These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

MODELACIN DE MEDIOS FRACTURADOS MEDIANTE REDES DE FRACTURAS DISCRETAS  

E-print Network

MODELACIÓN DE MEDIOS FRACTURADOS MEDIANTE REDES DE FRACTURAS DISCRETAS LEONARDO DAVID DONADO [1, 2 trazadores en redes de fracturas discretas (DFN, por sus siglas en inglés). Se inicia con la generación de redes de fracturas (representadas por discos 2D) embebidas en un dominio 3D. Una vez se han generado las

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

2

Esercizi di Matematica Discreta --CdS in Informatica, a.a.2003-2004 Funzioni composte e funzioni invertibili  

E-print Network

Esercizi di Matematica Discreta -- CdS in Informatica, a.a.2003-2004 Funzioni composte e funzioni´e dominio e codominio delle tre funzioni sono uguali, si possono costruire 6 funzioni composte, hanno tutte(h(x)) = h(-x) = x. Solo le due funzioni composte h f e f h sono uguali. 5 #12;Es.3 g f : Z � Z Z � Z `e

Robbiano, Lorenzo

3

LA PREPARACIÓN DEL PROFESOR PARA EL DESARROLLO DE HABILIDADES BÁSICAS EN EDUCACIÓN LABORAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

El modelo educativo de Secundaria Básica exige de un profesional que por su nivel de preparación, sea capaz de garantizar la formación integral de las presentes y futuras generaciones. En tal sentido, la presente investigación incursiona en una de las problemáticas acuciantes de esta educación “la preparación de los profesores de Secundaria Básica, para favorecer el desarrollo de habilidades prácticas

Alfredo Puig Batista

2010-01-01

4

DESARROLLO DE HABILIDADES COGNITIVAS EN NIÑOS(AS) ORIENTADO EN LA METACOGNICION A TRAVES DE LA INTERACCION CON ROBOTS MOVILES EN AMBIENTES DE REALIDAD VIRTUAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Este trabajo es la presentación de un proceso de investigación que esta orientado en el uso de las herramientas tecnológicas, especialmente en el manejo con robots móviles en ambientes virtuales, para estimular el desarrollo de habilidades cognitivas en los estudiantes desde temprana edad, retroalimentándose en modelos pedagógicos como el Constructivismo, la Heurística y la Metacogniciòn, este último, el espacio

Maria E. Pérez Mantilla; Grupo de Investigación

5

Habilidades matemáticas y funcionamiento ejecutivo de niños con trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad y dificultades del aprendizaje de las matemáticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pesar de que un 26% de niños con TDAH tiene una dificultad específica en el aprendizaje de las ma- temáticas (DAM) las investigaciones han sido escasas. El presente estudio se planteó estudiar: 1) el perfil de los niños con TDAH+DAM en habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas de cálculo y solución de problemas, en comparación con niños con TDAH, niños con

Ana Miranda Casas; Amanda Meliá de Alba; Rafaela Marco Taverner

2009-01-01

6

Matematica Discreta Tercero de Matematicas UAM, curso 2008-2009  

E-print Network

. Referencia: The probabilistic method. Noga Alon, Joel H. Spencer. Wiley, 2000. Referencia: Nine lectures on random graphs. Joel H. Spencer. #12;7. Teor´ia de Ramsey. Resultados "a la Ramsey". N´umeros de Ramsey, singularidades algebraicas. Referencia: Generatingfunctionology. Tercera edici´on. Herbert Wilf. AK Peters, 2006

Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

7

Matematica Discreta Tercero de Matematicas UAM, curso 2009-2010  

E-print Network

´istico. Referencias: "The probabilistic method', Noga Alon, Joel H. Spencer. Wiley, 2000. "Nine lectures on random graphs". Joel H. Spencer. 7. Teor´ia de Ramsey Palabras clave/descripci´on: resultados "a la Ramsey". N: "Generatingfunctionology". Tercera edici´on. Herbert Wilf. AK Peters, 2006. 12. Grafos planos Palabras clave

Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

8

Formación en Matemática Discreta usando Lenguajes de Programación  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been teaching introductory courses on Functional Programming, as part of the curricula of computer science University studies, for several years. Through our exp erience we arrived at the conclusion that the origin of most of the difficulties in learning Functional Programming doesn't lie in computer science courses but in the mathematical background of the students: for instance Discret

Sylvia Rita da Rosa; Gustavo Anibal Cirigliano

9

EXERC'ICIOS DE MATEMA'TICA DISCRETA 2O. SEMESTRE DE 2008  

E-print Network

tal cole,c"ao de grafos com M = 2(2) . (ii)D^e uma cota superior para M. 3. Prove|f(x)| para todo x satisfa- zendo |x| x0, onde C e x0 > 0 s"ao constantes absolutas. (Observe + . .]. 2 3 4. Prove as seguintes estimativas para ab, onde a e b s"ao inteiros n

Kohayakawa, Yoshiharu

10

La trasformata discreta di Fourier e la FFT Dario A. Bini, Universit`a di Pisa  

E-print Network

di un vettore di n componenti bastano circa 3 2 n log2 n operazioni purch´e n sia una potenza intera sono n, essendo valori tutti distinti, e la loro potenza n-esima fa 1 dato che (j n)n = (n n)j = 1j = 1 potenza non nulla di n `e radice primitiva. La radice n come pure la sua coniugata sono radici primitive

Bini, Dario

11

T'opicos en Matem'aticas Discretas II (Semestre Oto~no 2000)  

E-print Network

), ffl Reticulados y sus Aplicaciones (Marcos Kiwi), ffl N'umeros Aleatorios: Teor'ia y Practica (Claudio@wesleyan.edu), o ffl Marcos Kiwi (mkiwi@dim.uchile.cl), o ffl Martin Matamala (mmatamal@dim.uchile.cl). El horario

Rapaport, Iván

12

ATIVIDADES DIGITAIS: SEU USO PARA O DESENVOLVIMENTO DE HABILIDADES COGNITIVAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work presents the digital activities that had been created, shaped and implemented, aiming to visualize the importance of digital educational games as didactic resource in learning processes and in the development of the mathematical and spatial logical reasoning. The work focused the way that the learning is processed, the contribution of computer science for education, the use of

Cláudio Afonso

13

Consciência fonológica e habilidade de leitura na Síndrome de Down  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the relationship between phonological awareness and reading ability in Down syndrome (DS). Thirty-three individuals with DS participated in the study. They all had begun to read and all showed clear signs of phonological recoding skills. Thirty-three normal children, matched with the individuals with DS for reading ability, served as controls. The results contradicted Cossu, Rossini and

Cláudia Cardoso-Martins; Uta Frith

1993-01-01

14

Modeling of VSI fed induction motor-a systematic and general approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the investigation of AC motor drives, either in simulation or in control, an appropriate mathematical model is required. The modeling approach of integration of a motor-inverter system is proposed in the paper. With the topological graph of the inverter circuit and the primitive connection matrix and the transmission matrix of the graph, the restraint equations and the output equations

Zhifeng Zhuang; Minxun Chen

1992-01-01

15

Interfaces CerebroComputador no Invasivos para Sustitucin Motora Dr. Javier Mnguez Zafra  

E-print Network

de trabajo es un paciente con una lesión medular grave o una enfermedad neuromuscular crónica que graves tales como la esclerosis lateral amiotrófica, infarto cerebral, parálisis cerebral y lesiones en

Minguez, Javier

16

Transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH): aspectos relacionados à comorbidade com distúrbios da atividade motora  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the physiopathological and clinical aspects related to Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in particular the ones con- cerning the association of this disorder with the Coordination Development Disorder. The Medline database was used to sur vey indexed articles from 1965 thru 2004. As a result of the articles selected, others were obtained through the relevance assigned to them in

Heloisa S. Pereira; Alexandra P. Q. C. Araújo; Paulo Mattos

17

DIA HORA AULA CURSO TITULACION ASIGNATURA 07/06/2013 9:00 AIII 007 (58) 1 Grado en Ingeniera de Computadores Lgica y Matemtica Discreta (43)  

E-print Network

Grado en Ingeniería de Computadores Desarrollo de Aplicaciones Distribuidas (29) 17/06/2013 18:00 AI 001 002 (78) 4 Grado en Ingeniería de Computadores Laboratorio de Dispositivos Moviles (22) 10/06/2013 9

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

18

CREENCIAS IMPLÍCITAS DE HABILIDAD EN LA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA Y EL DEPORTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Ability beliefs that people possess influence human behavior in an important way. Therefore, the objective of this work is to give shape to a revision of ability beliefs in physical activity and sport. To achieve this, in the first place, a description of concepts is performed, to continue by showing the instruments developed for their evaluation in the physical-sport

González-Cutre

19

Apoyando el aprendizaje de habilidades empresariales mediante la utilización de un simulador  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of games as a support in the educational process has been growing in recent years, especially in the computer field in which entertainment has a privileged place. Usually, industry put more emphasis on entertainment than education. However, there are several software development efforts that could be considered educational and thus collaborate into the learning process. This paper presents

Emiliano González; Luca Cernuzzi

20

Relação entre independência e o nível de disfunção motora e funcional em pacientes hemiparéticos Relation between functional independence and motor impairments in hemiparetic post-stroke patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective: The purpose of this study is to verify the correlation between functional independence and motor impairments in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. Method: Twenty-three stroke patients were randomly selected. The exclusion criteria were severe cognitive dysfunction, comprehension aphasia and impossibility of participating. Before the patients signed the Consent Form, they were submitted to the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The questionnaire

Camila Torriani; Eliane Pires de Oliveira Mota; Sônia Hitomi; Pedrosa Kazurayama; Stella Ruhe Burin; Tatiana Mengatti; Juliana Caminho; Graziela Bastos; Jenifer Chris

21

El software educativo en la escuela cubana: una propuesta metodológica para el desarrollo de habilidades en la resolución de problemas aritméticos. Estudio de caso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrar las tecnologías digitales en las aulas y centros educativos así como replantear y redefinir los contenidos del currículum parecen medidas urgentes. Llevarlo a cabo, entre otras medidas, implicará necesariamente realizar importantes inversiones económicas en dotación de recursos tecnológicos suficientes para los centros educativos y en la creación de redes telemáticas educativas; desarrollar estrategias de formación del profesorado y de

Enrique Medina Hernández

2011-01-01

22

Using Songs to Encourage Sixth Graders to Develop English Speaking Skills (Uso de canciones para motivar a los estudiantes de grado sexto a desarrollar habilidades orales en inglés)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article contains the procedures and findings of an investigation carried out by a team of teachers with the purpose of motivating students to speak English. We observed students' lack confidence to talk and that they had little motivation toward learning English. Thus, we used songs as a main resource in conjunction with different kind…

Duarte Romero, Mónica Duarte; Tinjacá Bernal, Luz Mery; Carrero Olivares, Marilú

2012-01-01

23

O Repertório de Habilidades Sociais de profissionais que atuam com vendas no setor comercial de tecnologia da informação e suas implicações na qualidade da prestação de serviços  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organizações estão buscando sempre mais oferecer produtos e serviços de qualidade, atendendo às exigências, necessidades e desejos dos clientes. O presente estudo teve como objetivo diagnosticar o potencial do método QFD (Desdobramento dda Função Qualidade), como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento da qualidade nas atividades logísticas de armazenagem e movimentação de produtos no Centro de Distribuição de uma rede varejista

Marcos Macri Olivera

24

Skype™ Conference Calls: A Way to Promote Speaking Skills in the Teaching and Learning of English (Llamadas para conferencia en Skype™: una forma de promover la habilidad de habla en la enseñanza y aprendizaje del inglés)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the results of a research project on the teaching and learning of English through the use of Skype™ conference calls. The research was carried out with a group of 12 English as a foreign language adult learners in the language institute of Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, Bogotá, Colombia. The findings of this…

Romaña Correa, Yeferson

2015-01-01

25

Metacognitive Awareness and Comprehension Monitoring in Reading Ability of Iranian EFL Learners (Monitoreo de la conciencia metacognitiva y de la comprensión en la habilidad lectora de estudiantes iraníes de inglés como lengua extranjera)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report an investigation on the relationship between metacognitive awareness of reading strategies and comprehension monitoring of language learners in English as a foreign language context. Participants were thirty first year university students majoring in electronics. They completed a questionnaire aimed at discerning the strategies that…

Khonamri, Fatemeh; Mahmoudi Kojidi, Elahe

2011-01-01

26

Recursos de reabilitação de distúrbios da comunicação e linguagem para melhor qualidade de vida em quadros sensoriais, motores e cognitivos Communication and language disorders rehabilitation resources for a better quality of life in sensory, motor and cognitive conditions Recursos de rehabilitación de los problemas de la comunicación y del lenguaje para una mejor calidad de vida en enfermedades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivas  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O artigo revisa alguns instrumentos validados e normatizados para diagnóstico diferencial de distúrbios de comunicação e linguagem oral, escrita e de sinais, bem como recursos comprovadamente eficazes para a reabilitação cognitiva por eles orientada. Fornece ainda informações sobre a disponibilidade e as indicações de instrumentos de avaliação e intervenção capazes de aperfeiçoar a prática de profissionais e pesquisadores voltados

Fernando César Capovilla; Elizeu Coutinho de Macedo

27

Probabilidad 1 Segundo de Matematicas  

E-print Network

la funci´on de densidad conjunta de X e Y . 2. Sean X e Y dos variables aleatorias discretas para las discretas X e Y tiene funci´on de densidad conjunta (para un cierto valor del par´ametro ) P(X = i, Y = j ecuaci´on + 22 + 33 + 24 + 5 = 1. ii) H´allense las funciones de densidad marginales de X y de Y . iii

Fernández Gallardo, Pablo

28

Labor demand and information technologies: evidence for Spain, 1980-2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizando la base de datos EU KLEMS, se contrasta la hipótesis de complementariedad entre habilidad y capital en los distintos sectores productivos en España en el periodo 1980-2005. Se analizan tres tipos de trabajadores clasificados según su nivel de habilidad sea alto, medio o bajo. Los activos de capital se van a clasificar entre activos TIC (tecnologías de la información

Manuel A. Hidalgo Pérez; Jesús Rodríguez López

2008-01-01

29

Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

PROGRAMACION 80 21,25% 57,50% 36,96 % 3,53 1 LOGICA Y MATEMATICA DISCRETA 61 77,05% 88,52% 87,04 % 3,40 1,11% 100,0 0% 4,31 2 PROGRAMACION ORIENTADA A OBJETOS 28 32,14% 85,71% 37,50 % 4,13 2 REDES DE COMPUTADORES

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

30

Estadistica II Tema 0. Repaso de conceptos basicos  

E-print Network

valores de una variable aleatoria Definimos funciones (funciones de probabilidad, distribuci´on, densidad aleatorias por la forma de sus funciones de probabilidad, densidad Variables discretas Para una variable funci´on de densidad como f (x) = dF(x) dx = F (x) #12;Distribuciones de probabilidad Propiedades F

Gil, Ana Arribas

31

Probabilidades y procesos estoc asticos (MA-34A) Temas a cubrir  

E-print Network

. Distribuci#19;on. Densidad en caso discreto y continuo. 4. Valor esperado, momentos (3,0 hrs.) Valor esperado. Discusi#19;on de casos con densidad discreta y continua. Momentos de una variable aleatoria. 5. Familias, relaciones. Transformaciones. 7. Distribuciones multivariadas (6,0 hrs.) Distribuci#19;on, densidad conjunta

Rapaport, Iván

32

Smartphones para cegos Uma inveno portuguesa  

E-print Network

Smartphones para cegos Uma invenção portuguesa Usar um ecrã tátil de forma discreta, sem recurso ao mentores do projeto. O Holi�raille é uma espécie de capa, acoplável à parte de trás de um smartphone e que

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

33

Productividad total de los factores en el sector agrario gallego, 1970-95. Analisis provincial  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo calculamos indices de productividad total de los factores para el sector agrario gallego en su conjunto (agricultura y ganaderia). Para ello aplicamos el indice de Divisia en su aproximacion discreta (Törnqvist-Theil), con el objeto de llevar a cabo la agregacion del output y de los factores productivos. Para el calculo del output hemos recopilado cantidades y precios

X. A. Rodriguez; Eva Aguayo; Pilar Exposito

2000-01-01

34

Evolucion de la produccion y la productividad en el sector agrario español  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo calculamos indices de productividad total de los factores para el sector agrario gallego en su conjunto (agricultura y ganaderia). Para ello aplicamos el indice de Divisia en su aproximacion discreta (Törnqvist-Theil), con el objeto de llevar a cabo la agregacion del output y de los factores productivos. Para el calculo del output hemos recopilado cantidades y precios

Pilar Exposito; Xose Anton Rodriguez

2002-01-01

35

Stripped-down Motor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, you'll make an electric motor--a simple version of the electric motors found in toys, tools, and appliances everywhere. The activity includes three short online videos: Introduction, Step-by-Step Instructions, and What's Going On. Also available: a concept map and a "Going Further" document that suggests variations on this activity.

The Exploratorium

2007-01-01

36

Vicerrectorado de Profesorado, Titulaciones, Ordenacin Acadmica, Coordinacin y Campus.  

E-print Network

PROGRAMACION 68 32,35% 91,18% 35,48% - 1 LOGICA Y MATEMATICA DISCRETA 26 88,46% 100,00% 88,46% 3,83 1 JURIDICOS BASICOS Y DEONTOLOGIA PROFESIONAL E IGUALDAD 44 86,36% 86,36% 100,00% 4,16 2 PROGRAMACION DE PROGRAMACION 11 54,55% 63,64% 85,71% 3,48 3 PROGRAMACION CONCURRENTE 24 45,83% 83,33% 55,00% 4

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

37

Review of Canadian species of the genus Mocyta Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae), with the description of a new species and a new synonymy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Six species of the genus Mocyta Mulsant & Rey are reported from Canada: Mocyta amblystegii (Brundin), Mocyta breviuscula (Mäklin), Mocyta discreta (Casey), Mocyta fungi (Gravenhorst), Mocyta luteola (Erichson), and Mocyta sphagnorum Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n. New provincial and state records include: Mocyta breviuscula – Saskatchewan and Oregon; Mocyta discreta – Quebec, Ontario and Saskatchewan; Mocyta luteola – New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Massachusetts and Minnesota; and Mocyta fungi – Saskatchewan. Mocyta sphagnorum is described from eastern Canada from specimens captured in Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. Mocyta negligens Mulsant and Rey, a native European species suspected of occurring in Canada, is excluded from the Nearctic fauna based on comparison of European types with similarly coloured Canadian specimens, which are now identified as Mocyta luteola. The European species, Mocyta gilvicollis (Scheerpeltz), is synonymized with another European nominal species, Mocyta negligens, based on examination of type material of the two species. Lectotypes are designated for Eurypronota discreta Casey, Atheta gilvicollis Scheerpeltz, Homalota luteola Erichson, Colpodota negligens Mulsant and Rey, Acrotona prudens Casey and Dolosota redundans Casey. The latter species is here synonymized with Mocyta luteola. A review of the six Nearctic species is provided, including keys to species and closely related genera, colour habitus images, images of genitalia, biological information and maps of their distributions in Canada.

Klimaszewski, Jan; Webster, Reginald P.; Bourdon, Caroline; Pelletier, Georges; Godin, Benoit; Langor, David W.

2015-01-01

38

Actividades en el campus de Alcorcn: Jornadas de puertas abiertas y visitas guiadas  

E-print Network

sensaciones con el aprendizaje y la conducta de los niños? 2. Habilidades clínicas para fomentar el bienestar sensaciones con el aprendizaje y la conducta de los niños? Fecha y Horario: Martes, 12 de noviembre, de 18:00h

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

39

Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

2011-01-01

40

11 PERODO Disciplina: Estgio Curricular Obrigatrio em Clnica Cirrgica  

E-print Network

acompanhamento de visitas diárias nas enfermarias. D- TRAUMATOLOGIA E ORTOPEDIA: Desenvolver habilidades e competências teóricas e práticas na área da Ortopedia e Traumatologia; doenças congênitas, degenerativas- Urologia B- Cirurgia Geral C- Cirurgia do Aparelho digestivo D-Traumatologia e Ortopedia E

Paraná, Universidade Federal do

41

SIGACLE: SIMULADOR GRÁFICO ASISTIDO POR COMPUTADOR PARA LA ENSEÑANZA DE PROGRAMACIÓN DE LENGUAJES ESTRUCTURADOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se plantea la importancia que brinda el desarrollo de herramientas asistidas por computador como apoyo al proceso de enseñanza. SIGACLE (Simulador Gráfico Asistido por Computador Para la Enseñanza de Programación de Lenguajes Estructurados), tiene como principal objetivo el desarrollo de habilidades cognoscitivas en estudiantes de pregrado en las materias de programación de computadores. Este documento define específicamente los conceptos necesarios

George Franco Cendales; María Paula Díaz; Rafael J. Barros

42

Emociones precisas: fabricación digital en la enseñanza de la arquitectura  

Microsoft Academic Search

La formación arquitectónica debe desarrollar habilidades técnicas y estéticas para realizar proyectos de construcción. Las nuevas maquinas de fabricación digital permiten elaborar modelos materiales de los diseños, así como elementos constructivos industrializados, generando nuevas capacidades que deben ser adecuadamente integradas en la enseñanza profesional. El artículo analiza implicancias de estas tecnologías en la formación arquitectónica basado en siete experiencias educacionales.

Rodrigo Alvarado; Rodrigo Lagos; Pedro Salcedo; Mario Ramos; Claudio Labarca; Underlea Bruscato

2009-01-01

43

TITULO PROPIO EN GESTIN Y ORGANIZACIN DE EVENTOS: PRODUCCIN, PROTOCOLO Y SEGURIDAD  

E-print Network

herramientas en la organización de eventos: los socialmedia o redes sociales. Coordinar los diferentes equipos eventos: las redes sociales o socialmedia. El posicionamiento SEO. El networking. MÓDULO X: La seguridad tengan interés en mejorar sus habilidades sociales e imagen personal. #12;PROGRAMA MÓDULO I: Protocolo

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

44

IT'S NOT EASY BEING GREEN: USING MOLT AND MORPHOLOGICAL CRITERIA TO AGE AND SEX GREEN PLUMAGE MANAKINS (AVES: PIPRIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen. - No es fácil ser verde: El uso de criterios morfológicos y patrones de muda para determi- nar el sexo y la edad de saltarines con plumaje verde (Aves: Pipridae). - La habilidad para determinar la edad y el sexo de aves puede contribuir con estudios que abarcan desde demografía poblacional hasta biología reproductiva. El sexo y la edad

Thomas B. Ryder; Renata Durães

2005-01-01

45

La gestión del conocimiento en pequeñas empresas de tecnología de la información: Una investigación exploratoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

La habilidad de crear y replicar el conocimiento es especialmente crítico para empresas que compiten en entornos dinámicos, las cuales no solamente tienen recursos tecnológicos relevantes, sino que deben mostrar flexibilidad y capacidad administrativa para coordinar efectivamente sus competencias internas. Los procesos de generación y transferencia del conocimiento son analizados aquí a través de un estudio de casos de cuatro

Laura E. Zapata

2001-01-01

46

AUTOEFICACIA EN TAREAS DE MEMORIA EPISÓDICA VERBAL VS. MEMORIA EPISÓDICA VISUAL EN ADULTOS MAYORES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar la incidencia de las creencias de los adultos mayores acerca de sus habilidades mnésicas sobre su rendimiento en las pruebas objetivas que evalúan esta fun- ción .Poniendo especial énfasis en la modalidad de presentación del material y analizando las diferencias que se pudieran encontrar cuando este es presentado en forma verbal o

CAROLINA FELDBERG; DORINA STEFANI

47

Las TIC y el profesorado. Retos ante la multiformidad de mediaciones en los escenarios escolares  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente trabajo permite precisar algunas ideas de los problemas relativos a la incorporación de las TIC en la educación, como apoyo al proceso de enseñanza – aprendizaje. El mismo propone un acercamiento a la enseñanza en los diferentes niveles educativos con el objetivo de lograr que los estudiantes alcancen las habilidades necesarias para el uso eficiente de los sistemas

Jorge Mesa Vázquez

2011-01-01

48

Métodos de reducción de escala: aplicaciones al tiempo, clima, variabilidad climática y cambio climático  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Modelos de Circulación General Atmosféricos-Oceánicos Acoplados muestran buena habilidad para simular la evolución de las circulaciones de escala global. Sin embargo, esta bondad no es muy útil para el estudio de impactos locales debido a que la resolución espacial de esos modelos está por encima de la escala de los impactos locales que se desean analizar. Es importante tomar

Jorge A. Amador; Eric J. Alfaro

2009-01-01

49

Apile 50  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

En este juego de estrategia los jugadores usan la lógica y razonan al mismo tiempo que agudizan sus habilidades matemáticas mentales. El objetivo es llegar a 50. Si tiene un comodín, puede tomar una carta del otro jugador. Disponible como página web, en archivo pdf, y en Inglés.

2012-06-26

50

Modelo de desarrollo de aplicaciones móviles basadas en videojuegos para la navegación de personas ciegas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existe una necesidad real de contar con sistemas para que personas con discapacidad visual mejoren las habilidades de movilidad y orientación, es especial para que los niños puedan mejorar su autonomía en el futuro. Sin embargo, estos sistemas deben ser diseñados acorde a los objetivos, metodologías y recursos disponibles, así como también considerando los intereses y formas de interacción de

Jaime Sánchez; Luis Guerrero; Mauricio Sáenz; Héctor Flores

51

Principios básicos y simples de la tecnología transgénica y knock-out  

Microsoft Academic Search

l desarrollo de los animales knock-out ha permitido grandes avances en la investigación médica moderna y en la creación de nuevas alternativas terapéuticas para diferentes enferme- dades. Hasta la fecha, la habilidad humana para manipular el genoma murino ha transfor- mado dramáticamente la investigación científica a nivel mundial. Durante la última década, las tecnologías transgénica convencional y de knock-out genético

ANA MILENA; HERRERA TORRES

2005-01-01

52

EVALUACIÓN DEL PROGRAMA ESCUELAS DE CALIDAD EN EL ESTADO DE PUEBLA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: Este trabajo presenta los resultados de evaluación, sobre logro educativo, al Pro- grama Escuelas de Calidad en el estado de Puebla. De un total de 130 escuelas que cumplieron con una serie de requisitos, la muestra estuvo integrada por 26, selec- cionadas de forma aleatoria considerando nivel de marginación. Los resultados en los exámenes de español, matemáticas y habilidades

LEÓN R. GARDUÑO ESTRADA

2008-01-01

53

Variables explicativas de la ansiedad frente a las matemáticas: un estudio de una muestra de 6º de primaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el presente artículo se aborda el estudio de la ansiedad frente a las matemáticas en un grupo de 55 alumnos de sexto de primaria. Se analiza la correlación de esta variable con el rendimiento en matemáticas, con la ansiedad estado y la ansiedad rasgo, con el género y con la representación que los niños se hacen sobre sus habilidades

Begoña Tejedor; María Auxiliadora Santos; Javier García-Orza; Patricia Carratalà; Marta Navas

2009-01-01

54

No Se Arriesgue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Este rápido juego de estrategia combina probabilidad y razonamiento matemático, y ayuda a afinar la memoria y las habilidades matemáticas mentales. Los jugadores voltean cartas hasta que consiguen un total lo más cercano a 40 posible. Tienen que decidir cuando parar el juego, ya que no quieren pasar de 40 – por lo tanto, tienen que poner atención a qué cartas ya han salido. Disponible como página web, en archivo pdf, y en Inglés.

TERC

2010-01-01

55

Rellénelo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Los jugadores toman turnos para añadir figuras de tres cuadrados a la cuadrícula. Intenten encajar sus figuras en la cuadrícula de modo que bloquee al otro jugador. Continúen tomando turnos hasta que no hay más espacio para otra figura. El jugador con la mayor cantidad de figuras en la cuadrícula al final gana. Jugando a este juego, los chicos desarrollan habilidades de rotación espacial y pensamiento visual. Disponible para descargar en formato pdf y en Inglés.

TERC

2010-01-01

56

Doce a la Vez  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jugando a este juego, los chicos desarrollan habilidades en área, perímetro, múltiples, y factores. Tomen turnos para hacer rectángulos con 12 cuadrados en la cuadrícula. Intenten poner sus figuras en la cuadrícula de modo que bloquee al otro jugador. Tomen turnos hasta que no hay espacio para añadir otra figura. El jugador con el mayor número de figuras al final gana. Incluye variaciones más fáciles y más difíciles. Disponible para descargar en formato pdf y en Inglés.

TERC

2010-01-01

57

Bloqueo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jugando a este juego, los chicos desarrollan habilidades de lógica, geometría, y visualización espacial. Los jugadores empiezan con una red de hexágonos vacía. Los jugadores toman turnos para poner sus iniciales en hexágonos para construir una “pared” de hexágonos que el otro jugador no puede cruzar. El primer jugador que consiga bloquear en una esquina al otro gana. Incluye una variante más difícil. Disponible para descargar en formato pdf en Inglés.

TERC

2010-01-01

58

Partes Iguales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use esta actividad para desarrollar habilidades en división y sentido numérico durante la merienda o cuando haya un número limitado de cosas para compartir con el grupo: Si repartimos éstos, podríamos tener dos cada uno? Cinco? Más? Por qué lo crees? Prediga cuánto va a recibir cada uno, luego repártalo y vea si su predicción fue acertada. Para una variante más difícil, pruebe repartir la comida de modo que sólo sobre uno. Disponible en formato web, en formato pdf, y en inglés.

TERC

2010-01-01

59

UNIVERSIDAD REY JUAN CARLOS VIII CONVOCATORIA DE AYUDAS A LA INNOVACIN Y MEJORA DE  

E-print Network

la nube o cloud computing 201 Blended-learning: aprendizaje híbrido, presencial y online, en Aplicación de técnicas de coaching a la enseñanza de habilidades personales 219 Coordinación Interdisciplinar asignaturas de carácter científico-técnico 210 Active Learning para mejorar y aumentar el rendimiento y la

Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad

60

A ProduÁªo de Contra-Argumentos na Escrita Infantil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Pesquisas sobre a produÁªo de textos argumentativos mostram que antecipar contra-argumentos e reagir a estes Ø uma das principais dificuldades na escrita deste tipo de texto. Este estudo investigou a habilidade de 157 crianÁas (segunda, quarta e sØtima sØries) gerarem contra-argumentos nos textos que produziam. Observou-se que, embora contra-argumentos apareÁam ocasionalmente nos escritos da segunda sØrie, sÛ a partir

Selma Leit; Eliana G. da S. Almeida

2000-01-01

61

New findings of Neurospora in Europe and comparisons of diversity in temperate climates on continental scales.  

PubMed

The life cycles of the conidiating species of Neurospora are adapted to respond to fire, which is reflected in their natural history. Neurospora is found commonly on burned vegetation from the tropic and subtropical regions around the world and through the temperate regions of western North America. In temperate Europe it was unknown whether Neurospora would be as common as it is in North America because it has been reported only occasionally. In 2003 and 2004 a multinational effort surveyed wildfire sites in southern Europe. Neurospora was found commonly from southern Portugal and Spain (37 degrees N) to Switzerland (46 degrees N). Species collected included N. crassa, N. discreta, N. sitophila and N. tetrasperma. The species distribution and spatial dynamics of Neurospora populations showed both similarities and differences when compared between temperate Europe and western North America, both regions of similar latitude, climate and vegetation. For example the predominant species in western North America, N. discreta phylogenetic species 4B, is common but not predominant in Europe, whereas species rare in western North America, N. crassa NcB and N. sitophila, are much more common in Europe. The meiotic drive element Spore killer was also common in European populations of N. sitophila and at a higher proportion than anywhere else in the world. The methods by which organisms spread and adapt to new environments are fundamental ecosystem properties, yet they are little understood. The differences in regional diversity, reported here, can form the basis of testable hypotheses. Questions of phylogeography and adaptations can be addressed specifically by studying Neurospora in nature. PMID:17139848

Jacobson, David J; Dettman, Jeremy R; Adams, Rachel I; Boesl, Cornelia; Sultana, Shahana; Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha; Duarte, Margarida; Marques, Isabel; Ushakova, Alexandra; Carneiro, Patrícia; Videira, Arnaldo; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Olmedo, María; Corrochano, Luis M; Taylor, John W

2006-01-01

62

A Relationship between Carotenoid Accumulation and the Distribution of Species of the Fungus Neurospora in Spain  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete fungus Neurospora is present in many parts of the world, in particular in tropical and subtropical areas, where it is found growing on recently burned vegetation. We have sampled the Neurospora population across Spain. The sampling sites were located in the region of Galicia (northwestern corner of the Iberian peninsula), the province of Cáceres, the city of Seville, and the two major islands of the Canary Islands archipelago (Tenerife and Gran Canaria, west coast of Africa). The sites covered a latitude interval between 27.88° and 42.74°. We have identified wild-type strains of N. discreta, N. tetrasperma, N. crassa, and N. sitophila and the frequency of each species varied from site to site. It has been shown that after exposure to light Neurospora accumulates the orange carotenoid neurosporaxanthin, presumably for protection from UV radiation. We have found that each Neurospora species accumulates a different amount of carotenoids after exposure to light, but these differences did not correlate with the expression of the carotenogenic genes al-1 or al-2. The accumulation of carotenoids in Neurospora shows a correlation with latitude, as Neurospora strains isolated from lower latitudes accumulate more carotenoids than strains isolated from higher latitudes. Since regions of low latitude receive high UV irradiation we propose that the increased carotenoid accumulation may protect Neurospora from high UV exposure. In support of this hypothesis, we have found that N. crassa, the species that accumulates more carotenoids, is more resistant to UV radiation than N. discreta or N. tetrasperma. The photoprotection provided by carotenoids and the capability to accumulate different amounts of carotenoids may be responsible, at least in part, for the distribution of Neurospora species that we have observed across a range of latitudes. PMID:22448263

Luque, Eva M.; Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Olmedo, María; Rodríguez-Romero, Julio; Ruger-Herreros, Carmen; Tagua, Víctor G.; Corrochano, Luis M.

2012-01-01

63

Nutrient Needs at a Glance (Spanish)  

E-print Network

?sforo convulsiones; osteomalacia* ? Es t?xica en cantidades grandes Vitamina E (mcg) 15 15 ? No se almacena en el cuerpo en gran parte Tejidos de plantas, aceites vegetales, Anemia en beb?s Tocoferoles alfa, ? Relacionada con la funci?n de selenio germen de trigo...?nica, carboxipeptidasa y pescado, trigo, levadura (Los alimentos de bien, reducci?n en la habilidad deshidrogenasa l?ctica. plantas por lo general son bajos en zinc). de probar Electr?litos Sodio (mg) (m?nimo) 500 6 500 6 ? Se encuentra en el l?quido extracelular Sal...

Bielamowicz, Mary K.

2003-02-10

64

Parent Involvement (Spanish)  

E-print Network

ahorrarle mucho tiempo y trabajo al l?der. Pueden ayudar con habilidades que el l?der no posee. El miembro de 4-H: Cuando los padres participan en el programa de 4-H, los miembros se sienten apoyados, con m?s confianza y con un sentimiento de seguridad... u origen nacional. Emitido en promoci?n del Trabajo de la Extensi?n Cooperativa en la Agricultura y la Econom?a del Hogar, Decreto del Congreso del 8 de mayo de 1914, seg?n enmienda, y del 30 de junio de 1914, en cooperaci?n con el Departamento de...

Howard, Jeff W.

2005-05-10

65

Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

66

Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical characterization of wart-like lesions on the paw pads of dogs: 24 cases (2000-2007).  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE- To determine clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings for dogs with wart-like lesions involving the paw pads. DESIGN- Retrospective case series. ANIMALS- 24 dogs (18 Greyhounds and 6 dogs of other breeds). PROCEDURES- Medical records were reviewed for information on signalment, physical examination findings, concurrent disease processes, location of all lesions, and, when available, results of histologic examination of biopsy specimens. Available biopsy specimens (n = 11) were submitted for immunohistochemical staining and a PCR assay to identify viral inclusion bodies. RESULTS- In Greyhounds, most lesions involved the pads of the third and fourth digits, had a consistent histologic appearance without evidence of inflammation, were negative for papillomavirus, and had an unsatisfactory response to treatment. In other breeds, lesions often involved the pads of non-weight-bearing digits, had histologic evidence of inflammation, were positive for papillomavirus, and responded to surgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE- Results suggested that wart-like lesions involving the paw pads of Greyhounds were a distinct clinical entity with features resembling porokeratosis plantaris discreta in humans. In Greyhounds, these lesions were not associated with an underlying viral etiology and, therefore, should not be considered plantar warts. Alternative treatments should be investigated because current treatments were generally unsuccessful in Greyhounds. Wart-like lesions of the paw pads in other breeds were often associated with papillomavirus, and surgical excision appeared curative. PMID:19527129

Balara, Jason M; McCarthy, Robert J; Kiupel, Matti; Buote, Melanie A; Wise, Annabel G; Maes, Roger K

2009-06-15

67

Observaciones de fulguraciones en rayos X duros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

El objetivo principal de la investigación de las fulguraciones solares es el descubrimiento del proceso responsable de la impredecible, rápida y enorme, liberación de energía que ocurre en ellas. Las evidencias observacionales más claras de esta liberación son la emisión de rayos X y microondas. En particular, la detección de la emisión de rayos X duros (energías entre decenas y centenas de keV) es uno de los elementos de diagnóstico utilizados para comprender los mecanismos de aceleración y transporte de los electrones energéticos que, hoy es aceptado, son los que en su interacción con la atmósfera solar generan los rayos X observados. En 1991 se puso en órbita el Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) uno de cuyos instrumentos observa las fulguraciones solares en el rango de energías 15 <= E <= 300 keV con una resolución temporal de 0.064 seg. En este trabajo analizamos, usando la Técnica de la Transformada Discreta en Onditas, algunos de los casos registrados para intentar separar y parametrizar las componentes de distinta escala de tiempo que se superponen durante la fase impulsiva de una fulguración. Discutimos nuestros resultados en términos de las características del mecanismo de liberación de energía.

Rovira, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

68

Intron evolution in Neurospora: the role of mutational bias and selection.  

PubMed

We used comparative and population genomics to study intron evolutionary dynamics in the fungal model genus Neurospora. For our investigation, we used well-annotated genomes of N. crassa, N. discreta, and N. tetrasperma, and 92 resequenced genomes of N. tetrasperma from natural populations. By analyzing the four well-annotated genomes, we identified 9495 intron sites in 7619 orthologous genes. Our data supports nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and tandem duplication as mechanisms for intron gains in the genus and the RT-mRNA process as a mechanism for intron loss. We found a moderate intron gain rate (5.78-6.89 × 10(-13) intron gains per nucleotide site per year) and a high intron loss rate (7.53-13.76 × 10(-10) intron losses per intron sites per year) as compared to other eukaryotes. The derived intron gains and losses are skewed to high frequencies, relative to neutral SNPs, in natural populations of N. tetrasperma, suggesting that selection is involved in maintaining a high intron turnover. Furthermore, our analyses of the association between intron population-level frequency and genomic features suggest that selection is involved in shaping a 5' intron position bias and a low intron GC content. However, intron sequence analyses suggest that the gained introns were not exposed to recent selective sweeps. Taken together, this work contributes to our understanding of the importance of mutational bias and selection in shaping the intron distribution in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:25342722

Sun, Yu; Whittle, Carrie A; Corcoran, Pádraic; Johannesson, Hanna

2015-01-01

69

Mental health predicts better academic outcomes: a longitudinal study of elementary school students in chile.  

PubMed

The world's largest school-based mental health program, Habilidades para la Vida [Skills for Life (SFL)], has been operating on a national scale in Chile for 15 years. SFL's activities include using standardized measures to screen elementary school students and providing preventive workshops to students at risk for mental health problems. This paper used SFL's data on 37,397 students who were in first grade in 2009 and third grade in 2011 to ascertain whether first grade mental health predicted subsequent academic achievement and whether remission of mental health problems predicted improved academic outcomes. Results showed that mental health was a significant predictor of future academic performance and that, overall, students whose mental health improved between first and third grade made better academic progress than students whose mental health did not improve or worsened. Our findings suggest that school-based mental health programs like SFL may help improve students' academic outcomes. PMID:24771270

Murphy, J Michael; Guzmán, Javier; McCarthy, Alyssa E; Squicciarini, Ana María; George, Myriam; Canenguez, Katia M; Dunn, Erin C; Baer, Lee; Simonsohn, Ariela; Smoller, Jordan W; Jellinek, Michael S

2015-04-01

70

Therapeutic Listening as a health intervention strategy: an integrative review.  

PubMed

Objective To investigate and evaluate the available evidence in the literature regarding the use of Therapeutic Listening as a health intervention strategy. Method Integrative review conducted on the following databases PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS and APA PsycNET without restrictions of year or type of study. The keywords were combined in different ways to ensure extensive search of primary studies. Results Among the 15 studies on Therapeutic Listening, 33% addressed the effect of training on listening skills, 27% focused on the efficacy of listening as an intervention, 20% explored the experiences lived by the subjects regarding listening and 20% discussed various aspects of listening. Conclusion Most studies have strong to moderate level of evidence, although addressing different aspects related to Therapeutic Listening, they have in common the need for recognition of skills on the part of health professionals, to develop an effective process of listening.?Objetivo Investigar e avaliar as evidências disponíveis na literatura a respeito do uso da Escuta Terapêutica como estratégia de intervenção em saúde. Método Revisão integrativa, realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS e APA PsycNET, sem restrições de ano ou tipo de estudo. Os descritores foram combinados de diferentes formas para garantir a busca ampla de estudos primários. Resultados Dentre as 15 publicações sobre Escuta Terapêutica, 33% abordaram o efeito de treinamentos sobre as habilidades de escuta, 27% estudaram a eficácia da escuta como intervenção, 20% exploraram as experiências dos sujeitos quanto às vivências relacionadas à escuta e 20% abordaram aspectos diversos da escuta. Conclusão A maior parte dos estudos tem nível de evidência de forte a moderado e, apesar de abordarem diferentes aspectos relacionados à Escuta Terapêutica, apresentam em comum o reconhecimento da necessidade de habilidades, por parte do profissional de saúde, para o desenvolvimento de um processo de escuta eficaz. PMID:25626514

Mesquita, Ana Cláudia; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

2014-12-01

71

Gene expression differences among three Neurospora species reveal genes required for sexual reproduction in Neurospora crassa.  

PubMed

Many fungi form complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies, within which the meiotic machinery for sexual spore production has been considered to be largely conserved over evolutionary time. Indeed, much of what we know about meiosis in plant and animal taxa has been deeply informed by studies of meiosis in Saccharomyces and Neurospora. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of fruiting body development and its regulation in relation to meiosis in fungi is barely known, even within the best studied multicellular fungal model Neurospora crassa. We characterized morphological development and genome-wide transcriptomics in the closely related species Neurospora crassa, Neurospora tetrasperma, and Neurospora discreta, across eight stages of sexual development. Despite diverse life histories within the genus, all three species produce vase-shaped perithecia. Transcriptome sequencing provided gene expression levels of orthologous genes among all three species. Expression of key meiosis genes and sporulation genes corresponded to known phenotypic and developmental differences among these Neurospora species during sexual development. We assembled a list of genes putatively relevant to the recent evolution of fruiting body development by sorting genes whose relative expression across developmental stages increased more in N. crassa relative to the other species. Then, in N. crassa, we characterized the phenotypes of fruiting bodies arising from crosses of homozygous knockout strains of the top genes. Eight N. crassa genes were found to be critical for the successful formation of perithecia. The absence of these genes in these crosses resulted in either no perithecium formation or in arrested development at an early stage. Our results provide insight into the genetic basis of Neurospora sexual reproduction, which is also of great importance with regard to other multicellular ascomycetes, including perithecium-forming pathogens, such as Claviceps purpurea, Ophiostoma ulmi, and Glomerella graminicola. PMID:25329823

Lehr, Nina A; Wang, Zheng; Li, Ning; Hewitt, David A; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Trail, Frances; Townsend, Jeffrey P

2014-01-01

72

Gene Expression Differences among Three Neurospora Species Reveal Genes Required for Sexual Reproduction in Neurospora crassa  

PubMed Central

Many fungi form complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies, within which the meiotic machinery for sexual spore production has been considered to be largely conserved over evolutionary time. Indeed, much of what we know about meiosis in plant and animal taxa has been deeply informed by studies of meiosis in Saccharomyces and Neurospora. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of fruiting body development and its regulation in relation to meiosis in fungi is barely known, even within the best studied multicellular fungal model Neurospora crassa. We characterized morphological development and genome-wide transcriptomics in the closely related species Neurospora crassa, Neurospora tetrasperma, and Neurospora discreta, across eight stages of sexual development. Despite diverse life histories within the genus, all three species produce vase-shaped perithecia. Transcriptome sequencing provided gene expression levels of orthologous genes among all three species. Expression of key meiosis genes and sporulation genes corresponded to known phenotypic and developmental differences among these Neurospora species during sexual development. We assembled a list of genes putatively relevant to the recent evolution of fruiting body development by sorting genes whose relative expression across developmental stages increased more in N. crassa relative to the other species. Then, in N. crassa, we characterized the phenotypes of fruiting bodies arising from crosses of homozygous knockout strains of the top genes. Eight N. crassa genes were found to be critical for the successful formation of perithecia. The absence of these genes in these crosses resulted in either no perithecium formation or in arrested development at an early stage. Our results provide insight into the genetic basis of Neurospora sexual reproduction, which is also of great importance with regard to other multicellular ascomycetes, including perithecium-forming pathogens, such as Claviceps purpurea, Ophiostoma ulmi, and Glomerella graminicola. PMID:25329823

Lehr, Nina A.; Wang, Zheng; Li, Ning; Hewitt, David A.; López-Giráldez, Francesc; Trail, Frances; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

2014-01-01

73

Propriedades de estruturas temporais rápidas submilimétricas durante uma grande explosão solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos novas propriedades de variações rápidas da emissão submilimétrica durante uma das maiores explosões solares do ciclo solar 23. Os dados analisados neste estudo foram obtidos com o Telescópio Solar Submilimétrico (SST), que observa o Sol em 212 GHz e 405 GHz, e comparados com emissões em Raios-X duros e Raios-gama (fótons de energia > 10 MeV), que foram obtidas pelo experimento GRS do Yohkoh. Aplicamos diferentes metodologias para detectar e caracterizar, ao longo do evento, os pulsos submilimétricos (duração de 50-300 ms) detectados acima de uma componente mais lenta (alguns minutos). Os resultados mostram que durante a fase impulsiva, num instante próximo ao tempo do máximo do evento, houve um aumento da ocorrência de maiores e de mais rápidas estruturas temporais. Também identificamos uma boa correlação com as emissões em raios-X e raios-gama (até a faixa de energia 10-100 MeV), indicando que os pulsos rápidos submilimétricos refletiram injeções primárias de energia durante o evento.O espectro do fluxo desses pulsos é crescente com a freqüência entre 212 and 405 GHz, na maioria dos casos, ao contrário do observado para a componente gradual. As posições calculadas para as estruturas rápidas são discretas, compactas e localizadas em toda a área da região ativa, o que é previsto nos modelos de explosões solares decorrentes de instabilidades múltiplas em diferentes pequenas regiões. Por outro lado, a posição calculada para a componente lenta é estável durante a fase impulsiva. Assim, a comparação entre as características do espectro de fluxo e da localização da emissão, para os pulsos rápidos e para a componente gradual, sugere que as respectivas emissões são de natureza diferente.

Raulin, J.-P.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Pacini, A. A.; Makhmutov, V.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.

2003-08-01

74

Validity of a parent vocabulary checklist for young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants.  

PubMed

The primary objective of the current investigation was to examine the concurrent and predictive validity of a parent vocabulary checklist with young Spanish speaking children of Mexican immigrants. This study implemented a longitudinal approach. Nineteen families participated when children were 15-16 months of age, and then again at 30-32 months of age. The Spanish version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Communicativas, INV) and spontaneous language samples collected during naturalistic play were used to examine the relationship between observed and reported vocabulary. Vocabulary reported through the INV-II and vocabulary observed at 30-32 months were significantly correlated, suggesting that the INV-II captures a valid representation of vocabulary at this age. Comparatively, vocabulary reported on the INV-I, was not correlated with observed vocabulary at 15-16 months of age or reported or observed vocabulary at 30-32 months of age. These results suggest that the INV-I, when used with 14-16-month-olds, demonstrates limited concurrent and predictive validity. Implications for the clinical use of the INV-I and INV-II are presented. PMID:20840027

Guiberson, Mark

2008-01-01

75

Projeto observatórios virtuais: educação através de telescópios robóticos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O principal objetivo do projeto Observatórios Virtuais é o ensino na área de ciências através de atividades práticas desenvolvidas em colaboração entre instituições de pesquisa em astronomia e escolas de ensino médio e fundamental. Este ano deverá ser concluída a implantação do programa piloto de estudos, pesquisas e observação astronômica direta, com utilização em tempo real de telescópios robóticos, que assim funcionarão como "observatórios virtuais". O objetivo pedagógico das atividades práticas baseadas nas imagens atronômicas é desenvolver as habilidades e competências dos alunos no uso do método científico. Para isso, serão realizados projetos interdisciplinares, a partir de observações astronômicas, já que a astronomia é uma área interdisciplinar por excelência. Essas atividades terão níveis diferenciados de complexidade, que podem ser adequados aos vários graus do ensino e realidades regionais. Será dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento e aplicação em São Paulo, onde atua a equipe do IAG/USP. Como resultados apresentados no presente trabalho, temos a criação de um software em português para o processamento de imagens obtidas através de CCDs e a elaboração de material para as atividades educacionais relacionadas.

Santana, P. H. S.; Shida, R. Y.

2003-08-01

76

Breakfast of champions or kiss of death? Survival and sexual performance of protein-fed, sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

SciTech Connect

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is increasingly being used around the world to control Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mediterranean fruit fly as part of an area-wide integrated approach. One option that may improve the effectiveness of the SIT, by increasing the sexual competitiveness of released sterile males, consists of feeding males protein during the post-teneral stage, a diet that increases sexual performance of wild males. We examine the effects of diet on the successive hurdles males must overcome in order to inseminate females, i.e., joining leks, copulating females, having their sperm stored and inhibition of female remating. In addition, we address the effects of diet on post-release foraging success, longevity, and the ability to withstand starvation. While protein feeding universally increases the sexual success of wild males, its effect on sterile males varies with strain, experimental settings, and environmental conditions. In some cases, treatments that resulted in the best sexual performance were significantly associated with increased vulnerability to starvation. However, no particular diet affected the ability of sterile males to find nutrients in the field when these where available. We suggest it may be better to release relatively short-lived flies that are highly competitive, rather than long-lived, sexually ineffective ones. (author) [Spanish] El uso de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) esta aumentando alrededor del mundo para el control de Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), la mosca mediterranea de la fruta como parte de un enfoque integrado por toda el area. Una opcion que puede mejorar la eficiencia de TIE, por medio del aumento de la capacidad de los machos esteriles liberados para competir, consiste en la alimentacion de los machos con proteina durante la etapa de pos-teneral, una dieta que aumenta el desempeno sexual de los machos naturales. Nosotros examinamos los efectos de la dieta sobre los obstaculos sucesivos que los machos tienen que superar para inseminar las hembras, i.e., unir con otros machos en areas para el apareamiento, copula de las hembras, almacenar esperma e inhibir el re-apareamiento de hembras. Ademas discutimos los efectos de la dieta sobre el exito de su actividad forrajera despues de ser liberados, la longevidad y la habilidad para aguantar la inanicion. Mientras que la alimentacion con proteina universalmente aumentan el exito sexual de los machos naturales, su efecto sobre los machos esteriles varia segun la raza, el lugar de los experimentos y las condiciones ambientales. En algunos casos, los tratamientos que resultaron con mejor desempeno sexual fueron asociados significativamente con el aumento de la vulnerabilidad a la inanicion. Sin embargo, ninguna dieta en particular afecto la habilidad de los machos esteriles para encontrar nutrientes en el campo cuando fueron disponibles. Nosotros sugerimos que puede ser mejor el liberar moscas que tienen una vida relativamente corta y que son mas competidoras, en vez de moscas que tienen una vida larga y sexualmente inefectiva. (author)

Yuval, B.; Maor, M.; Levy, K. [Dept. of Entomology, Hebrew University, PO 12, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Kaspi, R. [Dept. of Entomology, University of California, Davis CA 95616 (United States); Taylor, P. [Dept. of Psychology, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia); Shelly, T. [USDA-APHIS, 41-650 Ahiki Street, Waimanalo, HI 96795 (United States)

2007-03-15

77

Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch cycles of the Early Triassic Daye Formation, South China and their geochronological and paleoclimatic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most profound mass extinction in the Phanerozoic occurred at the end of the Permian, with global loss of nearly 90% of marine invertebrate species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrate genera. Recent studies suggested that volcanisms represented by the Siberian Trap were most likely cause of the end-Permian extinction. The post-extinction periods in the Early Triassic was characterized by low biodiversity, reduced abundance and size of invertebrates, hiatus in coal deposition, anomalously high sediment fluxes, and large perturbations of the carbon cycle, which have been interpreted as the consequence of persistently unfavorable environmental conditions. However, the time framework for the Early Triassic geological, biological and geochemical events is traditionally established by conodont biostratigraphy, but the absolute duration of condont biozones are not well constrained. In this study, a rock magnetic cyclostratigraphy, based on high-resolution analysis (2440 samples) of magnetic susceptibility (MS) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) intensity variations, was developed for the 55.1-m-thick, Early Triassic Daye Formation at the Daxiakou section, Hubei province in South China. The Daye Formation shows exceptionally well-preserved lithological cycles with alternations of thin-bedded mudstone, marl and limestone, which are closely tracked by the MS and ARM variations. Power spectral, wavelet and amplitude modulation (AM) analysis of the ARM and MS series reveal strong evidence for the presence of Milankovitch to sub-Milankovitch frequencies dominated by precession index signal and 4-5 ka cycles. Cycles expressed by variations in MS and ARM were likely controlled by the input of fine-grained detrital magnetite, which in turn may be driven by astronomically induced changes in monsoon intensity in the equatorial eastern Tethys during the Early Triassic greenhouse period. On the basis of the 100-ka tuning results, the astronomically constrained duration of the Induan stage is 1.162 Ma, with the Griesbachian and Dienerian substage of 491ka and 671 ka, respectively. The new astronomical time scale also provides time constraints for the conodont and bivalve biozones, the carbonate carbon isotope (?13C) records and magnetic polarity zones of the Lower Triassic Daye Formation. Time constraints for the conodont biozones include 34 ka for Hindeodus parvus , 24 ka for Isarcicella stachei-I. isarcica, 367 ka for Neogondolella planate-Ng. carinata, 66 ka for Neogondolella discreta, 255 ka for Neospathodus kummeli and 416 ka for Neospathodus dieneri. The Early Smithian negative ?13C shift near the Indun/Olenekian boundary may have happened within 430 ka. Global comparison indicates that Milankovitch and 4-5 ka sub-Milankovitch forcing depositional rhythms may have been common in tropical and sub-tropical carbonate platforms during Early and Middle Triassic time. The ultimate control on the 4-5 ka cycles may have been millennial-scale fluctuations in solar insolation.

Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Feng, Q.; Jiang, G.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

2011-12-01

78

Effect of Ecuador's cash transfer program (Bono de Desarrollo Humano) on child development in infants and toddlers: a randomized effectiveness trial.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of Ecuador's Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH)--an unconditional cash transfer program that was rolled-out using a randomized design--on health and development outcomes in very young children. Communities that were randomly assigned to the treatment group began receiving the BDH in 2004 and those randomly assigned to the comparison group began receiving benefits two years later. Families enrolled in the BDH received a monthly cash stipend ($15USD) representing an approximate 6-10% increase in household income. Participants analyzed in this study are children aged 12-35 months from treatment (n = 797) and comparison (n = 399) communities in rural and urban Ecuador. Main outcomes measured were language skills (the Fundación MacArthur Inventorio del Desarollo de Habilidades Comunicativas-Breve), height-for-age z-score, and hemoglobin concentration. Results indicate that in rural areas, being randomized to receive the BDH in very early childhood led to significantly better performance on the number of words a child was saying, and on the probability that the child was combining two or more words. There were no significant effects on language development for children in urban areas and there were no effects on height-for-age z-score or hemoglobin concentration in rural or urban areas. A limited number of potential pathways with respect to cognitive/language stimulation, health behaviors, and parenting quality were also explored. Findings indicate that compared to children in comparison areas, rural children in treatment areas were more likely to have received vitamin A or iron supplementation and have been bought a toy in the past six months. This study provides evidence for significant benefits of an unconditional cash transfer program for language development in very young children in rural areas. PMID:21531060

Fernald, Lia C H; Hidrobo, Melissa

2011-05-01

79

The Ability of Landowners and Their Cooperatives to Leverage Payments Greater Than Opportunity Costs from Conservation Contracts.  

PubMed

In negotiations over land-right acquisitions, landowners have an informational advantage over conservation groups because they know more about the opportunity costs of conservation measures on their sites. This advantage creates the possibility that landowners will demand payments greater than the required minimum, where this minimum required payment is known as the landowner's willingness to accept (WTA). However, in recent studies of conservation costs, researchers have assumed landowners will accept conservation with minimum payments. We investigated the ability of landowners to demand payments above their WTA when a conservation group has identified multiple sites for protection. First, we estimated the maximum payment landowners could potentially demand, which is set when groups of landowners act as a cooperative. Next, through the simulation of conservation auctions, we explored the amount of money above landowners' WTA (i.e., surplus) that conservation groups could cede to secure conservation agreements, again investigating the influence of landowner cooperatives. The simulations showed the informational advantage landowners held could make conservation investments up to 42% more expensive than suggested by the site WTAs. Moreover, all auctions resulted in landowners obtaining payments greater than their WTA; thus, it may be unrealistic to assume landowners will accept conservation contracts with minimum payments. Of particular significance for species conservation, conservation objectives focused on overall species richness, which therefore recognize site complementarity, create an incentive for landowners to form cooperatives to capture surplus. To the contrary, objectives in which sites are substitutes, such as the maximization of species occurrences, create a disincentive for cooperative formation. La Habilidad de Propietarios y Sus Cooperativas para Implementar Pagos Mayores que los Costos de Oportunidad en Contratos de Conservación. PMID:23530961

Lennox, Gareth D; Armsworth, Paul R

2013-03-26

80

A Introdução de Astronomia Básica para Estudantes de 5 e 6 Séries do Ensino Fundamental  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com intuito de despertar o interesse pelo estudo da astronomia, desenvolveu-se entre 2003 e 2006 no Centro Educacional do Serviço Social da Indústria situado no município de Mauá, São Paulo, um trabalho com duração de 12 meses para turmas de 11 e 12 anos, sendo três turmas por período (2003 / 2004, 2004 / 2005 e 2005 / 2006). O trabalho realizado, objetivando a introdução da astronomia básica com observações de constelações e das fases da Lua, permitindo estender-se a outros corpos celestes, iniciou-se com visita ao planetário Mundo Estelar, localizado no Ipiranga, São Paulo levantou-se a questão da importância do estudo da astronomia e foi lançado aos estudantes um trabalho de observação, com a proposta de localizar as constelações e compreender as fases da Lua, para o registro de tais observações, foram distribuídos mapas celestes, pastas, planilhas de anotações com lacunas para, constelações, fases da Lua e relatos, onde os estudantes acrescentaram pesquisas e relatórios. Os resultados dos 346 estudantes foram que 86,7% (300) concluíram a etapa de observação, destes 300 estudantes 43,3% (130) pesquisaram sobre as constelações e 19,0% (57) localizaram até quatro constelações. Dos 346 estudantes, 44,2% (153) registraram as fases da Lua equivocadamente e 10,4% (36) anexaram reportagens sobre astronomia. Conclui-se que os estudantes se dividiram em pesquisadores, sendo os estudantes que registraram e anexaram informações e, os observadores que preencheram as planilhas de observações, além de desenvolverem habilidades e competências relacionadas ao estudo da astronomia.

Gonzaga, E. P.; Voelzke, M. R.

2008-09-01

81

Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

2003-08-01

82

Ensino de astronomia no 1o. e 2o. ciclos do nível fundamental e na educação de jovens e adultos: exemplos e discussões  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tem-se constatado uma preocupante carência no ensino de astronomia nos diversos níveis de escolaridade. Neste trabalho discutimos várias práticas didático-pedagógicas que vimos desenvolvendo para crianças, jovens e adultos em processo de alfabetização, visando contribuir para reparar aquela carência. Propomos uma metodologia que incorpora as recentes exigências das políticas públicas educacionais, estimula o desenvolvimento de textos e materiais instrucionais, é compatível com a realidade desse público e é adaptável às respectivas faixas etárias. A observação do céu sempre esteve presente na vida de nossos antepassados, dando suporte à compreensão do ser humano como integrante da natureza. Visamos com este trabalho suprir a deficiência encontrada para se tratar a relação do ser humano com o céu, no ambiente escolar. Os resultados são animadores e envolvem práticas e textos que desenvolvemos e atividades realizadas pelos alunos. No primeiro grupo destacamos o desenvolvimento de várias práticas: "viagem aos planetas" (construímos o "foguete", os planetas em escala, contamos história e redigimos texto de orientação para os professores); "gnômon humano" (os próprios corpos dos alunos são usados para registrar o movimento aparente do Sol); "crateras da Lua" (concretização de "meteoritos" e "solo lunar" de gesso e exploração da relação entre energia cinética do bólido e tamanho da cratera formada); etc. No segundo grupo, produções de desenhos e redações e discussões dos alunos após a realização de cada prática, revelam que estas têm se mostrado muito eficientes, tanto para estimular a imaginação e a fantasia dos envolvidos, como para trabalhar-se habilidades, competências e conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, segundo uma perspectiva interdisciplinar contextualizada. (PPGECNM/UFRN; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

Queiroz, A. S. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

2003-08-01

83

Seventy-One Important Questions for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity  

PubMed Central

The ocean provides food, economic activity, and cultural value for a large proportion of humanity. Our knowledge of marine ecosystems lags behind that of terrestrial ecosystems, limiting effective protection of marine resources. We describe the outcome of 2 workshops in 2011 and 2012 to establish a list of important questions, which, if answered, would substantially improve our ability to conserve and manage the world’s marine resources. Participants included individuals from academia, government, and nongovernment organizations with broad experience across disciplines, marine ecosystems, and countries that vary in levels of development. Contributors from the fields of science, conservation, industry, and government submitted questions to our workshops, which we distilled into a list of priority research questions. Through this process, we identified 71 key questions. We grouped these into 8 subject categories, each pertaining to a broad component of marine conservation: fisheries, climate change, other anthropogenic threats, ecosystems, marine citizenship, policy, societal and cultural considerations, and scientific enterprise. Our questions address many issues that are specific to marine conservation, and will serve as a road map to funders and researchers to develop programs that can greatly benefit marine conservation. Setenta y Un Preguntas Importantes para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad Marina Resumen Los océanos proporcionan alimento, actividad económica y valor cultural para una gran porción de la humanidad. Nuestro conocimiento de los ecosistemas marinos está atrasado con respecto al que tenemos de los ecosistemas terrestres, lo que limita la protección efectiva de los recursos naturales. Describimos el resultado de dos talleres en 2011 y 2012 para establecer una lista de preguntas importantes, las cuales al ser respondidas, mejorarían sustancialmente nuestra habilidad de conservar y manejar los recursos marinos del mundo. Entre los participantes se incluyeron a individuos de la docencia, el gobierno y organizaciones no-gubernamentales, con una amplia experiencia que atraviesa disciplinas, ecosistemas marinos y países que varían en el nivel de desarrollo. Los contribuyentes de los campos de la ciencia, la conservación, la industria y el gobierno, presentaron preguntas a nuestros talleres, las cuales separamos en una lista de preguntas de investigación prioritarias. Por medio de este proceso, identificamos 71 preguntas clave. Las agrupamos en ocho categorías temáticas, cada una perteneciente a un componente amplio de la conservación marina: pesquerías, cambio climático, otras amenazas antropogénicas, ecosistemas, ciudadanía marina, política, consideraciones sociales y culturales, y la iniciativa científica. Nuestras preguntas se dirigen a muchas cuestiones que son específicas de la conservación marina, y servirán como una ruta a seguir para patrocinadores e investigadores que busquen desarrollar programas que puedan beneficiar ampliamente a la conservación marina. PMID:24779474

PARSONS, E C M; FAVARO, BRETT; AGUIRRE, A ALONSO; BAUER, AMY L; BLIGHT, LOUISE K; CIGLIANO, JOHN A; COLEMAN, MELINDA A; CÔTÉ, ISABELLE M; DRAHEIM, MEGAN; FLETCHER, STEPHEN; FOLEY, MELISSA M; JEFFERSON, REBECCA; JONES, MIRANDA C; KELAHER, BRENDAN P; LUNDQUIST, CAROLYN J; MCCARTHY, JULIE-BETH; NELSON, ANNE; PATTERSON, KATHERYN; WALSH, LESLIE; WRIGHT, ANDREW J; SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM J

2014-01-01

84

Education Through Aerospace Components. (Spanish Title: Educación Através de Elementos Aeroespaciales.) Educação Através de Elementos Aeroespaciais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Education is a field that needs development. For such purposes, there are various methods and tools that suggest ideas in favor of the improvement of the Brazilian people in the pedagogical, psychological and cultural aspects. Teaching is an act that demands a lot of care and responsibility; the behavior and performance of an individual in the society is the result of way that people was educated. However, the area of hard sciences demands a special attention, because the acquired knowledge is essential for the personal development of the individual and the technological future of the country. As an alternative or complementary tool for education it is suggested the use of aerospace element, since they show a vast amount of subjects qualitatively dealing with abilities of great importance for the future professional life of the students. A new Race happens, however this time the goal is not the Moon, but knowledge. El área educacional es un campo que necesita desarrollo. Para esto se dispone de diversos métodos y medios que pueden implantar ideas en pro del avance del pueblo brasilero en los aspectos pedagógicos, psicológicos y culturales. Alfabetizar es un acto que exige mucho cuidado y responsabilidad; el comportamento y desempeño de un individuo en la sociedad es el resultado de la manera en que fue educado. En particular, el área de ciencias exactas exige especial atención, pues los conocimientos adquiridos son imprescindibles para el desarrollo personal del individuo y también para el futuro tecnológico del País. Como medio alternativo o complementar de enseñanza se sugiere el uso de elementos aeroespaciales, debido a que compreende una vasta cantidad de disciplinas cualitativamente involucradas en la adquisición de habilidades de gran importancia para su vida profesional futura. Una nueva Carrera está em marcha, sin embargo esta vez la meta no es la Luna, sino el conocimiento. A área educacional é um campo que necessita de desenvolvimento. Para tal, dispõe-se de diversos métodos e meios que vêm implantar idéias em prol do avanço do povo brasileiro nos aspectos pedagógicos, psicológicos e culturais. Alfabetizar é um ato que exige muito cuidado e responsabilidade; o comportamento e desempenho de um indivíduo na sociedade é resultado da maneira com que ele foi instruído. Contudo, a área de exatas exige especial atenção, pois os conhecimentos adquiridos são imprescindíveis para o desenvolvimento pessoal do individuo, assim como para o futuro tecnológico do País. Como meio alternativo ou complementar de ensino é sugerido o uso de elementos aeroespaciais, devido ao fato de comportar uma vasta quantidade e qualidade de disciplinas envolvidas respectivamente com competências de grande importância para sua vida profissional futura. Uma nova Corrida acontece, porém dessa vez a meta não é a Lua e sim o conhecimento.

Barbosa Loureda, Oswaldo; Sobral de Araújo, Jéssyca B.

2008-12-01

85

Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia  

PubMed Central

The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos potenciales de los pagos por servicios ambientales (PSA) y áreas protegidas (APs) sobre los resultados ambientales y las subsistencias locales en los países en desarrollo son polémicos y se han debatido ampliamente. La evidencia disponible es escasa; ha habido pocas evaluaciones rigurosas de los impactos ambientales y sociales de las APs y particularmente los PSA. Medimos el impacto sobre los bosques y el bienestar humano en tres diferentes programas de PSA que se llevan a cabo dentro de dos APs en el norte de Camboya usando un panel de aldeas de intervención y controles emparejados. Tanto los PSA como las APs brindaron resultados ambientales adicionales en relación a los contrafácticos, esto quiere decir que redujeron las tasas de deforestación significativamente en relación a los controles. Las áreas protegidas incrementaron el acceso seguro a los recursos del suelo y el bosque para las viviendas locales, beneficiando a los usuarios de los recursos del bosque pero restringiendo la habilidad de las viviendas para expandirse y diversificar su agricultura. Los impactos de los pagos por servicios ambientales sobre el bienestar de las viviendas estuvieron relacionados con la magnitud de los pagos proporcionados. Los dos programas de PSA de mayor paga y con conexión al mercado tuvieron impactos positivos significativos, mientras que un programa de menor paga con el objetivo de proteger a la biodiversidad no tuvo un efecto detectable sobre las viviendas, a pesar de sus resultados ambientales positivos. Las viviendas que se inscribieron a los programas de PSA con mayor paga, sin embargo, necesitaban típicamente más bienes capitales, por lo que eran menos pobres y tenían mayor seguridad alimentaria que otros aldeanos. Por esto, mientras los impactos de las APs sobre el bienestar de las viviendas fueron limitados en general y variaron dependiendo de las estrategias de subsistencia, los programas de PSA tuvieron impactos positivos significativos sobre las viviendas para aquellos que podían co

Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

2015-01-01

86

Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: output modality affects cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Low-level processes of children's written language production are cognitively more costly than those involved in speaking. This has been shown by French authors who compared oral and written memory span performance. The observed difficulties of children's, but not of adults' low-level processes in writing may stem from graphomotoric as well as from orthographic inadequacies. We report on five experiments designed to replicate and expand the original results. First, the French results were successfully replicated for German third-graders, and for university students. Then, the developmental changes of the cognitive costs of writing were examined during primary school, comparing the performance of second- and fourth-graders. Next, we show that unpractised writing modes, which were experimentally induced, also lead to a decrease of memory performance in adults, which supports the assumption that a lack of graphomotoric automation is responsible for the observed effects in children. However, unpractised handwriting yields clearer results than unpractised typing. Lastly, we try to separate the influences of graphomotoric as opposed to orthographic difficulties by having the words composed through pointing on a "spelling board". This attempt, however, has not been successful, probably because the pointing to letters introduced other low-level costs. In sum, throughout the four years of primary school, German children show worse memory span performance in writing compared to oral recall, with an overall increase in both modalities. Thus, writing had not fully caught up with speaking regarding the implied cognitive costs by the end of primary school. Therefore, conclusions relate to the question of how to assess properly any kind of knowledge and abilities through language production. Los procesos de bajo nivel en la producción de lenguaje escrito en niños son más costosos a nivel cognitivo que los que están implicados en el habla. Esto ha sido demostrado por autores franceses quiénes compararon la ejecución en la capacidad de retención en la memoria oral y escrita. Las dificultades observadas en niños, pero no en adultos, en procesos de bajo nivel en la escritura pueden derivarse de la inadecuación grafomotriz u ortográfica. Informamos sobre cinco experimentos diseñados para replicar y ampliar los resultados originales. Primero, los resultados franceses fueron replicados con éxito para alemanes en tercer curso y para estudiantes universitarios. Después, los cambios evolutivos en costes cognitivos en la escritura fueron estudiados durante la educación primaria, comparando la ejecución de los alumnos del segundo y cuarto curso. Posteriormente, demostramos que las formas de escribir no practicadas, que se han inducido experimentalmente, conducen a la disminución de la ejecución en la memoria también en adultos, lo cual apoya la hipótesis de que la falta de la automatización grafomotriz es la responsable de los efectos encontrados en niños. Sin embargo, la escritura a mano muestra resultados más claros que la escritura a máquina. Por último, hemos intentado separar la influencia de la grafomotricidad frente a las dificultades ortográficas componiendo las palabras señalando en una "pizarra de ortografía". Este intento, sin embargo, no ha tenido éxito, probablemente porque señalar letras ha introducido otros costes de bajo nivel. Resumiendo, a lo largo de los cuatro años de la educación primaria, los niños alemanes muestran peor ejecución en retención en memoria en la escritura, en comparación con el recuerdo oral, con un incremento general en ambas modalidades. Por tanto, al final de la educación primaria, la escritura no ha igualado todavía el habla en cuanto a los costes cognitivos. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones están relacionadas con la cuestión de cómo evaluar cualquier tipo de conocimiento o habilidades mediante la producción de lenguaje. Les processus de bas niveau de la production du langage écrit chez les enfants sont cognitivement plus coûteux que ceux impl

Grabowski, Joachim

2010-02-01

87

Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict which alien plants will transition from naturalized to invasive prior to their introduction to novel regions is a key goal for conservation and has the potential to increase the efficacy of weed risk assessment (WRA). However, multiple factors contribute to plant invasion success (e.g., functional traits, range characteristics, residence time, phylogeny), and they all must be taken into account simultaneously in order to identify meaningful correlates of invasion success. We compiled 146 pairs of phylogenetically paired (congeneric) naturalized and invasive plant species in Australia with similar minimum residence times (i.e., time since introduction in years). These pairs were used to test for differences in 5 functional traits (flowering duration, leaf size, maximum height, specific leaf area [SLA], seed mass) and 3 characteristics of species’ native ranges (biome occupancy, mean annual temperature, and rainfall breadth) between naturalized and invasive species. Invasive species, on average, had larger SLA, longer flowering periods, and were taller than their congeneric naturalized relatives. Invaders also exhibited greater tolerance for different environmental conditions in the native range, where they occupied more biomes and a wider breadth of rainfall and temperature conditions than naturalized congeners. However, neither seed mass nor leaf size differed between pairs of naturalized and invasive species. A key finding was the role of SLA in distinguishing between naturalized and invasive pairs. Species with high SLA values were typically associated with faster growth rates, more rapid turnover of leaf material, and shorter lifespans than those species with low SLA. This suite of characteristics may contribute to the ability of a species to transition from naturalized to invasive across a wide range of environmental contexts and disturbance regimes. Our findings will help in the refinement of WRA protocols, and we advocate the inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas

Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

2015-01-01

88

Effects of pre-irradiation conditioning of Medfly pupae (Diptera: Tephritidae): Hypoxia and quality of sterile males  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation of pupae in sterile insect technique (SIT) projects is usually undertaken in hypoxic atmospheres, which have been shown to lessen the deleterious effects of irradiation on the quality of adult sterile flies. Although this is the accepted technology in most mass-rearing and sterilization facilities, to date no information has been generated on the actual levels of oxygen (O{sub 2}) in pupae-packing containers during irradiation. The present study utilized recently-developed technology to investigate the O{sub 2} level inside bags in which pupae of Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) are packed prior to irradiation, the ability of pupae to create hypoxic environments in these bags, and the effect of O{sub 2} atmospheres on the quality of irradiated males. Pupae, 1 d before adult emergence, were shown to deplete the O{sub 2} level in sealed bags in approximately 1 h. The rate of O{sub 2} consumption was dependent upon pupal age and incubation temperature. Incubation temperature did not significantly affect the quality of pupae or mating capacity of resultant adult males if pupae were irradiated under maximal hypoxic conditions inside packing bags. In contrast, mating competitiveness drastically decreased when pupae were irradiated under ambient O{sub 2} conditions, with the packing bag open. There was no difference in the mating capacity of males when pupae were irradiated in sealed bags under either 10% or 2% O{sub 2} levels, or under maximal hypoxia. Normal doses of fluorescent dye, applied to pupae to mark sterile flies, did not affect the ability of pupae to create hypoxic conditions inside packing bags, nor the quality control parameters of either pupae or adults. Current practices in mass-rearing facilities are discussed in the light of these results. (author) [Spanish] La irradiacion de pupas en proyectos de mosca esteril usualmente se hace bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Esta condicion ha demostrado ser menos detrimente a la calidad de las moscas que la irradiacion en atmosferas con proporcion normal de oxigeno. Aunque esta ha sido por mucho tiempo parte del protocolo de irradiacion en plantas de produccion de mosca esteril, hasta ahora no se ha medido el contenido de oxigeno dentro de los recipientes de empaque de pupa durante la irradiacion. El presente estudio investigo los contenidos de O{sub 2} en los contenedores de pupas de la mosca de las frutas del Mediterraneo (Ceratitis capitata Wiedeman), la habilidad de pupas de crear hipoxia dentro de los contenedores, y los efectos del contenido de O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion del contenedor en la calidad y capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Pupas de un dia antes de emerger como adultos crearon atmosferas de maxima hipoxia dentro del empaque en aproximadamente una hora. La proporcion de consumo de O{sub 2} en contenedores sellados es dependiente de la edad de la pupa, y de la temperatura de incubacion. La temperatura de incubacion no afecto significativamente la calidad ni la capacidad de apareamiento de machos derivados de pupas irradiadas bajo condiciones de hipoxia. Sin embargo, la capacidad de apareamiento de machos irradiados como pupas en contenedores abiertos y en condiciones oxigenadas fue drasticamente afectada. En comparacion a los resultados anteriores, atmosferas de 2% y 10% O{sub 2} durante la irradiacion no afectaron la capacidad de apareamiento de moscas esteriles. Polvo fluorescente, aplicado a pupas para marcar las moscas esteriles, no tuvo efectos sobre la capacidad de las pupas de crear hipoxia. Los resultados de este estudio se discuten en base a las practicas actuales de produccion e irradiacion. (author)

Nestel, D.; Nemny-Lavy, E. [Department of Entomology, Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Beit-Dagan (Israel); Islam, S.M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Caceres, C. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency's Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2007-03-15

89

Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt  

PubMed Central

A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse empêcher le portage pharyngé devrait être déterminé. Pour résoudre ce problème, le consortium MenAfriCar (Consortium Africain du Portage Méningococcique) a été établi en 2009 pour étudier le mode de portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite avant et après l’ introduction de PsA-TT. Cet article décrit comment le consortium a été établi, ses objectifs et les méthodes de laboratoire et de terrain standardisées qui ont été utilisées pour atteindre ces objectifs. L’ expérience du consortium MenAfriCar aidera à planifier les futures études sur l’ épidémiologie du portage du méningocoque dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite et d’ ailleurs. Se está utilizando una vacuna meningocócica conjugada (MenAfriVac™) de polisacárido del serogrupo A / tétano toxoide (PsA-TT) en países del cinturón Africano de meningitis. Las experiencias obtenidas con otras vacunas conjugadas polisacárido/proteína han demostrado que una parte importante de su éxito se debe a su habilidad para prevenir la colonización faríngea de los portadores, acabando por lo tanto con la transmisión, y a la de inducir la protección de rebaño. Si PsA-TT ha de cumplir el objetivo de prevenir epidemias, debe ser capaz de prevenir el estado de portador faríngeo, al igual que la enfermedad invasiva por meningococo, y para ello es necesario determinar si la PsA-TT puede prevenir la colonización faríngea. Con el fin de abordar esta cuestión se estableció un consorcio africano en el 2009 - el MenAfriCar (African Meningococcal Carriage Consortium) – para investigar los patrones del estado de portador de meningococo en paí

2013-01-01