-hydroxide species from SiO2 in water containing atmospheres has been identified as a potentially important mode of degradation of Si-based ceramics. Availability of thermodynamic data for these species is a major problem. This study is part of an ongoing effort to obtain reliable, experimentally determined thermodynamic data for these species. The transpiration method was used to measure the pressure of Si-containing vapor in equilibrium with SiO2 (cristobalite) and Ar + H2O(g) with various mole fractions of water vapor, X(sub H2O), at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1780 K. Enthalpies and entropies for the reaction, SiO2(s) + 2H2O(g) = Si(OH)4(g), were obtained, at X(sub H2O) = 0.15 and 0.37, from the variation of lnK with 1/T according to the 'second law method'. The following data were obtained: delta(H)deg = 52.9 +/- 3.7 kJ/mole and delta(S)deg = -68.6 +/- 2.5 J/mole K at an average temperature of 1550 K, and delta(H)deg = 52.5+/-2.0 kJ/mole and delta(S)deg= -69.7 +/- 1.5 J/moleK at an average temperature of 1384 K, for X(sub H2O)= 0.15 and 0.37, respectively. These data agree with results from the literature obtained at an average temperature of 1600 K, and strongly suggest Si(OH)4(g) is the dominant vapor species. Contradictory results were obtained with the determination of the dependence of Si-containing vapor pressure on the partial pressure of water vapor at 1187 and 1722 K. These results suggested the Si-containing vapor could be a mixture of Si(OH)4 + SiO(OH)2. Further pressure dependent studies are in progress to resolve these issues.

  7. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (6) Hydrothermal minerals record CO2 partial pressures in the Reykjanes Geothermal System, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, A. J.; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.; Fridriksson, T.; Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Reykjanes Geothermal system, a target site for drilling by the IDDP, is located on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland, the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge spreading center. Seawater penetrates the coastal Reykjanes geothermal system at depth, mixing with magmatic volatiles and reacting with the basaltic host rock to form secondary hydrothermal minerals. Within this system, epidote-prehnite-calcite- quartz-fluid constitutes a quadra-variant assemblage that, under conditions of specified temperature, pressure, and activity of H2O allows prediction of geothermal fluid pCO2 as a function of the composition of the solid solution minerals epidote or prehnite. This assemblage is typically found at temperatures >250°C and <~310°C, and potentially provides a mineralogical recorder that constrains fluid CO2 concentrations based on compositional zoning in hydrothermal epidote. Analysis of epidote crystals separated from drillhole-cuttings from three geothermal wells (RN-9, RN-10, RN-17) display complex chemical zoning, generally with Fe(III)-rich cores and Al-rich rims. The Fe(III)-mol fraction of epidote ranges 0.17 to 0.48. The Fe(III)-mol fraction of prehnite ranges from 0.11 to 0.59 in the upper portions of drillhole RN-17, where the highest Fe(III) content in epidote is 0.36, which serves as the upper Fe(III) limit for epidotes coexisting with prehnite in this study. Because most observed prehnite crystals in the drillhole-cuttings are too small for electron microprobe analyses (<20?m), we employed a sigmoidal correlation of available compositional data from active geothermal systems to calculate the Fe(III)-Al composition of prehnite using measured compositions of epidote in the Reykjanes system. In drill cuttings that contain epidote, prehnite, quartz and calcite, using measured epidote compositions between the reference temperatures of 275°C and 310°C, we calculated values of pCO2 for the geothermal fluids range from ~0.6 to ~6.2 bars. When only epidote, prehnite and quartz are observed in the drill cuttings, the calculated range of pCO2 is from ~1.3 to ~6.8 bars, which provides the maximum value of pCO2 at which calcite will not be present. Present day pCO2 values of geothermal fluids from the Reykjanes system were derived from analytical data on liquid and vapor samples collected at the surface using both the WATCH and SOLVEQ. At reference temperatures between 275°C and 310°C, these fluids have pCO2 concentrations ranging from 1.3 bars to 4.0 bars. The calculated pCO2 values based on epidote compositions are in close agreement with present-day fluid pCO2 in the Reykjanes geothermal system. 72% of the calculated pCO2 values based on epidote compositions where the assemblage of epidote, prehnite, quartz and calcite are observed in drill cuttings are within the range of measured present-day fluids, while 58% of the calculated pCO2 values fall within the range when calcite is not present in the drill cuttings.

  8. Influence of pore geometry, pressure and partial water saturation to electrical properties of reservoir rock: Measurement and model development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilfan Khairy; Zuhar Zahir Tn. Harith

    2011-01-01

    Pressure and saturation are of two important parameters to be considered to evaluate the electrical properties of reservoir rock. As confining pressure can cause pore space of rock to collapse as well as rock properties to change, it for some reason is necessary to examine the degree of the pressure and saturation changes in affecting the electrical properties in detail.

  9. Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O y single crystal growth in Bridgman–Stockbarger method using different oxygen partial pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Echizen; H. Tanaka; S. Adachi; T. Ishigaki; S. Kishida

    2006-01-01

    In order to attain the application of Bi2Sr2Can?1CunOy (Bi-based) high-Tc superconductor to terahertz electronic devices which work in a wider radio-frequency region, it is required to obtain large and high quality Bi-based superconducting single crystals. For obtaining large and high quality single crystals, it is necessary to clarify the effects of oxygen partial pressure of a crystal growth atmosphere (PO2)

  10. Changes in partial pressures of respiratory gases during submerged voluntary breath hold across odontocetes: is body mass important?

    PubMed

    Noren, S R; Williams, T M; Ramirez, K; Boehm, J; Glenn, M; Cornell, L

    2012-02-01

    Odontocetes have an exceptional range in body mass spanning 10(3) kg across species. Because, size influences oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production rates in mammals, this lineage likely displays an extraordinary variation in oxygen store management compared to other marine mammal groups. To examine this, we measured changes in the partial pressures of respiratory gases ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), pH, and lactate in the blood during voluntary, quiescent, submerged breath holds in Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and a killer whale (Orcinus orca) representing a mass range of 96-3,850 kg. These measurements provided an empirical determination of the effect of body size on the variability in blood biochemistry during breath hold and experimentally determined aerobic dive limits (ADL) within one taxonomic group (odontocetes). For the species in this study, maximum voluntary breath-hold duration was positively correlated with body mass, ranging from 3.5 min in white-sided dolphins to 13.3 min for the killer whale. Variation in breath-hold duration was associated with differences in the rate of change for [Formula: see text] throughout breath hold; [Formula: see text] decreased twice as fast for the two smaller species (-0.6 mmHg O(2) min(-1)) compared to the largest species (-0.3 mmHg O(2) min(-1)). In contrast, the rate of increase in [Formula: see text] during breath hold was similar across species. These results demonstrate that large body size in odontocetes facilitates increased aerobic breath-hold capacity as mediated by decreased mass-specific metabolic rates (rates of change in [Formula: see text] served as a proxy for oxygen utilization). Indeed the experimentally determined 5 min ADL for bottlenose dolphins was surpassed by the 13.3 min maximum breath hold of the killer whale, which did not end in a rise in lactate. Rather, breath hold ended voluntarily as respiratory gases and pH fell within a narrow range for both large and small species, likely providing cues for ventilation. PMID:21935721

  11. Measurements of surface ocean carbon dioxide partial pressure during WOCE. Technical progress report, 1 June 1991--31 May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.F.

    1992-02-25

    Progress during the past year of research under ``Measurements of Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure During WOCE`` has been significant. As was described in our previous progress report, the startup phase of this research was severely frustrated by delays in the US WOCE Hydrographic Program (WHP), which in turn were caused by delays in the mid-life refit of the R/V Knorr. As a result the high latitude southeastern Pacific work (WHP lines P19S and P16S) originally scheduled for the 1990 austral summer has still not been carried out. As a substitute, the smaller R/V Thomas Washington was pressed into service during mid-1991 to carry out lower-latitude portions of the WHP P16 and P17 lines - the TUNES Expedition. Because this ship is much smaller than the R/V Knorr, she could not carry a full complement of WHP programs and seagoing personnel and was restricted by her size and the time of year to lower-latitude work. Our original proposal for carbon dioxide measurements was designed to divide the work between legs in which we participated as part of the WHP dissolved CFC program (under separate NSF funding) and legs in which we entrusted the operation of our system to other CFC or carbon dioxide laboratories with expertise in gas chromatography. Since we were not involved in any CFC work on the substituted Washington expedition, and since all the seagoing programs on the Washington were additionally stressed by a shortage of people and space, this placed our carbon dioxide program at an unwelcome disadvantage. The preliminary results for carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are shown. We are forced to rely on spotty manual observations and station CTD temperatures to reconstruct our equilibrator temperature solubility corrections for portions of that leg. We did not get our usual reliable data return, but the results were surely worth effort, especially for this vast and rarely-visited region of the world oceans.

  12. Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide successful predicts cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the field: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Miran; Križmari?, Miljenko; Klemen2, Petra; Grmec, Štefek

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Prognosis in patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is poor. Higher survival rates have been observed only in patients with ventricular fibrillation who were fortunate enough to have basic and advanced life support initiated soon after cardiac arrest. An ability to predict cardiac arrest outcomes would be useful for resuscitation. Changes in expired end-tidal carbon dioxide levels during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be a useful, noninvasive predictor of successful resuscitation and survival from cardiac arrest, and could help in determining when to cease CPR efforts. Methods This is a prospective, observational study of 737 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The patients were intubated and measurements of end-tidal carbon dioxide taken. Data according to the Utstein criteria, demographic information, medical data, and partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) values were collected for each patient in cardiac arrest by the emergency physician. We hypothesized that an end-tidal carbon dioxide level of 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) or more after 20 minutes of standard advanced cardiac life support would predict restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results PetCO2 after 20 minutes of advanced life support averaged 0.92 ± 0.29 kPa (6.9 ± 2.2 mmHg) in patients who did not have ROSC and 4.36 ± 1.11 kPa (32.8 ± 9.1 mmHg) in those who did (P < 0.001). End-tidal carbon dioxide values of 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) or less discriminated between the 402 patients with ROSC and 335 patients without. When a 20-minute end-tidal carbon dioxide value of 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) or less was used as a screening test to predict ROSC, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were all 100%. Conclusions End-tidal carbon dioxide levels of more than 1.9 kPa (14.3 mmHg) after 20 minutes may be used to predict ROSC with accuracy. End-tidal carbon dioxide levels should be monitored during CPR and considered a useful prognostic value for determining the outcome of resuscitative efforts and when to cease CPR in the field. PMID:18786260

  13. Long-term spatial and temporal variation of CO2 partial pressure in the Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lu, X. X.; Richey, J. E.; Sun, H.; Han, J.; Yu, R.; Liao, S.; Yi, Q.

    2015-02-01

    Carbon transport in river systems is an important component of the global carbon cycle. Most rivers of the world act as atmospheric CO2 sources due to high riverine CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). By determining the pCO2 from alkalinity and pH, we investigated its spatial and temporal variation in the Yellow River watershed using historical water chemistry records (1950s-1984) and recent sampling along the mainstem (2011-2012). Except the headwater region where the pCO2 was lower than the atmospheric equilibrium (i.e. 380 ?atm), river waters in the remaining watershed were supersaturated with CO2. The average pCO2 for the watershed was estimated at 2810 ± 1985 ?atm, which is 7-fold the atmospheric equilibrium. As a result of severe soil erosion and dry climate, waters from the Loess Plateau in the middle reaches had higher pCO2 than that from the upper and lower reaches. From a seasonal perspective, the pCO2 varied from about 200 ?atm to > 30 000 ?atm with higher pCO2 usually occurring in the dry season and lower pCO2 in the wet season (at 73% of the sampling sites), suggesting the dilution effect of water. While the pCO2 responded exponentially to total suspended solids (TSS) export when the TSS concentration was less than 100 kg m-3, it decreased slightly and remained stable if the TSS concentration exceeded 100 kg m-3. This stable pCO2 is largely due to gully erosion that mobilizes subsoils characterized by low organic carbon for decomposition. In addition, human activities have changed the pCO2 dynamics. Particularly, flow regulation by dams can diversely affect the temporal changes of pCO2, depending on the physiochemical properties of the regulated waters and adopted operation scheme. Given the high pCO2 in the Yellow River waters, large potential for CO2 evasion is expected and warrants further investigation.

  14. Variation of corrosion behavior of candidate heat exchanger alloys with local oxygen partial pressure in a 0. 6 meter diameter AFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The research reviewed here is in support of a program in which a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) is being designed to supply heat to a closed-cycle gas turbine co-generation system. The objective is to develop a system which could utilize high-sulfur coal. The major technical challenge is the design and development of the in-bed primary heat exchanger, which is required to operate near the bed temperature (1172 K, 1650 F). The purpose of this research was to characterize the types of corrosive environments encountered in the AFBC by monitoring the oxygen partial pressure at the exposure locations and to correlate the corrosion behavior of the exposed alloys to the local oxygen partial pressure measurements. Results were given for Incoloy 800, FeCr A/Y cladding, and nickel-base alloys. The relationships between the observed corrosion products and measured oxygen partial pressures suggest that the deposits formed in the AFBC had porosity sufficient such that intimate gas-metal contact was possible. 3 figures. (DP)

  15. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Di [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin (China); Song, Le, E-mail: songle@tju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiong [School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Kajiyama, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  16. Selective modulation of cellular voltage-dependent calcium channels by hyperbaric pressure—a suggested HPNS partial mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Aviner, Ben; Gradwohl, Gideon; Mor Aviner, Merav; Levy, Shiri; Grossman, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Professional deep sea divers experience motor and cognitive impairment, known as High Pressure Neurological Syndrome (HPNS), when exposed to pressures of 100 msw (1.1 MPa) and above, considered to be the result of synaptic transmission alteration. Previous studies have indicated modulation of presynaptic Ca2+ currents at high pressure. We directly measured for the first time pressure effects on the currents of voltage dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Pressure selectivity augmented the current in CaV1.2 and depressed it in CaV3.2 channels. Pressure application also affected the channels' kinetics, such as ?Rise, ?Decay. Pressure modulation of VDCCs seems to play an important role in generation of HPNS signs and symptoms. PMID:24904281

  17. An empirical model for the solubility of H2O in magmas to 3 kilobars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORDON MOORE; TORSTEN VENNEMANN; I. S. E. CARMICHAEL

    1998-01-01

    We present 16 new manometric determinations of H2O solubility for a range of natural silicate liquid compositions equilibrated up to 3 kbar of H 2O pressure. As the threshold temperature of dehydration of the quenched glasses during measurements of the H2O con- tent becomes lower as a function both of bulk silicate composition and the dissolved H2O content, we measured

  18. Rotationally resolved photoionization of polyatomic hydrides: CH3, H2O, H2S, H2CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedmann, Ralph T.; White, Michael G.; Wang, Kwanghsi; McKoy, Vincent

    1994-04-01

    Combined theoretical and experimental studies of rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra for single-photon ionization of the outermost valence orbitals of H2O, H2S, H2CO, and CH3 are reported. Agreement between calculated and measured spectra is very encouraging. Both show that photoionization dynamics is very molecular in origin for H2O, H2S, and H2CO but quite atomiclike for CH3. Parity selection rules and the angular momentum composition of the photoelectron are used to illustrate the dynamical aspects of photoionization of polyatomics as molecular symmetry changes in a group of structurally related systems.

  19. High-pressure partial melting of garnet pyroxenite: possible mafic lithologies in the source of ocean island basalts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsu Kogiso; Marc M. Hirschmann; Daniel J Frost

    2003-01-01

    Many ocean island basalts (OIB) that have isotopic ratios indicative of recycled crustal components in their source are silica-undersaturated and unlike silicic liquids produced from partial melting of recycled mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB). However, experiments on a silica-deficient garnet pyroxenite, MIX1G, at 2.0–2.5 GPa show that some pyroxenite partial melts are strongly silica-undersaturated [M.M. Hirschmann et al., Geology 31 (2003)

  20. Syn-collisional channel flow and exhumation of paleoproterozoic High Pressure rocks in the Trans-North China Orogen: the critical role of partial-melting and orogenic bending.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Syn-collisional channel flow and exhumation of paleoproterozoic High Pressure rocks in the Trans of the partially molten rocks that compose the HPB according to changes in melt fraction. A compilation of the P-slip component that accommodated the final uprise of the high-pressure rocks. Keywords: High-pressure rocks

  1. First Draft 06/06/2012 Text (Partial) of E-Mail to Tom Peake Regarding Capillary Pressure Models

    E-print Network

    Pressure Model is Turned Off The threshold capillary pressure1 , Pt, is 0, with PCT_A = 0, defined by input, and PCT_EXP = 0, defined by input CAP_MOD = 1, defined by input. PC_MAX is defined by input2 but not used capillary pressure, Pt, is nonzero; PCT_A and PCT_EXP are nonzero values, defined by input. A nonzero value

  2. Role of partial miscibility on pressure buildup due to constant rate injection of CO2 into closed and open brine aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Gluyas, Jon G.; GonzáLez MartíNez de Miguel, Gerardo J.; Hosseini, Seyyed A.

    2011-12-01

    This work extends an existing analytical solution for pressure buildup because of CO2 injection in brine aquifers by incorporating effects associated with partial miscibility. These include evaporation of water into the CO2 rich phase and dissolution of CO2 into brine and salt precipitation. The resulting equations are closed-form, including the locations of the associated leading and trailing shock fronts. Derivation of the analytical solution involves making a number of simplifying assumptions including: vertical pressure equilibrium, negligible capillary pressure, and constant fluid properties. The analytical solution is compared to results from TOUGH2 and found to accurately approximate the extent of the dry-out zone around the well, the resulting permeability enhancement due to residual brine evaporation, the volumetric saturation of precipitated salt, and the vertically averaged pressure distribution in both space and time for the four scenarios studied. While brine evaporation is found to have a considerable effect on pressure, the effect of CO2 dissolution is found to be small. The resulting equations remain simple to evaluate in spreadsheet software and represent a significant improvement on current methods for estimating pressure-limited CO2 storage capacity.

  3. The mechanism of Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase action. The determination of rate constants required for the simulation of the kinetics of N2 reduction and H2 evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, D J; Thorneley, R N

    1984-01-01

    Kinetic data for Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase were used to determine the values of nine of the 17 rate constants that define the scheme for nitrogenase action described by Lowe & Thorneley [(1984) Biochem. J. 224, 877-886]. Stopped-flow spectrophotometric monitoring of the MgATP-induced oxidation of the Fe protein (Kp2) by the MoFe protein (Kp1) was used to determine the rates of association (k+1) and dissociation (k-1) of reduced Kp2(MgATP)2 with Kp1. The dependences of the apparent KNm2 on Fe protein/MoFe protein ratio and H2 partial pressure were used to determine the mutual displacement rates of N2 and H2 (k+10, k-10, k+11 and k-11). These data also allowed the rate constants for H2 evolution from progressively more reduced forms of Kp1 to be determined (k+7, k+8 and k+9). A mechanism for N2-dependent catalysis of 1H2H formation from 2H2 that requires H2 to be a competitive inhibitor of N2 reduction is also presented. PMID:6395863

  4. Kinetic degradation model and estrogenicity changes of EE2 (17alpha-ethinylestradiol) in aqueous solution by UV and UV/H2O2 technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohan; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Yu; Sun, Qingfang; Gao, Peng; Ren, Nanqi

    2010-09-15

    The photochemical degradation and estrogenicity removal of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol in aqueous solutions was investigated via ultraviolet (UV) photolysis and UV/H(2)O(2) process with a low-pressure UV lamp. The results indicated that the kinetics of both oxidation processes well fitted the pseudo-first-order kinetics. EE(2) can be partially removed by UV radiation alone with kinetic constants increasing from 0.0054 to 0.2753 min(-1) with the UV intensity increase. The EE(2) degradation rate enhanced from 0.0364 to 0.0684 min(-1) when H(2)O(2) was combined with the photolysis process (UV/H(2)O(2)), even though EE(2) was not oxidized when same amounts of H(2)O(2) existed in the aqueous solutions. The kinetic parameters of pseudo-first-order kinetics showed positive correlation to UV intensity and also H(2)O(2) concentration, however negative to the initial EE(2) concentration. A regression model was developed for pseudo-first-order rate constant as a function of the UV intensity, H(2)O(2) concentration and initial EE(2) concentration, which could be used to estimate the EE(2) degradation rate at various operational conditions. The yeast estrogen screen (YES) was employed to evaluate the estrogenicity of photolytic water samples. Results showed that more than 95% of the estrogenicity was removed after 40 min irradiation and the parent compound EE(2) was mainly responsible for the observed estrogenicity. PMID:20591569

  5. Production of B atoms and BH radicals from B2H6/He/H2 mixtures activated on heated W wires.

    PubMed

    Umemoto, Hironobu; Kanemitsu, Taijiro; Tanaka, Akihito

    2014-07-17

    B atoms and BH radicals could be identified by laser-induced fluorescence when B2H6/He/H2 mixtures were activated on heated tungsten wires. The densities of these radical species increased not only with the wire temperature but also with the partial pressure of H2. The densities in the presence of 0.026 Pa of B2H6 and 2.6 Pa of H2 were on the order of 10(11) cm(-3) both for B and BH when the wire temperature was 2000 K. Densities in the absence of a H2 flow were much smaller, suggesting that the direct production of these species on wire surfaces is minor. B and BH must be produced in the H atom shifting reactions, BH(x) + H ? BH(x-1) + H2 (x = 1-3), in the gas phase, while H atoms are produced from H2 on wire surfaces. The B atom density increased monotonously with the H atom density, while the BH density showed saturation. These tendencies could be reproduced by simple modeling based on ab initio potential energy calculations and the transition-state theoretical calculations of the rate constants. The absolute densities could also be reproduced within a factor of 2.5. PMID:24960473

  6. Determination of oxygen adsorption-desorption rates and diffusion rate coefficients in perovskites at different oxygen partial pressures by a microkinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Rochoux, M; Guo, Y; Schuurman, Y; Farrusseng, D

    2015-01-14

    A novel, powerful method based on a microkinetic approach is described for the estimation of the oxygen transport parameters of mixed electronic conducting materials (MIECs). This method is validated on the perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? and has been applied on Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-?. This approach is original and relevant in that the surface kinetic rate constants are measured using a sample in powder form. In contrast to methods previously used, such as isotope exchange depth profiling (IEDP) and electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR), which determine the global exchange kinetic parameter, our microkinetic modelling approach allows the estimation of the forward and reverse kinetic rates accounting for the oxygen vacancy concentration. Also, the self-diffusion rate coefficient has been estimated at different oxygen partial pressures. This microkinetic approach, which combines SSITKA (steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis) and thermogravimetric measurements at controlled oxygen partial pressure, has the potential to significantly accelerate the characterization of oxygen transport in perovskites and related materials in the future. In this study, the kinetic parameters were measured in a temperature window between 873 K and 1173 K, and at two oxygen pressure conditions (21 kPa and 1 kPa) that are appropriate for simulating the semi-permeability of oxygen in a membrane in a process of oxygen separation from air. PMID:25429893

  7. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, and/or CaH2) Composite Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon; Xu, Yimin; Shaw, Wendy J.; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-04-19

    Ammonia borane (AB = NH3BH3) is one of the most attractive materials for chemical hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen contents of 19.6 wt.%, however, impurity levels of borazine, ammonia and diborane in conjunction with foaming and exothermic hydrogen release calls for finding ways to mitigate the decomposition reactions. In this paper we present a solution by mixing AB with metal hydrides (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2 and CaH2) which have endothermic hydrogen release in order to control the heat release and impurity levels from AB upon decomposition. The composite materials were prepared by mechanical ball milling, and their H2 release properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The formation of volatile products from decomposition side reactions, such as borazine (N3B3H6) was determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Sieverts type pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) gas-solid reaction instrument was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the combined systems and neat AB. In situ 11B MAS-NMR revealed a destabilized decomposition pathway. We found that by adding specific metal hydrides to AB we can eliminate the impurities and mitigate the heat release.

  8. THE PARTIAL OXIDATION OF CH4 TO CH3OH AT HIGH PRESSURE IN A PACKED REACTOR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence A. Morton; Hyman D. Cesser; Norman R. Hunter

    1991-01-01

    In a considered effort to improve turbulence and heat transfer while reducing reactant\\/product residence time (enhancing primary product preservation) in the partial oxidation of methane lo methanol, a glass lined reactor was packed successively with a scries of metal (beads), glass (beads) and carbon (“solid foam”). The metal surfaces included, nickel, copper, silver, line, tin and stainless steel.The surfaces were

  9. The partial oxidation of CH sub 4 to CH sub 3 OH at high pressure in a packed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Morton; H. D. Gesser; N. R. Hunter

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a considered effort to improve turbulence and heat transfer while reducing reactant\\/product residence time (enhancing primary product preservation) in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol, a glass lined reactor packed successively with a series of metal (beads), glass (beads) and carbon (solid foam). The metal surfaces included, nickel, copper, silver, zinc, tin and stainless steel.

  10. Core burnup calculation and accidents analyses of a pressurized water reactor partially loaded with rock-like oxide fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Akie; Y. Sugo; R. Okawa

    2003-01-01

    A rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel – light water reactor (LWR) burning system has been studied for efficient plutonium transmutation. For the improvement of small negative reactivity coefficients and severe transient behaviors of ROX fueled LWRs, a partial loading core of ROX fuel assemblies with conventional UO2 assemblies was considered. As a result, although the reactivity coefficients could be improved, the

  11. Comparative study of the oxidation of atrazine and acetone by H 2O 2\\/UV, Fe(III)\\/UV, Fe(iii)\\/H 2O 2\\/UV and Fe(II) or Fe(III)\\/H 2O 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. De Laat; H. Gallard; S. Ancelin; B. Legube

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the rates of degradation of organic compounds by several AOPs (H2O2\\/UV, Fe(III)\\/UV, Fe(III)\\/H2O2\\/UV, Fe(II)\\/H2O2 and Fe(III)\\/H2O2) have been compared. Experiments were carried out at pH ? 3 (perchloric acid \\/ sodium perchlorate solutions) and with UV reactors equipped with a low-pressure mercury vapour lamp (emission at 253.7 run). The data obtained with atrazine ([Atrazine]o = 100 ?g\\/L)

  12. Analysis of the collision-induced absorption spectra of double vibrational transitions in H2-N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamp, C.; Prasad, R. D. G.; Gillard, P. G.; Reddy, S. Paddi

    1999-04-01

    Collision-induced absorption (CIA) spectra of double vibrational transitions of H2(v=1-0)+N2(v=1-0) were studied in their binary mixtures in the spectral region 5900 to 7100 cm-1. The spectra were recorded with a 2 m high-pressure cell for partial densities of H2 and N2 in the range 60 to 400 and 100 to 350 amagat, respectively, at 201 K and 298 K. The observed spectra are interpreted in terms of several double transitions such as: O1(2)+Q1(J), Q1(J)+Q1(J), Q1(J)+Q1(J), Q1(J)+S1(J), S1(0)+Q1(J), S1(1)+Q1(J), and S1(2)+Q1(J), the first component from H2 and the second component from N2. These transitions occur on the high frequency wing of the H2 CIA fundamental band. Various semi-emperical line shapes were used in the analysis of the observed spectra. Birnbaum-Cohen line-shape function was found to give satisfactory fits of the calculated profiles to the experimental profiles. Line-shape parameters and absorption coefficients obtained from the analysis are given.

  13. Piperidine hydrogenolysis on a commercial hydrocracking catalyst. II. The effects of initial piperidine concentration, temperature, catalyst presulfidation, and hydrogen partial pressure on catalyst activity, deactivation, and coke formation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjiloizou, G.C.; Butt, J.B.; Dranoff, J.S. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The formation of coke in the piperidine hydrogenolysis reaction over a fresh sulfided hydrocracking catalyst was examined at temperatures ranging from 281 to 321 C, hydrogen partial pressures of 11.2 to 15.9 atm (1.1 to 1.6 MPa), and initial concentrations of piperidine of 3.94 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] to 11.84 [times] 10[sup [minus]3]g mol/liter using elemental analysis, [sup 13]C NMR spectroscopy, and ESCA. The results indicated that most of the coke present on the catalyst after 17 h on stream was deposited in the initial 90 min of the reaction. Coke formation and hence catalyst deactivation were found to increase with both reaction temperature and initial concentration of piperidine. Reducing the catalyst instead of sulfiding it had no effect on the final coke content. Nitrogen was found to be present on the catalyst surface after reaction indicating that nitrogen-containing compound were participating in the formation of coke. The H/C ratio of the coke decreased very slowly with reaction time and was invariant to changes in temperature, initial concentration of piperidine, or catlayst pretreatment method. Comparing the activity of reduced versus sulfided fresh catalysts in the hydrogenolysis of piperidine, it was found that under the present conditions, catalyst presulfidation increased the activity of the metallic catalyst function and decreased the rate of catalyst deactivation. Furthermore, decreasing the partial pressure of hydrogen resulted in an activity decrease of the metallic catalyst function and had a negative effect on the overall catalyst activity maintenance. The intrinsic activity of the acidic catalyst function was not affected by the change in hydrogen partial pressure.

  14. In-Situ Partial Pressure Measurements and Visual Observation during Crystal Growth of ZnSe by Seeded Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, Shari; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1999-01-01

    An in-situ monitoring furnace was constructed with side windows to perform partial pressure measurements by optical absorption and visual observation of the growing crystal. A fused silica -rowth ampoule with a 4.5 cm long square tube between the source and the seed was prepared for the optical absorption measurements. A ZnSe crystal was grown by the seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) technique in the horizontal configuration. The growth temperature was 1120 C and the furnace translation rate was 3nmVday. Partial pressures of Se2, P(sub Se2), at three locations along the length of the growth ampoule were measured at 90 min intervals during the growth process. The measured P (sub Se2) were in the range of 2.0 to 6.5 x 10(exp -3) atm. The P(sub Se2) results indicated that the partial pressure profile was inconsistent with the results of the one-dimensional diffusion mass transport model and that the source composition shifted toward Se-rich during the run, i.e. the grown crystal was more Zn-rich than the source. The visual observation showed that the seed crystal first etched back, with greater thermal etching occurring along the edges of the seed crystal. Once the growth started, the crystal crew in a predominately contactless mode and facets were evident during growth. The crystal did not grow symmetrically which is believed to be due to the unintentional asymmetry of the radial thermal profile in the furnace.

  15. Formation of primary kimberlite melts - Constraints from experiments at 6-12 GPa and variable CO2/H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girnis, A. V.; Bulatov, V. K.; Brey, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Liquidus phase relations were experimentally studied in model kimberlite melts at 6-12 GPa. Four starting materials were used with different CO2 and H2O contents but almost identical proportions of other components (~ 35 wt.% SiO2, 3 wt.% Al2O3, 10 wt.% FeO, 33 wt.% MgO, 15 wt.% CaO, 0.3 wt.% Na2O, and 1 wt.% K2O on a 100% volatile-free basis). The liquidus phase of the CO2 richest mixture (33 wt.% CO2 and no H2O) is coesite at P > 6-8 GPa and low-Ca pyroxene at lower pressures. In an H2O-free mixture with lower CO2 content (18 wt.%) low-Ca pyroxene is the main liquidus phase and coesite was never observed in the experimental products. The addition of water (mixtures with 10 wt.% H2O + 9 wt.% CO2 and 12 wt.% H2O + 5 wt.% CO2) depresses the liquidus temperature and expands the crystallization field of olivine. At high pressures (> 8 GPa), garnet crystallization dominates near-liquidus phase relations. Based on the experimental data, possible conditions of the simultaneous saturation of kimberlite melt with olivine + low-Ca pyroxene ± garnet were estimated. High-Ca pyroxene was never found in the near-liquidus assemblages despite the high-CaO compositions of the starting mixtures. It was shown that the supposed primary kimberlite melt can be in equilibrium with the garnet harzburgite assemblage at 6-8 GPa and variable volatile contents, from ~ 15 wt.% CO2 under anhydrous conditions to 20 wt.% H2O and low CO2. These conditions correspond to possible parameters of kimberlite magma generation by partial melting of carbonated garnet harzburgite in the lithospheric mantle. The primary CO2 content could be higher if the kimberlite magma was poorer in SiO2 (more ‘carbonatitic'). The maximum CO2 content is limited by the appearance of magnesite on the liquidus at 20-22 wt.%, which is much lower than CO2 solubility in kimberlite melt at 7-8 GPa (> 30 wt.%). The content of H2O in primary kimberlite magmas depends on the bulk H2O content in the source, because no hydrous phases are stable near the kimberlite liquidus.

  16. Shock properties of H2O ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Sarah T.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2005-03-01

    To understand the mechanics and thermodynamics of impacts on, and collisions between, icy planetary bodies, we measured the dynamic strength and shock states in H2O ice. Here, we expand upon previous analyses and present a complete description of the phases, temperature, entropy, and sound velocity along the ice shock Hugoniot. Derived from shock wave measurements centered at initial temperatures (T0) of 100 K and 263 K, the Hugoniot is composed of five regions: (1) elastic shocks in ice Ih, (2) ice Ih deformation shocks, and shock transformation to (3) ice VI, (4) ice VII, and (5) liquid water. In each region, data obtained at different initial temperatures are described by a single US - ?up shock equation of state. The dynamic strength of ice Ih is strongly dependent on initial temperature, and the Hugoniot Elastic Limit varies from 0.05 to 0.62 GPa, as a function of temperature and peak shock stress. We present new bulk sound velocity measurements and release profiles from shock pressures between 0.4 and 1.2 GPa. We report revised values for the shock pressures required to induce incipient melting (0.6 +/- 0.05, 1.6 +/- 0.3 GPa) and complete melting (2.5 +/- 0.1, 4.1 +/- 0.3 GPa) upon isentropic release from the shock state (for T0 = 263, 100 K). On account of the >40% density increase upon transformation from ice Ih to ices VI and VII, the critical shock pressures required for melting are factors of 2 to 10 lower than earlier predicted. Consequently, hypervelocity impact cratering on planetary surfaces and mutual collisions between porous cometesimals will result in abundant shock-induced melting throughout the solar system.

  17. Availability of O2 and H2O2 on Pre-Photosynthetic Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob; Kasting, James F.; Lee, Sukyoung

    2011-05-01

    Old arguments that free O2 must have been available at Earth's surface prior to the origin of photosynthesis have been revived by a new study that shows that aerobic respiration can occur at dissolved oxygen concentrations much lower than had previously been thought, perhaps as low as 0.05 nM, which corresponds to a partial pressure for O2 of about 4×10-8 bar. We used numerical models to study whether such O2 concentrations might have been provided by atmospheric photochemistry. Results show that disproportionation of H2O2 near the surface might have yielded enough O2 to satisfy this constraint. Alternatively, poleward transport of O2 from the equatorial stratosphere into the polar night region, followed by downward transport in the polar vortex, may have brought O2 directly to the surface. Thus, our calculations indicate that this "early respiration" hypothesis might be physically reasonable.

  18. Availability of O(2) and H(2)O(2) on pre-photosynthetic Earth.

    PubMed

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob; Kasting, James F; Lee, Sukyoung

    2011-05-01

    Old arguments that free O(2) must have been available at Earth's surface prior to the origin of photosynthesis have been revived by a new study that shows that aerobic respiration can occur at dissolved oxygen concentrations much lower than had previously been thought, perhaps as low as 0.05?nM, which corresponds to a partial pressure for O(2) of about 4?×?10(-8) bar. We used numerical models to study whether such O(2) concentrations might have been provided by atmospheric photochemistry. Results show that disproportionation of H(2)O(2) near the surface might have yielded enough O(2) to satisfy this constraint. Alternatively, poleward transport of O(2) from the equatorial stratosphere into the polar night region, followed by downward transport in the polar vortex, may have brought O(2) directly to the surface. Thus, our calculations indicate that this "early respiration" hypothesis might be physically reasonable. PMID:21545266

  19. Plant and environment interactions: Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age {open_quote}Casselman{close_quote} plum trees to various ozone partial pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States); DeJong, T.M. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) during the 1989 through 1992 growing seasons (typically 1 Apr. - 1 Nov.). A nonchamber treatment plot was used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. This study details the results of the exposures during the initial commercial bearing period (1991 through 1993) in this orchard. The mean 12-h (0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time [PDT]) ozone partial pressures during the experimental periods in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments averaged 0.031, 0.048, 0.091, and 0.056 {mu}Pa Pa{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Fruit number per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal filtered to ambient + ozone treatment, significantly affecting yield. Yield of plum trees averaged 23.6, 19.8, 13.7, and 17.9 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Only one out of the five original treatment plots was exposed to ozone treatments during the 1993 growing season. Yield of plum trees in this single replicate in 1993 was reduced by increased atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Yield of plum trees in the four remaining unexposed treatment plots in 1993 was 16.7, 17.9, and 16.0 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in the previous charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + ozone treatments respectively. The similarity in yield of the post-chamber treatments indicates that a change in air quality in the current growing season can affect yield of Casselman plum trees. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Geochemical signatures of metasedimentary rocks of high-pressure granulite facies and their relation with partial melting: Carvalhos Klippe, Southern Brasília Belt, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioffi, Caue Rodrigues; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; da Rocha, Brenda Chung; Moraes, Renato; Henrique-Pinto, Renato

    2012-12-01

    High-grade metasedimentary rocks can preserve geochemical signatures of their sedimentary protolith if significant melt extraction did not occur. Retrograde reaction textures provide the main evidence for trapped melt in the rock fabrics. Carvalhos Klippe rocks in Southern Brasília Orogen, Brazil, present a typical high-pressure granulite assemblage with evidence of mica breakdown partial melting (Ky + Grt + Kfs ± Bt ± Rt). The metamorphic peak temperatures obtained by Zr-in-Rt and ternary feldspar geothermometers are between 850 °C and 900 °C. The GASP baric peak pressure obtained using grossular rich garnet core is 16 kbar. Retrograde reaction textures in which the garnet crystals are partially to totally replaced by Bt + Qtz ± Fsp intergrowths are very common in the Carvalhos Klippe rocks. These reactions are interpreted as a result of interactions between residual phases and trapped melt during the retrograde path. In the present study the geochemical signatures of three groups of Carvalhos Klippe metasedimentary rocks are analysed. Despite the high metamorphic grade these three groups show well-defined geochemical features and their REE patterns are similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC). The high-pressure granulite facies Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses with immature arenite (wacke, arkose or lithic-arenite) geochemical signatures present in the Carvalhos Klippe are compared to similar rocks in amphibolite facies from the same tectonic framework (Andrelândia Nappe System). The similar geochemical signatures between Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses metamorphosed in high-pressure granulite facies and Grt-Bt-Pl-Qtz schists from the Andrelândia and Liberdade Nappes, with minimal to absent melting conditions, are suggestive of low rates of melt extraction in these high-grade rocks. The rocks with pelitic compositions most likely had higher melt extraction and even under such circumstances nevertheless tend to show REE patterns similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC).

  1. Fine-tuning control on CNT diameter distribution, length and density using thermal CVD growth at atmospheric pressure: an in-depth analysis on the role of flow rate and flow duration of acetylene (C2H2) gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Nishant; Mishra, Prabhash; Harsh, Harsh; Islam, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    An optimization control has been demonstrated to obtain carbon nanotubes having specific diameter distribution, length, homogeneity, and yield during its growth by thermal chemical vapor deposition technique under atmospheric pressure. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown on silicon wafer where a predeposition of iron catalyst of 2 nm thickness was made by sputtering. The growth was conducted under two variable parameters, i.e., flow rate and flow duration. Argon and hydrogen mixture was used for pretreatment of catalyst and as etching gas, and acetylene as a carbon precursor. In-depth analysis shows that increase in flow rate from 10 to 50 sccm resulted in increase in the concentration of amorphous carbon, CNTs diameter range and decrease in length, we found best result at 20 sccm flow rate of acetylene gas. On the other hand, as we varied flow duration from 6 to 14 min, with keeping flow rate of acetylene 20 sccm constant, dense homogeneous growth of horizontal CNTs network plus an increase in length and diameter range were observed. An optimization of flow rate and flow duration is presented here to obtain a selective diameter distribution and length as expected by this growth technique. Atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to investigate the samples' morphologies in support of the observations made.

  2. Freezing temperatures of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O mixtures: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Naihui

    1994-01-01

    The freezing temperatures of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O mixtures were systematically documented. Nitric acid was found to affect freezing significantly. Measurements show that nitric acid can cause substantial supercooling over a broad composition range. However, some ternary compositions, like to those in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), have high freezing temperatures. The freezing of PSC particles could be controlled by the temperature and vapor pressure of both nitric acid and water in a non-linear way. Formation of polar stratospheric clouds may be forecasted on the basic of conditions of temperature and vapor contents of water and nitric acid.

  3. Chemical vapor infiltration of pyrocarbon—III: the influence of increasing methane partial pressure at increasing total pressure on infiltration rate and degree of pore filling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Benzinger; K. J. Hüttinger

    1999-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration of pyrocarbon was studied at 1100°C and methane pressures ranging from 5 to 100kPa. A cylindrically shaped porous alumina ceramic, 20mm in height and 16mm in diameter, was used as the substrate. The pore diameters of the porous ceramic range from 1 to 36?m and the total porosity amounts to 23%. Theoretical considerations based on the Weisz

  4. Analysis of the Pressure Rise in a Partially Filled Liquid Tank in Microgravity with Low Wall Heat Flux and Simultaneous Boiling and Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments performed with Freon 113 in the space shuttle have shown that in a pro- cess of very slow heating, high liquid superheats can be sustained for a long period in microgravity. In a closed system explosive vaporization of superheated liquid resulted in pressure spikes of varying magnitudes. In this paper, we analyze the pressure rise in a partially lled closed tank in which a large vapor bubble (i.e., ullage) is initially present, and the liquid is subjected to a low wall heat ux. The liquid layer adjacent to the wall becomes superheated until the temperature for nucleation of the bubbles (or the incipience of boiling) is achieved. In the absence of the gravity-induced convection large quantities of superheated liquid can accumulate over time near the heated surface. Once the incipience temperature is attained, explosive boiling occurs and the vapor bubbles that are produced on the heater surface tend to quickly raise the tank pressure. The liquid-vapor saturation temperature increases as well. These two e ects tend to induce condensation of the large ullage bubble that is initially present, and tends to mitigate the tank pressure rise. As a result, the tank pressure is predicted to rise sharply, attain a maximum, and subsequently decay slowly. The predicted pressure rise is compared with experimental results obtained in the microgravity environments of the space shuttle for Freon 113. The analysis is appli- cable, in general to heating of liquid in closed containers in microgravity and to cryogenic fuel tanks, in particular where small heat leaks into the tank are unavoidable.

  5. Stability of streambanks formed in partially saturated soils and effects of negative pore water pressures: the Sieve River (Italy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Rinaldi; Nicola Casagli

    1999-01-01

    Streambanks of alluvial channels are usually composed of loose materials, which are unsaturated in ambient conditions. Unsaturated soils are subject to negative pore water pressures, which cause an apparent cohesion. The latter is the main factor in allowing the stability of near-vertical banks. Even during moderate in-bank flow events, the apparent cohesion can be strongly reduced as the material approaches

  6. Collisional excitation of vinylidene (H2CC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, Monika; Verma, U. P.; Chandra, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Though H2CO, H2CS, H2CCC, H2CCCC, H2CCO have been identified in cool interstellar molecular clouds, identification of H2CC is still awaited. To analyze its spectrum, collisional rate coefficients are required. We have calculated collisional rate coefficients for rotational transitions between 23 levels of ortho and para H2CC for kinetic temperatures 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 K. The scattering problem is analyzed using the computer code MOLSCAT where the colliding partner is He atom. The interaction between H2CC and He has been calculated with GAUSSIAN 2003. For the interaction potential obtained with GAUSSIAN 2003, MOLSCAT is used to derive the parameters q(L,M,M?|E) as a function of energy E of the colliding partner. After averaging the parameters q(L,M,M?|E) over a Maxwellian distribution, the parameters Q(L,M,M?|T) as a function of the kinetic temperature T in the cloud are obtained. Finally, the collisional rate coefficients have been calculated. We have also calculated radiative transition probabilities for the transitions between the rotational levels. Finally, for ortho-H2CC, we have solved a set of statistical equilibrium equations coupled with the equations of radiative transfer and found that the H2CC may be identified through anomalous absorption of its transition 111-110 at 4.89 GHz.

  7. Forming Free Bipolar ReRAM of Ag/a-IGZO/Pt with Improved Resistive Switching Uniformity Through Controlling Oxygen Partial Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yanli; Mai, Biaoren; Zhang, Xiaoke; Hu, Ruiqin; Li, Ya; Chen, Zimin; Fan, Bingfeng; Liang, Jun; Wang, Gang

    2015-02-01

    Bipolar resistive switching properties of Ag/a-IGZO/Pt structure resistive random-access memories (ReRAMs) were investigated. The amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) films were prepared by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system at room temperature in mixed gas ambient of argon (Ar) and oxygen (O2). The oxygen partial pressures during sputtering deposition were varied from 0% to 17% to engineer defects in an a-IGZO layer. When the oxygen partial pressure increased to 17%, forming-free bipolar resistive switching properties were observed with nearly 100% device yield. In addition, the forming-free ReRAM device presents an enhanced resistive switching uniformity and an enhanced endurance. The forming-free resistive switching is attributed to the concentration of oxygen-related defects in an a-IGZO thin film via analyses of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and current-voltage ( I- V) curves, with which it is possible to reduce the forming energy of silver (Ag) conductive filaments.

  8. Interaction between sulphide and H 2O in silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, Jan; Behrens, Harald; Wilke, Max; Göttlicher, Jörg; Chalmin-Aljanabi, Emilie

    2011-06-01

    Reaction between dissolved water and sulphide was experimentally investigated in soda-lime-silicate (NCS) and sodium trisilicate (NS3) melts at temperatures from 1000 to 1200 °C and pressures of 100 or 200 MPa in internally heated gas pressure vessels. Diffusion couple experiments were conducted at water-undersaturated conditions with one half of the couple being doped with sulphide (added as FeS or Na 2S; 1500-2000 ppm S by weight) and the other with H 2O (˜3.0 wt.%). Additionally, two experiments were performed using a dry NCS glass cylinder and a free H 2O fluid. Here, the melt was water-saturated at least at the melt/fluid interface. Profiling by electron microprobe (sulphur) and infrared microscopy (H 2O) demonstrate that H 2O diffusion in the melts is faster by 1.5-2.3 orders of magnitude than sulphur diffusion and, hence, H 2O can be considered as a rapidly diffusing oxidant while sulphur is quasi immobile in these experiments. In Raman spectra a band at 2576 cm -1 appears in the sulphide - H 2O transition zone which is attributed to fundamental S-H stretching vibrations. Formation of new IR absorption bands at 5025 cm -1 (on expense of the combination band of molecular H 2O at 5225 cm -1) and at 3400 cm -1 was observed at the front of the in-diffusing water in the sulphide bearing melt. The appearance and intensity of these two IR bands is correlated with systematic changes in S K-edge XANES spectra. A pre-edge excitation at 2466.5 eV grows with increasing H 2O concentration while the sulphide peak at 2474.0 eV decreases in intensity relative to the peak at 2477.0 eV and the feature at 2472.3 eV becomes more pronounced (all energies are relative to the sulphate excitation, calibrated to 2482.5 eV). The observations by Raman, IR and XANES spectroscopy indicate a well coordinated S 2- - H 2O complex which was probably formed in the glasses during cooling at the glass transition. No oxidation of sulphide was observed in any of the diffusion couple experiments. On the contrary, XANES spectra from experiments conducted with a free H 2O fluid show complete transformation of sulphide to sulphate near the melt surface and coexistence of sulphate and sulphide in the center of the melt. This can be explained by a lower H 2O activity in the diffusion couple experiments or by the need of a sink for hydrogen (e.g., a fluid which can dissolve high concentration of hydrogen) to promote oxidation of sulphide by H 2O via the reaction S 2- + 4H 2O = SO 42- + 4H 2. Sulphite could not be detected in any of the XANES spectra implying that this species, if it exists in the melt, it is a subordinate or transient species only.

  9. Hydrogen production reaction with a metal oxide catalyst in high pressure high temperature water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Watanabe; M. Takahashi; H. Inomata

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen production from biomass was attempted in high pressure high temperature water at 573 K by adopting partial oxidation to increase the yield of H2 via CO production in the presence of ZnO. The results revealed that an addition of H2O2 as an oxidant to the reaction of glucose and sugarcane bagasse brought about the trend of increasing the yields

  10. A shock origin for interstellar H2O masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Elitzur, Moshe; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1993-01-01

    We present a comprehensive model for the powerful H2O masers observed in starforming regions. In this model the masers occur behind dissociative shocks propagating in dense regions. This paper focuses on high-velocity dissociative shocks in which the heat of H2 reformation on dust grains maintains a large column of 300 - 400 K gas, where the chemistry drives a considerable fraction of the oxygen not in CO to form H2O. The H2O column densities, the hydrogen densities, and the warm temperatures produced by these shocks are sufficiently high to enable powerful maser action, where the maser is excited by thermal collisions with H atoms and H2 molecules. A critical ingredient in determining the shock structure is the magnetic pressure, and the fields required by our models are in agreement with recent observations. The observed brightness temperatures are the result of coherent velocity regions which have dimensions in the shock plane that are five to 50 times the postshock thickness.

  11. Pilot-scale UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation process for surface water treatment and downstream biological treatment: effects on natural organic matter characteristics and DBP formation potential.

    PubMed

    Sarathya, Siva R; Stefan, Mihaela I; Royce, Alan; Mohseni, M

    2011-12-01

    The effects of the advanced oxidation process (AOP) of ultraviolet radiation in combination with hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) on the structure and biodegradability of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) and on the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) through the post-UV/H2O2 chlorination were investigated using UV reactors equipped with either low-pressure amalgam lamps or medium-pressure mercury vapour lamps. With electrical energy doses and H2O2 concentrations typically applied in full-scale UV systems for water remediation, the UV/H2O2 AOP partially oxidized NOM, reducing its degree of aromaticity and leading to an increase in the level of biodegradable species. Also, when combined with a downstream biological activated carbon (BAC) filter, UV/H2O2 AOP reduced the formation of DBPs by up to 60% for trihalomethanes and 75% for haloacetic acids. Biological activated carbon was also shown to effectively remove biodegradable by-products and residual H2O2. PMID:22439556

  12. Predicting possible effects of H2S impurity on CO2 transportation and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    For CO(2) geological storage, permitting impurities, such as H(2)S, in CO(2) streams can lead to a great potential for capital and energy savings for CO(2) capture and separation, but it also increases costs and risk management for transportation and storage. To evaluate the cost-benefits, using a recently developed model (Ji, X.; Zhu, C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2012, 91, 40-59), this study predicts phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the system H(2)S-CO(2)-H(2)O-NaCl under transportation and storage conditions and discusses potential effects of H(2)S on transportation and storage. The prediction shows that inclusion of H(2)S in CO(2) streams may lead to two-phase flow. For H(2)S-CO(2) mixtures, at a given temperature, the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H(2)S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O system, the total gas solubility increases while the mass density of the aqueous solution with dissolved gas decreases. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O-NaCl system, at a given temperature, pressure and NaCl concentration, the solubility of the gas mixture in aqueous phase increases with increasing H(2)S content and then decreases, while the mass density of aqueous solution decreases and may be lower than the mass density of the solution without gas dissolution. PMID:22823266

  13. Experimental Measurements of the H3+ + H2 ? H3+ + H2 Reaction in a Hollow Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Carrie A.; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Tom, Brian A.; Beçka, Eftalda; McCall, Benjamin, J.

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and as a result, molecular hydrogen and the H3+ ion play a pivotal role in interstellar chemistry. Like H2, H3+ exists in two nuclear spin configurations, ortho (I = 3/2) and para (I = 1/2), which are unique molecules that can only interconvert through a chemical reaction. The reaction between these species, H3+ + H2 ? H3+ + H2, is the dominant means by which the nuclear spin of H3+ can be changed. It is also the most commonly occuring bimolecular reaction in the universe, and therefore it is important to understand how this reaction influences the ortho/para ratio of H3+ . We have studied the nuclear spin dependence of the H3+ + H2 proton-scrambling reaction by probing ?2 fundamental band of H3+ using multipass direct absorption spectroscopy. We have monitored the ortho/para ratio of H3+ in a variety of hydrogenic plasmas consisting of different ortho/para-H2 ratios. To deduce the temperature dependence of this reaction, we have performed these experiements in an uncooled hollow cathode and, for the first time at low temperature, in a liquid nitrogen cooled hollow cathode. Finally, we have also studied the pressure dependence of the chemistry in order to elucidate any three-body processes that may be occuring in our plasmas.

  14. Phase equilibria in subducting basaltic crust: implications for H2O release from the slab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliette F. Forneris; John R. Holloway

    2003-01-01

    Fluids released from subducting slabs induce partial melting of the mantle wedge above the slab, which in turn is responsible for arc volcanism at the Earth's surface. The partially hydrated basaltic layer of the slab is a potential source of these fluids and a major reservoir for H2O at depth. Constraining the stability domains of hydrous phases and the position

  15. Phase equilibria in subducting basaltic crust: implications for H 2O release from the slab

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliette F Forneris; John R Holloway

    2003-01-01

    Fluids released from subducting slabs induce partial melting of the mantle wedge above the slab, which in turn is responsible for arc volcanism at the Earth’s surface. The partially hydrated basaltic layer of the slab is a potential source of these fluids and a major reservoir for H2O at depth. Constraining the stability domains of hydrous phases and the position

  16. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications

    E-print Network

    Eirin Lopez, Jose Maria

    Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential in most organisms, specially protostome animals. Molluscs (which represent sentinel organisms. (2012) Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential

  17. Influence of CH(4) partial pressure on the microstructure of sputter-deposited tungsten carbide thin films.

    PubMed

    Abdelouahdi, K; Sant, C; Miserque, F; Aubert, P; Zheng, Y; Legrand-Buscema, C; Perrière, J

    2006-02-15

    Tungsten carbide thin films have been prepared by reactive rf sputtering from a tungsten target in various Ar-CH(4) mixtures. The composition, structure, microstructure and chemical state of the films have been investigated by the complementary use of RBS, NRA, XRD, GIXRD, TEM and XPS analyses. These characteristics of the films were then correlated to their mechanical properties determined by hardness (H), Young's modulus (E(r)) and friction coefficient measurements. Under low CH(4) pressures, the formation of a mixture of nanocrystalline WC(1-x) and W(2)C phases has been observed. A pure WC(1-x) phase was observed in films having a composition close to W(1)C(0.9). With increasing CH(4) pressure, the amount of carbon in the films increases, leading to a progressive amorphization of tungsten carbide deposited layers. Nanocomposite films appeared to be formed, with WC(1-x) nanograins (<3 nm) dispersed in an amorphous carbon matrix. The film deposited at 30% of CH(4) exhibits a-C:H phase. The nature of the phases present in the films plays an important role on their mechanical properties, as shown by the wide domain of variation of the films' hardness (between 22 and 5.5 GPa) and the plastic deformation parameter H(3)/E(r)(2) (between 0.08 and 0.04). PMID:21697565

  18. Influence of CH4 partial pressure on the microstructure of sputter-deposited tungsten carbide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelouahdi, K.; Sant, C.; Miserque, F.; Aubert, P.; Zheng, Y.; Legrand-Buscema, C.; Perrière, J.

    2006-02-01

    Tungsten carbide thin films have been prepared by reactive rf sputtering from a tungsten target in various Ar-CH4 mixtures. The composition, structure, microstructure and chemical state of the films have been investigated by the complementary use of RBS, NRA, XRD, GIXRD, TEM and XPS analyses. These characteristics of the films were then correlated to their mechanical properties determined by hardness (H), Young's modulus (Er) and friction coefficient measurements. Under low CH4 pressures, the formation of a mixture of nanocrystalline WC1-x and W2C phases has been observed. A pure WC1-x phase was observed in films having a composition close to W1C0.9. With increasing CH4 pressure, the amount of carbon in the films increases, leading to a progressive amorphization of tungsten carbide deposited layers. Nanocomposite films appeared to be formed, with WC1-x nanograins (<3 nm) dispersed in an amorphous carbon matrix. The film deposited at 30% of CH4 exhibits a-C:H phase. The nature of the phases present in the films plays an important role on their mechanical properties, as shown by the wide domain of variation of the films' hardness (between 22 and 5.5 GPa) and the plastic deformation parameter H3/Er2 (between 0.08 and 0.04).

  19. Probing the Reaction Path of CH_{3}^{+} + H_{2} ? CH_{5}^{+} ? CH_{3}^{+} + H_{2} and Isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Charlotte E.; McCoy, Anne B.

    2009-06-01

    Protonated methane has long been of interest to astrochemists due to its presumed importance as a reaction intermediate in the reaction involving CH_{3}^{+} + HD within the interstellar medium. Within the interstellar medium there is a nonstatistical H/D isotopic abundance observed for isotopologues of CH_{3}^{+}. While classical trajectory calculations have been performed dissociating CH_{5}^{+} and CH_{4}D^{+} into the fragments, CH_{3}^{+} + H_{2}, CH_{2}D^{+} + H_{2} and CH_{3}^{+} + HD, these calculations do not account for a large portion of the available energy being tied up in the zero point energy of the reactants and products. Earlier work in our group on CH_{2}D_{3}^{+} showed the deuterium atoms were localized to the CH_{3}^{+} group, rather than the H_{2} moiety. Classical calculations fail to account for this observed localization, instead showing full delocalization of D between both CH_{3}^{+} and H_{2}. With a quantum mechanical treatment, the energetics and wave functions will depend on which asymptotic channel is chosen, while in the classical treatment, these channels will be energetically equivalent. By performing Diffusion Monte Carlo simulations in Jacobi coordinates, we can constrain the distance between the CH_{3}^{+} and H_2 subunits. Using this technique we have evaluated a one-dimensional reaction potential that includes the full anharmonic zero point energy in the remaining degrees of freedom and can determine how energetics of this reaction change upon partial deuteration of CH_{3}^{+} or H_{2}. We have also evaluated the probability amplitude associated with the wave functions that are obtained in the DMC simulations at various values of the reaction coordinate. Z. Jin, B. J. Braams, J. M. Bowman, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 1569 (2006). A. B. McCoy, B. J. Braams, A. Brown, X. Huang., Z. Jin, J. M. Bowman, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 4991 (2004).

  20. Efficacy of nitric oxide, with or without continuing antihypertensive treatment, for management of high blood pressure in acute stroke (ENOS): a partial-factorial randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background High blood pressure is associated with poor outcome after stroke. Whether blood pressure should be lowered early after stroke, and whether to continue or temporarily withdraw existing antihypertensive drugs, is not known. We assessed outcomes after stroke in patients given drugs to lower their blood pressure. Methods In our multicentre, partial-factorial trial, we randomly assigned patients admitted to hospital with an acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke and raised systolic blood pressure (systolic 140–220 mm Hg) to 7 days of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate (5 mg per day), started within 48 h of stroke onset, or to no glyceryl trinitrate (control group). A subset of patients who were taking antihypertensive drugs before their stroke were also randomly assigned to continue or stop taking these drugs. The primary outcome was function, assessed with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days by observers masked to treatment assignment. This study is registered, number ISRCTN99414122. Findings Between July 20, 2001, and Oct 14, 2013, we enrolled 4011 patients. Mean blood pressure was 167 (SD 19) mm Hg/90 (13) mm Hg at baseline (median 26 h [16–37] after stroke onset), and was significantly reduced on day 1 in 2000 patients allocated to glyceryl trinitrate compared with 2011 controls (difference ?7·0 [95% CI ?8·5 to ?5·6] mm Hg/–3·5 [–4·4 to ?2·6] mm Hg; both p<0·0001), and on day 7 in 1053 patients allocated to continue antihypertensive drugs compared with 1044 patients randomised to stop them (difference ?9·5 [95% CI ?11·8 to ?7·2] mm Hg/–5·0 [–6·4 to ?3·7] mm Hg; both p<0·0001). Functional outcome at day 90 did not differ in either treatment comparison—the adjusted common odds ratio (OR) for worse outcome with glyceryl trinitrate versus no glyceryl trinitrate was 1·01 (95% CI 0·91–1·13; p=0·83), and with continue versus stop antihypertensive drugs OR was 1·05 (0·90–1·22; p=0·55). Interpretation In patients with acute stroke and high blood pressure, transdermal glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure and had acceptable safety but did not improve functional outcome. We show no evidence to support continuing prestroke antihypertensive drugs in patients in the first few days after acute stroke. Funding UK Medical Research Council. PMID:25465108

  1. H2O and HCl trace gas kinetics on crystalline HCl hydrates and amorphous HCl / H2O in the range 170 to 205 K: the HCl / H2O phase diagram revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannarelli, R.; Rossi, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    In this laboratory study, H2O ice films of 1 to 2 ?m thickness have been used as surrogates for ice particles at atmospherically relevant conditions in a stirred flow reactor (SFR) to measure the kinetics of evaporation and condensation of HCl and H2O on crystalline and amorphous HCl hydrates. A multidiagnostic approach has been employed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) absorption in transmission to monitor the condensed phase and residual gas mass spectrometry (MS) for the gas phase. An average stoichiometric ratio of H2O : HCl = 5.8 ± 0.7 has been measured for HCl . 6H2O, and a mass balance ratio between HCl adsorbed onto ice and the quantity of HCl measured using FTIR absorption (Nin - Nesc - Nads) / NFTIR = 1.18 ± 0.12 has been obtained. The rate of evaporation Rev(HCl) for crystalline HCl hexahydrate (HCl . 6H2O) films and amorphous HCl / H2O mixtures has been found to be lower by a factor of 10 to 250 compared to Rev(H2O) in the overlapping temperature range 175 to 190 K. Variations of the accommodation coefficient ?(HCl) on pure HCl . 6H2O up to a factor of 10 at nominally identical conditions have been observed. The kinetics (?, Rev) are thermochemically consistent with the corresponding equilibrium vapour pressure. In addition, we propose an extension of the HCl / H2O phase diagram of crystalline HCl . 6H2O based on the analysis of deconvoluted FTIR spectra of samples outside its known existence area. A brief evaluation of the atmospheric importance of both condensed phases - amorphous HCl / H2O and crystalline HCl . 6H2O - is performed in favour of the amorphous phase.

  2. CO2-H2O mixtures in the geological sequestration of CO2. II ...

    E-print Network

    2005-07-01

    1 bar, for respective reactions H2O(l) ` H2O(g) and. CO2(aq) ` CO2(gl). P is total ... molar volume of each pure condensed phase over the pressure range P0-P, ...... Patel N. C., Abovsky V., and Watanasiri S. (2001) Calculation of vapor-liquid

  3. Pressure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wolfgang Christian

    This page contains three Physlets that are able to share data using a connection made by a common superclass, SApplet. The ensemble walls keep track of the change in momentum, i.e., the pressure, during each time step, dt, and provides this data to the DataGraph Physlet and the DataTable Physlet.

  4. I.. , .., I.., .. i i H2, H2O ii i i SiO2

    E-print Network

    i i ¡ ¢£ ¤¥ I I ' & $ % I.. , .., I.., .. i i H2, H2O ii i i SiO2 ICMP­02­19U I : 539.211 PACS: 52.25.Tx, 35.15.Ar, 35.15.Ct, 35.15.Ew i i H2, H2O ii i i SiO2 I.. , .., I.., .O. i. -ii i i- i H2, H2O i SiO2. , i i ii . i i i i i SiO2. i i . The investigation

  5. Concentrations, sources, and losses of H 2O, CO 2, and S in Kilauean basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; Anderson, Alfred T., Jr.

    1983-06-01

    Basaltic glasses included in olivine phenocrysts from Kilauea volcano contain concentrations of H 2O, CO 2, and S similar to glassy Kilauean basalt dredged from the deep sea floor and greater than vesicular, subaerial Kilauean basalt. Our result contrasts with earlier reports that inclusions of basaltic glass in phenocrysts have little or no H 2O and large ratios of CO 2/H 2O . Our analysed inclusions of glass are larger than 100 micrometers thick and similar in chemical composition to the host glass surrounding the olivine crystals indicating that the trapped melts are representative of the bulk liquid from which the crystals grew. Crystallization of about 2-8% of olivine from the melts after they were trapped is indicated by slight departures from the experimentally established equilibrium distribution of Mg and Fe between olivine and liquid. The measured concentrations of CO 2 correspond to phenocryst crystallization pressures of about 1.3 kbar for a subaerial basalt and about 5 kbar for a submarine basalt, consistent with geophysical models of Kilauea volcano. The compositions of volcanic gas predicted from our analyses are consistent with restored compositions of actual Kilauean gases. The rate of sulfur emission predicted from our analyses is greater than the sulfur dioxide emission rate observed during repose, but probably consistent with total degassing including eruptive episodes. The concentrations of H 2O, K 2O, Cl, and P in parental Kilauean basalt can be derived from upper mantle phlogopitic mica, pargasitic amphibole and apatite with compositions close to those of natural primary minerals in ultramafic xenoliths from continental kimberlites, or solely from apatite and phlogopitic mica with H 2O /K 2O near 0.47 ± 0.03, slightly higher than the range of values reported. The amounts of phlogopitic mica and pargasitic amphibole contributing volatiles to Kilauean tholeiite is about 10 percent by mass of the parental liquid, or about 5% if the source does not include amphibole. In view of an estimated 20% of partial melting of mantle source rock to produce Kilauean tholeiites, there may be about 2 weight percent of mica plus amphibole in part of the mantle beneath Kilauea, or about 1 weight percent of phlogopitic mica if amphibole is absent.

  6. A SAFT equation of state for the quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen

    2012-08-01

    Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system were studied using a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) at temperatures from 0 to 200 °C (373.15-473.15 K), pressures up to 600 bar (60 MPa) and concentrations of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The understanding of the physical-chemical properties of this system is critical for predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and H2S into geological formations (geological carbon sequestration) as an option for mitigating the global warming trend. Equation of state parameters were generated from regression of available and reliable experimental data and incorporation of existing parameters for some subsystems. Densities were predicted and compared with available experimental results. Using the EOS developed in this study, we predicted equilibrium compositions in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, the equilibrium pressures at a given composition of the H2O-rich phase in electrolyte solutions with NaCl varying from 0 to 4 mol/kgH2O, and the aqueous solution densities. These predicted values are tabulated and available as supplementary data in the electronic version online. These predictions provide information and guidance for future experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties and phase behaviors in the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system.

  7. Discontinuous phase formation and selective attack of SiC materials exposed to low oxygen partial pressure environments

    SciTech Connect

    Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tressler, R.E.; Spear, K.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1993-09-01

    Three SiC materials were exposed to gas mixtures containing N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO at 1000-1300C, 1-740 torr for a few to 1000 h. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that CO is the predominant oxidizing species. A variety of corrosion processes were observed, including surface and internal pit formation, needle growth, grain boundary attack, and attack of impurities and surrounding material. In the case of a siliconized SiC, impurities such as Ca, Al, and Fe diffused rapidly through the Si matrix forming complex calcium aluminosilicates on the surface, leaving behind internal voids. Evaluation of the mechanical properties, including fractography, revealed a variety of degradative phenomena. Efforts to identify causes of pit formation suggested that the overall process was complex. Pits formed during attack of grain boundaries and regions containing transition metal impurities. Studies of single crystals showed preferential attack near impurities and crystalline defects, indicating that damaged crystals or certain crystal orientations in the polycrystalline materials are susceptible to attack. In addition, under some conditions where pit formation was observed, the strength of certain materials increased apparently due to flaw healing. It is suggested that flaws can heal in the absence of mechanical stress due to their high surface energy. However, second phases observed within partially healed surface cracks suggest impurities also contribute to the flaw healing processes.

  8. Effect of O{sub 2} gas partial pressure on mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by inductively coupled plasma-assisted radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiyama, Hirokazu; Sumomogi, Tsunetaka; Nakamura, Masayoshi [Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajirohigashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima Kokusai Gakuin University, 6-20-1 Nakano, Aki-ku, Hiroshima 739-0321 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    The effect of O{sub 2} partial pressure on the mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is studied. Using films prepared by inductively coupled plasma-assisted radio frequency magnetron sputtering, the deposition rate of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreases rapidly when oxygen is added to the argon sputtering gas. The internal stresses in the films are compressive, with magnitude decreasing steeply from 1.6 GPa for films sputtered in pure argon gas to 0.5 GPa for films sputtered in argon gas at an O{sub 2} partial pressure of 0.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} Pa. Stress increases gradually with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure. Using a nanoindentation tester with a Berkovich indenter, film hardness was measured to be about 14 GPa for films sputtered in pure argon gas. Hardness decreases rapidly on the addition of O{sub 2} gas, but increases when the O{sub 2} partial pressure is increased. Adhesion, measured using a Vickers microhardness tester, increases with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure. Electron probe microanalyzer measurements reveal that the argon content of films decreases with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure, whereas the O to Al composition ratio increases from 1.15 for films sputtered in pure argon gas to 1.5 for films sputtered in argon gas at O{sub 2} partial pressures over 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} Pa. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that films sputtered in pure argon gas have an amorphous crystal structure, whereas {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is produced for films sputtered in argon gas with added O{sub 2} gas. Atomic force microscopy observations reveal that the surface topography of sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films changes from spherical to needlelike as O{sub 2} partial pressure is increased. Fracture cross sections of the films observed by scanning electron microscopy reveal that the film morphology exhibits no discernible features at all O{sub 2} partial pressures.

  9. Maps of [HDO]/[H2O] near Mars’ Aphelion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Robert E.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report maps of HDO and H2O taken at three seasonal points before and near Mars’ aphelion (Ls = 71°). These observations were taken at Ls = 357° (15 January 2006), Ls = 50° (26 March 2008) and Ls = 72° (2/3 April 2010) using CSHELL at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. For these three seasonal dates, the entrance slit of the spectrometer was positioned N-S on Mars centered at the sub-Earth point; on 3 April 2010, the slit was positioned E-W. Data were extracted at 0.6 arc-second intervals from the spectral-spatial images. Individual spectral lines were measured near 3.67 ?m (HDO) and 3.29 ?m (H2O). The column densities were obtained by comparing the observed lines to those of a multi-layered, radiative transfer model. The model includes solar Fraunhofer lines, two-way transmission through Mars’ atmosphere, thermal emission from Mars’ surface and atmosphere, and a one-way transmission through the Earth’s atmosphere. Latitudinal maps of HDO, H2O, and their ratios were then constructed. The [HDO]/[H2O] ratios have been found to be larger than those on Earth and they vary with both latitude and season. For the Ls = 357° and 50° observations, the ratio peaks near the sub-solar latitude ([HDO]/[H2O] ~ 6.9 VSMOW) and decreases towards both the North and South polar-regions. At Ls = 72°, column densities of both HDO and H2O and their ratios increase from the Southern hemisphere to the North polar-region. Observations from 3 April 2013 show diurnal variations of both the column densities and their ratio. Specific points on Mars’ surface were tracked for four hours. It is believed that this variation is caused by the vaporization of ground frost and water ice clouds that are formed during the night and disappear during daytime. Our results for H2O column densities will be compared to TES results. The results for HDO and the [HDO]/[H2O] ratios will be compared to model results.This work was partially funded by grants from NASA's Planetary Astronomy (344-32-51-96) and Astrobiology Programs (344-53-51), and the NSF-RUI Program (AST-805540). We thank the administration and staff of the NASA IRTF for awarding observing times and coordinating our observations.

  10. Structure and stability of solid Xe(H2)n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Dera, Przemyslaw; Smith, Jesse; Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-03-01

    Mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen form a series of hexagonal, van der Waals compounds at high pressures and at 300 K. Synchrotron, x-ray, single crystal diffraction studies reveal that below 7.5 GPa, Xe(H2)8 crystallizes in a P 3 ¯ m 1 structure that displays pressure-induced occupancy changes of two pairs of xenon atoms located on the 2c and 2d sites (while the third pair on yet another 2c site remains fully occupied). The occupancy becomes 1 at the P 3 ¯ m 1 to R3 transition and all the xenon atoms occupy the 3d sites in the high-pressure structure. These pressure-induced changes in occupancy coincide with volume changes that maintain the average Xe:H2 stoichiometry fixed at 1:8. The synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show that this unique hydrogen-bearing compound that can be synthesized at 4.2 GPa and 300 K, quenched at low temperatures to atmospheric pressure, and retained up to 90 K on subsequent warming.

  11. Structure and stability of solid Xe(H2)n.

    PubMed

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Dera, Przemyslaw; Smith, Jesse; Hemley, Russell J

    2015-03-14

    Mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen form a series of hexagonal, van der Waals compounds at high pressures and at 300 K. Synchrotron, x-ray, single crystal diffraction studies reveal that below 7.5 GPa, Xe(H2)8 crystallizes in a P3?m1 structure that displays pressure-induced occupancy changes of two pairs of xenon atoms located on the 2c and 2d sites (while the third pair on yet another 2c site remains fully occupied). The occupancy becomes 1 at the P3?m1 to R3 transition and all the xenon atoms occupy the 3d sites in the high-pressure structure. These pressure-induced changes in occupancy coincide with volume changes that maintain the average Xe:H2 stoichiometry fixed at 1:8. The synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show that this unique hydrogen-bearing compound that can be synthesized at 4.2 GPa and 300 K, quenched at low temperatures to atmospheric pressure, and retained up to 90 K on subsequent warming. PMID:25770547

  12. Distribution and seasonal variation in the partial pressure of CO2 during autumn and winter in Jiaozhou Bay, a region of high urbanization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longjun; Xue, Ming; Liu, Qizhen

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB), which is surrounded by the economically developed city of Qingdao, during two cruises undertaken in November, 2007 (autumn) and February, 2008 (winter). Results indicated that sea surface pCO(2) in autumn varied between 315 and 720 ?atm, with an average level of 418 ?atm. In winter the sea surface pCO(2) ranged from 145 to 315 ?atm with an average of 249 ?atm, which is below atmospheric pCO(2). Despite seasonal temperature variation between autumn and winter, it was noted that biological process (production and respiration) were responsible for both spatial and seasonal variation during these seasons. We found that Jiaozhou Bay served as a net atmospheric CO(2) source in autumn (November) (2.87 mmol m(-2)d(-1)), while in winter (February) it served as a net sink (-16.22 mmol m(-2)d(-1)). PMID:22100068

  13. Cantilever stress measurements for pulsed laser deposition of perovskite oxides at 1000 K in an oxygen partial pressure of 10-4 millibars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premper, J.; Sander, D.; Kirschner, J.

    2015-03-01

    An in situ stress measurement setup using an optical 2-beam curvature technique is described which is compatible with the stringent growth conditions of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of perovskite oxides, which involves high substrate temperatures of 1000 K and oxygen partial pressures of up to 1 × 10-4 millibars. The stress measurements are complemented by medium energy electron diffraction (MEED), Auger electron spectroscopy, and additional growth rate monitoring by a quartz microbalance. A shielded filament is used to allow for simultaneous stress and MEED measurements at high substrate temperatures. A computer-controlled mirror scans an excimer laser beam over a stationary PLD target. This avoids mechanical noise originating from rotating PLD targets, and the setup does not suffer from limited lifetime issues of ultra high vacuum (UHV) rotary feedthroughs.

  14. Subduction factory: 4. Depthdependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide

    E-print Network

    van Keken, Peter

    and depend strongly on composition (gabbro versus peridotite) and local pressure and temperature conditions and roughly equally in the gabbro and peridotite sections. The predicted global flux of H2O to the deep mantle

  15. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-30

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  16. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-02-06

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  17. Efficient H2 production via Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Esquível, Maria G; Amaro, Helena M; Pinto, Teresa S; Fevereiro, Pedro S; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-12-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) obtained from biological sources provides an alternative to bulk chemical processes that is moving towards large-scale, economical generation of clean fuel for automotive engines. This opinion article examines recent improvements in H(2) production by wild and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - the green microalga currently considered the best eukaryotic H(2) producer. Here, we review various aspects of genetic and metabolic engineering of C. reinhardtii, as well as of process engineering. Additionally, we lay out possible scenarios that would lead to more efficient research approaches in the near future, as part of a consistent strategy for sustainable biohydrogen supply. PMID:21794941

  18. Possible H2/+/ ultraviolet spectrum of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, F.-M.; Beckel, C. L.; Shafi, M.; Hyder, C. L.

    1974-01-01

    An ultraviolet spectral probe for a hydrogen-rich planetary atmosphere, such as that of Jupiter, is suggested, utilizing discrete lines in the H2(+) 2p pi u - /s sigma g electronic transition. For the Jovian atmosphere, the dominant mechanism for exciting H2(+) to its 2p pi u state appears to be photoexcitation, principally through absorption of the solar Lyman-alpha line. The critical role of corrections to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in the use of an H2(+) probe is discussed.

  19. H2 production by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, C; Ramana, C V; Prasad, G S

    1994-03-01

    Production of H2 from glucose by an anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium (Rhodobacter sphaeroides), a cyanobacterium (Synechococcus cedrorum) and a heterotrophic bacterium (Pseudomonas fluorescens) was tested individually and in mixed cultures of various combinations in light. H2 production was maximal with a mixed culture of R. sphaeroides and P. fluorescens, which could be further enhanced by immobilization of the bacteria in alginate gel. Inhibition of H2 photoproduction was observed in a mixture of S. cedrorum and P. fluorescens and a co-culture of all the three organisms. PMID:24420952

  20. Self-consistent particle modeling of radio frequency discharge in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures: Effects of crossed electric and magnetic fields and partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Benyoucef, Djilali [University of Toulouse, UMR CNRS 5213, Laplace, Toulouse (France); Laboratoire Genie Electrique et Energie Renouvelables, Chlef University (Algeria); Yousfi, Mohammed [University of Toulouse, UMR CNRS 5213, Laplace, Toulouse (France); Belmadani, Bachir [Laboratoire Genie Electrique et Energie Renouvelables, Chlef University (Algeria)

    2011-04-15

    A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model is developed to study and analyze the electrical characteristics of the nonequilibrium plasma created by radio frequency (RF) discharge in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields. The method of collision treatment is based on an optimized estimation of the free time flight. The needed basic data--more specifically, the ion-neutral cross sections--are determined first. The simulation conditions are 50 mTorr for the total gas pressure and 200 V for the peak of the RF voltage at a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The magnetic field is varied from 0 to 50 G. The effect of the partial pressure ratio of O{sub 2} in the mixture and the effect of the magnitude of the magnetic field are discussed. In particular, the results show an increase of the plasma density that is ten times higher in the presence of a magnetic field.

  1. Intrascleral transplantation of a collagen sheet with cultured brain-derived neurotrophic factor expressing cells partially rescues the retina from damage due to acute high intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Abe, Toshiaki; Tokita-Ishikawa, Yumi; Onami, Hideyuki; Katsukura, Yuki; Kaji, Hirokazu; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Nagai, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    We constructed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expressing rat retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells by stable transfection of BDNF cDNA, and the RPE cells were cultured on a cross-linked collagen sheet (Coll-RPE-BDNF). BDNF expression of the Coll-RPE-BDNF was confirmed by western blot, and the Coll-RPE-BDNF was transplanted into the rabbit sclera. In vivo BDNF expression was confirmed by His expression that was linked to the expressing BDNF. The effect of the released BDNF was examined in a rabbit acute high intraocular pressure system by electroretinogram and histological examination. Statistically significant preservation of ERG b wave amplitude was observed in the rabbits treated by Coll-RPE-BDNF when compared to that of no treatment. Statistically significant preservation of the thickness of the inner nuclear layer at the transplanted area was observed in the rabbits treated by Coll-RPE-BDNF compared to that of no treatment. Intra-scleral Coll-RPE-BDNF transplantation may partially rescue retinal cells from acute high intraocular pressure. PMID:24664778

  2. Reactivity of methane in nonthermal plasma in the presence of oxygen and inert gases at atmospheric pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamoru Okumoto; Hyun Ha Kim; Kazunori Takashima; Shinji Katsura; Akira Mizuno

    2001-01-01

    Partial oxidation of methane to methanol and formaldehyde as liquid fuels with oxygen diluted with inert gases was investigated experimentally using the pulsed discharge plasma method under conditions of room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The experimental results indicated that ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2 H6), methanol (CH3OH), formaldehyde (HCHO), hydrogen (H2), water (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) were

  3. Aerobic oxidation of starch catalyzed by isopolyoxovanadate Na4Co(H2O)6V10O28.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Yan, Siqi; Wang, Hang; Hu, Zhiyun; Wang, Xiaohong; Huo, Mingxin

    2015-03-01

    The partial oxidation of starch was achieved in the presence of oxygen with Na4Co(H2O)6V10O28·18H2O (abbreviated as CoV10) as catalyst. The oxidation degree of starch was determined by FT-IR, XRD and SEM measurements, which indicated that the aerobic oxidation of starch was promoted by oxidative catalyst CoV10. The application of CoV10 could give a high oxidation degree (DO) of 1.35 COOH/100 GU and 2.07 CO/100 GU with 86 wt.% yield of solid starch under mild reaction conditions (pH=6; reaction time, 8 h; temperature, 50 °C; catalyst amount, 8 mg, when 1.5 g starch was used as substrate; atmospheric pressure). Among some vanadium compounds, CoV10 exhibited 4-fold activity higher than orthovanadate due to its coordination effect of cobalt and V10O28. Meanwhile, CoV10 could be recycled for six times with only a slight decrease in activity. Thus, CoV10/O2 is one of the most efficient systems for partial oxidation of starch reported so far. PMID:25498687

  4. Bio-reduction of tetrachloroethen using a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor and community fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Karata?, Serdar; Hasar, Halil; Ta?kan, Ergin; Özkaya, Bestamin; ?ahinkaya, Erkan

    2014-07-01

    Chlorinated ethenes in drinking water could be reductively dechlorinated to non-toxic ethene by using a hydrogen based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) under denitrifying conditions as it provides an appropriate environment for dechlorinating bacteria in biofilm communities. This study evaluates the reductive dechlorination of perchloroethene (PCE) to non-toxic ethene (ETH) and comparative community analysis of the biofilm grown on the gas permeable membrane fibers. For these purposes, three H2-MBfRs receiving three different chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE and DCE) were operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and H2 pressures. Among these reactors, the H2-MBfR fed with PCE (H2-MBfR 1) accomplished a complete dechlorination, whereas cis-DCE accumulated in the TCE receiving H2-MBfR 2 and no dechlorination was detected in the DCE receiving H2-MBfR 3. The results showed that 95% of PCE dechlorinated to ETH together with over 99.8% dechlorination efficiency. Nitrate was the preferred electron acceptor as the most of electrons generated from H2 oxidation used for denitrification and dechlorination started under nitrate deficient conditions at increased H2 pressures. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that Dehalococcoides were present in autotrophic biofilm community dechlorinating PCE to ethene, and RDase genes analysis revealed that pceA, tceA, bvcA and vcrA, responsible for complete dechlorination step, were available in Dehalococcoides strains. PMID:24731873

  5. Effects of fluid-induced metasomatism on 40Ar/39Ar geochronology in partially recrystallized high-pressure rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halama, R.; Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Sudo, M.; Wirth, R.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral replacement processes during metasomatism play an important role for the re-equilibration of major and trace elements and their isotopic compositions between reacting rocks and percolating fluids. However, the effects of recrystallization processes during metamorphism on the Ar isotopic composition and the implications on 40Ar/39Ar age determinations are not well understood. We use concentrations and isotopic compositions of boron and lithium as highly fluid-mobile elements in amphiboles and phengites from partially overprinted eclogite-facies rocks from the Western Alpine Sesia-Lanzo zone (SLZ) to quantify metamorphic fluid fluxes. TEM investigations are used to constrain recrystallization processes during this metasomatic overprint. These data are combined with in situ analyses of Ar isotopic zoning to systematically evaluate the effects of fluid-rock interaction and recrystallization mechanisms on the Ar isotope system. The samples were taken along a structural profile across a strain- and recrystallization gradient induced by a km-scale blueschist-facies shear zone that separates two tectonometamorphic subunits in the SLZ. In all samples, phengite and sodic amphibole show significant major element compositional differences between pristine cores and overprinted areas. TEM observations demonstrate that solution-reprecipitation was the major recrystallization mechanism. Boron and Li are leached from overprinted parts as a result of fluid percolation. Lithium and B concentrations and B isotopic data show that retrograde fluid influx increases from weakly deformed samples towards highly deformed mylonites. Samples from within the shear zone have the lowest B concentrations and the highest ?11B values, suggesting equilibration with an external fluid with high ?11B. Argon isotopic compositions show scatter in the calculated apparent ages depending on strain intensity and the amount of fluid influx. 40Ar/39Ar laser spot ages in the unmodified cores of all samples yield apparent ages consistently between 84±3 Ma and 87±4 Ma. The calculated ages in the overprinted rims of the weakly deformed samples are between 70±3 and 86±2 Ma, suggesting an incomplete isotopic resetting during fluid influx. In contrast, the samples that show an intense deformational overprint associated with a strong mylonitisation of larger mica grains yield bimodal apparent ages: Ages around 85±3 Ma for large mica clasts that are surrounded by the foliation and ages around 65±4 Ma for the smaller mylonitic mica. The significant decrease in apparent age can clearly be associated with high fluid flux in the shear zone, which is supported by the B isotope data. In summary, fluid-induced resetting of Ar isotopes in phengitic mica is controlled by mylonitic deformation and associated fluid flux during exhumation and juxtaposition of two tectonometamorphic segments in the SLZ. Our study demonstrates that high spatial resolution is critical to fully understand the temporal information in 40Ar/39Ar dates of metasomatized rocks and underlines the importance of metasomatic processes for geochronology.

  6. Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPA and temperatures to partial melting

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The short-term failure strengths and strains at failure of room-dry and water-saturated, cylindrical specimens (2 by 4 cm) of Charcoal Granodiorite (CG), Mt. Hood Andesite (MHA), and Cuerbio Basalt (CB) at a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting were investigated. Data from water-saturated specimens of the granodiorite and andesite, compared to room-dry counterparts, indicate (1) the pore pressures are essentially communicated throughout each test specimen so that they are fully effective; (2) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 50 MPa the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (3) at these same effective pressures the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (4) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 870 to 900/sup 0/C the andesite's strength averages 20 MPa while the strength of dry specimens at the same P and T exhibit a strength of 100 MPa; (5) at P/sub e/ = 50 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (6) the basalt at P/sub e/ = 0, appears to be water-weakened at 800/sup 0/C; (7) water saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than that of melting exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2% shortening and then work-soften along faults; (8) again as do the dry counterparts, the wet specimens deform primarily by microscopic fracturing that coalesces into one or more macroscopic faults; and (9) the temperature for incipient melting of the andesite is decreased >150/sup 0/C in the water-saturated tests.

  7. Interstellar clouds containing optically thin H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of Black and Delgarno that the relative populations of the excited rotational levels of H2 can be understood in terms of cascading following absorption in the Lyman and Werner bands is employed to infer the gas densities and radiation fields within diffuse interstellar clouds containing H2 that is optically thin in those bands. The procedure is described for computing the populations of the different rotation levels, the relative distribution among the different rotation levels of newly formed H2 is determined on the basis of five simplified models, and the rate of H2 formation is estimated. The results are applied to delta Ori, two components of iota Ori, the second components of rho Leo and zeta Ori, tau Sco, gamma Vel, and zeta Pup. The inferred parameters are summarized for each cloud.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF Ti and Fe VALENCE IN CHONDRULE-LIKE MELTS DURING COOLING UNDER CHANGING REDOX CONDITIONS AT LOW PARTIAL PRESSURES. S. B. Simon1

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Lawrence

    for a second set of experiments. Methods: In [3], the reactant gas species (H2, CO2) were at 1 atm total not directly applicable to natural chon- drules. Thus, in the present work, the reactive H2-CO2 mix has been (sbs8@uchicago.edu); 2 Div. Geol. Planet. Sci., Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125, 3 CARS, Univ. of Chicago

  9. H 2 Production and CO 2 Separation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonello Di Donato

    \\u000a A promising technology for H2 production and CO2 separation is based on water gas shift reaction operated in water gas shift membrane reactor (WGSMR). In such a reactor the\\u000a synthetic gas reacts with steam in a catalytic bed to produce additional hydrogen and CO2. A H2 selective membrane allows the simultaneous production of hydrogen at a high purity level and

  10. The molecular hydrogen explorer H2EX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Boulanger; J. P. Maillard; P. Appleton; E. Falgarone; G. Lagache; B. Schulz; B. P. Wakker; A. Bressan; J. Cernicharo; V. Charmandaris; L. Drissen; G. Helou; T. Henning; T. L. Lim; E. A. Valentjin; A. Abergel; J. Le Bourlot; M. Bouzit; S. Cabrit; F. Combes; J. M. Deharveng; P. Desmet; H. Dole; C. Dumesnil; A. Dutrey; J. J. Fourmond; E. Gavila; R. Grangé; C. Gry; P. Guillard; S. Guilloteau; E. Habart; B. Huet; C. Joblin; M. Langer; Y. Longval; S. C. Madden; C. Martin; M. A. Miville-Deschênes; G. Pineau des Forêts; E. Pointecouteau; H. Roussel; L. Tresse; L. Verstraete; F. Viallefond; F. Bertoldi; J. Jorgensen; J. Bouwman; A. Carmona; O. Krause; A. Baruffolo; C. Bonoli; F. Bortoletto; L. Danese; G. L. Granato; C. Pernechele; R. Rampazzo; L. Silva; G. de Zotti; J. Pardo; M. Spaans; W. Wild; M. J. Ferlet; S. K. Ramsay Howat; M. D. Smith; B. Swinyard; G. S. Wright; G. Joncas; P. G. Martin; C. J. Davis; B. T. Draine; P. F. Goldsmith; A. K. Mainzer; P. Ogle; S. A. Rinehart; G. J. Stacey; A. G. G. M. Tielens

    2009-01-01

    The Molecular Hydrogen Explorer, H2EX, was proposed in response to the ESA 2015 - 2025 Cosmic Vision Call as a medium class space mission with NASA and CSA participations.\\u000a The mission, conceived to understand the formation of galaxies, stars and planets from molecular hydrogen, is designed to\\u000a observe the first rotational lines of the H2 molecule (28.2, 17.0, 12.3 and

  11. Global Flux Balance in the Terrestrial H2O Cycle: Reconsidering the Post-Arc Subducted H2O Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of H2O fluxes between the mantle and the exosphere (i.e., the atmosphere, oceans and crust) are critical to our understanding of the chemistry and dynamics of the solid Earth: the abundance and distribution of water in the mantle has dramatic impacts upon mantle melting, degassing history, structure and style of convection. Water is outgassed from the mantle is association with volcanism at mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and convergent margins. H2O is removed from the exosphere at subduction zones, and some fraction of the subducted flux may be recycled past the arc into the Earth’s deep interior. Estimates of the post-arc subducted H2O flux are primarily based on the stability of hydrous phases at subduction zone pressures and temperatures (e.g. Schmidt and Poli, 1998; Rüpke et al., 2004; Hacker, 2008). However, the post-arc H2O flux remains poorly quantified, in part due to large uncertainties in the water content of the subducting slab. Here we evaluate estimated post-arc subducted fluxes in the context of mantle-exosphere water cycling, using a Monte Carlo simulation of the global H2O cycle. Literature estimates of primary magmatic H2O abundances and magmatic production rates at different tectonic settings are used with estimates of the total subducted H2O flux to establish the parameter space under consideration. Random sampling of the allowed parameter space affords insight into which input and output fluxes satisfy basic constraints on global flux balance, such as a limit on sea-level change over time. The net flux of H2O between mantle and exosphere is determined by the total mantle output flux (via ridges and ocean islands, with a small contribution from mantle-derived arc output) and the input flux subducted beyond the arc. Arc and back-arc output is derived mainly from the slab, and therefore cancels out a fraction of the trench intake in an H2O subcycle. Limits on sea-level change since the end of the Archaean place constraints on the magnitude of the post-arc subducted H2O flux that can be accommodated by the global water cycle. Estimates of the post-arc subducted flux are up to an order of magnitude larger than the estimated mantle output flux. If the marked imbalance in the estimated global water cycle is accurate, then it must be a recent phenomenon: if propagated back in time, modeled net inward fluxes would consume half a present-day ocean volume of water in as little as 500 Myr (corresponding to ~1200 meters of sea level change given present-day hypsometry). Such changes are inconsistent with the limited sea level changed inferred from the geologic record since the end of the Archaean. The literature post-arc flux estimates reflect water carried to depth via a layer of serpentinized lithospheric mantle within the slab; however, the extent to which oceanic lithosphere may be serpentinized remains poorly constrained. A smaller post-arc subducted H2O flux of 2.3 x108 Tg/Ma would perfectly balance our mean modeled total mantle output. Such a post-arc flux corresponds to ~2% serpentinization of a 10 km thick layer of lithospheric mantle (i.e., a mean water content of ~0.25 wt% H2O).

  12. Hypertensive response to stress: The role of histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors in the medial amygdala.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Daniela Oliveira; Ferreira, Hilda Silva; Pereira, Luana Bomfim; Fregoneze, Josmara Bartolomei

    2015-05-15

    Different brain areas seem to be involved in the cardiovascular responses to stress. The medial amygdala (MeA) has been shown to participate in cardiovascular control, and acute stress activates the MeA to a greater extent than any of the other amygdaloid structures. It has been demonstrated that the brain histaminergic system may be involved in behavioral, autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to stressful situations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the histaminergic receptors H1 and H2 in cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress. Wistar rats (280-320g) received bilateral injections of cimetidine, mepyramine or saline into the MeA and were submitted to 45min of restraint stress. Mepyramine microinjections at doses of 200, 100 and 50nmol promoted a dose-dependent blockade of the hypertensive response induced by the restraint stress. Cimetidine (200 and 100nmol) promoted a partial blockade of the hypertensive response to stress only at the highest dose administered. Neither drugs altered the typical stress-evoked tachycardiac responses. Furthermore, mepyramine and cimetidine were unable to modify the mean arterial pressure or heart rate of freely moving rats under basal conditions (non-stressed rats). The data suggest that in the MeA the histaminergic H1 receptors appear to be more important than H2 receptors in the hypertensive response to stress. Furthermore, there appears to be no histaminergic tonus in the MeA controlling blood pressure during non-stress conditions. PMID:25748254

  13. cDNA Clone Coding for Part of a Mouse H-2d Major Histocompatibility Antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kvist; F. Bregegere; L. Rask; B. Cami; H. Garoff; F. Daniel; K. Wiman; D. Larhammar; J. P. Abastado; G. Gachelin; P. A. Peterson; B. Dobberstein; P. Kourilsky

    1981-01-01

    mRNA coding for mouse major transplantation antigens of the d haplotype was partially purified, copied into double-stranded cDNA, and cloned in Escherichia coli. Clones were selected by their ability to hybridize specifically with mRNA coding for H-2K, D, or L antigens. One of these clones, pH-2d-1, carries a 1200-base-pair insert, comprising the noncoding region, including poly(A) at the 3' end

  14. Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPa and temperatures to partial melting

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

    1981-01-01

    Instantaneous-failure strengths and ductilities of water-saturated cylindrical specimens of Charcoal Granodiorite, Mount Hood Andesite, and Cuerbio Basalt are determined at a strain rate of 10{sup -4}s{sup -1} and at effective confining pressures (Pe) of 0 and 50 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting. The data indicate: (1) at Pe = 0 and 50 MPa (Pc and Pp of 50 MPa and of 100 and 50 MPa, respectively) the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (2) at these same Pe the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (3) at Pe = 0 and 870-900{sup 0}C the andesite's wet strength averages 20 MPa compared to 100 MPa, dry; (4) at Pe = 50 MPa and 920{sup 0}C its wet strength is 45 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (5) at Pe = 0, the basalt appears to be water-weakened above 800{sup 0}C; (6) water-saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than T{sub m} exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2 percent shortening and then work-soften along faults; and (7) both dry and wet specimens deform primarily by brittle fracture. Extrapolations indicate: (1) crystalline rocks should be drillable because they remain brittle until partial melting occurs, and penetration rates should increase with temperature because there is a corresponding decrease in brittle fracture strength; (2) boreholes in ''water-filled'' holes will be stable to >10 km at temperatures 10 km; and (4) open boreholes in the andesite are apt to be much less stable, and at similar temperatures would fail at 2 to 5-km depth.

  15. FR-190997, a nonpeptide bradykinin B2-receptor partial agonist, is a potent and efficacious intraocular pressure lowering agent in ocular hypertensive cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Najam A; Katoli, Parvaneh; Scott, Daniel; Li, Linya; Kelly, Curtis; Xu, Shouxi; Husain, Shahid; Toris, Carol; Crosson, Craig

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical Research FR-190997 (8-[2,6-dichloro-3-[N-[(E)-4-(N-methylcarbamoyl) cinnaminoacetyl]-N-methylamino]benzyloxy]-2-methyl-4- (2-pyridylmethoxy) quinoline), a nonpeptide bradykinin (BK) B2-receptor-selective agonist, represents a novel class of ocular hypotensive agents. FR-190997 exhibited a high affinity for the human cloned B2-receptor (Ki?=?9.8?nM) and a relatively high potency (EC50?=?155?nM) for mobilizing intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in human ocular cells from nonpigmented ciliary epithelium; trabecular meshwork [h-TM]; ciliary muscle [h-CM] that are involved in regulating intraocular pressure (IOP). Unlike BK, FR-190997 behaved as a partial agonist (Emax?=?38-80%) in these cells and its [Ca(2+)]i-mobilizing effects were blocked by the B2-receptor-selective antagonists (HOE-140, Ki?=?0.8-7?nM; WIN-64338, Ki?=?157-425?nM). FR-190997 stimulated the production of prostaglandins (PGs) in h-CM and h-TM cells (EC50?=?15-19?nM; Emax?=?27-33%); an effect that was reduced by the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor bromfenac, and by HOE-140. FR-190997 also induced pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 release from h-CM cells. FR-190997 significantly lowered IOP (37% [P?partial agonist that activates phospholipase C, mobilizes [Ca(2+)]; induces PG and pro-MMP production, and that profoundly lowers IOP by promoting UVSO in ocular hypertensive Cynomolgus monkey eyes. PMID:24796320

  16. A SAFT Equation of State for the Quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, X.; Zhu, C.

    2011-12-01

    Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the quaternary H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system were studied using a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS). The understanding of the physical-chemical properties of this system is critical for predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and H2S into geological formations (geological carbon sequestration) as an option for mitigating the global warming trend. Previous studies of the subsystems within this quaternary have provided many parameters for the EOS. In this study, the subsystems of H2S-CO2 and H2S-H2O-NaCl were investigated in order to obtain the cross parameters for the EOS. For the binary system H2S-CO2, cross association between the site H in H2S and the site O in CO2 was allowed and temperature-independent parameters were used to describe this cross association. Meanwhile, a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter was used to adjust the cross dispersive energy for this binary system. For the H2S-H2O-NaCl system, one temperature-dependent cross parameter was allowed in order to adjust the cross dispersive energy between H2S and ions of Na+ and Cl-. All cross parameters were fitted to the reliable phase equilibrium experimental data. Densities were predicted and compared with available experimental results. Using the EOS developed in this study, we predicted equilibrium composition in both liquid and vapor phases, the equilibrium pressures at a given composition of the H2O-rich phase in electrolyte solutions with NaCl varying from 0 to 4 mol/kgH2O, and the aqueous solution densities. These predictions provide information and guidance for future experiments regarding the thermodynamic properties and phase behaviors in the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system.

  17. A comparative study of the Au + H2, Au(+) + H2, and Au(-) + H2 systems: Potential energy surfaces and dynamics of reactive collisions.

    PubMed

    Dorta-Urra, Anaís; Zanchet, Alexandre; Roncero, Octavio; Aguado, Alfredo

    2015-04-21

    In order to study the Au(-) + H2 collision, a new global potential energy surface (PES) describing the ground electronic state of AuH2 (-) system is developed and compared with the PESs of the neutral [Zanchet et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 034301 (2010)] and cationic systems [Anaís et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 091102 (2011)]. We found that Au(-) - H2 presents a H-Au-H insertion minimum attributed to the stabilization of the LUMO 3b2 orbital, which can be considered as the preamble of the chemisorption well appearing in larger gold clusters. While the LUMO orbital is stabilized, the HOMO 6a1 is destabilized, creating a barrier at the geometry where the energy orbitals' curves are crossing. In the anion, this HOMO is doubly occupied, while in the neutral system is half-filled and completely empty in the cation, explaining the gradual disappearance of the well and the barrier as the number of electrons decreases. The cation presents a well in the entrance channel partially explained by electrostatic interactions. The three systems' reactions are highly endothermic, by 1.66, 2.79, and 3.23 eV for AuH, AuH(+), and AuH(-) products, respectively. The reaction dynamics is studied using quasi-classical trajectory method for the three systems. The one corresponding to the anionic system is new in this work. Collision energies between 1.00 and 8.00 eV, measured for the cation, are in good agreement with the simulated cross section for the AuH(+). It was also found that the total fragmentation, in three atoms, competes becoming dominant at sufficiently high energy. Here, we study the competition between the two different reaction pathways for the anionic, cationic, and neutral species, explaining the differences using a simple model based on the topology of the potential energy surfaces. PMID:25903884

  18. ALS LOX/H2 subscale coaxial injector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, Carol E.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a 40K subscale LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector conducted without injector or chamber degradation are reported. Chamber pressures ranged from 1572 to 2355 psia with overall mixture ratios from 5.04 to 6.39. The highest characteristic velocities were measured when the mixture ratio across the injector face was uniform. Scarfing of the outer row LOX posts had the largest effect on chamber heating rates. As a result of the tests, the LSI design was modified to arrange the outer row LOX posts in a circular pattern, eliminate O/F biasing and fuel film cooling, and modify the interpropellant plate to allow for larger pressure differentials during the start and cutoff transients. Testing of a 100 K LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector involved chamber pressure ranging from 700 to 2500 psia with overall mixture ratios from 3.2 to 8.8. Stable combustion was observed to a fuel temperature of 90R and characteristic velocity efficiencies were good.

  19. Fluid hydrogen at high density - Pressure ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saumon, Didier; Chabrier, Gilles

    1992-01-01

    The Helmholtz-free-energy model for nonideal mixtures of hydrogen atoms and molecules by Saumon and Chabrier (1991) is extended to describe dissociation and ionization in similar mixtures in chemical equilibrium. A free-energy model is given that describes partial ionization in the pressure and temperature ionization region. The plasma-phase transition predicted by the model is described for hydrogen mixtures including such components as H2, H, H(+), and e(-). The plasma-phase transition has a critical point at Tc = 15,300 K and Pc = 0.614 Mbar, and thermodynamic instability is noted in the pressure-ionization regime. The pressure dissociation and ionization of fluid hydrogen are described well with the model yielding information on the nature of the plasma-phase transition. The model is shown to be valuable for studying dissociation and ionization in astrophysical objects and in high-pressure studies where pressure and temperature effects are significant.

  20. Improved O2-tolerance in variants of a H2-evolving [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Klebsiella oxytoca HP1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Bai, Li-Ping; Liu, Ke; Jiang, Li-Jing; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanism of O2 tolerance of Klebsiella oxytoca HP1 H2-evolving hydrogenase 3 (KHyd3) by mutational analysis and three-dimensional structure modeling. Results revealed that certain surface amino acid residues of KHyd3 large subunit, in particular those at the outer entrance of the gas channel, have a visible effect on its oxygen tolerance. Additionally, solution pH, immobilization and O2 partial pressure also affect KHyd3 O2-tolerance to some extent. We propose that the extent of KHyd3 O2-tolerance is determined by a balance between the rate of O2 access to the active center through gas channels and the deoxidation rate of the oxidized active center. Based on our findings, two higher O2-tolerant KHyd3 mutations G300E and G300M were developed. PMID:25747389

  1. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in surface waters in the pacific sector of the southern oceans during austral summers 1992 and 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.; Chipman, D. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    In the austral summers (February and March) of 1992 and 1994, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO{sub 2}) and concentration of total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}) dissolved in sea water were determined for surface and deep waters along the two cruise tracks (WOCE S-4 in 1992, NBP94-02 in 1994) in the Pacific sector of the southern oceans. These expeditions included sections across the continental shelf areas of the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas. The station locations are shown in figure 1. Most of this area has not been previously studied for carbon dioxide and nutrients such as nitrate (NO{sub 3}-), phosphate (PO{sub 4}{sup {triple_bond}}), and silicate (SiO{sub 3}{sup =}). During the two cruises, discrete surface-water samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide and nutrients at approximately 250 sites. The pCO{sub 2} and TCO{sub 2} contents of discrete sea-water samples were measured using a gas chromatograph and coulometer, respectively. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations in dry air were obtained with an infrared CO{sub 2} analyzer. The dissolved nitrate, phosphate, and silicate were measured using standard colorimetric methods, by personnel of the Ocean Date Facility of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

    Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

  3. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramics processed under low oxygen partial pressure atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Doshida, Yutaka; Mizuno, Youichi; Randall, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (Sn-NKN) ceramics fired under various oxygen partial pressure (pO2) conditions have been investigated and discussed in terms of bulk piezoelectric and dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction measurements and Rayleigh analysis indicate that the substitution site of the Sn cations depend on the pO2 atmosphere in the firing process. For pO2 higher than 1.0 × 10-10 atm, Sn cations mainly substitute as Sn4+ at the B-site of perovskite NKN, whereas Sn2+ A-site substitution is favored under a low-pO2 atmosphere. Low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics exhibit higher relative permittivity, Curie temperature, and piezoelectric coefficient (d33). Sn2+ at A-site acts as a donor and reduces the p-type carrier concentrations that result from an electronic compensation of metal vacancies created through the high volatility of Na and K suboxides. The higher piezoelectricity and resistivity in low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics make this material suitable for base-metal cofired devices such as Ni-inner-electrode multilayer capacitors and actuators.

  4. Conductivity of porous Sm2O3-doped CeO2 as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James; Virkar, Anil V.

    2011-08-01

    Porous samples of Sm2O3-doped CeO2 (samaria-doped ceria, SDC) of composition Sm0.15Ce0.85O2-? were made by conventional ceramic processing and sintering in air at 1400 °C. Crystal structure and microstructure of the samples were characterized, respectively, by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical conductivity was measured using a four probe DC method over a temperature range from 200 °C to 800 °C, and over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures corresponding to testing in oxygen and in nearly dry hydrogen. Conductivity rapidly stabilized at any given temperature consistent with the attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium corresponding to the imposed conditions. At and below 300 °C, the conduction was predominantly due to oxygen ion transport. At and above 400 °C, however, significant electronic conduction occurred in reducing atmospheres. The ionic transference number of SDC at 400 °C in hydrogen is only ?0.4. This result shows that the electrolytic domain of SDC at and above 400 °C is rather narrow. These results also suggest that SDC (and possibly other rare earth oxide-doped CeO2) is not a suitable electrolyte without a thin electron blocking layer such as yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ).

  5. Direct linkage between dimethyl sulfide production and microzooplankton grazing, resulting from prey composition change under high partial pressure of carbon dioxide conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Yang, Eun Jin; Hyun, Bonggil; Kim, Ja-Myung; Noh, Jae Hoon; Kim, Miok; Kong, Bokyung; Choi, Dong Han; Choi, Su-Jin; Jang, Pung-Guk; Jeong, Hae Jin

    2014-05-01

    Oceanic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the enzymatic cleavage product of the algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and is the most abundant form of sulfur released into the atmosphere. To investigate the effects of two emerging environmental threats (ocean acidification and warming) on marine DMS production, we performed a large-scale perturbation experiment in a coastal environment. At both ambient temperature and ? 2 °C warmer, an increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in seawater (160-830 ppmv pCO2) favored the growth of large diatoms, which outcompeted other phytoplankton species in a natural phytoplankton assemblage and reduced the growth rate of smaller, DMSP-rich phototrophic dinoflagellates. This decreased the grazing rate of heterotrophic dinoflagellates (ubiquitous micrograzers), resulting in reduced DMS production via grazing activity. Both the magnitude and sign of the effect of pCO2 on possible future oceanic DMS production were strongly linked to pCO2-induced alterations to the phytoplankton community and the cellular DMSP content of the dominant species and its association with micrograzers. PMID:24724561

  6. Determination of octane numbers and Reid vapor pressure of commercial petroleum fuels using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.B.; Wise, K.L.; Groves, J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Welch, W.T. [Ashland Petroleum Co., VA (United States)

    1995-11-15

    A Fourier transform Raman spectrometer was used to collect the Raman spectra of 208 commercial petroleum fuels. The individual motor and research octane numbers (MON and RON, respectively) were determined experimentally using the industry standard ASTM knock engine method. Partial least-squares regression analysis was used to build regression models which correlate the Raman spectra of 175 of the fuels with the experimentally determined values for MON, RON, and pump octane number (the average of MON and RON) of the fuels. Each of the models was validated using leave-one-out validation. The standard errors of validation are 0.415, 0.535, and 0.410 octane units for MON, RON, and pump octane number, respectively. It is evident that the accuracy of the Raman determined values is limited by the accuracy of the training set used in creating the models. The Raman regression models were used to predict the octane numbers for the fuels which were not used to build the models. The results compare favorably with the leave-one-out validation. Also, it is demonstrated that the experimentally determined Reid vapor pressures are highly correlated with the Raman spectra of the fuel samples and can be predicted with a standard error of 0.568 psi. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

    2012-02-12

    Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

  8. Low-pressure reactive dc-magnetron sputter deposition of metal-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, Bradley J.; Du, Tu; Sobczak, J.; Carniglia, Charles K.; Williams, Forrest L.

    1992-07-01

    Improvements in magnetron sputtering technology have made it possible to deposit compound thin films at total pressures as low as approximately 1 X 10-4 torr. Deposition at these lower pressures increases the mean free path of molecules within the vacuum chamber, thereby allowing for greater adatom energies on the substrate surface. By increasing adatom energy, low-pressure dc-magnetron sputtering can lead to the deposition of dense metal-oxide films that are resistant to the adsorption of atmospheric water (H2O). We report results showing improved environmental stability in single-layer films of silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) deposited using a 8-in-diameter dc magnetron source. Metal targets were used, with argon (Ar) as the sputtering gas and oxygen (O2) as the reactive gas. The silicon target was doped with 5-percent Al to improve its electrical conductivity. The effects of target voltage, Ar partial pressure, and O2 partial pressure were studied. In addition, several source geometries were tested in order to optimize the coating thickness uniformity. Film moisture content was characterized by spectral transmittance near the H2O optical absorption band at 2.8 micrometers . Deposition at total pressures < 3 X 10-4 torr resulted in SiO2 coatings with minimal H2O content, while all Al2O3 coatings exhibited no H2O content.

  9. H2+ in a weak magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medel Cobaxin, Héctor; Alijah, Alexander; López Vieyra, Juan Carlos; Turbiner, Alexander V.

    2015-02-01

    The electronic energy of H2+ in magnetic fields of up to B=0.2{{B}0} (or 4.7× {{10}4} T) is investigated. Numerical values of the magnetic susceptibility for both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic contributions are reported for arbitrary orientations of the molecule in the magnetic field. It is shown that both diamagnetic and paramagnetic susceptibilities grow with inclination, while paramagnetic susceptibility is systematically much smaller than the diamagnetic one. Accurate two-dimensional Born–Oppenheimer surfaces are obtained with special trial functions. Using these surfaces, vibrational and rotational states are computed and analyzed for the isotopologues H2+ and D2+.

  10. Thermal stability of ?-Ga2O3 in mixed flows of H2 and N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Rie; Nomura, Kazushiro; Eguchi, Chihiro; Fukizawa, Takahiro; Goto, Ken; Thieu, Quang Tu; Murakami, Hisashi; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Kuramata, Akito; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu; Monemar, Bo; Koukitu, Akinori

    2015-04-01

    The thermal stability of ?-Ga2O3(010) substrates was investigated at atmospheric pressure between 250 and 1450 °C in a flow of either N2 or a mixture of H2 and N2 using a radio-frequency induction furnace. The ?-Ga2O3 surface was found to decompose at and above 1150 °C in N2, while the decomposition of ?-Ga2O3 began at only 350 °C in the presence of H2. Heating ?-Ga2O3 substrates in gas flows containing different molar fractions of H2 demonstrated that the decomposition was promoted by increasing the H2 molar fractions. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the dominant reactions are \\text{Ga}2\\text{O}3\\text{(s)} = \\text{Ga}2\\text{O(g)} + \\text{O}2\\text{(g)} in N2 and \\text{Ga}2\\text{O}3\\text{(s)} + \\text{2H}2\\text{(g)} = \\text{Ga}2\\text{O(g)} + 2\\text{H}2\\text{O(g)} in a mixed flow of H2 and N2. The second-order reaction with respect to H2 determined for the mixed flows agrees with the experimental results for the dependence of the ?-Ga2O3 decomposition rates on the H2 molar fraction.

  11. Recently Emerged Swine Influenza A Virus (H2N3) Causes Severe Pneumonia in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Richt, Juergen A.; Rockx, Barry; Ma, Wenjun; Feldmann, Friederike; Safronetz, David; Marzi, Andrea; Kobasa, Darwyn; Strong, James E.; Kercher, Lisa; Long, Dan; Gardner, Don; Brining, Douglas; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The triple reassortant H2N3 virus isolated from diseased pigs in the United States in 2006 is pathogenic for certain mammals without prior adaptation and transmits among swine and ferrets. Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. Here we investigated the pathogenic potential of swine H2N3 in Cynomolgus macaques, a surrogate model for human influenza infection. In contrast to human H2N2 virus, which served as a control and largely caused mild pneumonia similar to seasonal influenza A viruses, the swine H2N3 virus was more pathogenic causing severe pneumonia in nonhuman primates. Both viruses replicated in the entire respiratory tract, but only swine H2N3 could be isolated from lung tissue on day 6 post infection. All animals cleared the infection whereas swine H2N3 infected macaques still presented with pathologic changes indicative of chronic pneumonia at day 14 post infection. Swine H2N3 virus was also detected to significantly higher titers in nasal and oral swabs indicating the potential for animal-to-animal transmission. Plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and IFN? were significantly increased in swine H2N3 compared to human H2N2 infected animals supporting the previously published notion of increased IL-6 levels being a potential marker for severe influenza infections. In conclusion, the swine H2N3 virus represents a threat to humans with the potential for causing a larger outbreak in a non-immune or partially immune population. Furthermore, surveillance efforts in farmed pig populations need to become an integral part of any epidemic and pandemic influenza preparedness. PMID:22808082

  12. Formation of low-temperature cirrus from H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Sassen, K; Kulmala, M

    2006-11-23

    We present experimental results obtained with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) that indicate the small ice particles in low-temperature cirrus clouds are not completely solid but rather coated with an unfrozen H2SO4/H2O overlayer. Our results provide a new look on the formation, development, and microphysical properties of low-temperature cirrus clouds. PMID:17107102

  13. Cold and ultracold H2-H2 collisions on high accuracy ab initio potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, N.; Fonseca Dos Santos, S.; Forrey, R. C.; Stancil, P. C.; Jankowski, P.; Szalewicz, K.

    2012-06-01

    We report quantum calculations of rovibrational transitions in H2 + H2 collisions on different ab initio potential surfaces (PESs). The PESs employed include the six-dimensional interaction potential of Hinde [1] and a hybrid potential constructed from the Hinde potential and the high accuracy 4-dimensional PES of Patkowski et al. [2]. Results show that vibrational relaxation cross sections are sensitive to details of the potentials at low energies but the sensitivity is significantly suppressed for quasiresonant transitions that involve small energy gaps and that conserve the total rotational angular momentum of the colliding molecules. Additionally, we present results for H2(v=2) + H2(v = 0) collisions and explore competition between vibration-vibration (VV) transfer leading to H2(v=1) +H2(v=1) products and vibration-translation (VT) transfer yielding H2(v=1) + H2(v=0) products. Results show that the VV process dominates over the VT process, in agreement with available experimental data. [1] Robert J. Hinde, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 154308 (2008). [2] K. Patkowski, W. Cencek, P.Jankowski, K. Szalewicz, J. B. Mehl, G. Garberoglio, and A. H. Harvey, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 094304 (2008).

  14. The Successive H2O Binding Energies for Fe(H2O)n(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The binding energy, computed using density functional theory (DFT), are in good agreement with experiment. The bonding is electrostatic (charge-dipole) in origin for all systems. The structures are therefore determined mostly by metal-ligand and ligand-ligand repulsion. The computed structure for FeH2O(+) is C(2v) where sp hybridization is important in reducing the Fe-H2O repulsion. Fe(H2O)2(+) has D2d symmetry where sdo hybridization is the primary factor leading to the linear O-Fe-O geometry. The bonding in Fe(H2O)3(+) and Fe(H2O)4(+) are very complex because ligand-ligand and metal-ligand repulsion, both for the in-plane and out-of-plane water lone-pair orbitals, are important.

  15. Adsorption equilibria and kinetics of H 2 at nearly ideal (2 × 1)Si(100) inner surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerofolini, G. F.; Romano, E.; Narducci, D.; Corni, F.; Frabboni, S.; Ottaviani, G.; Tonini, R.

    2010-07-01

    Silicon nanocavities can be terminated with hydrogen by wet chemical etching. Their infrared spectra can to a large extent be interpreted in terms of silicon monohydrides on H(7 × 7)Si(111), H(1 × 1)Si(111) and H(2 × 1)Si(100), and of silicon dihydrides on H(1 × 1)Si(100). The time evolution under isothermal conditions (600 °C) of the (1 0 0) faces admits a description in terms of transformation from H(1 × 1)Si(100) into (2 × 1)Si(100) with simultaneous H 2 adsorption onto (2 × 1)Si(100) neat dimers. In so doing the inner H 2 pressure decreases by about one order of magnitude from the initial value of 3 × 10 3 Torr. The unique properties of nanocavities allow their use as nanoreactors; this has led to the determination of the sticking coefficient for H 2 adsorption in conditions of pressure, temperature and adventitious contamination otherwise not achievable.

  16. D/H fractionation in the H2-H2O system at supercritical water conditions: Compositional and hydrogen bonding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2012-06-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the H2-D2-D2O-H2O-Ti-TiO2 system at temperatures ranging from 300 to 800 °C and pressures between ?0.3 and 1.3 GPa in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, utilizing Raman spectroscopy as a quantitative tool to explore the relative distribution of hydrogen and deuterium isotopologues of the H2 and H2O in supercritical fluids. In detail, H2O-D2O solutions (1:1) were reacted with Ti metal (3-9 h) in the diamond cell, leading to formation of H2, D2, HD, and HDO species through Ti oxidation and H-D isotope exchange reactions. Experimental results obtained in situ and at ambient conditions on quenched samples indicate significant differences from the theoretical estimates of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the H-D exchange reactions. In fact, the estimated enthalpy for the H2(aq)-D2(aq) disproportionation reaction (?Hrxn) is about -3.4 kcal/mol, which differs greatly from the +0.16 kcal/mol predicted for the exchange reaction in the gas phase by statistical mechanics models. The exothermic behavior of the exchange reaction implies enhanced stability of H2 and D2 relative to HD. Accordingly, the significant energy difference of the internal H2(aq)-D2(aq)-HD(aq) equilibrium translates to strong differences of the fractionation effects between the H2O-H2 and D2O-D2 isotope exchange relationships. The D/H fractionation factors between H2O-H2(aq) and D2O-D2(aq) differ by 365‰ in the 600-800 °C temperature range, and are indicative of the greater effect of D2O contribution to the ?D isotopic composition of supercritical fluids. The negative ?Hrxn values for the H2(aq)-D2(aq)-HD(aq) equilibrium and the apparent decrease of the equilibrium constant with increasing temperature might be because of differences of the Henry’s law constant between the H- and D-bearing species dissolved in supercritical aqueous solutions. Such effects may be attributed to the stronger hydrogen bonding in the O-H⋯O relative to the O-D⋯O environment. This difference allows enhanced gas solubility in the denser and more polar H2O clusters, and thus, affects the D/H exchange between the H2-D2 volatiles and the coexisting H2O-D2O mixtures. The proposed role of temperature in promoting differences in the density and polarity of hydrogen-bonded OHO and ODO molecules may be explained with isotope-specific molar volume effects similar to those suggested to account for the hydrogen isotope fractionation between H2O and hydroxide mineral phases (e.g. brucite) across large pressure intervals.

  17. Partitioning of F between H 2 O and CO 2 fluids and topaz rhyolite melt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James D. Webster

    1990-01-01

    Fluid\\/melt distribution coefficients for F have been determined in experiments conducted with peraluminous topaz rhyolite melts and fluids consisting of H2O and H2O+CO2 at pressures of 0.5 to 5 kbar, temperatures of 775°–1000°C, and concentrations of F in the melt ranging from 0.5 to 6.9 wt%. The major element, F, and Cl concentrations of the starting material and run product

  18. Heterogeneous bubble nucleation and disequilibrium H 2O exsolution in Vesuvius K-phonolite melts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica F. Larsen

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on constraining bubble nucleation and H2O exsolution processes in alkalic K-phonolite melts, using “white pumice” of the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius as starting material. The first set of experiments consisted of H2O solubility runs at 1153 to 1250 K and pressures between 50 and 200 MPa, to constrain equilibrium water concentrations along the decompression pathways. The decompression experiments

  19. Character of the pair interaction in solid and gaseous H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, W.; Etters, R.; Raich, J.; Danilowicz, R.

    1974-01-01

    Existing theoretical H2 pair potentials are investigated. We develop a spherically symmetric potential applicable to solid H2. It yields a ground-state energy of -98.7 K (experimental values range from -93.5 to -101 K). Pressure-volume data are also in excellent agreement with experiment between 0 and 25 kbar. Second virial coefficients using this potential are consistently too low. When an anisotropic pair potential is used, agreement becomes very good.

  20. Hydrogenation of Nanocrystalline Mg at Room Temperature in the Presence of TiH2

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2010-05-19

    In this work, we found that the dehydrogenated nanostructured MgH2-0.1TiH2 prepared by ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure (UHEHP) mechanical milling can pick up a significant amount of hydrogen at room temperature at a reasonable rate. This finding is potentially useful for many applications including hydrogen storage and hydrogen separation from gas mixtures such as synthetic gas.

  1. Multiple H2 occupancy of cages of clathrate hydrate under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Wang, Jianwei; Liu, Changling; Ratcliffe, Christopher I; Becker, Udo; Kumar, Rajnish; Ripmeester, John

    2012-06-01

    Experiments were carried out by reacting H(2) gas with N(2) hydrate at a temperature of 243 K and a pressure of 15 MPa. The characterizations of the reaction products indicated that multiple H(2) molecules can be loaded into both large and small cages of structure II clathrate hydrates. The realization of multiple H(2) occupancy of hydrate cages under moderate conditions not only brings new insights into hydrogen clathrates but also refreshes the perspective of clathrate hydrates as hydrogen storage media. PMID:22587651

  2. 26 CFR 31.3406(h)-2 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Special rules. 31.3406(h)-2 Section 31.3406(h)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(h)-2 Special rules. (a) Joint accounts...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3406(h)-2 - Special rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Special rules. 31.3406(h)-2 Section 31.3406(h)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(h)-2 Special rules. (a) Joint accounts...

  4. Observations of cumulene carbenes, H2CCCC and H2CCC, in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Kaifu, Norio; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Saito, Shuji; Takano, Shuro; Murakami, Akinori; Vrtilek, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the carbon chain molecule H2CCCC, detected in the dark cloud TMC-1 for the first time in the course of a molecular line survey using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. From nine transitions observed in the frequency region of 17-45 GHz, the total column density of H2CCCC in TMC-1 is derived to be 7.5(+/-2.0) x 10 exp 12/sq cm, which is about half of the value reported in IRC + 10216. Five transitions of a related carbon chain molecule, H2CCC, were also detected in TMC-1. The column density of H2CCC obtained in TMC-1, 2.8(+/-0.9) x 10 exp 12/sq cm, is a factor of three smaller than that of H2CCCC. The ortho-to-para abundance ratios of H2CCCC and H2CCC were found to be 4.2 +/-1.5 and 5.9 +/-2.0, respectively. The chemical reactions of these carbon-chain molecules in dark clouds are discussed.

  5. Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation. I. Influence of nitrogen nutrition, phosphorus nutrition, photon flux density, and ambient partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ during ontogeny. [Zea mays

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.C.; Cowan, I.R.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Plants of Zea mays were grown with different concentrations of nitrate (0.6, 4, 12, and 24 millimolar) and phosphate (0.04, 0.13, 0.53, and 1.33 millimolar) supplied to the roots, photon flux densities (0.04, 0.13, 0.53, and 1.33 millimolar) supplied to the roots, photon flux densities (0.12, 0.5, and 2 millimoles per square meter per second), and ambient partial pressures of CO/sub 2/ (305 and 610 microbars). Differences in mineral nutrition and irradiance led to a large variation in rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation per unit leaf area (A, 11 to 58 micromoles per square meter per second) when measured under standard conditions. The variation was shown, with the plants that had received different amounts of nitrate, to be related to variations in the nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, and phosphoenolpyruvate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activities per unit leaf area. Irrespective of growth treatment, A and leaf conductance to CO/sub 2/ transfer (g), measured under standard conditions were in almost constant proportion, implying that intercellular partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ (p/sub i/), was almost constant at 95 microbars. The same proportionality was maintained as A and g increased in an initially nitrogen-deficient plant that had been supplied with abundant nitrate. It was shown that p/sub i/ measured at a given ambient partial pressure was not affected by the ambient partial pressure at which the plants had been grown, although it was different when measured at different ambient partial pressures. This suggests that the close coupling between A and g in these experiments is not associated with sensitivity of stomata to change in p/sub i/. Similar, though less comprehensive, experiments were done with Gosypium hirsutum, and yielded similar conclusions, except that the proportionality between A and g at normal ambient partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ implied p/sub i/ approx. = 200 microbars. 11 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  6. Ionization of H2+ in XUV pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Pei-Lun; He, Feng

    2015-04-01

    The photoelectron angular distribution of H2+ in XUV pulses is studied by strong field approximation with different gauges. The number and location of lobes for the photoelectron angular distribution can be identified by decoupling the transition matrix to initial orbitals and laser actions. Our simulation shows the molecular initial probability distribution can be imaged from the photoelectron angular distribution once laser parameters are provided.

  7. Ice Has Structure: H2O

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about water and water-ice. Learners will explore the molecular geometry and mechanics of ice. They will create a model of H2O, investigate its molecular structure and its consistent shape. Faraday's experiment is used as background. Activities include small group miming, speaking, drawing, and/or writing. This is lesson 2 of 12 in the unit, Exploring Ice in the Solar System.

  8. RbH2AsO4.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Berthold

    2013-10-01

    RbH2AsO4, rubidium di-hydrogenarsenate (RDA), was synthesized by partial neutralization of an aqueous H3AsO4 solution with aqueous Rb2CO3. Its paraelectric room-temperature phase is composed of virtually regular tetra-hedral [AsO2(OH)2](-) anions and Rb(+) cations, both located on -4 positions. The [AsO2(OH)2] units are connected via O-H?O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network, whereby the H atoms are equally disordered between the O atoms. The Rb(+) cations are located in channels running along the <100> directions and coordinated by eight O atoms located at the vertices of a snub disphenoid. PMID:24454010

  9. RbH2AsO4

    PubMed Central

    Stöger, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    RbH2AsO4, rubidium di­hydrogenarsenate (RDA), was synthesized by partial neutralization of an aqueous H3AsO4 solution with aqueous Rb2CO3. Its paraelectric room-temperature phase is composed of virtually regular tetra­hedral [AsO2(OH)2]? anions and Rb+ cations, both located on -4 positions. The [AsO2(OH)2] units are connected via O—H?O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network, whereby the H atoms are equally disordered between the O atoms. The Rb+ cations are located in channels running along the <100> directions and coordinated by eight O atoms located at the vertices of a snub disphenoid. PMID:24454010

  10. Fugacity of H2O from 0?? to 350??C at the liquid-vapor equilibrium and at 1 atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hass, J.L., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    The fugacity and fugacity coefficient of H2O at the liquid-vapor equilibrium, the fugacity and the Gibbs free energy of formation of H2O at 1 atm (1.01325 bars) total pressure have been calculated from published data on the physical and thermodynamic properties of H2O and are presented at ten-degree intervals from 0?? to 350??C. ?? 1970.

  11. Vertical profile of H 2SO 4 vapor at 70–110 km on Venus and some related problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir A. Krasnopolsky

    2011-01-01

    The vertical profile of H2SO4 vapor is calculated using current atmospheric and thermodynamic data. The atmospheric data include the H2O profiles observed at 70–112km by the SOIR solar occultations, the SPICAV-UV profiles of the haze extinction at 220nm, the VeRa temperature profiles, and a typical profile of eddy diffusion. The thermodynamic data are the saturated vapor pressures of H2O and

  12. Sulfidation Kinetics of Natural Chromite Ore Using H2S Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sazzad; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Pownceby, Mark I.; Bruckard, Warren J.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of natural chromite (FeCr2O4) sulfidation using 5 pct H2S (balance Ar) gas were studied in the temperature range 1173 K to 1473 K (900 °C to 1200 °C). Reaction products were examined using combined X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicated the formation of an outer sulfide-rich layer comprising mixed (Fe,Cr)1-x S and (Cr,Fe)1-x S phases, underlain by a cation-depleted diffusion zone. The kinetics investigation indicated that the reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and that the sulfidation of chromite followed a shrinking unreacted core model. It is proposed that Cr3+ cation diffusion through the reaction product was the rate controlling step with an apparent activation energy of 166 ± 4 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energy lies between the activation energy for Fe2+ and Cr3+ diffusion through pure chromite spinel and Fe-Cr alloy. Possible reasons for the discrepancy from pure chromite are expected to be the presence of minor Al and Mg in the natural chromite sample, and the partial pressure of oxygen under the reaction conditions used.

  13. Laboratory flow reactor measurements of the reaction SO3 + H2O + M yields H2SO4 + M: Implications for gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol formation in the plumes of jet aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiner, Th.; Arnold, F.

    1993-12-01

    The reaction SO3 + H2O + M has been investigated with a tubular flow reactor at a pressure of 85 Torr. Sulfuric acid has been identified as the most probable product of the reaction. Both, reactant SO3 as well as the product H2SO4 have been measured quantitatively using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. An upper limit for the reaction rate coefficient of 2.4 x 10(exp -15) cu cm/s has been inferred from the measurements. Implications for sulfuric acid and aerosol formation in the plumes of jet aircraft are discussed.

  14. Application of a High-Throughput Analyzer in Evaluating Solid Adsorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture via Multicomponent Adsorption of CO2, N2, and H2O.

    PubMed

    Mason, Jarad A; McDonald, Thomas M; Bae, Tae-Hyun; Bachman, Jonathan E; Sumida, Kenji; Dutton, Justin J; Kaye, Steven S; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-04-15

    Despite the large number of metal-organic frameworks that have been studied in the context of post-combustion carbon capture, adsorption equilibria of gas mixtures including CO2, N2, and H2O, which are the three biggest components of the flue gas emanating from a coal- or natural gas-fired power plant, have never been reported. Here, we disclose the design and validation of a high-throughput multicomponent adsorption instrument that can measure equilibrium adsorption isotherms for mixtures of gases at conditions that are representative of an actual flue gas from a power plant. This instrument is used to study 15 different metal-organic frameworks, zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and activated carbons representative of the broad range of solid adsorbents that have received attention for CO2 capture. While the multicomponent results presented in this work provide many interesting fundamental insights, only adsorbents functionalized with alkylamines are shown to have any significant CO2 capacity in the presence of N2 and H2O at equilibrium partial pressures similar to those expected in a carbon capture process. Most significantly, the amine-appended metal organic framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) (mmen = N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, dobpdc (4-) = 4,4'-dioxido-3,3'-biphenyldicarboxylate) exhibits a record CO2 capacity of 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/g (16 wt %) at 0.1 bar and 40 °C in the presence of a high partial pressure of H2O. PMID:25844924

  15. Decolorization and mineralization of reactive dyes, by the H2O2/UV process with electrochemically produced H2O2.

    PubMed

    Jeri?, Tina; Bisselink, Roel J M; van Tongeren, Willy; Le Marechal, Alenka M

    2013-01-01

    Decolorization of Reactive Red 238, Reactive Orange 16, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Blue 4 was studied in the UV/H2O2 process with H2O2 being produced electrochemically. The experimental results show that decolorization increased considerably when switching on the electrochemical production of H2O2. Complete decolorization (>99%) was achieved for all dyes under the applied experimental conditions, partial mineralization (49-85%) was obtained, which depends on the type of dye. Reactive Red 238 was used to investigate operational parameters and it was found that decolorization was influenced by the applied electrical current of the electrochemical cell and flow rate. Decolorization and mineralization of Reactive Red 238 can be described by pseudo-first order kinetics. It was found that the initial concentration of Reactive Red 238 has a negative influence on the pseudo-first order reaction constant. PMID:24169722

  16. Far-infrared absorption in H2 and H2-He mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, G.

    1978-01-01

    Collision-induced absorption in the translation-rotation band of H2 and H2-He mixtures has been measured from 20 to 900 kaysers at 77.4, 195, and 292 K. To establish the accuracy of the results, various sources of error are investigated. The zeroth and first spectral moments are evaluated from experiment and theory for H2 at the various temperatures. To obtain theoretical moments consistent with the experimental values, the quantum pair-distribution function must be used. The major portion of the experimental moments can be accounted for by quadrupole-induced dipoles in H2 pairs. The remaining portion is attributable to an anisotropic overlap interaction, although its magnitude depends on the value of the molecular parameters required to calculate the quadrupole contribution.

  17. Coupling of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus Methane Formation and Growth in Fed-Batch and Continuous Cultures under Different H2 Gassing Regimens? †

    PubMed Central

    de Poorter, Linda M. I.; Geerts, Wim J.; Keltjens, Jan T.

    2007-01-01

    In nature, H2- and CO2-utilizing methanogenic archaea have to couple the processes of methanogenesis and autotrophic growth under highly variable conditions with respect to the supply and concentration of their energy source, hydrogen. To study the hydrogen-dependent coupling between methanogenesis and growth, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus was cultured in a fed-batch fermentor and in a chemostat under different 80% H2-20% CO2 gassing regimens while we continuously monitored the dissolved hydrogen partial pressures (pH2). In the fed-batch system, in which the conditions continuously changed the uptake rates by the growing biomass, the organism displayed a complex and yet defined growth behavior, comprising the consecutive lag, exponential, and linear growth phases. It was found that the in situ hydrogen concentration affected the coupling between methanogenesis and growth in at least two respects. (i) The microorganism could adopt two distinct theoretical maximal growth yields (YCH4 max), notably approximately 3 and 7 g (dry weight) of methane formed mol?1, for growth under low (pH2 < 12 kPa)- and high-hydrogen conditions, respectively. The distinct values can be understood from a theoretical analysis of the process of methanogenesis presented in the supplemental material associated with this study. (ii) The in situ hydrogen concentration affected the “specific maintenance” requirements or, more likely, the degree of proton leakage and proton slippage processes. At low pH2 values, the “specific maintenance” diminished and the specific growth yields approached YCH4 max, indicating that growth and methanogenesis became fully coupled. PMID:17142379

  18. Low pressure separation for light hydrocarbon recovery. [Energy conservation by partial compression, chilling to condense heavier hydrocarbons, and then compressing further in liquid states for fractionation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Dowd; J. F. Carpency

    1984-01-01

    Net horsepower required for recovering high purity ethylene is reduced by process gas compression of furnace effluent to only low pressures before entering recovery facilities. The compressor discharge undergoes chilling in heat exchangers or pumparound towers designed for small pressure drops. Hydrocarbons condensed during chilling are pumped to higher pressures for fractionation.

  19. Blood glucose reagent strip tests in the operating room: Influence of hematocrit, partial pressure of oxygen, and blood glucose level - a comparison of the BM-test 1-44, BM-accutest, and satellite G reagent strip systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hugh Cross; David G. Brown

    1996-01-01

    Objective. The objective of our study was to assess the influence of hematocrit (HCT), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), and blood glucose level upon results obtained with three different blood glucose reagent strip tests used in conjunction\\u000a with the appropriate meter: BM-Test 1-44, BM-Accutest, and Satellite G.Methods. Our study was designed as a consecutive sample study of patients undergoing coronary

  20. Leaf conductance in relation to rate of COâ assimilation. I. Influence of nitrogen nutrition, phosphorus nutrition, photon flux density, and ambient partial pressure of COâ during ontogeny. [Zea mays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S.-C. Wong; I. R. Cowan; G. D. Farquhar

    1985-01-01

    Plants of Zea mays were grown with different concentrations of nitrate (0.6, 4, 12, and 24 millimolar) and phosphate (0.04, 0.13, 0.53, and 1.33 millimolar) supplied to the roots, photon flux densities (0.04, 0.13, 0.53, and 1.33 millimolar) supplied to the roots, photon flux densities (0.12, 0.5, and 2 millimoles per square meter per second), and ambient partial pressures of

  1. Phase equilibria in subducting basaltic crust: implications for H 2O release from the slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forneris, Juliette F.; Holloway, John R.

    2003-09-01

    Fluids released from subducting slabs induce partial melting of the mantle wedge above the slab, which in turn is responsible for arc volcanism at the Earth's surface. The partially hydrated basaltic layer of the slab is a potential source of these fluids and a major reservoir for H 2O at depth. Constraining the stability domains of hydrous phases and the position of the dehydration reactions in this system in pressure-temperature ( P- T) space is essential to describe and quantify the fluid release from subducting oceanic crust into the overlying mantle wedge. Experiments were conducted in the ranges of 2.2-3.4 GPa and 625-750°C to determine phase equilibria in an H 2O-saturated natural basalt at conditions relevant to subduction zones. The experimental duration was typically 1 month, although some experiments were replicated with a shorter run duration (1-2 weeks) in order to identify potentially metastable phases. A mixture of a natural mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glass and mineral seeds was used as the starting material. Oxygen fugacity was buffered within ±1.3 log units of nickel-bunsenite (NiNiO). The results obtained show that a calcic amphibole (barroisite) is stable from 2.2 to about 2.4 GPa. At 2.6 GPa, it is replaced by a sodic amphibole (near end-member glaucophane), which is stable up to 3 GPa at 625°C. This high-pressure assemblage constitutes a true analog of a natural amphibole-bearing eclogite and the first synthesis of glaucophane from a rock of basaltic composition. As opposed to the results of previous studies on basaltic compositions [A.R. Pawley, J.R. Holloway, Science 260 (1993) 664-667; S. Poli, Am. J. Sci. 293 (1993) 1061-1107; S. Poli, M.W. Schmidt, J. Geophys. Res. 100 (1995) 22299-22314; M.W. Schmidt, S. Poli, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 163 (1998) 361-379], chloritoid is present only as a metastable phase in the pressure-temperature range investigated here. Metastability of chloritoid in earlier experiments, due to short run duration, is the most likely explanation for this difference, and suggests that chloritoid does not play an important role in the overall dehydration process of the basaltic layer in subduction zones. At pressures above the stability field of amphibole, zoisite/clinozoisite becomes the stable hydrous phase at temperatures above 645°C, whereas lawsonite is stable at lower temperatures. The positions of the zoisite-out and lawsonite-out reactions determined in this study indicate that, for an intermediate temperature subduction zone, the basaltic layer of the slab would be completely dehydrated between 90 and 110 km depth.

  2. Dynamics of CO2 partial pressure and CO2 outgassing in the lower reaches of the Xijiang River, a subtropical monsoon river in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guanrong; Gao, Quanzhou; Wang, Zhengang; Huang, Xiakun; He, Tong; Zhang, Yongling; Jiao, Shulin; Ding, Jian

    2007-04-15

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in surface water was surveyed monthly at 6 sampling sites along the entire length of the lower reaches of the Xijiang River, a subtropical monsoon river in China, and at the mouths of its major tributaries, over a whole hydrological year from April 2005 to March 2006, to reveal the seasonal and spatial dynamics of pCO(2). Intensive sampling and measurements were also conducted at Wuzhou gauge station in June and July to investigate the impact of floodwater on pCO(2) and to further explore the relationship between river discharge and pCO(2). The pCO(2) levels were well above atmospheric equilibrium (380 microatm) during the entire survey period with obvious seasonal and spatial variations, ranging from 600 microatm to 7200 microatm for the mainstream and from 700 to 11000 microatm for tributaries, respectively. The pattern of pCO(2) seasonal variation across 6 sites was almost consistent with each other with little difference. The pCO(2) levels in the dry season were relatively low, with relatively slight temporal and spatial fluctuations that were predominantly controlled by in situ biogenic activities. While the pCO(2) in the wet season greatly varied with river discharge, both annual maximum and minimum pCO(2) levels occurring in this period. The much higher pCO(2) in the early wet season were mainly induced by increasing baseflow and interflow that flushed significant soil CO(2) into the streams, whereas the lower pCO(2) observed after floods from July to September, some even lower than pCO(2) levels in the dry season, potentially resulted from in situ plankton blooms. The annual minima pCO(2) levels occurring in this period were caused by the dilution effect of floodwater. There was no obvious downstream trend in pCO(2) variation during the whole survey period, probably a consequence of disturbance from tributaries or spatially distinct channel characteristics and water environments. Based on measurements, we estimate that the water-to-air CO(2) flux in the lower reaches of the Xijiang River is about 8.3-15.6 Mg C ha(-1)y(-1). The role of the Xijiang River as a net source of atmospheric CO(2) is undoubted. PMID:17307241

  3. Association between initial prescribed minute ventilation and post-resuscitation partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-cardiac arrest hypocapnia/hypercapnia have been associated with poor neurological outcome. However, the impact of arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) derangements during the immediate post-resuscitation period following cardiac arrest remains uncertain. We sought to test the correlation between prescribed minute ventilation and post-resuscitation partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), and to test the association between early PaCO2 and neurological outcome. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively compiled single-center cardiac arrest registry. We included adult (age???18 years) patients who experienced a non-traumatic cardiac arrest and required mechanical ventilation. We analyzed initial post-resuscitation ventilator settings and initial arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) after initiation of post-resuscitation ventilator settings. We calculated prescribed minute ventilation: MV mL / kg / min = tidal volume TV / ideal body weight IBW x respiratory rate RR for each patient. We then used Pearson’s correlation to test the correlations between prescribed MV and PaCO2. We also determined whether patients had normocapnia (PaCO2 between 30 and 50 mmHg) on initial ABG and tested the association between normocapnia and good neurological function (Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2) at hospital discharge using logistic regression analyses. Results Seventy-five patients were included. The majority of patients were in-hospital arrests (85%). Pulseless electrical activity/asystole was the initial rhythm in 75% of patients. The median (IQR) TV, RR, and MV were 7 (7 to 8) mL/kg, 14 (14 to 16) breaths/minute, and 106 (91 to 125) mL/kg/min, respectively. Hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia were found in 15%, 62%, and 23% of patients, respectively. Good neurological function occurred in 32% of all patients, and 18%, 43%, and 12% of patients with hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia respectively. We found prescribed MV had only a weak correlation with initial PaCO2, R?=?-0.40 (P?

  4. Temporal changes in surface partial pressure of carbon dioxide and carbonate saturation state in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean during the 1962-2012 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Yu, W.; Wang, H.; Jiang, L.-Q.; Feng, L.; Gao, L.; Li, K.; Li, Z.; Wei, Q.; Ning, C.

    2014-11-01

    Information on changes in the oceanic carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and air-sea CO2 flux as well as on ocean acidification in the Indian Ocean is very limited. In this study, temporal changes of the inorganic carbon system in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO, 5° N-5° S, 90-95° E) are examined using partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) data collected in May 2012, historical pCO2 data since 1962, and total alkalinity (TA) data calculated from salinity. Results show that sea surface pCO2 in the equatorial belt (2° N-2° S, 90-95° E) increased from ∼307 ?atm in April 1963 to ∼373 ?atm in May 1999, ∼381 ?atm in April 2007, and ∼385 ?atm in May 2012. The mean rate of pCO2 increase in this area (∼1.56 ?atm yr-1) was close to that in the atmosphere (∼1.46 ?atm yr-1). Despite the steady pCO2 increase in this region, no significant change in air-sea CO2 fluxes was detected during this period. Ocean acidification as indicated by pH and saturation states for carbonate minerals has indeed taken place in this region. Surface water pH (total hydrogen scale) and saturation state for aragonite (?arag), calculated from pCO2 and TA, decreased significantly at rates of -0.0016 ± 0.0001 and -0.0095 ± 0.0005 yr-1, respectively. The respective contributions of temperature, salinity, TA, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the increase in surface pCO2 and the decreases in pH and ?arag are quantified. We find that the increase in DIC dominated these changes, while contributions from temperature, salinity, and TA were insignificant. The increase in DIC was most likely associated with the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the transport of accumulated anthropogenic CO2 from a CO2 sink region via basin-scale ocean circulations. These two processes may combine to drive oceanic DIC to follow atmospheric CO2 increase.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing and oxygen partial pressure on the swelling of HfO2/SiO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor structure grown by rf sputtering: A synchrotron x-ray reflectivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Debaleen; Md Faruque, Sk Abdul Kader; Sinha, Anil Kumar; Upadhyay, Anuj; Chakraborty, Supratic

    2014-09-01

    As-grown and rapid thermal annealed thin HfO2 films, deposited on Si(100) substrate by reactive rf sputtering at various partial pressures of O2 and Ar, are studied by synchrotron x-ray reflectivity. The growth of interfacial layer (IL) of SiO2 is more or less linear with the decrease in oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in the O2/Ar mixture. The thickest oxide is found to be grown at the minimum oxygen partial pressure (pO2). It is observed that the IL swells upon annealing at higher temperature, and swelling is maximum for the sample grown in minimum pO2. The surface roughness and thickness of the HfO2 films decrease upon annealing indicating a denser film. The HfO2/Si interface roughness is also decreased upon annealing. Therefore, lower annealing temperature and higher pO2 is to be set to reduce the IL thickness and for higher dielectric constant and larger oxide capacitance. High frequency capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement on the devices, annealed at higher temperature, further shows the necessity for optimization of pO2 during the deposition of HfO2 film to minimize the fixed oxide charge density of metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  6. H2 molecule in strong magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Mathieu Beau; Rafael Benguria; Raymond Brummelhuis; Pierre Duclos

    2012-08-13

    The Pauli-Hamiltonian of a molecule with fixed nuclei in a strong constant magnetic field is asymptotic, in norm-resolvent sense, to an effective Hamiltonian which has the form of a multi-particle Schr\\"odinger operator with interactions given by one-dimensional \\delta-potentials. We study this effective Hamiltonian in the case of the H2 -molecule and establish existence of the ground state. We also show that the inter-nuclear equilibrium distance tends to 0 as the field-strength tends to infinity.

  7. H2 Production and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianqin; Rodriguez, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    The world demand for energy and the need for protecting our environment can be achieved by increasing energy efficiency and by developing “clean” energy sources. Among the alternative fuels, hydrogen is receiving a lot of attention around the world. In this chapter, recent applications of oxide nanostructures in H2 production and fuel cell technology are summarized. We cover in detail catalytic studies for hydrogen production via the water gas shift reaction over ceria-based nanosystems. These studies illustrate the importance of understanding the fundamental conditions necessary for optimal operation of the catalysts.

  8. Subduction Factory 4: Depth-dependent flux of H2O from subducting slabs worldwide Peter E. van Keken1

    E-print Network

    van Keken, Peter

    and depends strongly on composition (gabbro vs. peridotite) and local pressure and temperature conditions and roughly equally in the gabbro and peridotite sections. The predicted global flux of H2O to the deep mantle

  9. Vapor-liquid phase equilibria of potassium chloride-water mixtures: Equation-of-state representation for KCl-H2O and NaCl-H2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S.; Tanger, J.C., IV; Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of isothermal vapor-liquid compositions for KCl-H2O as a function of pressure are reported. An equation of state, which was originally proposed by Pitzer and was improved and used by Tanger and Pitzer to fit the vapor-liquid coexistence surface for NaCl-H2O, has been used for representation of the KCl-H2O system from 300 to 410??C. Improved parameters are also reported for NaCl-H2O from 300 to 500??C. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  10. Direct detection of C4H2 photochemical products - Possible routes to complex hydrocarbons in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandy, Ralph E.; Lakshminarayan, Chitra; Frost, Rex K.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    The photochemistry of diacetylene (C4H2), the largest hydrocarbon to be unambiguously identified in planetary atmospheres, is of considerable importance to understanding the mechanisms by which complex molecules are formed in the solar system. In this work, the primary products of C4H2's ultraviolet photochemistry were determined in a two-laser pump-probe scheme in which the products of C4H2 photoexcitation are detected by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Three larger hydrocarbon primary products were observed with good yield in the C4H2 + C4H2 reaction: C6H2, C8H2, and C8H3. Neither C6H2 or C8H3 is anticipated by current photochemical models of the atmospheres of Titan, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and Triton. The free hydrogen atoms that are released during the formation of the C8H3 and C8H2 products also may partially offset the role of C4H2 in catalyzing the recombination of free hydrogen atoms in the planetary atmospheres.

  11. H2 production from reactions between water and small molybdenum suboxide cluster anions.

    PubMed

    Rothgeb, David W; Mann, Jennifer E; Jarrold, Caroline Chick

    2010-08-01

    Reactions between molybdenum suboxide cluster anions, Mo(x)O(y)(-) (x=1-4; y < or = 3x), and water (H(2)O and D(2)O) have been studied using mass spectrometric analysis of products formed in a high-pressure, fast-flow reactor. Product distributions vary with the number of metal atoms in the cluster. Within the MoO(y)(-) oxide series, product masses correspond to the addition of one water molecule, as well as a H/D exchange with MoO(4)H(-). Within the Mo(2)O(y)(-) oxide series, product evolution and distribution suggest sequential oxidation via Mo(2)O(y)(-)+H(2)O/D(2)O-->Mo(2)O(y+1)(-)+H(2)/D(2) reactions for y<5, while for Mo(2)O(5)(-), Mo(2)O(6)H(2)/D(2)(-) is produced. Mo(2)O(6)(-) does not appear to be reactive toward water. For the Mo(3)O(y)(-) oxide series, sequential oxidation similarly is suggested for y<5, while Mo(3)O(5)(-) reactions result in Mo(3)O(6)H(2)/D(2)(-) formation. Mo(3)O(6)(-) appears uniquely unreactive. Mo(3)O(7)(-) and Mo(3)O(8)(-) react to form Mo(3)O(8)H(2)/D(2)(-) and Mo(3)O(9)H(2)/D(2)(-), respectively. Lower mass resolution in the Mo(4)O(y)(-) mass range prevents unambiguous mass analysis, but intensity changes in the mass spectra do suggest that sequential oxidation with H(2)/D(2) evolution occurs for y<6, while Mo(4)O(y+1)H(2)/D(2)(-) addition products are formed in Mo(4)O(6)(-) and Mo(4)O(7)(-) reactions with water. The relative rate constants for sequential oxidation and H(2)O/D(2)O addition for the x=2 series were determined. There is no evidence of a kinetic isotope effect when comparing reaction rates of H(2)O with D(2)O, suggesting that the H(2) and D(2) losses from the lower-oxide/hydroxide intermediates are very fast relative to initial reaction complex formation with H(2)O or D(2)O. The rate constants determined here are two times higher than those determined in identical reactions between W(2)O(y)(-)+H(2)O/D(2)O. PMID:20707530

  12. H 2O diffusion in rhyolitic melts and glasses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youxue Zhang; Harald Behrens

    2000-01-01

    H2O diffusion plays a major role in bubble growth and volcanic eruption. We report a comprehensive study of H2O diffusion in rhyolitic melts and glasses. This new study and previous investigations together cover a wide range of conditions: 400–1200°C, 0.1–810 MPa, and 0.1–7.7 wt.% total H2O content (H2Ot). In order to constrain how the diffusivity depends on H2Ot, both the

  13. The Paradox of a Wet (High H2O) and Dry (Low H2O/Ce) Mantle: High Water Concentrations in Mantle Garnet Pyroxenites from Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Water dissolved as trace amounts in anhydrous minerals has a large influence on the melting behavior and physical properties of the mantle. The water concentration of the oceanic mantle is inferred from the analyses of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) and Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB). but there is little data from actual mantle samples. Moreover, enriched mineralogies (pyroxenites, eclogites) are thought as important sources of heterogeneity in the mantle, but their water concentrations and their effect on the water budget and cycling in the mantle are virtually unknown. Here, we analyzed by FTIR water in garnet clinopyroxenite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii. These pyroxenites are high-pressure (>20kb) crystal fractionates from alkalic melts. The clinopyroxenes (cpx) have 260 to 576 ppm wt H2O, with the least differentiated samples (Mg#>0.8) in the 400-500 ppm range. Orthopyroxene (opx) contain 117-265 ppm H2O, about half of that of cpx, consistent with other natural sample studies, but lower than cpx/opx equilibrium from experimental data. The pyroxenite cpx and opx H2O concentrations are at the high-end of on-and off-craton peridotite xenolith concentrations and those of Hawaiian spinel peridotites. In contrast, garnet has extremely low water contents (<5ppm H2O). There is no correlation between H2O in cpx and lithophile element concentrations. Phlogopite is present in some samples, and its modal abundance shows a positive correlation in Mg# with cpx, implying equilibrium. However, there is no correlation between H2O concentrations and or the presence of phlogopite. These data imply that cpx and opx may be at water saturation, far lower than experimental data suggest. Reconstructed bulk rock pyroxenite H2O ranges from 200-460 ppm (average 331 +/- 75 ppm), 2 to 8 times higher than H2O estimates for the MORB source (50-200 ppm), but in the range of E-MORB, OIB and the source of rejuvenated Hawaiian magmas. The average bulk rock pyroxenite H2O/Ce is 69 +/-35, lower than estimates of the MORB source (approx 150) or FOZO, C (200-250) mantle component, but consistent with "dry" EM sources (<100). These data suggest that a metasomatized, refertilized oceanic lithosphere that contains pyroxenitic veins (e.g. the lower part of an oceanic plate, where ascending melts can become trapped and crystallize), will have both higher water concentrations and low H2O/Ce, and may contribute to EM-type OIB sources, like that of Samoa basalts. Therefore, a low H2O/Ce mantle source may not necessarily be "dry".

  14. H2 Desorption from MgH2 Surfaces with Steps and Catalyst-Dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Jason M. [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Lin-Lin [Ames Laboratory; Johnson, Duane D. [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-10

    Light-metal hydrides, like MgH2, remain under scrutiny as prototypes for reversible H-storage materials. For MgH2, we assess hydrogen desorption/adsorption properties (enthalpy and kinetic barriers) for stepped, catalyst-doped surfaces occurring, e.g., from ball-milling in real samples. Employing density functional theory and simulated annealing in a slab model, we studied initial H2 desorption from stepped surfaces with(out) titanium (Ti) catalytic dopant. Extensive simulated annealing studies were performed to find the dopant’s site preferences. For the most stable initial and final (possibly magnetic) states, nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations were performed to determine the H2-desorption activation energy. We used a moment-transition NEB method to account for the dopant’s transition to the lowest-energy magnetic state at each image along the band. We identify a dopant-related surface-desorption mechanism that reloads via bulk H diffusion. While reproducing the observed bulk enthalpy of desorption, we find a decrease of 0.24 eV (a 14% reduction) in the activation energy on doped stepped surface; together with a 22% reduction on a doped flat surface, this brackets the assessed 18% reduction in kinetic barrier for ball-milled MgH2 samples with low concentration of Ti from experiment.

  15. Computational Model of Collision Induced Absorption Spectra of H 2 --H 2 Complexes in the Second Overtone

    E-print Network

    Borysow, Aleksandra

    running head: ``Modelling of CIA spectra of H 2 ­H 2 at the second overtone band'' Address to compute the collision induced ro­ tovibrational absorption spectra (RV CIA) of H 2 --H 2 complex with experimental CIA spectra typically within 20­30%. The numerical procedure described in this paper uses simple

  16. NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells for Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Nie; Miley, George H.; Mather, Joseph; Burton, Rodney; Hawkins, Glenn; Gimlin, Richard; Rusek, John; Valdez, Tom I.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of direct hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) fuel cells are studied in this research. Different catalysts and diffusion electrodes are tested to optimize the cell performance. Initial results indicate: 1) conversion efficiency over 60% at a practical current density of 250mA/cm2; 2) power density over 0.6 W/cm2, at room temperature and ambient pressure, better than that of any traditional fuel cell. Further, the unique combination of NaBH4 and H2O2, both of which are in an aqueous form, paves the way for a convenient unitized regeneration, which is inherently compact compared to other cells that use gas phase reactants, such as the conventional H2 and O2. These excellent properties make the NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cell a very promising candidate for future space power systems. A conceptual design to power Lunar and Mars missions is discussed.

  17. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  18. H$_{2}$O Maser Pumping: The Effect of Quasi-Resonance Energy Transfer in Collisions between H$_2$ and H$_2$O Molecules

    E-print Network

    Nesterenok, A V

    2014-01-01

    The effect of quasi-resonance energy transfer in collisions between H$_2$ and H$_2$O molecules in H$_2$O maser sources is investigated. New data on the state-to-state rate coefficients for collisional transitions for H$_2$O and H$_2$ molecules are used in the calculations. The results of ortho-H$_2$O level population inversion calculations for the 22.2-, 380-, 439-, and 621-GHz transitions are presented. The ortho-H$_2$O level population inversion is shown to depend significantly on the population distribution of the para-H$_2$ $J = 0$ and $2$ rotational levels. The possibility of quasi-resonance energy transfer in collisions between H$_2$ molecules at highly excited rotational-vibrational levels and H$_2$O molecules is considered. The quasi-resonance energy transfer effect can play a significant role in pumping H$_2$O masers in the central regions of active galactic nuclei and in star-forming regions.

  19. Kinetic Energy Distribution of H(2p) Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ahmed, Syed M.; Kanik, Isik; Multari, Rosalie

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic energy distribution of H(2p) atoms resulting from electron impact dissociation of H2 has been measured for the first time with uv spectroscopy. A high resolution uv spectrometer was used for the measurement of the H Lyman-alpha emission line profiles at 20 and 100 eV electron impact energies. Analysis of the deconvolved 100 eV line profile reveals the existence of a narrow line peak and a broad pedestal base. Slow H(2p) atoms with peak energy near 80 meV produce the peak profile, which is nearly independent of impact energy. The wings of H Lyman-alpha arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited Q(sub 1) and Q(sub 2) states, which define the core orbitals. The fast atom energy distribution peaks at 4 eV.

  20. Synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles during zinc oxidization by H2S and H2S/H2O supercritical fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostrikov, A. A.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Sokol, M. Ya.; Shatrova, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Formation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles was detected during interaction of bulk samples with hydrogen sulfide at supercritical parameters. Synthesis proceeds with liberation of H2 by the reaction nZn + nH2S = (ZnS) n + nH2. It has been found by the X-ray diffraction method, scanning electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry that the addition of water stimulates coupled reactions of nanoparticle synthesis nZn + nH2O = (ZnO) n + nH2 and (ZnO) n + nH2S = (ZnS) n + nH2O and brings about an increase in the synthesis rate and morphological changes of (ZnS) n nanoparticles.

  1. Direct vibrational self-consistent field method: Applications to H2O and H2CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kiyoshi; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Hirao, Kimihiko; Gordon, Mark S.

    2000-07-01

    The vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) and virtual configuration interaction (VCI) methods are directly combined with ab initio electronic structure calculations for evaluations of the potential energy at VSCF quadrature points. Referred to as direct VSCF and direct VCI, respectively, these methods have been applied to evaluations of anharmonic vibrational energy levels of H2O and H2CO at the second-order Møller-Plesset MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/cc-pVTZ computational levels, respectively. The purpose of the present study is to develop a direct methodology for vibrational state calculations by examining the accuracy of the results, as well as their computational costs. In addition, the accuracy and applicability of two approximate potential energy surfaces (PES), a quartic force field (QFF), and the PES determined by the modified-Shepard interpolation method (Int-PES), are investigated via comparisons of calculated energy levels of vibrational states with those derived by the direct methods. The results are analyzed in terms of three considerations: (i) truncations of higher-order intercoordinate couplings in the PES; (ii) mode-mode coupling effects; (iii) approximations in ab initio electronic structure methods. In the direct VCI calculations, the average absolute deviations in fundamental frequencies relative to the experimental values are 9.3 cm-1(H2O) and 34.7 cm-1(H2CO). The corresponding values evaluated with approximate PESs relative to those derived by the direct method are 35.0 cm-1 (QFF) and 15.3 cm-1 (Int-PES) for H2O, and 6.3 cm-1 (QFF) and 10.3 cm-1 (Int-PES) for H2CO.

  2. Histone H2A Ubiquitination Inhibits the Enzymatic Activity of H3 Lysine 36 Methyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Gang; Ma, Ben; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Chen, Ping; Ding, Xiaojun; Feng, Li; Shen, Xiaohua; Chen, She; Li, Guohong; Zhu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methylation and H2A monoubiquitination (ubH2A) are two closely related histone modifications that regulate Polycomb silencing. Previous studies reported that H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) rarely coexists with H3K36 di- or tri-methylation (H3K36me2/3) on the same histone H3 tails, which is partially controlled by the direct inhibition of the enzymatic activity of H3K27-specific methyltransferase PRC2. By contrast, H3K27 methylation does not affect the catalytic activity of H3K36-specific methyltransferases, suggesting other Polycomb mechanism(s) may negatively regulate the H3K36-specific methyltransferase(s). In this study, we established a simple protocol to purify milligram quantities of ubH2A from mammalian cells, which were used to reconstitute nucleosome substrates with fully ubiquitinated H2A. A number of histone methyltransferases were then tested on these nucleosome substrates. Notably, all of the H3K36-specific methyltransferases, including ASH1L, HYPB, NSD1, and NSD2 were inhibited by ubH2A, whereas the other histone methyltransferases, including PRC2, G9a, and Pr-Set7 were not affected by ubH2A. Together with previous reports, these findings collectively explain the mutual repulsion of H3K36me2/3 and Polycomb modifications. PMID:24019522

  3. ArH2+ and NeH2+ as global minima in the Ar+/Ne+ + H2 reactions: energetic, spectroscopic, and structural data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theis, Riley A.; Morgan, W. James; Fortenberry, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the recent discovery of ArH+ in the Crab nebula, it is shown through high-level quantum chemical comptuations that the global minima on the Ar+/Ne+ + H2 potential energy surfaces are ArH2+ and NeH2+. Hence, ArH2+ may be a necessary intermediate in the Ar+ + H2 ? ArH+ + H formation reaction proposed in the same work where ArH+ is first reported in the Crab nebula. ArH2+ is also probably an intermediate in the alternative Ar + H_2^+ rArr ArH^+ + H reaction. Additionally, it is shown that Ne^+ + H_2 rArr NeH_2^+ will subsequently most likely yield Ne + H_2^+ and not NeH+ + H offering a possible rationale as to the absence of NeH+ in spectra obtained from the interstellar medium (ISM). Following from this, spectroscopic data (both rotational and vibrational) are provided for NeH2+ and ArH2+ through the use of highly accurate quantum chemical quartic and cubic force fields. All possible isotopologues are also included for 20Ne, 22Ne, 36Ar, 38Ar, 40Ar, 1H, and D. The dipole moments for these systems are quite large at 5.61 D for NeH2+ and 4.37 D for ArH2+. The spectroscopic constants provided will aid in the potential detection of these open-shell noble gas dihydride cations in the ISM.

  4. High resolution diode laser spectroscopy of H2O spectra broadened by nitrogen and noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitanov, Venedikt A.; Osipov, Konstantin Yu.; Protasevich, Alexander E.; Ponurovskiy, Yakov Ya.

    2014-11-01

    The absorption spectra of pure H2O with mixtures of broadening gases N2, Ar, Xe, He, Ar and air have been measured in 1.39 m? spectral region by high resolution spectrometer based on diode laser (DFB NEL, Japan). For the processing of pure water spectra and it's mixtures with a different broadening gases in a wide pressure range we used a multispectrum fitting procedure developed at IAO. The program is based on a relatively simple Rautian-Sobel'man line profile and linear pressure dependence of the line profile parameters. H2O measured spectra bulk processing results in the retrieving of such line parameters: zero-pressure line center positions, intensities, self-broadening and self-shift coefficients of pure water, broadening and shift coefficients for other gases which are describes the experiment with the minimum residuals in a wide pressure range.

  5. The H2O2-H2O Hypothesis: Extremophiles Adapted to Conditions on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houtkooper, Joop M.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2007-08-01

    The discovery of extremophiles on Earth is a sequence of discoveries of life in environments where it had been deemed impossible a few decades ago. The next frontier may be the Martian surface environment: could life have adapted to this harsh environment? What we learned from terrestrial extremophiles is that life adapts to every available niche where energy, liquid water and organic materials are available so that in principle metabolism and propagation are possible. A feasible adaptation mechanism to the Martian surface environment would be the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the intracellular fluid of organisms. The H2O2-H2O hypothesis suggests the existence of Martian organisms that have a mixture of H2O2 and H2O instead of salty water as their intracellular liquid (Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007). The advantages are that the freezing point is low (the eutectic freezes at 56.5°C) and that the mixture is hygroscopic. This would enable the organisms to scavenge water from the atmosphere or from the adsorbed layers of water molecules on mineral grains, with H2O2 being also a source of oxygen. Moreover, below its freezing point the H2O2-H2O mixture has the tendency to supercool. Hydrogen peroxide is not unknown to biochemistry on Earth. There are organisms for which H2O2 plays a significant role: the bombardier beetle, Brachinus crepitans, produces a 25% H2O2 solution and, when attacked by a predator, mixes it with a fluid containing hydroquinone and a catalyst, which produces an audible steam explosion and noxious fumes. Another example is Acetobacter peroxidans, which uses H2O2 in its metabolism. H2O2 plays various other roles, such as the mediation of physiological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Moreover, most eukaryotic cells contain an organelle, the peroxisome, which mediates the reactions involving H2O2. Therefore it is feasible that in the course of evolution, water-based organisms evolved into employing H2O2 as an antifreeze, which would also have the function as a water collector. If we would find life on Mars based on an intracellular H2O2-H2O mixture, this would not necessarily imply an independent origin of terrestrial and martian life. For that, a detailed study of the biochemistry and genetics is needed. The transfer of terrestrial organisms to Mars or vice versa is a possibility given favorable conditions for the origin and persistance of life on both planets early in solar system history (Schulze-Makuch and Houtkooper, 2007). The transfer of terrestrial organisms by early spacecrafts to Mars that either landed or crashed is a possibility, but it is not plausible that these organisms evolved in a few years. We suggest that we already have evidence of their existence from the Viking landers in two widely distant locations. The H2O2-H2O hypothesis does explain the Viking observations remarkably well, especially (1) the lack of organics detected by GC-MS, (2) the lack of detected oxidant(s) to support a chemical explanation, (3) evolution of O2 upon wetting (GEx experiment), (4) limited organic synthesis reactions (PR experiment), and (5) the gas release observations made (LR experiment)(Houtkooper and Schulze-Makuch, 2007). From the amounts of evolved CO2, O2 and N2 in the GEx experiment it can be concluded that the organisms have an excess oxidative content. This is a problem since in any destructive test, even by laser desorption-mass spectrometry (LDMS), the organisms may decompose completely into H2O, CO2, O2, and N2. The same will occur if the organisms are exposed to excess water, as they will perish due to hyperhydration. The consequence for future biology experiments is that the most fruitful approach may be the detection of metabolism under close to local environmental conditions, especially avoiding the addition of too much water. Of the Viking experiments, the PR experiment which aimed at carbon assimilation was the closest to natural conditions. And, in fact, the PR experiment did detect organic synthesis (Klein, 1978, 1

  6. The nucleation of H2SO4-H2O solution aerosol particles in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, P.; Kiang, C. S.; Cadle, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The homogeneous- and heterogeneous-heteromolecular nucleation of H2SO4-H2O solution droplets in the stratosphere is investigated and order-of-magnitude nucleation rates are evaluated. The heterogeneous processes considered are nucleation onto soluble particles, flat insoluble surfaces, spherical insoluble particles, and ions. The relative importance of the various nucleation mechanisms is determined for conditions assumed to correspond to 18 km altitude. Under the assumed conditions, the heterogeneous nucleation rate onto insoluble particles is shown to be about 10 to the 69th times larger than the homogeneous nucleation rate and 10 to the 57th times larger than nucleation onto ions.

  7. Revised ab initio models for H 2-H 2 collision-induced absorption at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Gustafsson, Magnus; Burgdorf, Martin; Meadows, Victoria

    2007-08-01

    A revised ab initio calculation of the H 2-H 2 collision-induced absorption results in significant differences compared with the work of J. Borysow et al. [Borysow, J., Trafton, L., Frommhold, L., Birnbaum, G., 1985. Astrophys. J. 296, 644-654] for wavenumbers greater than 600 cm -1 and temperatures below 120 K. The revision has significant influence on the spectra of Uranus and Neptune, and essentially removes the need for models with "super-solar" helium abundances or stratospheric hazes to explain the spectrum of Uranus.

  8. Hydrogen atom abstraction from aldehydes - OH + H2CO and O + H2CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupuis, M.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The essential features of the potential energy surfaces governing hydrogen abstraction from formaldehyde by oxygen atom and hydroxyl radical have been characterized with ab inito multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) and configuration interaction (CI) wave functions. The results are consistent with a very small activation energy for the OH + H2CO reaction, and an activation energy of a few kcal/mol for the O + H2CO reaction. In the transition state structure of both systems, the attacking oxygen atom is nearly collinear with the attacked CH bond.

  9. CO/H2 in Translucent Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James

    2005-01-01

    A thorough examination of techniques to improve the resolution of the FUSE spectrograph was undertaken. These involved co-adding time tagged data very carefully so as to remove any blurs caused by drift. In addition, data was binned by detector pulse height bin (to eliminate any positional vs. gain variations, e.g. "walk"). These techniques only resulted in an extremely modest increase in the spectral resolution, insufficient to allow the CO/H2 studies to be performed. The only remaining potential source of blur was defocus - implying the instrument was never properly focused on orbit. Private discussions with B.G. Anderson of the FUSE team resulted in my learning that this was in fact the case - the slidgrating distance was never optimized on orbit - resulting in a degradation of the peak performance of the instrument. Unfortunately, this was never publicized, even to myself, a member of the instrument tem and the spectrograph designer.

  10. Orbits in the H2O molecule

    E-print Network

    K. Efstathiou; G. Contopoulos

    2001-02-07

    We study the forms of the orbits in a symmetric configuration of a realistic model of the H2O molecule with particular emphasis on the periodic orbits. We use an appropriate Poincar\\'e surface of section (PSS) and study the distribution of the orbits on this PSS for various energies. We find both ordered and chaotic orbits. The proportion of ordered orbits is almost 100% for small energies, but decreases abruptly beyond a critical energy. When the energy exceeds the escape energy there are still non-escaping orbits around stable periodic orbits. We study in detail the forms of the various periodic orbits, and their connections, by providing appropriate stability and bifurcation diagrams.

  11. Angular correlation of a pair of Lyman-? photons produced in the photodissociation of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, Yuko; Hosaka, Kouichi; Kougo, Ryoko; Odagiri, Takeshi; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Shiino, Kennichi; Kitajima, Masashi; Kouchi, Noriyuki

    2014-10-01

    The angular correlation functions (ACFs) of a pair of Lyman-? photons emitted from H fragments in the photodissociation of a hydrogen molecule are measured at a 33.66-eV incident photon energy and at hydrogen gas pressures of approximately 0.1 and 1 Pa. The ACFs are measured for both opposite and nonopposite arrangements of the two photon detectors. It turns out that the experimental ACFs involve neither the contribution of the reactions H(n=2)+H2 nor the contribution of the cascade from H (n ? 3) to H(2p) fragments. Thus the experimental ACFs are those for primary H(2p) pairs following the photodissociation of H2. The experimental ACFs are compared with (i) the theoretical ACF for entangled pairs of H(2p) atoms, where the magnetic quantum number of each hydrogen atom is indefinite, and (ii) the theoretical ACF for H(2p) pairs with definite magnetic quantum number of each hydrogen atom relative to the internuclear axis [the former entangled state of H(2p) pairs is a sum of the latter pair states with definite magnetic quantum number]. In the theoretical ACF in (ii), the disentanglement in H(2p) pairs during the dissociation is considered. The experimental ACFs show a similar tendency in angular dependence to the theoretical ACF for entangled H(2p) pairs. However, there still remains a considerable difference in the variation magnitude between those experimental and theoretical ACFs. The experimental ACFs show the reverse tendency in angular dependence to the theoretical ACF for H(2p) pairs with definite magnetic quantum number of each hydrogen atom relative to the internuclear axis. We thus conclude that the pair of H(2p) atoms in the photodissociation of H2 is unlikely to be in the definite states of magnetic quantum number of each hydrogen atom relative to the internuclear axis, i.e., unlikely to be in the components of the entangled state of H(2p) pairs.

  12. Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.

    SciTech Connect

    Farese, David (Air Products, USA); Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-09-01

    No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

  13. Second critical endpoint in the peridotite-H2O system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Mibe; Masami Kanzaki; Tatsuhiko Kawamoto; Kyoko N. Matsukage; Yingwei Fei; Shigeaki Ono

    2007-01-01

    The second critical endpoint in the peridotite-H2O system has been determined using an X-ray radiography technique together with a Kawai-type, double-stage, multianvil system driven by DIA-type cubic press (SPEED-1500) installed at SPring-8, Japan. The pressure of the second critical endpoint was determined by the appearance and disappearance of round shape in the radiographic images with changing the experimental pressure. In

  14. Absorption cross sections of surface-adsorbed H2O in the 295-370 nm region and heterogeneous nucleation of H2O on fused silica surfaces.

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Huang, Li; Zhu, Lei

    2013-09-12

    We have determined absorption cross sections of a monolayer of H2O adsorbed on the fused silica surfaces in the 295-370 nm region at 293 ± 1 K by using Brewster angle cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Absorption cross sections of surface-adsorbed H2O vary between (4.66 ± 0.83) × 10(-20) and (1.73 ± 0.52) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule over this wavelength range, where errors quoted represent experimental scatter (1?). Our experimental study provides direct evidence that surface-adsorbed H2O is an absorber of the near UV solar radiation. We also varied the H2O pressure in the surface study cell over the 0.01-17 Torr range and obtained probe laser absorptions at 295, 340, and 350 nm by multilayer of adsorbed H2O molecules until the heterogeneous nucleation of water occurred on fused silica surfaces. The average absorption cross sections of multilayer adsorbed H2O are (2.17 ± 0.53) × 10(-20), (2.48 ± 0.67) × 10(-21), and (2.34 ± 0.59) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule at 295, 340, and 350 nm. The average absorption cross sections of transitional H2O layer are (6.06 ± 2.73) × 10(-20), (6.48 ± 3.85) × 10(-21), and (8.04 ± 4.92) × 10(-21) cm(2)/molecule at 295, 340, and 350 nm. The average thin water film absorption cross sections are (2.39 ± 0.50) × 10(-19), (3.21 ± 0.81) × 10(-20), and (3.37 ± 0.94) × 10(-20) cm(2)/molecule at 295 nm, 340 nm, and 350 nm. Atmospheric implications of the results are discussed. PMID:23947798

  15. Synthesis of C60H2 by rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation of C60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Evans, T. P.; Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Reduction of C60 with rhodium(0) on alumina and hydrogen in deuterated benzene (C6D6) at ambient temperature and pressure yields a mixture of hydrogenated compounds; C60H2 has been characterized as the major product in 14% yield based on 1H NMR.

  16. Ferric and cupric ions requirement for DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2.

    PubMed

    Tachon, P

    1989-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), was able to nick the replicative form of the phage fd, without the addition of a reducing agent or of a metal. This DNA single-strand breakage decreased with an increase of the ionic strength, suggesting that H2O2 reacted with traces of metal bound to DNA. When cupric of ferric ions were added, the rate of DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2 greatly increased and it was 20-30 times faster with cupric than with ferric ions. The addition of EDTA at an equimolar ratio or in excess of metal prevented partially DNA single-strand cleavage by H2O2 in the presence of ferric ions and completely when cupric ions were used. Superoxide dismutase prevented DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2 and ferric ions. On the contrary, with cupric ions and H2O2, the addition of superoxide dismutase increased the rate of DNA single-strand breakage. That superoxide dismutase was acting catalytically was shown by the loss of its effects after heat inactivation of the enzyme. The results of the present study show that besides its involvement in the Fenton reaction, H2O2 is able to reduce the metal bound to DNA, generating the superoxide anion radical or/and its protonated form, the perhydroxyl radical involved in DNA nicking. On the other hand, the ability of cuprous ions unlike ferrous ions to dismutate the superoxide radical may explain some differences observed between iron and copper in the DNA single-strand breakage by H2O2. PMID:2509299

  17. H2O-H2SO4 system in Venus' clouds and OCS, CO, and H2SO4 profiles in Venus' troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Pollack, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    A coupled problem of diffusion and condensation is solved for the H2SO4-H2O system in Venus' cloud layer. The position of the lower cloud boundary, profiles of the H2O and H2SO vapor mixing ratios, and of the H2O/H2SO4 ratio of sulfuric acid aerosol and its flux are calculated as functions of the column photochemical production rate of sulfuric acid. Variations of the lower cloud boundary are considered. Our basic model, which is constrained to yield f(sub H2O)(30km) = 30 ppm, predicts the position of the lower cloud boundary at 48.4 km coinciding with the mean Pioneer Venus value, the peak H2SO4 mixing ratio of 5.4 ppm, and the H2SO4 production rate phi(sub H2SO4) = 2.2 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1).

  18. Stability of the chromia layer on steels in flowing nonequilibrium H2-H2O-CH4-CO mixtures at 950 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabke, H. J.; Prasannan, P. C.; Müller, E. M.

    1986-06-01

    The stability of the protective oxide layer formed on Fe-12.5 pct Cr, Fe-18 pct Cr-10 pct Ni, and Fe-25 pct Cr-20 pct Ni was investigated in a flowing nonequilibrium H2-H2O-CH4-CO mixture at 950 °C. The samples were preoxidized in H2-H2O, and subsequently the carbon activity was raised in stepwise manner by adding methane. CO formation occurred on the sample surface by the catalytic reaction CH4 + H2O ? CO + 3H2. The conversion of oxide to carbide commenced at the end of the sample where Pco has its highest and PH2O its lowest value. Oxidation, conversion, and catalytic reaction were monitored by gravimetric measurements and CO-determination during the experiments. Partial equilibria can be calculated for ( ac)1 = K 1 P ch 4/( Ph2)2, ( ac)2 = K2( Pco Ph2)ph{2o}and (Po2)12 = K3Ph2o/Ph2. The conversion of oxide to carbide started when the steady state of ac and (Po2)1/2 on the surface approached the value for the equilibrium of chromium oxide and chromium carbide. The results show that this steady state value is much nearer to the point (ac)2-(Po2)1/2 in the thermochemical stability diagram than to the point ( ac)1 — ( Po 2)1/2- The oxide layers were stable even at very high values of ( ac)1 which demonstrates that there is only very little interaction of CH4 with the oxide surface.

  19. Histone H2A and H2B Are Monoubiquitinated at AID-Targeted Loci

    PubMed Central

    Borchert, Glen M.; Holton, Nathaniel W.; Edwards, Kevin A.; Vogel, Laura A.; Larson, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Somatic hypermutation introduces base substitutions into the rearranged and expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) variable regions to promote immunity. This pathway requires and is initiated by the Activation Induced Deaminase (AID) protein, which deaminates cytidine to produce uracils and UG mismatches at the Ig genes. Subsequent processing of uracil by mismatch repair and base excision repair factors contributes to mutagenesis. While selective for certain genomic targets, the chromatin modifications which distinguish hypermutating from non-hypermutating loci are not defined. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that AID-targeted loci in mammalian B cells contain ubiquitinated chromatin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of a constitutively hypermutating Burkitt's B cell line, Ramos, revealed the presence of monoubiquitinated forms of both histone H2A and H2B at two AID-associated loci, but not at control loci which are expressed but not hypermutated. Similar analysis using LPS activated primary murine splenocytes showed enrichment of the expressed VH and S?3 switch regions upon ChIP with antibody specific to AID and to monoubiquitinated H2A and H2B. In the mechanism of mammalian hypermutation, AID may interact with ubiquitinated chromatin because confocal immunofluorescence microscopy visualized AID colocalized with monoubiquitinated H2B within discrete nuclear foci. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that monoubiquitinated histones accompany active somatic hypermutation, revealing part of the histone code marking AID-targeted loci. This expands the current view of the chromatin state during hypermutation by identifying a specific nucleosome architecture associated with somatic hypermutation. PMID:20661291

  20. Shocking H2O Ice: The Role of Phase Changes during Impact Crater Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S. T.; Senft, L. E.; Seifter, A.; Obst, A. W.

    2008-12-01

    New experimental data and cratering calculations illustrate the complex response of H2O ice to shock compression. We present peak and post-shock temperature measurements from shocked H2O ice. In experiments with shock pressures between 8 and 14 GPa, initially ~150 K ice is compressed to a supercritical state. In the time frame of the experiment, the supercritical H2O releases to the saturation vapor curve and does not achieve full decompression. Further decompression requires a significant volume expansion. In general, the time scale of expansion will depend on the internal energy and the surrounding conditions (e.g., confined or unconfined). The temperature data validate a new 5-Phase hydrocode equation of state model for H2O, which includes ice Ih, VI, VII, liquid, and vapor. Using the 5-Phase EOS, we model impact cratering onto icy satellites. After passage of the impact-generated shock wave, material beneath the growing transient crater has a layered composition: vapor, liquid, high- pressure phases (ices VII and VI), and ice Ih. The high pressure phases cannot fully decompress without a large volume increase. Thus, these phases initially unload to the pressure along the phase boundary; this pressurized region affects the excavation flow field. The changes in crater excavation lead to differences in crater size and amount of ejecta compared to excavation in a homogeneous target. The differences are significant for large craters (e.g., complex craters on Ganymede and Callisto). The modified excavation flow field also concentrates highly shocked material in the crater floor. In cases where a large, hot plug is buried during crater collapse, explosions occur as the material cools by transforming to vapor, producing features similar to central pits observed on Ganymede, Callisto, and Mars. The behavior of shocked H2O ice during decompression should lead to a variety of features that depend on the ambient conditions specific to each icy planetary body.

  1. Determination of octane numbers and Reid vapor pressure of commercial petroleum fuels using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Cooper; Kent L. Wise; James. Groves; William T. Welch

    1995-01-01

    A Fourier transform Raman spectrometer was used to collect the Raman spectra of 208 commercial petroleum fuels. The individual motor and research octane numbers (MON and RON, respectively) were determined experimentally using the industry standard ASTM knock engine method. Partial least-squares regression analysis was used to build regression models which correlate the Raman spectra of 175 of the fuels with

  2. Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

  3. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications For Chromatin Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo González-Romero; Ciro Rivera-Casas; Lindsay J. Frehlick; Josefina Méndez; Juan Ausió; José M. Eirín-López

    2012-01-01

    Histone variants are used by the cell to build specialized nucleosomes, replacing canonical histones and generating functionally specialized chromatin domains. Among many other processes, the specialization imparted by histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) variants to the nucleosome core particle constitutes the earliest response to DNA damage in the cell. Consequently, chromatin-based genotoxicity tests have been developed in those cases where

  4. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  5. Phase equilibria in the H2O-CO2 system between 250-330 K and 0-1.7 GPa: Stability of the CO2 hydrates and H2O-ice VI at CO2 saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollengier, Olivier; Choukroun, Mathieu; Grasset, Olivier; Le Menn, Erwan; Bellino, Guillaume; Morizet, Yann; Bezacier, Lucile; Oancea, Adriana; Taffin, Cécile; Tobie, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Although carbon dioxide is of interest in planetary science, few studies have been devoted so far to the H2O-CO2 system at pressures and temperatures relevant to planetary interiors, especially of the icy moons of the giant planets. In this study, new sapphire and diamond anvil cell experiments were conducted in this binary system to constrain the stability of the CO2 hydrates and H2O-ice VI at CO2 saturation in the 250-330 K and 0-1.7 GPa temperature and pressure ranges. Phases and equilibria were characterized by in situ Raman spectroscopy and optical monitoring. The equilibrium between the CO2 sI clathrate hydrate and the H2O-rich liquid phase was constrained over the entire pressure range of stability of the hydrate, up to 0.7-0.8 GPa, with results in agreement with previous studies at lower pressures. Above this pressure and below 1 GPa, our experiments confirmed the existence of the new CO2 high-pressure hydrate reported recently. Finally, the melting curve of the H2O-ice VI at CO2 saturation in the absence of CO2 hydrates was determined between 0.8 and 1.7 GPa. Using an available chemical potential model for H2O, a first assessment of the solubility of CO2 along the H2O-ice VI melting curve is given. Consistent with these new results and previous studies of the H2O-CO2 system, a P-T-X description of the binary system is proposed. The evolution with pressure of the Raman signatures of the two CO2 hydrates is detailed, and their stability is discussed in light of other clathrate hydrate-forming systems.

  6. Kinetics of H 2-O 2-H 2O redox equilibria and formation of metastable H 2O 2 under low temperature hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Houghton, Jennifer L.; Seyfried, William E., Jr.; Sievert, Stefan M.; Cody, George D.

    2011-03-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were conducted to evaluate the kinetics of H 2(aq) oxidation in the homogeneous H 2-O 2-H 2O system at conditions reflecting subsurface/near-seafloor hydrothermal environments (55-250 °C and 242-497 bar). The kinetics of the water-forming reaction that controls the fundamental equilibrium between dissolved H 2(aq) and O 2(aq), are expected to impose significant constraints on the redox gradients that develop when mixing occurs between oxygenated seawater and high-temperature anoxic vent fluid at near-seafloor conditions. Experimental data indicate that, indeed, the kinetics of H 2(aq)-O 2(aq) equilibrium become slower with decreasing temperature, allowing excess H 2(aq) to remain in solution. Sluggish reaction rates of H 2(aq) oxidation suggest that active microbial populations in near-seafloor and subsurface environments could potentially utilize both H 2(aq) and O 2(aq), even at temperatures lower than 40 °C due to H 2(aq) persistence in the seawater/vent fluid mixtures. For these H 2-O 2 disequilibrium conditions, redox gradients along the seawater/hydrothermal fluid mixing interface are not sharp and microbially-mediated H 2(aq) oxidation coupled with a lack of other electron acceptors (e.g. nitrate) could provide an important energy source available at low-temperature diffuse flow vent sites. More importantly, when H 2(aq)-O 2(aq) disequilibrium conditions apply, formation of metastable hydrogen peroxide is observed. The yield of H 2O 2(aq) synthesis appears to be enhanced under conditions of elevated H 2(aq)/O 2(aq) molar ratios that correspond to abundant H 2(aq) concentrations. Formation of metastable H 2O 2 is expected to affect the distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) owing to the existence of an additional strong oxidizing agent. Oxidation of magnetite and/or Fe ++ by hydrogen peroxide could also induce formation of metastable hydroxyl radicals (•OH) through Fenton-type reactions, further broadening the implications of hydrogen peroxide in hydrothermal environments.

  7. Analysis of the collision-induced absorption spectra of H2 in H2 N2 in the range 5600 9500 cm-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Kharma, M.

    2007-06-01

    Enhancement spectra of the collision-induced absorption (CIA) of H2 in the region 5600-9500 cm-1 in binary H2-N2 mixtures were investigated at room temperature for base densities of H2 in the range 89-145 amagat and for partial densities of N2 in the range 30-350 amagat. Enhancement absorption profiles of H2-N2 in the investigated region consist of the superposition of two main parts, the first part is formed of quadrupolar double transitions of the type X1(J) + X1(J) in the range 5600-8500 cm-1 and the second formed of quadrupolar single transitions of the type X2(J) + X0(J) from 7500 to 9500 cm-1, where X is an O(?J = -2), Q(?J = 0) or S(?J = +2) transition. The Birnbaum-Cohen lineshape function was found to give satisfactory fits of the synthetic profiles to the experimental profiles. Lineshape function parameters obtained from the analysis are given.

  8. [Intracranial pressure and hypotonic infusion solutions].

    PubMed

    Zander, R

    2009-04-01

    The physiological osmolality of plasma is 288+/-5 mosmol/kgH2O when measured by freezing-point depression. The theoretical osmolarity (290 mosmol/l) calculated from composition, osmotic coefficient (0.93) and water content (0.94) is practically identical. Saline (0.9% NaCl) has an osmolarity of 308 mosmol/l and an osmolality of 286 mosmol/kgH2O (water content ca. 1.0). The osmolality in vivo is more important than that measured in vitro. A 5% dextrose solution in water (D5W) is isotonic in vitro, but the in vivo effect is that of pure water because the glucose is rapidly metabolized. Every infusion fluid should be isotonic (290+/-10 mosmol/kgH2O). Hypotonic solutions must move water from the extracellular space to the intracellular space. Typical examples are Ringer's lactate and acetate solutions (256 instead of 290 mosmol/kgH2O). The brain (central nervous system, CNS) is the critical organ: The rigidly shaped skull contains three incompressible compartments, only blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be partially, but limitedly shifted outside the skull. The consequence of a volume load is an increasing intracranial pressure (ICP). A decrease in plasma osmolality by only 3% produces an increase in ICP of about 15 mmHg. Therefore, infusion of larger volumes of hypotonic solutions should be avoided at all costs. PMID:19326054

  9. Rheology of two-phase aggregates of H2O and CO2 ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, T.; Durham, W. B.

    2010-12-01

    Dry ice (CO2) is rheologically much weaker than H2O ice. It has been observed on the surface of Mars’s residual south polar ice cap and is likely to be present on most icy bodies in outer solar system. Thus the rheological behavior of two-phase aggregates of CO2 and H2O ices can potentially influence tectonics and internal dynamics of icy bodies, as well as the stability of the Mars polar cap. We have conducted creep experiments on two-phase mixtures of CO2 and H2O ices at CO2:H2O volume ratios of 5:95, 10:90, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, under confining pressures of 20-100 MPa and temperatures of 170-190 K using a gas-medium triaxial deformation apparatus. Two-phase aggregates of CO2 and H2O ices were mixed as powders, hydrostatically compacted, and then deformed at constant strain rates from 3e-7 to 1e-5/s. Hydrostatic compression pressures were between 60 MPa and 140 MPa and were generally lower for samples with higher CO2 content. The creep experiments revealed that the flow strength of the two-phase aggregate decreases drastically with increasing CO2 content. Stress exponents and the activation energies in the aggregate flow law gradually change from those of one end member to those of the other. Our results suggest that the rheology of the two-phase aggregate roughly matches an average of isostress and isostrain models. The flow strength in the 5 vol.% CO2 aggregate is less than half of that in pure H2O ice at the strain rate of 1e-6/s. Put differently, the presence of 5 vol.% CO2 ice in H2O ice decreases viscosity by more than one order of magnitude at a differential stress of 0.1 MPa.

  10. Characterization of the histone H2A.Z-1 and H2A.Z-2 isoforms in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular mechanisms of how