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Sample records for h2 partial pressures

  1. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  2. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  3. Pressure-induced metallization of dense (H2S)2H2 with high-Tc superconductivity

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Defang; Liu, Yunxian; Tian, Fubo; Li, Da; Huang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Zhonglong; Yu, Hongyu; Liu, Bingbing; Tian, Wenjing; Cui, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The high pressure structures, metallization, and superconductivity of recently synthesized H2-containing compounds (H2S)2H2 are elucidated by ab initio calculations. The ordered crystal structure with P1 symmetry is determined, supported by the good agreement between theoretical and experimental X-ray diffraction data, equation of states, and Raman spectra. The Cccm structure is favorable with partial hydrogen bond symmetrization above 37?GPa. Upon further compression, H2 molecules disappear and two intriguing metallic structures with R3m and Im-3m symmetries are reconstructive above 111 and 180?GPa, respectively. The predicted metallization pressure is 111?GPa, which is approximately one-third of the currently suggested metallization pressure of bulk molecular hydrogen. Application of the Allen-Dynes-modified McMillan equation for the Im-3m structure yields high Tc values of 191?K to 204?K at 200?GPa, which is among the highest values reported for H2-rich van der Waals compounds and MH3 type hydride thus far. PMID:25382349

  4. The solubility of fluorite in H2O and H2ONaCl at high pressure and temperature

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    The solubility of fluorite in H2O and H2O­NaCl at high pressure and temperature Peter Tropper a 12 March 2007; accepted 29 March 2007 Editor: D. Rickard Abstract The solubility of fluorite in H2O and H2O­NaCl has been measured at 600­1000 °C, 0.5­2.0 GPa in a piston­cylinder apparatus. Fluorite

  5. Pressure-induced superconductivity in H2-containing hydride PbH4(H2)2

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Tingting; Zhong, Guohua; Yang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2015-01-01

    High pressure structure, stability, metallization, and superconductivity of PbH4(H2)2, a H2-containing compound combining one of the heaviest elements with the lightest element, are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The metallic character is found over the whole studied pressure range, although PbH4(H2)2 is metastable and easily decompose at low pressure. The decomposition pressure point of 133?GPa is predicted above which PbH4(H2)2 is stable both thermodynamically and dynamically with the C2/m symmetry. Interestedly, all hydrogen atoms pairwise couple into H2 quasi-molecules and remain this style up to 400?GPa in the C2/m structure. At high-pressure, PbH4(H2)2 tends to form the Pb-H2 alloy. The superconductivity of Tc firstly rising and then falling is observed in the C2/m PbH4(H2)2. The maximum of Tc is about 107?K at 230?GPa. The softening of intermediate-frequency phonon induced by more inserted H2 molecules is the main origin of the high Tc. The results obtained represent a significant step toward the understanding of the high pressure behavior of metallic hydrogen and hydrogen-rich materials, which is helpful for obtaining the higher Tc. PMID:26559369

  6. Pressure-induced superconductivity in H2-containing hydride PbH4(H2)2.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Tingting; Zhong, Guohua; Yang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2015-01-01

    High pressure structure, stability, metallization, and superconductivity of PbH4(H2)2, a H2-containing compound combining one of the heaviest elements with the lightest element, are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The metallic character is found over the whole studied pressure range, although PbH4(H2)2 is metastable and easily decompose at low pressure. The decomposition pressure point of 133?GPa is predicted above which PbH4(H2)2 is stable both thermodynamically and dynamically with the C2/m symmetry. Interestedly, all hydrogen atoms pairwise couple into H2 quasi-molecules and remain this style up to 400?GPa in the C2/m structure. At high-pressure, PbH4(H2)2 tends to form the Pb-H2 alloy. The superconductivity of Tc firstly rising and then falling is observed in the C2/m PbH4(H2)2. The maximum of Tc is about 107?K at 230?GPa. The softening of intermediate-frequency phonon induced by more inserted H2 molecules is the main origin of the high Tc. The results obtained represent a significant step toward the understanding of the high pressure behavior of metallic hydrogen and hydrogen-rich materials, which is helpful for obtaining the higher Tc. PMID:26559369

  7. Pressure-induced superconductivity in H2-containing hydride PbH4(H2)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ya; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Tingting; Zhong, Guohua; Yang, Chunlei; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2015-11-01

    High pressure structure, stability, metallization, and superconductivity of PbH4(H2)2, a H2-containing compound combining one of the heaviest elements with the lightest element, are investigated by the first-principles calculations. The metallic character is found over the whole studied pressure range, although PbH4(H2)2 is metastable and easily decompose at low pressure. The decomposition pressure point of 133?GPa is predicted above which PbH4(H2)2 is stable both thermodynamically and dynamically with the C2/m symmetry. Interestedly, all hydrogen atoms pairwise couple into H2 quasi-molecules and remain this style up to 400?GPa in the C2/m structure. At high-pressure, PbH4(H2)2 tends to form the Pb-H2 alloy. The superconductivity of Tc firstly rising and then falling is observed in the C2/m PbH4(H2)2. The maximum of Tc is about 107?K at 230?GPa. The softening of intermediate-frequency phonon induced by more inserted H2 molecules is the main origin of the high Tc. The results obtained represent a significant step toward the understanding of the high pressure behavior of metallic hydrogen and hydrogen-rich materials, which is helpful for obtaining the higher Tc.

  8. Melting Temperature and Partial Melt Chemistry of H2O-Saturated Mantle Peridotite to 11 Gigapascals

    PubMed

    Kawamoto; Holloway

    1997-04-11

    The H2O-saturated solidus of a model mantle composition (Kilborne Hole peridotite nodule, KLB-1) was determined to be just above 1000°C from 5 to 11 gigapascals. Given reasonable H2O abundances in Earth's mantle, an H2O-rich fluid could exist only in a region defined by the wet solidus and thermal stability limits of hydrous minerals, at depths between 90 and 330 kilometers. The experimental partial melts monotonously became more mafic with increasing pressure from andesitic composition at 1 gigapascal to more mafic than the starting peridotite at 10 gigapascals. Because the chemistry of the experimental partial melts is similar to that of kimberlites, it is suggested that kimberlites may be derived by low-temperature melting of an H2O-rich mantle at depths of 150 to 300 kilometers. PMID:9092469

  9. Silicate-H2O Systems at High Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; Hermann, J.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    Since the discovery of the second critical endpoint (CP2) in the albite-water system, numerous attempts have been made to determine the pressure and temperature of this CP2 and the mutual solubilities within more complex systems. The P-T position of the CP2 has been estimated for many systems: SiO2 (<10 kb/900 °C, Newton and Manning, 2008); NaAlSi3O8 (15 kb/800 °C, Burnham and Davis, 1974; Shen and Keppler, 1997); Pelite (50 kb/1,000 °C, Schmidt et al., 2004), basalt (50 kb/ 1000 °C, Kessel et al., 2004), Peridotite (38 kb/1000 °C, Mibe et al., 2007). A number of experimental techniques have been used to determine phase relations and H2O solubility in experiments. These include in-situ experimental techniques (e.g., HYDAC; Shen and Keppler, 1997), fluid trap techniques (e.g., diamond traps; Stalder et al., 2000), and single crystal weight-loss techniques (e.g., SiO2-H2O techniques employed by Newton and Manning, 2008). None of these techniques is without difficulties, as H2O rich experiments need to overcome huge retrograde fluid solubilities upon quench in order to determine mutual solubilities at experimental conditions. We have developed a new technique to determine "rock"-H2O relationships at high-P conditions, with particular focus on the shape and locus of solvi in pressure temperature space. In this series of experiments, an oxygen fugacity buffer (Re-ReO2) and a sliding H-fugacity sensor (NiO-Ni-Pd mixture) are combined to monitor H2O activity over the entire range of pressure and temperature. Unlike other techniques, the use of sensor capsules does not require textural interpretation of experiments. H2O activity is related to oxygen and hydrogen fugacity by the reaction: H2O = H2 + ½O2 NiO-Ni-Pd mixtures were placed within a ZrO2 jacket and sealed within a welded 2.3 mm Pt capsule. This 2.3 mm Pt sensor capsule was then encased within a larger, thick walled 6 mm diameter Ag capsule. Pelite-H2O mixtures and oxygen buffers were held within this larger Ag capsule and sealed by capsule swaging. Changes in H2O activity (measured by shifts in the Ni content of the alloy) that occur with changes in pelite- water ratios at isothermal and isobaric conditions, can be used to determine the shape and position of the melt-H2O solvus. Pelite-H2O experiments at 25 kbar show solvus behaviour at 900 °C (temperatures >200 °C) above the wet solidus), indicating that the wet solidus and critical curve do not intersect at these conditions. In contrast, experiments at 35 kbar and 800-900 °C, show a gradual change in H2O activity with increasing water:pelite ratios, indicating that the critical curve and wet solidus become closer with increasing pressure. Solvus topology in the pelite-H2O system, as determined by this series of experiments at 25 and 35 kbar, can also be used to estimate the shape and orientation of solubility isopleths (in terms of P-T). While the seminal work of Burnham and Davis (1974) demonstrated the importance of pressure on inducing H2O saturation in silicate melts, experiments presented here indicate that temperature may also play an important role. Burnham C. W. and Davis N. F. 1974, American Journal of Science. 274; 8, 902-940. Kessel, R., et al 2005, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 237, 873-892. Mibe, K et al. 2007, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 68, 24, 5189-5195. Newton, R. C., and Manning, C. E., 2008, Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Schmidt, M.W.et al, 2004, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 228, 65-84. Shen, A., and Keppler, H. 1997 Nature, 385, 710-712. Stadler, R., et al, 2000, American Mineralogist, 85, 68-77. class="ab'>

  10. The effect of H2O on partial melting of garnet peridotite at 3.5 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, Travis J.; Hirschmann, Marc M.; Humayun, Munir

    2012-03-01

    We present experimental determinations of the influence of H2O on partial melting of garnet peridotite (+1.5, 2.5, and 5 wt. % added H2O) at 3.5 GPa and 1200-1450°C. Experiments produced complex polyphase regions of quenched melt and equilibrium partial melt compositions were reconstructed by combined EMP and LA-ICP-MS analyses. Mass balance-derived melt fractions (F) range from 0.18 to 0.33 and dissolved water contents range from 4.5 to 23.5 wt. %. One exceptional experiment quenched glass, allowing independent verification of H2O concentration by FTIR. The influence of H2O on melt production is quantified by the temperature difference required to achieve a given F under dry and wet conditions, ?T, which is controlled by the H2O concentration in partial melts. Melts with 1.5, 5, 10, and 15 wt. % H2O yield ?T values of 50, 150, 250, and 320°C, respectively, consistent with a cryoscopic parameterization that assumes 3 oxygens per mole of silicate melt. Based on this parameterization, we calculate that beneath oceanic ridges, peridotite H2O storage capacity increases from 0 to 240 ppm from 66 to 110 km depth. For H2O to be solely responsible for melting in the oceanic low velocity zone (LVZ) at least 5.7 wt. % H2O must be dissolved in the melt at 110 km, and considerably more (e.g., 15 wt.% at 220 km) is required for melting throughout the entire observed interval. The addition of H2O results in 3.5 GPa partial melts of garnet peridotite (normalized anhydrous) that are SiO2 and Al2O3 poor (43-50 and 9-11.5 wt. %, respectively), and MgO and CaO rich (18-27 and 7-12 wt. %, respectively) when compared to anhydrous analogues. These effects become highly pronounced deep in the upper mantle, and are opposite to the effect of H2O on melt compositions in the spinel stability field, potentially owing in part to OH-association with network modifying cations in high pressure, depolymerized melts and in part to low-temperature stabilization of garnet, which enhances CaO/Al2O3.

  11. Solubility of H2O in rhyolitic melts at low pressures and a new empirical model for mixed H2OCO2 solubility in rhyolitic melts

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Youxue

    Solubility of H2O in rhyolitic melts at low pressures and a new empirical model for mixed H2O­CO2: H2O solubility; H2O­CO2 solubility; solubility model; exsolution enthalpy; volcanic eruption@geosci.uchicago.edu (Y. Liu). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 143 (2005) 219­235 www

  12. Partial covering of the emission regions of Q 0528-250 by intervening H2 clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Balashev, S. A.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Ledoux, C.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Varshalovich, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the molecular hydrogen absorption system at zabs = 2.811 in the spectrum of the blazar Q 0528-250. We demonstrate that the molecular cloud does not cover the background source completely. The partial coverage reveals itself as a residual flux at the bottom of the saturated H2 absorption lines. This amounts to about (2.22 ± 0.54) per cent of the continuum and does not depend on the wavelength. This value is small and it explains why this effect has not been detected in previous studies of this quasar spectrum. However, it is robustly detected and is significantly higher than the zero-flux level at the bottom of the saturated lines of the Ly? forest, (-0.21 ± 0.22) per cent. The presence of the residual flux could be caused by unresolved quasar multicomponents, by light scattered by dust and/or by jet-cloud interaction. The H2 absorption system is very well described by a two-component model without the inclusion of additional components when we take partial coverage into account. The derived total column densities in the H2 absorption components A and B are log N(H2)(cm-2) = 18.10 ± 0.02 and 17.82 ± 0.02, respectively. HD molecules are present only in component B. Given the column density, log N(HD) = 13.33 ± 0.02, we find N(HD)/2N(H2) = (1.48 ± 0.10) × 10- 5, significantly lower than previous estimations. We argue that it is crucial to take into account the partial coverage effects in any analysis of H2 bearing absorption systems, in particular when studying the physical state of the high-redshift interstellar medium.

  13. New Equations for the Sublimation Pressure and Melting Pressure of H2O Ice Ih

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Riethmann, Thomas; Feistel, Rainer; Harvey, Allan H.

    2011-12-01

    New reference equations, adopted by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), are presented for the sublimation pressure and melting pressure of ice Ih as a function of temperature. These equations are based on input values derived from the phase-equilibrium condition between the IAPWS-95 scientific standard for thermodynamic properties of fluid H2O and the equation of state of H2O ice Ih adopted by IAPWS in 2006, making them thermodynamically consistent with the bulk-phase properties. Compared to the previous IAPWS formulations, which were empirical fits to experimental data, the new equations have significantly less uncertainty. The sublimation-pressure equation covers the temperature range from 50 K to the vapor-liquid-solid triple point at 273.16 K. The ice Ih melting-pressure equation describes the entire melting curve from 273.16 K to the ice Ih-ice III-liquid triple point at 251.165 K. For completeness, we also give the IAPWS melting-pressure equation for ice III, which is slightly adjusted to agree with the ice Ih melting-pressure equation at the corresponding triple point, and the unchanged IAPWS melting-pressure equations for ice V, ice VI, and ice VII.

  14. Energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure rovibrationally excited molecular H2

    E-print Network

    Augustine, Mathew P.

    Energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure rovibrationally excited molecular H2 David J. Saiki 2005; published online 14 September 2005 The energy-transfer dynamics of high-pressure molecular H2 gas energy transfer is described and used to fit the experimental Raman scattering results obtained

  15. Hydrogen Storage Properties of Nanosized MgH2-0.1TiH2 Prepared by Ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure Milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2010-07-29

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) is an attractive candidate for solid state hydrogen storage applications. To improve the kinetics and thermodynamic properties of MgH2 during dehydrogenation-rehydrogenation cycles, a nano-structured MgH2-0.1TiH2 material system prepared by ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure mechanical milling was investigated. High-resolution TEM and scanning TEM analysis showed that the grain size of the milled MgH2-0.1TiH2 powder is approximately 5-10 nm with uniform distributions of TiH2 among MgH2 particles. Pressure-Composition-Temperature (PCT) analysis demonstrated that both the nanosize and the addition of TiH2 contributed to the significant improvement of the kinetics of dehydrogenation and hydrogenation compared to commercial MgH2. More importantly, PCT cycle analysis demonstrated that the MgH2-0.1TiH2 material system showed excellent cycle stability which is attributed to the inhibition of coarsening by TiH2. The results also showed that the ?H value for the dehydrogenation of nanostructured MgH2-0.1TiH2 is significantly lower than that of commercial MgH2. However, the ?S value of the reaction was also lower which results in minimum net effects of the nanosize and the addition of TiH2 on the equilibrium pressure of dehydrogenation reaction of MgH2.

  16. Lin et al., H2O-revisedJCPms, 06/17/2004 1 High Pressure-Temperature Raman Measurements of H2O

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Lin et al., H2O-revisedJCPms, 06/17/2004 1 High Pressure-Temperature Raman Measurements of H2O Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015, USA ABSTRACT The melting curve of H2O has been measured by in situ- active OH-stretching bands and the translational modes of H2O as well as optical observations are used

  17. Advanced High Pressure O2/H2 Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morea, S. F. (editor); Wu, S. T. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    Activities in the development of advanced high pressure oxygen-hydrogen stage combustion rocket engines are reported. Particular emphasis is given to the Space Shuttle main engine. The areas of engine technology discussed include fracture and fatigue in engine components, manufacturing and producibility engineering, materials, bearing technology, structure dynamics, fluid dynamics, and instrumentation technology.

  18. The Role of Pressure in GMC Formation II: The H_2 - Pressure Relation

    E-print Network

    Leo Blitz; Erik Rosolowsky

    2006-05-01

    We show that the ratio of molecular to atomic gas in galaxies is determined by hydrostatic pressure and that the relation between the two is nearly linear. The pressure relation is shown to be good over three orders of magnitude for 14 galaxies including dwarfs, HI-rich, and H_2-rich galaxies as well as the Milky Way. The sample spans a factor of five in mean metallicity. The rms scatter of individual points of the relation is only about a factor of two for all the galaxies, though some show much more scatter than others. Using these results, we propose a modified star formation prescription based on pressure determining the degree to which the ISM is molecular. The formulation is different in high and low pressure regimes defined by whether the gas is primarily atomic or primarily molecular. This formulation can be implemented in simulations and provides a more appropriate treatment of the outer regions of spiral galaxies and molecule-poor systems such as dwarf irregulars and damped Lyman-alpha systems.

  19. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO2-H2O SYSTEM Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for

    E-print Network

    , the CO2-H2O system is analyzed in the aqueous phase and in the clathrate phase (-17 o C and 15 atm) usingRAMAN SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CO2-H2O SYSTEM A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment Program in Chemistry #12;#12;ii ABSTRACT CO2 is considered to be a major contributor to global climate

  20. A System for Incubations at High Gas Partial Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed 1?MPa at in situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well. We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60?MPa, temperatures up to 120°C, and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. To keep costs low, the system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow-through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g., fluid–gas–rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O–CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5?MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample. PMID:22347218

  1. Metallization and superconductivity of BeH2 under high pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziwei; Yao, Yansun; Zhu, Li; Liu, Hanyu; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yanming

    2014-03-28

    Pressure-induced metallization and potential superconductivity of BeH2 has been a topic of interest. In the present study, we extensively explored the crystal structures of BeH2 in a wide pressure range of 0-300 GPa using an unbiased structure searching method coupled with first-principles density functional calculations. A series of pressure-induced structural transformations are predicted for BeH2, as Ibam (? phase) ? P-3m1 (phase II) ? R-3m (phase III) ? Cmcm (phase IV). Calculated pressures of phase transition are 25, 140, and 202 GPa, respectively. The phase II is isostructural to the well-known 1T structure of transition metal dichalcogenides, which is composed of covalent bonded BeH2 slabs stacked along the perpendicular direction by van der Waals forces. The phase III is constructed by the same BeH2 slabs, but differs from the phase II in the stacking sequence. The ? phase, phase II, and phase III all have insulating electronic states while their band gaps decrease as pressure increases. We predicted that BeH2 reaches a metallic state by a III ? IV phase transition, instead of a direct band gap closure in phase III. The phase IV has a three-dimensional extended Be-H network formed by edge-sharing BeH8 polyhedrons with delocalized electrons. Electron-phonon coupling calculations implemented using linear response theory on the metallic BeH2 predict a large electron-phonon coupling parameter of 0.63, leading to an estimation of superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of ?38 K at 250 GPa. PMID:24697470

  2. High pressure chemistry in the H2-SiH4 system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shibing; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Mao, Wendy L.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of hydrogen-rich systems at extreme conditions has significance to both condensed matter physics, where it may provide insight into the metallization and superconductivity of element one, and also to applied research areas, where it can provide guidance for designing improved hydrogen storage materials for transportation applications. Here we report the high-pressure study of the SiH4-H2 binary system up to 6.5 GPa at 300 K in a diamond anvil cell. Raman measurements indicate significant intermolecular interactions between H2 and SiH4. We found that the H2 vibron frequency is softened by the presence of SiH4 by as much as 40 cm?1 for the fluid with 50 mol% H2 compared with pure H2 fluid at the same pressures. In contrast, the Si-H stretching modes of SiH4 shift to higher frequency in the mixed fluid compared with pure SiH4. Pressure-induced solidification of the H2-SiH4 fluid shows a binary eutectic point at 72(±2) mol% H2 and 6.1(±0.1) GPa, above which the fluid crystallizes into a mixture of two nearly end-member solids. Neither solid has a pure end-member composition, with the silane-rich solid containing 0.5–1.5 mol% H2 and the hydrogen-rich solid containing 0.5–1 mol% SiH4. These two crystalline phases can be regarded as doped hydrogen-dominant compounds. We were able to superpressurize the sample by 0.2–0.4 GPa above the eutectic before complete crystallization, indicating extended metastability. PMID:19706419

  3. H2O diffusion models in rhyolitic melt with new high pressure data Huaiwei Ni, Youxue Zhang

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Youxue

    H2O diffusion models in rhyolitic melt with new high pressure data Huaiwei Ni, Youxue Zhang in silicate melts, especially rhyolitic melt. However, the pressure dependence of H2O diffusion is not constrained satisfactorily. We investigated H2O diffusion in rhyolitic melt at 0.95­1.9 GPa and 407­1629 °C

  4. High pressure Raman spectroscopy of H2O-CH3OH mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chien, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Complex intra-molecular interactions and the hydrogen-bonding network in H2O-volatile mixtures play critical roles in many dynamics processes in physical chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary sciences. We used high pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the pressure evolution of vibrational frequencies and bonding behavior in H2O-CH3OH mixtures. We found that the presence of low CH3OH content in H2O increases the transition pressure where water crystallizes to ice VI, but does not significantly change the pressure where ice VI transforms to ice VII. Furthermore, the stiffening rates of C-H stretching frequencies d?/dP in CH3OH significantly decrease upon the crystallization of water, and the softening rates of the O-H stretching frequencies of ice VII are suppressed over a narrow pressure range, after which the frequencies of these modes shift with pressure in ways similar to pure CH3OH and ice VII, respectively. Such complex pressure evolution of Raman frequencies along with pronounced variations in Raman intensities of CH3OH within the sample, and the hysteresis of the water-ice VI phase transition suggest pressure-induced segregation of low content CH3OH from ice VII. These findings indicate the significant influence of volatiles on the crystallization of sub-surface ocean and thermal evolution within large icy planets and satellites. PMID:25704667

  5. High pressure Raman spectroscopy of H2O-CH3OH mixtures.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Chien, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Complex intra-molecular interactions and the hydrogen-bonding network in H2O-volatile mixtures play critical roles in many dynamics processes in physical chemistry, biology, and Earth and planetary sciences. We used high pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the pressure evolution of vibrational frequencies and bonding behavior in H2O-CH3OH mixtures. We found that the presence of low CH3OH content in H2O increases the transition pressure where water crystallizes to ice VI, but does not significantly change the pressure where ice VI transforms to ice VII. Furthermore, the stiffening rates of C-H stretching frequencies d?/dP in CH3OH significantly decrease upon the crystallization of water, and the softening rates of the O-H stretching frequencies of ice VII are suppressed over a narrow pressure range, after which the frequencies of these modes shift with pressure in ways similar to pure CH3OH and ice VII, respectively. Such complex pressure evolution of Raman frequencies along with pronounced variations in Raman intensities of CH3OH within the sample, and the hysteresis of the water-ice VI phase transition suggest pressure-induced segregation of low content CH3OH from ice VII. These findings indicate the significant influence of volatiles on the crystallization of sub-surface ocean and thermal evolution within large icy planets and satellites. PMID:25704667

  6. Vibrational dynamics, intermolecular interactions, and compound formation in GeH4-H2 under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, Timothy A.; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J.

    2010-10-01

    Optical microscopy, spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction studies at high-pressure are used to investigate intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures of germane (GeH4)+hydrogen (H2). The measurements reveal the formation of a new molecular compound, with the approximate stoichiometry GeH4(H2)2, when the constituents are compressed above 7.5 GPa. Raman and infrared spectroscopic measurements show multiple H2 vibrons substantially softened from bulk solid hydrogen. With increasing pressure, the frequencies of several Raman and infrared H2 vibrons decrease, indicating anomalous attractive interaction for closed-shell, nonpolar molecules. Synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction measurements show that the compound has a structure based on face-centered cubic (fcc) with GeH4 molecules occupying fcc sites and H2 molecules likely distributed between Oh and Td sites. Above ca. 17 GPa, GeH4 molecules in the compound become unstable with respect to decomposition products (Ge+H2), however, the compound can be preserved metastably to ca. 27 GPa for time-scales of the order of several hours.

  7. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  8. Stable structures of He and H2O at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanyu; Yao, Yansun; Klug, Dennis D.

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the structures that can exist in compounds containing helium is of interest for understanding the conditions where and if this inert element can form structures where closed shell electrons of helium can participate in bonding that is not describable exclusively by van der Waals interactions alone. In this study we examine stable mixtures of He and H2O at high pressures using a first-principles structure searching method. We find a thermodynamically stable structure that can be characterized by interactions comparable in strength to that of conventional hydrogen bonds. An orthorhombic structure with space group Ibam is identified that has progressively lower enthalpy with increasing pressure above 296 GPa than a mixture of He and H2O . This mechanically and dynamically stable structure is found at pressures that are now becoming accessible to high-pressure techniques.

  9. The effects of H2-He pressure broadening parameters on the retrieval of brown dwarf atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garland, Ryan; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Aigrain, Suzanne; Barstow, Joanna K.

    2015-11-01

    Brown dwarf atmospheres are compositionally very similar to the gas giant planets, made up of approximately 85% H2 and 15% He, as well as other trace gases such as CH4 and H2O, depending on the spectral type. We have investigated the effects of using pressure broadening parameters related to H2-He broadening and compared them to using air-broadening parameters for each of the major trace gases involved in brown dwarf atmospheres. We have identified from limited data sets that H2-He broadening, relative to air broadening, can act to increase or decrease the Lorentzian broadening experienced by a given transition. This change in Lorentzian broadening is dependent on the gas considered and the transition's associated quantum numbers (such as rotational and vibrational quantum numbers). By altering the transition’s lineshape, we also alter its opacity. Some gases are affected significantly at all pressure levels (NH3, CO2, CH4), some at deep (~1bar) pressure levels (CO, H2O), and others not at all (TiO, VO). We conclude, however, that these limited data sets do not provide the complex and comprehensive dependence of pressure broadening on the relevant quantum numbers that is available to air broadening, and we cannot say for certain how much this limits our results until more data is available. Our conclusions demonstrate the need for further study of H2 and He broadening parameters for the relevant gases from both experimental and computational means. We present preliminary results of the knock-on effects that these broadening parameters have for the retrieval of atmospheric composition and thermal structure.

  10. Gibbs free energy of reactions involving SiC, Si3N4, H2, and H2O as a function of temperature and pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isham, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    Silicon carbide and silicon nitride are considered for application as structural materials and coating in advanced propulsion systems including nuclear thermal. Three-dimensional Gibbs free energy were constructed for reactions involving these materials in H2 and H2/H2O. Free energy plots are functions of temperature and pressure. Calculations used the definition of Gibbs free energy where the spontaneity of reactions is calculated as a function of temperature and pressure. Silicon carbide decomposes to Si and CH4 in pure H2 and forms a SiO2 scale in a wet atmosphere. Silicon nitride remains stable under all conditions. There was no apparent difference in reaction thermodynamics between ideal and Van der Waals treatment of gaseous species.

  11. Appearance of high-pressure H2O ice on ice-covered terrestrial planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, S.; Sasaki, T.

    2014-03-01

    A lot of terrestrial exoplanets and free-floating planets have been discovered. Whether terrestrial planets with liquid water exist is an important question to consider, especially in terms of their habitability. Even in a globally ice-covered state, liquid water could exist beneath the surface ice shell because sufficient geothermal heat flow from the planetary interior is likely to melt the interior ice, so that an internal ocean under the surface ice shell could appear (e.g., Hoffman & Schrag 2002). In this study, we argue the conditions that must be satisfied for ice-covered terrestrial planets to have an internal ocean on the timescale of planetary evolution (Ueta & Sasaki 2013). Geothermal heat flow calculated by a parameterized convection model (e.g., McGovern & Schubert 1989) is considered as the heat source at the origin of the internal ocean. By applying and improving the model of Tajika (2008), we also examine how the amount of radiogenic heat and H2O mass affect these conditions. Moreover, we investigate the structures of surface H2O layers of ice-covered planets by considering the effects of ice under high pressure (high-pressure ice). At 1 AU from the central star, as shown in Fig. 1, a 1M.+ planet with 0.6-25 times H2O mass of the Earth could have an internal ocean. When the planet has an H2O mass over 25 times that of the Earth, high-pressure ice layers may appear between the internal ocean and the rock-part of the planet. The results indicate that planetary size and surface H2O mass strongly ristrict the conditions under which an extrasolar terrestrial planet could have an internal ocean without high-pressure ice existing under the internal ocean. The habitability of a planet might be influenced by the existence of such high-pressure ice layers.

  12. High pressure experimental study of eclogite with varying H2O contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, A.; Frost, D. J.; Petitgirard, S.; Yaxley, G. M.; Berry, A.; Woodland, A. B.; Pinter, Z.; Vasilyev, P.; Ionov, D. A.; Jacob, D. E.; Pearson, G. D.; Kovacs, I.; Padron-Navarta, A.

    2014-12-01

    Given the strong influence of volatiles on mantle melting processes, it is critical to understand the behaviour of volatiles (such as H2O) in subducted oceanic crustal material (eclogite) during subduction and subsequent recycling and mantle melting processes, and their impacts on volcanism. As natural samples from subduction zones from the deep Earth's interior are largely inaccessible, the only way to determine the H2O content of eclogite is to simulate high pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions equivalent to conditions of the Earth's interior using high-P experimental facilities. A particular interest is to determine the H2O content of eclogitic nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs; such as garnet, clinopyroxene) at the conditions where hydrous phases (such as phengite) are breaking down to release H2O that would then leave the slab. As a starting material, we use average oceanic basalt (GA1, representative of recycled oceanic crust [1]) with varying bulk %H2O (?7 wt.%). We conducted experiments using GA1 at different P's (6-10 GPa), T's (850-1500°C) and bulk %H2O (up to 7 wt.%) using multi anvil apparatuses. The run products at each P, T, and bulk H2O contents show well-equilibrated eclogitic phase assemblages of garnet ± clinopyroxene ± coesite/stishovite ± rutile ± phengite ± melt ± vapour. Runs (>0.5 wt.% H2O) at 6 GPa and up to ~950°C, and at 8-9 GPa and up to ~1050°C are subsolidus, while towards higher T small melt fractions appear. Similar to previous studies [e.g. 2-6], the stability of phengite varies as a function of P, T, buffering mineral paragenesis and bulk H2O concentration. Phengite breaks down >9 GPa. Eclogitic NAMs and phengite also break down at subsolidus conditions in the presence of excess of hydrous fluids. For instance, K2O in phengite and clinopyroxene decrease with increasing bulk H2O content at subsolidus conditions at given P, T, suggesting a leaching role of K2O by a vapour-rich fluid. [1] Yaxley, G. M. & Green, D. H. Earth Planet Sci Lett 128, 313-325 (1994). [2] Hermann, J. Green, D. H. Earth Planet Sci Lett 188, 149-168 (2001). [3] Hermann J. & Spandler, C. J. J Petrol 49, 717-740 (2008). [4] Schmidt, M. W. Science 272, 1927-1930 (1996). [5] Schmidt, M. W. & Poli, S. Earth Planet Sci Lett 163, 361-379 (1998). [6] Schmidt, M. W. et al. Earth Planet Sci Lett 228, 65-84 (2004).

  13. Quantification of the CO2 budget and H2O-CO2 systematics in subduction-zone magmas through the experimental hydration of melt inclusions in olivine at high H2O pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, Nikita; Portnyagin, Maxim; Botcharnikov, Roman; Gurenko, Andrey; Hoernle, Kaj; Holtz, François

    2015-09-01

    Reliable evaluation of CO2 contents in parental arc magmas, which can be preserved in melt inclusions in phenocrysts, is required to verify the proposed efficiency of CO2 recycling at convergent margins. Quantification of bulk CO2 concentration in melt inclusions requires their complete homogenization. Using samples from lavas from the Bulochka vent of Klyuchevskoy Volcano (Kamchatka), we applied a novel experimental approach to homogenize and re-equilibrate naturally dehydrated (<1 wt.% H2O) melt inclusions from high-Fo (85-91 mol.%) olivine. The experiments were performed at temperatures of 1150-1400 °C, pressures of up to 500 MPa, under dry to H2O-saturated conditions and with oxygen fugacity ranging from CCO to QFM+3.3. No homogenization was achieved at dry conditions. Complete dissolution of fluid bubbles (homogenization) in the melt inclusions was achieved at H2O pressures of 500 MPa and temperature of 1150 °C, when water content in the melt inclusions reached 4-5 wt.% H2O. The CO2 content in the homogenized inclusions is 3800 ± 140 ppm and CO2/Nb = 3000 ± 420, which are the highest values reported so far for the typical middle-K primitive arc melts and fall within the range of values inferred from the magmatic flux and volcanic gas data for primary arc magma compositions. About 83% of the CO2 in Klyuchevskoy magmas is likely to be derived from the subducting slab and can be attributed to flux melting with a fluid having a CO2/H2O ratio of ?0.06. The H2O and CO2 contents in the melt inclusions after hydrous experiments were found to correlate positively with each other and negatively with the volume of fluid bubble, reflecting increasing internal pressure in melt inclusions with increasing melt hydration. Therefore, similar trends observed in some natural sets of melt inclusions can be attributed to a partial dehydration of melts after entrapment, operating simultaneously with or following post-entrapment crystallization. Our study implies that the process of post-entrapment dehydration can be completely reversed under high pressure experimental conditions. If temperature, redox conditions and pressure of melt inclusion entrapment can be independently estimated, then our novel experimental approach (homogenization at high H2O pressure) can be used to reconstruct the initial CO2 content and also the entire composition of melt inclusions in olivine, including their initial H2O content, from any type of volcanic rock. With this approach volatiles in ancient lavas can also be determined, expanding our knowledge of volatile recycling further back in Earth history.

  14. Characteristics of a VHF H2 plasma at high pressures for different discharge gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Cheng-Yang; Chen, Chia-Fu; Yang, Ching-Lung; Kawai, Yoshinobu; Chiu, Kuo-Feng; Shi, Jen-Bin; Huang, Sy-Ruen; Wang, Jui-Hao; Tsai, Yu-Jer; Lien, Ting-Kuei

    2015-09-01

    A capacitively coupled VHF H2 plasma (60 MHz) was produced at high pressures, and plasma parameters were examined as a function of pressure and power at different discharge gaps (10, 15, and 20 mm). Here, a balanced power feeding method was adopted to avoid anomalous discharges. It was found that the electron density peaked at a certain pressure. As the discharge gap decreased, the peak pressure increased. The electron temperatures at the discharge gaps of 10 and 20 mm were approximately 8 and 3 eV at high pressures, respectively. In addition, we found that the sheath potential corresponding to the ion bombardment energy with the discharge gap of 10 mm was lower than the theoretical value calculated on the basis of the sheath theory, suggesting the existence of negative ions. Estimation of negative ion concentration was attempted on the basis of the sheath theory taking into consideration negative ions.

  15. In situ observations of a high-pressure phase of H2O ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Blank, J.G.; Goncharov, A.F.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A previously unknown solid phase of H2O has been identified by its peculiar growth patterns, distinct pressure-temperature melting relations, and vibrational Raman spectra. Morphologies of ice crystals and their pressure-temperature melting relations were directly observed in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell for H2O bulk densities between 1203 and 1257 kilograms per cubic meter at temperatures between -10??and 50??C. Under these conditions, four different ice forms were observed to melt: two stable phases, ice V and ice VI, and two metastable phases, ice IV and the new ice phase. The Raman spectra and crystal morphology are consistent with a disordered anisotropic structure with some similarities to ice VI.

  16. Erratum to "The solubility of corundum in H2O at high pressure and temperature and its implications for

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    Erratum Erratum to "The solubility of corundum in H2O at high pressure and temperature and its: log mAl ¼ 1:131 À 3827=T À 2:277 À 7336=Tð ÞlogqH2O ð1Þ where mAl is molality of Al in equilibrium with corundum, H2O is the density of H2O in g/cm3 , and T is temperature in Kelvins. Available online at www

  17. Traces of H2O in Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzhinetskaya, L. F.

    2007-05-01

    Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks accommodate a significant amount of H2O at high pressures and temperatures during their deep subduction. Fluid-driven processes are responsible for mineral reactions; they may trigger phase transformations and provide a decisive weakening effect on the rheological behavior of the rocks during deep subduction, or they may lead to brittle failure and earthquakes. Dehydration reactions, producing fluid (i.e., H2O, CO2) during regional metamorphism at low-to-mid crustal levels (P ~ 0.1 - 1 GPa), are reasonably pressure insensitive. At these levels, the maximum dehydration occurs at the greatest temperatures experienced by buried rocks. In the deep subduction zone (> 120 - 150 km), where both high pressures and temperatures operate, the situation is different. There, on the one hand, the water becomes chemically bonded and incorporated into the structure of both nominally hydrous and anhydrous minerals. On the other hand, the aqueous fluid (a supercritical fluid) dissolves a considerable amount of mineral components at high pressures and temperatures, and a solute concentration increases as pressure is increased. Microstructural observations on ultrahigh-pressure minerals from eclogites and metasediments provide convincing evidence of fluid involvement as deep as the upper mantle and possibly, the mantle transition zone. Diamond is one of the minerals of great importance because it unambiguously records the high pressure (minimum 4 GPa and possibly > 4GPa) at which the host rocks were recrystallized. We present here the results of studies of nano-inclusions associated with dislocations of growth and/or with interstitial defects of carbon in diamond structure obtained with transmission electron microscopy, microRaman, and microInfrared synchrotron assisted spectroscopy. A diverse composition of multicomponent fluid and crystalline inclusions and characteristic of nitrogen aggregations, provide evidence that the diamonds were crystallized from a supercritical C-O-H fluid during a UHP metamorphism related to continental collision. These observations are also consistent with diamonds synthesized at high pressure and high temperature from graphite, amorphous carbon, and coal in the presence of H2O. The crustal signature of carbon isotopes (? 13C) in the diamonds, together with their multiphase fluid- solid inclusions, provides evidence of a pathway by which organic carbon and H2O were subducted to the mantle depths and returned back to the Earth's surface. Microstructural patterns such as healed cracks, microfabrics, etc., observed in other minerals co-existing with diamonds, can therefore be recognized and attributed to UPH metamorphism events and may cast a light on the deformation and rheology of UHP metamorphic rocks.

  18. The effects of small amounts of H2O on partial melting of model spinel lherzolite in the system CMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; St. C. Oneill, H.

    2003-04-01

    Water (H_2O) is so effective at lowering the solidus temperatures of silicate systems that even small amounts of H_2O are suspected to be important in the genesis of basaltic magmas. The realization that petrologically significant amounts of H_2O can be stored in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals (olivine and pyroxenes) has fundamental implications for the understanding of partial melting in the mantle, for it implies that the role that H_2O plays in mantle melting may not be appropriately described by models in which the melting is controlled by hydrous phases such as amphibole. Although the effect of water in suppressing the liquidus during crystallization is quite well understood, such observations do not provide direct quantitative information on the solidus. This is because liquidus crystallization occurs at constant major-element composition of the system, but at unbuffered component activities (high thermodynamic variance). By contrast, for partial melting at the solidus the major-element component activities are buffered by the coexisting crystalline phases (low variance), but the major-element composition of the melt can change as a function of added H_2O. Accordingly we have determined both the solidus temperature and the melt composition in the system CMAS with small additions of H_2O, to 4 wt%, in equilibrium with the four-phase lherzolite assemblage of fo+opx+cpx+sp. Experiments were conducted at 1.1 GPa and temperatures from 1473 K to the dry solidus at 1593 K in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Starting materials were pre-synthesised assemblage of fo+opx+cpx+sp, plus an oxide/hydroxide mix of approximately the anticipated melt composition. H_2O was added as either Mg(OH)_2 or Al(OH)_3. The crystalline assemblage and melt starting mix were added as separate layers inside sealed Pt capsules, to ensure large volumes of crystal-free melt. After the run doubly polished sections were prepared in order to analyse the quenched melt by FTIR spectroscopy, to quantify the amounts of H_2O. This is necessary, as Pt capsules are to some extent open to H_2 diffusion. All melts were found to contain CO_2 (<0.7 wt%), which appears to come mainly from the hydroxide starting materials but also by C diffusion through the Pt capsule. Since CO_2 is experimentally correlated with H_2O, its presence significantly effects the interpretation of the results. Ignoring this complication, we find that 1 wt% H_2O decreases the solidus by ˜40 K; melt compositions do not change greatly, the main effect being a small decrease in MgO.

  19. Wall pressure fluctuations in rectangular partial enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliaroli, T.; Camussi, R.

    2015-04-01

    Wall pressure fluctuations generated within rectangular partial enclosures (RPEs) have been studied experimentally for a broad range of geometrical parameters. The geometry represents a simplified version of a new generation trapped vortex combustor and consisted of a rectangular cavity connected to a neck of smaller size. Wall pressure fluctuations have been measured through wall mounted microphones providing single and multi-variate pressure statistics both in the physical space and in the Fourier domain. In order to interpret the pressure signals, aerodynamic and acoustic investigations have been carried out as well for several cavity-neck ratios. The analysis of the acoustic response of the cavity has been conducted both numerically and experimentally and a simple theoretical model has been proposed to predict the frequency of the acoustic resonances. The aerodynamic study has been carried out through PIV measurements that provided characterization in terms of the geometrical parameters of both the large-scale vortex generated within the cavity and the recirculation zone formed upstream of the neck. The use of the POD decomposition permitted us to correlate the dynamics of the recirculation with the observed pressure statistics. The aerodynamic and acoustic investigations allowed us to interpret exhaustively the wall pressure cross-statistics and to separate contributions induced by hydrodynamic and purely acoustic pressure fluctuations.

  20. Experiments on the kinetics of partial melting of a leucogranite at 200 MPa H2O and 690-800°C: compositional variability of melts during the onset of H2O-saturated crustal anatexis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; London, David; Morgan, George B.

    2006-05-01

    We have experimentally investigated the kinetics of melting of an aplitic leucogranite (quartz+sodic plagioclase of ?Ab90+K-feldspar+traces of biotite) at 690, 740, and 800°C, all at 200 MPa H2O. Leucogranite cylinders, 3.5 mm in diameter and 7 mm in length, were run in the presence of excess H2O using cold-seal pressure vessels for 11-2,925 h. At 690 and 740°C and any experimental time, and 800°C and short run times, silicate glass (melt at run conditions) occurs as interconnected films along most of the mineral boundaries and in fractures, with the predominant volume occurring along quartz/feldspars boundaries and quartz/plagioclase/K-feldspar triple junctions. Glass film thickness is roughly constant throughout a given experimental charge and increases with experimental temperature and run duration. The results indicate that H2O-saturated partial melting of a quartzo-feldspathic protolith will produce an interconnected melt phase even at very low degrees (<5 vol%) of partial melting. Crystal grain boundaries are therefore completely occluded with melt films even at the lowest degrees of partial melting, resulting in a change in the mechanism of mass transport through the rock from advection of aqueous vapor to diffusion through silicate melt. At 690 and 740°C the compositions of glasses are homogeneous and (at both temperatures) close to, but not on, the H2O-saturated 200 MPa haplogranite eutectic; glass compositions do not change with run duration. At 800°C glasses are heterogeneous and plot away from the minimum, although their molar ratios ASI (=mol Al2O3/CaO+Na2O+K2O) and Al/Na are constant throughout the entire charge at any experimental time. Glass compositions within individual 800°C experiments form linear trends in (wt%) normative quartz-albite-orthoclase space. The linear trends are oriented perpendicular to the 200 MPa H2O haplogranite cotectic line, reflecting nearly constant albite/orthoclase ratio versus variable quartz/feldspar ratio, and have endpoints between the 800°C isotherms on the quartz and feldspar liquidus surfaces. With increasing experimental duration the trends migrate from the potassic side of the minimum toward the bulk rock composition located on the sodic side, due to more rapid (and complete) dissolution of K-feldspar relative to plagioclase. The results indicate that partial melting at or slightly above the solidus (690-740°C) is interface reaction-controlled, and produces disequilibrium melts of near-minimum composition that persist metastably for up to at least 3 months. Relict feldspars show no change in composition or texture, and equilibration between melt and feldspars might take from a few to tens of millions of years. Partial melting at temperatures well above the solidus (800°C) produces heterogeneous, disequilibrium liquids whose compositions are determined by the diffusive transport properties of the melt and local equilibrium with neighboring mineral phases. Feldspars recrystallize and change composition rapidly. Partial melting and equilibration between liquids and feldspars might take from a few to tens of years (H2O-saturated conditions) at these temperatures well above the solidus.

  1. High pressure synthesis and in situ Raman spectroscopy of H2 and HD clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Mohamed A S; Celli, Milva; Salem, N M; Elsheikh, S M; Ulivi, Lorenzo

    2012-10-28

    By means of a newly constructed high pressure and low temperature optical apparatus we have measured the Raman spectra of H(2) and HD simple clathrate hydrates, synthesized in situ by the application of more than 2500 bar gas pressure on solid water. High resolution spectra of the molecular vibration have been measured at low temperature (about 20 K). In the case of HD this band is simpler than in the case of H(2), where the presence of the ortho- and para-species complicated the interpretation of the spectrum. We have determined frequency positions of the bands arising from multiple occupancy of the large cages of the sII clathrate, some of which are almost superimposed. The intensity of the bands gives information on the average and distribution of cage occupation, and of the ortho-para (o-p) ratio of H(2) molecules. Hydrogen o-p conversion rate is measured, for molecules in the small cages and in the large cages, and it is observed that these are different. A model considering both intrinsic and extrinsic conversion processes is applied to the measured data. The intrinsic conversion rate so derived is compared favorably to that measured for pure hydrogen in different situations. PMID:23126723

  2. Pressure-induced absorption by H2 in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. Z.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Pilcher, C. B.; Sinton, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of the S(1) line of the pressure-induced fundamental band of H2 in the spectra of Saturn and Jupiter are analyzed by comparing the observed line shape with predictions of both a reflecting-layer model and a homogeneous-scattering model of the atmospheres. Upper and lower limits are derived for the values of relative intensity that occur between 5000 and 5100 kaysers, the percent absorption due to H2 at 5100 kaysers is estimated, and it is established that methane and ammonia cannot account for the broad absorption attributed to hydrogen. The comparison with the model atmospheres shows that the reflecting-layer model appears to give the best fit to the Saturn line profile for temperatures near 150 K, while both models provide good fits to the Jupiter data, but for widely differing temperatures. Difficulties encountered in determining the true continuum level, especially for Jupiter, are discussed.

  3. Thin film devices used as oxygen partial pressure sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canady, K. S.; Wortman, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of zinc oxide films to be used in an oxygen partial pressure sensor is measured as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and other atmospheric constituents. Time response following partial pressure changes is studied as a function of temperature and environmental changes.

  4. A new type of functional chemical sensitizer {MgH}2 for improving pressure desensitization resistance of emulsion explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. F.; Yan, S. L.; Ma, H. H.; Shen, Z. W.; Liu, R.

    2015-07-01

    In millisecond-delay blasting and deep water blasting projects, traditional emulsion explosives sensitized by the chemical sensitizer NaNO2 often encounter incomplete explosion or misfire problems because of the "pressure desensitization" phenomenon, which seriously affects blasting safety and construction progress. A MgH2 -sensitized emulsion explosive was invented to solve these problems. Experimental results show that MgH2 can effectively reduce the problem of pressure desensitization. In this paper, the factors which influence the pressure desensitization of two types of emulsion explosives are studied, and resistance to this phenomenon of MgH2 -sensitized emulsion explosives is discussed.

  5. Hybrid Global Model Simulations of He/N2 and He/H2O Atmospheric Pressure Capacitive Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, M. A.; Kawamura, E.; Ke, Ding; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Chabert, P.; Lazzaroni, C.

    2014-10-01

    We used 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of an atmospheric He/0.1%N2 discharge with simplified chemistry to guide the development of a hybrid analytical/numerical global model that includes electron multiplication and two classes of electrons: ``hot'' electrons associated with the sheaths, and ``warm'' electrons associated with the bulk. The model and PIC results show reasonable agreement and indicate a transition from a low power ?-mode with a relatively high bulk electron temperature Te to a high power ?-mode with a low Te. The transition is accompanied by an increase in density and a decrease in sheath widths. Water is a trace gas of bio-medical interest since it may arise from contact with skin. We use the hybrid global model to simulate a chemically complex, bounded He/H2O atmospheric pressure discharge, including 148 volume reactions among 43 species, and including clusters up to H19O9+.For a planar discharge with a 1 cm electrode radius and a 0.5 mm gap driven at 13.56 MHz, we determine the depletion and diffusion effects and the ? to ? transition for secondary emission ?se = 0.25 over a range of rf currents and external H2O concentrations. Each simulation takes about 2 minutes on a moderate laptop. This work was partially supported by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Science Contract DE-SC000193 and by the Natural Science Foundation of China Contract 11375042.

  6. H2O-fluid-saturated melting of subducted continental crust facilitates exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure rocks in continental subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrousse, L.; Duretz, T.; Gerya, T.

    2015-10-01

    We present two-dimensional numerical models of plate subduction and collision inspired by the Scandinavian Caledonian orogeny to investigate the possible impact of continental crust partial melting on the exhumation of ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks. Three possible reactions were tested: low temperature solidus representing H2O-fluid-saturated partial melting, and two end-member reaction curves for dehydration melting. Thermo-mechanical effects of partial melting were implemented as (1) a viscosity decrease as a determined rheologically critical melt percentage was reached (here 0.1), (2) a change in effective heat capacity and adiabatic heating/cooling accounting for a latent heat term in the heat equation. Among the 3 tested reactions, only H2O-fluid-saturated partial melting drastically modifies the collision dynamics from the non-melting reference model holding all other parameters constant. A substantially low general viscosity truncation (here 1017 Pa s) is needed to properly resolve the effect of partial melting on deep collision processes. Low temperature melting indeed induces the development of a low viscosity buoyant plume prior to slab detachment, where migmatites exhume from UHP conditions at rates and with pressure-temperature paths similar to the natural values acknowledged for the Norwegian Caledonides. High temperature melting has no drastic influence on early collision dynamics. While positive buoyancy remains the first order driver for the exhumation of buried continental rocks, exhumation initiates in these cases with eduction subsequent to slab detachment. Melting and formation of a migmatite plume can later occur along decompression path while continental crust undergoes thermal reequilibration at temperatures above 900 °C. Some of the partially molten material can also relaminate in the overriding plate rather than exhume within the collision zone. Even if minor in terms of amount of magma produced, H2O-fluid-saturated partial melting at UHP conditions could therefore have a dramatic rheological effect and actually limits continental rocks subduction and facilitates their exhumation.

  7. Effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds

    E-print Network

    Ofengeim, Dmitrii; Ivanchik, Aleksandr; Kaminker, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    We consider the effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions (QSO BLRs) by intervening H$_2$-bearing clouds when a part of quasar (QSO) radiation passes by a cloud not taking part in formation of an absorption-line system in the QSO spectrum. That leads to modification of observable absorption line profiles and consequently to a bias in physical parameters derived from standard absorption line analysis. In application to the H$_2$ {absorption} systems the effect has been revealed in the analysis of H$_2$ absorption system in the spectrum of Q~1232+082 (Ivanchik et al. 2010, Balashev et al. 2011). We estimate a probability of the effect to be detected in QSO spectra. To do this we derive distribution of BLR sizes of high-z QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogue and assume different distributions of cloud sizes. We conclude that the low limit of the probability is about $11\\%$. The latest researches shows that about a fifth of observed H$_2$ absorption systems can ...

  8. A separation principle for the H2-control of continuous-time infinite Markov jump linear systems with partial observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Oswaldo L. V.; Fragoso, Marcelo D.

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we devise a separation principle for the H2 optimal control problem of continuous-time Markov jump linear systems with partial observations and the Markov process taking values in an infinite countable set . We consider that only an output and the jump parameters are available to the controller. It is desired to design a dynamic Markov jump controller such that the closed loop system is stochastically stable and minimizes the H2-norm of the system. As in the case with no jumps, we show that an optimal controller can be obtained from two sets of infinite coupled algebraic Riccati equations, one associated with the optimal control problem when the state variable is available, and the other one associated with the optimal filtering problem. An important feature of our approach, not previously found in the literature, is to introduce an adjoint operator of the continuous-time Markov jump linear system to derive our results.

  9. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  10. Experimental deformation of polycrystalline H2O ice at high pressure and low temperature - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, W. B.; Heard, H. C.; Kirby, S. H.

    1983-11-01

    A preliminary study is carried out of involving 70 constant strain deformation tests on pure polycrystalline H2O ice under conditions covering most of the stability field of ice Ih. Brittle failure of Ih is found to be promoted by lower P, lower T, and higher strain rates. Ductile flow is found to be promoted by higher P, higher T, and lower strain rates. The brittle failure of ice Ih is found to be most unusual. The fracture strength is a positive function of P only below 50 MPa. At pressures greater than this, the fracture strength is independent of P, and the fracture plane lies approximately 45 deg from the load axis. It is believed that existing extrapolation based on existing experimental data to Ganymede and Callisto may be badly in error.

  11. Velocity effects on the shape of pure H2O isolated lines: complementary tests of the partially correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer model.

    PubMed

    Tran, H; Ngo, N H; Hartmann, J-M; Gamache, R R; Mondelain, D; Kassi, S; Campargue, A; Gianfrani, L; Castrillo, A; Fasci, E; Rohart, F

    2013-01-21

    Complementary tests of the partially correlated speed-dependent Keilson-Storer (pCSDKS) model for the shape of isolated transition of pure water vapor [N. H. Ngo et al., J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154310 (2012)] are made using new measurements. The latter have been recorded using a high sensitivity cavity ring down spectrometer, for seven self-broadened H(2)O lines in the 1.6 ?m region at room temperature and for pressures from 0.5 to 15 Torr. Furthermore, the H(2) (18)O spectra of [M. D. De Vizia et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 052506 (2011)] in the 1.38 ?m region, measured at 273.15 K and for pressures from 0.3 to 3.75 Torr have also been used for comparison with the model. Recall that the pCSDKS model takes into account the collision-induced velocity changes, the speed dependences of the broadening and shifting coefficients as well as the partial correlation between velocity and rotational-state changes. All parameters of the model have been fixed at values previously determined, except for a scaling factor applied to the input speed-dependent line broadening. Comparisons between predictions and experiments have been made by looking at the results obtained when fitting the calculated and measured spectra by Voigt profiles. The good agreement obtained for all considered lines, at different temperature and pressure conditions, confirms the consistency and the robustness of the model. Limiting cases of the model have been then derived, showing the influence of different contributions to the line shape. PMID:23343271

  12. Dehydrating a granulite: The behavior of H2O and CO2 during high-pressure metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lankvelt, A.; Seaman, S. J.; Williams, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Athabasca Granulite Terrane, in northern Saskatchewan, consists of isobaric assemblages of high-pressure, high-temperature metamorphic rocks. Within the terrane, is a suite of 2.6 Ga granitoids that were probably intruded into the deep crust and subsequently metamorphosed at granulite facies (emplacement at >900° C and 1.0 GPa and metamorphism at 750° C and 1.0 GPa; Williams et al., 2000). The original mineral assemblage within these granites includes alkali feldspar + plagioclase + quartz × orthopyroxene. Several granulite facies metamorphic reactions, including what is locally termed the 'Mary' reaction (orthopyroxene + Ca-plagioclase = garnet + clinopyroxene (× hornblende in more hydrous areas) + Na-plagioclase + quartz), are commonly preserved. Because the Mary reaction typically involves anhydrous mineral phases, studying the distribution of structural H2O and CO2 in the minerals involved in this reaction should reveal the partitioning behavior of these volatile phases during high-grade metamorphism. We used a Bruker Vertex 70 Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with a focal plane array detector to map volatile concentrations in several samples preserving the Mary reaction. Most of our samples contain pyroxene crystals that were partially hydrated to amphibole, but the other mineral phases involved in the reaction are generally pristine. Preliminary results show that CO2 and H2O behave differently during metamorphism. CO2 concentrations are generally low and homogenous within single mineral grains. However, maps of CO2 concentrations indicate that there is slightly more structural CO2 in product minerals (mostly in garnet, but also, in some samples, in quartz and Na-plagioclase mantles on Ca-rich plagioclase) than in reactant minerals. Water, however, is preferentially concentrated along grain boundaries and is zoned in primary, Ca-rich plagioclase and alkali feldspar, both of which commonly contain H2O-poor cores and H2O-rich rims. This zoning could arise from water migrating into or out of feldspars in response to deformation or could be a relict of igneous zoning. Although structural water is mostly absent from garnet crystals and Na-rich overgrowths on plagioclase, it appears to be concentrated in neoblastic quartz associated with garnet. In general, it appears that CO2 can partition into the products of granulite-facies metamorphic reactions (garnet, Na-rich plagioclase, and quartz), while structural water is either lost from reactant mineral phases or relegated to metamorphic quartz. Williams, M. L., Melis, E. A., Kopf, C. F. & Hammer, S. (2000). Microstructural tectonometamorphic processes and the development of gneissic layering: a mechanism for metamorphic segregation. J. Metamorphic Geol. 18, 41-57.

  13. Partial Melting of Garnet Lherzolite with H2o and CO2 at 3 GPa: Implications for Intraplate Magmatism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasner, A.; Medard, E.; Laporte, D.

    2014-12-01

    The origin and source rock of alkali-rich and SiO2-undersatured magmas in the Earth`s upper mantle have been under debate for a long time. The garnet signature in rare earth element patterns of such magmas suggest a garnet-bearing source rock, which could be garnet lherzolite or garnet pyroxenite. Partial melting experiments were performed at 3 GPa and 1345-1445 °C in a piston-cylinder apparatus using mixtures of natural lherzolite with 0.4-0.7 wt% H2O and 0.4-0.7 wt% CO2 as starting materials. Different designs of AuPd capsules were used for melt extraction. Mineral and melt phases were analysed with electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The degree of partial melting in the experiments ranges from ~20% to ~4% and decreases with decreasing temperature and decreasing volatile content in the starting material. All samples contain olivine and orthopyroxene. Garnet is present in experiments performed below 1420 °C. The amount of clinopyroxene decreases with increasing degree of partial melting and volatile concentration in the starting material. Depending on the capsule design the melts quenched to glasses or to a mixture of quench crystals and residual glass. The composition of the partial melts ranges from basalts through picrobasalts to foidites. The alkali concentration increases and the SiO2 concentration decreases with decreasing degree of partial melting and increasing volatile concentration in the starting material. The partial melts are similar in many aspects to alkali intraplate magmas (basanites to melilitites), although they are richer in MgO. Compositions closer to natural basanites could be obtained either at lower degree of melting (and lower volatile contents) or through olivine fractionation. Our results strongly suggests that. SiO2-undersaturated intraplate magmas can be generated by mantle melting of garnet-lherzolite in the presence of H2O and CO2 in the Earth`s upper mantle at 3 GPa (~100 km depth).

  14. Measurement and Simulation of Spontaneous Raman Scattering Spectra in High-Pressure, Fuel-Rich H2-Air Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    Rotational vibrational spontaneous Raman spectra (SRS) of H2, N2, and H2O have been measured in H2-air flames at pressures up to 30 atm as a first stem towards establishing a comprehensive Raman spectral database for temperatures and species in high-pressure combustion. A newly developed high-pressure burner facility provides steady, reproducible flames with a high degree of flow precision. We have obtained an initial set of measurements that indicate the spectra are of sufficient quality in terms of spectral resolution, wavelength coverage, and signal-to-noise ratio for use in future reference standards. The fully resolved Stokes and anti-Stokes shifted SRS spectra were collected in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm) using pulse-stretched 532 nm excitation and a non-intensified CCD spectrograph with a high-speed shutter. Reasonable temperatures were determined via the intensity distribution of rotational H2 lines at stoichiometry and fuel-rich conditions. Theoretical Raman spectra of H2 were computed using a semi-classical harmonic-oscillator model with recent pressure broadening data and were compared with experimental results. The data and simulation indicated that high-J rotational lines of H2 might interfere with the N2 vibrational Q-branch lines, and this could lead to errors in N2-Raman thermometry based on the line-fitting method. From a comparison of N2 Q-branch spectra in lean H2 low-pressure (1.2 atm) and high-pressure (30 atm) flames, we found no significant line-narrowing or -broadening effects at the current spectrometer resolution of 0.04 nm.

  15. High-pressure investigations under CO/H2 of rhodium complexes containing hemispherical diphosphites.

    PubMed

    Sémeril, David; Matt, Dominique; Toupet, Loïc; Oberhauser, Werner; Bianchini, Claudio

    2010-12-10

    The two rhodium complexes [Rh(acac)(L(R))] (L(R)=(S,S)-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-di(OR)-26,28-bis(1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-dioxyphosphanyloxy)calix[4]arene; 6: R=benzyl, 7: R=fluorenyl), each based on a hemispherical chelator forming a pocket about the metal centre upon chelation, are active in the hydroformylation of 1-octene and styrene. As expected for this family of diphosphanes, both complexes resulted in remarkably high selectivity towards the linear aldehyde in the hydroformylation of 1-octene (l/b?15 for both complexes). Linear aldehyde selectivity was also observed when using styrene, but surprisingly only 6 displayed a marked preference for the linear product (l/b=12.4 (6) vs. 1.9 (7)). A detailed study of the structure of the complexes under CO or CO/H(2) in toluene was performed by high-pressure NMR (HP NMR) and FT-IR (HP-IR) spectroscopies. The spectroscopic data revealed that treatment of 6 with CO gave [Rh(acac)(CO)(?(1)-L(benzyl))] (8), in which the diphosphite behaves as a unidentate ligand. Subsequent addition of H(2) to the solution resulted in a well-defined chelate complex with the formula [RhH(CO)(2)(L(benzyl))] (9). Unlike 6, treatment of complex 7 with CO only led to ligand dissociation and concomitant formation of [Rh(acac)(CO)(2)], but upon addition of H(2) a chelate complex analogous to 9 was formed quantitatively. In both [RhH(CO)(2)(L(R))] complexes the diphosphite adopts the bis-equatorial coordination mode, a structural feature known to favour the formation of linear aldehydes. As revealed by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, these complexes show the typical fluxionality of trigonal bipyramidal [RhH(CO)(2)(diphosphane)] complexes. The lower linear selectivity of 7 versus 6 in the hydroformylation of styrene was assigned to steric effects, due to the pocket in which the catalysis takes place being less adapted to accommodate CO or larger olefins and, therefore, possibly leading to facile ligand decoordination. This interpretation was corroborated by an X-ray structure determination carried out for 7. PMID:20957623

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Interference of Spontaneous Raman Scattering in High-Pressure Fuel-Rich H2-Air Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spectral interferences in the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra of major combustion products in 30-atm fuel-rich hydrogen-air flames. An effective methodology is introduced to choose an appropriate line-shape model for simulating Raman spectra in high-pressure combustion environments. The Voigt profile with the additive approximation assumption was found to provide a reasonable model of the spectral line shape for the present analysis. The rotational/vibrational Raman spectra of H2, N2, and H2O were calculated using an anharmonic-oscillator model using the latest collisional broadening coefficients. The calculated spectra were validated with data obtained in a 10-atm fuel-rich H2-air flame and showed excellent agreement. Our quantitative spectral analysis for equivalence ratios ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 revealed substantial amounts of spectral cross-talk between the rotational H2 lines and the N2 O-/Q-branch; and between the vibrational H2O(0,3) line and the vibrational H2O spectrum. We also address the temperature dependence of the spectral cross-talk and extend our analysis to include a cross-talk compensation technique that removes the nterference arising from the H2 Raman spectra onto the N2, or H2O spectra.

  17. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction Cl + C2H2 from 210-361 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the role of chlorine compounds in the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. However, while some reactions have been studied extensively, the kinetic data for the reaction of Cl with C2H2 is sparse with only three known determinations of the rate constant k3. The reactions involved are Cl + C2H2 yields reversibly ClC2H2(asterisk) (3a) and ClC2H2(asterisk) + M yields ClC2H2 + M (3b). In the present study, flash photolysis coupled with chlorine atomic resonance fluorescence have been employed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of k3 with the third body M = Ar. Room temperature values are also reported for M = N2. The pressure dependence observed in the experiments confirms the expectation that the reaction involves addition of Cl to the unsaturated C2H2 molecule followed by collisional stabilization of the resulting adduct radical.

  18. Direct Measurements of the Pressure Coefficient, Partial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Cueto, Joseph Antonio

    1984-06-01

    The pressure coefficient of liquid ('3)He-('4)He mixtures was coupled to directly, with a strain gauge capacitative cell. The cell was filled, pressurized and isolated with a mixture, of ('3)He mole fraction x between 0.50-0.80. The elastic properties of the cell effected a capacitance change in an LC tank circuit driven to oscillation by a Tunnel Diode. The frequency of the circuit, as well as the balance point of an AC Wheatstone circuit sensing a cryo-resistor mounted on the cell, were sampled by a data acquisition(DAS) system, to obtain pressure vs. temperature increments data. The DAS was enabled to perform temperature ramps and cycles with amplitudes of (TURN) (+OR-) 50-100 mK, while concurrently sampling pressure vs. temperature data. It is found that (PAR-DIFF)P/(PAR-DIFF)T)(,v,x) is a piecewise smooth function in the temperature T. For x < x(,t)(P), the data indicate a cusp discontinuity at the lambda temperature of the mixture T(,(lamda))(x,v(p(,(lamda)))), and a simple discontinuity at the onset of phase separation temperature T(,S)(x,v(p(,S))). For x > x(,t)(P), only the phase separation breaks the monotonic behaviour of the pressure coefficient. Where x(,t)(P) is the tricritical concentration at pressure P, referred to in the above. The data for the pressure coefficients are parametrized by smooth functions in appendix 5. This parametrization allows for further thermodynamic analysis, as that of appendix 6, the change in chemical potential difference upon compression. The thermodynamic implications of the measured step in (PAR -DIFF)P/(PAR-DIFF)T)(,v,x), across the onset separation temperature, are explored in appendix 4. The 'volume' minima at the pressures the isochores cross at their pressure minima in temperature, are plotted and analysed to imply that for some concentrations x, the entropy of the mixture is a double valued function of absolute pressure.

  19. A study of the H2O absorption line shifts in the visible spectrum region due to air pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, B. E.; Browell, E. V.; Bykov, A. D.; Kapitanov, V. A.; Korotchenko, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of measured and calculated shift coefficients are presented for 170 absorption lines of H2O in five vibrational-rotational bands. The measurements have been carried out using highly sensitive laser spectrometers with a resolution of at least 0.01/cm; the calculations are based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte-Frost method. Good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental values of the shift coefficients of H2O lines due to N2, O2, and air pressure.

  20. Influence of under pressure dissolved oxygen on trichloroethylene degradation by the H2O2/TiO2 process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The widespread use of trichloroethylene (TCE) and its frequent release into the environment has caused many environmental and health problems. In this study the degradation of TCE at different micromolar concentrations was investigated in a stainless steel reactor with various concentrations of H2O2 and TiO2 at different oxygen pressures and three different pHs. Methods To examine the synergistic effect of under pressure oxygen on TCE degradation, the concentrations of H2O2 and TiO2 as well as pH were first optimized, and then the experiments were performed under optimal conditions. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (FID) was used to measure TCE concentrations. Results Results showed that the percentage of TCE degradation without pressurized oxygen was low and it increased with increasing pressure of oxygen at all initial concentrations of TCE. The degradation percentages without oxygen pressure were 48.27%, 51.22%, 58.13% and 64.33% for TCE concentrations of 3000, 1500, 300 and 150 ?g/L respectively. At an oxygen pressure of 2.5 atmospheres (atm) the percent degradation of TCE reached 84.85%, 89.14%, 93.13% and 94.99% respectively for the aforementioned TCE concentrations. Conclusions The results of this study show that the application of dissolved oxygen under pressure increases the efficiency of the H2O2/TiO2 process on the degradation of TCE and can be used along with other oxidants as an effective method for the removal of this compound from aqueous solutions. PMID:24359702

  1. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...Devices § 868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  2. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...Devices § 868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...Devices § 868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer...868.1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2 ) analyzer...Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. ...Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. ...Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. ...Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. ...Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. ...Devices § 868.1200 Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) analyzer...

  11. First-principles study on the structural and electronic properties of metallic HfH2 under pressure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunxian; Huang, Xiaoli; Duan, Defang; Tian, Fubo; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Da; Zhao, Zhonglong; Sha, Xiaojing; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Huadi; Liu, Bingbing; Cui, Tian

    2015-01-01

    The crystal structures and properties of hafnium hydride under pressure are explored using the first-principles calculations based on density function theory. The material undergoes pressure-induced structural phase transition I4/mmm?Cmma?P21/m at 180 and 250?GPa, respectively, and all of these structures are metallic. The superconducting critical temperature Tc values of I4/mmm, Cmma, and P21/m are 47–193?mK, 5.99–8.16?K and 10.62–12.8?K at 1?atm, 180 and 260?GPa, respectively. Furthermore, the bonding nature of HfH2 is investigated with the help of the electron localization function, the difference charge density and Bader charge analyses, which show that HfH2 is classified as a ionic crystal with the charges transferring from Hf atom to H. PMID:26096298

  12. Experimental Study of Dehydration and Partial Melting of Biotite-Amphibole Gneiss Under Influence of the H2O-CO2-(K, Na)cl Fluids at 5.5 Kbar and 750 and 800 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, O.; Kosova, S.

    2012-12-01

    Chloride-rich brines coexisting with CO2-rich fluids are an important agent of high-grade metamorphism and metasomatism in the lower to middle crust. Thermodynamic and transport properties of the chloride-rich fluids are well constrained both theoretically and experimentally. Nevertheless, their effects on complex natural assemblages are poorly understood and demand systematic experimental study. We report results of the experiments on interaction of the biotite-amphibole gneiss from the Sand River formation (Limpopo Complex, South Africa) with the H2O-CO2, H2O-CO2-KCl, H2O-CO2-NaCl, and H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids at 5.5 kbar, 750 and 800 C, the chloride/(H2O+CO2) ratio varying from 0 to 0.1, and molar CO2/(CO2+H2O) = 0.5. Experiments were carried out using internally-heated gas pressure vessel. Major purposes of the experiments were to trace changes in phase assemblages in dependence on temperature, salt concentration in a fluid, KCl/NaCl ratio and to show a possibility for partial melting. Heating of the gneiss both at 750 and 800 C without any fluid produced no visible changes in its phase assemblage. Interaction of the gneiss with the H2O-CO2 fluid at 750 C did not significantly influence on its phase assemblage, as well. Addition of KCl in the H2O-CO2 fluid at 750 C resulted in the formation of reaction textures consisting of clinopyroxene and K-feldspar around biotite and amphibole at the contacts with plagioclase. No evidence for partial melting was detected in the samples interacted with the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CO2-KCl fluids at 750 C. Addition of NaCl provokes melting with formation of trachytic and trachyandesitic melts along with the new assemblages Cpx+Kfs+Pl+Ti-Mt and Cpx+Amp+Pl+Ti-Mt. Characteristic of feature of amphiboles, forming in the NaCl-rich fluids is their elevated Na2O content. Products of the runs at 750 C do not contain orthopyroxene. This phase appears at 800 C as a result of biotite breakdown in presence of the H2O-CO2 fluid. It is accompanied by dacitic melt and Ti-magnetite. Newly formed assemblages regularly change with an increase of the KCl content in the fluid: Opx+Ti-Mt+melt, Opx+Amp+Ilm+Ti-Mt + melt, Opx+Cpx+Ilm+melt, Cpx+ Ilm+melt. In this sequence, the melt evolves toward potassic rhyolitic composition. Orthopyroxene appears in assemblage with sodic amphibole in equilibrium with NaCl-rich fluids, as well. Present experiments allow conclusion that the interaction of the biotite-amphibole gneiss with the H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids can be accompanied by a partial melting at 750-800 C. Melting progress is vitally depends on the NaCl/KCl ratio in a fluid. NaCl intensifies melting because of higher solubility of Cl and CO2 in the sodic melts in comparison to the potassic varieties. Charnockitic and mangeritic assemblages (Opx+Cpx+Kfs+Pl) form in presence of the partial melts at temperature 800 C and are stable in presence of KCl-bearing fluids with relatively low salt concentrations (H2O/(KCl+H2O) < 0.015). Fluids of higher salinity result in formation syenitic and monzonitic assemblages (Cpx+Amp+Kfs+Pl). Applicability of the experimental data is demonstrated by mineral assemblages of local-scale dehydration zones in the high-grade terrains.

  13. Theoretical calculations of pressure broadening coefficients for H2O perturbed by hydrogen or helium gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamache, Robert R.; Pollack, James B.

    1995-01-01

    Halfwidths were calculated for H2O with H2 as a broadening gas and were estimated for He as the broadening species. The calculations used the model of Robert and Bonamy with parabolic trajectories and all relevant terms in the interaction potential. The calculations investigated the dependence of the halfwidth on the order of the atom-atom expansion, the rotational states, and the temperature in the range 200 to 400K. Finally, calculations were performed for many transitions of interest in the 5 micrometer window region of the spectrum. The resulting data will be supplied to Dr. R. Freedman for extracting accurate water mixing ratios from the analysis of the thermal channels for the Net Flux experiment on the Galileo probe.

  14. Development of pressurized coal partial combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Ino, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Kimura, N.

    1995-12-31

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), an environment-friendly power generation system of high thermal efficiency, is being developed via various approaches around the world. The oxygen-blown entrained flow gasification process is a relatively simple method of producing medium calorie coal gas suitable for application to gas turbines. Various systems for this process have been developed to a demonstration level in Europe and America. Japan has actively been developing the air-blown process. However, taking stable molten slag discharge into consideration, coal must be supplied at two stages to raise the combustor temperature in ash molten part. Only two reports have been presented regarding two-stage coal supply. One is the report on an experiment with the Hycol gasifier, in which air feed ratio is varied, with coal feed fixed. The other is report on a simulation study with various gasifier coal feed ratios, conducted at Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. It seems that the appropriate feed ratio has not yet been established. Through this activity, a unique furnace construction has been established, and these influences of stoichiometric air ratio, of oxygen enrichment, of char recycling and of coal types on performance have been clarified. The purpose of the present study is to apply this developed CPC techniques to a Pressurized CPC (PCPC), thereby improving the IGCC technology. For the present study, we conducted systematic experiments on the air-blown process with a two stage dry feed system, using a 7 t/d-coal bench scale PCPC test facility, operated at the pressure of 0.4 MPa, and clarified the influence of coal feed ratio on coal gasification performance. This report describes the above-mentioned bench scale test procedures and results, and also some informations about a plan of a 25 t/d-coal pilot test system.

  15. H2O storage capacity of olivine at 5-8 GPa and consequences for dehydration partial melting of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardia, P.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Tenner, T. J.

    2012-09-01

    The H2O storage capacities of peridotitic minerals place crucial constraints on the onset of hydrous partial melting in the mantle. The storage capacities of minerals in equilibrium with a peridotite mineral assemblage (“peridotite-saturated” minerals) are lower than when the minerals coexist only with fluid because hydrous partial melt is stabilized at a lower activity of H2O. Here, we determine peridotite-saturated olivine H2O storage capacities from 5 to 8 GPa and 1400-1500 °C in layered experiments designed to grow large (?100-150 ?m) olivine crystals in equilibrium with the full hydrous peridotite assemblage (melt+ol+opx+gar+cpx). The peridotite-saturated H2O storage capacity of olivine at 1450 °C rises from 57±26 ppm (by wt.) at 5 GPa to 254±60 ppm at 8 GPa. Combining these with results of a parallel study at 10-13 GPa (Tenner et al., 2011, CMP) yields a linear relation applicable from 5 to 13 GPa for peridotite-saturated H2O storage capacity of olivine at 1450 °C, CH2Oolivine(ppm)=57.6(±16)×P(GPa)-169(±18). Storage capacity diminishes with increasing temperature, but is unaffected by variable total H2O concentration between 0.47 and 1.0 wt%. Both of these are as predicted for the condition in which the water activity in the melt is governed principally by the cryoscopic requirement of melt stability for a given temperature below the dry solidus. Measured olivine storage capacities are in agreement or slightly greater than those predicted by a model that combines data from experimental freezing point depression and olivine/melt partition coefficients of H2O (Hirschmann et al., 2009). Considering the temperature along the mantle geotherm, as well as available constraints on garnet/olivine and pyroxene/olivine partitioning of H2O (DH2Ogar/ol,DH2Opx/ol), we estimate the peridotite H2O storage capacity in the low velocity zone. The CH2O required to initiate melting between 150 and 250 km depth is between 270 and 855 ppm. We conclude that hydrous partial melting does not occur at these depths for H2O concentrations (50-200 ppm) typical of the convecting upper mantle sampled by mid-ocean ridge basalts.

  16. On the Stark effect in open shell complexes exhibiting partially quenched electronic angular momentum: Infrared laser Stark spectroscopy of OH-C2H2, OH-C2H4, and OH-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Christopher P.; Douberly, Gary E.

    2015-08-01

    The Stark effect is considered for polyatomic open shell complexes that exhibit partially quenched electronic angular momentum. Matrix elements of the Stark Hamiltonian represented in a parity conserving Hund's case (a) basis are derived for the most general case, in which the permanent dipole moment has projections on all three inertial axes of the system. Transition intensities are derived, again for the most general case, in which the laser polarization has projections onto axes parallel and perpendicular to the Stark electric field, and the transition dipole moment vector is projected onto all three inertial axes in the molecular frame. Simulations derived from this model are compared to experimental rovibrational Stark spectra of OH-C2H2, OH-C2H4, and OH-H2O complexes formed in helium nanodroplets.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet utilizing Ar and Ar/H2O mixtures and its applications to bacteria inactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Cheng; Shen, Jie; Xiao, De-Zhi; Xie, Hong-Bing; Lan, Yan; Fang, Shi-Dong; Meng, Yue-Dong; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-01

    An atmospheric pressure plasma jet generated with Ar with H2O vapor is characterized and applied to inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores. The emission spectra obtained from Ar/H2O plasma shows a higher intensity of OH radicals compared to pure argon at a specified H2O concentration. The gas temperature is estimated by comparing the simulated spectra of the OH band with experimental spectra. The excitation electron temperature is determined from the Boltzmann's plots and Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer H? line is applied to measure the electron density. The gas temperature, excitation electron temperature, and electron density of the plasma jet decrease with the increase of water vapor concentration at a fixed input voltage. The bacteria inactivation rate increases with the increase of OH generation reaching a maximum reduction at 2.6% (v/v) water vapor. Our results also show that the OH radicals generated by the Ar/H2O plasma jet only makes a limited contribution to spore inactivation and the shape change of the spores before and after plasma irradiation is discussed.

  18. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  19. CVD growth of large-area graphene over Cu foil by atmospheric pressure and its application in H2 evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shu; Ullah, Kefayat; Zhu, Lei; Ali, Asghar; Jang, Won Kweon; Oh, Won-Chun

    2015-08-01

    This study reports that the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of large area graphene (LAG) over a Cu foil. The obtained large area graphene was further decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles via ultrasonic method. The surface structure, crystal phase, and elemental identification of these obtained LAG/TiO2 composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and Raman spectra. The photocatalytic H2 evolution result illustrates Cu-LAG/TiO2 has been found to be a potential catalyst for conversion of solar energy to clean hydrogen energy under visible light-driven despite that the H2 evolution activity is not high enough in this stage.

  20. H2O activity in concentrated KCl and KCl-NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures measured by the brucite-periclase equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranovich, L. Y.; Newton, R. C.

    H2O activities in supercritical fluids in the system KCl-H2O-(MgO) were measured at pressures of 1, 2, 4, 7, 10 and 15 kbar by numerous reversals of vapor compositions in equilibrium with brucite and periclase. Measurements spanned the range 550-900°C. A change of state of solute KCl occurs as pressures increase above 2kbar, by which H2O activity becomes very low and, at pressures of 4kbar and above, nearly coincident with the square of the mole fraction (xH2O). The effect undoubtedly results primarily from ionic dissociation as H2O density (?H2O) approaches 1gm/cm3, and is more pronounced than in the NaCl-H2O system at the same P-T-X conditions. Six values of solute KCl activity were yielded by terminal points of the isobaric brucite-periclase T-xH2O curves where sylvite saturation occurs. The H2O mole fraction of the isobaric invariant assemblage brucite-periclase-sylvite-fluid is near 0.52 at all pressures, and the corresponding temperatures span only 100°C between 1 and 15kbar. This remarkable convergence of the isobaric equilibrium curves reflects the great influence of pressure on lowering of both KCl and H2O activities. The H2O and KCl activities can be expressed by the formulas: aH2O=?H2O[xH2O+(1+(1+?)xKCl)], and aKCL=?KCl[(1+?)xKCl/(xH2O+(1+?)xKCl)](1+?), where ? is a degree of dissociation parameter which increases from zero at the lowest pressures to near one at high pressures and the ?'s are activity coefficients based on an empirical regular solution parameter W: ln ?i=(1-xi)2W. Least squares fitting of our H2O and KCl activity data evaluates the parameters: ?=exp(4.166 -2.709/?H2O) - 212.1P/T, and W=(-589.6-23.10P) /T, with ?H2O in gm/cm3, P in kbar and T in K. The standard deviation from the measured activities is only +/-0.014. The equations define isobaric liquidus curves, which are in perfect agreement with previous DTA liquidus measurements at 0.5-2kbar, but which depart progressively from their extrapolation to higher pressures because of the pressure-induced dissociation effect. The great similarity of the NaCl-H2O and KCl-H2O systems suggests that H2O activities in the ternary NaCl-KCl-H2O system can be described with reasonable accuracy by assuming proportionality between the binary systems. This assumption was verified by a few reconnaissance measurements at 10kbar of the brucite-periclase equilibrium with a Na/(Na+K) ratio of 0.5 and of the saturation temperature for Na/(Na+K) of 0.35 and 0.50. At that pressure the brucite-periclase curves reach a lowest xH2O of 0.45 and a temperature of 587°C before salt saturation occurs, values considerably lower than in either binary. This double-salt eutectic effect may have a significant application to natural polyionic hypersaline solutions in the deep crust and upper mantle in that higher solute concentrations and very low H2O activities may be realized in complex solutions before salt saturation occurs. Concentrated salt solutions seem, from this standpoint, and also because of high mechanical mobility and alkali-exchanging potential, feasible as metasomatic fluids for a variety of deep-crust and upper mantle processes.

  1. DFT-based prediction of high-pressure H2 adsorption on porous carbons at ambient temperatures from low-pressure adsorption data measured at 77 K.

    PubMed

    Jagiello, Jacek; Ansón, Alejandro; Martínez, M Teresa

    2006-03-16

    Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured both at cryogenic temperatures below 1 atm and at ambient temperature at high pressures, up to 90 atm, on selected porous carbons with various pore structures. The nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) model was used to calculate the pore size distributions (PSDs) of the carbons, from H2 adsorption isotherms measured at 77 K, and then to predict H2 adsorption on these carbons at 87 and 298 K. An excellent agreement between the predicted and measured data was obtained. Prior to analyzing the porous carbons, the solid-fluid interaction parameters used in the NLDFT model were derived from H2 adsorption data measured at 77 K on nonporous carbon black. The results show that the NLDFT model with appropriate parameters may be a useful tool for optimizing carbon pore structures and designing adsorption systems for hydrogen storage applications. PMID:16526679

  2. Using Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures to Determine the Vapor Pressure of a Volatile Liquid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgeman, Fred R.; Bertrand, Gary; Wilson, Brent

    2007-01-01

    This experiment, designed for a general chemistry laboratory, illustrates the use of Dalton's law of partial pressures to determine the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid. A predetermined volume of air is injected into a calibrated tube filled with a liquid whose vapor pressure is to be measured. The volume of the liquid displaced is greater than…

  3. Sound velocities of hexagonal close-packed H2 and He under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiman, Yu. A.; Grechnev, Alexei; Tretyak, S. M.; Goncharov, A. F.; Zha, C. S.; Hemley, Russell J.

    2013-12-01

    Bulk, shear, and compressional aggregate sound velocities of hydrogen and helium in the close-packed hexagonal structure are calculated over a wide pressure range using two complementary approaches: semiempirical lattice dynamics based on the many-body intermolecular potentials and density-functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation. The sound velocities are used to calculate the pressure dependence of the Debye temperature. The comparisons between experiment and first-principles and semiempirical calculations provide constraints on the density dependence of intermolecular interactions in the zero-temperature limit.

  4. Calibration Of Partial-Pressure-Of-Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yount, David W.; Heronimus, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Report and analysis of, and discussion of improvements in, procedure for calibrating partial-pressure-of-oxygen sensors to satisfy Spacelab calibration requirements released. Sensors exhibit fast drift, which results in short calibration period not suitable for Spacelab. By assessing complete process of determining total drift range available, calibration procedure modified to eliminate errors and still satisfy requirements without compromising integrity of system.

  5. Pressurized H_{2} rf Cavities in Ionizing Beams and Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.; et al.

    2013-10-01

    A major technological challenge in building a muon cooling channel is operating RF cavities in multi-tesla external magnetic fields. We report the first experimental characterization of a high pressure gas-filled 805 MHz RF cavity for use with intense ionizing beams and strong external magnetic fields. RF power consumption by beam-induced plasma was investigated with hydrogen and deuterium gases with pressures between 20 and 100 atm and peak RF gradients between 5 and 50 MV/m. The energy absorption per ion pair-RF cycle ranges from 10?18 to 10?16 J. The low pressure case agrees well with an analytical model based on electron and ion mobilities. Varying concentrations of oxygen gas were investigated to remove free electrons from the cavity and reduce the RF power consumption. Measurements of the electron attachment time to oxygen and rate of ion-ion recombination were also made. Additionally, we demonstrate the operation of the gas-filled RF cavity in a solenoidal field of up to 3 T, finding no major magnetic field dependence. These results indicate that a high pressure gas-filled cavity is potentially a viable technology for muon ionization cooling.

  6. Pressure-induced transformations in LiCl-H2O at 77 K.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, G N; Bove, L E; Corti, H R; Loerting, T

    2014-09-14

    A systematic study of the properties of high-density amorphous ice (HDA) in the presence of increasing amounts of salt is missing, especially because it is challenging to avoid ice crystallization upon cooling the pressurized liquid. In order to be able to study HDA also in the presence of small amounts of salt, we have investigated the transformation behaviour of quenched aqueous LiCl solutions (mole fraction x < 0.25) upon pressurization in a piston-cylinder setup at 77 K. The sample properties were characterized by in situ dilatometry under high pressure conditions and after recovery by ex situ powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at ambient pressure. Two regimes can be identified, with a rather sharp switch at about x = 0.12. At x < 0.12 the samples show the phenomenology also known for pure water samples. They are composed mainly of hexagonal ice (Ih) and experience pressure-induced amorphization to HDA at P > 1 GPa. The observed densification is consistent with the idea that a freeze concentrated LiCl solution of x = 0.14 (R = 6) segregates, which transforms to the glassy state upon cooling, and that the densification is only due to the Ih ? HDA transition. Also the XRD patterns and DSC scans are almost unaffected by the presence of the segregated glassy LiCl solution. Upon heating at ambient pressure HDA experiences the polyamorphic transition to low-density amorphous ice (LDA) at ?120 K, even at x ? 0.10. Based on the latent heat evolved in the transition we suggest that almost all water in the sample transforms to an LDA-like state, even the water in the vicinity of the ions. The glassy LiCl solution acts as a spectator that does not shift the transformation temperature significantly and experiences a glass-to-liquid transition at ?140 K prior to the crystallization to cubic ice. By contrast, at x > 0.12 the phenomenology completely changes and is now dominated by the salt. Hexagonal ice no longer forms upon quenching the LiCl solution, but instead LDA forms. A broad pressure-induced transformation at >0.6 GPa can be attributed to the densification of LDA, the glassy LiCl solution and/or glassy hydrates. PMID:25072395

  7. Evidence for SiO2-NaCl complexing in H2O-NaCl solutions at high pressure and temperature

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    Evidence for SiO2-NaCl complexing in H2O-NaCl solutions at high pressure and temperature R. C to be Si(OH)4·2H2O. These neglected features can be incorporated into the complexing model in a revised complexes with overall NaCl:H2O = 1:6, one Na-bearing and one Cl-bearing. Their (equal) molar concentrations

  8. The solubility of corundum in H2O at high pressure and temperature and its implications for Al mobility in the deep

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    The solubility of corundum in H2O at high pressure and temperature and its implications for Al: D. Rickard Abstract The solubility of corundum in H2O was measured at 700­1100 °C and 0.5­2.0 GPa were fitted with the equation log mAl =1.131+3827/T-(2.277-7336/T)logH2O, where mAl is molality of Al

  9. A unified equation for calculating methane vapor pressures in the CH4-H2O system with measured Raman shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.; Song, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A unified equation has been derived by using all available data for calculating methane vapor pressures with measured Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band (??1) in the vapor phase of sample fluids near room temperature. This equation eliminates discrepancies among the existing data sets and can be applied at any Raman laboratory. Raman shifts of C-H symmetric stretching band of methane in the vapor phase of CH4-H2O mixtures prepared in a high-pressure optical cell were also measured at temperatures between room temperature and 200 ??C, and pressures up to 37 MPa. The results show that the CH4 ??1 band position shifts to higher wavenumber as temperature increases. We also demonstrated that this Raman band shift is a simple function of methane vapor density, and, therefore, when combined with equation of state of methane, methane vapor pressures in the sample fluids at elevated temperatures can be calculated from measured Raman peak positions. This method can be applied to determine the pressure of CH4-bearing systems, such as methane-rich fluid inclusions from sedimentary basins or experimental fluids in hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell or other types of optical cell. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sublimation pressure and sublimation enthalpy of H 2O ice Ih between 0 and 273.16 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, Rainer; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The sublimation of water in the region of extremely low pressures and temperatures meets increasing interest for the exploration of icy cosmic bodies. At temperatures below 130 K, the shape of the sublimation curve of H 2O is not known; neither experimental data nor theoretical treatments exist for this region. Based upon theoretical upper and lower bounds for the heat capacity of water vapor in this range, a narrow region in the pressure-temperature diagram is identified which must necessarily enclose the sublimation curve down to virtually any lower pressures and temperatures. Within this region, an approximate sublimation curve is computed from the 2006 Gibbs potential of ice Ih, using available heat capacity data points of water vapor between 10 and 130 K. The theoretical zero-point limiting law of the sublimation pressure is derived. Valid between 20 and 273.16 K, correlation equations for the sublimation enthalpy and the sublimation pressure are fitted to the computed data. All quantities are expressed in the 1990 temperature scale ITS-90. Under cosmic conditions, our results suggest that the sublimation of ice is unlikely below 50 K and impossible below 23 K.

  11. Effects of partial inhibition of respiratory complex I on H2O 2 production by isolated brain mitochondria in different respiratory states.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Luiz G B; Benevento, Carlos E; Rossato, Franco A; Siqueira-Santos, Edilene S; Castilho, Roger F

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of partial inhibition of respiratory complex I by rotenone on H2O2 production by isolated rat brain mitochondria in different respiratory states. Flow cytometric analysis of membrane potential in isolated mitochondria indicated that rotenone leads to uniform respiratory inhibition when added to a suspension of mitochondria. When mitochondria were incubated in the presence of a low concentration of rotenone (10 nm) and NADH-linked substrates, oxygen consumption was reduced from 45.9 ± 1.0 to 26.4 ± 2.6 nmol O2 mg(-1) min(-1) and from 7.8 ± 0.3 to 6.3 ± 0.3 nmol O2 mg(-1) min(-1) in respiratory states 3 (ADP-stimulated respiration) and 4 (resting respiration), respectively. Under these conditions, mitochondrial H2O2 production was stimulated from 12.2 ± 1.1 to 21.0 ± 1.2 pmol H2O2 mg(-1) min(-1) and 56.5 ± 4.7 to 95.0 ± 11.1 pmol H2O2 mg(-1) min(-1) in respiratory states 3 and 4, respectively. Similar results were observed when comparing mitochondrial preparations enriched with synaptic or nonsynaptic mitochondria or when 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) was used as a respiratory complex I inhibitor. Rotenone-stimulated H2O2 production in respiratory states 3 and 4 was associated with a high reduction state of endogenous nicotinamide nucleotides. In succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration, where most of the mitochondrial H2O2 production relies on electron backflow from complex II to complex I, low rotenone concentrations inhibited H2O2 production. Rotenone had no effect on mitochondrial elimination of micromolar concentrations of H2O2. The present results support the conclusion that partial complex I inhibition may result in mitochondrial energy crisis and oxidative stress, the former being predominant under oxidative phosphorylation and the latter under resting respiration conditions. PMID:25287903

  12. The vapor pressures of supercooled NHO3/H2O solutions. [in polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, David R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure utilizing the Gibbs-Duhem relation is used to extrapolate vapor pressures of supercooled HNO3 mixtures to 190 K. Values of A and B from the equation logP = A - B/T are presented for solutions between 0.20 and 0.25 mole fraction HNO3. In the stratosphere, if sufficient HNO3 vapor is present because it has not come into equilibrium with the nitric acid trihydrate, supercooled nitric acid solutions could condense at temperatures up to 1.5 + or - 0.8 K above the ice point.

  13. Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

    Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber, bioregenerative life support

  14. Vibrational dynamics, intermolecular interactions, and compound formation in GeH4–H2 under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, Timothy A.; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Somayazulu, Maddury; Hemley, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Optical microscopy, spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction studies at high-pressure are used to investigate intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures of germane (GeH{sub 4} )+hydrogen (H{sub 2} ) . The measurements reveal the formation of a new molecular compound, with the approximate stoichiometry GeH{sub 4} (H{sub 2} ){sub 2} , when the constituents are compressed above 7.5 GPa. Raman and infrared spectroscopic measurements show multiple H{sub 2} vibrons substantially softened from bulk solid hydrogen. With increasing pressure, the frequencies of several Raman and infrared H{sub 2} vibrons decrease, indicating anomalous attractive interaction for closed-shell, nonpolar molecules. Synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction measurements show that the compound has a structure based on face-centered cubic (fcc) with GeH{sub 4} molecules occupying fcc sites and H{sub 2} molecules likely distributed between O{sub h} and T{sub d} sites. Above ca. 17 GPa, GeH{sub 4} molecules in the compound become unstable with respect to decomposition products (Ge+H{sub 2} ) , however, the compound can be preserved metastably to ca. 27 GPa for time-scales of the order of several hours.

  15. Pressure dependence of the absolute rate constant for the reaction OH + C2H2 from 228 to 413K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, J. V.; Nava, D. F.; Borokowski, R. P.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    The pressure dependence of absolute rate constants for the reaction of OH + C2H2 yields products has been examined at five temperatures ranging from 228 to 413 K. The experimental techniques which was used is flash photolysis-resonance fluoresence. OH was produced by water photolysis and hydroxyl resonance fluorescent photons were measured by multiscaling techniques. The results indicate that the low pressure bimolecular rate constant is 4 x 10 the the minus 13th power cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1) over the temperature range studied. A substantial increase in the bimolecular rate constant with an increase in pressure was observed at all temperatures except 228 K. This indicates the importance of initial adduct formation and subsequent stablization. The high pressure results are well represented by the Arrhenius expression (k sub bi) sub infinity = (6.83 + or - 1.19) x 10 to the minus 12th power exp(-646 + or - 47/T)cu cm molecule (-1) s(-1). The results are compared to previous investigated and are theoretically discussed. The implications of these results on modeling of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and also in combustion chemistry are discussed.

  16. Laboratory measurement of H2O2 pressure broadening parameter for JEM/SMILES Observation from International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Mizoguchi, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kanamori, H.

    2009-12-01

    A new generation of sub-millimeter-wave receivers employing sensitive SIS (Superconductor Insulator Superconductor) detector technology will provide new opportunities for precise remote sensing measurements of minor constituents in the earth and planetary atmosphere.Superconducting Sub-Millimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was designed to be onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS) as a collaboration project of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).SMILES in Transfer Vehicle (HTV) plan to launch in September 11 2009 by Japanese H-IIB rocket. JEM/SMILES will allow to observe the atmospheric species such as O3, H35Cl, H37Cl, ClO, BrO, HOCl, HO2, H2O2, HNO3 and CH3CN, Ozone isotope species, and water vapor with the precisions in a few to several tens percents [1] in the altitude region upper troposphere (about 8km in mid-latitude) and the mesosphere (about 90km in mid-latitude). In this paper, laboratory measurement of the pressure broadening parameter (?) of Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at JKa,Kc = 201,19 - 192,17 rotational transition (625.044 GHz) will be presented. This is one of the target transitions of JEM/SMILES observation. ? of H2O2 in sub-millimeter-wave region was measured for the first time. The measurement was carried out using a sub-millimeter-wave absorption spectrometric system in Tokyo Institute of Technology.The radiation source from a backward wave oscillator (BWO) was phase-locked to the harmonics of a synthesized sweeper with two-step phase lock loop. The BWO source frequency was modulated with the modulation frequency of 51 kHz. H2O2 sample was prerpared by distillation of commercial available 30% solution. The pressures of sample and buffer gas (N2 and O2) were controlled by a mass flow meter and monitored by two Baratron monitors in the cell. From the observed profiles of the spectrum, the pressure broadening line widths were determined using a convolution method proposed by Pickett [2], [3]. ? was determined by fitting the measured line widths to a linear function with a least-square method. ? (N2) = 4.03 ± 0.06 [MHz/Torr] (1.4%), ? (O2) = 2.49 ± 0.04 [MHz/Torr] (1.7%). The errors are presumably caused by representational accuracy fluctuation of Baratron pressure monitor. Precision of JEM/SMILES sensitive observation requires the precise value of ? of H2O2 within the error of 3%. We confirmed that the precision of the measurement fulfills the SMILES observation requirement. Refferences [1] JEM/SMILES mission plan. Version 2.1, November 15, 2002. [2] M. M. Yamada, M. Kobayashi, M. Habara, T. Amano, and B. J. Drouin, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 391-399 (2003). [3] H. M. Pickett, Appl. Opt. 19, 2745 (1980).

  17. High Temperature and Pressure Steam-H2 Interaction with Candidate Advanced LWR Fuel Claddings

    SciTech Connect

    Pint, Bruce A

    2012-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed to evaluate cladding materials that could serve as improvements to Zircaloy in terms of accident tolerance. This testing involved oxidation resistance to steam or H{sub 2}-50% steam environments at 800-1350 C at 1-20 bar for short times. A selection of conventional alloys, SiC-based ceramics and model alloys were used to explore a wide range of materials options and provide guidance for future materials development work. Typically, the SiC-based ceramic materials, alumina-forming alloys and Fe-Cr alloys with {ge}25% Cr showed the best potential for oxidation resistance at {ge}1200 C. At 1350 C, FeCrAl alloys and SiC remained oxidation resistant in steam. Conventional austenitic steels do not have sufficient oxidation resistance with only {approx}18Cr-10Ni. Higher alloyed type 310 stainless steel is protective but Ni is not a desirable alloy addition for this application and high Cr contents raise concern about {alpha}{prime} formation. Higher pressures (up to 20.7 bar) and H{sub 2} additions appeared to have a limited effect on the oxidation behavior of the most oxidation resistant alloys but higher pressures accelerated the maximum metal loss for less oxidation resistant steels and less metal loss was observed in a H{sub 2}-50%H{sub 2}O environment at 10.3 bar. As some of the results regarding low-alloyed FeCrAl and Fe-Cr alloys were unexpected, further work is needed to fundamentally understand the minimum Cr and Al alloy contents needed for protective behavior in these environments in order to assist in alloy selection and guide alloy development.

  18. Removal of H2S and SO2 by CaCO3-Based Sorbents at High Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Stratis V. Sotirchos

    1998-02-01

    The theoretical and experimental investigation of the mechanism of SO2 and H2S removal by CaCO3 -based sorbents (limestones and dolomites) in pressurized uidized-bed coal combustors (PFBC) and high pressure gasi#12;ers, respectively, is the main objective of this study. It is planned to carry out reactivity evolution experiments under simulated high pressure conditions or in high pressure thermogravimetric and, if needed, uidized- bed reactor (high pressure) arrangements. The pore structure of fresh, heat-treated, and half-calcined solids (dolomites) will be analyzed using a variety of methods. Our work will focus on limestones and dolomites whose reaction with SO2 or H2S under atmospheric conditions has been studied by us or other research groups in past studies. Several theoret- ical tools will be employed to analyze the obtained experimental data including a variable di#11;usivity shrinking-core model and models for di#11;usion, reaction, and structure evolution in chemically reacting porous solids. During the six months of this reporting period, work was primarily done on the study of the behavior of the sul#12;dation of limestones under sequential calcination conditions in the presence of small amounts of oxygen and the development of a stochastic simulation code for determining the extent of pore volume trapping (formation of inaccessible pore space) in gas-solid reactions accompanied by pore volume reduction such as the sulfation and sul#12;dation of calcined limestones and dolomites. The incentive for carrying out sul#12;dation experiments in the presence of oxygen was provided by the observation that some sul#12;dation experiments that were conducted as oxygen was accidentally leaking into the feed mixture of the reactor showed completely di#11;erent behavior from that obtained in the absence of oxygen. Experiments were carried out in the thermogravimetric analysis system that we developed for studying gas-solid reactions at atmospheric or subambient pressures. The two CaCO3 solids (Greer limestone and Iceland spar) that we employed in our previous experiments were used in the sulfidation.

  19. Biological nitrogen fixation under primordial Martian partial pressures of dinitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klingler, J. M.; Mancinelli, R. L.; White, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most striking differences between the conditions on early Mars and earth was a low (18 mb) partial pressure of N2 (pN2) on early Mars, as opposed to 780 mb N2 on earth. To investigate the possibility of biological nitrogen fixation under conditions of early Mars, experiments were carried out on the growth of Azotobacter vinelandii and Azomonas agilis in nitrogen-free synthetic medium under various partial pressures of N2 (ranging from 780 to 0 mb). It was found that, although the biomass, cell number, and growth rate of these bacteria decreased with decreasing pN2 values below pN2 of 400 mb, both microorganisms were capable of growing at pN2 as low as 5 mb (but not at of below 1 mb), indicating that biological fixation of nitrogen could have occurred on primordial Mars.

  20. Partial purification of ferredoxin from Ruminococcus albus and its role in pyruvate metabolism and reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by H2.

    PubMed

    Glass, T L; Bryant, M P; Wolin, M J

    1977-08-01

    Extracts of Ruminococcus albus were not able to convert pyruvate to acetyl phosphate, CO2, and H2 after passage through a diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose column. Activity was restored by a brown protein fraction eluted from the column with 0.4 M Cl-. The protein was partially purified and shown to have the spectral and biological characteristics of ferredoxin. R. albus ferredoxin, Clostridium pasteurianum ferredoxin, and methyl viologen restored activity for pyruvate decomposition by DEAE-cellulose-treated R. albus extracts. R. albus or C. pasteurianum ferredoxin restored the ability of DEAE-cellulose-treated C. pasteurianum extracts to form H2 and acetyl phosphate from pyruvate. Ferredoxin-free extracts of R. albus reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) when supplemented with R. albus or C. pasteurianum ferredoxin or with methyl viologen. These extracts reduced NADP with H2 poorly unless both ferredoxin and NAD were added, which indicates the presence of an NADH:NADP transhydrogenase. Flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide were rapidly reduced by H2 by ferredoxin-free extracts in the absence of ferredoxin. PMID:195928

  1. Quartz solubility in H 2O-NaCl and H 2O-CO 2 solutions at deep crust-upper mantle pressures and temperatures: 2-15 kbar and 500-900°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Robert C.; Manning, Craig E.

    2000-09-01

    The solubility of quartz in H 2O-NaCl solutions was measured at 2, 4.35, 10 and 15 kbar and 500-900°C, and at NaCl concentrations up to halite saturation, usually greater than 75 wt.%. Quartz solubility was also measured in CO 2-H 2O solutions at 10 kbar and 800°C. Solubilities were determined by weight loss of ground and polished quartz crystal fragments which were equilibrated with solutions in Pt envelopes for one to four days and then rapidly quenched. Experiments at 2 kbar were made with externally heated cold-seal apparatus; higher pressure experiments were done in a 3/4 inch-diameter piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl pressure medium and graphite heater sleeve. Equilibrium solubility was demonstrated in several ways, and the present results reproduce those of Manning (1994) in pure H 2O at selected conditions. At pressures below 4 kbar, NaCl in solution causes an initial "salting-in", or quartz solubility enhancement, which, at 2 kbar and 700°C, persists to concentrations as great as 70 wt.% NaCl before quartz solubility again becomes as low as in pure H 2O. The maximum solubility occurs at X(H 2O) ˜ 0.9 and is 50% higher than in pure H 2O. At 4.35 kbar and 700°C, however, quartz solubility decreases slightly with initial NaCl concentration, and then begins to drop rapidly with increasing salinity beyond 45 wt.% NaCl. At 10 and 15 kbar there is a steep initial decline in silica molality at all temperatures in the range 500-900°C, leveling off at higher NaCl concentrations. There is thus a pronounced change in solution behavior with pressure, from initial salting-in below 4 kbar to monotonic salting-out above 5 kbar. This pressure-induced change in silica solubility parallels the sharp decrease in H 2O activity in NaCl solutions in the same pressure range found by Aranovich and Newton (1996). Therefore, the pressure-induced change in silica solubility is inferred to be a consequence of the dissociation of the neutral NaCl o complex to Na + and Cl - as solution densities increase above about 0.7 gm/cm 3. At very high salinities, approaching halite saturation, the isobars of quartz solubility as a function of NaCl mole fraction at 700°C converge, indicating that, for hypersaline fluids having the constitution of molten salts, pressure has only a minor effect on quartz solubility. Quartz solubility at 10 kbar shows exponential decline with increasing salinity at all temperatures in the range 500°C to 900°C. This is the expected behavior of a two-component solvent, in which quartz is sparingly soluble in one component. At 10 kbar, isotherms of log silica molality versus H 2O mole fraction are linear between X(H 2O) = 1.0 and 0.5, but begin to curve to lower values at 900°C, where high salinities are attained before halite saturation occurs. This behavior implies that the solute silica species is a hydrate that becomes progressively destabilized at low H 2O concentrations of the solvent. Plots of log silica molality versus log H 2O activity suggest that the solute species is neutral H 4SiO 4 with no additional solvated H 2O molecules, assuming no Na-SiO 2 complexing. The solubility of quartz in CO 2-H 2O fluids at 800°C and 10 kbar is much smaller than in NaCl solutions at the same P,T and H 2O activity. Thermodynamic analysis suggests that the solute species in CO 2-H 2O fluids is H 4SiO 4 with 1-3 solvated H 2O molecules, which is similar to the solute behavior inferred by Walther and Orville (1983) in CO 2 and Ar solutions with H 2O at lower pressures. The present results show that SiO 2 will partition very strongly into a concentrated salt solution in deep crust-upper mantle metamorphic and metasomatic processes, in preference to a coexisting immiscible CO 2-rich fluid. The much greater permeability of silicate rocks for salt solutions than for CO 2-rich solutions, together with the much higher solubility of silica-rich phases in the former, could be an important factor in geochemical segregation processes involving rising and cooling fluids of magmatic or metamorphic origin.

  2. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  3. Determination of the partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure lamp arcs: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.; Aubes, M.

    1986-08-01

    The partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure Hg-TlI discharges with different mercury, thallium, and electron pressures has been measured by using the optically thin line Tl 655 nm and the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm. The partial pressure of the arc axis has been measured from the line Tl 655nm. The effective partial pressure has been measured from the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm on the basis of the multiparameter method, and it has been calculated from the known axis pressure of thallium and the calculation of its radial variation by taking into account the chemical reactions. The experimental results confirm the dispersion character of the blue wing of the line Tl 535 nm. The systematic difference obtained between the measured and calculated effective pressure, particularly at the moment of minimum electron density, may be interpreted by deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) caused by overpopulation of the upper level of the line Tl 535 nm.

  4. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  6. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  7. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  8. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid...

  9. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  12. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1150 - Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure....1150 Indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood carbon dioxide partial pressure PCO2 analyzer is a device that consists of a...

  14. Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Robertson

    2003-12-31

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 - December 31, 2003 time period.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2002-07-10

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2002 time period.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-30

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1--December 31, 2002 time period.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2003-10-29

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2003-07-23

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2003 time period.

  19. Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    A. Robertson

    2002-09-30

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1-September 30, 2002 time period.

  20. Extrapolation of IAPWS-IF97 data: The saturation pressure of H2O in the critical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustyuzhanin, E. E.; Ochkov, V. F.; Shishakov, V. V.; Rykov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Some literature sources and web sites are analyzed in this report. These sources contain an information about thermophysical properties of H2O including the vapor pressure Ps. (Ps,T)-data have a form of the international standard tables named as “IAPWS-IF97 data”. Our analysis shows that traditional databases represent (Ps,T)-data at t > 0.002, here t = (Tc ? T)/Tc is a reduced temperature. It is an interesting task to extrapolate IAPWS-IF97 data in to the critical region and to get (Ps,T)-data at t < 0.002. We have considered some equations Ps(t) and estimated that previous models do not follow to the degree laws of the scaling theory (ST). A combined model (CM) is chosen as a form, F(t,D,B), to express a function ln(Ps/Pc) in the critical region including t < 0.002, here D = (?, Pc,Tc,...) are critical characteristics, B are adjustable coefficients. CM has a combined structure with scaling and regular parts. The degree laws of ST are taken into account to elaborate F(t, D, B). Adjustable coefficients (B) are determined by fitting CM to input (Ps,T)-points those belong to IAPWS-IF97 data. Application results are got with a help of CM in the critical region including values of the first and the second derivatives for Ps(T). Some models Ps(T) are compared with CM.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-29

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800 F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2004-07-01

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. Under this contract a series of pilot plant tests are being conducted to ascertain PGM performance with a variety of fuels. The performance and economics of a PGM based plant designed for the co-production of hydrogen and electricity will also be determined. This report describes the work performed during the April-June 30, 2004 time period.

  3. First-principles calculations of the high-pressure melt line of SiO2 and strength of H2O: planetary science implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Amit; Hamel, Sebastien; Qi, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    We report the results from high-pressure high-temperature quantum molecular dynamics simulations of two materials of importance to planetary science. First, the high-pressure melt line of SiO2 using constrained free energy calculations under condition relevant to the Outer Planets. Second, we explore the stability of the H2O super-ionic phase by calculating the elastic constants at finite temperature and provides insight into the generation of magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune.

  4. Constructing and testing the thermodynamic limits of synthetic NAD(P)H:H2 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Andrea; Akhtar, M. Kalim; Mizutani, Taeko; Jones, Patrik R.

    2008-01-01

    Summary NAD(P)H:H2 pathways are theoretically predicted to reach equilibrium at very low partial headspace H2 pressure. An evaluation of the directionality of such near?equilibrium pathways in vivo, using a defined experimental system, is therefore important in order to determine its potential for application. Many anaerobic microorganisms have evolved NAD(P)H:H2 pathways; however, they are either not genetically tractable, and/or contain multiple H2 synthesis/consumption pathways linked with other more thermodynamically favourable substrates, such as pyruvate. We therefore constructed a synthetic ferredoxin?dependent NAD(P)H:H2 pathway model system in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and experimentally evaluated the thermodynamic limitations of nucleotide pyridine?dependent H2 synthesis under closed batch conditions. NADPH?dependent H2 accumulation was observed with a maximum partial H2 pressure equivalent to a biochemically effective intracellular NADPH/NADP+ ratio of 13:1. The molar yield of the NADPH:H2 pathway was restricted by thermodynamic limitations as it was strongly dependent on the headspace?:?liquid ratio of the culture vessels. When the substrate specificity was extended to NADH, only the reverse pathway directionality, H2 consumption, was observed above a partial H2 pressure of 40?Pa. Substitution of NADH with NADPH or other intermediates, as the main electron acceptor/donor of glucose catabolism and precursor of H2, is more likely to be applicable for H2 production. PMID:21261858

  5. Effect of H2O on the density of silicate melts at high pressures: Static experiments and the application of a

    E-print Network

    Effect of H2O on the density of silicate melts at high pressures: Static experiments in revised form 1 March 2012; available online 13 March 2012 Abstract Density of ultramafic silicate melts- tions range from 9 to 15 GPa and from 2173 to 2473 K. The sinking and floatation of density markers were

  6. Thermodynamic modelling of clay dehydration, stability and compositional evolution with temperature, pressure and H 2O activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, O.; Dubacq, B.

    2009-11-01

    We propose a thermodynamic approach to model the stepwise dehydration with increasing temperature or decreasing H 2O activity of K, Na, Ca and Mg-smectite. The approach relies on the relative stability of the different solid-solutions that describe the hydration of di- or trioctahedral-smectites containing 0, 1, 2 or 3 interlayer water layers. The inclusion of anhydrous mica end-members makes it possible to cover, with the same solid-solution model, the entire range of composition from low-charge smectite to mica, through high-charge smectite and illite. Non-ideal Margules parameters were used to describe the non-ideality of the solid solutions between the hydrated and dehydrated smectite end-members. Standard state properties of all smectite end-members as well as Ca- and Mg-muscovite and -phlogopite were initially estimated by oxide summation. These values were then refined and the other non-ideal interactions were estimated on the basis of different experimental data. The stepwise dehydration of smectite, and its stability and compatibility relations were calculated by Gibbs free energy minimising. Our results account for the progressive evolution of smectite to interlayered illite/smectite and then to mica, as observed in nature and experiments, and our model provides an explanation for the thermodynamic stability of smectite and illite/smectite compared to mica + kaolinite or pyrophyllite assemblages. The results suggest that the enthalpic contribution of interlayer water is a function of the ionic potential of the interlayer cation and the number of interlayer water molecules. This evolution makes possible to estimate the standard-state thermodynamic parameters and hydration-temperature behaviour of smectite of virtually all possible compositions. For the four-interlayer cations considered in the study, our model reproduces the 3 ? 2 ? 1 water-layer transitions that accompany a reduction of water activity or an increase of temperature at ambient pressure. The range of water content and interlayer distance calculated for the 3w, 2w and 1w states are also in fair agreement with the experimental values at ambient pressure.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-07-10

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ({approx}2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate sequestration of stack gas carbon dioxide gases for a 100% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. The PGM consists of a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) reactor together with a recycle cyclone and a particulate removing barrier filter. Coal, air, steam, and possibly sand are fed to the bottom of the PCFB reactor and establish a relatively dense bed of coal/char in the bottom section. As these constituents react, a hot syngas is produced which conveys the solids residue vertically up through the reactor and into the recycle cyclone. Solids elutriated from the dense bed and contained in the syngas are collected in the cyclone and drain via a dipleg back to the dense bed at the bottom of the PCFB reactor. This recycle loop of hot solids acts as a thermal flywheel and promotes efficient solid-gas chemical reaction.

  8. Wavelength-modulation spectroscopy near 1.4 µm for measurements of H2O and temperature in high-pressure and -temperature gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenstein, C. S.; Spearrin, R. M.; Schultz, I. A.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2014-05-01

    The development, validation and demonstration of a two-color tunable diode laser (TDL) absorption sensor for measurements of temperature and H2O in high-pressure and high-temperature gases are presented. This sensor uses first-harmonic-normalized wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f/1f) to account for non-absorbing transmission losses and emission encountered in harsh, high-pressure environments. Two telecommunications-grade TDLs were used to probe H2O absorption transitions near 1391.7 and 1469.3 nm. The lasers were frequency-multiplexed and modulated at 160 and 200 kHz to enable a measurement bandwidth up to 30 kHz along a single line-of-sight. In addition, accurate measurements are enabled at extreme conditions via an experimentally derived spectroscopic database. This sensor was validated under low-absorbance (<0.05) conditions in shock-heated H2O-N2 mixtures at temperatures and pressures from 700 to 2400 K and 2 to 25 atm. There, this sensor recovered the known temperature and H2O mole fraction with a nominal accuracy of 2.8% and 4.7% RMS, respectively. Lastly, this sensor resolved expected transients with high bandwidth and high precision in a reactive shock tube experiment and a pulse detonation combustor.

  9. Akbu-LAAO exhibits potent anti-tumor activity to HepG2 cells partially through produced H2O2 via TGF-? signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunmei; Liu, Shuqing; Dong, Panpan; Zhao, Dongting; Wang, Chengyi; Tao, Zhiwei; Sun, Ming-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we characterized the biological properties of Akbu-LAAO, a novel L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom (SV). Current work investigated its in vitro anti-tumor activity and underlying mechanism on HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO inhibited HepG2 growth time and dose-dependently with an IC50 of ~38.82??g/mL. It could induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Akbu-LAAO exhibited cytotoxicity by inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 as it showed no effect on its cell cycle. The inhibition of Akbu-LAAO to HepG2 growth partially relied on enzymatic-released H2O2 as catalase only partially antagonized this effect. cDNA microarray results indicated TGF-? signaling pathway was linked to the cytotoxicity of Akbu-LAAO on HepG2. TGF-? pathway related molecules CYR61, p53, GDF15, TOB1, BTG2, BMP2, BMP6, SMAD9, JUN, JUNB, LOX, CCND1, CDK6, GADD45A, CDKN1A were deregulated in HepG2 following Akbu-LAAO stimulation. The presence of catalase only slightly restored the mRNA changes induced by Akbu-LAAO for differentially expressed genes. Meanwhile, LDN-193189, a TGF-? pathway inhibitor reduced Akbu-LAAO cytotoxicity on HepG2. Collectively, we reported, for the first time, SV-LAAO showed anti-tumor cell activity via TGF-? pathway. It provides new insight of SV-LAAO exhibiting anti-tumor effect via a novel signaling pathway. PMID:26655928

  10. High pressure-temperature Raman measurements of H2O melting to 22 GPa and 900 K

    E-print Network

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    modes of H2O as well as optical observations are used to directly and reliably detect melting in ice VIIO in ice VII reported to date indicate that the diffusion coefficients close to the melting curve, leading to very different predictions for the ice VII melting curve.16­21 The appearance and disappear

  11. Thermal conductivity of H2O-CH3OH mixtures at high pressures: Implications for the dynamics of icy super-Earths outer shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin; Deschamps, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Thermal conductivity of H2O-volatile mixtures at extreme pressure-temperature conditions is a key factor to determine the heat flux and profile of the interior temperature in icy bodies. We use time domain thermoreflectance and stimulated Brillouin scattering combined with diamond anvil cells to study the thermal conductivity and sound velocity of water (H2O)-methanol (CH3OH) mixtures to pressures as high as 12 GPa. Compared to pure H2O, the presence of 5-20 wt % CH3OH significantly reduces the thermal conductivity and sound velocity when the mixture becomes ice VI-CH3OH and ice VII-CH3OH phases at high pressures, indicating that the heat transfer is hindered within the icy body. We then apply these results to model the heat transfer through the icy mantles of super-Earths, assuming that these mantles are animated by thermal convection. Our calculations indicate that the decrease of thermal conductivity due to the presence of 10 wt % CH3OH induces a twofold decrease of the power transported by convection.

  12. Comparative ecology of H2 cycling in sedimentary and phototrophic ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; Alperin, Marc J.; Bebout, Brad M.; Martens, Christopher S.; Des Marais, David J.

    2002-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of H2 is critical to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. The sensitivity of each of these processes to H2 can be described collectively, through the quantitative language of thermodynamics. A necessary prerequisite is to understand the factors that, in turn, control H2 partial pressures. These factors are assessed for two distinctly different ecosystems. In anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight (North Carolina, USA), H2 partial pressures are strictly maintained at low, steady-state levels by H2-consuming organisms, in a fashion that can be quantitatively predicted by simple thermodynamic calculations. In phototrophic microbial mats from Baja California (Mexico), H2 partial pressures are controlled by the activity of light-sensitive H2-producing organisms, and consequently fluctuate over orders of magnitude on a daily basis. The differences in H2 cycling can subsequently impact any of the H2-sensitive microbial processes in these systems. In one example, methanogenesis in Cape Lookout Bight sediments is completely suppressed through the efficient consumption of H2 by sulfate-reducing bacteria; in contrast, elevated levels of H2 prevail in the producer-controlled phototrophic system, and methanogenesis occurs readily in the presence of 40 mM sulfate.

  13. H2-,He-and CO2-line broadening coefficients and pressure shifts for the HITRAN database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilzewski, Jonas; Gordon, Iouli E.; Rothman, Laurence S.

    2014-06-01

    To increase the potential of the HITRAN database in astronomy, experimental and theoretical line broadening coefficients and line shifts of molecules of planetary interest broadened by H2,He,and CO2 have been assembled from available peer-reviewed sources. Since H2 and He are major constituents in the atmospheres of gas giants, and CO2 predominates in atmospheres of some rocky planets with volcanic activity, these spectroscopic data are important for studying planetary atmospheres. The collected data were used to create semi-empirical models for complete data sets from the microwave to the UV part of the spectrum of the studied molecules. The presented work will help identify the need for further investigations of broadening and shifting of spectral lines.

  14. Pressure-Induced Amorphization of Small Pore Zeolites—the Role of Cation-H2O Topology and Anti-glass Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan Hwang, Gil; Joo Shin, Tae; Blom, Douglas A.; Vogt, Thomas; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-10-01

    Systematic studies of pressure-induced amorphization of natrolites (PIA) containing monovalent extra-framework cations (EFC) Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ allow us to assess the role of two different EFC-H2O configurations within the pores of a zeolite: one arrangement has H2O molecules (NATI) and the other the EFC (NATII) in closer proximity to the aluminosilicate framework. We show that NATI materials have a lower onset pressure of PIA than the NATII materials containing Rb and Cs as EFC. The onset pressure of amorphization (PA) of NATII materials increases linearly with the size of the EFC, whereas their initial bulk moduli (P1 phase) decrease linearly. Only Cs- and Rb-NAT reveal a phase separation into a dense form (P2 phase) under pressure. High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging shows that after recovery from pressures near 25 and 20?GPa long-range ordered Rb-Rb and Cs-Cs correlations continue to be present over length scales up to 100?nm while short-range ordering of the aluminosilicate framework is significantly reduced—this opens a new way to form anti-glass structures.

  15. Pressure-Induced Amorphization of Small Pore Zeolites—the Role of Cation-H2O Topology and Anti-glass Formation

    PubMed Central

    Chan Hwang, Gil; Joo Shin, Tae; Blom, Douglas A.; Vogt, Thomas; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-01-01

    Systematic studies of pressure-induced amorphization of natrolites (PIA) containing monovalent extra-framework cations (EFC) Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+ allow us to assess the role of two different EFC-H2O configurations within the pores of a zeolite: one arrangement has H2O molecules (NATI) and the other the EFC (NATII) in closer proximity to the aluminosilicate framework. We show that NATI materials have a lower onset pressure of PIA than the NATII materials containing Rb and Cs as EFC. The onset pressure of amorphization (PA) of NATII materials increases linearly with the size of the EFC, whereas their initial bulk moduli (P1 phase) decrease linearly. Only Cs- and Rb-NAT reveal a phase separation into a dense form (P2 phase) under pressure. High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging shows that after recovery from pressures near 25 and 20?GPa long-range ordered Rb-Rb and Cs-Cs correlations continue to be present over length scales up to 100?nm while short-range ordering of the aluminosilicate framework is significantly reduced—this opens a new way to form anti-glass structures. PMID:26455345

  16. Pressure-Induced Amorphization of Small Pore Zeolites-the Role of Cation-H2O Topology and Anti-glass Formation.

    PubMed

    Chan Hwang, Gil; Joo Shin, Tae; Blom, Douglas A; Vogt, Thomas; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-01-01

    Systematic studies of pressure-induced amorphization of natrolites (PIA) containing monovalent extra-framework cations (EFC) Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), Cs(+) allow us to assess the role of two different EFC-H2O configurations within the pores of a zeolite: one arrangement has H2O molecules (NATI) and the other the EFC (NATII) in closer proximity to the aluminosilicate framework. We show that NATI materials have a lower onset pressure of PIA than the NATII materials containing Rb and Cs as EFC. The onset pressure of amorphization (PA) of NATII materials increases linearly with the size of the EFC, whereas their initial bulk moduli (P1 phase) decrease linearly. Only Cs- and Rb-NAT reveal a phase separation into a dense form (P2 phase) under pressure. High-Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging shows that after recovery from pressures near 25 and 20?GPa long-range ordered Rb-Rb and Cs-Cs correlations continue to be present over length scales up to 100?nm while short-range ordering of the aluminosilicate framework is significantly reduced-this opens a new way to form anti-glass structures. PMID:26455345

  17. A New Parameterization of H2SO4/H2O Aerosol Composition: Atmospheric Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Toon, Owen B.; Clegg, Simon L.; Hamill, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Recent results from a thermodynamic model of aqueous sulfuric acid are used to derive a new parameterization for the variation of sulfuric acid aerosol composition with temperature and relative humidity. This formulation is valid for relative humidities above 1 % in the temperature range of 185 to 260 K. An expression for calculating the vapor pressure of supercooled liquid water, consistent with the sulfuric acid model, is also presented. We show that the Steele and Hamill [1981] formulation underestimates the water partial pressure over aqueous H2SOI solutions by up to 12% at low temperatures. This difference results in a corresponding underestimate of the H2SO4 concentration in the aerosol by about 6 % of the weight percent at approximately 190 K. In addition, the relation commonly used for estimating the vapor pressure of H2O over supercooled liquid water differs by up to 10 % from our derived expression. The combined error can result in a 20 % underestimation of water activity over a H2SO4 solution droplet in the stratosphere, which has implications for the parameterization of heterogeneous reaction rates in stratospheric sulfuric acid aerosols. The influence of aerosol composition on the rate of homogeneous ice nucleation from a H2SO4 solution droplet is also discussed. This parameterization can also be used for homogeneous gas phase nucleation calculations of H2SO4 solution droplets under various environmental conditions such as in aircraft exhaust or in volcanic plumes.

  18. The partial (1)H NMR spectra of Al-OH and molecular H(2)O in hydrous aluminosilicate glasses: Component-Resolved analysis of (27)Al-(1)H cross polarization and (1)H spin-echo MAS NMR spectra.

    PubMed

    Malfait, Wim J; Xue, Xianyu

    2010-01-01

    The Component-Resolved methodology was applied to (1)H spin-echo and (27)Al-(1)H cross polarization (CP) MAS NMR data of aluminosilicate glasses. The method was able to resolve two components with different T2 relaxation rates, hydroxyl groups (OH) and molecular water (H(2)O(mol)), from the spin-echo data and to determine partial spectra and the relative abundances of OH and H(2)O(mol). The algorithm resolved two to three components with different (27)Al-(1)H CP dynamics from the (27)Al-(1)H cross polarization data; the obtained partial NMR spectra for Al-OH are in excellent agreement with those obtained previously from the difference spectra between spectra with various contact times and confirm previous quantitative results and models for the Al-OH, Si-OH and H(2)O(mol) speciation (Malfait and Xue, 2010). PMID:20418075

  19. Kinetics of CH2OO reactions with SO2, NO2, NO, H2O and CH3CHO as a function of pressure.

    PubMed

    Stone, Daniel; Blitz, Mark; Daubney, Laura; Howes, Neil U M; Seakins, Paul

    2014-01-21

    Kinetics of CH2OO Criegee intermediate reactions with SO2, NO2, NO, H2O and CH3CHO and CH2I radical reactions with NO2 are reported as a function of pressure at 295 K. Measurements were made under pseudo-first-order conditions using flash photolysis of CH2I2-O2-N2 gas mixtures in the presence of excess co-reagent combined with monitoring of HCHO reaction products by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy and, for the reaction with SO2, direct detection of CH2OO by photoionisation mass spectrometry (PIMS). Rate coefficients for CH2OO + SO2 and CH2OO + NO2 are independent of pressure in the ranges studied and are (3.42 ± 0.42) × 10(-11) cm(3) s(-1) (measured between 1.5 and 450 Torr) and (1.5 ± 0.5) × 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1) (measured between 25 and 300 Torr), respectively. The rate coefficient for CH2OO + CH3CHO is pressure dependent, with the yield of HCHO decreasing with increasing pressure. Upper limits of 2 × 10(-13) cm(3) s(-1) and 9 × 10(-17) cm(3) s(-1) are placed on the rate coefficients for CH2OO + NO and CH2OO + H2O, respectively. The upper limit for the rate coefficient for CH2OO + H2O is significantly lower than has been reported previously, with consequences for modelling of atmospheric impacts of CH2OO chemistry. PMID:24287566

  20. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  1. Pressure-composition relations for coexisting gases and liquids and the critical points in the system NaCl-H2O at 450, 475, and 500°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Bischoff, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Pressure-temperature-composition (P, T, x) relations for the co-existing vapor and liquid phases in the system NaCl-H2O were determined experimentally at 450, 475, and 500°C. Data for each isotherm includeP-x relations near the critical point and extend to the three-phase assemblage vapor-liquid-halite on the vapor side. On the liquid side the P-x data range from the critical point to the room-temperature halite saturation point (~25 wt.% NaCl). Critical pressures were calculated from measured pressures and compositions and classical theory. The results generally support the few data points of Urusova (1974, 1975) and Ölander and Liander (1950) but differ markedly from the extensive data of Sourirajan andKennedy (1962).

  2. ``H2 sponge'': pressure as a means for reversible high-capacity hydrogen storage in nanoporous Ca-intercalated covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Sun, Jia Tao; Meng, Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We explore the potential and advantages of Ca-intercalated covalent organic framework-1 (CaCOF-1) as a 3-dimensional (3D) layered material for reversible hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations show that by varying the interlayer distance of CaCOF-1, a series of metastable structures can be achieved with the interlayer distance falling in the range of 4.3-4.8 Å. When four hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on each Ca, a high hydrogen uptake of 4.54 wt% can be produced, with the binding energy falling in the ideal range of 0.2-0.6 eV per H2. While H2 absorption is a spontaneous process under H2 rich conditions, tuning the interlayer distance by reasonable external pressure could compress CaCOF-1 to release all of the hydrogen molecules and restore the material to its original state for recyclable use. This provides a new method for gradual, controllable extraction of hydrogen molecules in covalent organic frameworks, satisfying the practical demand for reversible hydrogen storage at ambient temperatures.We explore the potential and advantages of Ca-intercalated covalent organic framework-1 (CaCOF-1) as a 3-dimensional (3D) layered material for reversible hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations show that by varying the interlayer distance of CaCOF-1, a series of metastable structures can be achieved with the interlayer distance falling in the range of 4.3-4.8 Å. When four hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on each Ca, a high hydrogen uptake of 4.54 wt% can be produced, with the binding energy falling in the ideal range of 0.2-0.6 eV per H2. While H2 absorption is a spontaneous process under H2 rich conditions, tuning the interlayer distance by reasonable external pressure could compress CaCOF-1 to release all of the hydrogen molecules and restore the material to its original state for recyclable use. This provides a new method for gradual, controllable extraction of hydrogen molecules in covalent organic frameworks, satisfying the practical demand for reversible hydrogen storage at ambient temperatures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07447e

  3. REMOVAL OF H2S AND SO2 BY CaCO3-BASED SORBENTS AT HIGH PRESSURES

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Stratis V. Sotirchos

    2000-09-01

    The mechanism of the removal of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S by CaCO{sub 3}-based sorbents in pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors (PFBC) and high pressure gasifiers was investigated in this project. Reactivity evolution experiments were carried out in thermogravimetric apparatuses both under simulated high pressure conditions and at high pressures. Experiments at high pressure were conducted in a high pressure thermogravimetric arrangement that was set up and developed under this project. Two calcitic solids of high calcium carbonate content (over 97%) were employed in the experiments: a fine-grained distributed by Greer Limestone Co. (Greer Limestone) and a solid supplied in the form of large calcitic crystals (Iceland Spar). The decision to work with these solids was mainly based on the fact that they have been employed in several past studies of sulfation, sulfidation, and calcination in our laboratory, and therefore, a large volume of data on their performance under different conditions was available for comparison purposes. In addition to the experimental studies, work was also done on the development of rigorous mathematical models for the description of the occurrence of simultaneous processes (e.g., calcination and sulfation and carbonation and sulfation) in the interior of porous solids and for the simulation of the evolution of the pore structure of porous solids that undergo chemical transformation in their interior.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  5. Comparative Ecology of H2 Cycling in Organotrophic and Phototrophic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Bebout, Brad M.; Martens, Christopher S.; DesMarais, David J.; DeVincenzi, Don (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of H2 is critical to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. The sensitivity of these many processes to H2 can be described quantitatively, at a basic thermodynamic level. This shared dependence on H2 may provide a means for interpreting the ecology and system-level biogeochemistry of widely variant microbial ecosystems on a common (and quantitative) level. Understanding the factors that control H2 itself is a critical prerequisite. Here, we examine two ecosystems that vary widely with respect to H2 cycling. In anoxic, 'organotrophic' sediments from Cape Lookout Bight (North Carolina, USA), H2 partial pressures are strictly maintained at low, steady-state levels by H2-consuming organisms, in a fashion that can be quantitatively predicted by simple thermodynamic calculations. In phototrophic microbial mats from Baja, Mexico, H2 partial pressures are instead controlled by the activity of light-sensitive H2-producing organisms. In consequence, H2 partial pressures within the system fluctuate by orders of magnitude on hour-long time scales. The differences in H2 cycling subsequently impact H2-sensitive microbial processes, such as methanogenesis. For example, the presence of sulfate in the organotrophic system always yielded low levels of H2 that were inhibitory to methanogenesis; however, the elevated levels of H2 in the phototrophic system favored methane production at significant levels, even in the presence of high sulfate concentrations. The myriad of other H2-sensitive microbial processes are expected to exhibit similar behavior.

  6. Partial Pressures of Te2 and Thermodynamic Properties of Ga-Te System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with Ga(1-x)Te(x) samples were measured by optical absorption technique from 450 to 1100 C for compositions, x, between 0.333 and 0.612. To establish the relationship between the partial pressure of Te, and the measured optical absorbance, the calibration runs of a pure Te sample were also conducted to determine the Beer's Law constants. The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with the GaTe(s) and Ga2Te3(s)compounds, or the so-called three-phase curves, were established. These partial pressure data imply the existence of the Ga3Te4(s) compound. From the partial pressures of Te2 over the Ga-Te melts, partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing for Te were derived and they agree reasonable well with the published data. The activities of Te in the Ga-Te melts were also derived from the measured partial pressures of Te2. These data agree well with most of the previous results. The possible reason for the high activity of Te measured for x less than 0.60 is discussed.

  7. Hybrid model of neutral diffusion, sheaths, and the ? to ? transition in an atmospheric pressure He/H2O bounded rf discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ke; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Water is a trace gas of interest for plasma-based medical applications. We use a two-temperature hybrid global model to simulate a chemically complex, bounded, He/H2O atmospheric pressure discharge, including 43 species with clusters up to {H_{19}O_9^+} . The discharge is embedded in a larger volume, in which the trace gas fraction is controlled, leading to depletion of water within the discharge and diffusive flows of reaction products to the walls. For a planar discharge with a 1 cm electrode radius and a 0.5 mm gap, driven at 13.56 MHz, we determine the depletion and diffusion effects and the ? to ? transition, over a range of rf currents (100-1600 A m-2) and external H2O concentrations (500-10?000 ppm). The transition from the low power ?-mode to the high power ?-mode is accompanied by a collapse of the bulk electron temperature, an increase in the density and a decrease in the sheath width. At the highest external H2O concentration studied, there are no low current (?-mode) solutions because the sheath widths fill the device. The ?-mode is recovered at larger gaps (e.g., 1 mm) or higher frequencies (e.g., 27.12 MHz). The higher mass cluster densities decrease rapidly with increasing gas temperature. Each simulation takes about two minutes on a medium size laptop computer, allowing exploration of a large input parameter space.

  8. Characteristics of high-purity Cu thin films deposited on polyimide by radio-frequency Ar/H2 atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Zheng, W.; Meng, Y. D.; Nagatsu, M.

    2013-03-01

    With a view to fabricating future flexible electronic devices, an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet driven by 13.56 MHz radio-frequency power is developed for depositing Cu thin films on polyimide, where a Cu wire inserted inside the quartz tube was used as the evaporation source. A polyimide substrate is placed on a water-cooled copper heat sink to prevent it from being thermally damaged. With the aim of preventing oxidation of the deposited Cu film, we investigated the effect of adding H2 to Ar plasma on film characteristics. Theoretical fitting of the OH emission line in OES spectrum revealed that adding H2 gas significantly increased the rotational temperature roughly from 800 to 1500 K. The LMM Auger spectroscopy analysis revealed that higher-purity Cu films were synthesized on polyimide by adding hydrogen gas. A possible explanation for the enhancement in the Cu film deposition rate and improvement of purity of Cu films by H2 gas addition is that atomic hydrogen produced by the plasma plays important roles in heating the gas to promote the evaporation of Cu atoms from the Cu wire and removing oxygen from copper oxide components via reduction reaction.

  9. Transformation kinetics of biochemically active compounds in low-pressure UV photolysis and UV/H(2)O(2) advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Baeza, Carolina; Knappe, Detlef R U

    2011-10-01

    Factors controlling photolysis and UV/H2O2 photooxidation rates of the biochemically active compounds (BACs) sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, and diclofenac were determined. Experiments were conducted with a quasi-collimated beam apparatus equipped with low-pressure UV lamps. The effects of pH, H2O2 concentration, and background water matrix (ultrapure water, lake water, wastewater treatment plant effluent) on BAC transformation rates were evaluated. For the sulfa drugs, solution pH affected direct photolysis rates but had little effect on the hydroxyl radical oxidation rate. For sulfamethoxazole, the neutral form photolyzed more easily than the anionic form while the reverse was the case for sulfamethazine and sulfadiazine. For trimethoprim, the hydroxyl radical oxidation rate was higher for the cationic form (pH 3.6) than for the neutral form (pH 7.85). Quantum yields and second order rate constants describing the reaction between the hydroxyl radical and BACs were determined and used together with background water quality data to predict fluence-based BAC transformation rate constants (k'). For both the lake water and wastewater treatment plant effluent matrices, predicted k' values were generally in good agreement with experimentally determined k' values. At typical UV/H2O2 treatment conditions (fluence=540 mJ cm(-2), H2O2 dose=6 mg L(-1)), BAC transformation percentages in North Carolina lake water ranged from 43% for trimethoprim to 98% for diclofenac. In wastewater treatment plant effluent, BAC transformation percentages were lower (31-97%) at the same treatment conditions because the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate was higher. PMID:21714983

  10. Pressure-Induced Magnetic Crossover Driven by Hydrogen Bonding in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine)

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Kenneth R.; Brinzari, Tatiana V.; Wright, Joshua B.; Ma, Chunli; Giri, Santanab; Schlueter, John A.; Wang, Qian; Jena, Puru; Liu, Zhenxian; Musfeldt, Janice L.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen bonding plays a foundational role in the life, earth, and chemical sciences, with its richness and strength depending on the situation. In molecular materials, these interactions determine assembly mechanisms, control superconductivity, and even permit magnetic exchange. In spite of its long-standing importance, exquisite control of hydrogen bonding in molecule-based magnets has only been realized in limited form and remains as one of the major challenges. Here, we report the discovery that pressure can tune the dimensionality of hydrogen bonding networks in CuF2(H2O)2(3-chloropyridine) to induce magnetic switching. Specifically, we reveal how the development of exchange pathways under compression combined with an enhanced ab-plane hydrogen bonding network yields a three dimensional superexchange web between copper centers that triggers a reversible magnetic crossover. Similar pressure- and strain-driven crossover mechanisms involving coordinated motion of hydrogen bond networks may play out in other quantum magnets. PMID:25116701

  11. Effects of operating pressure on flame oscillation and emission characteristics in a partially premixed swirl combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Ryul; Choi, Gyung-Min; Kim, Duck-Jool

    2011-01-15

    The influence of varying combustor pressure on flame oscillation and emission characteristics in the partially premixed turbulent flame were investigated. In order to investigate combustion characteristics in the partially premixed turbulent flame, the combustor pressure was controlled in the range of -30 to 30 kPa for each equivalence ratio ({phi} = 0.8-1.2). The r.m.s. of the pressure fluctuations increased with decreasing combustor pressure for the lean condition. The combustor pressure had a sizeable influence on combustion oscillation, whose dominant frequency varied with the combustor pressure. Combustion instabilities could be controlled by increasing the turbulent intensity of the unburned mixture under the lean condition. An unstable flame was caused by incomplete combustion; hence, EICO greatly increased. Furthermore, EINO{sub x} simply reduced with decreasing combustor pressure at a rate of 0.035 g/10 kPa. The possibility of combustion control on the combusting mode and exhaust gas emission was demonstrated. (author)

  12. Antigorite: High-pressure stability in the system MgO?SiO 2?H 2O (MSH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunder, Bernd; Schreyer, Werner

    1997-08-01

    The breakdown reactions of antigorite: (1) forming talc + forsterite + water at low pressures and (2) forming forsterite + clinoenstatite + water at high pressures were determined in reversed equilibrium experiments. Results on reaction (1) were found to be in good agreement with former experimental determinations by both Johannes [Johannes, W., 1975. Zur Synthese und thermischen Stabilität von Antigorit. Fortschr. Mineral. Beih. 53, 36.] and Evans et al. [Evans, B.W., Johannes, W., Oterdoom, H., Trommsdorff, V., 1976. Stability of crysotile and antigorite in the serpentinite multisystem. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt. 56, 79-93.]. From our experiments the invariant point ( I1), interconnecting the two reactions, can be located at about 15 kbar/650°C. This is consistent with the thermodynamic calculations using the dataset of Berman [Berman, R.G., 1988. Internally consistent thermodynamic data for minerals in the system J. Petrol. 29, 445-522.]; however, it is in contrast to recent experimental studies of Ulmer and Trommsdorff [Ulmer, P., Trommsdorff, V., 1995a. Serpentine stability to mantle depths and subduction-related magmatism. Science 268, 858-861.] who determined I1 at 21 kbar/730°C. Our PT-conditions for I1 could be confirmed by equilibrium experiments on reaction (10) talc + forsterite ? clinoenstatite + water, which is generated at I1 as well. Up to about 25 kbar the breakdown reaction (2) is nearly pressure-independent. Towards still higher pressures the d P/d T-slope of reaction (2) bends and becomes negative. Schreinemakers analysis as well as thermodynamic calculations of the upper pressure-stability of antigorite show that the possible antigorite breakdown reaction (3) antigorite ? clinoenstatite + brucite + water and reaction (4) brucite + clinoenstatite ? forsterite + water could originate at a new invariant point I2, provided that the reactions (2) and (11) brucite + antigorite ? forsterite + water intersect. Bracketing equilibrium (4) and combining these results with those on reaction (2), I2 was located at only about 51 kbar/490°C, compared to 77 kbar/680°C according to Berman's data. However, when taking into account the dense hydrous magnesium silicate (= DHMS)-phase A, Mg 7Si 2O 8(OH) 6, the phase relations of antigorite are changed resulting (i) in the metastability of I2 and reaction (3) and (ii) in a new invariant point I7 at about 44 kbar and 580°C generating the new antigorite breakdown-reaction (16) antigorite ? phase A + clinoenstatite + water. On the basis of these new data on the stability of antigorite, earlier conclusions about dehydration depths in subducted serpentine-bearing oceanic lithosphere have to be reconsidered. The maximum pressure stability of antigorite according to reaction (16) extends between 44 and 55 kbar, that is between about 130 and 160 km depths, as opposed to about 75 kbar (220 km) following Ulmer and Trommsdorff (see above). Because many different thermal regimes are possible in subduction zones, no specific dehydration depth can be expected but rather more continuous dehydration fronts in space and time.

  13. Determining noble gas partitioning within a CO2-H2O system at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warr, Oliver; Rochelle, Christopher A.; Masters, Andrew; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2015-06-01

    Quantifying the distribution of noble gases between phases is essential for using these inert trace gases to track the processes controlling multi-phase subsurface systems. Here we present experimental data that defines noble gas partitioning for two phase CO2-water systems. These are at the pressure and temperature range relevant for engineered systems used for anthropogenic carbon capture and geological storage (CCS) technologies, and CO2-rich natural gas reservoirs (CO2 density range 169-656 kg/m3 at 323-377 K and 89-134 bar). The new partitioning data are compared to predictions of noble gas partitioning determined in low-pressure, pure noble gas-water systems for all noble gases except neon and radon. At low CO2 density there was no difference between measured noble gas partitioning and that predicted in pure noble gas-water systems. At high CO2 density, however, partition coefficients express significant deviation from pure noble gas-water systems. At 656 kg/m3, these deviations are -35%, 74%, 113% and 319% for helium, argon, krypton and xenon, respectively. A second order polynomial fit to the data for each noble gas describes the deviation from the pure noble gas-water system as a function of CO2 density. We argue that the difference between pure noble gas-water systems and the high density CO2-water system is due to an enhanced degree of molecular interactions occurring within the dense CO2 phase due to the combined effect of inductive and dispersive forces acting on the noble gases. As the magnitude of these forces are related to the size and polarisability of each noble gas, xenon followed by krypton and argon become significantly more soluble within dense CO2. In the case of helium repulsive forces dominate and so it becomes less soluble as a function of CO2 density.

  14. Experimental data on the effect of pressure on the volatiles partitioning (Cl, F, H2O) in fluid-magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevychelov, Vitaly

    2014-05-01

    Fluids, separating from the silicate melt with decreasing pressure during magma ascent, will contain all smaller amounts of chlorine and presumably of fluorine due to repartitioning of these halogens into the melt. Effect of pressure on the partitioning of F is expressed more weakly compared with Cl. Experimental studies on the solubility (1N NaCl +0.1N HCl) chloride acidoulous fluid in model melts of granodioritic, granitic and leucogranitic compositions were carried out at T =900-1000oC and P =500 and 100 MPa (Chevychelov, Chevychelova, 1997). The mass ratio of fluid / melt was (2-3): 1. The chlorine content after the experiments was defined only in granitoid melts (glasses). It is shown that, when the pressure is reduced from 500 to 100 MPa, the chlorine content in the silicate melt increases 3-2.5 times (from 0.3 wt.% to 0.9-0.8 wt.% in granodioritic melt, from 0.2% to 0.6-0.5% in granitic melt and from 0.2% to 0.5-0.4% in the leucogranitic melt). At these conditions the content of H2O in granitoid melts decreases approximately 2.5 times from 9-11 wt.% to 4 wt.% (Johannes, Holtz, 1996). Another series of experiments on the solubility of (HCl + HF) fluids of various concentration (from 1N to 16N) in phonolitic melt was held at T =1000°C and P =400, 200 and 50 MPa (Chevychelov, Mukhanova, 2008). The mass ratio of fluid / melt was 0.15:1. The chlorine and fluorine contents in the melt (glass) after the experiments were determined by microprobe analysis. With decreasing pressure the water content in the silicate melts decreased from 8-9 wt.% at 400 MPa to about 6 wt.% at 200 MPa and up to 2-3 wt.% at 50 MPa (Behrens et al., 2009). The Cl, F and H2O contents in the fluid coexisting with phonolitic melt were calculated using the mass balance method. It is shown that with decreasing pressure the chlorine content in phonolitic melt increases (from 0.1 wt.% to 0.35 wt.% at 1N HCl), and the chlorine content in the fluid decreases (from 8-9 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%). With increasing concentration of fluid the pressure effect on the partitioning of Cl decreases. The pressure has a weaker influence on the partitioning of F compared with Cl. At 3-7N HF fluid with decreasing pressure the fluorine content in the fluid coexisting with phonolitic melt decreases. At 1N HF fluid the pressure effect on the partitioning of F is not identified.

  15. H2, He, and CO2 line-broadening coefficients, pressure shifts and temperature-dependence exponents for the HITRAN database. Part 1: SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilzewski, Jonas S.; Gordon, Iouli E.; Kochanov, Roman V.; Hill, Christian; Rothman, Laurence S.

    2016-01-01

    To increase the potential for use of the HITRAN database in astronomy, experimental and theoretical line-broadening coefficients, line shifts and temperature-dependence exponents of molecules of planetary interest broadened by H2, He, and CO2 have been assembled from available peer-reviewed sources. The collected data were used to create semi-empirical models so that every HITRAN line of the studied molecules has corresponding parameters. Since H2 and He are major constituents in the atmospheres of gas giants, and CO2 predominates in atmospheres of some rocky planets with volcanic activity, these spectroscopic data are important for remote sensing studies of planetary atmospheres. In this paper we make the first step in assembling complete sets of these parameters, thereby creating datasets for SO2, NH3, HF, HCl, OCS and C2H2.

  16. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  17. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Surface Tension of Liquid Nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Gowda, Vijaya Kumar Malahalli Shankare; Rodriguez, Justin; Matson, Douglas M.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been recently upgraded with an oxygen partial pressure controller. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, theoretically in the range from 10-36 to 100 bar. The oxygen control system installed in the ESL laboratory's main chamber consists of an oxygen sensor, oxygen pump, and a control unit. The sensor is a potentiometric device that determines the difference in oxygen activity in two gas compartments (inside the chamber and the air outside of the chamber) separated by an electrolyte, which is yttria-stabilized zirconia. The pump utilizes coulometric titration to either add or remove oxygen. The system is controlled by a desktop control unit, which can also be accessed via a computer. The controller performs temperature control for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop, and a control algorithm. Oxygen partial pressure has been shown to play a significant role in the surface tension of liquid metals. Oxide films or dissolved oxygen may lead to significant changes in surface tension. The effects of oxygen partial pressure on the surface tension of undercooled liquid nickel will be analyzed, and the results will be presented. The surface tension will be measured at several different oxygen partial pressures while the sample is undercooled. Surface tension will be measured using the oscillating drop method. While undercooled, each sample will be oscillated several times consecutively to investigate how the surface tension behaves with time while at a particular oxygen partial pressure.

  18. Densification and Electrical Properties of Zinc Oxide Varistors Microwave-Sintered Under Different Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cong; Wang, Bo; Xu, Zheng; Peng, Hu

    2012-11-01

    ZnO varistors were prepared by microwave sintering under different oxygen partial pressures. The temperature profile and the densification behavior in different atmospheres were investigated. It was found that the density of ZnO varistors during sintering was the key factor affecting the absorption of microwave energy. The electrical properties, including the nonlinear properties and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics, were also carefully studied. The results showed that the oxygen partial pressure has significant effects on the electrical properties of ZnO varistors by changing the concentration of defects through a series of reactions involving oxygen during sintering.

  19. Absolute OH density measurements by broadband UV absorption in diffuse atmospheric-pressure He-H2O RF glow discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Cunge, Gilles; Sadeghi, Nader

    2012-06-01

    The measurement of radical densities in atmospheric-pressure plasmas has gained increasing importance in recent years in view of their crucial role in many applications. In this paper we present absolute OH density measurements by broadband UV absorption in diffuse atmospheric-pressure RF glow discharges in mixtures of He and H2O. The use of a 310 nm light-emitting diode as a light source and a very high resolution spectrometer (2.6 pm resolution) made the estimation of the total OH density possible by simultaneously measuring the absorption rates of different spectrally resolved rotational lines of the OH(A-X) transition. For different RF powers and water concentrations, OH densities and gas temperatures ranging between 6 × 1019and 4 × 1020 m-3 and 345 and 410 K, respectively, were obtained. The gas temperature Tg was also measured by three different methods. Tg deduced from the rotational temperature of N2(C-B) emission, nitrogen being present as a trace impurity, provided the most reliable value. The rotational temperature Tr of the ground state OH(X) presented values with a maximum deviation of 25 K compared with Tg. To obtain the gas temperature from the emission intensities of OH(A-X) rotational lines, the recorded intensities of different lines must be corrected for the effect of self-absorption inside the plasma.

  20. Crystal structure, equation of state, and elasticity of phase H (MgSiO4H2) at Earth’s lower mantle pressures

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Mookherjee, Mainak

    2015-01-01

    Dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases play a crucial role in transporting water in to the Earth’s interior. A newly discovered DHMS, phase H (MgSiO4H2), is stable at Earth’s lower mantle, i.e., at pressures greater than 30?GPa. Here we report the crystal structure and elasticity of phase H and its evolution upon compression. Using first principles simulations, we have explored the relative energetics of the candidate crystal structures with ordered and disordered configurations of magnesium and silicon atoms in the octahedral sites. At conditions relevant to Earth’s lower mantle, it is likely that phase H is able to incorporate a significant amount of aluminum, which may enhance the thermodynamic stability of phase H. The sound wave velocities of phase H are ~2–4% smaller than those of isostructural ?-AlOOH. The shear wave impedance contrast due to the transformation of phase D to a mixture of phase H and stishovite at pressures relevant to the upper part of the lower mantle could partly explain the geophysical observations. The calculated elastic wave velocities and anisotropies indicate that phase H can be a source of significant seismic anisotropy in the lower mantle. PMID:26493639

  1. Crystal structure, equation of state, and elasticity of phase H (MgSiO4H2) at Earth’s lower mantle pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Jun; Mookherjee, Mainak

    2015-10-01

    Dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases play a crucial role in transporting water in to the Earth’s interior. A newly discovered DHMS, phase H (MgSiO4H2), is stable at Earth’s lower mantle, i.e., at pressures greater than 30?GPa. Here we report the crystal structure and elasticity of phase H and its evolution upon compression. Using first principles simulations, we have explored the relative energetics of the candidate crystal structures with ordered and disordered configurations of magnesium and silicon atoms in the octahedral sites. At conditions relevant to Earth’s lower mantle, it is likely that phase H is able to incorporate a significant amount of aluminum, which may enhance the thermodynamic stability of phase H. The sound wave velocities of phase H are ~2–4% smaller than those of isostructural ?-AlOOH. The shear wave impedance contrast due to the transformation of phase D to a mixture of phase H and stishovite at pressures relevant to the upper part of the lower mantle could partly explain the geophysical observations. The calculated elastic wave velocities and anisotropies indicate that phase H can be a source of significant seismic anisotropy in the lower mantle.

  2. Steam catalysis in CaO carbonation under low steam partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.J.; Xiao, Y.H.

    2008-06-15

    CaO was widely used to capture CO{sub 2} in direct hydrogen production process, where steam always existed simultaneously. The effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance under low steam partial pressure was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The experimental results revealed that steam improved CaO carbonation performance significantly no matter whether Ca(OH){sub 2} was produced or not. At 823 K and 0.5 MPa of steam partial pressure, effect of steam on CaO carbonation performance could not be attributed mainly to production of Ca(OH){sub 2} because the hydration rate of CaO was very slow. The main reason was steam catalysis in CaO carbonation. Enhancement of steam on CaO carbonation performance without Ca(OH){sub 2} production could not be attributed to improvement of steam on the physical property, but to catalytic effect of steam. Effects of CaO precursors, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, steam partial pressure, and temperature with steam addition on CaO carbonation performance were also investigated.

  3. Efficient representation of the absorption line blackbody distribution function for H2O, CO2, and CO at variable temperature, mole fraction, and total pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John T.; Webb, Brent W.; Solovjov, Vladimir P.; Ma, Jiefu

    2014-05-01

    The absorption line blackbody distribution function (ALBDF) is the primary tool used in the SLW model for calculating the weights of gray gases. The ALBDF for H2O, CO2, and CO is calculated rigorously using the HITEMP 2010 spectroscopic database. The line-by-line data is the basis for an updated and improved hyperbolic tangent correlation of the ALBDF, valid for temperatures ranging from 400 K to 3000 K and total pressures ranging from 0.1 atm to 50 atm. The correlations are first established at atmospheric pressure, and variable total pressure is accounted for as a shift from the atmospheric pressure calculation. Further, the line-by-line ALBDF data have been tabulated to directly represent the ALBDF; the ALBDF has been tabulated for discrete temperatures ranging from 300 K to 3000 K, mole fractions (where appropriate) from 0 to 1, and total pressures ranging from 0.1 atm to 50 atm. The data have been made available on the website http://albdf.byu.edu. Improvements made compared to other representations of the ALBDF include more rigorous generation of the detailed spectral absorption cross-section, correlation and tabulation of the ALBDF for CO, expansion to variable total pressure, and a higher temperature ceiling. The accuracy of the hyperbolic tangent correlation is characterized and regimes of relative lower accuracy identified, and it is demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate for engineering applications. The tabulated ALBDF data, which can be used directly in place of the correlation, are shown to be considerably more accurate than the correlation. There is an initial computational cost to read the tabulated data after which interpolation is used to obtain the ALBDF at specified conditions. The updated and expanded ALBDF correlation and the tabulated ALBDF data are used to compute total emissivity and radiative transfer in both homogeneous, isothermal media and non-homogeneous, non-isothermal media and are compared to line-by-line benchmark calculations. The hyperbolic tangent correlation performs very well in these calculations and shows excellent accuracy, while the accuracy of calculations using the tabulated data is considerably better.

  4. Burn rates of TiH2/KClO4/Viton and output testing of NASA SKD26100098-301 pressure cartridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holy, John A.

    1993-01-01

    The burn rates of the pyrotechnic TiH2/KClO4/Viton with a mass ratio of 30/65/5 have been measured as a function of pressure in nitrogen up to 312 MPa(45 Kpsi). The burn rates were fit to R = a pn, with a = 2.055 cm/sec/MPan and n = 0.472 between 0.15 MPa (22 psi) and 21.6 MPa (3.13 Kpsi) and a = 4.38 cm/sec/MPan and n = 0.266 between 70 MPa (10.15 Kpsi) and 312 MPa (45.25 Kpsi). The decrease in slope at the higher pressures is attributed to a diffusion limited reaction. No acoustically driven flame instabilities or large conductive-to-convective burn transitions were observed. Solid reaction products were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction detected only TiO2 and KC1. SEM showed that the particle size of the reaction products increased as the nitrogen pressure increased. There were no anomalous characteristics of the burn of this pyrotechnic that could be interpreted as a cause of the o-ring blow-by problem in the forward shear bolt assembly. Three NASA SKD26100098-301 pressure cartridges were fired into a fixed volume vessel that was sealed with an O-ring. A maximum pressure of 181.7 MPa(26,350 psi) was reached in around 100 ,mu sec for two shots fired into a volume of 16.3 cm3(0.996 in3). A maximum pressure of 33,460 psi was reached for one shot fired into a volume of 9.55 cm3(0.583 in3). The O-ring burned through on one shot in the larger volume and leaked on the other two thereby simulating the effects of an O-ring leak. The results imply that the piston in the shear bolt assembly would receive a large impulse even if there was a leak in an O-ring seal.

  5. Report on ISS O2 Production, Gas Supply and Partial Pressure Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaezler, Ryan N.; Cook, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is used on International Space Station (ISS) for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Nitrogen is used to maintain total pressure and account for losses associated with leakage and operational losses. Oxygen and nitrogen have been supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to the on-orbit oxygen production capability. Starting in 2014, new high pressure oxygen/nitrogen tanks are available to launch on commercial cargo vehicles and will replace the high pressure gas source that Shuttle used to provide. To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen and nitrogen partial pressures are controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable partial pressures along with the increased ISS cabin volume are utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen and nitrogen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes the amount of gas supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing partial pressures along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  6. In-situ Raman spectroscopic study of aluminate speciation in H2O-KOH solutions at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookherjee, M.; Keppler, H.; Manning, C. E.

    2009-12-01

    The solubility of corundum in H2O is low even at high pressure and temperatures. Therefore, it is commonly assumed that alumina remains essentially immobile during fluid-rock interaction. However, field and experimental evidence suggests that alumina solubility is strongly enhanced in the presence of silica as well as in alkaline solutions. In order to understand what controls the alumina solubility and how it is enhanced as a function of fluid composition, we conducted Raman-spectroscopic study of Al speciation in aqueous fluids at high pressure and temperature. Experiments were carried out in an externally heated hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell equipped with low-fluorescence diamonds and iridium gaskets. Raman spectra were collected with a Horiba Jobin-Yvon Labram HR spectrometer using the 514 nm line of an argon laser for excitation. In a first series of experiments, the speciation of alumina was studied in a 1 M KOH solution in equilibrium with corundum up to 700 oC and ~1 GPa. The Raman spectra show a prominent band at 618 cm-1 interpreted to arise from Al-O stretching vibrations associated with the tetrahedral [Al(OH)4]1- species. At higher pressure and temperature, an additional vibrational mode appears in the spectra at 374 cm-1 (full width at half maximum ~ 20 cm-1). This feature is tentatively attributed to [(OH)3Al-O-Al(OH)3]2- (Moolenaar et al. 1970, Jour. Phys. Chem., 74, 3629-3636). No evidence for KAl(OH)4 was observed, consistent with piston cylinder experiments at 700 oC and 1 GPa (Wohlers & Manning, 2009, Chem. Geol., 262, 310). Upon cooling from high-pressure and high temperature, slow kinetics of corundum regrowth lead to oversaturation in the solutions, as evidenced by sharp peaks at 930 and 1066 cm-1 observed upon cooling. These features are probably due to colloidal aluminum hydroxide. The results provide the first evidence for aluminate polymerization at high pressure and temperature, and offer insights into the causes for enhancement of corundum solubility in alkaline solutions.

  7. ORNL/CDIAC-152 GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE WATER PARTIAL PRESSURE OF CO2 DATABASE

    E-print Network

    ORNL/CDIAC-152 NDP-088r GLOBAL OCEAN SURFACE WATER PARTIAL PRESSURE OF CO2 DATABASE: MEASUREMENTS .....................................................................................................................................9 #12;#12;v LIST OF FIGURES 1 Location of LDEO master database of sea surface pCO2 observations. .............................................2 LIST OF TABLES 1 List of data contributors to the global surface water pCO2 LDEO database

  8. Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will be provided.

  9. Oxidation of C/SiC Composites at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, E. J.; Serra, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    T-300 carbon fibers and T-300 carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composites (C/SiC) were oxidized in flowing reduced oxygen partial pressure environments at a total pressure of one atmosphere (0.5 atm O2, 0.05 atm O2 and 0.005 atm O2, balance argon). Experiments were conducted at four temperatures (816deg, 1149deg, 1343deg, and 1538 C). The oxidation kinetics were monitored using thermogravimetric analysis. T-300 fibers were oxidized to completion for times between 0.6 and 90 h. Results indicated that fiber oxidation kinetics were gas phase diffusion controlled. Oxidation rates had an oxygen partial pressure dependence with a power law exponent close to one. In addition, oxidation rates were only weakly dependent on temperature. The C/SiC coupon oxidation kinetics showed some variability, attributed to differences in the number and width of cracks in the SiC seal coat. In general, weight losses were observed indicating oxidation of the carbon fibers dominated the oxidation behavior. Low temperatures and high oxygen pressures resulted in the most rapid consumption of the carbon fibers. At higher temperatures, the lower oxidation rates were primarily attributed to crack closure due to SiC thermal expansion, rather than oxidation of SiC since these reduced rates were observed even at the lowest oxygen partial pressures where SiC oxidation is minimal.

  10. The stability and Raman spectra of ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O, at high pressure and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shahar, Anat; Bassett, William A.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Chou, I-Ming; Mao, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Raman analyses of single crystals of ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O, synthesized in a diamond-anvil cell at ambient temperature yield spectra from 0.14 to 4.08 GPa; the most intense peaks are at 228 and 1081 cm?1 corresponding to Eg(external) and A1g (internal) modes of vibrations in CO2? 3 ions, respectively. These are in good agreement with Raman spectra previously published for ikaite in powder form at ambient temperature and pressure. Visual observations of a sample consisting initially of a mixture of calcite + water in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell yielded a P-T phase diagram up to 2 GPa and 120 °C; the boundary for the reaction ikaite ? aragonite + water has a positive slope and is curved convexly toward the aragonite + water field similar to typical melt curves. This curvature can be explained in terms of the Clapeyron equation for a boundary between a solid phase and a more compressible liquid phase or largely liquid phase assemblage.

  11. H2 blockers

    MedlinePLUS

    Peptic ulcer disease - H2 blockers; PUD - H2 blockers; Gastroesophageal reflux - H2 blockers ... used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a condition where food ...

  12. Experimental investigation of the H2O-CO2 system between 250-330 K and 0-1.7 GPa and modeling of the sI clathrate hydrate of CO2 and CH4 at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollengier, O.; Choukroun, M.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; Bellino, G.; Morizet, Y.; Bezacier, L.; Oancea, A.; Taffin, C.; Tobie, G.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the importance of carbon dioxide for the understanding of water-rich outer solar system bodies, few studies have been devoted so far to the H2O-CO2 system at pressures and temperatures relevant to the interior of the icy moons of the giant planets. We report here new sapphire and diamond anvil cell experiments recently conducted in this binary system to constrain the stability of the CO2 hydrates and H2O ice VI at CO2 saturation in the 250 - 330 K and 0 - 1.7 GPa temperature and pressure ranges. Using Raman spectroscopy and optical monitoring, (1) we constrained the equilibrium between the CO2 sI clathrate hydrate and the H2O-rich liquid over the entire pressure range of stability of the hydrate, up to 0.8 GPa, with results in agreement with previous studies at lower pressures, (2) we confirmed the transition from the CO2 sI clathrate hydrate to a new CO2 high-pressure hydrate reported recently, and (3) we determined for the first time the melting curve of the H2O ice VI at CO2 saturation between 0.8 and 1.7 GPa. Using these third set of data and a chemical potential model for H2O, we propose a first assessment of the solubility of CO2 in water at these P-T conditions. With all these new results and available data in the literature, we propose a P-T-X description of the H2O-CO2 system over the explored pressure and temperature ranges. In addition, the dissociation curve of the CO2 sI clathrate hydrate has been modeled using the approach of van der Waals and Platteeuw. The model adequately reproduces the stability domain of the hydrate up to the highest pressures constrained experimentally. Results of the modeling of the sI clathrate hydrate structure currently being implemented for the H2O-CH4 binary and H2O-CO2-CH4 ternary systems will also be presented.

  13. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O: IV. Differential thermal analysis of the sylvite liquidus in the KCl-H2O binary, the liquidus in the NaCl-KCl-H2O ternary, and the solidus in the NaCl-KCl binary to 2 kb pressure, and a summary of experimental data for thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at elevated P-T conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Sterner, S.M.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1992-01-01

    The sylvite liquidus in the binary system KCl-H2O and the liquidus in the ternary system NaCl-KCl-H2O were determined by using isobaric differential thermal analysis (DTA) cooling scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Sylvite solubilities along the three-phase curve in the binary system KCl-H2O were obtained by the intersection of sylvite-liquidus isopleths with the three-phase curve in a P-T plot. These solubility data can be represented by the equation Wt.% KCl (??0.2) = 12.19 + 0.1557T - 5.4071 ?? 10-5 T2, where 400 ??? T ??? 770??C. These data are consistent with previous experimental observations. The solidus in the binary system NaCl-KCl was determined by using isobaric DTA heating scans at pressures up to 2 kbars. Using these liquidus and solidus data and other published information, a thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high pressures and temperatures for the ternary system has been performed and is presented in an accompanying paper (Part V of this series). However, all experimental liquidus, solidus, and solvus data used in this analysis are summarized in this report (Part IV) and they are compared with the calculated values based on the analysis. ?? 1992.

  14. Flight test evaluation of an RAF high altitude partial pressure protective assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, G. R.; Putnam, T. W.; Dana, W. J.; Enevoldson, E. K.; Winter, W. R.

    1979-01-01

    A partial pressure suit was evaluated during tests in an F-104 and F-15 as a protective garment for emergency descents. The garment is an pressure jerkin and modified anti-g suit combined with an oronasal mask. The garment can be donned and doffed at the aircraft to minimize thermal buildup. The oronasal mask was favored by the pilots due to its immobility on the face during high g-loading. The garment was chosen to provide optimum dexterity for the pilot, which is not available in a full pressure suit, while protecting the pilot at altitudes up to 18,288 meters, during a cabin decompression, and subsequent aircraft descent. During cabin decompressions in the F-104 and F-15, cabin pressure altitude was measured at various aircraft angles of attack, Mach numbers, and altitudes to determine the effect of the aerodynamic slipstream on the cabin altitude.

  15. Effect of partial H2O-D2O replacement on the anisotropy of transverse proton spin relaxation in bovine articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Tadimalla, Sirisha; Momot, Konstantin I

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy of transverse proton spin relaxation in collagen-rich tissues like cartilage and tendon is a well-known phenomenon that manifests itself as the "magic-angle" effect in magnetic resonance images of these tissues. It is usually attributed to the non-zero averaging of intra-molecular dipolar interactions in water molecules bound to oriented collagen fibers. One way to manipulate the contributions of these interactions to spin relaxation is by partially replacing the water in the cartilage sample with deuterium oxide. It is known that dipolar interactions in deuterated solutions are weaker, resulting in a decrease in proton relaxation rates. In this work, we investigate the effects of deuteration on the longitudinal and the isotropic and anisotropic contributions to transverse relaxation of water protons in bovine articular cartilage. We demonstrate that the anisotropy of transverse proton spin relaxation in articular cartilage is independent of the degree of deuteration, bringing into question some of the assumptions currently held over the origins of relaxation anisotropy in oriented tissues. PMID:25545955

  16. Effect of Partial H2O-D2O Replacement on the Anisotropy of Transverse Proton Spin Relaxation in Bovine Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Tadimalla, Sirisha; Momot, Konstantin I.

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy of transverse proton spin relaxation in collagen-rich tissues like cartilage and tendon is a well-known phenomenon that manifests itself as the “magic-angle” effect in magnetic resonance images of these tissues. It is usually attributed to the non-zero averaging of intra-molecular dipolar interactions in water molecules bound to oriented collagen fibers. One way to manipulate the contributions of these interactions to spin relaxation is by partially replacing the water in the cartilage sample with deuterium oxide. It is known that dipolar interactions in deuterated solutions are weaker, resulting in a decrease in proton relaxation rates. In this work, we investigate the effects of deuteration on the longitudinal and the isotropic and anisotropic contributions to transverse relaxation of water protons in bovine articular cartilage. We demonstrate that the anisotropy of transverse proton spin relaxation in articular cartilage is independent of the degree of deuteration, bringing into question some of the assumptions currently held over the origins of relaxation anisotropy in oriented tissues. PMID:25545955

  17. Oxidation of C/SiC Composites at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Serra, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-fiber reinforced SiC (C/SiC) composites are proposed for leading edge applications of hypersonic vehicles due to the superior strength of carbon fibers at high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). However, the vulnerability of the carbon fibers in C/SiC to oxidation over a wide range of temperatures remains a problem. Previous oxidation studies of C/SiC have mainly been conducted in air or oxygen, so that the oxidation behavior of C/SiC at reduced oxygen partial pressures of the hypersonic flight regime are less well understood. In this study, both carbon fibers and C/SiC composites were oxidized over a wide range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures to facilitate the understanding and modeling of C/SiC oxidation kinetics for hypersonic flight conditions.

  18. Introduction to total- and partial-pressure measurements in vacuum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, R. A.; Kern, F. A.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to the fundamentals of total and partial pressure measurement in the vacuum regime (760 x 10 to the -16th power Torr) is presented. The instrument most often used in scientific fields requiring vacuum measurement are discussed with special emphasis on ionization type gauges and quadrupole mass spectrometers. Some attention is also given to potential errors in measurement as well as calibration techniques.

  19. H2O Adsorption Kinetics on Smectites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Howard, J.; Quinn, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    The adsorptive equilibration of H2O with montomorillonite has been measured. At low temperatures and pressures equilibration can require many hours, effectively preventing smectites at the martian surface from responding to diurnal pressure and temperature variations.

  20. The Resistance of the Diffusion Barrier in Nodules of Myrica gale L. Changes in Response to Temperature but Not to Partial Pressure of O2.

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, S.; Tjepkema, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Rates of C2H2 reduction and CO2 evolution by nodules were measured in a flowthrough system using intact plants of Myrica gale L. Both activities increased linearly with increasing partial pressure of O2 (pO2) up to 18 kPa. The linear relationship between CO2 evolution and pO2 at pO2 values between 6 and 18 kPa suggests that the diffusion barrier has a constant resistance. The lack of a variable resistance was further supported by sustained increases and decreases in nodule activities in response to changes in pO2 in the range of 6 to 20 kPa O2. When pO2 was increased above 20 kPa, C2H2 reduction and CO2 evolution continually declined with time. These results confirm that the diffusion barrier in nodules of M. gale is not variable in response to changes in pO2. The effect of temperature was examined at 8 and 20 kPa O2. Rates of C2H2 reduction and CO2 evolution increased with increasing temperature from 10 to 30[deg]C at both pO2 values. These results indicate that the diffusion resistance of the barrier changes as temperature changes, with the resistance decreasing as temperature increases. PMID:12228433

  1. Brazeability of aluminum in vacuum-nitrogen partial-pressure atmosphere brazing

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, T.; Sakai, S.; Sakamoto, A.; Fujiwara, C. )

    1994-10-01

    In vacuum brazing, Al-10% Si-1.5% Mg filler metal is used. The filler metal is melted and magnesium in the filler metal evaporates actively. The magnesium gas is the effective getter of contaminants such as H[sub 2]O and O[sub 2], which form an oxide film on the surface of aluminum alloys, lowering brazeability. Volatile elements also evaporate and material properties change in high-vacuum brazing. The vapor pressure of zinc in the Al-Zn alloy is high because zinc is a volatile element, but Al-Zn alloy does not melt at the brazing temperature, which is approximately 873 K and zinc does not evaporate actively compared with magnesium. However, evaporation of volatile elements and change in material properties can be minimized in vacuum-nitrogen partial-pressure atmosphere brazing, and Al-Zn alloy may be used as a sacrificial alloy in products made with aluminum alloys. In this study, brazeability in vacuum-nitrogen partial-pressure atmosphere was investigated using T-joints with horizontal Al-Mn or Al-Zn alloy sheet and vertical A4004 clad A3003 alloy brazing sheet. Specimens were brazed over a wide range of brazing pressures and N[sub 2] carrier gas flow rates. The brazing temperature and brazing time were 873 K (600 C) and 5 minutes, respectively. Gas contaminants in brazing atmospheres were measured using a quadruple mass spectrometer.

  2. Simulation of in situ uraninite leaching. part I: A partial equilibrium model of the NH4HCO3-(NH4)2CO3-H2O2 leaching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddell, Knona C.; Bautista, Renato G.

    1994-04-01

    In situ leaching of uraninite and calcite by H2O2-NH4HCO2-(NH4)2CO3 solutions has been simulated using a partial equilibrium model which incorporates a one-parameter mixing cell model of solution flow. Rate laws for UO2 dissolution and for CaCO2 dissolution/precipitation were taken from the literature, as were equilibrium constants for solution phase reactions. Parameters of the model include the UO2 and CaCO3 ore grades, the concentrations of the H2O2, NH4HCO3, and (NH4)2CO3 components, porosity, exit solution flow rate, ore and mineral densities, and mineral rate constants and surface areas. Mineral conversions, component and species concentrations, and porosity are among the time-dependent quantities calculated using the model. For the conditions simulated, calcite dissolved somewhat faster than uraninite. The results emphasize the importance of the coupling between the mineral reactions and solution flow. Changes in the concentrations of the CO{3/2-} and HCO{3/-} species are particularly complicated and not predictable from the calcite kinetics alone or from a purely equilibrium model; although the simulations did not reveal any conditions under which the solution would become saturated with CaCO3, the pH continued to change throughout the calcite dissolution and is buffered only after calcite has been consumed.

  3. Experimental study of local dehydration and partial melting of biotite-amphibole gneiss with participation of the H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids at the middle-crustal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonov, O.; Kozhukhantseva, S.

    2012-04-01

    Activity of aqueous chloride-rich brines coexisting with CO2-rich fluids is identified in many amphibolite and granulite terrains suggesting that this type of fluid is an important agent of high-grade metamorphism in the lower to middle crust (see reviews in Touret, 2009; Newton, Manning, 2010). Although thermodynamic and transport properties of these fluids is well constrained both theoretically and experimentally, their affect on complex natural assemblages is poorly understood and demands systematic experimental study. We report here results of the experiments on interaction of the biotite-amphibole gneiss from the Sand River formation (Limpopo Complex, South Africa) with the fluids H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl at 5.5 kbar, 750 and 800 C, the chloride/(H2O+CO2) varying from 0 0.1, and molar CO2/(CO2+H2O) = 0.5. No any reaction textures were identified in the sample interacted with the chloride-free CO2-H2O fluid at 750 C. At this temperature, addition of KCl into the fluid resulted in formation of spectacular reaction textures around biotite (Bt), amphibole (Amp), plagioclase (Pl) and quartz (Qtz) in the starting gneiss. These textures are intergrowths of low-Al clinopyroxene (Cpx) and K-feldspar (Kfs) (sporadically accompanied by ilmenite, sphene and Ti-bearing low-Al mica) corresponding to a progress of the following reactions: Phl + 3An + 18Qtz + 3(K2O in fluid) = 3Di + 7Kfs + (H2O in fluid) and Prg + Ed + 7(K2O in fluid) + 37Qtz + 5An = 9Di + 14Kfs + (2H2O + Na2O in fluid). Local partial melting of the gneiss interacted with KCl-bearing fluids at 750OC was observed only in the run at KCl/(CO2+H2O) = 1/30 and could be caused by local variation of water activity in the sample. Nevertheless, at 800 OC, granitic (>70 wt. % of SiO2) K2O-rich and Cl-bearing melt appears along the grain boundaries in all run samples. This melt produces K-feldspar and clinopyroxene, which are found as euhedral crystals in the glass. Melt films are usually accompanied by K-feldspar microveins and Cpx similar to those in the runs at 750 C. At KCl/(CO2+H2O) = 1/10, strongly "K-feldspartized" portions of the samples along cracks contain minute kalsilite, Ca-garnet, and calcite. In contrast, all NaCl-bearing (including mixed KCl-NaCl-bearing) runs both at 750 and 800 C show evidence for melting, whose intensity clearly increases with increasing NaCl/(CO2+H2O) ratio in the fluid. Na-granitic (> 70 wt. % of SiO2) melt forms at relatively low degrees of melting. Depending on NaCl concentration in the fluid, this melt coexists with Cpx, Opx and Na-rich (richteritic) Amp. Formation of Na-amphibole proceeds via peritectic reactions of biotite and pargasite-edenite amphibole with plagioclase and sodium-rich fluid, for example 5/3Phl + An + 12Qtz + 2Na2O = Richteritic Amp + [5/3Kfs + 2Ab] + 2/3H2O and 5/4Prg + 23/4Qtz + 1/4Na2O = Richteritic Amp + 1/4H2O + 3/2An + [1/4Ab], where Kfs and Ab are the basis of the silicate melt. Euhedral albite was observed crystallizing from the melt in the runs, where NaCl was the only chloride species in the fluid. Euhedral plagioclase crystals were found in glass in the runs with the mixed KCl-NaCl-bearing fluid, while melt films and pockets in the samples are accompanied by K-feldspar microveins. Na-rich "phonolitic" (55-56 wt. % of SiO2) melt containing up to 1.8 wt. % of Cl forms at almost complete melting of the gneiss in presence of NaCl-rich fluids. This melt coexists with pargasite-richterite amphibole and clinopyroxene, as well as with residual accessory phases. It should be noted that solubility of chlorine in the melts forming in equilibrium with the NaCl-rich fluids is by 0.3-0.5 wt. % higher than in the melts equilibrated with the KCl-rich fluids. Thus, the results of the experiments demonstrate that interaction of biotite-amphibole gneiss with H2O-CO2-(K, Na)Cl fluids is able to produce a wide spectrum of mineral assemblages and melts depending on temperature, bulk chloride concentration, and K/Na ratio in the fluid. These assemblages vary from syenitic Cpx+Kfs in presence of KCl-rich flu

  4. Effects of nitrogen partial pressure in Ta-N films grown by the cathodic vacuum arc technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Lv, GuoHua; Yang, Si-ze

    2013-07-01

    Ta-N films were prepared by the cathodic vacuum arc technique in Ar + N2 atmosphere with various nitrogen partial pressures (f_N_2=0{{--}}100%) . The crystal structure, chemical composition, surface morphology and cross-section morphology of the Ta-N films were investigated by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The influence of nitrogen partial pressure on the material characteristics of the Ta-N film was systematically studied. Our results suggest that the structural and morphological properties of the Ta-N films have a strong dependence on the nitrogen partial pressure. With increasing nitrogen partial pressure from 0% to 100%, the phase composition of the films evolves from single tetragonal Ta to cubic TaN and then to multi-phase cubic TaN + monoclinic Ta3N5. And the crystallographic orientation of the main phase component, cubic TaN, develops from (1?1?1) preferred orientation to (2?0?0) preferred orientation. The N/Ta ratio of the films does not increase linearly with nitrogen partial pressure, and nearly reaches 1?:?1 at a nitrogen partial pressure of 65%. The deposition rate is found to decrease almost linearly with increasing nitrogen partial pressure. Macroparticles can be observed without using a magnetic filter, the amount of which can be significantly reduced by increasing the nitrogen partial pressure. And the smooth surface of the films is composed of nano-crystallites, while the grain size seems to increase as a function of the nitrogen partial pressure.

  5. Effect of plasma treatment on multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the detection of H2S and SO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxing; Yang, Bing; Wang, Xiaojing; Luo, Chenchen

    2012-01-01

    H(2)S and SO(2) are important characteristic gases of partial discharge (PD) generated by latent insulated defects in gas insulated switchgear (GIS). The detection of H(2)S and SO(2) is of great significance in the diagnosis and assessment of the operating status of GIS. In this paper, we perform experiments on the gas sensitivity of unmodified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and those modified by atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma at different times (30, 60 and 120 s) for H(2)S and SO(2), respectively. The results show that the sensitivity and response time of modified MWNTs to H(2)S are both improved, whereas the opposite effects are observed for SO(2). The modified MWNTs have almost zero sensitivity to SO(2). Thus, the MWNTs modified by atmospheric pressure DBD air plasma present good selectivity to H(2)S, and have great potential in H(2)S detection. PMID:23012548

  6. High-pressure experiments on the stability of methane hydrates in the H2O-NH3-CH4 system with applications to Titan's cryovolcanism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukroun, M.; Le Menn, E.; Grasset, O.

    2007-08-01

    The current methane abundance in Titan's thick atmosphere cannot be explained without the existence of replenishment processes. Indeed, the intense photochemistry taking place in the atmosphere would destroy the 2-5% CH4 amounts measured by the GCMS onboard the Huygens probe [1] within 10-100 Myr [e.g. 2]. Among the several hypotheses that could explain this replenishment, release of methane during cryovolcanic events seems highly likely. The VIMS [3] and Radar instruments [4] onboard the Cassini spacecraft have brought substantial evidence for cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface. A numerical model has shown the possibility to release CH4 by dissociating methane clathrate hydrates at depth, due to interaction of a clathrate layer with warm ice intrusions [5]. However, the effect of volatile compounds, dissolved (e.g. N2) or in solution (e.g. NH3), would most certainly play a major role in cryovolcanic processes. High-pressure low-temperature experimental investigations on the effect of ammonia on methane hydrates' dissociation are conducted within an optical sapphire-anvil cell. Preliminary results have been previously presented, which lead to contradictory interpretations so far [6,7]. As further experiments are being performed, the reliability of the experimental measurements and the reasons for observing discrepancies in the results can be adressed with more and more confidence. This poster will discuss the experimental issues encountered in the H2O-NH3-CH4 system, up-todate experimental results, as well as their implications for Titan's cryovolcanism. References: [1] Niemann HB et al., Nature 438, 779-784 (2005). [2] Yung YL et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl., 55, 465-506 (1984). [3] Sotin C et al., Nature 435, 786-789 (2005). [4] Lopes RMC et al., Icarus 186, 395-412 (2007). [5] Tobie G et al., Nature 440 (2), 61-64 (2006). [6] Choukroun M et al., 37th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. Abstract #1640 (2006). [7] Choukroun M et al., 38th Lunar and Planet. Sci. Conf. Abstract #1606 (2007).

  7. Effect of H2O, and combined effects of H2O + F, H2O + CO2, and H2O + F + CO2 on the viscosity of a natural basalt from Fuego volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, G.; Whittington, A. G.; Knipping, J.; Scherbarth, S.; Stechern, A.; Behrens, H.

    2012-12-01

    We measured the viscosity of 5 series of remelted natural basalt from Fuego volcano, Guatemala. These series include single and multiple volatile species: H2O, F, H2O-F, H2O-CO2, and H2O-CO2-F. The hydrous glasses were synthesized at 3 kbar and 1250°C in Internally Heated Pressure Vessels. The multiple volatile series were synthesized at 5 kbar and 1250°C. CO2 was added as Ag2C2O4, F as AlF3, and H2O as distilled water. The anhydrous, F-bearing series was synthesized at 1 atm by simply remelting the Fuego basalt and adding F as CaF2.The natural, dry, remelted Fuego basalt has an NBO/T of 0.64. The following comparisons are based on parallel-plate viscosity measurements in the range ~108 to 1012 Pa s. The temperature at which the viscosity is 1012 Pa s (T12) is taken to be the viscosimetric glass transition temperature (Tg). The addition of 2 wt.% H2O results in a decrease of T12 of ~150°C for basalt. Fluorine on its own has a measurable, but much smaller effect, than the equivalent amount of water. Indeed, ~2 wt.% F results in a T12 depression of only ~30°C. When H2O and F are both present, their effects are approximately additive. For example, the viscosity of a basalt with 1.44 wt.% H2O is very similar to the viscosity of a basalt with ~1 wt.% H2O and ~1.25 wt.% F, and the viscosities of a basalt with 2.29 wt.% H2O and a basalt with ~1.65 wt.% H2O and ~1.3 wt.% F are also very similar. The effect of CO2 is somewhat ambiguous. The viscosity of a basalt with ~1.7 wt.% H2O, ~1.3 wt.% F and ~0.2 wt.% CO2 is essentially the same as the viscosity of a basalt with 2.29 wt.% H2O, so CO2 seems to have a negligible or even viscosity-increasing effect when F and H2O are also present. However, a basalt with ~0.84 wt.% H2O and ~0.09 wt.% CO2 has about the same viscosity as a basalt with 1.34 wt.% H2O, which could suggest a strong (viscosity-decreasing) effect of very small amounts of CO2. These results suggest that the effects on viscosity of F in basaltic systems are small, and that the effects of combined F and H2O are approximately additive. CO2, when present in significant amounts (~1000s of ppm) seems to have a negligible or even a slight viscosity-increasing effect, which may partially counteract the effects of dissolved H2O or H2O + F. However, small amounts of CO2 (a few 100 ppm) may further decrease the viscosity of hydrous basalt. Because the viscosity-reducing effect of added H2O is strongest at low water contents, degassed basaltic lavas containing only small amounts of H2O, CO2 and F may still be substantially more fluid than truly volatile-free liquids.

  8. Assessment of metabolic flux distribution in the thermophilic hydrogen producer Caloramator celer as affected by external pH and hydrogen partial pressure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caloramator celer is a strict anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium capable of converting glucose to hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide, acetate, ethanol and formate by a mixed acid fermentation. Depending on the growth conditions C. celer can produce H2 at high yields. For a biotechnological exploitation of this bacterium for H2 production it is crucial to understand the factors that regulate carbon and electron fluxes and therefore the final distribution of metabolites to channel the metabolic flux towards the desired product. Results Combining experimental results from batch fermentations with genome analysis, reconstruction of central carbon metabolism and metabolic flux analysis (MFA), this study shed light on glucose catabolism of the thermophilic alkalitolerant bacterium C. celer. Two innate factors pertaining to culture conditions have been identified to significantly affect the metabolic flux distribution: culture pH and partial pressures of H2 (PH2). Overall, at alkaline to neutral pH the rate of biomass synthesis was maximized, whereas at acidic pH the lower growth rate and the less efficient biomass formation are accompanied with more efficient energy recovery from the substrate indicating high cell maintenance possibly to sustain intracellular pH homeostasis. Higher H2 yields were associated with fermentation at acidic pH as a consequence of the lower synthesis of other reduced by-products such as formate and ethanol. In contrast, PH2 did not affect the growth of C. celer on glucose. At high PH2 the cellular redox state was balanced by rerouting the flow of carbon and electrons to ethanol and formate production allowing unaltered glycolytic flux and growth rate, but resulting in a decreased H2 synthesis. Conclusion C. celer possesses a flexible fermentative metabolism that allows redistribution of fluxes at key metabolic nodes to simultaneously control redox state and efficiently harvest energy from substrate even under unfavorable conditions (i.e. low pH and high PH2). With the H2 production in mind, acidic pH and low PH2 should be preferred for a high yield-oriented process, while a high productivity-oriented process can be achieved at alkaline pH and high PH2. PMID:24678972

  9. Preliminary Measurements Of N2O Partial Pressures In Rivers of Amazon Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C. B.; Rasera, M. F.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Cunha, H. B.; Gomes, B. M.

    2006-12-01

    The concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O), an important component of the greenhouse effect and with a long residence time in the atmosphere, have significantly increased in this century. The reasons for this atmospheric increase in N2O are still partially unexplained. This uncertainty is worse in relation to aquatic environments. Here we report on preliminary measurements of N2O partial pressures in rivers of the Amazon basin. The study areas are in the state of Rondonia (rivers Ji Parana, Urupa, Comemoracao and Pimenta Bueno) and Amazonas (rivers Solimoes and Negro). The rivers were sampled from October 2005 to April 2006, using with immersion pumps, lowered in the middle of the channel to 60% of total depth. Water was pumped directly into a 1 l plastic bottle, which was overflown three times before closing. Using syringes, 60 ml of N2 were injected into the bottle, simultaenously to the withdrawn of 60 ml of sample. N2O was extracted into these 60 ml of N2 by shaking vigorously for 2 minutes. With the same syringes, the gas was taken from the bottles and injected into sealed evacuated 25 ml vials. Atmospheric samples were taken from one meter above the water column and stored the same way. N2O partial pressures were determined on a Shimadzu GC-14 Green House Gas Analyzer. All rivers showed little variations in N2O partial pressures. Average values in the rivers of Rondonia were around 0.41 ± 0.07 ? atm (n=46), whereas the Solimoes and Negro rivers, in the state of Amazonas, showed values around 0.43 ± 0.08 ? atm (n=131). Atmospheric averages were approximately 0.34 ± 0.04 ? atm (n=58) and 0.32 ± 0.03 ? atm (n=134) in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, respectively. This means that, although these waters are supersatured in CO2, making evasive fluxes of this gas an important component of the C cycle in this basin, the same does not occur in the N cycle. Small differences in partial pressures of N2O between water and air will result in small fluxes of this gas to the atmosphere from the middle of the river channels. However, at the river margins and riparian zones, significantly different redox conditions may occur, which should be further investigated to fully understand the role of N2O fluxes in these riverine systems.

  10. Proximate nutritional composition of CELSS crops grown at different CO2 partial pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.; Berry, W. L.

    1994-01-01

    Two Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) candidate crops, soybean (Glycine max) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), were grown hydroponically in controlled environments maintained at carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures ranging from 0.05 to 1.00 kPa (500 to 10,000 ppm at 101 kPa atmospheric pressure). Plants were harvested at maturity (90 days for soybean and 105 days for potato) and all tissues analyzed for proximate nutritional composition (i.e. protein, fat, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash content). Soybean seed ash and crude fiber were higher and carbohydrate was lower than values reported for field-grown seed. Potato tubers showed little difference from field-grown tubers. Crude fiber of soybean stems and leaves increased with increased CO2, as did soybean leaf protein (total nitrogen). Potato leaf and stem (combined) protein levels also increased with increased CO2, while leaf and stem carbohydrates decreased. Values for leaf and stem protein and ash were higher than values generally reported for field-grown plants for both species. Results suggest that CO2 partial pressure should have little influence on proximate composition of potato tubers or soybean seed, but that high ash and protein levels might be expected from leaves and stems of crops grown in controlled environments of a CELSS.

  11. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    PubMed Central

    Rudenski, Aram; Gibson, John; Howard, Luke; O’Driscoll, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Key Points In clinical practice, the level of arterial oxygenation can be measured either directly by blood gas sampling to measure partial pressure (PaO2) and percentage saturation (SaO2) or indirectly by pulse oximetry (SpO2). This review addresses the strengths and weaknesses of each of these tests and gives advice on their clinical use. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve describing the relationship between oxygen partial pressure and saturation can be modelled mathematically and routinely obtained clinical data support the accuracy of a historical equation used to describe this relationship. Educational Aims To understand how oxygen is delivered to the tissues. To understand the relationships between oxygen saturation, partial pressure, content and tissue delivery. The clinical relevance of the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve will be reviewed and we will show how a mathematical model of the curve, derived in the 1960s from limited laboratory data, accurately describes the relationship between oxygen saturation and partial pressure in a large number of routinely obtained clinical samples. To understand the role of pulse oximetry in clinical practice. To understand the differences between arterial, capillary and venous blood gas samples and the role of their measurement in clinical practice. The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content), saturation (SO2) and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2) as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined. PMID:26632351

  12. Thermodynamic description of equilibria in mixed fluids (H 2O-non-polar gas) over a wide range of temperature (25-700°C) and pressure (1-5000 bars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinfiev, Nikolai; Zotov, Alexander

    1999-07-01

    A new method for computing complicated equilibria in hydrothermal mixed fluids, H 2O-non-polar gas, is proposed. The computation algorithm is based on the electrostatic approach for the interaction between aqueous species and H 2O. The approach uses the SUPCRT92 database and the HKF format and may be considered as an application of the revised HKF model for mixed H 2O-non-polar gas fluids. Thermodynamic properties of dissolved gases at high temperatures and pressures are calculated using the Redlich-Kwong approach. Dielectric permittivity of the mixed solvent is estimated by the modified Kirkwood equation. The proposed approach is validated using available experimental data on the dissociation constants of H 2O and NaCl and the solubility of both covalent and ion crystals (SiO 2, AgCl, Ag 2SO 4, Ca(OH) 2, CaCO 3) in H 2O-non-polar component (dioxane, Ar, CO 2) mixtures. Predicted and experimental data are in close agreement over a wide range of P- T- xgas conditions (up to 500°C, 4 kbar and 0.25-0.3 mole fraction of non-polar gas). It is also shown how the computation method can be applied to estimate the Born parameters of aqueous species. The proposed approach enables not only examination of isolated reactions, but the study of equilibria of whole systems. Thus, it allows modelling of mixed natural fluids.

  13. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of electrical conductivity in ??-Bi2MoO6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, C. M. C.; Aragón, R.

    2008-05-01

    The electrical conductivity of ?'-Bi 2MoO 6 was surveyed between 450 and 750 °C as a function of oxygen partial pressure, in the range 0.01-1 atm. A - {1}/{6} power law dependence, consistent with a Frenkel defect model of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies and interstitials, is evidence for an n-type semiconductive component, with an optical band gap of 2.9 eV. The absence of this dependence is used to map the onset of dominant ionic conduction.

  14. Oxygen partial pressure on the structural and electrical properties of CdZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Guru Sampath; Obulapathi, L.; Maddaiah, M.; Sarmash, T. Sofi; Rani, D. Jhansi; Rao, J. V. V. N. Kesava; Rao, T. Subba; Asokan, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Cd doped ZnO have versatile applications in the field of solar cells, Optoelectronic devices. The Cd doped ZnO thin films were prepared by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at different O2 Partial Pressures (1-3sccm) on glass substrate. The structure of the compound was determined by XRD, the mictro structure was studied by FE-SEM, the absorption spectra studies were measured with UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer and electrical properties were studied by four probe method. The optical band gap was variation reported in this study. The minimum resistivity found at PO2=2.0sccm.

  15. Novel cooperative interactions and structural ordering in H2S-H2

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and hydrogen (H2) crystallize into a 'guest-host' structure at 3.5 GPa and, at the initial formation pressure, the rotationally disordered component molecules exhibit weak van der Waals type interactions. With increasing pressure, hydrogen bonding develops and strengthens between neighboring H2S molecules, reflected in a pronounced drop in S-H vibrational stretching frequency and also observed in first-principles calculations. At 17 GPa, an ordering process occurs where H2S molecules orient themselves to maximize hydrogen bonding and H2 molecules simultaneously occupy a chemically distinct lattice site. Intermolecular forces in the H2S+H2 system may be tuned with pressure from the weak hydrogen-bonding limit to the ordered hydrogen-bonding regime, resulting in a novel clathrate structure stabilized by cooperative interactions.

  16. Pressure-induced elastic and structural changes in hydrous basalt glasses: The effect of H2O on the gravitational stability of basalt melts at the base of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Yang, De-Bin; Xie, Hong-Sen; Li, Fang-Fei; Hu, Bo; Yu, Yang; Xu, Wen-Liang; Gao, Chun-Xiao

    2014-11-01

    To understand the effect of hydration on the elastic properties of silicate melts, we conducted in situ high-pressure Brillouin scattering measurements on two hydrous basalt glasses with different water contents in diamond anvil cells. Second-order phase transitions were observed in the hydrous basalt glasses and are due to the topological rearrangement of the silicate network to a high [Si, Al]-O coordination. Up to a pressure of 10 GPa at 300 K, the extra 2.23 wt% H2O lowers the elastic moduli of FX-2 basalt glass (2.69 wt% H2O) by 10%-18%, but does not affect the pressure derivatives of the elastic moduli, compared with FX-1 (0.46 wt% H2O) basalt glass. The phase transition takes place at a higher pressure in FX-2 compared with FX-1, possibly because of the depolymerization of water to silicate glass. Water interacts with network-forming cations and creates Si-OH and Al-OH groups, and prohibits nonbridging oxygen ions from being connected to other nearby framework cations (i.e., [5,6](Si, Al)), resulting in the hysteresis of the second-order phase transition. The density contrasts of our hydrous basalt melts with previous mid-ocean ridge basalt and preliminary reference Earth model data indicate that basalt melts may need very low water content (<0.46 wt% H2O) to maintain gravitational stability at the base of the upper mantle. Our results show that the elastic properties of hydrous silicate melts may have important implications for the dynamic evolution and chemical differentiation of the mantle.

  17. H2S concentrations in the arterial blood during H2S administration in relation to its toxicity and effects on breathing.

    PubMed

    Klingerman, Candice M; Trushin, Neil; Prokopczyk, Bogdan; Haouzi, Philippe

    2013-09-15

    Our aim was to establish in spontaneously breathing urethane-anesthetized rats, the relationship between the concentrations of H2S transported in the blood and the corresponding clinical manifestations, i.e., breathing stimulation and inhibition, during and following infusion of NaHS at increasing rates. The gaseous concentration of H2S (CgH2S, one-third of the total soluble form) was computed from the continuous determination of H2S partial pressure in the alveolar gas, while H2S, both dissolved and combined to hemoglobin, was measured at specific time points by sulfide complexation with monobromobimane (CMBBH2S). We found that using a potent reducing agent in vitro, H2S added to the whole blood had little interaction with the plasma proteins, as sulfide appeared to be primarily combined and then oxidized by hemoglobin. In vivo, H2S was undetectable in the blood in its soluble form in baseline conditions, while CMBBH2S averaged 0.7 ± 0.5 ?M. During NaHS infusion, H2S was primarily present in nonsoluble form in the arterial blood: CMBBH2S was about 50 times higher than CgH2S at the lowest levels of exposure and 5 or 6 times at the levels wherein fatal apnea occurred. CgH2S averaged only 1.1 ± 0.7 ?M when breathing increased, corresponding to a CMBBH2S of 11.1 ± 5.4 ?M. Apnea occurred at CgH2S above 5.1 ?M and CMBBH2S above 25.4 ?M. At the cessation of exposure, CMBBH2S remained elevated, at about 3 times above baseline for at least 15 min. These data provide a frame of reference for studying the putative effects of endogenous H2S and for testing antidotes against its deadly effects. PMID:23904109

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIONG FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE(PGM)

    SciTech Connect

    Archie Robertson

    2003-04-17

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the January 1--March 31, 2003 time period.

  19. HCl Vapour Pressures and Reaction Probabilities for ClONO2 + HCl on Liquid H2SO4-HNO3-HCl-H20 Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, M. J.; Koch, R. E.; Kim, J. E.; Molina, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    Henry's Law solubility constants for HCl have been measured for liquid H2SO4-HNO3-HCl-H2O solutions; the results are in good agreement with predictions from published semiempirical models. The ClONO2 + HCl reaction on the surfaces of such solutions with compositions simulating those of stratospheric aerosols has been investigated; as the composition changes following the temperature drop characteristic of the high-latitude stratosphere the reaction probability gamma increases rapidly. Furthermore, the gamma values remain essentially unchanged when HN03 uptake is neglected; the controlling factor appears to be the solubility of HCl. These results corroborate our earlier suggestion that supercooled liquid sulfate aerosols promote chlorine activation at low temperatures as efficiently as solid polar stratospheric cloud particles.

  20. Solubilities of corundum, wollastonite and quartz in H 2O-NaCl solutions at 800 °C and 10 kbar: Interaction of simple minerals with brines at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Robert C.; Manning, Craig E.

    2006-11-01

    Solubilities of corundum (Al 2O 3) and wollastonite (CaSiO 3) were measured in H 2O-NaCl solutions at 800 °C and 10 kbar and NaCl concentrations up to halite saturation by weight-loss methods. Additional data on quartz solubility at a single NaCl concentration were obtained as a supplement to previous work. Single crystals of synthetic corundum, natural wollastonite or natural quartz were equilibrated with H 2O and NaCl at pressure ( P) and temperature ( T) in a piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl pressure medium and graphite heater sleeves. The three minerals show fundamentally different dissolution behavior. Corundum solubility undergoes large enhancement with NaCl concentration, rising rapidly from Al 2O 3 molality (mO) of 0.0013(1) (1 ? error) in pure H 2O and then leveling off to a maximum of ˜0.015 at halite saturation ( XNaCl ? 0.58, where X is mole fraction). Solubility enhancement relative to that in pure H 2O, XO/XAlO°, passes through a maximum at XNaCl ? 0.15 and then declines towards halite saturation. Quenched fluids have neutral pH at 25 °C. Wollastonite has low solubility in pure H 2O at this P and T(m=0.0167(6)). It undergoes great enhancement, with a maximum solubility relative to that in H 2O at XNaCl ? 0.33, and solubility >0.5 molal at halite saturation. Solute silica is 2.5 times higher than at quartz saturation in the system H 2O-NaCl-SiO 2, and quenched fluids are very basic (pH 11). Quartz shows monotonically decreasing solubility from m=1.248 in pure H 2O to 0.202 at halite saturation. Quenched fluids are pH neutral. A simple ideal-mixing model for quartz-saturated solutions that requires as input only the solubility and speciation of silica in pure H 2O reproduces the data and indicates that hydrogen bonding of molecular H 2O to dissolved silica species is thermodynamically negligible. The maxima in XO/XAlO° for corundum and wollastonite indicate that the solute products include hydrates and Na + and/or Cl - species produced by molar ratios of reactant H 2O to NaCl of 6:1 and 2:1, respectively. Our results imply that quite simple mechanisms may exist in the dissolution of common rock-forming minerals in saline fluids at high P and T and allow assessment of the interaction of simple, congruently soluble rock-forming minerals with brines associated with deep-crustal metamorphism.

  1. Partial Melting in the Iron-Sulfur System at High Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Seagle, C. T.; Heinz, D. L.; Shen, G.; Prakapenka, V. B.

    2005-12-01

    Melting in the Fe-rich portion of the Fe-S system was investigated to pressures of 80 GPa, using in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction through a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at the GSECARS sector of APS. Intimately mixed Fe-FeS powders were compressed between insulating layers of NaCl in the diamond anvil cell. Double-sided laser heating was used to reduce axial temperature gradients, and temperatures were measured spectroradiometrically on both sides of the cell. Only the central, hottest part of the laser-heated region was probed with the 5x7 micron x-ray beam. At high pressures, Fe3S was formed by reaction between Fe and FeS upon laser heating, with excess Fe remaining. The Fe was used as an internal, high-temperature pressure standard based on existing equation of state data. Diffraction data were collected during laser heating and also from the quenched sample following each heating episode. The use of an image plate area detector greatly improved our ability to verify the presence of both metal and sulfide during heating. The eutectic temperature was bracketed by the absence of one phase above the melting point and the presence of both phases at lower temperature. The reappearance of the absent component (sulfide or metal) upon rapid quenching was taken as confirmation that partial melting had been achieved. Our results using this method are in broad agreement with earlier data that were based on textural criteria.

  2. Deformation mechanisms in granodiorite at effective pressures to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Bauer, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Deformation mechanisms in room-dry and water-saturated specimens of Charcoal Granodiorite, shortened at 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective pressures (Pe) to 100 MPa and temperatures to partial melting (less than or equal to 1050/sup 0/C) are documented with a view toward providing criteria to recognize and characterize the deformation for geological and engienering applications. Above 800/sup 0/C strength decreases dramatically at effective pressures greater than or equal to 50 MPa and water-weakening reduces strength an additional 30 to 40% at Pe = 100 MPa. Strains at failure are only 0.1 to 2.2% with macroscopic ductility (within this range) increasing as the effective pressures are increased and in wet versus dry tests. Shattering (multiple faulting) gives way to faulting along a single zone to failure without macroscopic faulting as ductility increases. Microscopically, cataclasis (extension microfracturing and thermal cracking with rigid-body motions) predominates at all conditions. Dislocation gliding contributes little to the strain. Precursive extension microfractures coalesce to produce the throughgoing faults with gouge zones exhibiting possible Riedel shears. Incipient melting, particularly in wet tests, produces a distinctive texture along feldspar grain boundaries that suggests a grain-boundary-softening effect contributes to the weakening. In addition, it is demonstrated that the presence of water does not lead to more microfractures, but to a reduction in the stresses required to initiate and propagate them.

  3. Qualitative determination of H2S crossover rates in nation membranes using ion-probe techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Rockward, Tommy; Uribe, Francisco A; Garzon, Fernando H

    2008-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells are sensitive to impurities that may be present in either the oxidizer or fuel. H2S, even at the ppb level, will have a dramatic and adverse affect on fuel cell performance. The H2S permeability through dry and humidified Nafion PEMFC membranes was studied using ion probe techniques. A sulfide anti-oxidant buffer solution was used to trap and concentrate trace quantities of H2S that permeated through 50 cm2samples of Nafion 117 and 212 membranes using a partial pressure difference up to I030ppm at room temperature. Experiments were conducted for up to 24 hours in order to achieve sulfide ion concentrations high enough to be precisely determined by subsequent titration with Pb(N03)2. The rate of H2S crossover for dry 117 and 212 were identical at 1.2e-7 g/min. Humidification increased the crossover rate to 5.ge-7 glmin and 1.8e-6 glmin for 117 and 212 respectively. Although the data collected in this work show that the rate of H2S crossover increases with water content and reduced membrane thickness, an accurate determination of permeation constants from this work was not possible because the H2S partial pressure was not constant throughout the experiment.

  4. Real-time visualization of oxygen partial pressures in straight channels of running polymer electrolyte fuel cell with water plugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Katsuya; Suga, Takeo; Nagumo, Yuzo; Uchida, Makoto; Inukai, Junji; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Visualization inside polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for elucidating the reaction distributions is expected to improve the performance, durability, and stability. An oxygen-sensitive film of a luminescent porphyrin was used to visualize the oxygen partial pressures in five straight gas-flow channels of a running PEFC with liquid-water blockages formed at the end of the channels. The blockage greatly lowered and unstabilized the cell voltage. The oxygen partial pressure decreased nearly to 0 kPa in the blocked channel. With a water blockage in a channel, the oxygen partial pressures in the adjacent channels were lowered due to an extra demand of oxygen consumption. When the number of the blocked channels increased, the oxygen partial pressure in the unblocked channels became much lowered. When the water blockages disappeared, the oxygen partial pressures quickly returned to the values before plugging. The influence of the cross flows of air through the gas diffusion layers in straight channels was much smaller than that in serpentine flow channels.

  5. Diurnal changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in coral reef waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kayanne, Hajime; Suzuki, Atsushi; Saito, Hiroshi

    1995-07-14

    Coral reefs are considered to be a source of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of their high calcium carbonate production and low net primary production. This was tested by direct measurement of diurnal changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P{sub CO2}) in reef waters during two 3-day periods, one in March 1993 and one in March 1994, on Shiraho reef of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Although the P{sub CO2} values in reef waters exhibited large diurnal changes ranging from 160 to 520 microatmospheres, they indicate that the reef flat area is a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. This suggests that the net organic production rate of the reef community exceeded its calcium carbonate production rate during the observation periods. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Partial Pressures of In-Se from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3 and 61 atomic percent and 673 and 1418K has been measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gage measurements for compositions between 50 and 61 atomic percent but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Torsion-Knudsen cell measurements. The sequiselenide is found to sublime incongruently. Congruent vaporization occurs for the liquid above 1000 K between 50.08 and 56 at. percent Se. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000 and 1300K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 and -38 kJ per gram atomic weight for 50 and 56 percent Se at 1200 and 1300K.

  7. Partial Pressures for Several In-Se Compositions from Optical Absorbance of the Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brebrick, R. F.; Su, Ching-Hua

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorbance of the vapor phase over various In-Se compositions between 33.3-60.99 at.% Se and 673-1418 K was measured and used to obtain the partial pressures of Se2(g) and In2Se(g). The results are in agreement with silica Bourdon gauge measurements for compositions between 50-61 at.%, but significantly higher than those from Knudsen cell and simultaneous Knudsen-torsion cell measurements. It is found that 60.99 at.% Se lies outside the sesquiselenide homogeneity range and 59.98 at.% Se lies inside and is the congruently melting composition. The Gibbs energy of formation of the liquid from its pure liquid elements between 1000-1300 K is essentially independent of temperature and falls between -36 to -38 kJ per g atomic weight for 50 and 56% Se at 1200 and 1300 K.

  8. Low-temperature reduction of Ge oxide by Si and SiH4 in low-pressure H2 and Ar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Kaichiro; Moriya, Atsushi; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Kiyohiko; Yamada, Masayuki; Kunii, Yasuo; Niwano, Michio; Murota, Junichi

    2015-08-01

    Introduction of Ge into ULSIs has become increasingly attractive because of the higher carrier mobility of Ge. Since Ge native oxide is formed easily in cleanroom air, the control of formation and reduction of the Ge oxide is requested for the introduction of Ge layers into Si process. Here, the reactions between gas phase Ge oxide and Si substrate and between the Ge oxide on Ge epitaxial layer and SiH4 are investigated. The native-oxidized Ge amount is obtained by calculating from chemically shifted peak intensity of Ge 3d measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By the adsorption of the Ge oxide on Si(1 0 0) surface, pure Ge and Si oxide are formed on the Si surface even at 350 °C and the formed Ge amount tends to correspond to the oxidized Si amount, independently of the heat-treatment environment of H2 and Ar under the condition that Si oxide is not reduced by H2. By SiH4 treatment, the amount of the oxidized Ge on the Ge layer decreases drastically even at 350 °C and Si oxide is formed on the Ge layer. From these results, it is suggested that the Ge oxide is reduced even at 350 °C by Si or SiH4, and the Si oxide and the pure Ge are formed.

  9. Effect of H2O on the density of silicate melts at high pressures: Static experiments and the application of a modified hard-sphere model of equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhicheng; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2012-05-01

    Density of ultramafic silicate melts was determined using the sink/float technique at high pressures. Seven melt compositions were studied, among which three were dry compositions with different Mg#'s (molar MgO/(MgO + FeO) × 100) and the other four were hydrous compositions synthesized by adding 2-7 wt.% H2O to the anhydrous ones. Experimental conditions range from 9 to 15 GPa and from 2173 to 2473 K. The sinking and floatation of density markers were observed for all melt compositions. Melt density data were analyzed by applying the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state and a newly developed equation of state for silicate melts based on the model of hard sphere mixtures. The presence of water can significantly reduce the density of melts due to its small molecular mass. On the other hand, water makes hydrous silicate melts more compressible than anhydrous melts and therefore the effect of H2O on melt density is less significant at high pressures. The density of hydrous melts was then calculated as a function of H2O content at the conditions of the bottom of the upper mantle, and was compared with the density of the dominant upper mantle minerals. Results show that the conditions for a negatively buoyant melt that coexists with a pyrolite mantle atop the 410 km discontinuity are marginally satisfied if H2O is the only volatile component to facilitate melting, but such conditions will be satisfied by a broader range of conditions when other heavier volatile elements (C, K, etc.) are also present.

  10. Oxidation of SiC/BN/SiC Composites in Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Boyd, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composites with a BN interphase are proposed for use as leading edge structures of hypersonic vehicles. The durability of these materials under hypersonic flight conditions is therefore of interest. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterize the oxidation kinetics of both the constituent fibers and composite coupons at four temperatures: 816, 1149, 1343, and 1538 C (1500, 2100, 2450, and 2800 F) and in oxygen partial pressures between 5% and 0.1% (balance argon) at 1 atm total pressure. One edge of the coupons was ground off so the effects of oxygen ingress into the composite could be monitored by post-test SEM and EDS. Additional characterization of the oxidation products was conducted by XPS and TOF-SIMS. Under most conditions, the BN oxidized rapidly, leading to the formation of borosilicate glass. Rapid initial oxidation followed by volatilization of boria lead to protective oxide formation and further oxidation was slow. At 1538C in 5% oxygen, both the fibers and coupons exhibited borosilicate glass formation and bubbling. At 1538C in 0.1% oxygen, active oxidation of both the fibers and the composites was observed leading to rapid SiC degradation. BN oxidation at 1538C in 0.1% oxygen was not significant.

  11. Pressure dependence of the electro-optic response function in partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, D. S.; Holmes, H. K.

    1993-01-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystals in a new configuration, termed partially exposed polymer dispersed ferroelectric liquid crystal (PEPDFLC), respond to external pressures and demonstrate pressure-induced electro-optic switching response. When the PEPDFLC thin film is sandwiched between two transparent conducting electrodes, one a glass plate and the other a flexible sheet such as polyvenylidene fluoride, the switching characteristics of the thin film are a function of the pressure applied to the flexible transparent electrode and the bias voltage across the electrodes. Response time measurements reveal a linear dependence of the change in electric field with external pressure.

  12. H2 in Galaxies

    E-print Network

    F. Combes

    1999-10-15

    The bulk of the molecular gas in spiral galaxies is under the form of cold H2, that does not radiate and is only suspected through tracer molecules, such as CO. All tracers are biased, and in particular H2 could be highly underestimated in low metallicity regions. Our knowledge is reviewed of the H2 content of galaxies, according to their types, environment, or star-forming activities. The HI and CO components are generally well-mixed (spiral arms, vertical distribution), although their radial distributions are radically different, certainly due to radial abundance gradients. The hypothesis of H2 as dark matter is discussed, as well as the implications on galaxy dynamics, or the best perspectives for observational tests.

  13. Feasibility of measuring dissolved carbon dioxide based on head space partial pressures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watten, B.J.; Boyd, C.E.; Schwartz, M.F.; Summerfelt, S.T.; Brazil, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an instrument prototype that measures dissolved carbon dioxide (DC) without need for standard wetted probe membranes or titration. DC is calculated using Henry's Law, water temperature, and the steady-state partial pressure of carbon dioxide that develops within the instrument's vertical gas-liquid contacting chamber. Gas-phase partial pressures were determined with either an infrared detector (ID) or by measuring voltage developed by a pH electrode immersed in an isolated sodium carbonate solution (SC) sparged with recirculated head space gas. Calculated DC concentrations were compared with those obtained by titration over a range of DC (2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28mg/l), total alkalinity (35, 120, and 250mg/l as CaCO3), total dissolved gas pressure (-178 to 120 mmHg), and dissolved oxygen concentrations (7, 14, and 18 mg/l). Statistically significant (P < 0.001) correlations were established between head space (ID) and titrimetrically determined DC concentrations (R2 = 0.987-0.999, N = 96). Millivolt and titrimetric values from the SC solution tests were also correlated (P < 0.001, R 2 = 0.997, N = 16). The absolute and relative error associated with the use of the ID and SC solution averaged 0.9mg/l DC and 7.0% and 0.6 mg/l DC and 9.6%, respectively. The precision of DC estimates established in a second test series was good; coefficients of variation (100(SD/mean)) for the head space (ID) and titration analyses were 0.99% and 1.7%. Precision of the SC solution method was 1.3%. In a third test series, a single ID was coupled with four replicate head space units so as to permit sequential monitoring (15 min intervals) of a common water source. Here, appropriate gas samples were secured using a series of solenoid valves (1.6 mm bore) activated by a time-based controller. This system configuration reduced the capital cost per sample site from US$ 2695 to 876. Absolute error averaged 2.9, 3.1, 3.7, and 2.7 mg/ l for replicates 1-4 (N = 36) during a 21-day test period (DC range, 36-40 mg/l). The ID meter was then modified so as to provide for DO as well as DC measurements across components of an intensive fish production system. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. H2O Adsorption on Smectites: Application to the Diurnal Variation of H2O in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Howard, J.; Quinn, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Observations of the Martian planetary boundary layer lead to interpretations that are baffling and contradictory. In this paper, we specifically address the question of whether or not water vapor finds a substantial diurnal reservoir in the Martian regolith. To address this issue, we have measured H2O adsorption kinetics on SWy-1, a Na-rich montmorillonite from Wyoming. The highest-temperature (273 K) data equilibrates rapidly. Data gathered at realistic H2O partial pressures and temperatures appropriate to early morning show two phenomena that preclude a significant role for smectites in diurnally exchanging a large column abundance. First, the equilibration timescale is longer than a sol. Second, the equilibrium abundances are a small fraction of that predicted by earlier adsorption isotherms. The explanation for this phenomenon is that smectite clay actually increases its surface area as a function of adsorptive coverage. At Mars-like conditions, we show that the interlayer sites of smectites are likely to be unavailable.

  15. Applying Chemical Potential and Partial Pressure Concepts to Understand the Spontaneous Mixing of Helium and Air in a Helium-Inflated Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jee-Yon Lee; Hee-Soo Yoo; Jong Sook Park; Kwang-Jin Hwang; Jin Seog Kim

    2005-01-01

    The spontaneous mixing of helium and air in a helium-inflated balloon is described in an experiment in which the partial pressure of the gases in the balloon are determined from the mole factions and the total pressure measured in the balloon. The results described provide a model for teaching concepts of partial pressure, chemical potential, and…

  16. The system H 2O-NaCl. Part I: Correlation formulae for phase relations in temperature-pressure-composition space from 0 to 1000 °C, 0 to 5000 bar, and 0 to 1 XNaCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driesner, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2007-10-01

    Realistic simulations of fluid flow in geologic systems have severely been hampered by the lack of a consistent formulation for fluid properties for binary salt-water fluids over the temperature-pressure-composition ranges encountered in the Earth's crust. As the first of two companion studies, a set of correlations describing the phase stability relations in the system H 2O-NaCl is developed. Pure water is described by the IAPS-84 equation of state. New correlations comprise the vapor pressure of halite and molten NaCl, the NaCl melting curve, the composition of halite-saturated liquid and vapor, the pressure of vapor + liquid + halite coexistence, the temperature-pressure and temperature-composition relations for the critical curve, and the compositions of liquid and vapor on the vapor + liquid coexistence surface. The correlations yield accurate values for temperatures from 0 to 1000 °C, pressures from 0 to 5000 bar, and compositions from 0 to 1 XNaCl (mole fraction of NaCl). To facilitate their use in fluid flow simulations, the correlations are entirely formulated as functions of temperature, pressure and composition.

  17. Experimental multi-phase H2O-CO2 brine interactions at elevated temperature and pressure: Implications for CO2 sequestration in deep-saline aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.; Koksalan, T.

    2004-01-01

    The burning of fossil fuel and other anthropogenic activities have caused a continuous and dramatic 30% increase of atmospheric CO2 over the past 150 yr. CO2 sequestration is increasingly being viewed as a tool for managing these anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. CO2-saturated brine-rock experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of multiphase H2O-CO2 fluids on mineral equilibria and the potential for CO2 sequestration in mineral phases within deep-saline aquifers. Experimental results were generally consistent with theoretical thermodynamic calculations. The solubility of CO2 was enhanced in brines in the presence of both limestone and sandstone relative to brines alone. Reactions between CO2 saturated brines and arkosic sandstones were characterized by desiccation of the brine and changes in the chemical composition of the brine suggesting fixation of CO2 in mineral phases. These reactions were occurring on a measurable but kinetically slow time scale at 120??C.

  18. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H2O: V. Thermodynamic-PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high temperatures and pressures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sterner, S.M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Downs, R.T.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1992-01-01

    The Gibbs energies of mixing for NaCl-KCl binary solids and liquids and solid-saturated NaCl-KCl-H2O ternary liquids were modeled using asymmetric Margules treatments. The coefficients of the expressions were calibrated using an extensive array of binary solvus and solidus data, and both binary and ternary liquidus data. Over the PTX range considered, the system exhibits complete liquid miscibility among all three components and extensive solid solution along the anhydrous binary. Solid-liquid and solid-solid phase equilibria were calculated by using the resulting equations and invoking the equality of chemical potentials of NaCl and KCl between appropriate phases at equilibrium. The equations reproduce the ternary liquidus and predict activity coefficients for NaCl and KCl components in the aqueous liquid under solid-saturation conditions between 673 and 1200 K from vapor saturation up to 5 kbar. In the NaCl-KCl anhydrous binary system, the equations describe phase equilibria and predict activity coefficients of the salt components for all stable compositions of solid and liquid phases between room temperature and 1200 K and from 1 bar to 5 kbar. ?? 1992.

  19. Phase relations in the system NaCl-KCl-H 2O: V. Thermodynamic- PTX analysis of solid-liquid equilibria at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, S. Michael; Chou, I.-Ming; Downs, Robert T.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1992-06-01

    The Gibbs energies of mixing for NaCl-KCl binary solids and liquids and solid-saturated NaCl-KCl-H 2O ternary liquids were modeled using asymmetric Margules treatments. The coefficients of the expressions were calibrated using an extensive array of binary solvus and solidus data, and both binary and ternary liquidus data. Over the PTX range considered, the system exhibits complete liquid miscibility among all three components and extensive solid solution along the anhydrous binary. Solid-liquid and solid-solid phase equilibria were calculated by using the resulting equations and invoking the equality of chemical potentials of NaCl and KCl between appropriate phases at equilibrium. The equations reproduce the ternary liquidus and predict activity coefficients for NaCl and KCl components in the aqueous liquid under solid-saturation conditions between 673 and 1200 K from vapor saturation up to 5 kbar. In the NaCl-KCl anhydrous binary system, the equations describe phase equilibria and predict activity coefficients of the salt components for all stable compositions of solid and liquid phases between room temperature and 1200 K and from 1 bar to 5 kbar.

  20. Table S1. Vertical Scale for SBUV Partial Column data. SBUV Partial Column Ozone is reported in DU per layer within 21 defined pressure layers from the ground to the top of the

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    . Pressure scale for SBUV partial column # of the layer Layer bottom pressure, hPa Layer top pressure, hPa # of the layer Layer bottom pressure, hPa Layer top pressure, hPa 1 1013 639.16 11 10.13 6.3916 2 639.16 403 are reported in parts per million by volume (ppmv) on 15 defined pressure levels between 0.5 hPa and 50 hPa

  1. Partial Defect Verification of the Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S

    2010-02-05

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the responsibility to carry out independent inspections of all nuclear material and facilities subject to safeguards agreements in order to verify compliance with non-proliferation commitments. New technologies have been continuously explored by the IAEA and Member States to improve the verification measures to account for declared inventory of nuclear material and detect clandestine diversion and production of nuclear materials. Even with these efforts, a technical safeguards challenge has remained for decades for the case of developing a method in identifying possible diversion of nuclear fuel pins from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel assemblies. We had embarked on this challenging task and successfully developed a novel methodology in detecting partial removal of fuel from pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies. The methodology uses multiple tiny neutron and gamma detectors in the form of a cluster and a high precision driving system to obtain underwater radiation measurements inside a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel assembly without any movement of the fuel. The data obtained in such a manner can provide spatial distribution of neutron and gamma flux within a spent fuel assembly. The combined information of gamma and neutron signature is used to produce base signatures and they are principally dependent on the geometry of the detector locations, and exhibit little sensitivity to initial enrichment, burn-up or cooling time. A small variation in the fuel bundle such as a few missing pins changes the shape of the signature to enable detection. This resulted in a breakthrough method which can be used to detect pin diversion without relying on the nuclear power plant operator's declared operation data. Presented are the results of various Monte Carlo simulation studies and experiments from actual commercial PWR spent fuel assemblies.

  2. Water solubility in haplogranitic melts coexisting with H2O-H2 fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Burkhard C.; Holtz, François; Pichavant, Michel

    The water solubility in haplogranitic melts (normative composition Ab39Or32Qz29) coexisting with H2O-H2 fluids at 800 and 950°C and 1, 2 and 3 kbar vapour pressure has been determined using IR spectroscopy. The experiments were performed in internally heated pressure vessels and the hydrogen fugacity (fH2) was controlled using the double capsule technique and oxygen buffer assemblages (WM and IW). Due to the limited lifetimes of these oxygen buffers the water solubility was determined from diffusion profiles (concentration-distance profiles) measured with IR spectroscopy in the quenched glasses. The reliability of the experimental strategy was demonstrated by comparing the results of short- and long-duration experiments performed with pure H2O fluids. The water solubility in Ab39Or32Qz29 melts equilibrated with H2O-H2 fluids decreases progressively with decreasing fH2O, as fH2 (or XH2) increases in the fluid phase. The effect of H2 on the evolution of the water solubility is similar to that of CO2 or another volatile with a low solubility in the melt and can be calculated in a first approximation with the Burnham water solubility model. Recalculation of high temperature water speciation for AOQ melts coexisting with H2O-H2 fluids at 800°C, 2 kbar suggests that the concentrations of molecular H2O are proportional to fH2O (calculated using available mixing models), indicating Henrian behaviour for the solubility of molecular H2O in haplogranitic melts.

  3. Experimental Deformation, Partial Melting, and Compositional Changes in Perthitic K-feldspar at High Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrini, M.; Stunitz, H.; Menegon, L.; Nasipuri, P.

    2011-12-01

    In order to study the relationship between partial melting, cracking and transition to diffusion creep processes, we have performed (i) axial compression experiments on natural perthitic K-feldspar single crystals (compression normal to the {010} plane), (ii) shear experiments (on 10-20 ?m grain size powder obtained from the same perthitic K-feldspar) and (iii) hydrostatic experiments (on powder and single crystals) with a solid medium Griggs-type deformation apparatus at T=900°C, Pc varying from 0.75-1.5 GPa and axial shortening ranging from 3 to 40% at a constant strain rate of 10-6 s-1. Samples were deformed as-is and with added H2O (up to 0.2 wt %). Deformation in the single crystal samples at 900°C is largely accommodated by shear fractures. The mechanical data, however, show an inverse normal stress dependence (flow stress at 1.5 GPa is 330 MPa, at 1.0 GPa it is 450-500MPa, and at 0.75GPa it is 680 MPa) and peak stresses below the Goetze criterion, indicating that along the cracks deformation is not dominantly friction controlled. Melt (less than 7%vol.) is distributed along cracks and shear zones are oriented at 40° to ?1 . EPMA analysis reveals inhomogenous melt compositions, suggesting that the melt pockets along cracks are not interconnected. Hydrostatic experiments performed at the same P, T conditions for the same amount of time as the deformation experiments do not contain any melt, indicating that melt kinetics are - at least in part - controlled by the cracking process (solidus T=725°C). Chemical homogenization is evident in the fine-grained fragments of the fault gouges, which have variable intermediate chemical compositions between the K-feldspar (Ab8 An0 Or92) and the albite lamellae (Ab98 An1 Or1) of the starting material. In powder shear experiments the melt fraction is higher than in single crystals. Melt is distributed along shear bands and around single grains, which are completely homogenized (Ab21 An0 Or79). The strength of the material is as high (100-150 MPa) as the strength of pure labradorite deformed in shear, where no melt was detected. These observations suggest that the deformation of single feldspar crystals at high pressure and temperature is controlled by a simultaneous formation of micro-cracks and melt. The formation of wet melt is accelerated by cracking as demonstrated by the absence of melt in hydrostatic experiments. Melt formation occurs faster at higher confining pressure, and weakens the sample as demonstrated by the inverse dependence of peak-strength with confining pressure. The melt along the cracks accommodates the deformation by viscous processes, but it does not dramatically weaken the samples because the melt pockets are not interconnected at the low melt fraction of 7%. The coalescence of the initial micro-cracks generates conjugate cracks in which the fine grained fragments of the gouge undergoes chemical homogenization. The deformation mechanism in the gouge is likely to be melt-enhanced diffusion creep, which is likely to also assist the chemical homogenization process.

  4. H2O Adsorption Kinetics on Smectites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard C.; Howard, Jeanie; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The adsorptive equilibration of H2O a with montomorillonite, a smectite clay has been measured. At low temperatures and pressures, equilibration can require many hours, effectively preventing smectites at the martian surface from responding rapidly to diurnal pressure and temperature variations.

  5. Internally consistent thermodynamic data for high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure phases in the system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevel, K. D.

    2008-12-01

    In order to enable reliable calculations of phase relations among high-pressure phases the Berman [1] data set was augmented by data for the high-pressure phases stishovite (stv), topaz-OH (toz-OH), phase pi (pi), Mg-staurolite (Mg-st), Mg-sursassite (Mg-sur), and Mg-chloritoid (Mg-cld) using a similar optimization technique as described by Berman et al. [2]. The data of several other phases of the system CaO-MgO- Al2O3-SiO2-H2O obtained in the Berman data base were slightly refined to keep the consistency to the reversal brackets and the originally measured data: andalusite (and), clinochlore (chl), coesite (cs), diaspore (dsp), kaolinite (kln), kyanite (ky), lawsonite (lws), pyrophyllite (prl), sillimanite (sil), zoisite (zo). CP-data were kept constant [1] or estimated [3]. phase; ?fH0298 (kJ mol-1); S0298 (J K-1 mol-1); V0298 (J K-1 mol-1); v1×105 (bar-1); v2×1012 (bar-2); v3×105 (K-1); v4×108 (K-2) and; -2589.857; 91.47; 5.146; -0.0653; 0.000; 2.291; 0.170 chl; -8903.532; 437.92; 21.000; -0.1328; 3.837; 2.142; 0.962 Mg-cld; -3551.657; 142.20; 6.874; -0.0692; 0.000; 2.544; 0.000 cs; -907.510; 39.63; 2.064; -0.0998; 1.823; 0.620; 0.960 dsp; -999.115; 35.22; 1.776; -0.0719; 0.629; 3.245; 0.684 kln; -4119.400; 204.18; 9.952; -0.1200; 0.000; 3.200; 0.000 ky; -2593.767; 82.71; 4.408; -0.0593; 1.021; 1.730; 0.787 lws; -4866.665; 228.04; 10.155; -0.0825; 0.000; 3.339; 0.000 Mg-sur; -13907.329; 608.39; 26.888; -0.0826; 0.923; 3.187; 0.087 pi; -9586.742; 403.23; 18.559; -0.0678; 0.000; 2.254; 0.000 prl; -5640.501; 239.43; 12.782; -0.1800; 0.000; 2.621; 0.000 sil; -2586.169; 95.40; 4.984; -0.0601; 1.341; 1.138; 0.605 Mg-st; -24998.289; 944.53; 44.260; -0.0579; 0.000; 2.017; 0.000 stv; -870.861; 25.59; 1.401; -0.0318; 0.000; 1.849; 0.000 toz-OH; -2885.939; 117.40; 5.352; -0.0630; 0.000; 1.938; 0.000 zo; -6889.494; 297.20; 13.565; -0.0695; 0.000; 2.752; 0.000 References [1] R.G. Berman, J. Petrol., 1988, 29, 445 [2] R.G. Berman et al., J. Petrol., 1986, 27, 1331 [3] R.G. Berman, T.H. Brown, Con. Min. Pet., 1985, 89, 168

  6. Partial Melting in the Iron-Sulfur System at High1 Pressure: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction Study2

    E-print Network

    1 Partial Melting in the Iron-Sulfur System at High1 Pressure: A Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction meteorites, sulfur is a primary40 constituent. Sulfur easily compounds with iron, producing a metallic melt is mostly iron-nickel alloy, with a small proportion of "light37 element" component, whose precise

  7. Oxygen partial pressure influenced structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZrO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect

    Kondaiah, P.; Madhavi, V.; Uthanna, S.

    2013-02-05

    Thin films of zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) were deposited on (100) p-silicon and quartz substrates by sputtering of metallic zirconium target under different oxygen partial pressures in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}Pa. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural and optical properties of the deposited films was systematically investigated. The deposition rate of the films decreased from 3.3 to 1.83 nm/min with the increase of oxygen partial pressure from 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}Pa respectively. The X-ray diffraction profiles revealed that the films exhibit (111) refection of zirconium oxide in monoclinic phase. The optical band gap of the films increased from 5.62 to 5.80 eV and refractive index increased from 2.01 to 2.08 with the increase of oxygen partial pressure from 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}-6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}Pa respectively.

  8. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure

    PubMed Central

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2014-01-01

    Protein allostery is essential for vital activities. Allosteric regulation of human hemoglobin (HbA) with two quaternary states T and R has been a paradigm of allosteric structural regulation of proteins. It is widely accepted that oxygen molecules (O2) act as a “site-specific” homotropic effector, or the successive O2 binding to the heme brings about the quaternary regulation. However, here we show that the site-specific allosteric effect is not necessarily only a unique mechanism of O2 allostery. Our simulation results revealed that the solution environment of high O2 partial pressure enhances the quaternary change from T to R without binding to the heme, suggesting an additional “non-site-specific” allosteric effect of O2. The latter effect should play a complementary role in the quaternary change by affecting the intersubunit contacts. This analysis must become a milestone in comprehensive understanding of the allosteric regulation of HbA from the molecular point of view. PMID:24710521

  9. Effects of varying oxygen partial pressure on molten silicon-ceramic substrate interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ownby, D. P.; Barsoum, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    The silicon sessile drop contact angle was measured on hot pressed silicon nitride, silicon nitride coated on hot pressed silicon nitride, silicon carbon coated on graphite, and on Sialon to determine the degree to which silicon wets these substances. The post-sessile drop experiment samples were sectioned and photomicrographs were taken of the silicon-substrate interface to observe the degree of surface dissolution and degradation. Of these materials, silicon did not form a true sessile drop on the SiC on graphite due to infiltration of the silicon through the SiC coating, nor on the Sialon due to the formation of a more-or-less rigid coating on the liquid silicon. The most wetting was obtained on the coated Si3N4 with a value of 42 deg. The oxygen concentrations in a silicon ribbon furnace and in a sessile drop furnace were measured using the protable thoria-yttria solid solution electrolyte oxygen sensor. Oxygen partial pressures of 10 to the minus 7 power atm and 10 to the minus 8 power atm were obtained at the two facilities. These measurements are believed to represent nonequilibrium conditions.

  10. Development of pressurized coal partial combustor -- Pilot scale (25t/d-coal) test results

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, Masamitsu; Harada, Eiichi; Setoguchi, Kazuhide; Hara, Masahiro

    1999-07-01

    The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), an environment-friendly power generation system of high thermal efficiency, is being developed via various approaches around the world. Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has conducted R and D on a Coal Partial Combustor (hereinafter referred to as CPC) as a gasifier since 1984, jointly with the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan. Since 1994, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. and Electric Power Development Co, Ltd have been cooperating. Through this activity, a structure of the CPC has been established, and these influences of operating parameters on performance have been clarified. The purpose of the present study is to apply this developed CPC techniques to a Pressurized CPC (hereinafter referred to as PCPC) as a gasifier for the IGCC system. For the present study, the authors conducted systematic experiments on the air-blown process with a two stage dry feed system, using a 7 t/d-coal bench scale test facility and a 25 t/d-coal pilot scale plant, clarified the influence of coal feed ratio, of oxygen enrichment, and of coal types on coal gasification performance. This paper describes conceptual structure of the PCPC, the test results of a 7 t/d-coal bench scale test facility, and 25 t/d-coal pilot plant.

  11. Quantification of Regional Intrapulmonary Oxygen Partial Pressure Evolution during Apnea by 3He MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deninger, A. J.; Eberle, B.; Ebert, M.; Großmann, T.; Heil, W.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Lauer, L.; Markstaller, K.; Otten, E.; Schmiedeskamp, J.; Schreiber, W.; Surkau, R.; Thelen, M.; Weiler, N.

    1999-12-01

    We present a new method to determine in vivo the temporal evolution of intrapulmonary oxygen concentrations by functional lung imaging with hyperpolarized 3Helium (3He?). Single-breath, single-bolus visualization of 3He? administered to the airspaces is used to analyze nuclear spin relaxation caused by the local oxygen partial pressure pO2(t). We model the dynamics of hyperpolarization in the lung by rate equations. Based hereupon, a double acquisition technique is presented to separate depolarization by RF pulses and oxygen induced relaxation. It permits the determination of pO2 with a high accuracy of up to 3% with simultaneous flip angle calibration using no additional input parameters. The time course of pO2 during short periods of breathholding is found to be linear in a pig as well as in a human volunteer. We also measured the wall relaxation time in the lung and deduced a lower limit of 4.3 min.

  12. Spectroscopic study of partially-ordered semiconductor heterojunction under high pressure and high magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, P.Y.; Martinez, G.; Zeman, J.; Uchida, K.

    2000-12-31

    Photoluminescence upconversion (PLU) is a phenomenon in which a sample emits photons with energy higher than that of the excitation photon. This effect has been observed in many materials including rare earth ions doped in insulating hosts and semiconductor heterostructures without using high power lasers as the excitation source. Recently, this effect has been observed also in partially CuPt-ordered GaInP{sub 2} epilayers grown on GaAs substrates. As a spectroscopic technique photoluminescence upconversion is particularly well suited for studying band alignment at heterojunction interface. The value of band-offset has been determined with meV precision using magneto-photoluminescence. Using the fact that the pressure coefficient of electrons in GaAs is higher than those in GaInP{sub 2} they have been able to manipulate the band-offset at the GaInP/GaAs interface. By converting the band-offset from Type I to Type II they were able to demonstrate that the efficiency of the upconversion process is greatly enhanced by a Type II band-offset.

  13. Observation of different core water cluster ions Y-(H2O)n (Y = O2, HCN, HOx, NOx, COx) and magic number in atmospheric pressure negative corona discharge mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, K.; Takayama, M.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric ion water clusters have been of long-standing interest in the field of atmospheric sciences, because of them playing a central role in the formation of tropospheric aerosols which affect the photochemistry, radiation budget of the atmosphere and climate. On the basis of a mechanism of aerosol formation in the troposphere proposed by Yu and Turco, termed “ion-mediated nucleation” (Geophys. Res. Lett. 2000, 27, 883), atmospheric ion water clusters are most likely to be produced via two processes; 1) direct attachment of polar solvent molecules H2O to atmospheric ions due to them having strong binding energy via ion-dipole interactions, and 2) growth of ion-induced hydrates into larger water clusters bound via hydrogen-bonding networks by condensation with H2O molecules. The stability and growth rates of water clusters are strongly dependent on the thermochemical properties of individual atmospheric core ions. A large number of thermochemical information of the positive atmospheric ion H3O+ and its hydrates H3O+(H2O)n have been reported so far, while there has been little information of the water clusters with the negative atmospheric core ions. Therefore, fundamental studies of the thermochemistry of various negative atmospheric ion water clusters will contribute towards furthering an understanding of their unique role in atmospheric sciences and climate change. We have recently established an atmospheric pressure DC corona discharge device containing a specific corona needle electrode that made it possible to reproducibly generate negative core ions Y- originating from ambient air (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 2007, 261, 38; Eur. Phys. J. D 2008, 50, 297). The change in electric field strength on the needle tip resulted in the formation of negative atmospheric core ions Y- with various different lifetimes in air. The low field strength brought about the dominant formation of core ions with short lifetimes in air such as O2- and HOx-, while the longer-lived core ions HCN-, NOx- and COx- were mainly produced at higher field strength. Furthermore, the use of the discharge system coupled to mass spectrometers led to the stable formation of large water clusters Y-(H2O)n due to adiabatic expansion caused by the pressure difference between the ambient discharge area (760 torr) and vacuum region in the mass spectrometers (? 1 torr). Here we show the resulting mass spectra of large water clusters Y-(H2O)n (0 ? n ? 80) with the dominant negative core ion Y- such as O2-, HO-, HO2-, HCN-, NO2-, NO3-, NO3-(HNO3)2, CO3- and HCO4- which play a central role in tropospheric ion chemistry, as well as the detailed mechanism of formation of those negative ion water clusters by atmospheric pressure DC corona discharge mass spectrometry. Here we also provide new thermochemical information about magic numbers and first hydrated shells for individual negative core ions Y-, which have particular stability in the Y-(H2O)n cluster series, by using the reliable mass spectrometry data obtained and the relationship between the temperature condition in a reaction chamber and the resulting cluster distribution.

  14. Silicate Carbonation in Supercritical CO2 Containing Dissolved H2O: An in situ High Pressure X-Ray Diffraction Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Miller, Quin RS; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; Bowden, Mark E.; Arey, Bruce W.; McGrail, B. Peter; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have been significant in recent years for managing environmentally harmful emissions (mostly CO2) resulting from combustion of fossil fuels. Deep underground geologic formations are emerging as reasonable options for long term storage of CO2 but mechanisms controlling rock and mineral stability in contact with injected supercritical fluids containing water are relatively unknown. In this paper, we discuss mineral transformation reactions occurring between supercritical CO2 containing water and the silicate minerals forsterite (Mg2SiO4), wollastonite (CaSiO3), and enstatite (MgSiO3). This study utilizes newly developed in situ high pressure x-ray diffraction (HXRD) and in situ infra red (IR) to examine mineral transformation reactions. Forsterite and enstatite were selected as they are important minerals present in igneous and mafic rocks and have been the subject of a large number of aqueous dissolution studies that can be compared with non-aqueous fluid tests in this study. Wollastonite, classified as a pyroxenoid (similar to a pyroxene), was chosen as a suitably fast reacting proxy for examining silicate carbonation processes associated with a wet scCO2 fluid as related to geologic carbon sequestration. The experiments were conducted under modest pressures (90 to 160 bar), temperatures between 35° to 70° C, and varying concentrations of dissolved water. Under these conditions scCO2 contains up to 3,500 ppm dissolved water.

  15. The effect of different atmospheric ozone partial pressures on photosynthesis and growth of nine fruit and nut tree species.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, W A; Williams, L E; DeJong, T M

    1991-01-01

    Nursery stock of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. O'Henry), nectarine (P. persica L. Batsch, cv. Fantasia), plum (P. salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman), apricot (P. armeniaca L., cv. Tilton), almond (P. dulcis Mill., cv. Nonpareil), prune (P. domestica L., cv. Improved French), cherry (P. avium L., cv. Bing), oriental pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Rehd., cv. 20th Century), and apple (Malus pumula Mill., cv. Granny Smith) were planted in open-top chambers on April 1, 1988 at the University of California's Kearney Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley (30 degrees 40' N 119 degrees 40' W). Trees were exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal-filtered air (C), ambient air (A), or ambient air + ozone (T)) from August 1 to November 17, 1988. The mean 12-h (0800 to 2000 h) ozone partial pressures measured in open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.030, 0.051, and 0.117 microPa Pa(-1) in the C, A and T treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO(2) assimilation rate decreased linearly with increasing 12-h mean ozone partial pressure for the almond, plum, apricot, prune, pear, and apple cultivars. Stomatal conductances of apricot, apple, almond, and plum decreased linearly with increasing ozone partial pressure. Cross-sectional area relative growth rates of almond, plum, apricot, and pear decreased linearly with increasing ozone partial pressure. Net CO(2) assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, and trunk growth of cherry, peach and nectarine were unaffected by the ozone treatments. Reduced leaf gas exchange probably contributed to ozone-induced growth reduction of the susceptible species and cultivars. Several of the commercial fruit tree species and cultivars studied were relatively tolerant to the ozone treatments. PMID:14972900

  16. An Experimental Study of Magnetite Solubility as a Function of Pressure Along the Dewpoint Curve in the NaCl-, KCl-, HCl-H2O-Melt System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. C.

    2001-12-01

    Magnetite (Mt) is a ubiquitous phase in magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits and, thus, any model which aims to predict the evolving physical chemistry of porphyry-ore deposit environments must incorporate data on the equilibria that control the precipitation of Mt in such systems. Extant experimental data indicate that Mt solubility is controlled via the equilibrium Fe3O4Mt + 6HClV + H2V = 3FeCl2V + 4H2OV (Chou and Eugster, 1977, AJS, p 1296); however their experiments were performed at T=500-650° C by equilibrating Mt with a HCl-bearing supercritical aqueous fluid (NaCl-, KCl-free). Conversely, data from some natural Fe-bearing fluid inclusions have evinced that initial temperatures of magmatic volatile phases (MVP) in magmatic-hydrothermal environments may exceed 800° C, possibly even approaching 900° C, in the presence of melt (Clark and Arancibia, 1995, Giant Ore Deposits-II Conference, p. 511). Thus, there currently are no data constraining Mt solubility in the high-temperature regime obtained in natural magmatic systems. Additionally, there are no data on Mt solubility as a function of changes in the chemistry of the MVP. In the system NaCl-H2O, the composition and, thus, the density of brine-saturated vapor change significantly as a function of pressure along a given isotherm and the components KCl and HCl act to shift the limbs of the solvii (Bodnar et al., 1985, GCA, p 1861; Anderko and Pitzer, 1993, GCA, p 1657; Shinohara and Fujimoto, 1994, GCA, p 4857). The absence of data constraining Mt solubility as a function of pressure along a given isotherm, the resultant change in composition and density, as well as deviations in the Na:K:H ratio of the MVP hinder the development of forward models of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. In order to provide these critical data constraining Mt solubility in geologically reasonable magmatic systems we have performed a set of experiments as a function of pressure in the vapor-only field near the 800° C isotherm in the NaCl-H2O system. Natural Mt (aFe3O4 ~1), a synthetic haplogranitic minimum melt (100 MPa) and an aqueous phase (molar K:Na:H=1) were reacted in Au capsules in rapid-quench Stellite-25 vessels, using water as the pressure medium, at 800° C, log fO2 controlled by the NNO buffer, pressures of 100 and 120 MPa, and aqueous salinities of 1.8 and 3.0 wt. % NaCl equivalent, respectively. In all experiments the mass ratio of Mt:melt:fluid was 1:1:4. Detailed petrographic examination of run products did not reveal the presence of brine inclusions; however, fluid inclusions do contain opaque phases. Using the newly determined mFeCl2 (0.0345 at 100 MPa and 0.0359 at 120 MPa) and mHCl (0.0769 at 100 MPa and 0.0947 at 120 MPa) in the quenched MVP and the known fugacities of H2O (? =1) and H2 (? =1) at P and T, apparent equilibrium constants were calculated as log K' = (CFeCl2)3 \\times (fH2O)4 \\div (CHCl)6 \\times fH2. The values of log K' are 1.605 at 100 MPa and 13.01 at 120 MPa. K is fixed for a given P and T except for the effect of activity coefficients for HCl and FeCl2. The values of log K obtained in this study will facilitate more detailed characterization of the chemistry of magmatic-hydrothermal MVPs; both fossil MVPs and those that obtain in modern geothermal reservoirs. Determination of P, T, fH2 and mFeCl2 in fluid inclusions will allow for the direct calculation of a model HCl concentration in the MVP.

  17. Experimental investigation on thermochemical sulfate reduction by H2S initiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, T.; Amrani, A.; Ellis, G.S.; Ma, Q.; Tang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is known to catalyze thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) by hydrocarbons (HC), but the reaction mechanism remains unclear. To understand the mechanism of this catalytic reaction, a series of isothermal gold-tube hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted at 330 ??C for 24 h under a constant confining pressure of 24.1 MPa. The reactants used were saturated HC (sulfur-free) and CaSO4 in the presence of variable H2S partial pressures at three different pH conditions. The experimental results showed that the in-situ pH of the aqueous solution (herein, in-situ pH refers to the calculated pH of aqueous solution under the experimental conditions) can significantly affect the rate of the TSR reaction. A substantial increase in the TSR reaction rate was recorded with a decrease in the in-situ pH value of the aqueous solution involved. A positive correlation between the rate of TSR and the initial partial pressure of H2S occurred under acidic conditions (at pH ???3-3.5). However, sulfate reduction at pH ???5.0 was undetectable even at high initial H2S concentrations. To investigate whether the reaction of H2S(aq) and HSO4- occurs at pH ???3, an additional series of isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments was conducted with CaSO4 and variable H2S partial pressures in the absence of HC at the same experimental temperature and pressure conditions. CaSO4 reduction was not measurable in the absence of paraffin even with high H2S pressure and acidic conditions. These experimental observations indicate that the formation of organosulfur intermediates from H2S reacting with hydrocarbons may play a significant role in sulfate reduction under our experimental conditions rather than the formation of elemental sulfur from H2S reacting with sulfate as has been suggested previously (Toland W. G. (1960) Oxidation of organic compounds with aqueous sulphate. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 82, 1911-1916). Quantification of labile organosulfur compounds (LSC), such as thiols and sulfides, was performed on the products of the reaction of H2S and HC from a series of gold-tube non-isothermal hydrous pyrolysis experiments conducted at about pH 3 from 300 to 370 ??C and a 0.1-??C/h heating rate. Incorporation of sulfur into HC resulted in an appreciable amount of thiol and sulfide formation. The rate of LSC formation positively correlated with the initial H2S pressure. Thus, we propose that the LSC produced from H2S reaction with HC are most likely the reactive intermediates for H2S initiation of sulfate reduction. We further propose a three-step reaction scheme of sulfate reduction by HC under reservoir conditions, and discuss the geological implications of our experimental findings with regard to the effect of formation water and oil chemistry, in particular LSC content. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase Transformations of the Ternary System (NH4)2SO4-H2SO4-H2O and the Implications for Cirrus Cloud Formation

    E-print Network

    Phase Transformations of the Ternary System (NH4)2SO4- H2SO4-H2O and the Implications for Cirrus of (NH4)2SO4-H2SO4-H2O are presented, and the thermodynamic and the kinetic data of the phase transitions are then ternary mixtures of (NH4)2SO4-H2SO4-H2O. The unknown extent of partially neutralized UT aerosols

  19. Revealing sub-?m and ?m-scale textures in H2O ice at megabar pressures by time-domain Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Sergey M; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Gasteau, Damien; Castagnede, Bernard; Zerr, Andreas; Gusev, Vitalyi E

    2015-01-01

    The time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, also known as picosecond ultrasonic interferometry, allows monitoring of the propagation of coherent acoustic pulses, having lengths ranging from nanometres to fractions of a micrometre, in samples with dimension of less than a micrometre to tens of micrometres. In this study, we applied this technique to depth-profiling of a polycrystalline aggregate of ice compressed in a diamond anvil cell to megabar pressures. The method allowed examination of the characteristic dimensions of ice texturing in the direction normal to the diamond anvil surfaces with sub-micrometre spatial resolution via time-resolved measurements of the propagation velocity of the acoustic pulses travelling in the compressed sample. The achieved imaging of ice in depth and in one of the lateral directions indicates the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging and quantitative characterisation of the acoustical, optical and acousto-optical properties of transparent polycrystalline aggregates in a diamond anvil cell with tens of nanometres in-depth resolution and a lateral spatial resolution controlled by pump laser pulses focusing, which could approach hundreds of nanometres. PMID:25790808

  20. Revealing sub-?m and ?m-scale textures in H2O ice at megabar pressures by time-domain Brillouin scattering

    PubMed Central

    Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Gasteau, Damien; Castagnede, Bernard; Zerr, Andreas; Gusev, Vitalyi E.

    2015-01-01

    The time-domain Brillouin scattering technique, also known as picosecond ultrasonic interferometry, allows monitoring of the propagation of coherent acoustic pulses, having lengths ranging from nanometres to fractions of a micrometre, in samples with dimension of less than a micrometre to tens of micrometres. In this study, we applied this technique to depth-profiling of a polycrystalline aggregate of ice compressed in a diamond anvil cell to megabar pressures. The method allowed examination of the characteristic dimensions of ice texturing in the direction normal to the diamond anvil surfaces with sub-micrometre spatial resolution via time-resolved measurements of the propagation velocity of the acoustic pulses travelling in the compressed sample. The achieved imaging of ice in depth and in one of the lateral directions indicates the feasibility of three-dimensional imaging and quantitative characterisation of the acoustical, optical and acousto-optical properties of transparent polycrystalline aggregates in a diamond anvil cell with tens of nanometres in-depth resolution and a lateral spatial resolution controlled by pump laser pulses focusing, which could approach hundreds of nanometres. PMID:25790808

  1. Microvascular oxygen partial pressure during hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, Kohei; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-12-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is a major therapeutic treatment for ischemic ulcerations that perforate skin and underlying muscle in diabetic patients. These lesions do not heal effectively, in part, because of the hypoxic microvascular O2 partial pressures (PmvO2 ) resulting from diabetes-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, which alters the dynamic balance between O2 delivery (Q?o2) and utilization (V?o2) rates. We tested the hypothesis that HBO in diabetic muscle would exacerbate the hyperoxic PmvO2 dynamics due, in part, to a reduction or slowing of the cardiovascular, sympathetic nervous, and respiratory system responses to acute HBO exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly into diabetic (DIA: streptozotocin ip) and healthy (control) groups. A small animal hyperbaric chamber was pressurized with oxygen (100% O2) to 3.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA) at 0.2 ATA/min. Phosphorescence quenching techniques were used to measure PmvO2 in tibialis anterior muscle of anesthetized rats during HBO. Lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were measured electrophysiologically. During the normobaric hyperoxia and HBO, DIA tibialis anterior PmvO2 increased faster (mean response time, CONT 78 ± 8, DIA 55 ± 8 s, P < 0.05) than CONT. Subsequently, PmvO2 remained elevated at similar levels in CONT and DIA muscles until normobaric normoxic recovery where the DIA PmvO2 retained its hyperoxic level longer than CONT. Sympathetic nervous system and cardiac and respiratory responses to HBO were slower in DIA vs. CONT. Specifically the mean response times for RR (CONT: 6 ± 1 s, DIA: 29 ± 4 s, P < 0.05), HR (CONT: 16 ± 1 s, DIA: 45 ± 5 s, P < 0.05), and LSNA (CONT: 140 ± 16 s, DIA: 247 ± 34 s, P < 0.05) were greater following HBO onset in DIA than CONT. HBO treatment increases tibialis anterior muscle PmvO2 more rapidly and for a longer duration in DIA than CONT, but not to a greater level. Whereas respiratory, cardiovascular, and LSNA responses to HBO are profoundly slowed in DIA, only the cardiovascular arm (via HR) may contribute to the muscle vascular incompetence and these faster PmvO2 kinetics. PMID:26468263

  2. Peroxyl radical scavenging by beta-carotene in lipid bilayers. Effect of oxygen partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T A; Liebler, D C

    1992-03-01

    The effect of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) on the antioxidant reactions of all-trans-beta, beta-carotene (BC) was investigated in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome system. Peroxyl radicals generated by thermolysis of azo-bis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) at 37 degrees C initiated lipid peroxidation. BC inhibited lipid peroxidation, which was monitored by conjugated diene formation, by up to 70% versus control at 160 and 15 torr O2. In contrast, at 760 torr O2 the maximum inhibition was approximately 40% versus control and inhibition was less reproducible. Peroxyl radicals oxidized BC to 5,6-epoxy-beta,beta-carotene and several unidentified polar products. The rates of both product formation and BC consumption were significantly higher at 160 torr than at 15 torr O2. However, at 160 and 760 torr O2, the rates of product formation and BC depletion were similar. In liposomes without azo-bis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile), BC depletion at 160 torr was only 64% that at 760 torr O2. These results suggest that both radical trapping and autoxidation reactions consume BC and that the latter are accelerated by high pO2. Autoxidation consumes BC without scavenging peroxyl radicals and may attenuate BC antioxidant activity, especially at high pO2. The similarity in its antioxidant effects at 15 and 160 torr O2 suggests that BC could provide antioxidant protection to any tissue within the normal physiologic range of pO2. PMID:1537849

  3. Global Autocorrelation Scales of the Partial Pressure of Oceanic CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhen; Adamec, David; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, Stewart C.

    2004-01-01

    A global database of approximately 1.7 million observations of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in surface ocean waters (pCO2) collected between 1970 and 2003 is used to estimate its spatial autocorrelation structure. The patterns of the lag distance where the autocorrelation exceeds 0.8 is similar to patterns in the spatial distribution of the first baroclinic Rossby radius of deformation indicating that ocean circulation processes play a significant role in determining the spatial variability of pCO2. For example, the global maximum of the distance at which autocorrelations exceed 0.8 averages about 140 km in the equatorial Pacific. Also, the lag distance at which the autocorrelation exceed 0.8 is greater in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream than it is near the Kuroshio, approximately 50 km near the Gulf Stream as opposed to 20 km near the Kuroshio. Separate calculations for times when the sun is north and south of the equator revealed no obvious seasonal dependence of the spatial autocorrelation scales. The pCO2 measurements at Ocean Weather Station (OWS) 'P', in the eastern subarctic Pacific (50 N, 145 W) is the only fixed location where an uninterrupted time series of sufficient length exists to calculate a meaningful temporal autocorrelation function for lags greater than a few days. The estimated temporal autocorrelation function at OWS 'P', is highly variable. A spectral analysis of the longest four pCO2 time series indicates a high level of variability occurring over periods from the atmospheric synoptic to the maximum length of the time series, in this case 42 days. It is likely that a relative peak in variability with a period of 3-6 days is related to atmospheric synoptic period variability and ocean mixing events due to wind stirring. However, the short length of available time series makes identifying temporal relationships between pCO2 and atmospheric or ocean processes problematic.

  4. Oxygen partial pressure influence on the character of InGaZnO thin films grown by PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Li

    2012-11-01

    The amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are promising for emerging large-area optoelectronic applications because of capability of large-area, uniform deposition at low temperatures such as room temperature (RT). Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (InGaZnO) thin film is a promising amorphous semiconductors material in thin film transistors (TFT) for its excellent electrical properties. In our work, the InGaZnO thin films are fabricated on the SiO2 glass using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the oxygen partial pressure altered from 1 to 10 Pa at RT. The targets were prepared by mixing Ga2O3, In2O3, and ZnO powder at a mol ratio of 1: 7: 2 before the solid-state reactions in a tube furnace at the atmospheric pressure. The targets were irradiated by an Nd:YAG laser(355nm). Finally, we have three films of 270nm, 230nm, 190nm thick for 1Pa, 5Pa, 10Pa oxygen partial pressure. The product thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall-effect investigation. The comparative study demonstrated the character changes of the structure and electronic transport properties, which is probably occurred as a fact of the different oxygen partial pressure used in the PLD.

  5. Role of oxygen partial pressure and seed layer chemistry in flux mediated epitaxy of single phase multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Role of oxygen partial pressure and seed layer chemistry in flux mediated epitaxy of single phase and seed layer conditions, even at very low partial pressures 3 mTorr no secondary phases are formed. The study reveals the crucial role of the bottom seed layer and flux chemistry in epitaxy of BFO thin films

  6. Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene and is projected to

    E-print Network

    Antonovics, Janis

    Abstract Atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) was as low as 18 Pa during the Pleistocene · Reproduction · Selection Introduction That the high atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) projected is important for predicting the degree to which plants may sequester atmospheric CO2 in the fu- ture

  7. Measurement of Local Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Brain Tissue under Normoxia and Epilepsy with Phosphorescence Lifetime Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Bélanger, Samuel; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In this work a method for measuring brain oxygen partial pressure with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy system is reported. When used in conjunction with a dendritic phosphorescent probe, Oxyphor G4, this system enabled minimally invasive measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in cerebral tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution during 4-AP induced epileptic seizures. Investigating epileptic events, we characterized the spatio-temporal distribution of the "initial dip" in pO2 near the probe injection site and along nearby arterioles. Our results reveal a correlation between the percent change in the pO2 signal during the "initial dip" and the duration of seizure-like activity, which can help localize the epileptic focus and predict the length of seizure. PMID:26305777

  8. Structural and optical properties of ZnO:Mg thin films grown under different oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haixia; Ding, Jijun; Ma, Shuyi

    2010-03-01

    Pure and Mg-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Mg) films were deposited using RF reactive magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures. The microstructures and optical properties in doped ZnO films were systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results indicated that ZnO grain orientation behavior was significantly affected by Mg-doping. And the ZnO:Mg film prepared at 15:10 had the best crystal quality among all ZnO:Mg films. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements at room temperature revealed a violet, two blue and a green emission. The origin of these emissions was discussed. It was also demonstrated that the optical band edge shifted to a shorter wavelength first as Mg was incorporated, and then to a longer wavelength with the increasing of oxygen partial pressures.

  9. Two Phase Flow Modeling: Summary of Flow Regimes and Pressure Drop Correlations in Reduced and Partial Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Rame, E.; Kizito, J.; Kassemi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of state-of-the-art predictions for two-phase flows relevant to Advanced Life Support. We strive to pick out the most used and accepted models for pressure drop and flow regime predictions. The main focus is to identify gaps in predictive capabilities in partial gravity for Lunar and Martian applications. Following a summary of flow regimes and pressure drop correlations for terrestrial and zero gravity, we analyze the fully developed annular gas-liquid flow in a straight cylindrical tube. This flow is amenable to analytical closed form solutions for the flow field and heat transfer. These solutions, valid for partial gravity as well, may be used as baselines and guides to compare experimental measurements. The flow regimes likely to be encountered in the water recovery equipment currently under consideration for space applications are provided in an appendix.

  10. Transient pressure analysis for partially-penetrating wells in naturally-fractured reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Bui, Thang Dinh

    1998-01-01

    is presented in the form of type curves graphing dimensionless pressure and pressure derivative versus dimensionless time for various reservoir thickness, completion interval fraction, fracture-matrix storativity ratio, and interporosity flow coefficient...

  11. Method for sensing and measuring a concentration or partial pressure of a reactant used in a redox reaction

    DOEpatents

    Findl, E.

    1984-12-21

    A method for sensing or measuring the partial pressure or concentration of an electroactive species used in conjunction with an electrolyte, the method being characterized by providing a constant current between an anode and a cathode of an electrolyte-containing cell, while measuring changes in voltage that occur between either the anode and cathode or between a reference electrode and one of the main electrodes of the cell, thereby to determine the concentration or partial pressure of the electro-active species as a function of said measured voltage changes. The method of the invention can be practiced using either a cell having only an anode and a cathode, or using a cell having an anode and a cathode in combination with a reference electrode. Accurate measurements of small concentrations or partial pressures of electro-active species are obtainable with the method of the invention, by using constant currents of only a few microamperes between the anode and cathode of the cell, while the concentration-determining voltage is measured.

  12. Spatial and temporal dynamics of CO2 partial pressure in the Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lu, X. X.; Richey, J. E.; Sun, H.; Han, J.; Yu, R.; Liao, S.; Yi, Q.

    2014-10-01

    Carbon transport in river systems is an important component of the global carbon cycle. Most rivers of the world act as atmospheric CO2 sources due to high riverine CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). We investigated the pCO2 dynamics in the Yellow River watershed by using historical water chemistry records (1950s-1984) and recent sampling along the mainstem (2011-2012). Except the headwater region where the pCO2 was lower than the atmospheric equilibrium (i.e., 380 ?atm), river waters in the remaining watershed were supersaturated with CO2. The average pCO2 for the watershed was estimated at 2810 ± 1985 ?atm, which is 7-fold the atmospheric equilibrium. This indicates a strong CO2 outgassing across the water-air interface. As a result of severe soil erosion and dry climate, waters from the Loess Plateau in the middle reaches had higher pCO2 than that from the upper and lower reaches. From a seasonal perspective, the pCO2 varied from about 200 ?atm to >30 000 ?atm with higher pCO2 usually occurring in the dry season and low pCO2 in the wet season (at 73% of the sampling sites), suggesting the dilution effect of water. While the pCO2 responded positively to total suspended solids (TSS) transport when the TSS was less than 100 kg m-3, it slightly decreased and remained stable when the TSS exceeded 100 kg m-3. This stable pCO2 is largely due to gully erosion that mobilizes subsoils characterized by low organic matter for decomposition. In addition, human activities have changed the pCO2 dynamics. Particularly, flow regulation by dams can diversely affect the temporal changes of pCO2, depending on the physiochemical properties of the regulated waters and adopted operation scheme. Given the high pCO2 in the Yellow River waters, the resultant CO2 outgassing is expected to be substantial and warrants further investigation.

  13. MELCOR-H2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-11-10

    Before this LDRD research, no single tool could simulate a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) that is coupled to a secondary system and the sulfur iodine (SI) thermochemistry. Furthermore, the SI chemistry could only be modeled in steady state, typically via flow sheets. Additionally, the MELCOR nuclear reactor analysis code was suitable only for the modeling of light water reactors, not gas-cooled reactors. We extended MELCOR in order to address the above deficiencies. In particular,more »we developed three VHTR input models, added generalized, modular secondary system components, developed reactor point kinetics, included transient thermochemistry for the most important cycles [SI and the Westinghouse hybrid sulfur], and developed an interactive graphical user interface for full plant visualization. The new tool is called MELCOR-H2, and it allows users to maximize hydrogen and electrical production, as well as enhance overall plant safety. We conducted validation and verification studies on the key models, and showed that the MELCOR-H2 results typically compared to within less than 5% from experimental data, code-to-code comparisons, and/or analytical solutions.« less

  14. CO2 Solubility in Natural Rhyolitic Melts at High Pressures - Implications for Carbon Flux in Subduction Zones by Sediment Partial Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M. S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2011-12-01

    Partial melts of subducting sediments is thought to be a critical agent in carrying trace elements and water to arc basalt source regions. For subduction zones that contain significant amount of carbonates in ocean-floor sediments, sediment melts likely also act as a carrier of CO2. However, the CO2 carrying capacity of natural rhyolitic melts at sub-arc depths remains unconstrained. We conducted experiments on a synthetic composition, similar to average, low-degree experimental partial melt of pelitic sediments. The composition was constructed with reagent grade oxides and carbonates, the source of excess CO2. Experiments were conducted between 1 and 3 GPa at 1200 °C in Au80Pd20 capsules using a piston cylinder apparatus with a half-inch BaCO3 assembly at Rice University. Quench products showed glasses with bubbles, the latter suggesting saturation of the melt with a CO2-rich vapor phase. Oxygen fugacity during the experiments was not strictly controlled but the presence of CO2 bubbles and absence of graphite indicates fO2 above the CCO buffer. Major element concentrations of glasses were measured using EPMA. The CO2 and H2O contents of experimental doubly polished (50-110 ?m), bubble-free portions of the glass chips were determined using a Thermo Nicolet Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Spectra were recorded with a resolution of 4 cm-1, 512 scans, from 650 to 4000 cm-1, under a nitrogen purge to eliminate atmospheric gases. Dissolved volatile concentrations were quantified using the Beer-Lambert law and linear molar absorption coefficients from previous studies [1, 2]. Total dissolved carbon dioxide of experimental glasses was determined from the intensity of the ?3 antisymmetric stretch bands of CO32- at 1430 cm-1 and CO2mol at 2348 cm-1. Dissolved water content of experimental glasses was determined from the intensity of O-H stretching at 3520 cm-1. Estimated total CO2 concentrations at 3 GPa are in the range of 1-2 wt%, for melts with H2O contents between 1.5 and 2.5 wt%. Compared to previous work on CO2 solubility in complex rhyolitic melts at lower pressures [3-5], there is a general trend of increasing CO2 solubility with pressure. Dissolved CO2 is present both as molecular CO2 and as CO32-, consistent with previous, simple system studies at high pressures [e.g. 2, 6]. The CO2mol/CO2Tot values are within the range of previous high pressure studies [e.g. 7] and range from 0.35 to 0.55. Experiments at variable P, T, and melt water content are underway. [1] Fine and Stolper (1985), CMP, 91, 105-121; [2] Stolper et al. (1987), AM, 72, 1071-1085; [3] Blank et al. (1993), EPSL, 119, 27-36; [4] Fogel and Rutherford (1990), AM, 75, 1331-1326; [5] Tamic et al. (2001), CG, 174, 333-347; [6] Mysen and Virgo (1980), AM, 65, 855-899; [7] Mysen (1976), AJS, 276, 969-996.

  15. Measurement and modeling of neutral, radical, and ion densities in H2-N2-Ar plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sode, M.; Jacob, W.; Schwarz-Selinger, T.; Kersten, H.

    2015-02-01

    A comprehensive experimental investigation of absolute ion and neutral species densities in an inductively coupled H2-N2-Ar plasma was carried out. Additionally, the radical and ion densities were calculated using a zero-dimensional rate equation model. The H2-N2-Ar plasma was studied at a pressure of 1.5 Pa and an rf power of 200 W. The N2 partial pressure fraction was varied between fN2=0 % and 56% by a simultaneous reduction of the H2 partial pressure fraction. The Ar partial pressure fraction was held constant at about 1%. NH3 was found to be produced almost exclusively on the surfaces of the chamber wall. NH3 contributes up to 12% to the background gas. To calculate the radical densities with the rate equation model, it is necessary to know the corresponding wall loss times twrad of the radicals. twrad was determined by the temporal decay of radical densities in the afterglow with ionization threshold mass spectrometry during pulsed operation and based on these experimental data the absolute densities of the radical species were calculated and compared to measurement results. Ion densities were determined using a plasma monitor (mass and energy resolved mass spectrometer). H3+ is the dominant ion in the range of 0.0 ?fN2<3.4 % . For 3.4 H2+ , ArH+, and NH2+ . Ion species with densities less than 0.5% of ni,tot are H+, Ar+, N+, and NH+. Our model describes the measured ion densities of the H2-N2-Ar plasma reasonably well. The ion chemistry, i.e., the production and loss processes of the ions and radicals, is discussed in detail. The main features, i.e., the qualitative abundance of the ion species and the ion density dependence on the N2 partial pressure fraction, are well reproduced by the model.

  16. Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

    2007-09-24

    Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  17. Hydrogen constituents of the mesosphere inferred from positive ions - H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopp, E.

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations in the mesosphere of H2O, CH4, H2CO, H2O2, and HCN were inferred from data on positive ion compositions, obtained from one mid-latitude and four high-latitude rocket flights. The inferred concentrations were found to agree only partially with the ground-based microwave measurements and/or model prediction by Garcia and Solomon (1985). The CH4 concentration was found to vary between 70 and 4 ppb in daytime and 900 and 100 ppbv at night, respectively. Unexpectedly high H2CO concentrations were obtained, with H2CO/H2O ratios between 0.0006 and 0.1, and a mean HCN volume mixing ratio of 6 x 10 to the -10th was inferred.

  18. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  19. High magnetic-refrigeration performance of plate-shaped La0.5Pr0.5Fe11.4Si1.6 hydrides sintered in high-pressure H2 atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, N. K.; Guo, J.; Zhao, X. G.; Si, P. Z.; Huang, J. H.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2015-03-01

    La(Fe, Si)13 hydride is regarded as one of the most promising room-temperature refrigerants. However, to use the alloys in an active magnetic regenerator machine, it is vital to prepare thin refrigerants. In this work, a high H2 gas pressure of 50 MPa was employed to suppress the desorption of hydrogen atoms during the sintering process of plate-shaped La0.5Pr0.5Fe11.4Si1.6 hydrides. At 330 K, a high-density sintered thin plate shows a large magnetic-entropy change ?Sm of 15.5 J/kg K (106 mJ/cm3 K) for a field change of 2 T. The volumetric ?Sm is almost twice as large as that of bonded La(Fe,Si)13 hydrides. Favorably, hysteresis is almost absent due to the existence of micropores with a porosity of 0.69% which has been analyzed with high-resolution X-ray microtomography.

  20. Laser-induced damage threshold of ZrO{sub 2} thin films prepared at different oxygen partial pressures by electron-beam evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Dongping; Shao Jianda; Zhao Yuanan; Fan Shuhai; Hong Ruijing; Fan Zhengxiu

    2005-01-01

    ZrO{sub 2} films were deposited by electron-beam evaporation with the oxygen partial pressure varying from 3x10{sup -3} Pa to 11x10{sup -3} Pa. The phase structure of the samples was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The thermal absorption of the films was measured by the surface thermal lensing technique. A spectrophotometer was employed to measure the refractive indices of the samples. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) was assessed using a 1064 nm Nd: yttritium-aluminum-garnet pulsed laser at pulse width of 12 ns. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the microstructure and LIDT of ZrO{sub 2} films was investigated. XRD data revealed that the films changed from polycrystalline to amorphous as the oxygen partial pressure increased. The variation of refractive index at 550 nm wavelength indicated that the packing density of the films decreased gradually with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The absorptance of the samples decreased monotonically from 125.2 to 84.5 ppm with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The damage threshold values increased from 18.5 to 26.7 J/cm{sup 2} for oxygen partial pressures varying from 3x10{sup -3} Pa to 9x10{sup -3} Pa, but decreased to 17.3 J/cm{sup 2} in the case of 11x10{sup -3} Pa.

  1. Partial melting in the iron?sulfur system at high pressure: A synchrotron X-ray diffraction study

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.J.; Seagle, C.T.; Heinz, D.L.; Shen, G.; Prakapenka, V.

    2008-09-18

    Partial melting in the Fe-S system was investigated at high pressures because of its importance to understanding the formation, composition, and thermal structure of the Earth's core. Earlier studies at very high pressure (>25 GPa) took place before the discovery of Fe{sub 3}, which compromised the interpretation of those results. Furthermore, they relied on textural criteria for melting that are difficult to apply at high pressure. In this study synchrotron X-ray diffraction was used to monitor coexisting metal and sulfide at high pressures and temperatures, during laser heating in a diamond anvil cell. The criterion for melting was the disappearance of one of the two coexisting phases, and reappearance upon quench. Temperatures of eutectic melting between Fe and Fe{sub 3}S were bracketed in this way up to 60 GPa, and a lower bound was established at 80 GPa. The accuracy of the melting point measured in these studies was improved through modelling of the axial temperature distribution through the thickness of the sample; this indicated an {approx}6% correction to the spectroradiometrically determined temperature. The Fe-Fe{sub 3}S eutectic composition remains close to 15 wt% S up to 60 GPa.

  2. Temperature measurements of partially-melted tin as a function of shock pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Seifter, Achim; Furlanetto, Michael R; Holtkamp, David B; Obst, Andrew W; Payton, J R; Stone, J B; Tabaka, L J; Grover, M; Macrum, G; Stevens, G D; Swift, D C; Turley, W D; Veeser, L R

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrium equation of state theory predicts that the free surface release temperature of shock loaded tin will show a plateau of 505 K in the pressure range from 19.5 to 33.0 GPa, corresponding to the solid-liquid mixed-phase region. In this paper we report free surface temperature measurements on shock-loaded tin from 15 to 31 GPa using multi-wavelength optical pyrometry. The shock waves were generated by direct contact of detonating high explosive with the sample. The pressure in the sample was determined by free surface velocity measurements using Photon Doppler Velocimetry. The emitted thermal radiance was measured at four wavelength bands in the near IR region from 1.5 to 5.0 {micro}m. The samples in most of the experiments had diamond-turned surface finishes, with a few samples being polished or ball rolled. At pressures higher than 25 GPa the measured free surface temperatures were higher than the predicted 505 K and increased with increasing pressure. This deviation could be explained by hot spots and/or variations in surface emissivity and requires a further investigation.

  3. Growth of MoO3 nanostructured thin films as a function of O2-partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we synthesized molybdenum trioxide (?-MoO3) nanostructured thin films (NSTs) with nanoflakes (NFs) on the Ni-coated glass substrates employing plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP) as a function of oxygen partial pressure (PO2). The effect of oxygen partial pressure on structural, morphological, and vibrational properties have been investigated systematically. The structural analysis divulged that all films deposited at different PO2 have pure orthorhombic phase, no impurity phase is detected under the limit of resolution. The morphological studies of samples is carried out by SEM, revealed that features as well as alignment of MoO3 NSTs can be monitored by PO2 and the sample having best features is obtained at 7.5×10-2 Torr. In addition, the more insight information is accomplished by TEM/HRTEM on the best featured sample, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of nanoflakes. The vibrational study of all samples are performed by FTIR, and strongly supports the XRD observations. All the results are in consonance with each other.

  4. Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the characteristics of magnetron-sputtered ZnMgBeO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuong, Hoang Ba; Lee, Byung-Teak

    2015-11-01

    Effects of oxygen partial pressure within the Ar process plasma on the optical, structural, and electrical properties of magnetron-sputtered ZnMgBeO films were investigated in detail. It was observed that the optical energy bandgap (Eg) values of the ZnMgBeO films substantially decrease with the oxygen addition, from 5.3 to 4.3 eV as the oxygen partial pressure increases from zero to one. The full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) values of the (0 0 0 2) XRD peaks drastically decrease with the addition of a small amount of oxygen but then increase with further oxygen addition. All the films had very high sheet resistance, 1.3-1.4 G?/?. It was also observed that the concentration of Zn within the films significantly increased with the oxygen addition, which was proposed to be mainly responsible for the observed decrease in Eg. It was also proposed that the FWHM change due to the oxygen addition may be attributable to three factors, film composition, grain size, and point defect density, as confirmed by results of TEM and XPS investigations.

  5. Monitoring in microvascular tissue transfer by measurement of oxygen partial pressure: four years experience with 125 microsurgical transplants.

    PubMed

    Jonas, René; Schaal, Thomas; Krimmel, Michael; Gülicher, Dirk; Reinert, Siegmar; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    In a prospective study, the characteristics and benefit of an invasive measurement of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with the aid of a polarographic sensor were investigated in 125 microsurgical reconstructions of the head and neck area over a period of 45 months. Measurements were performed over 96 h in eight different types of microsurgically revascularized flaps for extra- and intraoral reconstructions and were evaluated separately for each flap type. Of 125 reconstructions the system indicated malperfusion in 18 cases. Salvage surgery was performed in 17 cases due to venous thrombosis (6 cases), arterial thrombosis (3 cases), a combination of arterial and venous thrombosis (2 cases), rheological problems (3 cases), venous insufficiency by hematoma (2 cases) and kinking of vessels (1 case). In 10 cases salvage surgery was successful, 7 flaps were lost despite salvage surgery. In all these cases, the polarographic probe indicated the necessity of salvage surgery correctly. After 96 h no malperfusion was seen. Postoperatively, a common and characteristic development of the oxygen partial pressure in different types of flaps was seen. Initially, a clear increase of pO(2) could be measured. During 96 h, a slow decrease of pO(2) was observed. In conclusion polarographic measurement of pO(2) can be an excellent apparative supplement for the postoperative clinical control of microsurgically revascularized transplants. In buried flaps, this technique represents the only reliable method for transplant monitoring. PMID:23176981

  6. Experimental Validation of the Methodology for Partial Defect Verification of the Pressurized Water Reactor Spent Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Y S; Sitaraman, S; Shin, H; Eom, S; Kim, H

    2009-06-01

    A set of controlled experiments and Monte Carlo simulation studies with actual commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies were performed in order to validate an earlier proposal for partial defect testing of the PWR spent fuel assemblies. The proposed methodology involved insertion of tiny neutron and gamma detectors into the guide tubes of PWR assemblies, measurements and data evaluation. One of the key features of the data evaluation method was the concept of the base signature obtained by normalizing the ratio of gamma to neutron signals at each measurement position. As the base signature is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up, the methodology could be a powerful verification method which does not require operator declared information on the spent fuel. The benchmarking experiments indeed demonstrated that the methodology can be used for partial defect verification of the PWR spent fuel assemblies without operator declared data. The results from the experiments were compared with the simulations and the agreement between the two was well within ten percent. Thus, based on the simulation studies and benchmarking measurements, the methodology developed promises to be a powerful and practical way to detect partial defects that constitute 10% or more of the total active fuel pins. This far exceeds the detection threshold of 50% missing pins from a spent fuel assembly, a threshold defined by the IAEA Safeguards Criteria.

  7. Rutile solubility in H2O, H2OSiO2, and H2ONaAlSi3O8 uids at 0.72.0 GPa and 7001000 C: Implications for mobility of nominally insoluble elements

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    Rutile solubility in H2O, H2O­SiO2, and H2O­NaAlSi3O8 uids at 0.7­2.0 GPa and 700­1000 °C mobility Fluid ow The solubility of rutile was measured in H2O, H2O­SiO2 and H2O­NaAlSi3O8 uids at 700 a double-capsule method. Rutile solubility in pure H2O shows isothermal increase with pressure (P

  8. ?H2AX and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, William M.; Redon, Christophe E.; Dickey, Jennifer S.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Sedelnikova, Olga A.; Solier, Stéphanie; Pommier, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Histone H2AX phosphorylation on a serine four residues from the carboxyl terminus (producing ?H2AX) is a sensitive marker for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DSBs may lead to cancer but, paradoxically, are also used to kill cancer cells. Using ?H2AX detection to determine the extent of DSB induction may help to detect precancerous cells, to stage cancers, to monitor the effectiveness of cancer therapies and to develop novel anticancer drugs. PMID:19005492

  9. H2 Detection via Polarography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus; Barile, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Polarography is the measurement of the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The actual form of the observed polarographic current depends upon the manner in which the voltage is applied and on the characteristics of the working electrode. The new gas polarographic H2 sensor shows a current level increment with concentration of the gaseous H2 similar to those relating to metal ions in liquid electrolytes in well-known polarography. This phenomenon is caused by the fact that the diffusion of the gaseous H2 through a gas diffusion hole built in the sensor is a rate-determining step in the gaseous-hydrogen sensing mechanism. The diffusion hole artificially limits the diffusion of the gaseous H2 toward the electrode located at the sensor cavity. This gas polarographic H2 sensor is actually an electrochemical-pumping cell since the gaseous H2 is in fact pumped via the electrochemical driving force generated between the electrodes. Gaseous H2 enters the diffusion hole and reaches the first electrode (anode) located in the sensor cavity to be transformed into an H ions or protons; H ions pass through the electrolyte and reach the second electrode (cathode) to be reformed to gaseous H2. Gas polarographic O2 sensors are commercially available; a gas polarographic O2 sensor was used to prove the feasibility of building a new gas polarographic H2 sensor.

  10. H2 Gas Improves Functional Outcome After Cardiac Arrest to an Extent Comparable to Therapeutic Hypothermia in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Kei; Sano, Motoaki; Kamimura, Naomi; Yokota, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Kawamura, Akio; Abe, Takayuki; Ohta, Shigeo; Fukuda, Keiichi; Hori, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    Background All clinical and biological manifestations related to postcardiac arrest (CA) syndrome are attributed to ischemia–reperfusion injury in various organs including brain and heart. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has potential as a novel antioxidant. This study tested the hypothesis that inhalation of H2 gas starting at the beginning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) could improve the outcome of CA. Methods and Results Ventricular fibrillation was induced by transcutaneous electrical epicardial stimulation in rats. After 5 minutes of the subsequent CA, rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups at the beginning of CPR: mechanical ventilation (MV) with 2% N2 and 98% O2 under normothermia (37°C), the control group; MV with 2% H2 and 98% O2 under normothermia; MV with 2% N2 and 98% O2 under therapeutic hypothermia (TH), 33°C; and MV with 2% H2 and 98% O2 under TH. Mixed gas inhalation and TH continued until 2 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). H2 gas inhalation yielded better improvement in survival and neurological deficit score (NDS) after ROSC to an extent comparable to TH. H2 gas inhalation, but not TH, prevented a rise in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and increase in serum IL-6 level after ROSC. The salutary impact of H2 gas was at least partially attributed to the radical-scavenging effects of H2 gas, because both 8-OHdG- and 4-HNE-positive cardiomyocytes were markedly suppressed by H2 gas inhalation after ROSC. Conclusions Inhalation of H2 gas is a favorable strategy to mitigate mortality and functional outcome of post-CA syndrome in a rat model, either alone or in combination with TH. PMID:23316300

  11. Antiproton stopping in H2 and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, J. J.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Abdurakhmanov, I. B.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2015-11-01

    Stopping powers of antiprotons in H2 and H2O targets are calculated using a semiclassical time-dependent convergent close-coupling method. In our approach the H2 target is treated using a two-center molecular multiconfiguration approximation, which fully accounts for the electron-electron correlation. Double-ionization and dissociative ionization channels are taken into account using an independent-event model. The vibrational excitation and nuclear scattering contributions are also included. The H2O target is treated using a neonization method proposed by C. C. Montanari and J. E. Miraglia [J. Phys. B 47, 015201 (2014), 10.1088/0953-4075/47/1/015201], whereby the ten-electron water molecule is described as a dressed Ne-like atom in a pseudospherical potential. Despite being the most comprehensive approach to date, the results obtained for H2 only qualitatively agree with the available experimental measurements.

  12. Highly oriented NdFeCoB nanocrystalline magnets from partially disproportionated compacts by reactive deformation under low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying Yu, Yunping; Lian, Lixian

    2014-05-07

    In the present investigation, we take advantage of the ultrafine grain size of NdFeCoB partially hydrogen-disproportionated phases, and prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with full density and homogenous microstructure and texture by reactive deformation under low pressure. Our results suggest that the pressure could properly promote an occurrence of desorption-recombination reaction due to a shorter-range rearrangement of the atoms, and the newly recombined Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains with fine grain size could undergo deformation immediately after the phase transformation, and then an obvious anisotropy and uniform alignment would be obtained. The maximum magnetic properties, (BH){sub max}?=?25.8 MGOe, Br?=?11.8 kG, H{sub cj}?=?5.5 kOe, were obtained after being treated for 5?min at 820?°C in vacuum. The present study highlights the feasibility to prepare anisotropic nanocrystalline magnets with homogeneous microstructure and a strong (00l) texture of uniform grain size under low pressure.

  13. High-pressure partial melting of eclogite and garnet amphibolite rocks during decompression and heating, the Tromso Nappe, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    It has recently been argued that melting of high-P, high-T rocks in thickened arcs is an important process in magma genesis (e.g. Petford and Atherton, 1993; Rapp et al., 2003), producing rocks such as adakites. Such melting, however, has rarely been studied in-situ, and has instead relied on inferences from experimental and numerical studies, often based on quite different oceanic crustal lithologies. 452 Ma eclogites and garnet amphibolites in the Tromso Nappe, Norway provide one of the first opportunities to examine such melting in-situ. Evidence for a variety of melt forming reactions is preserved, involving melting of some or all of the eclogitic or retrograded eclogite components to form melt and peritectic garnet or amphibole. Thermobarometry shows that melting of eclogite involving peritectic garnet occurred at the highest pressures (P: 1.8 - 2.3 GPa), but lower than peak eclogite conditions of 3.3 GPa (Krogh-Ravna, pers.comm. 2004). Partial melting involving peritectic amphibole and melting of garnet amphibolite involving peritectic garnet both yield lower pressures (P: 1.1 GPa). These results suggest that melting of eclogite rock in continental arcs may be intimately linked to exhumation of those arcs. Temperatures remained high (T: 800 C), most likely in response to the emplacement of the neighbouring Skattora Migmatite Complex (Selbekk and Skjerlie, 2002). This supports the modelling of Petford & Gallagher (2001) that suggests that melting in lower continental arcs may be in response to intrusion of magmatic bodies nearby, and suggests that melting of the eclogites and garnet amphibolites in the Tromso Nappe was due to both decompression and heating. Four reactions are inferred qualitatively: (1) Omphacite +/- Zoisite +/- Kyanite +/- Phengite +/- Quartz goes to Garnet + Melt; (2) Omphacite + Garnet +/- Zoisite +/- Kyanite +/- Phengite +/- Quartz goes to Amphibole + Melt; (3) Omphacite +/- Zoisite +/- Kyanite +/- Phengite +/- Quartz goes to Amphibole + Melt; (4) Amphibole +/- Omphacite +/- Quartz +/- Biotite goes to Garnet + Melt. Current work is focusing on fully quantifying these reactions and the composition of melts produced. References: Petford, N. and Atherton, M. 1996. Na-rich partial melts from newly underplated basaltic crust: the Cordillera Blanca Batholith, Peru. J. Pet. 37, 1491-1521. Petford, N. and Gallagher, K. 2001. Partial melting of mafic (amphibolitic) lower crust by periodic influx of basaltic magma. EPSL, 193, 483-499. Rapp, R. P., Shimizu, N. and Norman, M. D. 2003. Growth of early continental crust by partial melting of eclogite. Nature, 425, 605-609. Selbekk, R. and Skjerlie, K-P. 2002. Petrogenesis of the Anorthosiste Dyke Swarm of Tromso, North Norway: Experimental evidence for Hydrous Anatexis of an Alkaline Mafic Complex. J. Pet. 43, 943-962.

  14. Reactions of H+ (pyridine)m(H2O)n and H+

    E-print Network

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Reactions of H+ (pyridine)m(H2O)n and H+ (NH3)1(pyridine)m(H2O)n with NH3: experiments and kinetic of the inbound H+ (H2O)15 clusters (> 90%) remains un-reacted because of the low NH3 pressure in the collision cell. H+ (H2O)15 + NH3 H+ (NH3)1(H2O)14 + 1H2O -1 u relative PI (RA) H+ (NH3)1(H2O)13 + 2H2O -19 u

  15. Correlation Between Partial Pressure of Arterial Carbon Dioxide and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide in Patients with Severe Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Tariq; Brinton, Taylor; Kramer, Jason; Khan, Basharath; Ziffra, Jeffrey; Villines, Dana; Shah, Poorvi; Hanif, Tabassum

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory depression is a common adverse effect of benzodiazepine administration to patients with severe alcoholic withdrawal. This study was conducted to assess the value of end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels compared to partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels in monitoring respiratory depression secondary to benzodiazepine treatment in patients with severe alcohol withdrawal. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 36 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for severe alcohol withdrawal who had been administered sedative agents. Results We observed a statistically significant correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 at time 1 (r=0.74, P<0.01) and time 3 (r=0.52, P=0.02) but not at time 2 (r=0.22, P=0.31). Conclusion Our study confirms a positive correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 levels in patients experiencing severe alcohol withdrawal.

  16. Equilibrium polarization of ultrathin PbTiO{<_3} with surface compensation controlled by oxygen partial pressure.

    SciTech Connect

    Highland, M. J.; Fister, T. T.; Fong, D. D.; Fuoss, P. H.; Thompson, C.; Eastman, J. A.; Streiffer, S. K.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a synchrotron x-ray study of the equilibrium polarization structure of ultrathin PbTiO{sub 3} films on SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates, as a function of temperature and the external oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) controlling their surface charge compensation. We find that the ferroelectric Curie temperature (T{sub c}) varies with pO{sub 2} and has a minimum at the intermediate pO{sub 2}, where the polarization below T{sub c} changes sign. The experiments are in qualitative agreement with a model based on Landau theory that takes into account the interaction of the phase transition with the electrochemical equilibria for charged surface species. The paraelectric phase is stabilized at intermediate pO2 when the concentrations of surface species are insufficient to compensate either polar orientation.

  17. Reduction of RuO2 Film to Metallic Ru Film Using Atomic Layer Deposition under Different Oxygen Partial Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Taeyong; Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2013-05-01

    Thin ruthenium oxide film deposition on 100 nm SiO2 substrate by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) prior to ruthenium deposition. RuO2 was totally reduced to metallic Ru film when Ru deposition process with low oxygen partial pressure. Using this technique, we can improve overall deposition speed by reducing incubation time which is major problem of deposition Ru film. In addition, we compare properties of Ru film deposited by thermal ALD directly deposited on SiO2 substrate and Ru film obtained from reduction of RuO2 film. The Ru film from RuO2 has smoother surface RMS roughness than Ru film directly deposited on SiO2 substrate.

  18. Growth of GaAs from a free surface melt under controlled arsenic pressure in a partially confined configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.; Wu, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A partially confined configuration for the growth of GaAs from melt in space was developed, consisting of a triangular prism containing the seed crystal and source material in the form of a rod. It is suggested that the configuration overcomes two obstacles in the growth of GaAs in space: total confinement in a quartz crucible and lack of arsenic pressure control. Ground tests of the configuration show that it is capable of crystal growth in space and is useful for studying the growth of GaAs from a free-surface melt on earth. The resulting chemical composition, electrical property variations, and phenomenological models to account for the results are presented.

  19. Modeling of axial vibrational control technique for CdTe VGF crystal growth under controlled cadmium partial pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avetissov, I.; Kostikov, V.; Meshkov, V.; Sukhanova, E.; Grishechkin, M.; Belov, S.; Sadovskiy, A.

    2014-01-01

    A VGF growth setup assisted by axial vibrations of baffle submerged into CdTe melt with controlled Cd partial pressure was designed. An influence of baffle shape on flow velocity map, temperature distribution in CdTe melt and interface shape of growing crystal was analyzed by numerical simulation and physical modeling. To produce the desirable shape of crystal melt interface we slant under different angles vertical generatrix in a cylindrical disk and made chasing on faceplates of a disk. It was ascertained that a disk with conical generatrix formed more intensive convective flows from a faceplate with larger diameter. It was shown that at CdTe VGF crystal growth rate about 10 mm/h application of AVC technique made it possible to produce convex interface for 2 in. crystal diameter.

  20. Experimental determination of the H2O-undersaturated peridotite solidus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafian, E. K.; Gaetani, G. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Sarafian, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of the H2O-undersaturated lherzolite solidus places important constraints on the process of melt generation and mantle potential temperatures beneath oceanic spreading centers. The small concentration of H2O (~50-200 ?g/g) dissolved in the oceanic mantle is thought to exert a strong influence on the peridotite solidus, but this effect has not been directly determined. The utility of existing experimental data is limited by a lack of information on the concentration of H2O dissolved in the peridotite and uncertainties involved with identifying small amounts of partial melt. We have developed an experimental approach for determining the peridotite solidus as a function of H2O content that overcomes these difficulties. Our initial results demonstrate that the solidus temperature for spinel lherzolite containing 150 ?g/g H2O is higher than existing estimates for the anhydrous solidus. Our approach to determining the H2O-undersaturated lherzolite solidus is as follows. First, a small proportion (~5 %) of San Carlos olivine spheres, ~300 ?m in diameter, are added to a peridotite synthesized from high-purity oxides and carbonates. Melting experiments are then conducted in pre-conditioned Au80Pd20 capsules over a range of temperatures at a single pressure using a piston-cylinder device. Water diffuses rapidly in olivine resulting in thorough equilibration between the olivine spheres and the surrounding fine-grained peridotite, and allowing the spheres to be used as hygrometers. After the experiment, the concentration of H2O dissolved in the olivine spheres is determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Melting experiments, spaced 20°C apart, were performed from 1250 to 1430°C at 1.5 GPa. The starting material has the composition of the depleted MORB mantle of Workman and Hart (2005) containing 0.13 wt% Na2O and 150 µg/g H2O. The concentration of H2O in the olivine spheres remains constant up to 1350°C, and then decreases systematically with increasing temperature. This indicates a solidus temperature of ~1360°C, which is ~25-50°C above the existing estimates for anhydrous solidus corrected for our starting composition. The H2O-undersaturated solidus indicated by our experimental results suggests that potential temperatures for the oceanic mantle are higher than current estimates.

  1. Simutaneous adsorption of CO2 and H2O under Mars-like conditions and application to the evolution of the Martian climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    The Martian regolith is the most substantial volatile reservoir on the planet; estimates of its adsorbed inventory have been based on simple measurements of the adsorption of either water or CO2 in isolation. Under some conditions, H2O can poison adsorbate surfaces, such that CO2 uptake is greatly reduced. We have made the first measurements of the simultaneous adsorption of CO2 and H2O under conditions appropriate to the Martian regolith and have found that at H2O monolayer coverage above about 0.5, CO2 begins to be displaced into the gas phase. We have developed an empirical expression that describes our co-adsorption data and have applied it to standard models of the Martian regolith. We find that currently, H2O does not substantially displace CO2, implying that the adsorbate inventories previously derived may be accurate, not more than 3-4 kPa (30-40 mbar). No substantial increase in atmospheric pressure is predicted at higher obliquities because high-latitude ground ice buffers the partial pressure of H2O in the pores, preventing high monolayer coverages of H2O from displacing CO2. The peak atmospheric pressure at high obliquity does increase as the total inventory of exchangeable CO2 increases.

  2. Simultaneous adsorption of CO2 and H2O under Mars-like conditions and application to the evolution of the Martian climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron, P.; Quinn, Richard C.

    1995-01-01

    The Martian regolith is the most substantial volatile reservoir on the planet; estimates of its adsorbed inventory have been based on simple measurements of the adsorption of either water or CO2 in isolation. Under some conditions, H2O can poison adsorbate surfaces, such that CO2 uptake is greatly reduced. We have made the first measurements of the simultaneous adsorption of CO2 and H2O under conditions appropriate to the Martian regolith and have found that at H2O monolayer coverage above about 0.5, CO2 begins to be displaced into the gas phase. We have developed an empirical expression that describes our co-adsorption data and have applied it to standard models of the Martian regolith. We find that currently, H2O does not substantially displace CO, implying that the adsorbate inventories previously derived may be accurate, not more than 3-4 kPa (30-40 mbar). No substantial increase in atmospheric pressure is predicted at higher obliquities because high-latitude ground ice buffers the partial pressure of H2O in the pores, preventing high monolayer coverages of H2O from displacing CO2. The peak atmospheric pressure at high obliquity does increase as the total inventory of exchangeable CO2 increases.

  3. CO-H 2-O 2 reaction on a catalytic surface: A computer simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamd, Waqar

    2009-08-01

    The oxidation of carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and the oxidation of hydrogen to form water are the reactions of environmental and industrial importance. These two reactions have been studied independently by Monte Carlo computer simulation using Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism but no effort has been made to study the combined CO-H 2-O 2 reaction on these lines. Keeping in view the importance of this 3-component system, the surface coverages and production rates are studied as a function of CO partial pressure for different ratios of H 2 and O 2. The diffusion of reacting species on the surface as well as their desorption from the surface is also introduced to include temperature effects. The phase diagrams of the system are drawn to observe the behavior of these atoms/molecules on the surface and the production of CO 2 and H 2O are determined at different concentrations of H 2. The results are compared with 2-component systems.

  4. Shock-Tube Time-History Measurements of H2O in the H2/O2 System Using IR Laser Absorption Spectroscopy 

    E-print Network

    Mulvihill, Clayton

    2015-05-04

    H2O time-histories were studied within the H2/O2 system using a tunable diode laser system and a pressure-driven shock tube. Stoichiometric H2/O2 mixtures were prepared in high amounts of argon dilution. The mixtures were heated using a shock tube...

  5. Effects of ambient and acute partial pressures of ozone on leaf net CO sub 2 assimilation of field-grown Vitis vinifera L

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, T.R.; Williams, L.E. Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA )

    1989-12-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O{sub 3} partial pressures reduced net CO{sub 2} assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO{sub 2} partial pressure (c{sub i}) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O{sub 3} when compared to the controls, while c{sub i} of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of O{sub 3} increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O{sub 3} and short-term exposure to acute levels of O{sub 3} reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances.

  6. Effects of Ambient and Acute Partial Pressures of Ozone on Leaf Net CO2 Assimilation of Field-Grown Vitis vinifera L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Roper, Teryl R.; Williams, Larry E.

    1989-01-01

    Mature, field-grown Vitis vinifera L. grapevines grown in open-top chambers were exposed to either charcoal-filtered air or ambient ozone partial pressures throughout the growing season. Individual leaves also were exposed to ozone partial pressures of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 micropascals per pascal for 5 hours. No visual ozone damage was found on leaves exposed to any of the treatments. Chronic exposure to ambient O3 partial pressures reduced net CO2 assimilation rate (A) between 5 and 13% at various times throughout the season when compared to the filtered treatment. Exposure of leaves to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O3 for 5 hours had no significant effect on A; however, A was reduced 84% for leaves exposed to 0.6 micropascals per pascal O3 when compared to the controls after 5 hours. Intercellular CO2 partial pressure (ci) was lower for leaves exposed to 0.2 micropascals per pascal O3 when compared to the controls, while ci of the leaves treated with 0.6 micropascals per pascal of 03 increased during the fumigation. The long-term effects of ambient O3 and short-term exposure to acute levels of O3 reduced grape leaf photosynthesis due to a reduction in both stomatal and mesophyll conductances. PMID:16667208

  7. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones I: Oxygen consumption rates and critical oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Lloyd A.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active, epipelagic squid known to undertake diel vertical migrations across a large temperature and oxygen gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Hypoxia is known to cause metabolic suppression in D. gigas. However, the precise oxygen level at which metabolic suppression sets in is unknown. Here we describe a novel ship-board swim tunnel respirometer that was used to measure metabolic rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (Pcrit) for adult squids (2-7kg). Metabolic rate measurements were validated by comparison to the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mantle muscle tissue (2-17kg). We recorded a mean routine metabolic rate of 5.91?molg-1h-1 at 10°C and 12.62?molg-1h-1 at 20°C. A temperature coefficient, Q10, of 2.1 was calculated. D. gigas had Pcrits of 1.6 and 3.8kPa at 10 and 20°C, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (MO2) varied with body mass (M) according to MO2=11.57M-0.12±0.03 at 10°C. Citrate synthase activity varied with body mass according to Y=9.32M-0.19±0.02.

  8. CO partial pressure dependence of the kinetics of melting of HbS aggregates studied in high concentration phosphate buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroutiounian, Svetlana

    2002-10-01

    Deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) monomers enter the polymer phase either by incorporation into a critical nucleus, through heterogeneous nucleation and or through linear growth of the polymers when the concentration of monomers exceeds the solubility. CO-bound, R-state HbS monomers do not polymerize. Thus, polymer melting is enhanced by binding of carbon monoxide (CO) to HbS polymerized monomers. In our study, the melting of HbS aggregates mediated by dilution and CO binding to polymerized monomers is observed with time-resolved extinction spectroscopy. The CO partial pressure (pCO) dependence of the kinetics of melting is studied for pCO = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 atm with difference progress curves. A phenomenological description with slow and fast relaxation modes reveals a variable relaxation time near the pCO=0.5 due to competition of kinetic mechanisms. The slow component increases with increasing pCO. It has a positive intercept due to the combined action of dilution of the sample and CO-ligation. The pCO dependence is near linear due to non-cooperative CO binding. Significant slowing down of aged samples, most likely due to gelation, is observed. As possible mechanism for variable relaxation time near pCO=0.5atm the fractional percolation threshold is discussed. This work was supported by NIH grant HL58091 (awarded to Daniel. B. Kim-Shapiro).

  9. Long-Term Stroke Risk Due to Partial White-Coat or Masked Hypertension Based on Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements: The Ohasama Study.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Michihiro; Asayama, Kei; Kikuya, Masahiro; Inoue, Ryusuke; Metoki, Hirohito; Hosaka, Miki; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Obara, Taku; Ishiguro, Aya; Murakami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ayako; Yasui, Daisaku; Murakami, Takahisa; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is controversial, and different findings on self-measured home measurements and 24-h ambulatory monitoring make identifying WCHT difficult. We examined whether individuals with partially or completely defined WCHT, as well as masked hypertension, as determined by different out-of-office blood pressure measurements, have a distinct long-term stroke risk. We followed 1464 participants (31.8% men; mean age, 60.6±10.8 years) in the general population of Ohasama, Japan, for a median of 17.1 years. A first stroke occurred in 212 subjects. Using sustained normal blood pressure (events/n=61/776) as a reference, adjusted hazard ratios for stroke (95% confidence intervals; events/n) were 1.38 (0.82-2.32; 19/137) for complete WCHT (isolated office hypertension), 2.16 (1.36-3.43; 29/117) for partial WCHT (either home or ambulatory normotension with office hypertension), 2.05 (1.24-3.41; 23/100) for complete masked hypertension (both home and ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), 2.08 (1.37-3.16; 38/180) for partial masked hypertension (either home or ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), and 2.46 (1.61-3.77; 42/154) for sustained hypertension. When partial WCHT and partial masked hypertension groups were further divided into participants only with home hypertension and those only with ambulatory hypertension, all subgroups had a significantly higher stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio ?1.84, P?0.04). In conclusion, impacts of partial WCHT as well as partial masked hypertension for long-term stroke risk were comparable to those of complete masked hypertension or sustained hypertension. We need both home and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements to evaluate stroke risk accurately. PMID:26527046

  10. Extragalactic H2O Masers

    E-print Network

    L. J. Greenhill

    2001-09-24

    Study of extragalactic H2O masers has progressed significantly in the 25 years since their discovery. Existing in star forming regions and in the accretion disks supermassive black holes, they are familiar and unfamiliar at the same time. A review of how our understanding has grown, up to the present day, is followed by comments on future prospects.

  11. Quasi-unary homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4-H2O Fangqun Yua

    E-print Network

    Yu, Fangqun

    Quasi-unary homogeneous nucleation of H2SO4-H2O Fangqun Yua Atmospheric Sciences Research Center BHN of H2SO4-H2O can be treated as quasi-unary nucleation of H2SO4 in equilibrium with H2O vapor. A scheme to calculate the evaporation coefficient of H2SO4 molecules from H2SO4-H2O clusters is presented

  12. Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, S. M.; Ali, I.; Singh, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    A statistical mechanical-based theory is used to develop the equation of state for the molecular fluid of H2. We incorporate in this equation the long-range correlations through the double Yukawa potential, dimerization of the H2 molecule by treating the fluid as a hard convex body fluid, and first-order quantum correction which is important at low temperatures. We use this to calculate the liquid-vapor equilibrium of H2, including the temperature and pressure dependence of compressibility factor, entropy, specific heat, compressibility, and sound velocity.

  13. Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of H2.

    PubMed

    Osman, S M; Ali, I; Singh, R N

    2013-01-01

    A statistical mechanical-based theory is used to develop the equation of state for the molecular fluid of H(2). We incorporate in this equation the long-range correlations through the double Yukawa potential, dimerization of the H(2) molecule by treating the fluid as a hard convex body fluid, and first-order quantum correction which is important at low temperatures. We use this to calculate the liquid-vapor equilibrium of H(2), including the temperature and pressure dependence of compressibility factor, entropy, specific heat, compressibility, and sound velocity. PMID:23410298

  14. Measurements of seismic attenuation and transient fluid pressure in partially saturated Berea sandstone: evidence of fluid flow on the mesoscopic scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz

    2013-10-01

    A novel laboratory technique is proposed to investigate wave-induced fluid flow on the mesoscopic scale as a mechanism for seismic attenuation in partially saturated rocks. This technique combines measurements of seismic attenuation in the frequency range from 1 to 100 Hz with measurements of transient fluid pressure as a response of a step stress applied on top of the sample. We used a Berea sandstone sample partially saturated with water. The laboratory results suggest that wave-induced fluid flow on the mesoscopic scale is dominant in partially saturated samples. A 3-D numerical model representing the sample was used to verify the experimental results. Biot's equations of consolidation were solved with the finite-element method. Wave-induced fluid flow on the mesoscopic scale was the only attenuation mechanism accounted for in the numerical solution. The numerically calculated transient fluid pressure reproduced the laboratory data. Moreover, the numerically calculated attenuation, superposed to the frequency-independent matrix anelasticity, reproduced the attenuation measured in the laboratory in the partially saturated sample. This experimental-numerical fit demonstrates that wave-induced fluid flow on the mesoscopic scale and matrix anelasticity are the dominant mechanisms for seismic attenuation in partially saturated Berea sandstone.

  15. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS+/? mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1?mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS+/? mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  16. H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ailin; Wang, Hongjuan; Lu, Xin; Zhu, Jianchun; Huang, Di; Xu, Tonghui; Guo, Jianqiang; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-01-01

    H2S is produced mainly by two enzymes:cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), using L-cysteine (L-Cys) as the substrate. In this study, we investigated the role of H2S in gastric accommodation using CBS(+/-) mice, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, methylene blue assay, intragastric pressure (IGP) recording and electrical field stimulation (EFS). Mouse gastric fundus expressed H2S-generating enzymes (CBS and CSE) and generated detectable amounts of H2S. The H2S donor, NaHS or L-Cys, caused a relaxation in either gastric fundus or body. The gastric compliance was significantly increased in the presence of L-Cys (1?mM). On the contrary, AOAA, an inhibitor for CBS, largely inhibited gastric compliance. Consistently, CBS(+/-) mice shows a lower gastric compliance. However, PAG, a CSE inhibitor, had no effect on gastric compliances. L-Cys enhances the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxation of fundus strips, but AOAA reduces the magnitude of relaxations to EFS. Notably, the expression level of CBS but not CSE protein was elevated after feeding. Consistently, the production of H2S was also increased after feeding in mice gastric fundus. In addition, AOAA largely reduced food intake and body weight in mice. Furthermore, a metabolic aberration of H2S was found in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). In conclusion, endogenous H2S, a novel gasotransmitter, involves in gastric accommodation. PMID:26531221

  17. Two-stage high-rate biogas (H2 and CH4) production from food waste using anaerobic mixed microflora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K.; Lee, D.; Kobayashi, T.; Ebie, Y.; Li, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2010-12-01

    To achieve the high-rate H2 and CH4 production from food waste using fermentative anaerobic microflora, the effects of carbonate-alkalinity in the recirculated digestion sludge on continuous two-stage fermentation were investigated. Higher H2 production rate of 2.9 L-H2/L/day was achieved at the recycle ratio of 1.0 in an alkalinity range of 9000 to 10000 mg-CaCO3/L. The maximum CH4 production rate was stably maintained at the range of 1.85 to 1.88 L-CH4/L/day without alkalinity change. Carbonate alkalinity in digestion sludge could reduce the H2 partial pressure in the headspace of the fermentation reactors, and improve a biogas production capacity in the two-stage fermentation process. The average volatile solids degradation rate in the overall process increased as the digestion sludge recycle increased from 0.5 to 1.0. These results show that the alkalinity in recycle of the digestion sludge is crucial factor in determining biogas (H2 and CH4) production capacity and reducing the total solids.

  18. CO(2) partial pressure and calcite saturation in springs - useful data for identifying infiltration areas in mountainous environments.

    PubMed

    Hilberg, Sylke; Brandstätter, Jennifer; Glück, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Mountainous regions such as the Central European Alps host considerable karstified or fractured groundwater bodies, which meet many of the demands concerning drinking water supply, hydropower or agriculture. Alpine hydrogeologists are required to describe the dynamics in fractured aquifers in order to assess potential impacts of human activities on water budget and quality. Delineation of catchment areas by means of stable isotopes and hydrochemical data is a well established method in alpine hydrogeology. To achieve reliable results, time series of (at least) one year and spatial and temporal close-meshed data are necessary. In reality, test sites in mountainous regions are often inaccessible due to the danger of avalanches in winter. The aim of our work was to assess a method based on the processes within the carbonic acid system to delineate infiltration areas by means of single datasets consisting of the main hydrochemical parameters of each spring. In three geologically different mountainous environments we managed to classify the investigated springs into four groups. (1) High PCO2 combined with slight super-saturation in calcite, indicating relatively low infiltration areas. (2) Low PCO2 near atmospheric conditions in combination with calcite saturation, which is indicative of relatively high infiltration areas and a fractured aquifer which is not covered by topsoil layers. (3) High PCO2 in combination with sub-saturation in calcite, representing a shallow aquifer with a significant influence of the topsoil layer. (4) The fourth group of waters is characterized by low PCO2 and sub-saturation in calcite, which is interpreted as evidence for a shallow aquifer without significant influence of any hard rock aquifer or topsoil layer. This study shows that CO2-partial pressure can be an ideal natural tracer to estimate the elevation of infiltration areas, especially in non-karstified fractured groundwater bodies. PMID:23429574

  19. Carbon dioxide partial pressure and 13C content of north temperate and boreal lakes at spring ice melt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striegl, R.G.; Kortelainen, P.; Chanton, J.P.; Wickland, K.P.; Bugna, G.C.; Rantakari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) accumulates under lake ice in winter and degasses to the atmosphere after ice melt. This large springtime CO2 pulse is not typically considered in surface-atmosphere flux estimates, because most field studies have not sampled through ice during late winter. Measured CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) of lake surface water ranged from 8.6 to 4,290 Pa (85-4,230 ??atm) in 234 north temperate and boreal lakes prior to ice melt during 1998 and 1999. Only four lakes had surface pCO2 less than or equal to atmospheric pCO2, whereas 75% had pCO2 >5 times atmospheric. The ??13CDIC (DIC = ??CO2) of 142 of the lakes ranged from -26.28??? to +0.95.???. Lakes with the greatest pCO2 also had the lightest ??13CDIC, which indicates respiration as their primary CO2 source. Finnish lakes that received large amounts of dissolved organic carbon from surrounding peatlands had the greatest pCO2. Lakes set in noncarbonate till and bedrock in Minnesota and Wisconsin had the smallest pCO2 and the heaviest ??13CDIC, which indicates atmospheric and/or mineral sources of C for those lakes. Potential emissions for the period after ice melt were 2.36 ?? 1.44 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with average pCO2 values and were as large as 13.7 ?? 8.4 mol CO2 m-2 for lakes with high pCO2 values.

  20. Changes in transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure as an index of response to inhaled methacholine in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Fontana, G A; Cardellicchio, S; Camiciottoli, G; Panuccio, P; Boddi, V

    1993-05-01

    Bronchoconstriction and hypoxemia have been reported to occur during airway challenges, but the correlation between changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (tcPO2) during methacholine provocation tests has not yet been established (to our knowledge). In 15 symptom-free atopic asthmatic patients and 5 normal subjects, variations in tcPO2 and FEV1 were simultaneously measured during inhalation of doubling methacholine concentrations; the drug concentrations causing a 20 percent decrease in control FEV1 and tcPO2 (PC20FEV1 and PC20tcPO2, respectively) were subsequently calculated. In patients, geometric mean PC20FEV1 and PC20TcPO2 were 1.31 (range, 0.16 to 5.19) and 1.26 (range, 0.29 to 5.82) mg/ml, respectively. In addition, in six patients, methacholine-induced fall in tcPO2 was accompanied by similar changes in arterial PO2. Methacholine inhalation caused no change in tcPO2 or FEV1 in normal subjects. The independent effects of deep breath tests and bronchoconstriction on PC20tcPO2 were studied in five patients challenged on two separate occasions, with and without FEV1 assessment; in these patients, PC20tcPO2 were similar on both the study days. The results indicate that, in asthmatic patients, methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction causes parallel decreases in FEV1 and tcPO2. The tcPO2 monitoring may serve as a tool in the assessment of airway hyperreactivity when active patient's cooperation is scarce. PMID:8486013

  1. Intracellular carbonic anhydrase activity sensitizes cancer cell pH signaling to dynamic changes in CO2 partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Aveyard, Nicholas; Harris, Adrian L; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D; Swietach, Pawel

    2014-09-12

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes catalyze the chemical equilibration among CO2, HCO3(-) and H(+). Intracellular CA (CAi) isoforms are present in certain types of cancer, and growing evidence suggests that low levels correlate with disease severity. However, their physiological role remains unclear. Cancer cell CAi activity, measured as cytoplasmic CO2 hydration rate (kf), ranged from high in colorectal HCT116 (?2 s(-1)), bladder RT112 and colorectal HT29, moderate in fibrosarcoma HT1080 to negligible (i.e. spontaneous kf = 0.18 s(-1)) in cervical HeLa and breast MDA-MB-468 cells. CAi activity in cells correlated with CAII immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity in membrane-free lysates, suggesting that soluble CAII is an important intracellular isoform. CAi catalysis was not obligatory for supporting acid extrusion by H(+) efflux or HCO3(-) influx, nor for maintaining intracellular pH (pHi) uniformity. However, in the absence of CAi activity, acid loading from a highly alkaline pHi was rate-limited by HCO3(-) supply from spontaneous CO2 hydration. In solid tumors, time-dependence of blood flow can result in fluctuations of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) that disturb cytoplasmic CO2-HCO3(-)-H(+) equilibrium. In cancer cells with high CAi activity, extracellular pCO2 fluctuations evoked faster and larger pHi oscillations. Functionally, these resulted in larger pH-dependent intracellular [Ca(2+)] oscillations and stronger inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway reported by S6 kinase phosphorylation. In contrast, the pHi of cells with low CAi activity was less responsive to pCO2 fluctuations. Such low pass filtering would "buffer" cancer cell pHi from non-steady-state extracellular pCO2. Thus, CAi activity determines the coupling between pCO2 (a function of tumor perfusion) and pHi (a potent modulator of cancer cell physiology). PMID:25059669

  2. Intracellular Carbonic Anhydrase Activity Sensitizes Cancer Cell pH Signaling to Dynamic Changes in CO2 Partial Pressure*

    PubMed Central

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Aveyard, Nicholas; Harris, Adrian L.; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D.; Swietach, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes catalyze the chemical equilibration among CO2, HCO3? and H+. Intracellular CA (CAi) isoforms are present in certain types of cancer, and growing evidence suggests that low levels correlate with disease severity. However, their physiological role remains unclear. Cancer cell CAi activity, measured as cytoplasmic CO2 hydration rate (kf), ranged from high in colorectal HCT116 (?2 s?1), bladder RT112 and colorectal HT29, moderate in fibrosarcoma HT1080 to negligible (i.e. spontaneous kf = 0.18 s?1) in cervical HeLa and breast MDA-MB-468 cells. CAi activity in cells correlated with CAII immunoreactivity and enzymatic activity in membrane-free lysates, suggesting that soluble CAII is an important intracellular isoform. CAi catalysis was not obligatory for supporting acid extrusion by H+ efflux or HCO3? influx, nor for maintaining intracellular pH (pHi) uniformity. However, in the absence of CAi activity, acid loading from a highly alkaline pHi was rate-limited by HCO3? supply from spontaneous CO2 hydration. In solid tumors, time-dependence of blood flow can result in fluctuations of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) that disturb cytoplasmic CO2-HCO3?-H+ equilibrium. In cancer cells with high CAi activity, extracellular pCO2 fluctuations evoked faster and larger pHi oscillations. Functionally, these resulted in larger pH-dependent intracellular [Ca2+] oscillations and stronger inhibition of the mTORC1 pathway reported by S6 kinase phosphorylation. In contrast, the pHi of cells with low CAi activity was less responsive to pCO2 fluctuations. Such low pass filtering would “buffer” cancer cell pHi from non-steady-state extracellular pCO2. Thus, CAi activity determines the coupling between pCO2 (a function of tumor perfusion) and pHi (a potent modulator of cancer cell physiology). PMID:25059669

  3. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-H2S System

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter; Owen, Antionette T.; Arey, Bruce W.

    2013-08-01

    Basalt samples representing five different formations were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical carbon dioxide containing 1% hydrogen sulfide (H2S) at reservoir conditions (100 bar, 90°C) for up to 3.5 years. Surface coatings in the form of pyrite and metal cation substituted carbonates were identified as reaction products associated with all five basalts. In some cases, high pressure tests contained excess H2S, which produced the most corroded basalts and largest amount of secondary products. In comparison, tests containing limited amounts of H2S appeared least reacted with significantly less concentrations of reaction products. In all cases, pyrite appeared to precede carbonation, and in some instances, was observed in the absence of carbonation such as in cracks, fractures, and within the porous glassy mesostasis. Armoring reactions from pyrite surface coatings observed in earlier shorter duration tests were found to be temporary with carbonate mineralization observed with all the basalts tested in these long duration experiments. Geochemical simulations conducted with the geochemical code EQ3/6 accurately predicted early pyrite precipitation followed by formation of carbonates. Reactivity with H2S was correlated with measured Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios in the basalts with more facile pyrite formation occurring with basalts containing more Fe(III) phases. These experimental and modeling results confirm potential for long term sequestration of acid gas mixtures in continental flood basalt formations.

  4. A comparison of ice VII formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O, and CH3OH-H2O systems: Implications for H2O-rich planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Mark R.; Aarestad, Elizabeth; Scott, Henry P.; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2013-02-01

    High-pressure H2O polymorphs, namely ice VI, ice VII, and ice X, are hypothesized to make up a considerable portion of the interiors of large icy satellites and select extra-solar planets. The incorporation of foreign ions or molecules into these high-pressure phases is possible through ocean-ice interaction, rock-ice interaction at depth, or processes that occurred during accretion. Recent research concerning the effects charged ions have on ice VII has shown that these ions notably affect the structure of ice VII (Frank et al., 2006; Klotz et al., 2009). This study was designed to determine the effects of a molecular impurity on ice VII and compare those effects to both pure H2O ice and ice with an ionic impurity. Ice samples were formed in this study via compression in a diamond anvil cell from either H2O, a 1.60 mol% NaCl aqueous solution, a 1.60 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution, or a 5.00 mol% CH3OH aqueous solution and were compressed up to 71 GPa at room temperature. Ice formed from pure H2O had no impurities whereas ices formed in the NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems contained the impurities Na+ and Cl- and CH3OH, respectively. Pressure-volume relations were observed in situ by using synchrotron based X-ray diffraction and were used to determine the equations of state for ices formed in the H2O, NaCl-H2O and CH3OH-H2O systems. The data illustrate that ice VII formed from a NaCl-bearing aqueous solution exhibited a depressed volume when compared to that of H2O-only ice VII at any given pressure, whereas ice VII formed from CH3OH-bearing aqueous solutions showed an opposite trend, with an increase in volume relative to that of pure ice VII. The ices within planetary bodies will most likely have both ionic and molecular impurities and the trends outlined in this study can be used to improve density profiles of H2O-rich planetary bodies.

  5. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of epitaxial cobalt-substituted SrTiO? films.

    PubMed

    Onba?l?, Mehmet C; Goto, Taichi; Tang, Astera; Pan, Annia; Battal, Enes; Okyay, Ali K; Dionne, Gerald F; Ross, C A

    2015-05-18

    Cobalt-substituted SrTiO3 films (SrTi0.70Co0.30O(3-?)) were grown on SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition under oxygen pressures ranging from 1 ?Torr to 20 mTorr. The effect of oxygen pressure on structural, magnetic, optical, and magneto-optical properties of the films was investigated. The film grown at 3 ?Torr has the highest Faraday rotation (FR) and magnetic saturation moment (M(s)). Increasing oxygen pressure during growth reduced M(s), FR and optical absorption in the near-infrared. This trend is attributed to decreasing Co2+ ion concentration and oxygen vacancy concentration with higher oxygen partial pressure during growth. PMID:26074589

  6. Thermodynamics of Silicon-Hydroxide Formation in H2O Containing Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Myers, Dwight; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    The formation of volatile silicon-hydroxide species from SiO2 in water containing atmospheres has been identified as a potentially important mode of degradation of Si-based ceramics. Availability of thermodynamic data for these species is a major problem. This study is part of an ongoing effort to obtain reliable, experimentally determined thermodynamic data for these species. The transpiration method was used to measure the pressure of Si-containing vapor in equilibrium with SiO2 (cristobalite) and Ar + H2O(g) with various mole fractions of water vapor, X(sub H2O), at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1780 K. Enthalpies and entropies for the reaction, SiO2(s) + 2H2O(g) = Si(OH)4(g), were obtained, at X(sub H2O) = 0.15 and 0.37, from the variation of lnK with 1/T according to the 'second law method'. The following data were obtained: delta(H)deg = 52.9 +/- 3.7 kJ/mole and delta(S)deg = -68.6 +/- 2.5 J/mole K at an average temperature of 1550 K, and delta(H)deg = 52.5+/-2.0 kJ/mole and delta(S)deg= -69.7 +/- 1.5 J/moleK at an average temperature of 1384 K, for X(sub H2O)= 0.15 and 0.37, respectively. These data agree with results from the literature obtained at an average temperature of 1600 K, and strongly suggest Si(OH)4(g) is the dominant vapor species. Contradictory results were obtained with the determination of the dependence of Si-containing vapor pressure on the partial pressure of water vapor at 1187 and 1722 K. These results suggested the Si-containing vapor could be a mixture of Si(OH)4 + SiO(OH)2. Further pressure dependent studies are in progress to resolve these issues.

  7. Modulation of sulfur partial pressure in sulfurization to significantly improve the photoelectrochemical performance over the Cu2ZnSnS4 photocathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanfang; Ouyang, Shuxin; Yu, Qing; Li, Peng; Ye, Jinhua

    2015-09-25

    Cu2ZnSnS4 photocathodes with excellent photoelectrochemical properties were fabricated via a facile method of adjusting the sulfur partial pressure in a semi-closed system, which achieved a maximum photocurrent-density of 1.8 mA cm(-2) under irradiation of a solar simulator which is 9-fold larger than that synthesized in an open system. PMID:26247478

  8. Effects of the oxygen partial pressure and annealing atmospheres on the microstructures and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. M.; Bo, L. T.; Ma, S. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Ma, L. G.; Liu, J.; Zhang, X. L.; Yang, F. C.; Zhao, Q.

    2012-03-01

    Cu-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Cu) films were deposited on p-Si (1 0 0) substrates at 200 °C under various oxygen partial pressures by using radio frequency reactive magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films were characterized by the X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence spectrophotometer with the emphasis on the evolution of microstructures, element composition, valence state of Cu, optical properties. The results indicated that the properties of ZnO:Cu films were significantly affected by oxygen partial pressures. XRD measurements revealed that the sample prepared at the ratio of O2:Ar of 15:10 sccm had the best crystal quality among all ZnO:Cu films. XPS analysis results suggested that the valence of Cu in the ZnO films was a mixed state of +1 and +2, and the integrated intensity ratio of Cu2+ to Cu+ increased with the increment of oxygen partial pressure. The photoluminescence measurements at room temperature revealed a violet, two blue and a green emission. We considered that the origin of green emission came from various oxygen defects when the ZnO:Cu films grew in oxygen poor and enriched environment. Furthermore, the influence of annealing atmosphere on the microstructures and optical properties of ZnO:Cu films were discussed.

  9. Vacuum ultra-violet emission of plasma discharges with high Xe partial pressure using a cathode protective layer with high secondary electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Di; Song, Le; Zhang, Xiong; Kajiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-02-14

    In this work, the mechanism of the vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) emission of plasma discharges, with high Xe partial pressure and high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer, is studied by measuring the VUV light emission directly and comparing it with two-dimensional simulations. From the panel measurement, we find that the high intensity of excimer VUV mainly contributes to the high luminous efficacy of SrCaO-plasma display panels (PDP) at a low sustain voltage. The unchanged Xe excitation efficiency indicates that the electron temperature is not decreased by the high secondary electrons emission protective layer, even though the sustain voltage is much lower. From the two-dimensional simulations, we can find that the ratio of excimer VUV to resonant VUV, which is determined by the collision rate in the discharge, is only significantly affected by the Xe partial pressure, while it is independent of the sustain voltage and the secondary-electrons-emission capability of protective layer. The unchanged average electron energy at the moment when the electric field becomes maximum confirms that the improvement of the VUV production efficiency mainly is attributed to the increase in electron heating efficiency of a PDP with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission protective layer. Combining the experimental and the simulation results, we conclude about the mechanism by which the VUV production is improved for the plasma display panel with a high Xe partial pressure and a cold cathode with high ion-induced secondary electrons emission.

  10. Long-term spatial and temporal variation of CO2 partial pressure in the Yellow River, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lu, X. X.; Richey, J. E.; Sun, H.; Han, J.; Yu, R.; Liao, S.; Yi, Q.

    2015-02-01

    Carbon transport in river systems is an important component of the global carbon cycle. Most rivers of the world act as atmospheric CO2 sources due to high riverine CO2 partial pressure (pCO2). By determining the pCO2 from alkalinity and pH, we investigated its spatial and temporal variation in the Yellow River watershed using historical water chemistry records (1950s-1984) and recent sampling along the mainstem (2011-2012). Except the headwater region where the pCO2 was lower than the atmospheric equilibrium (i.e. 380 ?atm), river waters in the remaining watershed were supersaturated with CO2. The average pCO2 for the watershed was estimated at 2810 ± 1985 ?atm, which is 7-fold the atmospheric equilibrium. As a result of severe soil erosion and dry climate, waters from the Loess Plateau in the middle reaches had higher pCO2 than that from the upper and lower reaches. From a seasonal perspective, the pCO2 varied from about 200 ?atm to > 30 000 ?atm with higher pCO2 usually occurring in the dry season and lower pCO2 in the wet season (at 73% of the sampling sites), suggesting the dilution effect of water. While the pCO2 responded exponentially to total suspended solids (TSS) export when the TSS concentration was less than 100 kg m-3, it decreased slightly and remained stable if the TSS concentration exceeded 100 kg m-3. This stable pCO2 is largely due to gully erosion that mobilizes subsoils characterized by low organic carbon for decomposition. In addition, human activities have changed the pCO2 dynamics. Particularly, flow regulation by dams can diversely affect the temporal changes of pCO2, depending on the physiochemical properties of the regulated waters and adopted operation scheme. Given the high pCO2 in the Yellow River waters, large potential for CO2 evasion is expected and warrants further investigation.

  11. [Partial pressure of CO2 and CO2 degassing fluxes of Huayuankou and Xiaolangdi Station affected by Xiaolangdi Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-ling; Yang, Xiao-lin; Zhang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    According to periodic sampling analysis per month in Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station from November 2011 to October 2012, combined with continuous sampling analysis of Xiaolangdi Reservoir during runoff and sediment control period in 2012, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in surface water were calculated based on Henry's Law, pCO2 features and air-water CO2 degassing fluxes of Huayuankou station and Xiaolangdi station affected by Xiaolangdi Reservoir were studied. The results were listed as follows, when Xiaolangdi Reservoir operated normally, pCO2 in surface water of Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station varied from 82 to 195 Pa and from 99 to 228 Pa, moreover, pCO2 in surface water from July to September were distinctly higher than those in other months; meanwhile, pCO, in surface water from Huayuankou station were higher than that from Xiaolangdi station. During runoff and sediment control period of Xiaolangdi Reservoir, two hydrological stations commonly indicated that pCO2 in surface water during water draining were obviously lower than those during sediment releasing. Whether in the period of normal operation or runoff and sediment control, pCO2 in surface water had positive relations to DIC content in two hydrological stations. Since the EpCO,/AOU value was higher than the theoretical value of 0. 62, the biological aerobic respiration effect had distinct contribution to pCO2. Throughout the whole year, air-water CO2 degassing fluxes from Xiaolangdi station and Huayuankou station were 0.486 p.mol (m2 s) -l and 0.588 pmol (m2 x s)(-1) respectively; When Xiaolangdi Reservoir operated normally, air-water CO, degassing fluxes in Huayuankou station were higher than that in Xiaolangdi station; during runoff and sediment control from Xiaolangdi Reservoir, two hydrological stations had one observation result in common, namely, air-water CO2 degassing fluxes in the period of water draining were obviously lower than that in the period of sediment releasing. PMID:25898645

  12. Changes in partial pressures of respiratory gases during submerged voluntary breath hold across odontocetes: is body mass important?

    PubMed

    Noren, S R; Williams, T M; Ramirez, K; Boehm, J; Glenn, M; Cornell, L

    2012-02-01

    Odontocetes have an exceptional range in body mass spanning 10(3) kg across species. Because, size influences oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production rates in mammals, this lineage likely displays an extraordinary variation in oxygen store management compared to other marine mammal groups. To examine this, we measured changes in the partial pressures of respiratory gases ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), pH, and lactate in the blood during voluntary, quiescent, submerged breath holds in Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and a killer whale (Orcinus orca) representing a mass range of 96-3,850 kg. These measurements provided an empirical determination of the effect of body size on the variability in blood biochemistry during breath hold and experimentally determined aerobic dive limits (ADL) within one taxonomic group (odontocetes). For the species in this study, maximum voluntary breath-hold duration was positively correlated with body mass, ranging from 3.5 min in white-sided dolphins to 13.3 min for the killer whale. Variation in breath-hold duration was associated with differences in the rate of change for [Formula: see text] throughout breath hold; [Formula: see text] decreased twice as fast for the two smaller species (-0.6 mmHg O(2) min(-1)) compared to the largest species (-0.3 mmHg O(2) min(-1)). In contrast, the rate of increase in [Formula: see text] during breath hold was similar across species. These results demonstrate that large body size in odontocetes facilitates increased aerobic breath-hold capacity as mediated by decreased mass-specific metabolic rates (rates of change in [Formula: see text] served as a proxy for oxygen utilization). Indeed the experimentally determined 5 min ADL for bottlenose dolphins was surpassed by the 13.3 min maximum breath hold of the killer whale, which did not end in a rise in lactate. Rather, breath hold ended voluntarily as respiratory gases and pH fell within a narrow range for both large and small species, likely providing cues for ventilation. PMID:21935721

  13. Pressure and temperature derivatives of the elastic constants of cubic K2SnCl6, Ni( NO3) 2·6 NH3, ( NH4) 2SiF6, andMg( BrO3) 2·6 H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haussühl, S.

    1981-04-01

    The temperature and pressure derivatives of the elastic constants of cubic K2SnCl6, Ni( NO3) 2·6 NH3, ( NH4) 2SiF6, andMg( BrO3) 2·6 H2O have been determined by measuring temperature and stress induced shifts of resonance frequencies of thick plates. K 2SnCl 6 exhibits anomalous thermoelastic properties in a wider temperature range above the transition temperature at 262 K. The shear resistance c? = ( c11 - c12)/2 and also c11 develop a certain softening approaching the transition from higher temperatures. The anomalies are weakly KCN-type-like and are interpreted as originating from a coupling of librational motions of SnCl 6 octahedra with translational modes. Ni( NO3) 2·6 NH3, also in its pressure derivatives, shows anomalies fully analogous to those observed in alkali cyanides. ( NH4) 2SiF6 and Mg( BrO3) 2·6 H2O represent properties characteristic for fluorspar type structures. However, the magnitudes of temperature and pressure derivatives exceed those of the fluorspar type considerably.

  14. Global Ocean Surface Water Partial Pressure of CO2 Database: Measurements Performed During 1968–2007 (Version 2007)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozyr, Alex

    2008-09-30

    More than 4.1 million measurements of surface water partial pressure of CO2 obtained over the global oceans during 1968–2007 are listed in the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) database, which includes open ocean and coastal water measurements. The data assembled include only those measured by equilibrator-CO2 analyzer systems and have been quality-controlled based on the stability of the system performance, the reliability of calibrations for CO2 analysis, and the internal consistency of data. To allow re-examination of the data in the future, a number of measured parameters relevant to pCO2 measurements are listed. The overall uncertainty for the pCO2 values listed is estimated to be ± 2.5 µatm on the average. For simplicity and for ease of reference, this version is referred to as 2007, meaning that data collected through 31 December 2007 has been included. It is our intention to update this database annually. There are 37 new cruise/ship files in this update. In addition, some editing has been performed on existing files so this should be considered a "V2007" file. Also we have added a column reporting the partial pressure of CO2 in seawater in units of Pascals. The data presented in this database include the analyses of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), pressure of the equilibration, and barometric pressure in the outside air from the ship’s observation system. The global pCO2 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  15. Selective modulation of cellular voltage-dependent calcium channels by hyperbaric pressure—a suggested HPNS partial mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Aviner, Ben; Gradwohl, Gideon; Mor Aviner, Merav; Levy, Shiri; Grossman, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    Professional deep sea divers experience motor and cognitive impairment, known as High Pressure Neurological Syndrome (HPNS), when exposed to pressures of 100 msw (1.1 MPa) and above, considered to be the result of synaptic transmission alteration. Previous studies have indicated modulation of presynaptic Ca2+ currents at high pressure. We directly measured for the first time pressure effects on the currents of voltage dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Pressure selectivity augmented the current in CaV1.2 and depressed it in CaV3.2 channels. Pressure application also affected the channels' kinetics, such as ?Rise, ?Decay. Pressure modulation of VDCCs seems to play an important role in generation of HPNS signs and symptoms. PMID:24904281

  16. Role of partial miscibility on pressure buildup due to constant rate injection of CO2 into closed and open brine aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Gluyas, Jon G.; GonzáLez MartíNez de Miguel, Gerardo J.; Hosseini, Seyyed A.

    2011-12-01

    This work extends an existing analytical solution for pressure buildup because of CO2 injection in brine aquifers by incorporating effects associated with partial miscibility. These include evaporation of water into the CO2 rich phase and dissolution of CO2 into brine and salt precipitation. The resulting equations are closed-form, including the locations of the associated leading and trailing shock fronts. Derivation of the analytical solution involves making a number of simplifying assumptions including: vertical pressure equilibrium, negligible capillary pressure, and constant fluid properties. The analytical solution is compared to results from TOUGH2 and found to accurately approximate the extent of the dry-out zone around the well, the resulting permeability enhancement due to residual brine evaporation, the volumetric saturation of precipitated salt, and the vertically averaged pressure distribution in both space and time for the four scenarios studied. While brine evaporation is found to have a considerable effect on pressure, the effect of CO2 dissolution is found to be small. The resulting equations remain simple to evaluate in spreadsheet software and represent a significant improvement on current methods for estimating pressure-limited CO2 storage capacity.

  17. The composition of Saturn's atmosphere at northern temperate latitudes from Voyager IRIS spectra - NH3, PH3, C2H2, C2H6, CH3D, CH4, and the Saturnian D/H isotopic ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Bezard, B.; Hanel, R.

    1984-01-01

    The vertical distributions and mixing ratios of minor constituents in the northern hemisphere of Saturn are investigated. Results are obtained for NH3, PH3, C2H2, C2H6, CH3D, and CH4; the D/H ratio is obtained from the CH4 and CH3D abundances. The NH3 mixing ratio in the upper atmosphere is found to be compatible with the saturated partial pressure. The inferred PH3/H2 ratio of 1.4 + or - 0.8 x 10 to the -6th is higher than the value derived from the solar P/H ratio. The stratospheric C2H2/H2 and C2H6/H2 ratios are, respectively, 2.1 + or - 1.4 x 10 to the -7th and 3.0 + or - 1.1 x 10 to the -6th; the latter decreases sharply below the 20-50 mbar level. The results for CH3D/H2 and CH4/H2 imply an enrichment of Saturn's upper atmosphere in carbon by a factor of at least three over the solar abundance. The interpretation of two NH3 lines in the five-micron window suggests a NH3/H2 ratio at the two bar level below the solar value.

  18. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, and/or CaH2) Composite Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Young Joon; Xu, Yimin; Shaw, Wendy J.; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-04-19

    Ammonia borane (AB = NH3BH3) is one of the most attractive materials for chemical hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen contents of 19.6 wt.%, however, impurity levels of borazine, ammonia and diborane in conjunction with foaming and exothermic hydrogen release calls for finding ways to mitigate the decomposition reactions. In this paper we present a solution by mixing AB with metal hydrides (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2 and CaH2) which have endothermic hydrogen release in order to control the heat release and impurity levels from AB upon decomposition. The composite materials were prepared by mechanical ball milling, and their H2 release properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The formation of volatile products from decomposition side reactions, such as borazine (N3B3H6) was determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Sieverts type pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) gas-solid reaction instrument was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the combined systems and neat AB. In situ 11B MAS-NMR revealed a destabilized decomposition pathway. We found that by adding specific metal hydrides to AB we can eliminate the impurities and mitigate the heat release.

  19. Determination of oxygen adsorption-desorption rates and diffusion rate coefficients in perovskites at different oxygen partial pressures by a microkinetic approach.

    PubMed

    Rochoux, M; Guo, Y; Schuurman, Y; Farrusseng, D

    2015-01-14

    A novel, powerful method based on a microkinetic approach is described for the estimation of the oxygen transport parameters of mixed electronic conducting materials (MIECs). This method is validated on the perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? and has been applied on Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-?. This approach is original and relevant in that the surface kinetic rate constants are measured using a sample in powder form. In contrast to methods previously used, such as isotope exchange depth profiling (IEDP) and electrical conductivity relaxation (ECR), which determine the global exchange kinetic parameter, our microkinetic modelling approach allows the estimation of the forward and reverse kinetic rates accounting for the oxygen vacancy concentration. Also, the self-diffusion rate coefficient has been estimated at different oxygen partial pressures. This microkinetic approach, which combines SSITKA (steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis) and thermogravimetric measurements at controlled oxygen partial pressure, has the potential to significantly accelerate the characterization of oxygen transport in perovskites and related materials in the future. In this study, the kinetic parameters were measured in a temperature window between 873 K and 1173 K, and at two oxygen pressure conditions (21 kPa and 1 kPa) that are appropriate for simulating the semi-permeability of oxygen in a membrane in a process of oxygen separation from air. PMID:25429893

  20. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on material properties of Eu3+-doped Y2O2S thin film deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. G.; Dejene, B. F.; Swart, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Eu3+-doping has been of interest to improve the luminescent characteristics of thin-?lm phosphors. Y2O2S:Eu3+ ?lms have been grown on Si (100) substrates by using a Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The thin films grown under different oxygen deposition pressure conditions have been characterized using structural and luminescent measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed mixed phases of cubic and hexagonal crystal structures. As the oxygen partial pressure increased, the crystallinity of the films improved. Further increase of the O2 pressure to 140 mtorr reduced the crystallinity of the film. Similarly, both scanning electron microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy confirmed that an increase in O2 pressure affected the morphology of the films. The average band gap of the films calculated from diffuse reflectance spectra using the Kubelka-Munk function was about 4.75 eV. The photoluminescence measurements indicated red emission of Y2O2S:Eu3+ thin films with the most intense peak appearing at 619 nm, which is assigned to the 5D0-7F2 transition of Eu3+. This most intense peak was totally quenched at higher O2 pressures. This phosphor may be a promising material for applications in the flat panel displays.

  1. Breaking H2 -MAC Using Birthday Paradox

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Breaking H2 -MAC Using Birthday Paradox Fanbao Liu1,2 , Tao Xie1 and Changxiang Shen2 1 School of Computer, Beijing University of Technology, 100124, Beijing, P. R. China liufanbao@gmail.com Abstract. H2 and security of HMAC at the same time. However, as pointed out by the designer, the security of H2 -MAC also

  2. In-Situ Partial Pressure Measurements and Visual Observation during Crystal Growth of ZnSe by Seeded Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, Shari; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    1999-01-01

    An in-situ monitoring furnace was constructed with side windows to perform partial pressure measurements by optical absorption and visual observation of the growing crystal. A fused silica -rowth ampoule with a 4.5 cm long square tube between the source and the seed was prepared for the optical absorption measurements. A ZnSe crystal was grown by the seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) technique in the horizontal configuration. The growth temperature was 1120 C and the furnace translation rate was 3nmVday. Partial pressures of Se2, P(sub Se2), at three locations along the length of the growth ampoule were measured at 90 min intervals during the growth process. The measured P (sub Se2) were in the range of 2.0 to 6.5 x 10(exp -3) atm. The P(sub Se2) results indicated that the partial pressure profile was inconsistent with the results of the one-dimensional diffusion mass transport model and that the source composition shifted toward Se-rich during the run, i.e. the grown crystal was more Zn-rich than the source. The visual observation showed that the seed crystal first etched back, with greater thermal etching occurring along the edges of the seed crystal. Once the growth started, the crystal crew in a predominately contactless mode and facets were evident during growth. The crystal did not grow symmetrically which is believed to be due to the unintentional asymmetry of the radial thermal profile in the furnace.

  3. Thermodynamic Properties of LiBr/H2O Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kazuhiko; Sato, Haruki; Watanabe, Koichi

    Although most of the absorption refrigeration/heat pump systems use LiBr/H2O solution for absorbent/refrigerant pair, there exist only a limited number of reliable sets of data on the bubble-point pressures of LiBr/H2O solution. The objective of the present study is to reveal the concentration and temperature dependence of bubble-point pressures of LiBr/H2O solution over a wide range of parameters so as to provide more precise set of thermodynamic property data for advanced design of the absorption refrigeration/heat pump equipments. A total of 44 bubble-point pressures have been measured along seven concentration isopleths of 20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 58 and 60 wt%LiBr solution which cover the range of temperatures 283-413 K and of pressures up to 300 kPa. The experimental uncertainties of temperature, pressure and concentration measurements were not greater than ±20mK, ±0.1 kPa and ±0.1wt%, respectively.

  4. Reliability study of the NiH2 strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes a joint study by Gates Aerospace Batteries (GAB) and the Reliability Analysis Center (RAC). This study characterizes the reliability and robustness of the temperature compensated strain gages currently specified for sensing of internal pressure of NiH2 cells. These strain gages are characterized as fully encapsulated, metallic foil grids with known resistance that varies with deformation. The measurable deformation, when typically installed on the hemispherical portion of a NiH2 cell, is proportional to the material stresses as generated by internal cell pressures. The internal pressure sensed in this manner is calibrated to indicate the state-of-charge for the cell. This study analyzes and assesses both robustness and reliability for the basic design of the strain gage, the installation of the strain gage, and the circuitry involved.

  5. Plant and environment interactions: Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age {open_quote}Casselman{close_quote} plum trees to various ozone partial pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1997-05-01

    Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) during the 1989 through 1992 growing seasons (typically 1 Apr. - 1 Nov.). A nonchamber treatment plot was used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. This study details the results of the exposures during the initial commercial bearing period (1991 through 1993) in this orchard. The mean 12-h (0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time [PDT]) ozone partial pressures during the experimental periods in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments averaged 0.031, 0.048, 0.091, and 0.056 {mu}Pa Pa{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Fruit number per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal filtered to ambient + ozone treatment, significantly affecting yield. Yield of plum trees averaged 23.6, 19.8, 13.7, and 17.9 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Only one out of the five original treatment plots was exposed to ozone treatments during the 1993 growing season. Yield of plum trees in this single replicate in 1993 was reduced by increased atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Yield of plum trees in the four remaining unexposed treatment plots in 1993 was 16.7, 17.9, and 16.0 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in the previous charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + ozone treatments respectively. The similarity in yield of the post-chamber treatments indicates that a change in air quality in the current growing season can affect yield of Casselman plum trees. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Geochemical signatures of metasedimentary rocks of high-pressure granulite facies and their relation with partial melting: Carvalhos Klippe, Southern Brasília Belt, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioffi, Caue Rodrigues; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa; da Rocha, Brenda Chung; Moraes, Renato; Henrique-Pinto, Renato

    2012-12-01

    High-grade metasedimentary rocks can preserve geochemical signatures of their sedimentary protolith if significant melt extraction did not occur. Retrograde reaction textures provide the main evidence for trapped melt in the rock fabrics. Carvalhos Klippe rocks in Southern Brasília Orogen, Brazil, present a typical high-pressure granulite assemblage with evidence of mica breakdown partial melting (Ky + Grt + Kfs ± Bt ± Rt). The metamorphic peak temperatures obtained by Zr-in-Rt and ternary feldspar geothermometers are between 850 °C and 900 °C. The GASP baric peak pressure obtained using grossular rich garnet core is 16 kbar. Retrograde reaction textures in which the garnet crystals are partially to totally replaced by Bt + Qtz ± Fsp intergrowths are very common in the Carvalhos Klippe rocks. These reactions are interpreted as a result of interactions between residual phases and trapped melt during the retrograde path. In the present study the geochemical signatures of three groups of Carvalhos Klippe metasedimentary rocks are analysed. Despite the high metamorphic grade these three groups show well-defined geochemical features and their REE patterns are similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC). The high-pressure granulite facies Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses with immature arenite (wacke, arkose or lithic-arenite) geochemical signatures present in the Carvalhos Klippe are compared to similar rocks in amphibolite facies from the same tectonic framework (Andrelândia Nappe System). The similar geochemical signatures between Grt-Bt-Pl gneisses metamorphosed in high-pressure granulite facies and Grt-Bt-Pl-Qtz schists from the Andrelândia and Liberdade Nappes, with minimal to absent melting conditions, are suggestive of low rates of melt extraction in these high-grade rocks. The rocks with pelitic compositions most likely had higher melt extraction and even under such circumstances nevertheless tend to show REE patterns similar to average compositions of post-Archean sedimentary rocks (PAAS, NASC).

  7. Freezing temperatures of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O mixtures: Implications for polar stratospheric clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Naihui

    1994-01-01

    The freezing temperatures of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O mixtures were systematically documented. Nitric acid was found to affect freezing significantly. Measurements show that nitric acid can cause substantial supercooling over a broad composition range. However, some ternary compositions, like to those in polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), have high freezing temperatures. The freezing of PSC particles could be controlled by the temperature and vapor pressure of both nitric acid and water in a non-linear way. Formation of polar stratospheric clouds may be forecasted on the basic of conditions of temperature and vapor contents of water and nitric acid.

  8. H2 fuel prototype hydride bed performance tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, E.F.

    1996-10-01

    H2Fuel is a project to design, build, and demonstrate a hydrogen-electric hybrid city bus for Augusta, GA. The H2Fuel bus uses metal hydride technology for on-board hydrogen fuel storage. This document reports on tests by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to measure the performance of the H2Fuel prototype hydride bed. Bed diameter measurements were made before and after hydrogen testing. Seven hydrogen absorption-desorption cycles were completed. Significant results include: - maximum hydrogen capacity of approximately 3500 STP liters (0.315 kg) - practical hydrogen capacity of approximately 3000 STP liters (0.270 kg) - absorption tests at four hydrogen supply pressures (75, 100, 140, and 300 psia) - desorption tests at three hydrogen rates (20, 30, and 50 slpm) - no measurable swelling of the hydride bed

  9. High-Resolution Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Mach Reflection Structures in Detonation Waves in Low-Pressure H2–O2–Ar Mixtures: A Summary of Results Obtained with the Adaptive Mesh Refinement Framework AMROC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulation can be key to the understanding of the multidimensional nature of transient detonation waves. However, the accurate approximation of realistic detonations is demanding as a wide range of scales needs to be resolved. This paper describes a successful solution strategy that utilizes logically rectangular dynamically adaptive meshes. The hydrodynamic transport scheme and the treatment of the nonequilibrium reaction terms are sketched. A ghost fluid approach is integrated into the method to allow for embedded geometrically complex boundaries. Large-scale parallel simulations of unstable detonation structures of Chapman-Jouguet detonations in low-pressure hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures demonstrate the efficiency of the described techniquesmore »in practice. In particular, computations of regular cellular structures in two and three space dimensions and their development under transient conditions, that is, under diffraction and for propagation through bends are presented. Some of the observed patterns are classified by shock polar analysis, and a diagram of the transition boundaries between possible Mach reflection structures is constructed.« less

  10. Analysis of the Pressure Rise in a Partially Filled Liquid Tank in Microgravity with Low Wall Heat Flux and Simultaneous Boiling and Condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Balasubramaniam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments performed with Freon 113 in the space shuttle have shown that in a pro- cess of very slow heating, high liquid superheats can be sustained for a long period in microgravity. In a closed system explosive vaporization of superheated liquid resulted in pressure spikes of varying magnitudes. In this paper, we analyze the pressure rise in a partially lled closed tank in which a large vapor bubble (i.e., ullage) is initially present, and the liquid is subjected to a low wall heat ux. The liquid layer adjacent to the wall becomes superheated until the temperature for nucleation of the bubbles (or the incipience of boiling) is achieved. In the absence of the gravity-induced convection large quantities of superheated liquid can accumulate over time near the heated surface. Once the incipience temperature is attained, explosive boiling occurs and the vapor bubbles that are produced on the heater surface tend to quickly raise the tank pressure. The liquid-vapor saturation temperature increases as well. These two e ects tend to induce condensation of the large ullage bubble that is initially present, and tends to mitigate the tank pressure rise. As a result, the tank pressure is predicted to rise sharply, attain a maximum, and subsequently decay slowly. The predicted pressure rise is compared with experimental results obtained in the microgravity environments of the space shuttle for Freon 113. The analysis is appli- cable, in general to heating of liquid in closed containers in microgravity and to cryogenic fuel tanks, in particular where small heat leaks into the tank are unavoidable.

  11. Interaction between sulphide and H 2O in silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, Jan; Behrens, Harald; Wilke, Max; Göttlicher, Jörg; Chalmin-Aljanabi, Emilie

    2011-06-01

    Reaction between dissolved water and sulphide was experimentally investigated in soda-lime-silicate (NCS) and sodium trisilicate (NS3) melts at temperatures from 1000 to 1200 °C and pressures of 100 or 200 MPa in internally heated gas pressure vessels. Diffusion couple experiments were conducted at water-undersaturated conditions with one half of the couple being doped with sulphide (added as FeS or Na 2S; 1500-2000 ppm S by weight) and the other with H 2O (˜3.0 wt.%). Additionally, two experiments were performed using a dry NCS glass cylinder and a free H 2O fluid. Here, the melt was water-saturated at least at the melt/fluid interface. Profiling by electron microprobe (sulphur) and infrared microscopy (H 2O) demonstrate that H 2O diffusion in the melts is faster by 1.5-2.3 orders of magnitude than sulphur diffusion and, hence, H 2O can be considered as a rapidly diffusing oxidant while sulphur is quasi immobile in these experiments. In Raman spectra a band at 2576 cm -1 appears in the sulphide - H 2O transition zone which is attributed to fundamental S-H stretching vibrations. Formation of new IR absorption bands at 5025 cm -1 (on expense of the combination band of molecular H 2O at 5225 cm -1) and at 3400 cm -1 was observed at the front of the in-diffusing water in the sulphide bearing melt. The appearance and intensity of these two IR bands is correlated with systematic changes in S K-edge XANES spectra. A pre-edge excitation at 2466.5 eV grows with increasing H 2O concentration while the sulphide peak at 2474.0 eV decreases in intensity relative to the peak at 2477.0 eV and the feature at 2472.3 eV becomes more pronounced (all energies are relative to the sulphate excitation, calibrated to 2482.5 eV). The observations by Raman, IR and XANES spectroscopy indicate a well coordinated S 2- - H 2O complex which was probably formed in the glasses during cooling at the glass transition. No oxidation of sulphide was observed in any of the diffusion couple experiments. On the contrary, XANES spectra from experiments conducted with a free H 2O fluid show complete transformation of sulphide to sulphate near the melt surface and coexistence of sulphate and sulphide in the center of the melt. This can be explained by a lower H 2O activity in the diffusion couple experiments or by the need of a sink for hydrogen (e.g., a fluid which can dissolve high concentration of hydrogen) to promote oxidation of sulphide by H 2O via the reaction S 2- + 4H 2O = SO 42- + 4H 2. Sulphite could not be detected in any of the XANES spectra implying that this species, if it exists in the melt, it is a subordinate or transient species only.

  12. Rotational and vibrational energy transfer of H 2(? = 1, J = 1) in collisions with H 2, Ar, HD and D 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Jörg; Dreier, Thomas; Chandler, David W.

    1989-05-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is used to populate a single rotational state in the first excited vibrational level of H 2 during a 10 ns laser pulse. We find that by using 532 nm radiation along with the backscattered Stokes beam, 683 nm, from a high-pressure H 2 cell (Raman shifter), we are able to efficiently vibrationally excite hydrogen molecules with moderate laser powers. The subsequent energy transfer to various internal states of a collision partner, H 2, HD, or D 2, is then state-selectively probed by coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). We are able to excite 30 to 40% of the H 2(? = 0, J = 1 ) into H 2(? = 1, J = 1) within the probed focal volume defined by the intersection of the SRS laser beams and the CARS laser beams. We report our results on rotational relaxation of H 2(? = 1, J = 1) in collisions with H 2 and with argon, which we compare, when available, with previous determinations of these relaxation rate constants. Additionally, we report the V-V energy transfer rate constants for vibrationally excited H 2 transferring energy collisionally to D 2 or HD. These rate constants have been previously discerned using indirect processes to populate and monitor the excited H 2 and have been estimated using semi-empirical theories. The results are of crucial importance for modeling of the kinetics of the H 2(? = 1) + D reaction which has been investigated by us previously.

  13. Core burnup calculation and accidents analyses of a pressurized water reactor partially loaded with rock-like oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akie, H.; Sugo, Y.; Okawa, R.

    2003-06-01

    A rock-like oxide (ROX) fuel - light water reactor (LWR) burning system has been studied for efficient plutonium transmutation. For the improvement of small negative reactivity coefficients and severe transient behaviors of ROX fueled LWRs, a partial loading core of ROX fuel assemblies with conventional UO 2 assemblies was considered. As a result, although the reactivity coefficients could be improved, the power peaking tends to be large in this heterogeneous core configuration. The reactivity initiated accident (RIA) and loss of coolant accident (LOCA) behaviors were not sufficiently improved. In order to reduce the power peaking, the fuel composition and the assembly design of the ROX fuel were modified. Firstly, erbium burnable poison was added as Er 2O 3 in the ROX fuel to reduce the burnup reactivity swing. Then pin-by-pin Pu enrichment and Er content distributions within the ROX fuel assembly were considered. In addition, the Er content distribution was also considered in the axial direction of the ROX fuel pin. With these modifications, a power peaking factor even lower than the one in a conventional UO 2 fueled core can be obtained. The RIA and LOCA analyses of the modified core have also shown the comparable transient behaviors of ROX partial loading core to those of the UO 2 core.

  14. Test summary for advanced H2 cycle NI-CD cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Lee

    1987-01-01

    To improve operational tolerances and mass, the H2 gas recombination design provisions of the Ni-H2 system were incorporated into the sealed Ni-Cd system. Produced is a cell design capable of operating on the H2 cycle versus the normal O2 cycle. Three test cells have now completed approximately 4,330 LEO (90 minute) cycles at 20 percent depth of discharge (DOD). Performance remains stable although one cell exhibited a temporary pressure anomaly.

  15. Predicting possible effects of H2S impurity on CO2 transportation and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    For CO(2) geological storage, permitting impurities, such as H(2)S, in CO(2) streams can lead to a great potential for capital and energy savings for CO(2) capture and separation, but it also increases costs and risk management for transportation and storage. To evaluate the cost-benefits, using a recently developed model (Ji, X.; Zhu, C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2012, 91, 40-59), this study predicts phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the system H(2)S-CO(2)-H(2)O-NaCl under transportation and storage conditions and discusses potential effects of H(2)S on transportation and storage. The prediction shows that inclusion of H(2)S in CO(2) streams may lead to two-phase flow. For H(2)S-CO(2) mixtures, at a given temperature, the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H(2)S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O system, the total gas solubility increases while the mass density of the aqueous solution with dissolved gas decreases. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O-NaCl system, at a given temperature, pressure and NaCl concentration, the solubility of the gas mixture in aqueous phase increases with increasing H(2)S content and then decreases, while the mass density of aqueous solution decreases and may be lower than the mass density of the solution without gas dissolution. PMID:22823266

  16. Pressure-Stabilized Sodium Polyhydrides: NaHn (n>1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baettig, Pio; Zurek, Eva

    2011-06-01

    Computations on NaHn, n=6-12, show that NaH9 is stable by P=25GPa. Cmc21-NaH9 containing both H2 and H- units is metallic at P>250GPa. Other phases with only H2 units metallize at lower pressures as a result of the partial filling of the H2 ?u* bands by the Na 3s electrons. Pressure induced overlap of the Na 2p cores forestalls closure of the band gap in the odd phases with H- atoms, but the even phases remain good metals up to 300 GPa. The lower the IP of the metal, the lower the pressure at which MHn with n>1 become stable. The larger the radius of M, the greater the optimal value of n.

  17. Synthesis of mixed-valent {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K.; Poltavets, Viktor V.

    2012-08-15

    Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 Degree-Sign C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n=2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A=alkali metal, M=3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered. - Graphical abstract: Schematic section of phase composition vs. partial O{sub 2} pressure diagram at 850 Degree-Sign C for Na/Fe=1/2 and structure models of {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled oxygen pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has rock-salt related structure with layered cation ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existence of the rock-salt related homolog series AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} is discussed.

  18. Ion kinetics in Ar/H2 cold plasmas: the relevance of ArH+

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Cueto, Maite; Doménech, José Luis; Tanarro, Isabel; Herrero, Víctor J.

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of ArH+ in the interstellar medium has awakened the interest in the chemistry of this ion. In this work, the ion-molecule kinetics of cold plasmas of Ar/H2 is investigated in glow discharges spanning the whole range of [H2]/([H2]+[Ar]) proportions for two pressures, 1.5 and 8 Pa. Ion concentrations are determined by mass spectrometry, and electron temperatures and densities, with Langmuir probes. A kinetic model is used for the interpretation of the results. The selection of experimental conditions evinces relevant changes with plasma pressure in the ion distributions dependence with the H2 fraction, particularly for the major ions: Ar+, ArH+ and H3+. At 1.5 Pa, ArH+ prevails for a wide interval of H2 fractions: 0.3<[H2]/([H2]+[Ar])<0.7. Nevertheless, a pronounced displacement of the ArH+ maximum towards the lowest H2 fractions is observed at 8 Pa, in detriment of Ar+, which becomes restricted to very small [H2]/([H2]+[Ar]) ratios, whereas H3+ becomes dominant for all [H2]/([H2]+[Ar]) > 0.1. The analysis of the data with the kinetic model allows the identification of the sources and sinks of the major ions over the whole range of experimental conditions sampled. Two key factors turn out to be responsible for the different ion distributions observed: the electron temperature, which determines the rate of Ar+ formation and thus of ArH+, and the equilibrium ArH+ + H2 ? H3+ + Ar, which can be strongly dependent of the degree of vibrational excitation of H3+. The results are discussed and compared with previously published data on other Ar/H2 plasmas. PMID:26702354

  19. The effect of the partial pressure of water vapor on the surface tension of the liquid water-air interface.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, José L; Álvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A; García-Prada, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Precise measurements of the surface tension of water in air vs. humidity at 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C are shown. For constant temperature, surface tension decreases linearly for increasing humidity in air. These experimental data are in good agreement with a simple model based on Newton's laws here proposed. It is assumed that evaporating molecules of water are ejected from liquid to gas with a mean normal component of the speed of "ejection" greater than zero. A high humidity in the air reduces the net flow of evaporating water molecules lowering the effective surface tension on the drop. Therefore, just steam in air acts as an effective surfactant for the water-air interface. It can partially substitute chemical surfactants helping to reduce their environmental impact. PMID:22717083

  20. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  1. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications

    E-print Network

    Eirin Lopez, Jose Maria

    Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential in most organisms, specially protostome animals. Molluscs (which represent sentinel organisms. (2012) Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential

  2. Fluid resuscitation guided by sublingual partial pressure of carbon dioxide during hemorrhagic shock in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiefeng; Ma, Linhao; Sun, Shijie; Lu, Xiaoye; Wu, Xiaobo; Li, Zilong; Tang, Wanchun

    2013-04-01

    To avoid aggressive fluid resuscitation during hemorrhagic shock, fluid resuscitation is best guided by a specific measurement of tissue perfusion. We investigated whether fluid resuscitation guided by sublingual PCO2 would reduce the amount of resuscitation fluid without compromising the outcomes of hemorrhagic shock. Ten male domestic pigs weighing between 34 and 37 kg were used. Forty-five percent of estimated blood volume was removed during an interval of 1 h. The animals were then randomized to receive fluid resuscitation based on either sublingual PCO2 or blood pressure (BP). In the sublingual PCO2-guided group, resuscitation was initiated when sublingual PCO2 exceeded 70 Torr and stopped when it decreased to 50 Torr. In the BP-guided group, resuscitation was initiated when mean aortic pressure decreased to 60 mmHg and stopped when it increased to 90 mmHg. First, Ringer's lactate solution (RLS) of 30 mL kg was administered; subsequently, the shed blood was transfused if sublingual PCO2 remained greater than 50 Torr in the sublingual PCO2-guided group or mean aortic pressure was less than 90 mmHg in the BP-guided group. All the animals were monitored for 4 h and observed for an additional 68 h. In the sublingual PCO2-guided group, fluid resuscitation was required in only 40% of the animals. In addition, a significantly lower volume of RLS (170 ± 239 mL, P = 0.005 vs. BP-guided group) was administered without the need for blood infusion in this group. However, in the BP-guided group, all the animals required a significantly larger volume of fluid (955 ± 381 mL), including both RLS and blood. There were no differences in postresuscitation tissue microcirculation, myocardial and neurologic function, and 72-h survival between groups. During hemorrhagic shock, fluid resuscitation guided by sublingual PCO2 significantly reduced the amount of resuscitation fluid without compromising the outcomes of hemorrhagic shock. PMID:23364438

  3. Preformance Analysis of NH3-H2O Absorption Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi

    Different from H2O-LiBr absorption cycle, it is necessary to have rectifier between generator and condenser in NH3-H2O absorption cycle, because there mixes some steam in refrigerant vapor in the process of regenerating refrigerant from the ammonia strong aqueous solution. And in some case ex. partial load or heating, the efficiency of rectifier might decrease, if the flow rate of refrigerant vapor and ammonia aqueous solution decrease. As a result, steam flow into condenser with ammonia refrigerant vapor, which reduces cycle COPs of cooling and heating. Accordingly in order to evaluate the effect of ammonia concentration in refrigerant for the performance of NH3-H2O absorption heat pump, the simple design approach of modeling condenser and evaporator is introduced in this paper. In the model, the calculation of heat rate in condenser and evaporator was simplified considering the characteristic of NH3-H2O liquid-vapor equilibrium. Then the simulation for cycle perforance based on GAX absorption cycle was made using the efficiency of rectifier that established the ammonia concentration in refrigerant and it was derived that 3 [%] decrease of ammonia concentration in refrigerant induced 15 [%] decrcase of cooling COP and 7 [%] decrease of heating COP and that there existed the most suitable circulation ratio for each ammonia concentration in refrigerant.

  4. Search for H2 in Mars' atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir

    We propose to detect H_2 on Mars by observing its spectrum with FUSE in the beginning of June 1999 with integration time of 18 ks. This observation will also allow studying the far UV spectrum of Mars with an unprecendented quality. H_2 is probably the most abundant species which has not been observed on Mars. Photochemical models predict its mixing ratio from 7 to 50 ppm. The upper limit to the H_2 density of 1.1× 105 cm-3 at the altitude of 560 km was established using the Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer observations. This limit is very close to the value which is required to explain the densities of atomic hydrogen observed with Mariner 6, 7, and 9. A spectrum of Mars observed with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope does not show H_2 emissions. This may raise a problem of a H_2 deficit on Mars, and a possible detection with FUSE may be of crucial importance. The most sensitive method for spectroscopic detection of H_2 is observations of the P1 (6-v'') lines of the H_2 Lyman band system. These lines are much stronger than other H_2 lines due to their excitation by the solar Lyman-beta line, the effect discovered by one of us (PDF) twenty five years ago. However, the expected intensities are low, a few tenths of rayleigh, even for these lines. The unique sensitivity and resolution of FUSE will allow detection of H_2 in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Extrapolation of the measured abundance to the lower atmosphere will result in the H_2 mixing ratio with an uncertainty of 30%. Thus, H_2 can be measured for the first time on Mars, and FUSE can provide a key measurement which was impossible for the numerous spacecraft that visited Mars.

  5. Axial dependence of partial void reactivity in a light water-cooled, heavy water-moderated, pressure-tube reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aihara, N.; Fukumura, N.; Kadotani, H.; Hachiya, Y. )

    1991-10-01

    In this paper the effect on reactivity of changes in the coolant levels in the pressure tubes of a pressure-tube heavy water reactor is experimentally studied to clarify the effect of an axial coolant void fraction distribution. The coolant void fraction distribution is simulated by stepwise changes in the coolant levels in the Deuterium Critical Assembly (DCA). The reactivity is measured for a 25.0-cm pitch square-lattice core with a positive cool void reactivity. The reactivity changes resulting from changes in the coolant levels are measured as changes in the critical heavy water levels. The axial distribution of the thermal neutron flux is also measured by the copper activation method. In these measurements, the critical heavy water levels show a sinuous curve having a maximum and a minimum, and a positive reactivity larger than those of both the 9% and the 100%, void uniform cores is introduced at certain coolant levels by stepwise changes in the coolant levels. An experimental analysis is performed with the coupled WIMS-ATR/CITATION code system, whose analytical method was established through DCA critical experiments. Agreement between experiment and analysis is fairly good.

  6. Techniques for Elastic Properties Measurements of Partial Molten Rocks, Hydrous Minerals and Melts in Gas Pressure Vessels and Multi-Anvil Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. J.; Roetzler, K.; Schilling, F. R.; Wehber, M.; Lathe, C.

    2008-12-01

    The interpretation of highly resolved seismic data from Earth's deep interior require measurements of the physical properties of Earth materials under experimental simulated mantle conditions. For deep crustal to uppermost mantle conditions high performance gas pressure vessels enable a virtually unrestricted optimization of the measuring configurations for high p-T-conditions [1]. Exhumed high pressure rocks can be used as representative samples. The paper presents transient measurements of elastic wave velocities for granulite facies rocks under partial melting conditions. Despite the compact natural rock samples as a result of long-term experiments exceeding pressures of 1.5 GPa and temperatures of 1,000°C newly-formed garnets, orthopyroxenes and potash feldspars could be found in the samples after the experiments. Discovering the huge water storage capacity of nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) under high pressure conditions dramatically changed our image of state and dynamics of Earth's deep interior [2]. The simulation of these in situ conditions require using of diamond anvil cells (DAC) and multi-anvil devices (MAD) as well as mostly synthetical samples. MADs are more limited in pressure, but provide sample volumes 3 to 7 orders of magnitude bigger. They offer small and even adjustable temperature gradients over the whole sample. The bigger samples make anisotropy and structural effects in complex systems accessible for measurements in principle. Using ultrasonic interferometry the measurement of both elastic wave velocities have no limits for opaque and encapsulated samples. Using the 6 to 8 anvils of a MAD as buffers allow the simultaneous recording of acoustic emissions from different directions of space and consequently the localization of the spikes during ongoing phase transitions and dehydration. The recent development of deformation-DIA MADs (D-DIA) make not only deformation measurements under simulated mantle conditions possible, but also the measurement of elastic attenuation even in the seismic frequency range [3]. An indispensable condition for all these MAD techniques is the installation at a synchrotron. Only application of synchrotron radiation allows in situ pressure measurement, in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ deformation measurement, as well as in situ density and viscosity measurements of melts. We review recent techniques and present developments and results for MADs [4, 5]. (1) Mueller & Massonne, Phys. Chem. Earth (A) 2001, 26, 325-332.(2) Ohtani & Litasov, Rev. Min. Chem. 2006, 62, 397-420.(3) Li et al., Am. Min. 2006, 91, 517-527.(4) Mueller et al., High Press. Res. 2006, 26, 1-9.(5) Mueller et al., In: E. Ohtani (ed), Advances in High-Pressure Mineralogy 2007, 207-226.

  7. Experimental investigation of the electrical behavior of olivine during partial melting under pressure and application to the lunar mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommier, A.; Leinenweber, K.; Tasaka, M.

    2015-09-01

    Electrical conductivity measurements were performed during melting experiments of olivine compacts (dry and hydrous Fo77 and Fo90) at 4 and 6 GPa in order to investigate melt transport properties and quantify the effect of partial melting on electrical properties. Experiments were performed in the multi-anvil apparatus and electrical measurements were conducted using the impedance spectroscopy technique with the two-electrode method. Changes in impedance spectra were used to identify the transition from an electrical response controlled by the solid matrix to an electrical response controlled by the melt phase. This transition occurs slightly above the solidus temperature and lasts until Tsolidus + 75 °C (±25). At higher temperature, a significant increase in conductivity (corresponding to an increase in conductivity values by a factor ranging from ?30 to 100) is observed, consistent with the transition from a tube-dominated network to a structure in which melt films and pools become prominent features. This increase in conductivity corresponds to an abrupt jump for all dry samples and to a smoother increase for the hydrous sample. It is followed by a plateau at higher temperature, suggesting that the electrical response of the investigated samples lacks sensitivity to temperature at an advanced stage of partial melting. Electron microprobe analyses on quenched products indicated an increase in Mg# (molar Mg / (Mg +Fe)) of olivine during experiments (?77-93 in the quenched samples with an initial Fo77 composition and ?92-97 in the quenched samples with an initial Fo90 composition) due to the partitioning of iron to the melt phase. Assuming a respective melt fraction of 0.10 and 0.20 before and after the phase of significant increase in conductivity, in agreement with previous electrical and permeability studies, our results can be reproduced satisfactorily by two-phase electrical models (the Hashin and Shtrikman bounds and the modified brick layer model), and provide a melt conductivity value of 78 (±8) S/m for all Fo77 samples and 45 (±5) S/m for the Fo90 sample. Comparison of our results with electromagnetic sounding data of the deep interior of the Moon supports the hypothesis of the presence of interconnected melt at the base of the lunar mantle. Our results underline that electrical conductivity can be used to investigate in situ melt nucleation and migration in the interior of terrestrial planets.

  8. Ion Irradiation of H2-Laden Porous Water-ice Films: Implications for Interstellar Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raut, U.; Mitchell, E. H.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2015-10-01

    To understand the effects of cosmic-ray (CR) impacts on interstellar icy grains immersed in H2 gas, we have irradiated porous water-ice films loaded with H2 with 100 keV H+. The ice films were exposed to H2 gas at different pressures following deposition and during irradiation. A net H2 loss is observed during irradiation due to competition between ion-induced sputtering and gas adsorption. The initial H2 loss cross-section, 4(1) × 10-14 cm2, was independent of film thickness, H2, and proton fluxes. In addition to sputtering, irradiation also closes nanopores, trapping H2 in the film with binding that exceeds physical absorption energies. As a result, 2%-7% H2 is retained in the ice following irradiation to high fluences. We find that the trapped H2 concentration increases with decreasing ?, the ratio of ion to H2 fluxes, suggesting that as high as 8% solid H2 can be trapped in interstellar ice by CR or stellar wind impacts.

  9. Effect of O{sub 2} gas partial pressure on mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited by inductively coupled plasma-assisted radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiyama, Hirokazu; Sumomogi, Tsunetaka; Nakamura, Masayoshi

    2012-09-15

    The effect of O{sub 2} partial pressure on the mechanical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is studied. Using films prepared by inductively coupled plasma-assisted radio frequency magnetron sputtering, the deposition rate of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} decreases rapidly when oxygen is added to the argon sputtering gas. The internal stresses in the films are compressive, with magnitude decreasing steeply from 1.6 GPa for films sputtered in pure argon gas to 0.5 GPa for films sputtered in argon gas at an O{sub 2} partial pressure of 0.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} Pa. Stress increases gradually with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure. Using a nanoindentation tester with a Berkovich indenter, film hardness was measured to be about 14 GPa for films sputtered in pure argon gas. Hardness decreases rapidly on the addition of O{sub 2} gas, but increases when the O{sub 2} partial pressure is increased. Adhesion, measured using a Vickers microhardness tester, increases with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure. Electron probe microanalyzer measurements reveal that the argon content of films decreases with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure, whereas the O to Al composition ratio increases from 1.15 for films sputtered in pure argon gas to 1.5 for films sputtered in argon gas at O{sub 2} partial pressures over 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} Pa. X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that films sputtered in pure argon gas have an amorphous crystal structure, whereas {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is produced for films sputtered in argon gas with added O{sub 2} gas. Atomic force microscopy observations reveal that the surface topography of sputtered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films changes from spherical to needlelike as O{sub 2} partial pressure is increased. Fracture cross sections of the films observed by scanning electron microscopy reveal that the film morphology exhibits no discernible features at all O{sub 2} partial pressures.

  10. 42 CFR 52h.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 52h.2 Section 52h.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH... part: (a) Act means the Public Health Service Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.). (b)...

  11. 42 CFR 52h.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 52h.2 Section 52h.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH... part: (a) Act means the Public Health Service Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.). (b)...

  12. Stabilization of H2 by Organic Acids

    E-print Network

    Yu, Fangqun

    Stabilization of H2 SO4 ­H2 O Clusters by Organic Acids A.B. Nadykto1 and F. Yu1 Abstract While understood. In the present study, bonding among formic, acetic and benzoic acids, sulfuric acid, ammonia. The stabilizing effect of formic, acetic, and benzoic acids is found to be close that of ammonia that indicates

  13. Synthesis of mixed-valent [alpha]- and [beta]-NaFe[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K.; Poltavets, Viktor V.

    2012-09-05

    Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n = 2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A = alkali metal, M = 3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered.

  14. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the Fermi level of ZnO1-x films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Chul-Hee; Cho, Suyeon; Lee, Seung-Hyuk; Cho, Deok-Yong; Park, Won Goo; Chung, Jae Gwan; Lee, Eunha; Lee, Jae Cheol; Anass, Benayad; Lee, Jae Hak; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Oh, Se-Jung

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the influence of oxygen deficiency on the Fermi level (EF) of ZnO thin film prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). For this purpose, we adopted in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The oxygen deficiency was effectively controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure [P(O2)] during the PLD. The EF shifted by +0.6 eV as the P(O2) decreased from 10 to 3.3 Pa. This shift indicates a significant change in the energy balance in the oxygen-deficient ZnO films. This fact suggests that the very large change in the resistivity of ZnO thin films resulting from the oxygen deficiency could be attributed to the EF shift rather than grain boundary formation in the ZnO film.

  15. Comparison of dose-response slopes obtained by simultaneous assessment of changes in FEV1 and transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure during methacholine challenges in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Fontana, G A; Lavorini, F; Boddi, V; Camiciottoli, G; Panuccio, P

    1995-01-01

    We aimed to ascertain whether monitoring changes in transcutaneous (tc) oxygen partial pressure (PO2) may be used to determine the slope of the dose-response curves to inhaled methacholine. In 10 adult asthmatic patients, FEV1 and tcPO2 were simultaneously measured during inhalation of doubling methacholine concentrations. In each patient, the slopes of the methacholine dose-response curves for FEV1 and tcPO2 were similar and strongly correlated (r = 0.72; p < 0.05). The results indicate that tcPO2 monitoring represents a useful, reliable tool for analysis of the slope of dose-response curves to inhaled methacholine in asthmatic patients. It can also be used to investigate the pathophysiological implications of bronchial hyperreactivity. PMID:7629006

  16. Cantilever stress measurements for pulsed laser deposition of perovskite oxides at 1000 K in an oxygen partial pressure of 10-4 millibars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premper, J.; Sander, D.; Kirschner, J.

    2015-03-01

    An in situ stress measurement setup using an optical 2-beam curvature technique is described which is compatible with the stringent growth conditions of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of perovskite oxides, which involves high substrate temperatures of 1000 K and oxygen partial pressures of up to 1 × 10-4 millibars. The stress measurements are complemented by medium energy electron diffraction (MEED), Auger electron spectroscopy, and additional growth rate monitoring by a quartz microbalance. A shielded filament is used to allow for simultaneous stress and MEED measurements at high substrate temperatures. A computer-controlled mirror scans an excimer laser beam over a stationary PLD target. This avoids mechanical noise originating from rotating PLD targets, and the setup does not suffer from limited lifetime issues of ultra high vacuum (UHV) rotary feedthroughs.

  17. Cantilever stress measurements for pulsed laser deposition of perovskite oxides at 1000 K in an oxygen partial pressure of 10(-4) millibars.

    PubMed

    Premper, J; Sander, D; Kirschner, J

    2015-03-01

    An in situ stress measurement setup using an optical 2-beam curvature technique is described which is compatible with the stringent growth conditions of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of perovskite oxides, which involves high substrate temperatures of 1000 K and oxygen partial pressures of up to 1 × 10(-4) millibars. The stress measurements are complemented by medium energy electron diffraction (MEED), Auger electron spectroscopy, and additional growth rate monitoring by a quartz microbalance. A shielded filament is used to allow for simultaneous stress and MEED measurements at high substrate temperatures. A computer-controlled mirror scans an excimer laser beam over a stationary PLD target. This avoids mechanical noise originating from rotating PLD targets, and the setup does not suffer from limited lifetime issues of ultra high vacuum (UHV) rotary feedthroughs. PMID:25832240

  18. The synthesis under controlled oxygen partial pressure and the characterization of a layered perovskite system Sr2V1-xMoxO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouno, Shinji; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Umeyama, Norio; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Watanabe, Tsuneo

    2009-07-01

    We have successfully synthesized Sr2V1-xMoxO4 from x = 0.3 to 1.0 by an improved process. The layered compound Sr2VO4 is an antiferromagnetic insulator with S = 1/2, while the isostructural Sr2MoO4 is a Pauli paramagnetic metal. The solid solution Sr2V1-xMoxO4 of these materials is expected to show a metal-insulator transition. In this paper we report the synthetic process and the results of the magnetic susceptibility and the electrical resistivity. The selection of the starting materials and the adjustment of O2 partial pressure of less than 10-12 atm were indispensable for the synthesis. The reducing conditions during the sintering had been determined rationally, according to thermodynamical analysis. Kondo-like behavior in both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility were observed in a limited range of V-containing samples.

  19. Thermodynamics of the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kürten, A.; Münch, S.; Rondo, L.; Bianchi, F.; Duplissy, J.; Jokinen, T.; Junninen, H.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Almeida, J.; Amorim, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Franchin, A.; Kirkby, J.; Kupc, A.; Makhmutov, V.; Petäjä, T.; Praplan, A. P.; Riccobono, F.; Steiner, G.; Tomé, A.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Wagner, P. E.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2015-09-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important gas influencing atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). Both the binary (H2SO4-H2O) system and the ternary system involving ammonia (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) may be important in the free troposphere. An essential step in the nucleation of aerosol particles from gas-phase precursors is the formation of a dimer, so an understanding of the thermodynamics of dimer formation over a wide range of atmospheric conditions is essential to describe NPF. We have used the CLOUD chamber to conduct nucleation experiments for these systems at temperatures from 208 to 248 K. Neutral monomer and dimer concentrations of sulfuric acid were measured using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). From these measurements, dimer evaporation rates in the binary system were derived for temperatures of 208 and 223 K. We compare these results to literature data from a previous study that was conducted at higher temperatures but is in good agreement with the present study. For the ternary system the formation of H2SO4·NH3 is very likely an essential step in the formation of sulfuric acid dimers, which were measured at 210, 223, and 248 K. We estimate the thermodynamic properties (dH and dS) of the H2SO4·NH3 cluster using a simple heuristic model and the measured data. Furthermore, we report the first measurements of large neutral sulfuric acid clusters containing as many as 10 sulfuric acid molecules for the binary system using chemical ionization-atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (CI-APi-TOF) mass spectrometry.

  20. Structure and stability of solid Xe(H2)n.

    PubMed

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Dera, Przemyslaw; Smith, Jesse; Hemley, Russell J

    2015-03-14

    Mixtures of xenon and molecular hydrogen form a series of hexagonal, van der Waals compounds at high pressures and at 300 K. Synchrotron, x-ray, single crystal diffraction studies reveal that below 7.5 GPa, Xe(H2)8 crystallizes in a P3?m1 structure that displays pressure-induced occupancy changes of two pairs of xenon atoms located on the 2c and 2d sites (while the third pair on yet another 2c site remains fully occupied). The occupancy becomes 1 at the P3?m1 to R3 transition and all the xenon atoms occupy the 3d sites in the high-pressure structure. These pressure-induced changes in occupancy coincide with volume changes that maintain the average Xe:H2 stoichiometry fixed at 1:8. The synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman measurements show that this unique hydrogen-bearing compound that can be synthesized at 4.2 GPa and 300 K, quenched at low temperatures to atmospheric pressure, and retained up to 90 K on subsequent warming. PMID:25770547

  1. Aerobic oxidation of starch catalyzed by isopolyoxovanadate Na4Co(H2O)6V10O28.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Yan, Siqi; Wang, Hang; Hu, Zhiyun; Wang, Xiaohong; Huo, Mingxin

    2015-03-01

    The partial oxidation of starch was achieved in the presence of oxygen with Na4Co(H2O)6V10O28·18H2O (abbreviated as CoV10) as catalyst. The oxidation degree of starch was determined by FT-IR, XRD and SEM measurements, which indicated that the aerobic oxidation of starch was promoted by oxidative catalyst CoV10. The application of CoV10 could give a high oxidation degree (DO) of 1.35 COOH/100 GU and 2.07 CO/100 GU with 86 wt.% yield of solid starch under mild reaction conditions (pH=6; reaction time, 8 h; temperature, 50 °C; catalyst amount, 8 mg, when 1.5 g starch was used as substrate; atmospheric pressure). Among some vanadium compounds, CoV10 exhibited 4-fold activity higher than orthovanadate due to its coordination effect of cobalt and V10O28. Meanwhile, CoV10 could be recycled for six times with only a slight decrease in activity. Thus, CoV10/O2 is one of the most efficient systems for partial oxidation of starch reported so far. PMID:25498687

  2. Bio-reduction of tetrachloroethen using a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor and community fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Karata?, Serdar; Hasar, Halil; Ta?kan, Ergin; Özkaya, Bestamin; ?ahinkaya, Erkan

    2014-07-01

    Chlorinated ethenes in drinking water could be reductively dechlorinated to non-toxic ethene by using a hydrogen based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) under denitrifying conditions as it provides an appropriate environment for dechlorinating bacteria in biofilm communities. This study evaluates the reductive dechlorination of perchloroethene (PCE) to non-toxic ethene (ETH) and comparative community analysis of the biofilm grown on the gas permeable membrane fibers. For these purposes, three H2-MBfRs receiving three different chlorinated ethenes (PCE, TCE and DCE) were operated under different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and H2 pressures. Among these reactors, the H2-MBfR fed with PCE (H2-MBfR 1) accomplished a complete dechlorination, whereas cis-DCE accumulated in the TCE receiving H2-MBfR 2 and no dechlorination was detected in the DCE receiving H2-MBfR 3. The results showed that 95% of PCE dechlorinated to ETH together with over 99.8% dechlorination efficiency. Nitrate was the preferred electron acceptor as the most of electrons generated from H2 oxidation used for denitrification and dechlorination started under nitrate deficient conditions at increased H2 pressures. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that Dehalococcoides were present in autotrophic biofilm community dechlorinating PCE to ethene, and RDase genes analysis revealed that pceA, tceA, bvcA and vcrA, responsible for complete dechlorination step, were available in Dehalococcoides strains. PMID:24731873

  3. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-30

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  4. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-02-06

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  5. Neutral H2 and H2 ions in the Saturnian magnetosphere

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Neutral H2 and H2 + ions in the Saturnian magnetosphere WeiLing Tseng,1 Robert E. Johnson,1 in an extended cloud of neutrals. Although water vapor ejected from Enceladus' south pole is the dominant neutral and the icy satellites, and Titan's atmosphere is a source of H2. Once ionized, these neutrals are the source

  6. Partial Eval Partial Eval

    E-print Network

    Sumii, Eijiro

    Efficient Onl ine Partial E al ati n Eijiro Sumii o i o i i r i o o o umii o i u o o j #12; Partial/dynamic portions of p(sâ??,d) ¯ spec a e program p sâ?? (d) s p(sâ??,d) = = = = p sâ?? (d) or a am c pu d ope u e r . . . . -- -- -- . . #12; A Naive Onl ine Partial val at r E (expression) ::= x | l l l lx.E | E@E #12; A Naive Onl ine

  7. Surface chemistry of nanometer-sized aerosol particles: reactions of molecular oxygen with 30 nm soot particles as a function of oxygen partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Nienow, Amanda M; Roberts, Jeffrey T; Zachariah, Michael R

    2005-03-31

    The kinetics of the reaction between soot nanoparticles and molecular oxygen were studied by tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA). The particles were extracted from the tip of an ethene diffusion flame. Reactions were studied at atmospheric pressure in mixtures of nitrogen and oxygen. The studies involved particles of an initial mobility diameter of 30 nm over broad ranges of temperature (500-1100 degrees C) and oxygen volume fraction (0-1). Measurements as a function of oxygen partial pressure establish that the oxidation kinetics are not first-order in oxygen volume fraction (F(O2)). Rather, the oxidation rate increases rapidly and linearly with F(O2) between 0 and 0.05 and then more slowly but still linearly between 0.05 and 1. Temperature dependent measurements are consistent with a reaction pathway involving two kinetically distinguishable oxidation sites which interconvert thermally and through oxidation. Results and conclusions are compared to those of earlier studies on the oxidation of soot. PMID:16851597

  8. Self-consistent particle modeling of radio frequency discharge in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures: Effects of crossed electric and magnetic fields and partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Benyoucef, Djilali; Yousfi, Mohammed; Belmadani, Bachir

    2011-04-15

    A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo model is developed to study and analyze the electrical characteristics of the nonequilibrium plasma created by radio frequency (RF) discharge in Ar/O{sub 2} mixtures in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields. The method of collision treatment is based on an optimized estimation of the free time flight. The needed basic data--more specifically, the ion-neutral cross sections--are determined first. The simulation conditions are 50 mTorr for the total gas pressure and 200 V for the peak of the RF voltage at a frequency of 13.56 MHz. The magnetic field is varied from 0 to 50 G. The effect of the partial pressure ratio of O{sub 2} in the mixture and the effect of the magnitude of the magnetic field are discussed. In particular, the results show an increase of the plasma density that is ten times higher in the presence of a magnetic field.

  9. Formation of C3H2, C5H2, C7H2, and C9H2 from reactions of CH, C3H, C5H, and C7H radicals with C2H2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Lun; Huang, Wen-Jian; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2016-01-21

    The Cm+2H2 family can be classified into two categories - C2n+1H2 and C2n+2H2. Cm+2H2 are important intermediates in the syntheses of large carbonaceous molecules. An understanding of the formation mechanisms of both odd and even carbon-numbered Cm+2H2 is beneficial to atmospheric, astronomical, and combustion chemistry. HC2n+2H (polyynes) are believed to be producible from C2nH + C2H2 and C2H + C2nH2 reactions but C2n+1H2 (n? 2) attract less attention to their formation mechanisms. In the present study, we make up for the lack of knowledge on C2n+1H2 formation mechanisms by investigating the reactions C2n-1H + C2H2? C2n+1H2 + H with n = 1-4. The dynamics of reactions of C2n-1H radicals with C2H2 are explored in crossed molecular beams using products C2n+1H2. The translational-energies and angular distributions of the hydrogen-loss channels of products are unraveled by measuring time-of-flight spectra and photoionization-efficiency spectra of C2n+1H2 with tunable synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet ionization. The C2n+1H2 product includes two isomers, c-(1)HC2n-1(C)CH and (3)HC2n+1H, which are identified by the maximal translational-energy release and the photoionization threshold. Furthermore, quantum-chemical calculations indicate that the title reactions incur a small or negligible entrance barrier and are nearly isoergic except for the barrierless exothermic reaction CH + C2H2? C3H2 + H. We demonstrate for the first time that C5H2, C7H2, and C9H2 are producible from the title reactions. In conjunction with studies on the C2nH + C2H2 reactions, a brief picture for the CmH (m = 1-8) + C2H2? Cm+2H2 + H reactions can be outlined. PMID:26691183

  10. The effect of the partial pressure of oxygen on blood glucose concentration examined using glucose oxidase with ferricyan ion.

    PubMed

    Chun, T Y; Hirose, M; Sawa, T; Harada, M; Hosokawa, T; Tanaka, Y; Miyazaki, M

    1994-11-01

    Glucose oxidase with ferricyan ion (GOD-F) is widely applied in clinical settings as a glucose sensor. However, blood oxygen concentration affects this blood glucose value because oxygen, at increased concentrations, consumes blood glucose, which cannot then be measured by this sensor. We investigated the effect of PO2 on blood glucose concentration in 48 patients who were breathing high concentrations of oxygen. Arterial and pulmonary arterial blood glucose values were analyzed using the GOD-F method and, as a control, the hexokinase method. The respective PO2 values were also measured. The blood glucose concentrations measured by the GOD-F method show a significant linear relation with that measured by the hexokinase method in both arterial (y = -24.4 + 1.01x, r = 0.99) and pulmonary arterial blood (y = -3.4 + 1.01x, r = 0.96). The difference of intercepts is statistically significant, but because of the relatively large limits of agreement indicating any hidden extraneous variabilities, the error of the GOD-F method could not be assessed just by the difference. The equation defining the effect of PO2 on the percent change between blood glucose measured by the GOD-F method and that measured by the hexokinase method is -19.8/(1 + 203900/PO2(2.68) (r = 0.62). This formula generally follows our measured materials and introduces the relationship among blood glucose value, PO2, and the error of the GOD-F method. We hesitate to suggest that the arterial blood glucose concentration when measured by the GOD-F method could be underestimated by as much as 20% in patients with high arterial oxygen pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7978422

  11. Hunt for cold H2 molecules

    E-print Network

    F. Combes

    2006-01-30

    The bulk of the molecular component in galaxies is made of cold H2, which is not observed directly, but which abundance is derived from indirect tracers such as CO emission. The CO to H2 conversion ratio remains uncertain, and may vary by large factors in special environments with different excitation or metallicity. Recent cold gas discoveries (through gamma-rays or cold dust emission) are reviewed and the most promising tracers in the future are discussed, such as the primordial molecules HD and LiH, or the pure rotational lines of excited H2*.

  12. Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPA and temperatures to partial melting

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The short-term failure strengths and strains at failure of room-dry and water-saturated, cylindrical specimens (2 by 4 cm) of Charcoal Granodiorite (CG), Mt. Hood Andesite (MHA), and Cuerbio Basalt (CB) at a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/, at effective confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting were investigated. Data from water-saturated specimens of the granodiorite and andesite, compared to room-dry counterparts, indicate (1) the pore pressures are essentially communicated throughout each test specimen so that they are fully effective; (2) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 50 MPa the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (3) at these same effective pressures the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (4) at P/sub e/ = 0 and 870 to 900/sup 0/C the andesite's strength averages 20 MPa while the strength of dry specimens at the same P and T exhibit a strength of 100 MPa; (5) at P/sub e/ = 50 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (6) the basalt at P/sub e/ = 0, appears to be water-weakened at 800/sup 0/C; (7) water saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than that of melting exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2% shortening and then work-soften along faults; (8) again as do the dry counterparts, the wet specimens deform primarily by microscopic fracturing that coalesces into one or more macroscopic faults; and (9) the temperature for incipient melting of the andesite is decreased >150/sup 0/C in the water-saturated tests.

  13. X-Ray Diffraction of Shock Compressed H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    H2O, critical for life and ubiquitous in biology, is one of the most abundant molecules in the solar system and is relevant to many fields, including fundamental physics and chemistry. Phase transformation information of H2O is also important to applied areas like planetary science where it is a constituent of giant planets Neptune and Uranus, icy satellites (e.g., Europa, Ganymede), and extrasolar planets (icy "super-Earths"). Using the MEC (Matter in Extreme Conditions) hutch at LCLS, we reach simultaneous high pressure (P) and temperature (T) with laser-driven shock waves and the capability of taking snapshots during a dynamic process with the X-ray Free Electron Laser (xFEL). We report the only shock-driven diffraction data on H2O ever collected to date, and examine time-resolved diffraction from ice Ih to high pressure ice VII. At 2 Mbar we find evidence of ice X - this has significant implications for planetary interiors and providing a bound for the onset of the superionic phase.

  14. SUBSCRIBE TO MAGAZINE H2CARSBIZ

    E-print Network

    Minister Endangers ITER Negotiations to Solve Domestic Brain Drain Crisis By PEB Jan 12, 2004, 21:55 France Endangers ITER Negotiations to Solve Domestic Brain Drain Crisis Page 1 of 1http://www.h2cars

  15. Interstellar clouds containing optically thin H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of Black and Delgarno that the relative populations of the excited rotational levels of H2 can be understood in terms of cascading following absorption in the Lyman and Werner bands is employed to infer the gas densities and radiation fields within diffuse interstellar clouds containing H2 that is optically thin in those bands. The procedure is described for computing the populations of the different rotation levels, the relative distribution among the different rotation levels of newly formed H2 is determined on the basis of five simplified models, and the rate of H2 formation is estimated. The results are applied to delta Ori, two components of iota Ori, the second components of rho Leo and zeta Ori, tau Sco, gamma Vel, and zeta Pup. The inferred parameters are summarized for each cloud.

  16. 42 CFR 52h.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ...RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS...52h.2 Definitions. As used...Health and Human Services and...proposals. (g) Development means the...followed and the resources needed in...

  17. Theoretical studies of photoexcitation and ionization in H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diercksen, G. H. F.; Kraemer, W. P.; Rescigno, T. N.; Bender, C. F.; Mckoy, B. V.; Langhoff, S. R.; Langhoff, P. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical studies using Franck-Condon and static-exchange approximations are reported for the complete dipole excitation and ionization spectrum in H2O, where (1) large Cartesian Gaussian basis sets are used to represent the required discrete and continuum electronic eigenfunctions at the ground state equilibrium geometry, and (2) previously devised moment-theory techniques are employed in constructing the continuum oscillator-strength densities from the calculated spectra. Comparisons are made of the calculated excitation and ionization profiles with recent experimental photoabsorption studies and corresponding spectral assignments, electron impact-excitation cross sections, and dipole and synchrotron-radiation studies of partial-channel photoionization cross sections. The calculated partial-channel cross sections are found to be atomic-like, and dominated by 2p-kd components. It is suggested that the latter transition couples with the underlying 1b(1)-kb(1) channel, accounting for a prominent feature in recent synchrotron-radiation measurements.

  18. Dissociative photodetachment studies of O ,,H2O...2 , OH

    E-print Network

    Continetti, Robert E.

    Dissociative photodetachment studies of OÀ ,,H2O...2 , OHÀ ,,H2O...2 , and the deuterated photodetachment of the doubly hydrated clusters of oxide and hydroxide, M H2O 2M 2H2O e M O, OH are presented and compared to data for O H2O) and OH H2O). Unlike the singly hydrated species, no evidence

  19. Increase of mechano-chemical deformation of reservoir rocks subject to fluids with elevated partial pressure of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guen, Y.; Renard, F.; Hellmann, R.; Collombet, M.; Tisserand, D.; Gratier, J.; Brosse, E.

    2005-12-01

    At present, carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is viewed as one of the most viable solutions for mitigating against the increasing anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Injection of CO2 into such environments results in an acidification of in situ pore waters. As a consequence, the pore waters become more reactive, which can lead to an increased rate of rock deformation due to enhanced dissolution-precipitation processes, and may result in potential modifications of the mechanical and hydrological properties of the rock. One of the mechanisms that couples matrix deformation to the presence of fluids is intergranular pressure solution creep (IPS). This process involves dissolution at intergranular grain contacts subject to elevated stress, and precipitation in pore spaces subject to lower stress. This leads to an overall reduction in porosity and permeability due to both grain indentation and precipitation in pore spaces. The IPS process is particularly significant in carbonate rocks given that their solubility and dissolution kinetics are strongly dependent on pH, which in turn is dependent on pCO2. In order to understand the effects of elevated pCO2 fluids (up to 8~MPa) on the mechanical strength of rocks, flow-through experiments are being conducted in triaxial cells. The samples consist of natural limestone plugs (L~=~50 mm, Ø~=~25 mm) that are subject to a temperature and stresses representative of conditions at 800~m depth (?1~=~16~MPa, ?3~=~12 MPa, T~=~40°C). The fluid flow is set to a flow velocity of ~~5~cm/day, similar to that in aquifers. The vertical strain and the fluid chemistry at the outlet are continuously monitored. With our experimental setup, creep rates as low as 10-12 s-1 can be measured. Our results show that the initial injection of elevated pCO2 fluids into a dry sample subject to stress causes a very high rate of vertical deformation. With continuous fluid percolation through the sample, the rate of compaction decreases with time in a smooth and monotonic fashion, as a consequence of strain hardening of the sample. The rate of compaction creep is greater by a factor of 16 with respect to compaction in the presence of pure water. Moreover, in some cases, steady deformation is interrupted by transient periods of accelerated rates of compaction creep (up to 100× faster). Measured [Ca] is up to 60× higher than the solubility value of calcite associated with atmospheric pCO2. Measured concentrations of Ca in the exit solution show a positive correlation with the rate of deformation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a reservoir would require a certain amount of time to re-equilibrate its internal stress gradients when CO2-rich fluids are injected.

  20. Global Flux Balance in the Terrestrial H2O Cycle: Reconsidering the Post-Arc Subducted H2O Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative estimates of H2O fluxes between the mantle and the exosphere (i.e., the atmosphere, oceans and crust) are critical to our understanding of the chemistry and dynamics of the solid Earth: the abundance and distribution of water in the mantle has dramatic impacts upon mantle melting, degassing history, structure and style of convection. Water is outgassed from the mantle is association with volcanism at mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and convergent margins. H2O is removed from the exosphere at subduction zones, and some fraction of the subducted flux may be recycled past the arc into the Earth’s deep interior. Estimates of the post-arc subducted H2O flux are primarily based on the stability of hydrous phases at subduction zone pressures and temperatures (e.g. Schmidt and Poli, 1998; Rüpke et al., 2004; Hacker, 2008). However, the post-arc H2O flux remains poorly quantified, in part due to large uncertainties in the water content of the subducting slab. Here we evaluate estimated post-arc subducted fluxes in the context of mantle-exosphere water cycling, using a Monte Carlo simulation of the global H2O cycle. Literature estimates of primary magmatic H2O abundances and magmatic production rates at different tectonic settings are used with estimates of the total subducted H2O flux to establish the parameter space under consideration. Random sampling of the allowed parameter space affords insight into which input and output fluxes satisfy basic constraints on global flux balance, such as a limit on sea-level change over time. The net flux of H2O between mantle and exosphere is determined by the total mantle output flux (via ridges and ocean islands, with a small contribution from mantle-derived arc output) and the input flux subducted beyond the arc. Arc and back-arc output is derived mainly from the slab, and therefore cancels out a fraction of the trench intake in an H2O subcycle. Limits on sea-level change since the end of the Archaean place constraints on the magnitude of the post-arc subducted H2O flux that can be accommodated by the global water cycle. Estimates of the post-arc subducted flux are up to an order of magnitude larger than the estimated mantle output flux. If the marked imbalance in the estimated global water cycle is accurate, then it must be a recent phenomenon: if propagated back in time, modeled net inward fluxes would consume half a present-day ocean volume of water in as little as 500 Myr (corresponding to ~1200 meters of sea level change given present-day hypsometry). Such changes are inconsistent with the limited sea level changed inferred from the geologic record since the end of the Archaean. The literature post-arc flux estimates reflect water carried to depth via a layer of serpentinized lithospheric mantle within the slab; however, the extent to which oceanic lithosphere may be serpentinized remains poorly constrained. A smaller post-arc subducted H2O flux of 2.3 x108 Tg/Ma would perfectly balance our mean modeled total mantle output. Such a post-arc flux corresponds to ~2% serpentinization of a 10 km thick layer of lithospheric mantle (i.e., a mean water content of ~0.25 wt% H2O).

  1. Thermodynamic Properties of LiBr /H2Osolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Kazuhiko; Sato, Haruki; Watanabe, Koichi

    Dühring chart and Dühring equation of LiBr/H2Osolution are very important for many advanced engineering design of the absorption refrigeration/heat pump systems. The objective of the present study is to develop the Dühring chart and Dühring equation of LiBr/H2Osolution over a wide range of parameters. The present Dühring chart and Dühring equation are developed on the basis of a bubble-point-pressure correlation previously developed. The proposed Dühring equation covers an extensive range of validity ever proposed:273-500K for solution temperatures and 0.30?w?0.75 for concentrations. The equation are compared with the Dühring equation by McNeely.

  2. Effect of nuclear spin symmetry in cold and ultracold reactions: D + para/ortho-H$_2$

    E-print Network

    I. Simbotin; R. Côté

    2015-05-12

    We report results for reaction and vibrational quenching of the collision D with para-H$_2$($v,j=0$) and ortho-H$_2$($v,j=1$) at cold and ultracold temperatures. We investigate the effect of nuclear spin symmetry for barrier dominated processes ($0\\le v\\le 4$) and for one barrierless case ($v=5$). We find resonant structures for energies in the range corresponding to 0.01--10 K, which depend on the nuclear spin of H$_2$, arising from contributions of specific partial waves. We discuss the implications on the results in this benchmark system for ultracold chemistry.

  3. Effect of nuclear spin symmetry in cold and ultracold reactions: D + para/ortho-H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbotin, Ionel; Côté, Robin

    2015-06-01

    We report results for reaction and vibrational quenching of the collision D with para-H2(v,j=0) and ortho-H2(v,j=1) at cold and ultracold temperatures. We investigate the effect of nuclear spin symmetry for barrier dominated processes (0?slant v?slant 4) and for one barrierless case (v = 5). We find resonant structures for energies in the range corresponding to 0.01-10 K, which depend on the nuclear spin of H2, arising from contributions of specific partial waves. We discuss the implications on the results in this benchmark system for ultracold chemistry.

  4. Effects of water-saturation on strength and ductility of three igneous rocks at effective pressures to 50 MPa and temperatures to partial melting

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.; Friedman, M.; Handin, J.

    1981-01-01

    Instantaneous-failure strengths and ductilities of water-saturated cylindrical specimens of Charcoal Granodiorite, Mount Hood Andesite, and Cuerbio Basalt are determined at a strain rate of 10{sup -4}s{sup -1} and at effective confining pressures (Pe) of 0 and 50 MPa and at temperatures to partial melting. The data indicate: (1) at Pe = 0 and 50 MPa (Pc and Pp of 50 MPa and of 100 and 50 MPa, respectively) the granodiorite does not water-weaken; (2) at these same Pe the more porous and finer-grained andesite begins to exhibit water-weakening at about 600/sup 0/C; (3) at Pe = 0 and 870-900{sup 0}C the andesite's wet strength averages 20 MPa compared to 100 MPa, dry; (4) at Pe = 50 MPa and 920{sup 0}C its wet strength is 45 MPa compared to 160 MPa dry; (5) at Pe = 0, the basalt appears to be water-weakened above 800{sup 0}C; (6) water-saturated specimens deformed at temperatures less than T{sub m} exhibit ultimate strengths at less than 2 percent shortening and then work-soften along faults; and (7) both dry and wet specimens deform primarily by brittle fracture. Extrapolations indicate: (1) crystalline rocks should be drillable because they remain brittle until partial melting occurs, and penetration rates should increase with temperature because there is a corresponding decrease in brittle fracture strength; (2) boreholes in ''water-filled'' holes will be stable to >10 km at temperatures 10 km; and (4) open boreholes in the andesite are apt to be much less stable, and at similar temperatures would fail at 2 to 5-km depth.

  5. Improved quasi-unary nucleation model for binary H2SO4H2O homogeneous nucleation

    E-print Network

    Yu, Fangqun

    Improved quasi-unary nucleation model for binary H2SO4­H2O homogeneous nucleation Fangqun Yua implications. Binary homogeneous nucleation BHN of H2SO4 and H2O is the foundation of recently proposed dominate atmospheric nucleation under certain conditions. We have shown in previous work that H2SO4­H2O BHN

  6. GFOC Project results: High Temperature / High Pressure, Hydrogen Tolerant Optical Fiber

    SciTech Connect

    E. Burov; A. Pastouret; E. Aldea; B. Overton; F. Gooijer; A. Bergonzo

    2012-02-12

    Tests results are given for exposure of multimode optical fiber to high temperatures (300 deg. C) and high partial pressure (15 bar) hydrogen. These results demonstrate that fluorine down doped optical fibers are much more hydrogen tolerant than traditional germanium doped multimode optical fibers. Also demonstrated is the similar hydrogen tolerance of carbon coated and non-carbon coated fibers. Model for reversible H2 impact in fiber versus T{sup o}C and H2 pressure is given. These results have significant impact for the longevity of use for distributed temperature sensing applications in harsh environments such as geothermal wells.

  7. Reconstruction of pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide during the Mesozoic era period using boron and oxygen isotopic compositions of fresh ammonoids & nautiloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Fukushima, Ayaka; Moriya, Kazuyori; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tanabe, Kazushige

    2013-04-01

    The increase of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the atmosphere induces global warming and ocean acidification at the modern condition. The reconstruction of pCO2 during the geological time is required together with proxy calibration by laboratory experiments to predict the future environments. Boron isotopic ratio is an excellent proxy for pH and the relevant partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the seawater (PCO2). This study is the first to quantify pH dependence of delta 11B of the ammonoids and nautiloids mainly in the Cretaceous and in Jurassic (70-162 Ma), which are expected to be much warmer due to higher PCO2. However, no reliable reconstruction data using foraminiferal delta 11B before Cenozoic era has been reported. We used the very fresh aragonite shells of ammonoids and nautiloids by big advantages. Since aragonite changes into secondary calcite by diagenesis, it is easy and effective to identify the degree of alteration at each sample by measuring calcite/aragonite ratio. Also we carefully conducted the assessment of secondary alteration from three perspectives: 1) Determination of calcite/aragonite ratio by X-ray diffraction (XRD), 2) Observation of microstructures of the nacreous layers by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 3) Measurement of trace element contents and stable isotope ratios. We conducted high precision boron isotope analysis of biogenic carbonates with +/- 0.1 per mil reproducibility by adopting positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS) methods. Also we analyzed delta 18O to estimate paleo-temperature, at which biogenic aragonite was formed. Combination of delta 11B and delta 18O of biogenic aragonite in 80 Ma and 86 Ma revealed that deeper dwellers showed lower delta 11B values, which corresponded to lower pH. This feature is consistent with those observed in the modern vertical water column. The respective shallow water temperature was 19.7 and 19.1 centigrade. Based on these results, the reconstructed maximum PCO2 levels at late Cretaceous (80 Ma and 86 Ma) were estimated to be 1750 and 1540 ppm, respectively. This coincides with the suggestion by Breecker et al. (2010) that pCO2 for the last 400 millions was usually at below 2000 ppm by reassessing the delta 13C proxy in soils.

  8. Thermochemical Kinetics of H2O and HNO3 on crystalline Nitric Acid Hydrates (alpha-, beta-NAT, NAD) in the range 175-200 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Michel J.; Iannarelli, Riccardo

    2015-04-01

    The growth of NAT (Nitric Acid Trihydrate, HNO3x3H2O) and NAD (Nitric Acid Dihydrate, HNO3x2H2O) on an ice substrate, the evaporative lifetime of NAT and NAD as well as the interconversion of alpha- and beta-NAT competing with evaporation and growth under UT/LS conditions depends on the interfacial kinetics of H2O and HNO3 vapor on the condensed phase. Despite the existence of some literature results we have embarked on a systematic investigation of the kinetics using a multidiagnostic experimental approach enabled by the simultaneous observation of both the gas (residual gas mass spectrometry) as well as the condensed phase (FTIR absorption in transmission). We report on thermochemically consistent mass accommodation coefficients alpha and absolute evaporation rates Rev/molecule s-1cm-3 as a function of temperature which yields the corresponding vapor pressures of both H2O and HNO3 in equilibrium with the crystalline phases, hence the term thermochemical kinetics. These results have been obtained using a stirred flow reactor (SFR) using a macroscopic pure ice film of 1 micron or so thickness as a starting substrate mimicking atmospheric ice particles and are reported in a phase diagram specifically addressing UT (Upper Troposphere)/LS (Lower Stratosphere) conditions as far as temperature and partial pressures are concerned. The experiments have been performed either at steady-state flow conditions or in transient supersaturation using a pulsed solenoid valve in order to generate gas pulses whose decay were subsequently monitored in real time. Special attention has been given to the effect of the stainless-steel vessel walls in that Langmuir adsorption isotherms for H2O and HNO3 have been used to correct for wall-adsorption of both probe gases. Typically, the accommodation coefficients of H2O and HNO3 are similar throughout the temperature range whereas the rates of evaporation Rev of H2O are significantly larger than for HNO3 thus leading to the difference in vapor pressure revealed in the phase diagram. A noteworthy effect seems to be that the accommodation coefficients obtained in pulsed gas admission experiments (transient supersaturation) lead to significantly lower values owing to surface saturation, especially in the case of the thermodynamically stable beta-NAT substrate.

  9. Interstellar H2 toward HD 147888

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnaci?ski, P.

    2013-01-01

    The ultraviolet and far-ultraviolet spectra of HD 147888 allows the H2 vibrational level ? = 0 to be accessed along with higher vibrational levels of the ground H2 electronic level. The large number of H2 absorption lines in the HST spectra allows column densities to be determined even from a noisy spectra. We have determined column densities of the H2 molecule on vibrational levels ? = 0-5 and rotational levels J = 0-6 using the profile fitting method. No variations in the column densities of H2 on vibrationally excited levels were observed from 2000 through 2009. The ortho to para H2 ratio (O/P)* for the excited vibrational states ? = 1-4 equals to 1.13. For the lowest vibrational state ? = 0 and rotational level J = 1 the ortho to para H2 ratio is only 0.15. The temperature of ortho-para thermodynamical equilibrium is TOP = 42 ± 3 K. The measurements of H2 column densities on excited vibrational levels (from the HST spectra) leads to constraints on the radiation field in photon-dominated region (PDR) models of the interstellar cloud towards HD 147888. The Meudon PDR model locates the cloud 0.62 pc from the star. The modeled hydrogen cloud density (89-336 cm-3) agrees with independent density estimations based on the C2 molecule and the chemical model. The observed (O/P)J = 1 and (O/P)* H2 ratios cannot be explained by a simple model. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and with NASA/Johns Hopkins University Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Support for FUSE data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NAG5-7584 and by other grants and contracts.

  10. Possible sources of H2 to H2O enrichment at evaporation of parent chondritic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makalkin, A. B.; Dorofeyeva, V. A.; Vityazev, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    One of the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation of recondensation of the source chondritic material is that at 1500-1800 K it's possible to form iron-rich olivine by reaction between enstatite, metallic iron and water vapor in the case of (H2O)/(H2) approximately equal to 0.1. This could be reached if the gas depletion in hydrogen is 200-300 times relative to solar abundance. To get this range of depletion one needs some source material more rich in hydrogen than the carbonaceous CI material which is the richest in volatiles among chondrites. In the case of recondensation at impact heating and evaporation of colliding planetesimals composed of CI material, we obtain insufficiently high value of (H2)/(H2O) ratio. In the present paper we consider some possible source materials and physical conditions necessary to reach gas composition with (H2)/(H2O) approximately 10 at high temperature.

  11. Simultaneous adsorption of CO2 and H2O under Mars-like conditions and application to the evolution of the Martian climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The Martian regolith is the most substantial volatile reservoir on the planet; it holds CO2 as adsorbate, and can exchange that CO2 with the atmosphere-cap system over timescales of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) years. The climatic response to insolation changes caused by obliquity and eccentricity variations depends in part on the total reservoir of adsorbed CO2. Previous estimates of the adsorbate inventory have been made by measuring the adsorptive behavior of one or more Mars-analyog materials, and deriving an empirical equation that described that adsorption as a function of the partial pressure of CO2 and the temperature of the regolith. The current CO2 inventory is that which satisfies adsorptive equilibrium, observed atmospheric pressure, and no permanent CO2 caps. There is laboratory evidence that H2O poisons the CO2 adsorptive capacity of most materials. No consideration of CO2 - H2O co-adsorption was given in previous estimates of the Martian CO2 inventory, although H2O is present in the vapor phase, and so as adsorbate, throughout the regolith.

  12. Does intraoperative low arterial partial pressure of oxygen increase the risk of surgical site infection following emergency exploratory laparotomy in horses?

    PubMed

    Costa-Farré, Cristina; Prades, Marta; Ribera, Thaïs; Valero, Oliver; Taurà, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    Decreased tissue oxygenation is a critical factor in the development of wound infection as neutrophil mediated oxidative killing is an essential mechanism against surgical pathogens. The objective of this prospective case series was to assess the impact of intraoperative arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) on surgical site infection (SSI) in horses undergoing emergency exploratory laparotomy for acute gastrointestinal disease. The anaesthetic and antibiotic protocol was standardised. Demographic data, surgical potential risk factors and PaO2, obtained 1h after induction of anaesthesia were recorded. Surgical wounds were assessed daily for infection during hospitalisation and follow up information was obtained after discharge. A total of 84 adult horses were included. SSI developed in 34 (40.4%) horses. Multivariate logistic regression showed that PaO2, anaesthetic time and subcutaneous suture material were predictors of SSI (AUC=0.76, sensitivity=71%, specificity=65%). The use of polyglycolic acid sutures increased the risk and horses with a PaO2 value < 80 mm Hg [10.6 kPa] and anaesthetic time >2h had the highest risk of developing SSI (OR=9.01; 95% CI 2.28-35.64). The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that low intraoperative PaO2 contributes to the development of SSI following colic surgery. PMID:24582131

  13. Photo-Leakage Current of Thin-Film Transistors with ZnO Channels Formed at Various Oxygen Partial Pressures under Visible Light Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimakawa, Shin-ichi; Kamada, Yudai; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Wang, Dapeng; Li, Chaoyang; Fujita, Shizuo; Hirao, Takashi; Furuta, Mamoru

    2012-03-01

    The effects of the oxygen partial pressure [p(O2)] during ZnO sputtering on the photo-leakage current of a ZnO thin-film transistor (TFT) were investigated. The photo-leakage current increased with decreasing p(O2). When the photon energy of incident light is smaller than the band-gap of the ZnO, electrons are excited from the trapped states existing near the valence band. It was found that the density of the electron traps increased when the p(O2) decreased. Moreover, the trap states were formed at ˜0.5 eV and 2.8-3.2 eV from the conduction band (EC) when the p(O2) decreased. The traps formed at (EC-E) of ˜0.5 eV affect the subthreshold characteristics in the dark state, while the traps formed at (EC-E) of 2.8-3.2 eV affect the photo-leakage current of the ZnO TFTs.

  14. Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 ceramics processed under low oxygen partial pressure atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Doshida, Yutaka; Mizuno, Youichi; Randall, Clive A.

    2014-01-01

    Sn-doped (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (Sn-NKN) ceramics fired under various oxygen partial pressure (pO2) conditions have been investigated and discussed in terms of bulk piezoelectric and dielectric properties. X-ray diffraction measurements and Rayleigh analysis indicate that the substitution site of the Sn cations depend on the pO2 atmosphere in the firing process. For pO2 higher than 1.0 × 10-10 atm, Sn cations mainly substitute as Sn4+ at the B-site of perovskite NKN, whereas Sn2+ A-site substitution is favored under a low-pO2 atmosphere. Low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics exhibit higher relative permittivity, Curie temperature, and piezoelectric coefficient (d33). Sn2+ at A-site acts as a donor and reduces the p-type carrier concentrations that result from an electronic compensation of metal vacancies created through the high volatility of Na and K suboxides. The higher piezoelectricity and resistivity in low-pO2 fired Sn-NKN ceramics make this material suitable for base-metal cofired devices such as Ni-inner-electrode multilayer capacitors and actuators.

  15. Halomethane hepatotoxicity: induction of lipid peroxidation and inactivation of cytochrome P-450 in rat liver microsomes under low oxygen partial pressures.

    PubMed

    de Groot, H; Noll, T

    1989-03-01

    Halomethane-induced lipid peroxidation and inactivation of cytochrome P-450 were studied in liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats in the presence of NADPH at steady-state O2 partial pressures (PO2). As indicated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive material and the stimulation of O2 uptake, significant lipid peroxidation was induced by those halomethanes containing more than two Cl, Br, or I atoms. Lipid peroxidation decisively depended on the PO2 present, showing distinct maxima at PO2 between 1 and 10 mm Hg. Those halomethanes inducing lipid peroxidation also led to inactivation of microsomal cytochrome P-450, as indicated by a loss of cytochrome P-450 detectable as ferrous CO complex and an equimolar loss of microsomal heme. Under anaerobic conditions inactivation of cytochrome P-450 presumably resulted solely from an attack of halomethane radicals on its heme moiety. Under aerobic conditions lipid peroxidation made an additional contribution to the inactivation of cytochrome P-450. These results suggest that the reductive activation to free radicals, catalyzed by cytochrome P-450, and thus the induction of lipid peroxidation at low but physiological PO2 are characteristic not only of CCl4 but also of other polyhalogenated methanes, especially CBrCl3, CBr4, CHI3, CHBr3, and CHBr2Cl. PMID:2609348

  16. Determination of octane numbers and Reid vapor pressure of commercial petroleum fuels using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.B.; Wise, K.L.; Groves, J.; Welch, W.T.

    1995-11-15

    A Fourier transform Raman spectrometer was used to collect the Raman spectra of 208 commercial petroleum fuels. The individual motor and research octane numbers (MON and RON, respectively) were determined experimentally using the industry standard ASTM knock engine method. Partial least-squares regression analysis was used to build regression models which correlate the Raman spectra of 175 of the fuels with the experimentally determined values for MON, RON, and pump octane number (the average of MON and RON) of the fuels. Each of the models was validated using leave-one-out validation. The standard errors of validation are 0.415, 0.535, and 0.410 octane units for MON, RON, and pump octane number, respectively. It is evident that the accuracy of the Raman determined values is limited by the accuracy of the training set used in creating the models. The Raman regression models were used to predict the octane numbers for the fuels which were not used to build the models. The results compare favorably with the leave-one-out validation. Also, it is demonstrated that the experimentally determined Reid vapor pressures are highly correlated with the Raman spectra of the fuel samples and can be predicted with a standard error of 0.568 psi. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. [Partial pressure and diffusion flux of dissolved carbon dioxide in the mainstream and tributary of the central Three Gorges Reservoir in summer].

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Wang, Yu-Chun; Cao, Man; Qian, Hui-Jun; Xu, Tao; Zhou, Zi-Ran; Deng, Bing; Wang, Fu-Shun

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir and its tributary (Meixi River) in May 2013. Results showed that pCO2 in the surface water of the Meixi River and mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir was 6.8-7.5 Pa and 201.4-210.2 Pa, respectively. At the mixing area between the Meixi River and the mainstream of Changjiang, the lowest value of pCO2 in surface water was 53.5 Pa, and pCO2 gradually increased downwardly. Below 3 m in depth, pCO2 kept the stable value of around 210 Pa. Based on the calculation results, the emission flux of CO2 in the Meixi River and the mainstream of the central Three Gorges Reservoir was about -7.48 mmol x (m2 x d)(-1) and 39.58 mmol x (m2 x d)(-1), respectively. These results showed that the Meixi River is a sink for atmospheric CO2, and the mainstream of the Three Gorges Reservoir is a source for atmospheric CO2. PMID:24881374

  18. Effects of elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide and season of the year on forage quality and cyanide concentration of Trifolium repens L. from a FACE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehner, Marco; Lüscher, Andreas; Hebeisen, Thomas; Zanetti, Silvia; Schubiger, Franz; Scalet, Mario

    Differently managed (cutting frequency and N fertilization) Trifolium repens monocultures were grown at 60 Pa and 35 Pa of pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2) in a Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) array. The concentrations of cyanide, digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation were measured at different harvests throughout the growing season. The average cyanide concentrations differed significantly in the years and the seasons within the year; however, the concentrations were not affected by CO 2. Digestible organic matter, crude protein and net energy for lactation differed significantly with the seasons of the year and cutting frequencies. While digestible organic matter and net energy for lactation were not affected by elevated pCO 2, the concentration of crude protein decreased from 288 g kg -1 at ambient to 251 g kg -1 at elevated pCO 2. Since the crude protein concentration in herbage from Trifolium monocultures was very high even at elevated CO 2, it is suggested that this decrease in crude protein concentration does not negatively affect forage quality. We conclude that, in Trifolium herbage, the seasons of the year and management practices are more decisive for forage quality than changes in pCO 2. We shall discuss how forage quality and cyanide intake by ruminants may, however, be affected by CO 2-induced shifts in the proportion of species in mixed plant communities.

  19. The synthesis under controlled oxygen partial pressure and the characterization of a layered perovskite system Sr(2)V(1-x)Mo(x)O(4).

    PubMed

    Kouno, Shinji; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Umeyama, Norio; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Watanabe, Tsuneo

    2009-07-15

    We have successfully synthesized Sr(2)V(1-x)Mo(x)O(4) from x = 0.3 to 1.0 by an improved process. The layered compound Sr(2)VO(4) is an antiferromagnetic insulator with S = 1/2, while the isostructural Sr(2)MoO(4) is a Pauli paramagnetic metal. The solid solution Sr(2)V(1-x)Mo(x)O(4) of these materials is expected to show a metal-insulator transition. In this paper we report the synthetic process and the results of the magnetic susceptibility and the electrical resistivity. The selection of the starting materials and the adjustment of O(2) partial pressure of less than 10(-12) atm were indispensable for the synthesis. The reducing conditions during the sintering had been determined rationally, according to thermodynamical analysis. Kondo-like behavior in both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility were observed in a limited range of V-containing samples. PMID:21828521

  20. Pressure (Or No Royal Road)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses how difficult the various problems of pressure, partial pressure, gas laws, and vapor pressure are for students. Outlines the evolution of the concept of pressure, the gas equation for a perfect gas, partial pressures, saturated vapor pressure, Avogadro's hypothesis, Raoult's law, and the vapor pressure of ideal solutions. (JR)

  1. Regulatory variants for the expression of H-2 antigens. I. Isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Rajan, T V; Nathenson, S G; Scharff, M D

    1976-06-01

    By subjecting "mutagenized" mouse myeloma cells repeatedly to selection with antiserum against H-2Kd, we isolated variants that expressed little or no H-2Kd alloantigens. The phenotype was unstable, with the culture accumulating revertants in the absence of selective pressure. The variants not only failed to express the selected antigen, but also the antigen coded by the closely liked H-2Dd gene. The cells reexpressed this antigen with the same kinetics as for the selected antigen. Several physiologic parameters (karyotype, cell morphology, size, and growth curves) were not altered by the loss of H-2 antigens.However,when injected iv, the H-2-deficient cells did not lodge in the spleen as readily as did the wild-type cells. PMID:994223

  2. Water Speciation and properties of hydrous model basalt melt at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajgain, S. K.; Karki, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    Silicate melts in the Earth's interior are known/expected to be hydrous. Water can make major impact on physical properties including the structure, density, and mobility of melts. The behavior of relevant hydrous melts over most of the mantle pressure regime is poorly constrained. Water solubility increases rapidly with increasing pressure at low pressure [1] and a complete miscibility of liquid MgSiO3 and H2O has been suggested based on high-pressure simulations [2]. We have recently performed first principle molecular dynamics simulations of hydrous model basalt melt at high pressure. Our results show that with increasing pressure, the partial molar volume of water in the melt asymptotically approaches to that of pure water, and both the volumes become identical after certain point. Water is predicted to dissolve in the form of hydroxyls and water molecules at low pressure and as more extended structures at high pressure. The simulated basalt-H2O system commences to behave ideally at pressures above 10 GPa. In contrast, the simulated SiO2-H2O and MgSiO3-H2O systems approach to an ideal limit at much higher pressures of 50 GPa or above. These results imply an unlimited solubility of water in in silicate melts and the water solubility rather appears to be insensitive of composition at high pressure. Existence of water-rich silicate melts over most of the mantle in early history could have made substantial contribution to the origin of hydrosphere [3]. [1] Shen, A. H., and H. Keppler (1997), Direct observation of complete miscibility in the Albite-H2O system, Nature, 385, 710-712. [2] Mookherjee, M., L. Stixrude, and B. Karki (2008), Hydrous silicate melt at high pressure, Nature, 452, 983-986. [3] Matsui, T., and Y. Abe (1986), Evolution of an impact-induced atmosphere and magma ocean on the accreting Earth, Nature, 319, 303-305.

  3. EPA H2O Software Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA H2O allows user to: Understand the significance of EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; visually analyze spatial distribution of the EGS in Tampa Bay watershed; obtain map and summary statistics of EGS values in Tampa Bay watershed; analyze and compare potential impacts of development...

  4. Formation of low-temperature cirrus from H2SO4/H2O aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, A; Molina, M J; Sassen, K; Kulmala, M

    2006-11-23

    We present experimental results obtained with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) that indicate the small ice particles in low-temperature cirrus clouds are not completely solid but rather coated with an unfrozen H2SO4/H2O overlayer. Our results provide a new look on the formation, development, and microphysical properties of low-temperature cirrus clouds. PMID:17107102

  5. Study of the TiO2-H2O-B2O3 Ternary System at 7.7 GPa and High Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Gallas, Márcia Russman

    Study of the TiO2-H2O-B2O3 Ternary System at 7.7 GPa and High Temperatures Rommulo V. Conceic Received September 26, 2001 The TiO2-H2O-B2O3 ternary system was studied at high pressure (7.7 GPa near ambient pressure, in which the end members were B2O3 and H2O. He observed that at this pressure

  6. D/H fractionation in the H2-H2O system at supercritical water conditions: Compositional and hydrogen bonding effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Mysen, Bjorn O.

    2012-06-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the H2-D2-D2O-H2O-Ti-TiO2 system at temperatures ranging from 300 to 800 °C and pressures between ?0.3 and 1.3 GPa in a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell, utilizing Raman spectroscopy as a quantitative tool to explore the relative distribution of hydrogen and deuterium isotopologues of the H2 and H2O in supercritical fluids. In detail, H2O-D2O solutions (1:1) were reacted with Ti metal (3-9 h) in the diamond cell, leading to formation of H2, D2, HD, and HDO species through Ti oxidation and H-D isotope exchange reactions. Experimental results obtained in situ and at ambient conditions on quenched samples indicate significant differences from the theoretical estimates of the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of the H-D exchange reactions. In fact, the estimated enthalpy for the H2(aq)-D2(aq) disproportionation reaction (?Hrxn) is about -3.4 kcal/mol, which differs greatly from the +0.16 kcal/mol predicted for the exchange reaction in the gas phase by statistical mechanics models. The exothermic behavior of the exchange reaction implies enhanced stability of H2 and D2 relative to HD. Accordingly, the significant energy difference of the internal H2(aq)-D2(aq)-HD(aq) equilibrium translates to strong differences of the fractionation effects between the H2O-H2 and D2O-D2 isotope exchange relationships. The D/H fractionation factors between H2O-H2(aq) and D2O-D2(aq) differ by 365‰ in the 600-800 °C temperature range, and are indicative of the greater effect of D2O contribution to the ?D isotopic composition of supercritical fluids. The negative ?Hrxn values for the H2(aq)-D2(aq)-HD(aq) equilibrium and the apparent decrease of the equilibrium constant with increasing temperature might be because of differences of the Henry’s law constant between the H- and D-bearing species dissolved in supercritical aqueous solutions. Such effects may be attributed to the stronger hydrogen bonding in the O-H⋯O relative to the O-D⋯O environment. This difference allows enhanced gas solubility in the denser and more polar H2O clusters, and thus, affects the D/H exchange between the H2-D2 volatiles and the coexisting H2O-D2O mixtures. The proposed role of temperature in promoting differences in the density and polarity of hydrogen-bonded OHO and ODO molecules may be explained with isotope-specific molar volume effects similar to those suggested to account for the hydrogen isotope fractionation between H2O and hydroxide mineral phases (e.g. brucite) across large pressure intervals.

  7. The Successive H2O Binding Energies for Fe(H2O)n(+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The binding energy, computed using density functional theory (DFT), are in good agreement with experiment. The bonding is electrostatic (charge-dipole) in origin for all systems. The structures are therefore determined mostly by metal-ligand and ligand-ligand repulsion. The computed structure for FeH2O(+) is C(2v) where sp hybridization is important in reducing the Fe-H2O repulsion. Fe(H2O)2(+) has D2d symmetry where sdo hybridization is the primary factor leading to the linear O-Fe-O geometry. The bonding in Fe(H2O)3(+) and Fe(H2O)4(+) are very complex because ligand-ligand and metal-ligand repulsion, both for the in-plane and out-of-plane water lone-pair orbitals, are important.

  8. Hydrogenation of Nanocrystalline Mg at Room Temperature in the Presence of TiH2

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Choi, Young Joon; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sohn, Hong Yong; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2010-05-19

    In this work, we found that the dehydrogenated nanostructured MgH2-0.1TiH2 prepared by ultrahigh-energy-high-pressure (UHEHP) mechanical milling can pick up a significant amount of hydrogen at room temperature at a reasonable rate. This finding is potentially useful for many applications including hydrogen storage and hydrogen separation from gas mixtures such as synthetic gas.

  9. Multiple H2 occupancy of cages of clathrate hydrate under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hailong; Wang, Jianwei; Liu, Changling; Ratcliffe, Christopher I; Becker, Udo; Kumar, Rajnish; Ripmeester, John

    2012-06-01

    Experiments were carried out by reacting H(2) gas with N(2) hydrate at a temperature of 243 K and a pressure of 15 MPa. The characterizations of the reaction products indicated that multiple H(2) molecules can be loaded into both large and small cages of structure II clathrate hydrates. The realization of multiple H(2) occupancy of hydrate cages under moderate conditions not only brings new insights into hydrogen clathrates but also refreshes the perspective of clathrate hydrates as hydrogen storage media. PMID:22587651

  10. Characterization of four different effects elicited by H2O2 in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Gil-Longo, José; González-Vázquez, Cristina

    2005-08-01

    Four main vascular effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were studied in intact and rubbed aortic rings from WKY rats. In rings partially precontracted with phenylephrine: 1-30 microM H2O2 induced an increase of tone, 100 microM H2O2 produced a transient contraction followed by a fast-developing endothelium-independent relaxation, and 0.3 mM H2O2 induced a fast-developing relaxation followed by a slow-developing endothelium-independent relaxation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/manitol did not significantly modify the H2O2 effects, while catalase suppressed them. Indomethacin abolished the increase of tone elicited by H2O2 and revealed a small endothelium-dependent relaxation, which was suppressed by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), high K+ or tetraethylammonium (TEA). TEA strongly inhibited the fast-developing relaxation while indomethacin, glybenclamide, 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), cafeic acid or eicosatriynoic acid (ETI) did not affect the relaxation. In rings precontracted with 70 mM KCl, 1-100 microM H2O2 induced a small increase of tone and 0.3 mM a slow-developing relaxation. Catalase or Fe2+-EDTA/vitamin C suppressed the slow-developing relaxation while deferoxamine did not modify it. In rings partially precontracted with arachidonic acid, 1-30 microM H2O2 induced higher contractile effects than in rings partially precontracted with phenylephrine. H2O2 at 0.3 mM for one hour induced a persistent impairment on the reactivity of the rings and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In summary, H2O2 produces: (1) contractions mediated by direct activation of cyclooxygenase; 2) endothelium-dependent relaxations related to activation of endothelial K+ channels and NO synthesis; 3) reversible endothelium-independent relaxations mediated by activation of smooth muscle K+ channels; and 4) irreversible endothelium-independent relaxations related to cellular damage, caused by H2O2 but not by hydroxyl radicals. PMID:15994130

  11. H2O Dissociation-Induced Aluminum Oxide Growth on Oxidized Al(111) Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qianqian; Tong, Xiao; Zhou, Guangwen

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of water vapor with amorphous aluminum oxide films on Al(111) is studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to elucidate the passivation mechanism of the oxidized Al(111) surfaces. Exposure of the aluminum oxide film to water vapor results in self-limiting Al2O3/Al(OH)3 bilayer film growth via counter-diffusion of both ions, Al outward and OH inward, where a thinner starting aluminum oxide film is more reactive toward H2O dissociation-induced oxide growth because of the thickness-dependent ionic transport in the aluminum oxide film. The aluminum oxide film exhibits reactivity toward H2O dissociation in both low-vapor pressure [p(H2O) = 1 × 10(-6) Torr] and intermediate-vapor pressure [p(H2O) = 5 Torr] regimes. Compared to the oxide film growth by exposure to a p(H2O) of 1 × 10(-6) Torr, the exposure to a p(H2O) of 5 Torr results in the formation of a more open structure of the inner Al(OH)3 layer and a more compact outer Al2O3 layer, demonstrating the vapor-pressure-dependent atomic structure in the passivating layer. PMID:26550986

  12. Electron capture and ionization in collisions of multiply charged ions with H(2s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errea, L. F.; Guzmán, F.; Illescas, Clara; Méndez, L.; Pons, B.; Riera, A.; Suárez, J.

    2007-03-01

    We present total cross sections for electron capture and ionization in collisions of B5+ and Ne10+with H(2s), calculated using two methods: the semiclassical close-coupling molecular formalism and the eikonal-CTMC method. We have evaluated partial cross sections for capture into excited n-levels, required in plasma diagnostics.

  13. Carbon dioxide and oxygen partial pressure measurements in the cerebrospinal fluid in a conventional blood gas analyzer: analysis of bias and precision.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, B; Boots, R J

    1997-03-20

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gas tension measurements have been used as a marker of cerebral oxygenation in animal models and in human studies. Discrepancies in the measurement of PCO2 and PO2 in non-blood solutions by standard blood gas analyzers have been described. The CSF is a physiological non-blood fluid with an ability to carry only dissolved O2 or CO2. The aim of this experiment was to determine the bias and precision of CSF pCO2 and pO2 measurements of a contemporary blood gas analyzer and a continuous gas sensor. CSF from human patients was tonometered to known PCO2 and PO2 using standard calibration gases in a bubble tonometer. Following equilibration, a continuous measurement of the partial pressure of gases in the CSF in the tonometer solution was made using a calibrated Paratrend 7 gas sensor (Biomedical Sensors, Bucks., UK) inserted into the equilibration chamber of the tonometer and continuous CSF pH, PCO2 and PO2 measurements recorded at 1-min intervals. After equilibration, a 3-ml CSF sample was aspirated anaerobically from the tonometer and analysed in duplicate using an ABL 620 (Radiometer, Copenhagen) blood gas analyser. The measured pCO2 and pO2 from the ABL 620 blood gas analyser and the Paratrend 7 sensor were paired with the expected values to calculate bias and precision. Small offsets in PCO2 and large offsets in PO2 measurement were seen with the ABL 620 blood gas analyser. This study brings into question clinical decisions based on CSF PO2 measurements. The implications for calibrating CSF sensors against CSF gas measurements are discussed. PMID:9094053

  14. The Regulation of Rubisco Activity in Response to Variation in Temperature and Atmospheric CO2 Partial Pressure in Sweet Potato1[w

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Yan-Ping; Sage, Rowan F.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature response of net CO2 assimilation rate (A), the rate of whole-chain electron transport, the activity and activation state of Rubisco, and the pool sizes of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) and 3-phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) were assessed in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown under greenhouse conditions. Above the thermal optimum of photosynthesis, the activation state of Rubisco declined with increasing temperature. Doubling CO2 above 370 ?bar further reduced the activation state, while reducing CO2 by one-half increased it. At cool temperature (<16°C), the activation state of Rubisco declined at CO2 levels where photosynthesis was unaffected by a 90% reduction in O2 content. Reduction of the partial pressure of CO2 at cool temperature also enhanced the activation state of Rubisco. The rate of electron transport showed a pronounced temperature response with the same temperature optimum as A at elevated CO2. RuBP pool size and the RuBP-to-PGA ratio declined with increasing temperature. Increasing CO2 also reduced the RuBP pool size. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the reduction in the activation state of Rubisco at high and low temperature is a regulated response to a limitation in one of the processes contributing to the rate of RuBP regeneration. To further evaluate this possibility, we used measured estimates of Rubisco capacity, electron transport capacity, and the inorganic phosphate regeneration capacity to model the response of A to temperature. At elevated CO2, the activation state of Rubisco declined at high temperatures where electron transport capacity was predicted to be limiting, and at cooler temperatures where the inorganic phosphate regeneration capacity was limiting. At low CO2, where Rubisco capacity was predicted to limit photosynthesis, full activation of Rubisco was observed at all measurement temperatures. PMID:16183840

  15. Application of a High-Throughput Analyzer in Evaluating Solid Adsorbents for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture via Multicomponent Adsorption of CO2, N-2, and H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, JA; McDonald, TM; Bae, TH; Bachman, JE; Sumida, K; Dutton, JJ; Kaye, SS; Long, JR

    2015-04-15

    Despite the large number of metal-organic frameworks that have been studied in the context of post-combustion carbon capture, adsorption equilibria of gas mixtures including CO2, N-2, and H2O, which are the three biggest components of the flue gas emanating from a coal- or natural gas-fired power plant, have never been reported. Here, we disclose the design and validation of a high-throughput multicomponent adsorption instrument that can measure equilibrium adsorption isotherms for mixtures of gases at conditions that are representative of an actual flue gas from a power plant. This instrument is used to study 15 different metal-organic frameworks, zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and activated carbons representative of the broad range of solid adsorbents that have received attention for CO2 capture. While the multicomponent results presented in this work provide many interesting fundamental insights, only adsorbents functionalized with alkylamines are shown to have any significant CO2 capacity in the presence of N-2 and H2O at equilibrium partial pressures similar to those expected in a carbon capture process. Most significantly, the amine-appended metal organic framework mmen-Mg-2(dobpdc) (mmen = N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, dobpdc (4-) = 4,4'-dioxido-3,3'-biphenyldicarboxylate) exhibits a record CO2 capacity of 4.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/g (16 wt %) at 0.1 bar and 40 degrees C in the presence of a high partial pressure of H2O.

  16. Rutile solubility in supercritical NaAlSi3O8H2O uids Leslie A. Hayden ,1

    E-print Network

    Manning, Craig

    Rutile solubility in supercritical NaAlSi3O8­H2O uids Leslie A. Hayden ,1 , Craig E. Manning in the supercritical NaAlSi3O8­H2O system using hydrothermal piston­ cylinder methods at 900 °C. Solubility in intermediate albite­H2O uids varies as a function of both pressure (P) and uid composition (X). Rutile

  17. Fugacity of H2O from 0° to 350°C at the liquid-vapor equilibrium and at 1 atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hass, John L., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    The fugacity and fugacity coefficient of H2O at the liquid-vapor equilibrium, the fugacity and the Gibbs free energy of formation of H2O at 1 atm (1.01325 bars) total pressure have been calculated from published data on the physical and thermodynamic properties of H2O and are presented at ten-degree intervals from 0° to 350°C.

  18. Lowest-energy structures of water clusters (H2O)(11) and (H2O)(13)

    SciTech Connect

    Bulusu, Satya; Yoo, Soohaeng; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2006-10-26

    We employed a four-step searching/screening approach to determine best candidates for the global minima of (H2O)11 and (H2O)13. This approach can be useful when there exist a large number of low-lying and near-isoenergetic isomers, many of which have the same oxygen-skeleton structure. On the two new candidates for the global minimum of (H2O)11, one isomer can be viewed as placing the 11th molecule onto the side of the global minimum of (H2O)10 while the other can be viewed as removing the 12th molecule from the middle layer of the global minimum of (H2O)12. The three leading lowest-energy clusters of (H2O)13 can all be built upon the global minimum of (H2O)12, with the difference in the location of the 13th water molecule. This research was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  19. Observations of cumulene carbenes, H2CCCC and H2CCC, in TMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Kaifu, Norio; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Saito, Shuji; Takano, Shuro; Murakami, Akinori; Vrtilek, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attention is given to the carbon chain molecule H2CCCC, detected in the dark cloud TMC-1 for the first time in the course of a molecular line survey using the Nobeyama 45-m telescope. From nine transitions observed in the frequency region of 17-45 GHz, the total column density of H2CCCC in TMC-1 is derived to be 7.5(+/-2.0) x 10 exp 12/sq cm, which is about half of the value reported in IRC + 10216. Five transitions of a related carbon chain molecule, H2CCC, were also detected in TMC-1. The column density of H2CCC obtained in TMC-1, 2.8(+/-0.9) x 10 exp 12/sq cm, is a factor of three smaller than that of H2CCCC. The ortho-to-para abundance ratios of H2CCCC and H2CCC were found to be 4.2 +/-1.5 and 5.9 +/-2.0, respectively. The chemical reactions of these carbon-chain molecules in dark clouds are discussed.

  20. Interaction of H2S with alpha-Fe2O3(0001) Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kim,C.; Escuadro, A.; Bedzyk, M.

    2007-01-01

    The atomic-scale structural changes in an {alpha}-Fe2O3 (hematite) (0 0 0 1) surface induced by sulfidation and subsequent oxidation processes were studied by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, LEED, and X-ray standing wave (XSW) measurements. Annealing the {alpha}-Fe2O3(0 0 0 1) with a H2S partial pressure of 1 x 10-7 Torr produced iron sulfides on the surface as the sulfur atoms reacted with the substrate Fe ions. The oxidation state of the substrate Fe changed from 3+ to 2+ as a result of the sulfidation. The XSW measured distance of the sulfur atomic-layer from the unrelaxed substrate oxygen layer was 3.16 Angstroms. The sulfide phase consisted of three surface domains identified by LEED. Formation of the two-dimensional FeS2 phase with structural parameters consistent with an outermost layer of (1 1 1) pyrite has been proposed. Atomic oxygen exposure oxidized the surface sulfide to a sulfate (SO{sup 2-}{sub 4}) and regenerated the {alpha}-Fe2O3(0 0 0 1) substrate, which was indicated by a (1 x 1) LEED pattern and the re-oxidization of Fe to 3+.

  1. Sulfidation Kinetics of Natural Chromite Ore Using H2S Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Sazzad; Rhamdhani, M. Akbar; Pownceby, Mark I.; Bruckard, Warren J.

    2015-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of natural chromite (FeCr2O4) sulfidation using 5 pct H2S (balance Ar) gas were studied in the temperature range 1173 K to 1473 K (900 °C to 1200 °C). Reaction products were examined using combined X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results indicated the formation of an outer sulfide-rich layer comprising mixed (Fe,Cr)1- x S and (Cr,Fe)1- x S phases, underlain by a cation-depleted diffusion zone. The kinetics investigation indicated that the reaction rate increased with increasing temperature and that the sulfidation of chromite followed a shrinking unreacted core model. It is proposed that Cr3+ cation diffusion through the reaction product was the rate controlling step with an apparent activation energy of 166 ± 4 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energy lies between the activation energy for Fe2+ and Cr3+ diffusion through pure chromite spinel and Fe-Cr alloy. Possible reasons for the discrepancy from pure chromite are expected to be the presence of minor Al and Mg in the natural chromite sample, and the partial pressure of oxygen under the reaction conditions used.

  2. Design of H2-O2 space shuttle APU. Volume 1: APU design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, E.

    1974-01-01

    The H2-O2 space shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) program is a NASA-Lewis effort aimed at hardware demonstration of the technology required for potential use on the space shuttle. It has been shown that a hydrogen-oxygen power unit (APU) system is an attractive alternate to the space shuttle baseline hydrazine APU system for minimum weight. It has the capability for meeting many of the heat sink requirements for the space shuttle vehicle, thereby reducing the amount of expendable evaporants required for cooling in the baseline APU. Volume 1 of this report covers preliminary design and analysis of the current reference system and detail design of the test version of this reference system. Combustor test results are also included. Volume 2 contains the results of the analysis of an initial version of the reference system and the computer printouts of system performance. The APU consists of subsystems for propellant feed and conditioning, turbopower, and control. Propellant feed and conditioning contains all heat exchangers, valves, and the combustor. The turbopower subsystem contains a two-stage partial-admission pressure-modulated, 400-hp, 63,000-rpm turbine, a 0-to 4-g lubrication system, and a gearbox with output pads for two hydraulic pumps and an alternator (alternator not included on test unit). The electronic control functions include regulation of speed and system temperatures; and start-and-stop sequences, overspeed (rpm) and temperature limits, failsafe provisions, and automatic shutdown provisions.

  3. Availability of O2 and H2O2 on Pre-Photosynthetic Earth

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F.; Lee, Sukyoung

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Old arguments that free O2 must have been available at Earth's surface prior to the origin of photosynthesis have been revived by a new study that shows that aerobic respiration can occur at dissolved oxygen concentrations much lower than had previously been thought, perhaps as low as 0.05?nM, which corresponds to a partial pressure for O2 of about 4?×?10?8 bar. We used numerical models to study whether such O2 concentrations might have been provided by atmospheric photochemistry. Results show that disproportionation of H2O2 near the surface might have yielded enough O2 to satisfy this constraint. Alternatively, poleward transport of O2 from the equatorial stratosphere into the polar night region, followed by downward transport in the polar vortex, may have brought O2 directly to the surface. Thus, our calculations indicate that this “early respiration” hypothesis might be physically reasonable. Key Words: Early Earth—Oxygen—Respiration—Tracer transport—General circulation. Astrobiology 11, 293–302. PMID:21545266

  4. Study of H2 physical adsorption in single-walled carbon nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiqi; Liu, Xuejuan; Yang, Kaiwei; Zou, Hui

    2013-08-01

    The potential energies of a single H2 inside and outside an armchair single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) are calculated by the electronic density functional theory (DFT), and influences of the SWCNT tube diameter on the potential energy minimum and equilibrium position are studied. Hydrogen storage capacity of the armchair SWCNTs in the rhombic arrays is estimated by using grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations in a pressure range from 10 to 100 bar and at temperatures of 77 K, 150 K, 220 K, 298 K, and 318 K, respectively; influences of the SWCNT diameter and VDW distance on the hydrogen storage capacity, and the isosteric heats of the H2-armchair SWCNTs arrays at several discrete temperatures and pressures are also investigated. The present main discoveries include (i) variation pattern of the H2 adsorption saturation pressure with the tube diameter and temperature; (ii) existence of extremum of the hydrogen storage capacity as a function of the VDW distance and tube diameter; (iii) diametrically opposite change of H2 storage capacity with the tube diameter in different pressure domains; (iv) layered distribution of the H2 adsorbed inside the tube. A theoretical mode is suggested to explain self-consistently all of these discoveries by combining the potential field information with the arguments of liquid state theories, and further verified by snapshots of representative configuration. The present discoveries, particularly, the theoretical mode explaining them, may serve to provide some guidance in improving the hydrogen storage capacity by doping the CNT and optimization of parameters.

  5. H2O Masers and Supersonic Turbulence

    E-print Network

    V. Strelnitski; J. Alexander; S. Gezari; B. P. Holder; J. M. Moran; M. J. Reid

    2002-10-15

    We use unpublished and published VLBI results to investigate the geometry and the statistical properties of the velocity field traced by H2O masers in five galactic regions of star formation -- Sgr B2(M), W49N, W51(MAIN), W51N, and W3(OH). In all sources the angular distribution of the H2O hot spots demonstrates approximate self-similarity (fractality) over almost four orders of magnitude in scale, with the calculated fractal dimension d between (approximately) 0.2 and 1.0. In all sources, the lower order structure functions for the line-of-sight component of the velocity field are satisfactorily approximated by power laws, with the exponents near their classic Kolmogorov values for the high-Reynolds-number incompressible turbulence. These two facts, as well as the observed significant excess of large deviations of the two-point velocity increments from their mean values, strongly suggest that the H2O masers in regions of star formation trace turbulence. We propose a new conceptual model of these masers in which maser hot spots originate at the sites of ultimate dissipation of highly supersonic turbulence produced in the ambient gas by the intensive gas outflow from a newly-born star. Due to the high brightness and small angular sizes of masing hot spots and the possibility of measuring their positions and velocities with high precision, they become a unique probe of supersonic turbulence.

  6. Phase equilibria and volumetric properties of the systems KCl-H 2O and NaCl-KCl-H 2O above 573 K: Equation of state representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderko, Andrzej; Pitzer, Kenneth S.

    1993-10-01

    A comprehensive equation of state has been developed for the system KC1-H 2O at high temperatures and pressures. The equation is based on a theoretical model developed earlier for the system NaCl-H 2O. Experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium, solid-liquid equilibrium, and density data have been critically evaluated and used to fit the adjustable parameters of the model. The equation of state reproduces these properties within experimental uncertainty. It is valid for temperatures between 573 K and 973 K and pressures up to 5 kbar. Graphs are presented to provide recommended values of phase compositions and volumetric properties. Furthermore, the equations for NaCl-H 2O and KC1-H 2O have been combined to yield an equation for the ternary system NaCl-KCl-H 2O. The equation reproduces solid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system and agrees with the available semiquantitative information about the relative concentration of Na and K in the vapor phase.

  7. Source and H 2O content of high-MgO magmas in island arc settings: an experimental study of a primitive calc-alkaline basalt from St. Vincent, lesser antilles arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichavant, M.; Mysen, B. O.; Macdonald, R.

    2002-06-01

    Liquidus phase relationships have been determined for a high-MgO basalt (STV301: MgO=12.5 wt%, Ni=250 ppm, Cr=728 ppm) from Black Point, St Vincent (Lesser Antilles arc). Piston-cylinder experiments were conducted between 7.5 and 20 kbar under both hydrous and oxidizing conditions. AuPd capsules were used as containers. Compositions of supraliquidus glasses and mass-balance calculations show that Fe loss is < 10% in the majority of experiments. Two series of water concentrations in melt were investigated: (i) 1.5 wt% and (ii) 4.5 wt% H 2O, as determined by SIMS analyses on quenched glasses and with the by difference technique. The Fe 3+/Fe 2+ partitioning between Cr-Al spinel and melt and olivine-spinel equilibria show that oxidizing fO 2 were imposed (NNO + 1.5 for the 1.5 wt% H 2O series, NNO + 2.3 for the 4.5 wt% H 2O series). For both series of water concentrations, the liquid is multiply-saturated with a spinel lherzolite phase assemblage on its liquidus, at 1235°C, 11.5 kbar (1.5 wt% H 2O) and 1185°C, 16 kbar (4.5 wt% H 2O). Liquidus phases are homogeneous and comparable to typical mantle compositions. Mineral-melt partition coefficients are generally identical to values under anhydrous conditions. The modal proportion cpx/opx on the liquidus decreases from the 1.5 wt% to the 4.5 wt% H 2O series. The experimental data are consistent with STV301 being a product of partial melting of lherzolitic mantle. Conditions of multiple saturation progressively evolve toward lower temperatures and higher pressures with increasing melt H 2O concentration. Phase equilibria constraints, i.e., the necessity of preserving the mantle signature seen in high-MgO and picritic arc basalts, and glass inclusion data suggest that STV301 was extracted relatively dry (˜ 2 wt% H 2O) from its mantle source. However, not all primary arc basalts are extracted under similarly dry conditions because more hydrous melts will crystallize during ascent and will not be present unmodified at the surface. From degrees of melting calculated from experiments on KLB-1, extraction of a 12.5 wt% MgO melt with ˜ 2 wt% H 2O would require a H 2O concentration of 0.3 wt% in the sub-arc mantle. For mantle sources fluxed with a slab-derived hydrous component, extracted melts may contain up to ˜ 5.5 wt% H 2O.

  8. Petrological mapping of a Low Velocity Zone (LVZ) induced by CO2-H2O-bearing incipient melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massuyeau, M.; Gardés, E.; Morizet, Y.; Le Trong, E.; Gaillard, F.

    2014-12-01

    The link between volatiles and mantle melting has so far been illuminated by experiments, revealing that ppm concentration levels of carbon and other volatiles in the Earth's mantle induce partial melting. Pressure-temperature conditions of incipient melting for CO2-H2O-peridotite [1] match fairly well with the upper part of the LVZ, as the redox melting [2] with the lower part. Recent experimental studies about the Earth mantle conductivity have shown the importance of small amounts of hydrated CO2-rich melts in the geophysical signature of the LVZ [3]. Although such melts are stable under the P-T-fO2 conditions of the LVZ [1-2, 4-6], the variability of these parameters complicates the definition of their chemical composition. Using Margules' formalisms, we established a multi-component model describing the Gibbs free energy of melt produced by mantle melting in presence of CO2-H2O, that are carbonatite-carbonated melt-nephilinite-basanite and basalt with increasing degree of partial melting. This parameterization is calibrated on crystal-liquid, redox, fluid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria obtained by experimental studies in the P-T range 1-10 GPa and 900-1800°C. We propose a calculation of the composition of melts produced in the oceanic LVZ as a function of ages (temperature) and chemical heterogeneities (water, alkalis). At about 80 km depth, we show that the composition of the melts is > 30 wt% SiO2 for ages < 30 Ma, and comes closer to the carbonatitic terms for older lithosphere. Besides lateral chemical variations, our model calculates the melt composition along an oceanic ridge adiabat, predicting an abrupt compositional transition between a H2O-rich carbonatitic melt and a carbonated silicate melt, between 130 km and 100 km. We propose a chemical mapping of the melt composition (and of the degree of partial melting) as a function of the distance to the ridge and of the depth. Our model represents an innovating attempt to connect the chemical variations between carbonated and silicated melts with the geophysical observations. [1] Wallace & Green, 1988, Nature 335, 343-346 [2] Stagno et al., 2013, Nature 493, 84-88 [3] Sifré et al., 2014, Nature 509, 81-85 [4] Presnall & Gudfinnsson, 2005, SPGSA 388, 207-216 [5] Hirschmann et al., 2009, PEPI 176, 54-68 [6] Dasgupta et al., 2013, Nature 493, 211-215

  9. Oxidation of Si during the growth of SiO{sub x} by ion-beam sputter deposition: In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as a function of oxygen partial pressure and deposition temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Kim, Jeong Won; Yang, Moon-Seung; Shin, Jung Hoon

    2006-10-15

    Oxidation of silicon during the growth of silicon oxide by ion beam sputter deposition was studied by in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as a function of oxygen partial pressure at various deposition temperatures below 600 deg. C. At low temperatures, the variation of incorporated oxygen content is similar to a dissociative adsorption isotherm of O{sub 2} on Si indicating that the surface-confined reaction of the deposited Si atoms with the adsorbed oxygen atoms is the main process. However, it shows a three-step variation with the oxygen partial pressure at high temperatures. The evolution of SiO species confirmed by the XPS indicates that an adsorption-induced surface reaction and a diffusion-induced internal reaction are the main pathways for the Si oxidation.

  10. The complexity of phosphorylated H2AX foci formation and DNA repair assembly at DNA double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Asako J.; Rao, V. Ashutosh; Pommier, Yves; Bonner, William M.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of genome stability requires efficient DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair mediated by the phosphorylation of multiple histone H2AX molecules near the break sites. The phosphorylated H2AX (?H2AX) molecules form foci covering many megabases of chromatin. the formation of ?-H2AX foci is critical for efficient DNA damage response (DDR) and for the maintenance of genome stability, however, the mechanisms of protein organization in foci is largely unknown. To investigate the nature of ?H2AX foci formation, we analyzed the distribution of ?H2AX and other DDR proteins at DSB sites using a variety of techniques to visualize, expand and partially disrupt chromatin. We report here that ?H2AX foci change composition during the cell cycle, with proteins 53BP1, NBS1 and MRE11 dissociating from foci in G2 and mitosis to return at the beginning of the following G1. In contrast, MDC1 remained colocalized with ?-H2AX during mitosis. In addition, while ?H2AX was found to span large domains flanking DSB sites, 53BP1 and NBS1 were more localized and MDC1 colocalized in doublets in foci. H2AX and MDC1 were found to be involved in chromatin relaxation after DSB formation. Our data demonstrates that the DSB repair focus is a heterogeneous and dynamic structure containing internal complexity. PMID:20046100

  11. Refinements in an Mg/MgH2/H2O-Based Hydrogen Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew; Huang, Yuhong

    2010-01-01

    Some refinements have been conceived for a proposed apparatus that would generate hydrogen (for use in a fuel cell) by means of chemical reactions among magnesium, magnesium hydride, and steam. The refinements lie in tailoring spatial and temporal distributions of steam and liquid water so as to obtain greater overall energy-storage or energy-generation efficiency than would otherwise be possible. A description of the prior art is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the present refinements. The hydrogen-generating apparatus in question is one of two versions of what was called the "advanced hydrogen generator" in "Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators" (NPO-43554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 1 (January 2009), page 52. To recapitulate: The apparatus would include a reactor vessel that would be initially charged with magnesium hydride. The apparatus would exploit two reactions: The endothermic decomposition reaction MgH2-->Mg + H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 300 C, and The exothermic oxidation reaction MgH2 + H2O MgO + 2H2, which occurs at a temperature greater than or equal to 330 C.

  12. Vapor-liquid phase equilibria of potassium chloride-water mixtures: Equation-of-state representation for KCl-H2O and NaCl-H2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Tanger, J.C., IV; Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of isothermal vapor-liquid compositions for KCl-H2O as a function of pressure are reported. An equation of state, which was originally proposed by Pitzer and was improved and used by Tanger and Pitzer to fit the vapor-liquid coexistence surface for NaCl-H2O, has been used for representation of the KCl-H2O system from 300 to 410??C. Improved parameters are also reported for NaCl-H2O from 300 to 500??C. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  13. Vanadate-induced cell death is dissociated from H2O2 generation.

    PubMed

    Capella, M A M; Capella, L S; Valente, R C; Gefé, M; Lopes, A G

    2007-11-01

    Vanadium is an environmentally toxic metal with peculiar and sometimes contradictory cellular effects. It is insulin-mimetic, it can either stimulate cell growth or induce cell death, and it has both mutagenic and antineoplastic properties. However, the mechanisms involved in those effects are poorly understood. Several studies suggest that H(2)O(2) is involved in vanadate-induced cell death, but it is not known whether cellular sensitivity to vanadate is indeed related to H(2)O(2) generation. In the present study, the sensitivity of four cell lines from different origins (K562, K562-Lucena 1, MDCK, and Ma104) to vanadate and H(2)O(2) was evaluated and the production of H(2)O(2) by vanadate was analyzed by flow cytometry. We show that cell lines very resistant to H(2)O(2) (K562, K562-Lucena 1, and Ma104 cells) are much more sensitive to vanadate than MDCK, a cell line relatively susceptible to H(2)O(2), suggesting that vanadate-induced cytotoxicity is not directly related to H(2)O(2) responsiveness. In accordance, vanadate concentrations that reduced cellular viability to approximately 60-70% of the control (10 mumol/L) did not induce H(2)O(2) formation. A second hypothesis, that peroxovanadium (PV) compounds, produced once vanadate enters into the cells, are responsible for the cytotoxicity, was only partially confirmed because MDCK cells were resistant to both vanadate and PV compounds (10 micromol/L each). Therefore, our results suggest that vanadate toxicity occurs by two distinct pathways, one dependent on and one independent of H(2)O(2) production. PMID:17457679

  14. Dynamics of CO2 partial pressure and CO2 outgassing in the lower reaches of the Xijiang River, a subtropical monsoon river in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Guanrong; Gao, Quanzhou; Wang, Zhengang; Huang, Xiakun; He, Tong; Zhang, Yongling; Jiao, Shulin; Ding, Jian

    2007-04-15

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in surface water was surveyed monthly at 6 sampling sites along the entire length of the lower reaches of the Xijiang River, a subtropical monsoon river in China, and at the mouths of its major tributaries, over a whole hydrological year from April 2005 to March 2006, to reveal the seasonal and spatial dynamics of pCO(2). Intensive sampling and measurements were also conducted at Wuzhou gauge station in June and July to investigate the impact of floodwater on pCO(2) and to further explore the relationship between river discharge and pCO(2). The pCO(2) levels were well above atmospheric equilibrium (380 microatm) during the entire survey period with obvious seasonal and spatial variations, ranging from 600 microatm to 7200 microatm for the mainstream and from 700 to 11000 microatm for tributaries, respectively. The pattern of pCO(2) seasonal variation across 6 sites was almost consistent with each other with little difference. The pCO(2) levels in the dry season were relatively low, with relatively slight temporal and spatial fluctuations that were predominantly controlled by in situ biogenic activities. While the pCO(2) in the wet season greatly varied with river discharge, both annual maximum and minimum pCO(2) levels occurring in this period. The much higher pCO(2) in the early wet season were mainly induced by increasing baseflow and interflow that flushed significant soil CO(2) into the streams, whereas the lower pCO(2) observed after floods from July to September, some even lower than pCO(2) levels in the dry season, potentially resulted from in situ plankton blooms. The annual minima pCO(2) levels occurring in this period were caused by the dilution effect of floodwater. There was no obvious downstream trend in pCO(2) variation during the whole survey period, probably a consequence of disturbance from tributaries or spatially distinct channel characteristics and water environments. Based on measurements, we estimate that the water-to-air CO(2) flux in the lower reaches of the Xijiang River is about 8.3-15.6 Mg C ha(-1)y(-1). The role of the Xijiang River as a net source of atmospheric CO(2) is undoubted. PMID:17307241

  15. Therapeutic Hypothermia Reduces Intracranial Pressure and Partial Brain Oxygen Tension in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary Data from the Eurotherm3235 Trial.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Liam M C; Rhodes, Jonathan; Andrews, Peter J D

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of disability and death and a huge economic burden throughout the world. Much of the morbidity associated with TBI is attributed to secondary brain injuries resulting in hypoxia and ischemia after the initial trauma. Intracranial hypertension and decreased partial brain oxygen tension (PbtO2) are targeted as potentially avoidable causes of morbidity. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) may be an effective intervention to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP), but could also affect cerebral blood flow (CBF). This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 17 patients admitted to the Western General Hospital, Edinburgh. Patients with an ICP >20?mmHg refractory to initial therapy were randomized to standard care or standard care and TH (intervention group) titrated between 32°C and 35°C to reduce ICP. ICP and PbtO2 were measured using the Licox system and core temperature was recorded through rectal thermometer. Data were analyzed at the hour before cooling, the first hour at target temperature, 2 consecutive hours at target temperature, and after 6 hours of hypothermia. There was a mean decrease in ICP of 4.3±1.6?mmHg (p<0.04) from 15.7 to 11.4?mmHg, from precooling to the first epoch of hypothermia in the intervention group (n=9) that was not seen in the control group (n=8). A decrease in ICP was maintained throughout all time periods. There was a mean decrease in PbtO2 of 7.8±3.1?mmHg (p<0.05) from 30.2 to 22.4?mmHg, from precooling to stable hypothermia, which was not seen in the control group. This research supports others in demonstrating a decrease in ICP with temperature, which could facilitate a reduction in the use of hyperosmolar agents or other stage II interventions. The decrease in PbtO2 is not below the suggested treatment threshold of 20?mmHg, but might indicate a decrease in CBF. PMID:26060880

  16. Systematic analysis of structural and spectroscopic properties of neptunimine (HN=NpH2) and plutonimine (HN=PuH2).

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Niu, Wenxia; Gao, Tao

    2015-12-01

    The structures, stabilities, nature of bonding, and spectroscopic properties of the new actinide imine molecules, neptunimine (HN=NpH2) and plutonimine (HN=PuH2), in the gas phase have been systematically explored at different levels of theory. Our calculation indicates that HN=AnH2 (An=Np, Pu) should be nonplanar and have a quartet ([Formula: see text]) and quintet ([Formula: see text]) ground state, respectively. The nature of the chemical bonding in these molecules were investigated by employing topological methods including electron localization function (ELF), atoms in molecules (AIM) as well as natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The results showed that these actinide complexes possess relatively strong An=N multiple bonds between the An 6d-5f hybrid orbitals with N 2s-2p orbitals. The charge decomposition analysis (CDA) diagram demonstrated that the transition of electrons mainly happened inside the AnH2 of HN=AnH2. Total and partial density of state (TDOS and PDOS) and also overlap population density of state (OPDOS) diagrams analysis were implemented. The IR and Raman spectra were theoretically simulated as a convenient way to confirm the existence of the actinide imine complexes in further experiments. PMID:26608606

  17. FLYING-WATER Renewables-H2-H2O TERRAFORMING: PERMANENT Drought(s)-Elimination FOREVER!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertl, G.; Alefeld, G.; Youdelis, W.; Radd, H.; Oertle, G.; Siegel, Edward

    2011-03-01

    "H2O H2O everywhere; ne'er a drop to drink"[Coleridge(1798)]; now: "H2 H2 everywhere; STILL ne'er a drop to drink": ONLY H2 (or methane CH4) can be FLYING-WATER(F-W) chemical-rain-in-pipelines Hindenberg-effect (H2-UP;H2O-DOWN): {O/H2O}=[16]/[18] 90 % ; O already in air uphill; NO H2O pumping need! In global-warming driven H2O-starved glacial-melting world, rescue is possible ONLY by Siegel [{3rd Intl. Conf. Alt.-Energy }(1980)-vol.5/p.459!!!] Renewables-H2-H2O purposely flexible versatile agile customizable scaleable retrofitable integrated operating-system. Rosenfeld[Science 315,1396(3/9/2007)]-Biello [Sci.Am.(3/9/2007)] crucial geomorph-ology which ONLY maximal-buoyancy H2 can exploit, to again make "Mountains into Fountains", ``upthrust rocks trapping the clouds to precipitate their rain/snow/H2O'': "terraforming"(and ocean-rebasificaton!!!) Siegel proprietary magnetic-hydrogen-valve (MHV) permits H2 flow in already in-ground dense BCC/ferritic-steels pipelines-network (NO new infrastructure) counters Tromp[Science 300,1740(2003)] dire warning of global-pandemics (cancers/ blindness/famine) Hydrogen-economy CATASTROPHIC H2 ozone-layer destruction sobering cavat to dangerous H2-automotion-economy panacea hype!!!

  18. Hydrogen-Storage Properties of Ni and LiBH4-Added MgH2.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Park, Hye Ryoung; Song, Myoung Youp

    2015-11-01

    In this work, MgH2 was employed as a starting material instead of Mg used in our previous work. Ni and LiBH4, which can absorb 18.4 wt% of hydrogen, were added. A sample with a composition of 86 wt% MgH2 + 10 wt% Ni + 4 wt% LiBH4 (named MgH2-10Ni-4LiBH4) was prepared by milling under hydrogen (reaction-involved milling) and its hydrogen-storage properties were examined. In addition, the rate-limiting step for the dehydriding reaction of the sample at the first cycle was analyzed. The activation of MgH2-10Ni-4LiBH4 for hydriding and dehydriding reactions was not required. The as-milled sample absorbed and released nearly 5 wt% H at 623 K for 60 min; it absorbed 4.90 wt% H under 12 bar H2 for 20 min and released 4.94 wt% H under 1.0 bar H2 for 60 min. The hydriding rate exhibited an inverse dependence on temperature. This is due to a decrease in the driving force for the hydriding reaction (the difference between the applied hydrogen pressure and the equilibrium plateau pressure) with the increase in temperature. PMID:26726593

  19. The assemblage WO2 + H2O as a steady-state hydrogen source in moderately reduced hydrothermal experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cygan, G.L.; I-Ming, Chou

    1990-01-01

    The values of fH2 for the assemblage WO2 + WO2.72 + H2O (designated as WO) have been measured in sealed Au capsules under an external pressure of 2 kbar CH4 and between 650 and 800??C using Ag-AgBr-HBr sensors of fH2. The fH2 values obtained can be represented by the equation log(fWOH2)2kbar,T(??0.06) = (-1924.9 ??(T,K) + 4.06 and are found to be slightly greater than those associated with the previously calibrated C-CH4 buffer. -from Authors

  20. The Paradox of a Wet (High H2O) and Dry (Low H2O/Ce) Mantle: High Water Concentrations in Mantle Garnet Pyroxenites from Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizimis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Water dissolved as trace amounts in anhydrous minerals has a large influence on the melting behavior and physical properties of the mantle. The water concentration of the oceanic mantle is inferred from the analyses of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) and Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB). but there is little data from actual mantle samples. Moreover, enriched mineralogies (pyroxenites, eclogites) are thought as important sources of heterogeneity in the mantle, but their water concentrations and their effect on the water budget and cycling in the mantle are virtually unknown. Here, we analyzed by FTIR water in garnet clinopyroxenite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii. These pyroxenites are high-pressure (>20kb) crystal fractionates from alkalic melts. The clinopyroxenes (cpx) have 260 to 576 ppm wt H2O, with the least differentiated samples (Mg#>0.8) in the 400-500 ppm range. Orthopyroxene (opx) contain 117-265 ppm H2O, about half of that of cpx, consistent with other natural sample studies, but lower than cpx/opx equilibrium from experimental data. The pyroxenite cpx and opx H2O concentrations are at the high-end of on-and off-craton peridotite xenolith concentrations and those of Hawaiian spinel peridotites. In contrast, garnet has extremely low water contents (<5ppm H2O). There is no correlation between H2O in cpx and lithophile element concentrations. Phlogopite is present in some samples, and its modal abundance shows a positive correlation in Mg# with cpx, implying equilibrium. However, there is no correlation between H2O concentrations and or the presence of phlogopite. These data imply that cpx and opx may be at water saturation, far lower than experimental data suggest. Reconstructed bulk rock pyroxenite H2O ranges from 200-460 ppm (average 331 +/- 75 ppm), 2 to 8 times higher than H2O estimates for the MORB source (50-200 ppm), but in the range of E-MORB, OIB and the source of rejuvenated Hawaiian magmas. The average bulk rock pyroxenite H2O/Ce is 69 +/-35, lower than estimates of the MORB source (approx 150) or FOZO, C (200-250) mantle component, but consistent with "dry" EM sources (<100). These data suggest that a metasomatized, refertilized oceanic lithosphere that contains pyroxenitic veins (e.g. the lower part of an oceanic plate, where ascending melts can become trapped and crystallize), will have both higher water concentrations and low H2O/Ce, and may contribute to EM-type OIB sources, like that of Samoa basalts. Therefore, a low H2O/Ce mantle source may not necessarily be "dry".

  1. H2 Production and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianqin; Rodriguez, Jose A.

    2007-01-01

    The world demand for energy and the need for protecting our environment can be achieved by increasing energy efficiency and by developing “clean” energy sources. Among the alternative fuels, hydrogen is receiving a lot of attention around the world. In this chapter, recent applications of oxide nanostructures in H2 production and fuel cell technology are summarized. We cover in detail catalytic studies for hydrogen production via the water gas shift reaction over ceria-based nanosystems. These studies illustrate the importance of understanding the fundamental conditions necessary for optimal operation of the catalysts.

  2. Simultaneous laboratory measurements of CO2 and H2O adsorption on palagonite: Implications for the Martian climate and volatile reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Quinn, R.

    1993-01-01

    We are measuring the simultaneous adsorption of H2O and CO2 on palagonite materials in order to improve the formulation of climate models for Mars. We report on the initial co-adsorption data. Models of the Martian climate and volatile inventory indicate that the regolith serves as one of the primary reservoirs of outgassed volatiles and that it exchanges H2O and CO2 with the atmosphere in response to changes in insolation associated with astronomical cycles. Physical adsorbate must exist on the surfaces of the cold particulates that constitute the regolith, and the size of that reservoir can be assessed through laboratory measurements of adsorption on terrestrial analogs. Many studies of the independent adsorption of H2O and CO2 on Mars analog were made and appear in the literature. Empirical expressions that relate the adsorptive coverage of each gas to the temperature of the soil and partial pressure have been derived based on the laboratory data. Numerical models incorporate these adsorption isotherms into climatic models, which predict how the adsorptive coverage of the regolith and hence, the pressure of each gas in the atmosphere will vary as the planet moves through its orbit. These models suggest that the regolith holds several tens to hundreds of millibars of CO2 and that during periods of high obliquity warming of the high-latitude regolith will result in desorption of the CO2, and a consequent increase in atmospheric pressure. At lower obliquities, the caps cool and the equator warms forcing the desorption of several tens of millibars of CO2, which is trapped into quasipermanent CO2 caps.

  3. Spheroidal textures in igneous rocks - Textural consequences of H2O saturation in basaltic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhaus, Chris; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten; Kirchenbaur, Maria; Zirner, Aurelia

    2015-10-01

    When melts reach H2O saturation before they are emplaced at the Earth's surface, they exsolve a hydrous fluid phase. At elevated pressure and high temperature, a hydrous fluid is not pure H2O but can contain some quantities of silicate and metal oxide solute, notably if fluid saturation occurs at high pressure. Chemically and physically, fluid-saturated basalts behave like any other system with liquid immiscibility. Textures that can result after solidification are globules of former fluid dispersed in a former silicate melt, or silicate melt orbs embedded in a former fluid matrix. The Troodos ophiolite on the island of Cyprus, generated in a back arc basin above a wet intra oceanic subduction zone, carries in its magmatic stratigraphy lithologies distinctly orbicular and globular in shape. Many melt compositions parental to the ophiolite were H2O-saturated near their liquidus temperatures before they reached their depths of emplacement within the ophiolite sequence. Spheroids are not uncommon in magmatic rocks but still debated as to how they form. We propose that globular and orbicular textures in igneous worldwide may result when melts reach H2O saturation and exsolve an immiscible solute-bearing H2O-dominated fluid phase at elevated temperature and pressure, before or while they are emplaced.

  4. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  5. H2 Desorption from MgH2 Surfaces with Steps and Catalyst-Dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Jason M.; Wang, Lin-Lin; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-03-10

    Light-metal hydrides, like MgH2, remain under scrutiny as prototypes for reversible H-storage materials. For MgH2, we assess hydrogen desorption/adsorption properties (enthalpy and kinetic barriers) for stepped, catalyst-doped surfaces occurring, e.g., from ball-milling in real samples. Employing density functional theory and simulated annealing in a slab model, we studied initial H2 desorption from stepped surfaces with(out) titanium (Ti) catalytic dopant. Extensive simulated annealing studies were performed to find the dopant’s site preferences. For the most stable initial and final (possibly magnetic) states, nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations were performed to determine the H2-desorption activation energy. We used a moment-transition NEB method to account for the dopant’s transition to the lowest-energy magnetic state at each image along the band. We identify a dopant-related surface-desorption mechanism that reloads via bulk H diffusion. While reproducing the observed bulk enthalpy of desorption, we find a decrease of 0.24 eV (a 14% reduction) in the activation energy on doped stepped surface; together with a 22% reduction on a doped flat surface, this brackets the assessed 18% reduction in kinetic barrier for ball-milled MgH2 samples with low concentration of Ti from experiment.

  6. H2O maser pumping: The effect of quasi-resonance energy transfer in collisions between H2 and H2O molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenok, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of quasi-resonance energy transfer in collisions between H2 and H2O molecules in H2O maser sources is investigated. New data on the state-to-state rate coefficients for collisional transitions for H2O and H2 molecules are used in the calculations. The results of ortho-H2O level population inversion calculations for the 22.2-, 380-, 439-, and 621-GHz transitions are presented. The ortho-H2O level population inversion is shown to depend significantly on the population distribution of the para-H2 J = 0 and 2 rotational levels. The possibility of quasi-resonance energy transfer in collisions between H2 molecules at highly excited rotational-vibrational levels and H2O molecules is considered. The quasi-resonance energy transfer effect can play a significant role in pumping H2O masers in the central regions of active galactic nuclei and in star-forming regions.

  7. Identification of H2S3 and H2S produced by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuka; Toyofuku, Yukiko; Koike, Shin; Shibuya, Norihiro; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Lefer, David; Ogasawara, Yuki; Kimura, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn) have a higher number of sulfane sulfur atoms than hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which has various physiological roles. We recently found H2Sn in the brain. H2Sn induced some responses previously attributed to H2S but with much greater potency than H2S. However, the number of sulfur atoms in H2Sn and its producing enzyme were unknown. Here, we detected H2S3 and H2S, which were produced from 3-mercaptopyruvate (3 MP) by 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST), in the brain. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FL) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses showed that H2S3 and H2S were produced from 3 MP in the brain cells of wild-type mice but not 3MST knockout (3MST-KO) mice. Purified recombinant 3MST and lysates of COS cells expressing 3MST produced H2S3 from 3 MP, while those expressing defective 3MST mutants did not. H2S3 was localized in the cytosol of cells. H2S3 was also produced from H2S by 3MST and rhodanese. H2S2 was identified as a minor H2Sn, and 3 MP did not affect the H2S5 level. The present study provides new insights into the physiology of H2S3 and H2S, as well as novel therapeutic targets for diseases in which these molecules are involved. PMID:26437775

  8. Kinetic Energy Distribution of H(2p) Atoms from Dissociative Excitation of H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; Ahmed, Syed M.; Kanik, Isik; Multari, Rosalie

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic energy distribution of H(2p) atoms resulting from electron impact dissociation of H2 has been measured for the first time with uv spectroscopy. A high resolution uv spectrometer was used for the measurement of the H Lyman-alpha emission line profiles at 20 and 100 eV electron impact energies. Analysis of the deconvolved 100 eV line profile reveals the existence of a narrow line peak and a broad pedestal base. Slow H(2p) atoms with peak energy near 80 meV produce the peak profile, which is nearly independent of impact energy. The wings of H Lyman-alpha arise from dissociative excitation of a series of doubly excited Q(sub 1) and Q(sub 2) states, which define the core orbitals. The fast atom energy distribution peaks at 4 eV.

  9. Critical role of lysine 134 methylation on histone H2AX for ?-H2AX production and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Sone, Kenbun; Piao, Lianhua; Nakakido, Makoto; Ueda, Koji; Jenuwein, Thomas; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phosphorylated histone H2AX (?-H2AX) is associated with the local activation of DNA-damage repair pathways. Although ?-H2AX deregulation in cancer has previously been reported, the molecular mechanism involved and its relationship with other histone modifications remain largely unknown. Here we find that the histone methyltransferase SUV39H2 methylates histone H2AX on lysine 134. When H2AX was mutated to abolish K134 methylation, the level of ?-H2AX became significantly reduced. We also found lower ?-H2AX activity following the introduction of double-strand breaks in Suv39h2 knockout cells or on SUV39H2 knockdown. Tissue microarray analyses of clinical lung and bladder tissues also revealed a positive correlation between H2AX K134 methylation and ?-H2AX levels. Furthermore, introduction of K134-substituted histone H2AX enhanced radio- and chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Overall, our results suggest that H2AX methylation plays a role in the regulation of ?-H2AX abundance in cancer. PMID:25487737

  10. Antiprotonic atoms in gaseous H2 and He and in liquid H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemuth, J. R.; Eckhause, M.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Kane, J. R.; Pandey, M. S.; Rushton, A. M.; Vulcan, W. F.; Welsh, R. E.; Winter, R. G.; Barnes, P. D.; Craig, J. N.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Sherman, J. D.; Sutton, R. B.; Wharton, W. R.; Miller, J. P.; Roberts, B. L.; Kunselman, A. R.; Powers, R. J.

    1984-11-01

    Antiprotons were brought to rest in targets of gaseous H2 and gaseous He at temperatures of 30 K and also in a target of liquid H2. High-resolution x-ray detectors were used to measure the energies of x rays from p¯-He and to search for x rays from p¯-H. The p¯-He data are compared with similar measurements at different densities and with the theoretical predictions of Landua and Klempt. The p¯-H data provide upper limits for the yields of nP-->1S x rays in liquid and gaseous hydrogen.

  11. Full-dimensional, high-level ab initio potential energy surfaces for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2 with application to hydrogen clathrate hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homayoon, Zahra; Conte, Riccardo; Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M.

    2015-08-01

    New, full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs), obtained using precise least-squares fitting of high-level electronic energy databases, are reported for intrinsic H2(H2O) two-body and H2(H2O)2 three-body potentials. The database for H2(H2O) consists of approximately 44 000 energies at the coupled cluster singles and doubles plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T))-F12a/haQZ (aug-cc-pVQZ for O and cc-pVQZ for H) level of theory, while the database for the three-body interaction consists of more than 36 000 energies at the CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ for O, cc-pVTZ for H) level of theory. Two precise potentials are based on the invariant-polynomial technique and are compared to computationally faster ones obtained via "purified" symmetrization. All fits use reduced permutational symmetry appropriate for these non-covalent interactions. These intrinsic potentials are employed together with existing ones for H2, H2O, and (H2O)2, to obtain full PESs for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2. Properties of these full PESs are presented, including a diffusion Monte Carlo calculation of the zero-point energy and wavefunction, and dissociation energy of the H2(H2O) dimer. These PESs together with an existing one for water clusters are used in a many-body representation of the PES of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, illustrated for H2@(H2O)20. An analysis of this hydrate is presented, including the electronic dissociation energy to remove H2 from the calculated equilibrium structure.

  12. Full-dimensional, high-level ab initio potential energy surfaces for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2 with application to hydrogen clathrate hydrates.

    PubMed

    Homayoon, Zahra; Conte, Riccardo; Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-08-28

    New, full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs), obtained using precise least-squares fitting of high-level electronic energy databases, are reported for intrinsic H2(H2O) two-body and H2(H2O)2 three-body potentials. The database for H2(H2O) consists of approximately 44?000 energies at the coupled cluster singles and doubles plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T))-F12a/haQZ (aug-cc-pVQZ for O and cc-pVQZ for H) level of theory, while the database for the three-body interaction consists of more than 36?000 energies at the CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (aug-cc-pVTZ for O, cc-pVTZ for H) level of theory. Two precise potentials are based on the invariant-polynomial technique and are compared to computationally faster ones obtained via "purified" symmetrization. All fits use reduced permutational symmetry appropriate for these non-covalent interactions. These intrinsic potentials are employed together with existing ones for H2, H2O, and (H2O)2, to obtain full PESs for H2(H2O) and H2(H2O)2. Properties of these full PESs are presented, including a diffusion Monte Carlo calculation of the zero-point energy and wavefunction, and dissociation energy of the H2(H2O) dimer. These PESs together with an existing one for water clusters are used in a many-body representation of the PES of hydrogen clathrate hydrates, illustrated for H2@(H2O)20. An analysis of this hydrate is presented, including the electronic dissociation energy to remove H2 from the calculated equilibrium structure. PMID:26328838

  13. Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoan; Liu, Weifeng; Guo, Jian; Sun, Dan; Pan, Bin; Ye, Yaoli; Ding, Weijun; Huang, Haobin; Li, Fujian

    2014-06-15

    Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ? 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria. PMID:24514078

  14. Turbulence in Supercritical O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 Mixing Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth; Okong'o, Nora

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a study of numerical simulations of mixing layers developing between opposing flows of paired fluids under supercritical conditions, the purpose of the study being to elucidate chemical-species-specific aspects of turbulence. The simulations were performed for two different fluid pairs O2/H2 and C7H16/N2 at similar reduced initial pressures (reduced pressure is defined as pressure divided by critical pressure). Thermodynamically, O2/H2 behaves more nearly like an ideal mixture and has greater solubility, relative to C7H16/N2, which departs strongly from ideality. Because of a specified smaller initial density stratification, the C7H16/N2 layers exhibited greater levels of growth, global molecular mixing, and turbulence. However, smaller density gradients at the transitional state for the O2/H2 system were interpreted as indicating that locally, this system exhibits enhanced mixing as a consequence of its greater solubility and closer approach to ideality. These thermodynamic features were shown to affect entropy dissipation, which was found to be larger for O2/H2 and concentrated in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that are distortions of the initial density-stratification boundary. In C7H16/N2, the regions of largest dissipation were found to lie in high-density-gradient-magnitude regions that result from mixing of the two fluids.

  15. Synthesis of C60H2 by rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation of C60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Evans, T. P.; Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Reduction of C60 with rhodium(0) on alumina and hydrogen in deuterated benzene (C6D6) at ambient temperature and pressure yields a mixture of hydrogenated compounds; C60H2 has been characterized as the major product in 14% yield based on 1H NMR.

  16. CO/H2 in Translucent Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James

    2005-01-01

    A thorough examination of techniques to improve the resolution of the FUSE spectrograph was undertaken. These involved co-adding time tagged data very carefully so as to remove any blurs caused by drift. In addition, data was binned by detector pulse height bin (to eliminate any positional vs. gain variations, e.g. "walk"). These techniques only resulted in an extremely modest increase in the spectral resolution, insufficient to allow the CO/H2 studies to be performed. The only remaining potential source of blur was defocus - implying the instrument was never properly focused on orbit. Private discussions with B.G. Anderson of the FUSE team resulted in my learning that this was in fact the case - the slidgrating distance was never optimized on orbit - resulting in a degradation of the peak performance of the instrument. Unfortunately, this was never publicized, even to myself, a member of the instrument tem and the spectrograph designer.

  17. Attosecond Photoelectron Microscopy of H2^+

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S.X.; Collins, L.A.; Schneider, B.I.

    2009-08-31

    We present a numerical study of the ultrafast ionization dynamics of H2^+ exposed to attosecond extreme ultraviolet (xuv) pulses that goes beyond the Born-Openheimer approximation. The four-dimensional, time-dependent Schrödinger equation was solved using a generalization of the finite-element discrete-variable-representation/real-space–product technique used in our previous calculations to include the dynamical motion of the nuclei. This has enabled us to expose the target to any polarized light at arbitrary angles with respect to the molecular axis. Calculations have been performed at different angles and photon energies (hw = 50 eV up to 630 eV) to investigate the energy and orientation dependence of the photoionization probability. A strong orientation dependence of the photoionization probability of H2^+ was found at a photon energy of hw = 50 eV. At this energy, we found that the ionization probability is three times larger in the perpendicular polarization than in the parallel case. These observations are explained by the different geometric “cross sections” seen by the photoejected electron as it leaves the molecule. This ionization anisotropy vanishes at the higher-photon energy of hw >- 170 eV. When these higher-energy xuv pulses are polarized perpendicular to the internuclear axis, a “double-slit-like” interference pattern is observed. However, we find that the diffraction angle only approaches the classical formula phi n = sin^?1 (n lamba_e /R0), where n is the diffraction order, lambda_e is the released electron wavelength, and R0 is the internuclear distance, when n lambda_e becomes less than 65% of R0. These results illustrate the possibility of employing attosecond pulses to perform photoelectron microscopy of molecules.

  18. Hydrogen effects on materials for CNG/H2 blends.

    SciTech Connect

    Farese, David; Keller, Jay O.; Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-09-01

    No concerns for Hydrogen-Enriched Compressed Natural gas (HCNG) in steel storage tanks if material strength is < 950 MPa. Recommend evaluating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in higher strength steels at H{sub 2} partial pressure in blend. Limited fatigue testing on higher strength steel cylinders in H{sub 2} shows promising results. Impurities in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (e.g., CO) may provide extrinsic mechanism for mitigating H{sub 2}-assisted fatigue cracking in steel tanks.

  19. [Intracranial pressure and hypotonic infusion solutions].

    PubMed

    Zander, R

    2009-04-01

    The physiological osmolality of plasma is 288+/-5 mosmol/kgH2O when measured by freezing-point depression. The theoretical osmolarity (290 mosmol/l) calculated from composition, osmotic coefficient (0.93) and water content (0.94) is practically identical. Saline (0.9% NaCl) has an osmolarity of 308 mosmol/l and an osmolality of 286 mosmol/kgH2O (water content ca. 1.0). The osmolality in vivo is more important than that measured in vitro. A 5% dextrose solution in water (D5W) is isotonic in vitro, but the in vivo effect is that of pure water because the glucose is rapidly metabolized. Every infusion fluid should be isotonic (290+/-10 mosmol/kgH2O). Hypotonic solutions must move water from the extracellular space to the intracellular space. Typical examples are Ringer's lactate and acetate solutions (256 instead of 290 mosmol/kgH2O). The brain (central nervous system, CNS) is the critical organ: The rigidly shaped skull contains three incompressible compartments, only blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be partially, but limitedly shifted outside the skull. The consequence of a volume load is an increasing intracranial pressure (ICP). A decrease in plasma osmolality by only 3% produces an increase in ICP of about 15 mmHg. Therefore, infusion of larger volumes of hypotonic solutions should be avoided at all costs. PMID:19326054

  20. Molecular characteristics of H2O in hydrate/ice/liquid water mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qibin; Tang, Qizhong; Peng, Tiefeng; Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Chao; Shi, Xiaoyang

    2015-09-01

    The interfacial properties of hydrate and its ambient play an important role in hydrate technique. In this paper, the molecular characteristics of H2O in hydrate/ice/liquid water mixture system are investigated based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The structure I (sI) methane hydrate is partially heated to obtain the studied system. The properties including hydrogen bond, radial distribution function (RDF) and F3 order parameter (tetrahedral coordinated parameter of H2O) indicate that there is little difference of water structure in the hydrate region and ice/liquid water mixture region. The F4 order parameter (parameter based on H-O-O-H torsion angles of H2O) could be used to distinguish the different region. The value of F4 experiences the continuous change at interface between mixture region and hydrate region.

  1. Resonances in ultracold reactive collisions of vibrationally excited ortho and para H2 with D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbotin, I.; Côté, R.

    2014-05-01

    Recent experimental work on collisions of molecular hydrogen with metastable helium showed pronounced shape resonances in the sub-kelvin regime, which have a dramatic effect on the energy dependence of cross sections. In our computational work we will address the question of whether such near threshold resonances exist for the benchmark system H2 + D. Detailed computations will be performed for an energy range extending from ultracold to about E = 20 kelvin (to include the temperature regime of astrophysical interest, e.g., relevant to cold molecular clouds). We will explore several initial vibrational states of H2 in order to see how the internal vibrational excitation will influence the presence of shape resonances. We will also investigate the effect of the nuclear spin symmetry of H2 by computing scattering rates for both ortho and para hydrogen, which could give significantly different results at low energies. Partial support from ARO.

  2. Effects of rotational-symmetry breaking on physisorption of ortho- and para-H2 on Ag(111).

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Toshiki; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

    2014-04-11

    Quantum-state-selective thermal desorption of H2 weakly physisorbed on Ag(111) demonstrates significantly different desorption features between the nuclear-spin modifications. An energy shift due to the rotational-symmetry breaking induced by an anisotropic interaction affects not only the enthalpy but also the entropy of adsorption. The preexponential factor for desorption of the ortho-H2 is about three times as large as that of the para-H2. The entropy difference indicates a perpendicular orientation preference of anisotropic physisorption potential, which also suggests the importance of partial hybridization interaction for weak physisorption. PMID:24765990

  3. The effect of a forced-air warming blanket on patients' end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressures during eye surgery under local anaesthesia: a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sukcharanjit, S; Tan, A S B; Loo, A V P; Chan, X L; Wang, C Y

    2015-12-01

    Surgical drapes used during eye surgery are impermeable to air and hence risk trapping air underneath them. We investigated the effect of a forced-air warming blanket on carbon dioxide accumulation under the drapes in patients undergoing eye surgery under local anaesthesia without sedation. Forty patients of ASA physical status 1 and 2 were randomly assigned to either the forced-air warmer (n = 20) or a control heated overblanket (n = 20). All patients were given 1 l.min(-1) oxygen. We measured transcutaneous and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressures, heart rate, arterial pressure, respiratory rate, temperature and oxygen saturation before and after draping, then every 5 min thereafter for 30 min. The mean (SD) transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in the forced-air warming group stayed constant after draping at 5.7 (0.2) kPa but rose to a maximum of 6.4 (0.4) kPa in the heated overblanket group (p = 0.0001 for the difference at time points 15 min and later). We conclude that forced-air warming reduces carbon dioxide accumulation under the drapes in patients undergoing eye surgery under local anaesthesia. PMID:26348782

  4. Shocking H2O Ice: The Role of Phase Changes during Impact Crater Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S. T.; Senft, L. E.; Seifter, A.; Obst, A. W.

    2008-12-01

    New experimental data and cratering calculations illustrate the complex response of H2O ice to shock compression. We present peak and post-shock temperature measurements from shocked H2O ice. In experiments with shock pressures between 8 and 14 GPa, initially ~150 K ice is compressed to a supercritical state. In the time frame of the experiment, the supercritical H2O releases to the saturation vapor curve and does not achieve full decompression. Further decompression requires a significant volume expansion. In general, the time scale of expansion will depend on the internal energy and the surrounding conditions (e.g., confined or unconfined). The temperature data validate a new 5-Phase hydrocode equation of state model for H2O, which includes ice Ih, VI, VII, liquid, and vapor. Using the 5-Phase EOS, we model impact cratering onto icy satellites. After passage of the impact-generated shock wave, material beneath the growing transient crater has a layered composition: vapor, liquid, high- pressure phases (ices VII and VI), and ice Ih. The high pressure phases cannot fully decompress without a large volume increase. Thus, these phases initially unload to the pressure along the phase boundary; this pressurized region affects the excavation flow field. The changes in crater excavation lead to differences in crater size and amount of ejecta compared to excavation in a homogeneous target. The differences are significant for large craters (e.g., complex craters on Ganymede and Callisto). The modified excavation flow field also concentrates highly shocked material in the crater floor. In cases where a large, hot plug is buried during crater collapse, explosions occur as the material cools by transforming to vapor, producing features similar to central pits observed on Ganymede, Callisto, and Mars. The behavior of shocked H2O ice during decompression should lead to a variety of features that depend on the ambient conditions specific to each icy planetary body.

  5. Application of the Hartmann-Tran profile to analysis of H2O spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisak, D.; Cygan, A.; Bermejo, D.; Domenech, J. L.; Hodges, J. T.; Tran, H.

    2015-10-01

    The Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP), which has been recently recommended as a new standard in spectroscopic databases, is used to analyze spectra of several lines of H2O diluted in N2, SF6, and in pure H2O. This profile accounts for various mechanisms affecting the line-shape and can be easily computed in terms of combinations of the complex Voigt profile. A multi-spectrum fitting procedure is implemented to simultaneously analyze spectra of H2O transitions acquired at different pressures. Multi-spectrum fitting of the HTP to a theoretical model confirms that this profile provides an accurate description of H2O line-shapes in terms of residuals and accuracy of fitted parameters. This profile and its limiting cases are also fit to measured spectra for three H2O lines in different vibrational bands. The results show that it is possible to obtain accurate HTP line-shape parameters when measured spectra have a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio and span a broad range of collisional-to-Doppler line widths. Systematic errors in the line area and differences in retrieved line-shape parameters caused by the overly simplistic line-shape models are quantified. Also limitations of the quadratic speed-dependence model used in the HTP are demonstrated in the case of an SF6 broadened H2O line, which leads to a strongly asymmetric line-shape.

  6. Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets).

    PubMed

    Holm, N G; Oze, C; Mousis, O; Waite, J H; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A

    2015-07-01

    Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds. PMID:26154779

  7. Serpentinization and the Formation of H2 and CH4 on Celestial Bodies (Planets, Moons, Comets)

    PubMed Central

    Oze, C.; Mousis, O.; Waite, J.H.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Serpentinization involves the hydrolysis and transformation of primary ferromagnesian minerals such as olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) and pyroxenes ((Mg,Fe)SiO3) to produce H2-rich fluids and a variety of secondary minerals over a wide range of environmental conditions. The continual and elevated production of H2 is capable of reducing carbon, thus initiating an inorganic pathway to produce organic compounds. The production of H2 and H2-dependent CH4 in serpentinization systems has received significant interdisciplinary interest, especially with regard to the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds and the origins and maintenance of life in Earth's lithosphere and elsewhere in the Universe. Here, serpentinization with an emphasis on the formation of H2 and CH4 are reviewed within the context of the mineralogy, temperature/pressure, and fluid/gas chemistry present in planetary environments. Whether deep in Earth's interior or in Kuiper Belt Objects in space, serpentinization is a feasible process to invoke as a means of producing astrobiologically indispensable H2 capable of reducing carbon to organic compounds. Key Words: Serpentinization—Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis—Hydrogen formation—Methane formation—Ultramafic rocks. Astrobiology 15, 587–600. PMID:26154779

  8. Measurements of the Centimeter-Wave Properties of H2O under Simulated Conditions for Deep Jovian Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpowicz, Bryan M.; Steffes, P. G.

    2009-09-01

    Over to 1800 laboratory measurements of the microwave opacity and refractivity of H2O in a H2/He atmosphere have been conducted in the 5-20 cm wavelength range (1.5-6 GHz) at pressures from 12 mBars to 100 Bars and at temperatures from 333 to 525 K. The mole fraction of H2O ranged from 0.01% to 20% with some additional measurements of pure H2O . The high accuracy of these results have enabled development of a new model for the opacity of H2O in a H2/He atmosphere under Jovian conditions. The model employs empirically-fitted line parameters for H2, He, and self-broadening. The new model for H2O opacity will provide reliable results for pressures up to 100 Bars and at frequencies up to 6 GHz. These results directly impact the retrieval of Jovian atmospheric constituent abundances from microwave emission measurements conducted with earth-based radio telescopes and with the future NASA Juno mission. This work was supported by NASA Contract NNM06AA75C from the Marshall Space Flight Center supporting the Juno Mission Science Team, under Subcontract 699054X from the Southwest Research Institute.

  9. Strength and ductility of room-dry and water-saturated igneous rocks at low pressures and temperatures to partial melting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Handin, J.; Higgs, N.G.; Lantz, J.R.; Bauer, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    Rock types that are likely candidates for drilling were tested. Reported herein are the short-time ultimate strengths and ductilities determined at temperatures of 25/sup 0/ to 1050/sup 0/C and a strain rate of 10/sup -4/s/sup -1/ of (a) room-dry Mt. Hood Andesite, Cuerbio Basalt, and Charcoal (St. Cloud Gray) Granodiorite at confining pressures of 0, 50, and 100 MPa, (b) water-saturated specimens of the same three rocks at zero effective pressure (both pore and confining pressures of 50 MPa), and (c) room-dry Newberry Rhyolite Obsidian at 0 and 50 MPa. These strengths are then compared with the stresses developed at the wall of a borehole in an elastic medium at the appropriate temperatures and mean pressures to assess the problem of borehole stability. (MHR)

  10. Non-BCS thermodynamic properties of H2 S superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durajski, Artur P.; Szcze&¸sacute; niak, Rados?aw; Li, Yinwei

    2015-08-01

    The present paper determines the thermodynamic properties of the superconducting state in the H2S compound. The values of the pressure from 130 GPa to 180 GPa were taken into consideration. The calculations were performed in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. In the first step, the experimental course of the dependence of the critical temperature on the pressure was reproduced: TC ? < 31, 88 > K, whereas the Coulomb pseudopotential equal to 0.15 was adopted. Next, the following quantities were calculated: the order parameter at the temperature of zero Kelvin (? (0)), the specific heat jump at the critical temperature (?C (TC) ?CS (TC) -CN (TC)), and the thermodynamic critical field (HC (0)). It was found that the values of the dimensionless ratios: R? ? 2 ? (0) /kBTC , RC ? ?C(TC) /CN (TC) , and RH ?TCCN (TC) / HC2(0) deviate from the predictions of the BCS theory: R? ? < 3.64, 4.16 > , RC ? < 1.59, 2.24 > , and RH ? < 0.144, 0.163 > . Generalizing the results on the whole family of the HnS -type compounds, it was shown that the maximum value of the critical temperature can be equal to ˜290 K, while R?,RC and RH adopt the following values: 6.53, 3.99, and 0.093, respectively.

  11. Improved 02/H2 Gas Mixture Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moulthrop, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Monitor of mixture concentrations uses catalyzed and uncatalyzed temperature probe. Sensor includes Pt-catalyzed temperature probe mounted in line with similar uncatalyzed temperature probe. Use of common temperature probes and standard, flareless, high-pressure tubefittings resulted in design conductive to installation in almost any system. Suitable for use in regenerative fuel cells, life-support systems, and other closed systems.